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Sample records for residual urine volumes

  1. Sonographic assessment of postvoid residual urine volumes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Amole, Adewumi O; Kuranga, Sulyman A; Oyejola, Benjamin A

    2004-02-01

    To derive a formula that defines the postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume more accurately in patients with prostatic gland enlargement. Prospective. Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. Fifty-two consecutive patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mean age was 64.98+/-9.57 years. PVR urine was evaluated by ultrasonography. Each patient had two examinations, the first of which was with a full bladder and the second of which was immediately after voiding. Two orthogonal diameters were measured on each bladder section (longitudinal and transverse) in the supine position. Fifty-two paired sets of ultrasonic measurements were thus obtained. Catheterized postvoid urine residue was regarded as the gold standard. Using these measurements, an equation--[PVR(CUBIC)=374.057+(-196.94+V1)+(32.5539+V1(2))+(-1.1480+V1(3)) where V1=average of the length (L), width (T), and the anteroposterior distance on transverse section (Dt) of the postvoid urinary bladder]--more accurate than previously existing ones was obtained by cubic regression analysis. Mean ultrasound estimated volume was 220.51 ml as against 220.76 ml after catheterization. The mean difference was 0.25 ml (not significant, p<0.01) with 95% confidence interval of +/-10 ml. With this equation, the ultrasonographic residual urine volume showed a higher correlation coefficient with the catheterized volume at p<0.01 (Pearson r=0.982, r2=0.96) than previously defined formulas. The standard error of the mean was 5.11 ml (mean=220.5+/-190.4 ml). With the above equation, we consider conventional transabdominal ultrasonography a reliable method for assessing the residual urine volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. This equation, though complex when compared to some of the pre-existing formulas, can be integrated into the memory of modern ultrasound machines for easy and faster computation.

  2. Sonographic assessment of postvoid residual urine volumes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Amole, Adewumi O.; Kuranga, Sulyman A.; Oyejola, Benjamin A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To derive a formula that defines the postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume more accurately in patients with prostatic gland enlargement. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. SUBJECT: Fifty-two consecutive patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mean age was 64.98+/-9.57 years. METHOD: PVR urine was evaluated by ultrasonography. Each patient had two examinations, the first of which was with a full bladder and the second of which was immediately after voiding. Two orthogonal diameters were measured on each bladder section (longitudinal and transverse) in the supine position. Fifty-two paired sets of ultrasonic measurements were thus obtained. Catheterized postvoid urine residue was regarded as the gold standard. RESULTS: Using these measurements, an equation--[PVR(CUBIC)=374.057+(-196.94+V1)+(32.5539+V1(2))+(-1.1480+V1(3)) where V1=average of the length (L), width (T), and the anteroposterior distance on transverse section (Dt) of the postvoid urinary bladder]--more accurate than previously existing ones was obtained by cubic regression analysis. Mean ultrasound estimated volume was 220.51 ml as against 220.76 ml after catheterization. The mean difference was 0.25 ml (not significant, p<0.01) with 95% confidence interval of +/-10 ml. With this equation, the ultrasonographic residual urine volume showed a higher correlation coefficient with the catheterized volume at p<0.01 (Pearson r=0.982, r2=0.96) than previously defined formulas. The standard error of the mean was 5.11 ml (mean=220.5+/-190.4 ml). CONCLUSION: With the above equation, we consider conventional transabdominal ultrasonography a reliable method for assessing the residual urine volume in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. This equation, though complex when compared to some of the pre-existing formulas, can be integrated into the memory of modern ultrasound machines for easy and faster computation. Images Figure 1

  3. Effectiveness of the portable ultrasound bladder scanner in the measurement of residual urine volume after total mesorectal extirpation.

    PubMed

    Araki; Ishibashi; Sasatomi; Kanazawa; Ogata; Shirouzu

    2003-09-01

    The measurement of residual urine volume by bladder catheterization causes quite some suffering to the patient and sometimes causes urinary tract infections. To evaluate the postoperative measurement of residual urine volume with a portable ultrasound bladder scanner (Bladder Scan BVI 3000) and the cost-benefit analysis as compared with postoperative catheterization we carried out a study on 30 patients with primary rectal cancer. The data were then compared with actual urine volumes. This was a prospective study dealing with the economical benefit of ultrasound scanning over catheterization during the hospital stay. The ultrasound bladder scanner was found to be a reliable method of estimating residual urine volume since its data correlated with actual volumes with a coefficient of 0.9. The results satisfied both physicians and patients. Ultrasound scanning of the bladder to measure residual urine volume reduced the frequency of catheterization by 38% as compared with the patients on intermittent catheterization, with 17.4 catheters saved for each patient. In conclusion, the ultrasound bladder scanner could protect patients from the discomfort and urethral injury which might have been caused by bladder catheters, thus decreasing medical expenses. This technique will play an important role in determining whether to conduct invasive urethral catheterization for postoperative urinary disturbance in rectal cancer.

  4. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake Some forms of kidney disease Use of diuretic medicines Alternative Names Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection; Urine protein - 24 hour Images Urine sample Female urinary tract ...

  5. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  6. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  7. Large voided volume suggestive of abnormal uroflow pattern and elevated post-void residual urine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei; Chiang, I-Ni

    2011-01-01

    To report the cut-off value for large voided volume (LVV) suggestive of abnormal uroflow pattern or elevated post-void residual urine (PVR) in healthy kindergarteners. From 2003 through 2008, we enrolled 417 healthy kindergarten children for evaluation of uroflowmetry tests and PVR. The uroflowmetry curves were interpreted if voided volumes (VV) were >50 ml, and categorized as bell-shaped, staccato, plateau, and interrupted. Only bell-shaped curves were categorized as normal. After 2006, PVR was assessed within 5 min after each voiding with a VV >50 ml. A PVR >20 ml is regarded as elevated. Receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the cut-off value of VV/expected bladder capacity (EBC) with regard to nonbell-shaped uroflowmetry curves, and/or elevated PVR. Of 385 children (mean age: 4.85 ± 0.96 years), 699 uroflowmetry, and 556 PVR data were eligible for analysis. There were 502 (71.8%) bell-shaped, 76 (10.9%) plateau, 102 (14.6%) staccato, and 19 (2.7%) interrupted curves. Mean and median PVR were 12.4 ± 21.2 and 5.5 ml, respectively. Of 556 PVRs, 96 (17.3%) were >20 ml. Based on the ROC curve for the nonbell-shaped curves and/or elevated PVR, VV >100% EBC was best defined as LVV. There were statistically more elevated PVR, and more nonbell-shaped curves in the voidings with than without LVV. There is a trend that peak flow rate decreased when VV was >150% EBC. VV of more than 100% EBC can be defined as LVV which was associated with higher rates of abnormal uroflow pattern and/or elevated PVR. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Accuracy and precision of a new portable ultrasound scanner, the BME-150A, in residual urine volume measurement: a comparison with the BladderScan BVI 3000.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jin Ho; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relative accuracy of a new portable ultrasound unit, BME-150A, and the BladderScan BVI 3000, as assessed in comparison with the catheterized residual urine volume. We used both of these machines to prospectively measure the residual urine volumes of 89 patients (40 men and 49 women) who were undergoing urodynamic studies. The ultrasound measurements were compared with the post-scan bladder volumes obtained by catheterization in the same patients. The ultrasounds were followed immediately (within 5 min) by in-and-out catheterizations while the patients were in a supine position. There were a total of 116 paired measurements made. The BME-150A and the BVI 3000 demonstrated a correlation with the residual volume of 0.92 and 0.94, and a mean difference from the true residual volume of 7.8 and 3.6 ml, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the accuracy of the two bladder scans were 0.90 for BME-150A and 0.95 for BVI 3000. The difference of accuracy between the two models was not significant (p = 0.2421). There were six cases in which a follow-up evaluation of falsely elevated post-void residual urine volume measurements on the ultrasound studies resulted in comparatively low catheterized volumes, with a range of differences from 66 to 275.5 ml. These cases were diagnosed with an ovarian cyst, uterine myoma, or uterine adenomyosis on pelvic ultrasonography. The accuracy of the BME-150A is comparable to that of the BVI 3000 in estimating the true residual urine volumes and is sufficient enough for us to recommend its use as an alternative to catheterization.

  9. Residual urine volume after total mesorectal excision: an indicator of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation? Results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kneist, W; Junginger, T

    2004-11-01

    The rate of bladder dysfunctions after total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer can be decreased by bilateral pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP). However, it is not clear yet, how often partial nerve impairment may lead to bladder dysfunction. It was the aim of a case-control study, to examine the residual urine volume in patients before and after TME with and without complete PANP, in order to clarify, whether this parameter allows conclusions on the quality of PANP. Regarding bladder function, a case group (n = 26) without complete PANP was compared with a control group (n = 26) with complete identification and nerve preservation according to standadized intra-operative documentation. Twenty-six match pairs were established, identical regarding gender, wall infiltration depth, tumour site, operation procedure and operation extent. Rates of neoadjuvant therapy, R0-classification, anastomotic leakage, wound and urinary tract infection were equally distributed for both the case- and control group (P > 0.05). Residual urine volume was pre- and post-operatively determined by sonography. Pre-operatively, residual urine volumes differed neither between the pairs nor between both groups with and without nerve preservation. In the case group with incomplete PANP there was a difference between pre- and post-operative residual urine volume (median; quartil: 2.5 ml; 0.0-32.5 ml vs 130 ml; 0.0-317 ml; P = 0.001). In the control group there was no difference (median; quartile: 0.0 ml; 0.0-20 ml vs 15.5 ml; 0.0-62.0 ml; P = 0.07). The difference between the postoperatively measured volumes of the case and control group were significant (P = 0.001). With residual urine volume = 100 ml, the risk of incomplete PANP was 14 times higher (odds ratio). Residual urine volume is an indicator of the completeness of PANP during TME. It should be determined pre- and post-operatively, and besides the recording of the neurogenic bladder, serve as a quality control.

  10. cExternal beam radiation results in minimal changes in post void residual urine volumes during the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orio, Peter F; Merrick, Gregory S; Allen, Zachariah A; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Kurko, Brian S; Galbreath, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of external beam radiation therapy (XRT) on weekly ultrasound determined post-void residual (PVR) urine volumes in patients with prostate cancer. Methods 125 patients received XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. XRT was delivered to the prostate only (n = 66) or if the risk of lymph node involvement was greater than 10% to the whole pelvis followed by a prostate boost (n = 59). All patients were irradiated in the prone position in a custom hip-fix mobilization device with an empty bladder and rectum. PVR was obtained at baseline and weekly. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated as predictors for weekly PVR changes. Results The mean patient age was 73.9 years with a mean pre-treatment prostate volume of 53.3 cc, a mean IPSS of 11.3 and a mean baseline PVR of 57.6 cc. During treatment, PVR decreased from baseline in both cohorts with the absolute difference within the limits of accuracy of the bladder scanner. Alpha-blockers did not predict for a lower PVR during treatment. There was no significant difference in mean PVR urine volumes or differences from baseline in either the prostate only or pelvic radiation groups (p = 0.664 and p = 0.458, respectively). Patients with a larger baseline PVR (>40 cc) had a greater reduction in PVR, although the greatest reduction was seen between weeks one and three. Patients with a small PVR (<40 cc) had no demonstrable change throughout treatment. Conclusion Prostate XRT results in clinically insignificant changes in weekly PVR volumes, suggesting that radiation induced bladder irritation does not substantially influence bladder residual urine volumes. PMID:19624852

  11. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  12. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  13. Natural history of post-void residual urine volume over 5 years in community-dwelling older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Naomi; Chan, Lewis; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Waite, Louise M; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-09-20

    To describe the natural history of post-void residual urine volume (PVR) in community-dwelling older men. The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project involves a representative sample of community-dwelling men aged 70 and older in a defined geographic area of Sydney, Australia. PVR were measured at baseline and 2-year and 5-year follow-up. The measurements were considered valid when the voided volumes were 150 mL and over. Three-hundred twenty-nine men without conditions that are likely to alter PVR (neurological disorders, prostate cancer, and a history of urological treatment) were included in the analyses. Baseline PVR were 0-49 mL in 183 men, 50-99 mL in 59 men, 100-199 mL in 72 men, 200-399 mL in 11 men, and 400 mL and over in 4 men. Thirteen out of 314 (4%) men with a baseline PVR of 0-199 mL and 2 out of 11 (18%) men with a baseline PVR of 200-399 mL had surgery for benign prostate enlargement (BPE) or indwelling catheterization over 5 years compared to three out of four men (75%) with a PVR of 400 mL and over. In all 101 men with a baseline PVR of less than 400 mL who did not receive urological treatment during follow-up and had valid PVR data for both 2-year and 5-year follow-up, PVR did not exceed 400 mL at either follow-up time point. Conservative management may be appropriate for most older men with incidentally found elevated PVR of up to 400 mL. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of Neutral-pH, Low–Glucose Degradation Product Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions on Residual Renal Function, Urine Volume, and Ultrafiltration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yohanna, Seychelle; Alkatheeri, Ali M.A.; Brimble, Scott K.; McCormick, Brendan; Iansavitchous, Arthur; Blake, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Neutral-pH, low–glucose degradation products solutions were developed in an attempt to lessen the adverse effects of conventional peritoneal dialysis solutions. A systematic review was performed evaluating the effect of these solutions on residual renal function, urine volume, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal small-solute transport (dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio) over time. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Multiple electronic databases were searched from January of 1995 to January of 2013. Randomized trials reporting on any of four prespecified outcomes were selected by consensus among multiple reviewers. Results Eleven trials of 643 patients were included. Trials were generally of poor quality. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. The use of neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation products solutions resulted in better preserved residual renal function at various study durations, including >1 year (combined analysis: 11 studies; 643 patients; standardized mean difference =0.17 ml/min; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.32), and greater urine volumes (eight studies; 598 patients; mean difference =128 ml/d; 95% confidence interval, 58 to 198). There was no significant difference in peritoneal ultrafiltration (seven studies; 571 patients; mean difference =−110; 95% confidence interval, −312 to 91) or dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio (six studies; 432 patients; mean difference =0.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.06). Conclusions The use of neutral-pH, low–glucose degradation products solutions results in better preservation of residual renal function and greater urine volumes. The effect on residual renal function occurred early and persisted beyond 12 months. Additional studies are required to evaluate the use of neutral-pH, low–glucose degradation products solutions on hard clinical outcomes. PMID:26048890

  15. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  16. Increased residual urine in patients with bladder neuropathy secondary to suprasacral spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Mayo, M E; Kiviat, M D

    1980-05-01

    Multichannel urodynamic studies were done on 30 patients with incomplete bladder emptying secondary to suprasacral spinal cord lesions. In 11 patients fluoroscopy was done simultaneously. A single most important factor accounting for the increased residual urine was present in 21 cases: inadequate detrusor contraction in 10, sphincter dyssynergia in 6 and bladder neck obstruction in 5. A combination of 2 of these factors was present in 3 patients. Although the initial residual urine volume was high in 6 patients voiding during the urodynamic study was efficient and no residual urine was demonstrated at that time. Urethral pressure profiles were variable, depending on whether a spastic external sphincter contraction was present during the procedure. It is concluded that bladder pressure and sphincter electromyographic measurement during voiding, combined with fluoroscopy, are ideal methods to identify the factors responsible for incomplete emptying in problem cases. The urethral pressure profile is of limited value in the initial assessment of these patients.

  17. Urodynamic prognostic factors for large post-void residual urine volume after intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA for overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting large post-void residual (PVR) (defined as ≥200 mL), an important unsolved problem, after an intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with overactive bladder syndrome. The data showed that 133 of 290 patients had a large PVR after treatment. Multivariate analysis found that the baseline 3-day daytime frequency episodes and voiding efficiency were independent predictors for postoperative large PVR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed the following optimum cut-off values: (1) 3-day daytime frequency episodes = 25, which has a ROC area of 0.72; and (2) voiding efficiency = 89%, which has a ROC area being 0.66. The predicted logit transformation of probability of large PVR, logit(p), for a given 3-day daytime frequency episodes (a) and voiding efficiency (b%) can be denoted by logit(p) = −5.18 + 0.07 × a + 0.04 × b, with a cutoff value of logit(p) = 0.34 and a ROC area of 0.79. The median value of the persistent large PVR interval was 5 months. In conclusion, low 3-day daytime frequency episodes (<25) and low voiding efficiency (<89%) are associated with large PVR. Besides, logit(p) <0.34 can be used to predict large PVR for its higher ROC area. PMID:28262756

  18. Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M; Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Dekker, Friedo W; Krediet, Raymond T; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef

    2016-05-01

    Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our development cohort, we measured 24-hour urine clearances under close supervision in 44 patients and validated these equations in 826 patients from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis. For the development and validation cohorts, median urinary urea clearance was 2.6 and 2.4 ml/min, respectively. During the 24-hour visit in the development cohort, serum β-trace protein concentrations remained in steady state but concentrations of all other markers increased. In the validation cohort, bias (median measured minus estimated clearance) was low for all equations. Precision was significantly better for β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin equations and the accuracy was significantly greater for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, compared with the urea plus creatinine equation. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for detecting measured urinary urea clearance by equation-estimated urinary urea clearance (both 2 ml/min or more) were 0.821, 0.850, and 0.796 for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, respectively; significantly greater than the 0.663 for the urea plus creatinine equation. Thus, residual renal function can be estimated in dialysis patients without urine collections.

  19. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  20. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Yamamoto, Lidia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Rocha, Daisy; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2008-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns. Laboratory gold-standard, broth culture methods are highly specific, but lack sensitivity. The aim of this study was to validate a nested-PCR and to determine whether residue volumes of urine samples obtained by non invasive, non sterile methods could be used to confirm neonatal GBS sepsis. The nested-PCR was performed with primers of the major GBS surface antigen. Unavailability of biological samples to perform life supporting exams, as well as others to elucidate the etiology of infections is a frequent problem concerning newborn patients. Nevertheless, we decided to include cases according to strict criteria: newborns had to present with signs and symptoms compatible with GBS infection; at least one of the following biological samples had to be sent for culture: blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid; availability of residue volumes of the samples sent for cultures, or of others collected on the day of hospitalization, prior to antibiotic therapy prescription, to be analyzed by PCR; favorable outcome after GBS empiric treatment. In only one newborn GBS infection was confirmed by cultures, while infection was only presumptive in the other three patients (they fulfilled inclusion criteria but were GBS-culture negative). From a total of 12 biological samples (5 blood, 3 CSF and 4 urine specimen), eight were tested by culture methods (2/8 were positive), and 8 were tested by PCR (7/8 were positive), and only 4 samples were simultaneously tested by both methods (1 positive by culture and 3 by PCR). In conclusion, although based on a restricted number of neonates and samples, our results suggest that the proposed nested-PCR might be used to diagnose GBS sepsis as it has successfully amplified the three types of biological samples analyzed (blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid), and was more sensitive than culture methods as PCR in urine confirmed diagnosis in all four patients

  1. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  2. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device...

  5. Periodical measurement of urine volume in the bladder during sleep: Temporary volume reduction suggestive of absorption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Azuma, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the variance of urine volume in the urinary bladder during sleep. Overnight measurements of urinary bladder capacity during sleep were carried out using transabdominal real-time 3-D ultrasound or an automatic capacity recorder, Yuririn, in 24 volunteers of various ages. Two types of patterns were observed in the increasing curve of capacity; namely, gradual elevation pattern when overnight urine production was less than functional bladder capacity and steep-flat pattern when it was more than functional bladder capacity. During steep-flat pattern, bladder capacity reached levels of the functional bladder capacity quickly, then maintained steadily at that level until morning without awakening. Temporary volume reduction, which might be suggestive of water absorption from urine in the bladder, occurred occasionally, when the volumes of urine reached functional bladder capacity. A considerable amount of urine in the bladder diminishes without micturition during sleep to maintain a good level of sleep. This is the first report suggesting the possibility of water absorption from urine within the human urinary bladder in a fully physiological situation. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Predicting logging residue volumes in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stan Zarnoch; Micah G. Scudder

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forest managers seek estimates of post-timber-harvest woody residue volumes and biomass that can be related to readily available site- and tree-level attributes. To better predict residue production, researchers investigated variability in residue ratios, growing-stock residue volume per mill-delivered volume, across Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and...

  7. Logging residue in Washington, Oregon, California: volume and characteristics.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1973-01-01

    This report makes available data on the volume and characteristics of logging residue resulting from 1969 logging operations in Oregon, Washington, and California. The results indicate highest volumes of logging residue are found in the Douglas-fir region of western Oregon and western Washington. Average gross volume of residue in this region ranged...

  8. High bacterial titers in urine are predictive of abnormal postvoid residual urine in patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Caron, F; Alexandre, K; Pestel-Caron, M; Chassagne, P; Grise, P; Etienne, M

    2015-09-01

    Urine bacterial titers (BTs) are influenced by bacterial and host factors. The impact of an abnormal postvoid residual (PVR) on BT in urine was investigated. A total of 103 inpatients with a urine growing Enterobacteriacae (≥ 10(2) CFU/mL) and a PVR measure were analyzed, mostly female (62%), elderly (mean age: 72 years), with urinary tract infection (25% of asymptomatic bacteriuria) due to Escherichia coli (85%). Fifty-two subjects (56%) had BT ≥ 10(6) CFU/mL; 48 (53%) had a PVR ≤ 100 mL, while 26 (25%) had a PVR >250 mL. PVR increased with BT, and a significant (P<0.0001) threshold was reached for 10(6) CFU/mL: 100mL mean PVR for patients with BT ≤ 10(5) CFU/mL versus 248 mL for patients with BT >10(5) CFU/mL. High PVR and BT were associated with complicated infections, concomitant bacteremia, and delayed apyrexia. Screening for patients with BT ≥ 10(6) CFU/mL is an easy way to identify patients at high risk for acute retention and voiding disorders.

  9. Opposing effects of NaCl restriction and carbohydrate loading on urine volume in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H A; Kwon, T-H; Ring, T; Dimke, H; Lebeck, J; Frøkiaer, J; Collins, P B; Nielsen, S; Frische, S

    2011-05-01

    To test the effects of dietary NaCl and carbohydrate content on urine volume in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were subjected to NaCl restriction using either a NaCl-deficient carbohydrate-rich synthetic diet (Altromin C1036) supplemented to contain 0.16% NaCl (C1036 + lowNaCl) or a modified normal cereal-based diet (Altromin 1320) containing 0.086% NaCl (lowNaCl-1320). Normal diet contained 0.2683% NaCl. Using the C1036 + lowNaCl diet, earlier reported paradoxical increases in water intake and urine volume of diabetic rats were reproduced. However, water intake and urine volume also increased in diabetic rats offered the synthetic C1036 diet supplemented with NaCl to normal levels. Using the lowNaCl-1320 diet, water intake and urine volume were markedly reduced. Highly significant correlations between urine volume and both osmotic output and urinary glucose excretion were found in diabetic rats on normal diet, but these correlations were absent in diabetic rats on synthetic diet, which showed higher urine volumes than expected from the correlations. In contrast, urine volume was significantly correlated with carbohydrate intake in diabetic rats, irrespective of the diet. (i) The synthetic diet dramatically increases the urine volume in STZ-DM rats irrespectively of NaCl content. (ii) Rats with STZ-DM on a normal diet show reduced water intake and urine volume in response to dietary NaCl restriction. (iii) A shift to high carbohydrate diet induces polyuria in STZ-DM rats. (iv) Urine volume in all STZ-DM rats only shows correlation with dietary carbohydrate intake. (v) Glucose-driven osmotic diuresis is unlikely to explain the carbohydrate-induced polyuria. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  10. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  11. The effect of hysterectomy on urinary symptoms and residual bladder volume.

    PubMed

    Prasad, M; Sadhukhan, M; Tom, B; Al-Taher, H

    2002-09-01

    This was a prospective, clinical study to evaluate the effect of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications on urinary symptoms and residual bladder volume. One hundred and seven women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions were included in the study that took place in a district general hospital between April 1998 and January 2000. Urinary symptoms such as stress incontinence of urine, urgency, frequency, nocturia, sensation of incomplete voiding and voiding difficulties were considered. A questionnaire was filled out and the residual bladder volume measured with a 'Bard' bladder scanner on three occasions-before the operation, postoperative days 3 or 4 and at the 6-week postoperative visit. Statistical analysis involved using a generalised estimating equation and significance assessed at the 5% level. Each woman acted as her own control. There was no evidence of changes in nocturia and voiding difficulties after surgery. All other symptoms and residual bladder volumes decreased significantly postoperatively. The type of hysterectomy did not have an effect.

  12. Regulation of intramembranous absorption and amniotic fluid volume by constituents in fetal sheep urine

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Sonnet S.; Louey, Samantha; Cheung, Cecilia Y.; Brace, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that fetal urine contains a substance(s) that regulates amniotic fluid volume by altering the rate of intramembranous absorption of amniotic fluid. In late gestation ovine fetuses, amniotic fluid volumes, urine, and lung liquid production rates, swallowed volumes and intramembranous volume and solute absorption rates were measured over 2-day periods under control conditions and when urine was removed and continuously replaced at an equal rate with exogenous fluid. Intramembranous volume absorption rate decreased by 40% when urine was replaced with lactated Ringer solution or lactated Ringer solution diluted 50% with water. Amniotic fluid volume doubled under both conditions. Analysis of the intramembranous sodium and chloride fluxes suggests that the active but not passive component of intramembranous volume absorption was altered by urine replacement, whereas both active and passive components of solute fluxes were altered. We conclude that fetal urine contains an unidentified substance(s) that stimulates active intramembranous transport of amniotic fluid across the amnion into the underlying fetal vasculature and thereby functions as a regulator of amniotic fluid volume. PMID:23824958

  13. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800 Section 876.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or...

  14. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800 Section 876.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1800 Urine flow or...

  15. Residue depletion of ractopamine and its metabolites in swine tissues, urine, and serum.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Shentu, Fenqin; Wang, Bing; Wang, Jianping; Chang, Jianyu; Shen, Jianzhong

    2007-05-30

    Ractopamine hydrochloride is a beta-adrenergic leanness-enhancing agent approved for use in swine in the United States. Depletion of ractopamine and its metabolites from animal tissues, urine, and serum is of interest for the detection of illegal use. The objectives of this study were to measure the residues of ractopamine in swine incurred samples after treatment with dietary ractopamine for 28 consecutive days. An efficient and sensitive analytical method was developed for the detection of parent ractopamine and its metabolites in swine tissues, urine, and serum by HPLC-FLD. After extraction, enzymatic digestion, and solid-phase cleanup of the samples, ractopamine residues were determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detector. The limits of detection (LOD) for tissues, urine, and serum were 1 ng g(-1), 0.5 ng mL(-1), and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.5 to 94.5% for samples fortified at 1-50 ng g(-1) or ng mL(-1). Sixty pigs were fed twice daily for 28 consecutive days with feeds containing 18 mg kg(-1) ractopamine HCl. The residue concentrations in urine, liver, and kidney were 650.06 ng mL(-1), 46.09 ng g(-1), and 169.27 ng g(-1), respectively, compared with those in muscle, fat, and serum (4.94 ng g(-1), 3.28 ng g(-1), and 7.48 ng mL(-1), respectively) at the feeding period of 7 days. The residue concentrations at withdrawal period of 0 days in all edible tissues were lower than tolerance values established by the FDA and MRL values listed by the JECFA. These data support the withdrawal time of 0 days established by the FDA for ractopamine used as feed additive in swine.

  16. An individualized weight-based goal urine volume model significantly improves expected calcium concentrations relative to a 2-L goal urine volume.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Mark D; Anderson, Christopher B; Viprakasit, Davis P; Dietrich, Mary S; Herrell, S Duke; Miller, Nicole L

    2013-10-01

    Increased urinary volume decreases recurrence rates of nephrolithiasis. Current recommendations for goal volumes are not adjusted to reflect individual risk factors, such as obesity. Our intent was to develop and evaluate a goal urine volume for stone prevention based on predictive calcium modeling. Stone formers with a 24-h urine study (6/2001-9/2010) were identified. Patients with inadequate collections or non-calcium stones were excluded. Multivariate and univariate predictive models for daily calcium were evaluated and a univariate (weight) model was selected. A target calcium concentration constant (2.5 mM) was determined from current recommendations. Individualized weight-based goal urine volumes (WGUV) were calculated. Measured calcium concentration and expected calcium concentrations using a 2-L goal volume and WGUV were compared. 185 of 399 patients met inclusion criteria. Body weight was a strong predictor of calcium excretion in each model (p < 0.0001). While a 2-L goal urine volume would be expected to improve mean calcium concentrations for the cohort from 3.53 to 2.96 mM, the benefit is unequal between subsets with nearly twofold expected concentration for the highest weight quartile (3.98 vs. 2.10 mM) and higher expected concentration for males (3.35 vs. 2.59 mM). By contrast, a WGUV model improves expected concentrations for all subsets to <2.9 mM and the overall cohort to 2.50 mM. This study demonstrates a strong relationship between body weight and urinary calcium excretion in stone formers. We introduce the novel concept of individualized goal urine output using statistical modeling, which may be preferable to current recommendations.

  17. SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

  18. Urine volume dependency of specific dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol metabolites in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lijie; Wudy, Stefan A; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Urine volume should be considered as a confounder when using urinary free cortisol (UFF) and cortisone (UFE) to assess glucocorticoid (GC) status. We aimed to examine whether adrenal androgen (AA) metabolites may be also affected by urine volume in healthy children. To compare the flow dependence of GC and AA metabolites, specific GC metabolites were examined. In 24-h urine samples of 120 (60 boys) healthy children (4-10 yr), steroid profiles were determined by GC-MS analysis, UFF and UFE by radioimmunoassay. To assess daily AA and GC secretion rates, 7 quantitatively most important AA (∑C19) and GC (∑C21) metabolites were summed. Sum of DHEA and its 16α-hydroxylated metabolites were denoted as DHEA&M. Association of urine volume with AA (∑C19, DHEA&M, DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 3β,16α,17β-androstenetriol) and GC (∑C21, UFF, UFE, 6β-hydroxycortisol, 20α-dihydrocortisol) were examined in linear regression models. Among the examined AA metabolites, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA (β=0.56, p<0.0001) and DHEA (β=0.43, p=0.05) showed relatively strong association with urine volume. A trend was seen for ∑C19 (β=0.23, p=0.08), but not for DHEA&M (p>0.1). Regarding GC metabolites, urine volume showed a stronger association with cortisol's direct metabolites, i.e., cortisone, 6β-hydroxycortisol and 20α-dihydrocortisol (β=0.4-0.6, p<0.01) than with cortisol itself (β=0.28, p<0.05). ∑C21 was not associated with urine volume. In conclusion, like UFF and UFE, renal excretion of DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 6β-hydroxycortisol, and 20α-dihydrocortisol may also depend on urine volume. The intrarenal production of the latter three and cortisone might explain their relative strong water-flow-dependency. Total AA or GC secretion marker appears not to be relevantly confounded by urine volume. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  20. Serum Endocan as a Predictive Marker for Decreased Urine Volume in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Satoru; Obata, Yoko; Sato, Shuntaro; Torigoe, Kenta; Sawa, Miki; Abe, Shinichi; Muta, Kumiko; Ota, Yuki; Kitamura, Mineaki; Kawasaki, Satoko; Hirose, Misaki; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-01-01

    Background Endocan is expressed in vascular endothelial cells, and its expression is enhanced following endothelial injury via inflammatory cytokines. Subsequently, endocan is secreted into the circulation. Thus, serum endocan levels are considered a marker of endothelial injury. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data on the serum endocan levels in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are available. Material/Methods This study included 21 PD patients who underwent peritoneal equilibration test (PET) more than once between 2011 and 2015. Serum samples were collected from each patient, and the 24-h urine volume was measured at the time of PET. Serum endocan levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the time of the first PET, and their relationship with clinical data or the extent of urine volume decline (mL/year) was analyzed retrospectively. Results Serum endocan levels were positively correlated with proteinuria level, serum creatinine level, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level, β2-microglobulin level, and PD drainage volume, but not with urine volume at baseline. The extent of decline in urine volume was significantly associated with serum endocan level, proteinuria level, serum creatinine level, and serum TNF-α level at baseline in a simple linear regression analysis. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the serum endocan level and proteinuria level at baseline were independent predictors for the extent of decline in urine volume. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that serum endocan level and proteinuria level may be useful predictive markers for decreased urine volume in PD patients. PMID:28343234

  1. Ractopamine residues in urine, plasma and hair of cattle during and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Lijun; Zhao, Qingyu; Bu, Dengpan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate ractopamine residues in urine, plasma and hair of cattle during and after treatment. Three cattle (body weight = 620 ± 6.2 kg) were administered ractopamine (2.01 mg/kg body weight) into the rumen for 5 consecutive days. Ractopamine concentrations in samples were determined by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method. The concentrations of parent ractopamine in urine were 1,631.1 ng/mL on withdrawal day 0 and 8.3 ng/mL on withdrawal day 14. After hydrolysis of its conjugates, ractopamine concentration ranged from 11,796.7 ng/mL (withdrawal day 0) to 39.7 ng/mL (withdrawal day 14). In plasma, parent ractopamine and its conjugates were below the limits of quantification (LOQ = 0.2 ng/mL) on withdrawal days 5 and 7. Accumulation of ractopamine in black and white hair was 124.6 and 78.1 ng/g, respectively, on withdrawal day 0, and 226.7 and 165.6 ng/g, respectively, on withdrawal day 14. This study demonstrated the rapid elimination and high bioavailability of ractopamine in urine and plasma in cattle. However, accumulation of ractopamine in cattle's hair is high and persistent, so hair can be used as the target matrix for monitoring ractopamine abuse in ruminants.

  2. Factors Affecting Canagliflozin-Induced Transient Urine Volume Increase in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takano, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Hiroaki; Kubo, Hajime; Maruyama, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Arakawa, Kenji; Togo, Masanori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit diuretic activity, which is a possible mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefit of these inhibitors. However, the osmotic diuresis-induced increase in urine volume, and the risk of dehydration have been of concern with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-induced diuresis in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirteen T2DM patients received a daily oral dose of 100 mg canagliflozin before breakfast for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time points. The primary endpoint was evaluation of correlations between changes from baseline in urine volume and factors that are known to affect urine volume and between actual urine volume and these factors. Canagliflozin transiently increased urine volume and urinary sodium excretion on Day 1 with a return to baseline levels thereafter. Canagliflozin administration increased urinary glucose excretion, which was sustained during repeated-dose administration. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels decreased, while plasma renin activity increased. On Day 1 of treatment, changes in sodium and potassium excretion were closely correlated with changes in urine output. A post hoc multiple regression analysis showed changes in sodium excretion and water intake as factors that affected urine volume change at Day 1. Furthermore, relative to that at baseline, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose throughout the day and increased plasma total GLP-1 after breakfast. Canagliflozin induced transient sodium excretion and did not induce water intake at Day 1; hence, natriuresis rather than glucose-induced osmotic diuresis may be a major factor involved in the canagliflozin-induced transient increase in urine output. In addition, canagliflozin decreased plasma ANP and NT-proBNP levels and

  3. Nasogastric tube feedings and gastric residual volume: a regional survey.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shoaib; Le, Vu; Kaitha, Sindhu; Morton, Jordan; Ali, Tauseef

    2012-08-01

    To maintain adequate nutrition for patients who are in need, enteral feeding via nasogastric tube (NGT) is necessary. Although the literature suggests the safety of continued NGT feeding at a gastric residual volume of <400 mL, inconsistencies in withholding tube feeding based on residual volume have been observed in clinical practice. We performed a regional survey to determine the range of current practice among nursing staff regarding the decision to withhold NGT feeding based on residual volume and the factors that influence the decision-making process. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate nursing practice patterns regarding the decision of withholding NGT feeding based on a certain residual volume, which was distributed to the nursing staff at all major hospitals in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. Statistical analysis was done with the Fisher exact test. All of the statistical tests were carried out at α = 0.05. A total of 582 nurses completed the survey. Residual volumes (milliliters) resulting in the termination of NGT feeding occurred in 89% of nurses at volumes <300 mL and only 3% of nurses at volumes >400 mL. Three main reasons for nurses to withhold NGT feeding were risk of aspiration (90%), potential feeding intolerance (81%), and risk of regurgitation (67%). Other less common concerns were abdominal distension and abdominal discomfort. The decision of withholding NGT feeding varied among the nursing staff that were surveyed. A consensus is necessary for the standardization of withholding NGT feeding in clinical practice among nursing staff.

  4. Residues of Ractopamine and Identification of its Glucuronide Metabolites in Plasma, Urine, and Tissues of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chaohua; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qingyu; Meng, Qingshi; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-11-01

    Ractopamine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use as a growth promoter on cattle a decade ago is still banned by the European Union and most Asian countries. While, ractopamine residues in living samples and some organs (besides liver, muscle and kidney) of cattle under the recommended feed condition (10-30 mg/kg in dry matter, 28-42 days) remains unclear. In this study, nine cattle (246.22 ± 18.17 kg) were fed 0.67 mg/kg body weight (equivalent to 30 mg/kg in dry matter) of ractopamine for 28 days to investigate the residues of ractopamine in plasma, urine and organs. Plasma and urine were sampled during treatment and withdrawal period. Three cattle were slaughtered on withdrawal days 0 and 3 for organs collection. Ractopamine was determined by LC-MS/MS and its glucuronide metabolites were identified by Q-TOF/MS. Ractopamine concentrations in plasma and urine reached highest on treatment day 14 (2.88 ng/mL) and day 7 (4713.25 ng/mL), respectively. On withdrawal day 28, ractopamine concentrations in plasma and urine and were undetectable (limit of quantitation, 0.2 ng/mL) and 4.21 ng/mL, respectively. On withdrawal day 0, ractopamine residue in tissues were as follows: liver > eye > lung > spleen > aqueous fluid > heart > bile > kidney > gluteus > rib eye muscle. Compared with those on withdrawal day 0, ractopamine contents in most tissues that sampled on withdrawal day 3 were lower (P < 0.05), while that in the eye tissues, aqueous fluid, and kidney were stable or higher. These results provide extensive data for risk management in ractopamine approved countries and monitoring of the illegal usage in countries that ban ractopamine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered.

  6. Detection of residual rifampicin in urine via fluorescence quenching of gold nanoclusters on paper.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chen, Ann; Chen, Peilin

    2015-06-26

    Rifampicin or rifampin (R) is a common drug used to treat inactive meningitis, cholestatic pruritus and tuberculosis (TB), and it is generally prescribed for long-term administration under regulated dosages. Constant monitoring of rifampicin is important for controlling the side effects and preventing overdose caused by chronic medication. In this study, we present an easy to use, effective and less costly method for detecting residual rifampicin in urine samples using protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA)-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) adsorbed on a paper substrate in which the concentration of rifampicin in urine can be detected via fluorescence quenching. The intensity of the colorimetric assay performed on the paper-based platforms can be easily captured using a digital camera and subsequently analyzed. The decreased fluorescence intensity of BSA-Au NCs in the presence of rifampicin allows for the sensitive detection of rifampicin in a range from 0.5 to 823 µg/mL. The detection limit for rifampicin was measured as 70 ng/mL. The BSA-Au NCs were immobilized on a wax-printed paper-based platform and used to conduct real-time monitoring of rifampicin in urine. We have developed a robust, cost-effective, and portable point-of-care medical diagnostic platform for the detection of rifampicin in urine based on the ability of rifampicin to quench the fluorescence of immobilized BSA-Au NCs on wax-printed papers. The paper-based assay can be further used for the detection of other specific analytes via surface modification of the BSA in BSA-Au NCs and offers a useful tool for monitoring other diseases.

  7. Fate of nitrogen during volume reduction of human urine using an on-site volume reduction system.

    PubMed

    Pahore, Muhammad Masoom; Ushijima, K; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried to assess the effect of a mixture of salts, urea and creatinine on water evaporation from urine using an on-site volume reduction system in long-term experiments. Subsequently, the fate of nitrogen during volume reduction of urine was also assessed. The water evaporation rate, salt accumulation in the gauze sheet, concentrations of urea and ammonia-N, and pH of urine were measured periodically. Based on the results, a mass balance of nitrogen in concentrated urine was calculated for a moderate evaporating condition. The results revealed that steady-state evaporation was observed throughout the experiment period without any inhibition due to salt accumulation. Salt concentration in the gauze sheet reached steady-state illustrating the possibility of salt falling back to the tank from the sheet. No significant reduction of urea was observed for a moderate evaporating condition, which indicates inhibition of urea hydrolysis by the high concentration of the mixture of salts, urea and creatinine in the urine. In contrast, for a low evaporating condition, the pH of the urine increased to 8.9, which indicates early urea hydrolysis, causing an offensive odour and ammonia loss to the air. In simple storage experiments, a mixture of salts, urea and creatinine amounting to 227-334 g L(-1) in urine inhibited urea hydrolysis, even with faecal contamination, at 25 degrees C, while urine samples containing a mixture of salts, urea and creatinine at less than 227 g L(-1) did not provide strong inhibition of hydrolysis.

  8. Urinary retention and post-void residual urine in men: separating truth from tradition.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Steven A; Wein, Alan J; Staskin, David R; Roehrborn, Claus G; Steers, William D

    2008-07-01

    The definitions of acute and chronic urinary retention remain empirical and subject to wide interpretation. Standardized criteria have not been established and many questions remain unanswered. Moreover, the definition of significant post-void residual urine is unclear. We reviewed several aspects of urinary retention that require clarification with the objective of stimulating discussion among urologists to establish an accurate and coherent definition of urinary retention and significant post-void residual urine, and clarify risk factors. A MEDLINE search for articles written in English and published before April 2007 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention. Articles not directly relevant to urinary retention or post-void residual urine were excluded. The term urinary retention lacks precise clinical or urodynamic meaning. Use of this term to describe a symptom, a sign, and a condition further complicates the issue. Many factors can contribute to the development of retention, including bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor underactivity, and neurogenic bladder conditions. Community based studies and clinical trials in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and/or lower urinary tract symptoms yield different estimates of the incidence of retention and only provide information on the epidemiology of acute urinary retention. However, age, previous retention episodes, lower urinary tract symptoms, chronic inflammation, serum prostate specific antigen level, prostate size, and urodynamic variables appear to be predictors of acute urinary retention. Alpha-receptor antagonists and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors may be useful in preventing urinary retention episodes and progressive benign prostatic enlargement. Clinical trials on the short-term use of antimuscarinics have not provided evidence that these agents increase the risk of retention; data on longer term administration are needed. Clinicians are adopting less invasive approaches (eg

  9. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  10. Urinary excretion of vitamin B12 depends on urine volume in Japanese female university students and elderly.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Ema; Tsuji, Tomiko; Hirose, Junko; Fukui, Tomiho; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins reflects their intake in humans. However, some have reported that physical characteristics and urine volume may affect the amount of vitamin compounds found in urine. We hypothesized that physical characteristics and urine volume could affect urinary excretion of B-group vitamins. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from 186 free-living Japanese women aged 19 to 21 years and 104 free-living Japanese subjects aged 70 to 84 years. Correlations between urinary output of each B-group vitamin and body height, body weight, body mass index, body surface area, urine volume, and urinary creatinine were determined. Only urinary vitamin B(12) was strongly correlated to urine volume in young (r = 0.683, P < .001) and elderly (r = 0.523, P < .001) subjects. To confirm this finding, 20 Japanese adults were orally administered 1.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (500-fold higher daily intake); and correlations between urinary vitamin B(12) and urine volume were determined. The load of cyanocobalamin increased vitamin B(12) content in the urine by only 1.3-fold. Urinary vitamin B(12) was strongly correlated with urine volume on the day before taking, the day of taking, and the day after taking cyanocobalamin (r = 0.745, P < .001; r = 0.897, P < .0001; and r = 0.855, P < .0001, respectively). We conclude that urinary excretion of vitamin B(12) is dependent upon urine volume, but not on intake of vitamin B(12). Physical characteristics and urine volume are less important for B-group vitamins except for vitamin B(12) as biomarker.

  11. Measurement of postvoid residual urine with portable transabdominal bladder ultrasound scanner and urethral catheterization.

    PubMed

    Goode, P S; Locher, J L; Bryant, R L; Roth, D L; Burgio, K L

    2000-01-01

    The study was a clinical series of 95 ambulatory women with urinary incontinence. After voiding, each subject was scanned with a BladderScan BVI 2500, then catheterized for postvoid residual (PVR) and then scanned again. The mean PVR obtained by ultrasound was 49 ml, significantly larger than the mean PVR of 32 ml obtained by catheterization. Correlation analysis showed that the difference was not related to age, weight, body mass index, parity, pelvic prolapse or prior incontinence surgery, but was associated with prior hysterectomy and uterine prolapse. Regression analysis revealed that the difference was independently related to prior hysterectomy only. Postcatheterization ultrasound detected a mean of 22 ml, suggesting that the difference between the PVR values may be due to residual urine not removed by catheterization. Finally, ultrasound had a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 96.5% in detecting PVR > or = 100 ml. Portable ultrasound scanners are quick, easy to use, reasonably sensitive, and very specific for determining elevated PVR.

  12. The relationship between the sensation of incomplete voiding and a high postvoid residual volume.

    PubMed

    Cayetano-Alcaraz, A A; Herrera-Cáceres, J O; García-Mora, A

    2016-06-01

    Studies have shown that voiding symptoms do not correlate with a high postvoid residual volume. It is important to have clinical tools that help make early and effective decisions during the initial consultation. To assess the validity and degree of concordance between the sensation of incomplete voiding and high postvoid residual volume. Cross-sectional study of patients who underwent uroflowmetry (UFM) and postvoid residual volume (PVR) measurement due to lower urinary tract symptoms, with simultaneous scoring of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) or Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-MLUTS) during 2014-2015. We analysed the relationship between these data and the postvoid residual volume. The study included 303 patients, 75 (24.8%) of whom were women and 228 (75.2%) of whom were men. The mean age was 60.9 years (SD, 15.8), and the mean Qmax was 14.47mL/s (SD, 9.6). Sixty (19.8%) patients had a high PVR. We detected 240 (79.2%) patients with sensations of incomplete voiding (SIV), but its presence was not associated with a high PVR in the population. For the SIV, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 81.6%, 21.3%, 20.4%, 82.5%, 1.03 and 0.85, respectively. The area under the curve for the frequency of SIV was 0.52 (95%CI, 0.44-0.60, P=.5). The degree of concordance between SIV and high PVR was 0.014 (P=.6). In the ICIQ-MLUTS, PVR correlated with intermittence (Rho=0.132, P=.043) but not with SIV (Rho=0.09, P=.15). In the ICIQ-FLUTS, the frequency of urinary incontinence was positively correlated with PVR (Rho=0.216, P=.026). The sensation of incomplete voiding is not associated with a high postvoid residual volume. Other variables such as symptom severity, urinary effort and total score for voiding symptoms can be associated with a high residual urine volume

  13. Longitudinal relationships between fluid status, inflammation, urine volume and plasma metabolites of icodextrin in patients randomized to glucose or icodextrin for the long exchange.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon J; Garcia Lopez, Elvia; Woodrow, Graham; Donovan, Kieron; Plum, Jorg; Williams, Paul; Johansson, Ann Catherine; Bosselmann, Hans-Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Simonsen, Ole; Davenport, Andrew; Lindholm, Bengt; Tranaeus, Anders; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-09-01

    Randomized trials have shown that icodextrin reduces the volume of extra-cellular fluid (ECFv) with variable effects on residual renal function. To explore this fluid shift and its possible mechanisms in more detail, prospectively collected data from one such trial, including measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, albumin and low and high molecular weight hyaluronan) ANP (atrial naturetic peptide), an indirect marker of intra-vascular volume, plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and alpha-amylase activity were analysed. 50 patients were randomized to either 2.27% glucose or icodextrin (n = 28) for a long exchange following a month run in. Blood samples were obtained at -1, 0, 3 and 6 months, coincident with measurements of urine volume and fluid status. In both randomized groups, a significant correlation between the fall in ECFv and the decline in urine volume was observed (P = 0.001), although the relative drop in urine volume for patients randomized to icodextrin tended to be less. At baseline, ANP was higher in patients with proportionately more ECFv for a given body water or height. Icodextrin patients had non-significantly higher ANP levels at baseline, whereas by 3 (P = 0.026) and 6 months (P = 0.016) these differed between groups due to divergence. There was a correlation between increasing ANP and reduced ECF at 3 months, r = -0.46, P = 0.007, in patients randomized to icodextrin, but not glucose. There were no relationships between fluid status and any inflammatory markers at any point of the study, with the exception of albumin at baseline, r = -0.39, P = 0.007. Amylase activities at -1 month and baseline were highly correlated, r = 0.89, P < 0.0001. Within patients, concentrations of icodextrin metabolites were highly correlated; the only predictor of between-patient variability on multivariate analysis was body weight. There was no relationship between plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and

  14. A rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using high volume centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rao, D D; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J R

    2017-07-01

    The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry. The rapid method involves oxidation of urine samples, co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate followed by sample preparation using high volume centrifuge and separation of Pu using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using (236)Pu tracer recovery by alpha spectrometry. Ten routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 47-88% with a mean and standard deviation of 64.4% and 11.3% respectively. With this newly standardized technique, the whole analytical procedure is completed within 9h (one working day hour). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Case of cerebral salt wasting syndrome with difficulty in controling excessive urine volume].

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Sakiko; Kooguch, Kunihiko; Fukui, Michihiko; Osawa, Takeshi; Beppu, Satoru; Inoue, Shizuka; Yamada, Tomoki

    2007-03-01

    Symptoms of hyponatremia and diuresis due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) are often observed after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Inadequately treated CSWS is known to work as a trigger of symptomatic vasospasm in SAH patients. Therefore, it is indispensable to detect and treat CSWS as early as possible in ICU. A 36-year-old man with SAH was admitted to our ICU. His urine volume increased excessively 3 days after ICU admission, and it reached a peak (39,250 ml x day(-1)) on the 6th day in ICU. Since infusion volume was controlled with regard to daily urinary output, hyponatremia was not noticeable and excessive urine volume stood out conspicuously. Though vasopressin and desmopressin were administered, the symptoms of natriuresis and hyponatremia were aggravated, associated with hyper secretion of natriuretic peptides (ANP 160 pg x dl(-1), BNP 172 pg x dl(-1)). Recent studies revealed that hyponatremia and hypovolemia following SAH might be caused by exaggerated secretion of natriuretic peptides. Experimental studies showed that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin cause excessive secretion of natriuretic peptides under the circumstance of volume expansion in rats. We infer that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin to our patient deterionated natriuresis in CSWS as in the previous experimental findings.

  16. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  17. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  18. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  19. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  20. Calcium isolation from large-volume human urine samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-08-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for (41)Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after (41)Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide (41)Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background.

  1. Association between plasma concentration of tolvaptan and urine volume in acute decompensated heart failure patients with fluid overload.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mahoto; Tohyama, Kazuto; Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hiro, Takafumi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-08-12

    Tolvaptan (TLV) is a useful diuretic for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with fluid overload, but its clinical response varies between patients. The aim of this study is to investigate whether plasma TLV concentrations correlate with the urine volume. ADHF inpatients with evidence of fluid overload and total urine volume < 1,500 mL 24 hours after initial intravenous administration of 40 mg furosemide were included in the study. On days 1-7, 7.5 mg oral TLV was added. The plasma TLV concentration, plasma renin activity (PRA), and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were measured on days 1, 3 and 7. In the 52 patients who completed the protocol, the TLV concentration increased significantly from 67.6 ± 30.1 ng/mL on day 1 to 98.3 ± 39.6 ng/mL on day 3 to 144.8 ± 44.2 ng/mL on day 7, and the TLV concentration correlated with total urine volume on days 3 and 7 (r = 0.392, p < 0.01; r = 0.639, p < 0.001, respectively) but not on day 1. The urine volume correlated inversely with PRA and PAC (r = -0.618, p < 0.05; r = -0.547, p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma TLV concentrations correlated with the urine volume in late phase of treatment but not in early phase, which suggests that the effect of TLV may possibly be inhibited by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity.

  2. Peritoneal residual volume induces variability of ultrafiltration with icodextrin.

    PubMed

    Akonur, Alp; Holmes, Clifford J; Leypoldt, John K

    2014-01-01

    Icodextrin induces ultrafiltration (UF) during long-dwell exchanges by creating a difference in oncotic pressure between the peritoneal cavity and plasma; however, the mechanisms governing intra-patient and inter-patient variability in UF when icodextrin is used remain largely unexplained. In the present study, we show theoretically that differences in peritoneal residual volume (VR) have a more profound effect on UF with icodextrin use than with glucose use. This phenomenon is attributed to a differential effect of VR on oncotic, rather than osmotic, pressure between the peritoneal cavity and plasma. ♢ The three-pore model was used to calculate the effect on UF of VR between 150 mL and 1200 mL when 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 3.86% glucose solution is used at the end of a 12-hour dwell in the four patient transport groups (that is, fast to slow). Oncotic (with ICO) and osmotic (with glucose) pressure differences averaged over the entire dwell were also calculated. ♢ As expected, at a nominal VR of 300 mL, UF with glucose differed substantially between the four patient transport groups (2 - 804 mL), whereas UF with ICO did not (556 - 573 mL). When VR was increased to 1200 mL from 150 mL, the concentrations of the oncotic and osmotic agents at the start of the dwell with an infusion volume of 2 L decreased to 4.9% from 7.0% with ICO and to 2.5% from 3.6% with glucose. The decrease in UF on average was greater with ICO [to 252 mL from 624 mL: that is, a reduction of 372 mL (60%)] than with glucose [to 292 mL from 398 mL: that is, a reduction of 106 mL (27%)]. Those trends agreed with the calculated reductions in the oncotic pressure difference with ICO [reduction of 12 mmHg (49%)] and the osmotic pressure difference with glucose [reduction of 19 mmHg (33%)]. ♢ When ICO is used, VR modifies the oncotic pressure difference between the peritoneal cavity and plasma to substantially alter UF. This modification suggests that potential causes of increased VR should be

  3. Peritoneal Residual Volume Induces Variability of Ultrafiltration with Icodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Akonur, Alp; Holmes, Clifford J.; Leypoldt, John K.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Icodextrin induces ultrafiltration (UF) during long-dwell exchanges by creating a difference in oncotic pressure between the peritoneal cavity and plasma; however, the mechanisms governing intra-patient and inter-patient variability in UF when icodextrin is used remain largely unexplained. In the present study, we show theoretically that differences in peritoneal residual volume (VR) have a more profound effect on UF with icodextrin use than with glucose use. This phenomenon is attributed to a differential effect of VR on oncotic, rather than osmotic, pressure between the peritoneal cavity and plasma. ♦ Methods: The three-pore model was used to calculate the effect on UF of VR between 150 mL and 1200 mL when 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 3.86% glucose solution is used at the end of a 12-hour dwell in the four patient transport groups (that is, fast to slow). Oncotic (with ICO) and osmotic (with glucose) pressure differences averaged over the entire dwell were also calculated. ♦ Results: As expected, at a nominal VR of 300 mL, UF with glucose differed substantially between the four patient transport groups (2 - 804 mL), whereas UF with ICO did not (556 - 573 mL). When VR was increased to 1200 mL from 150 mL, the concentrations of the oncotic and osmotic agents at the start of the dwell with an infusion volume of 2 L decreased to 4.9% from 7.0% with ICO and to 2.5% from 3.6% with glucose. The decrease in UF on average was greater with ICO [to 252 mL from 624 mL: that is, a reduction of 372 mL (60%)] than with glucose [to 292 mL from 398 mL: that is, a reduction of 106 mL (27%)]. Those trends agreed with the calculated reductions in the oncotic pressure difference with ICO [reduction of 12 mmHg (49%)] and the osmotic pressure difference with glucose [reduction of 19 mmHg (33%)]. ♦ Conclusions: When ICO is used, VR modifies the oncotic pressure difference between the peritoneal cavity and plasma to substantially alter UF. This modification suggests

  4. Occurrence of alpha- and beta-nortestosterone residues in the urine of injured male cattle.

    PubMed

    Glenn Kennedy, D; Desmond Shortt, H; Crooks, Steven R H; Young, Paul B; Price, Henrietta J; Smyth, Wesley G; Hewitt, S Armstrong

    2009-05-01

    The administration of anabolic steroids, for the purposes of growth promotion, to food-producing animals is banned in the EU. Among the compounds covered by this prohibition is ss-nortestosterone (beta-NT). This hormone is known to occur naturally in stallions and boars, and its main bovine metabolite, alpha-nortestosterone (alpha-NT), occurs naturally in pregnant cows and neonatal calves. However, neither compound is believed to occur naturally in male cattle. During 2006, the presence of alpha-NT and, on occasion, beta-NT was confirmed in male cattle (bulls and steers) slaughtered in Northern Ireland on welfare grounds, as a result of acute injury. Subsequent investigations revealed no evidence of abuse at any of the farms involved and revealed that the phenomenon also occurred in three other regions of the EU, in similarly injured animals. A hypothetical link to release of the adrenal steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), in response to the stress of the injury was tested. Following the intravenous administration of DHEA to two normal steers, beta-NT (but not alpha-NT) was confirmed in the urine of one steer. Thus, it may be concluded that both beta-NT and, by implication, alpha-NT can occur naturally in male cattle (or a specific cohort thereof) in contrast to previously accepted scientific knowledge.

  5. Factors determining the amount of residual urine in men with bladder outlet obstruction: Could it be a predictor for bladder contractility?

    PubMed

    Elmissiry, Mostafa M; Ali, Amr G; Abulfotooh, Ahmed; Moussa, Ahmed A; Ali, Gaber A

    2014-09-01

    To determine from urodynamic data what causes an increased postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) in men with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), urethral resistance or bladder failure, and to determine how to predict bladder contractility from the PVR. We analysed retrospectively the pressure-flow studies (PFS) of 90 men with BOO. Nine patients could not void and the remaining 81 were divided into three groups, i.e. A (30 men, PVR < 100 mL), B (30 men, PVR 100-450 mL) and C (21 men, PVR > 450 mL). The division was made according to a receiver operating characteristic curve, showing that using a threshold PVR of 450 mL had the best sensitivity and specificity for detecting the start of bladder failure. The filling phase showed an increase in bladder capacity with the increase in PVR and a significantly lower incidence of detrusor overactivity in group C. The voiding phase showed a significant decrease in voided volume and maximum urinary flow rate (Q max) as the PVR increased, while the urethral resistance factor (URF) increased from group A to B to C. The detrusor pressure at Q max (PdetQ max) and opening pressure were significantly higher in group B, which had the highest bladder contractility index (BCI) and longest duration of contraction. Group C had the lowest BCI and the lowest PdetQ max. In men with BOO, PVR results from increasing outlet resistance at the start and up to a PVR of 450 mL, where the bladder reaches its maximum compensation. At volumes of >450 mL, both the outlet resistance and bladder failure are working together, leading to detrusor decompensation.

  6. Evolution of post-ESWL residual lithiasis depending on the type of calculus and urine composition.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Isern, Bernat; Sanchis, Pilar; Perelló, Joan; Hierro, Fernando; Conte Visus, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures for removal of renal calculi from the upper urinary tract, but complete expulsion of the fragments generated is not always achieved. This can lead to new lithiasic episodes, and it is considered that 10-26% of fragmented calculi can undergo regrowth. This in vitro study investigated the influence of fragment and urinary composition on post-ESWL growth of fragments, with the aims of establishing the effect and importance of these parameters, and identifying effective prophylactic measures. Fragments collected from patients immediately following expulsion after ESWL treatment were selected for regrowth experiments. The particles included 24 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) fragments, 48 calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), 24 hydroxyapatite (HAP), and 16 uric acid. In all treatments, calculi fragments showed a considerable capacity to induce growth of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. Under normocalciuria conditions, new COM crystals formed; both COM and COD crystals developed under hypercalciuria conditions at a urinary pH < 6.0; and in hypercalciuric conditions and urinary pH > 6.0 both HAP and brushite (BRU) crystals were formed. The highest growth rates were observed for COD calculi fragments under hypercalciuria conditions and at a urinary pH of 6.5, followed by growth on COM and HAP fragments under the same conditions; growth rates under other conditions tested were similar but 10-fold lower. With regard to the role of crystallization inhibitors, phytate exhibited inhibitory effects under all assay conditions. However, citrate had little effect, even at the highest concentration tested (1,000 mg/L). This study demonstrates the importance of avoiding heterogeneous nucleant retention (pre-existing solid microparticles) in renal cavities, as these can act as very efficient inducers of the formation of new calculi, the composition of which is mainly dependant on the urine

  7. Volume of Saw-Log residues as calculated from log rule formulae

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett; F. Thomas Lloyd

    1974-01-01

    Total utilization of our harvested timber is increasingly important. Residues which were once wasted and expensive to remove or destroy are now major sources of income. Slabs and edgings in the sawmill industry are an example. Although several studies have dealt with the volume of these residues, most, if not all, involved measurement of the outturn at the sawmill. An...

  8. A fundamental problem in determining functional residual capacity or residual volume. [of lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boutellier, U.; Farhi, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    To measure a lung volume that is not directly accessible, one often follows dilution of a single-gas tracer, present initially only in the lung or in a rebreathing bag. The final volume available to the tracer is assumed to be the sum of the two initial components. Since O2 is taken up and CO2 is eliminated during the few breaths required for mixing, the total volume changes. The error in lung volume due to this volume change can exceed 10 pct. Theoretical and experimental data is presented to demonstrate the effect of CO2 and O2 exchange. A general equation, based on N2 and Ar, which allows one to circumvent the problems created by these fluxes is introduced. The pitfall of the back-extrapolation approach for a single tracer is shown.

  9. Does temporary socket removal affect residual limb fluid volume of trans-tibial amputees?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Hartley, TL; Phillips, RH; Ciol, MA; Hafner, BJ; Allyn, KJ; Harrison, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower-limb prosthesis users typically experience residual limb volume losses over the course of the day that can detrimentally affect socket fit. Objectives To determine if temporarily doffing the prosthesis encouraged residual limb fluid volume recovery and if the recovered fluid was maintained. Study Design Experimental design. Methods Residual limb fluid volume was monitored on sixteen participants in three test sessions each. Participants conducted six cycles of resting/standing/walking. Between the third and fourth cycles, participants sat for 30 minutes with the prosthesis and liner: donned (ON), the prosthesis doffed but the liner donned (LINER), or the prosthesis and liner doffed (OFF). Results Percentage fluid volume gain and retention were greatest for the OFF condition followed by the LINER condition. Participants experienced fluid volume losses for the ON condition. Conclusion Doffing the prosthesis and/or liner during rest improved residual limb fluid volume retention compared with leaving the prosthesis and liner donned. Clinical Relevance Practitioners should advise patients who undergo high daily limb volume losses to consider temporarily doffing their prosthesis. Fluid volume retention during subsequent activity will be highest if both the prosthesis and liner are doffed. PMID:25710944

  10. Effect of the Volume of Fluid Ingested on Urine Concentrating Ability During Prolonged Heavy Exercise in a Hot Environment

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tsujita, Junzo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the volume of fluid ingested on urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Seven healthy males performed 105 min of intermittent cycle exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (32°C, 60% relative humidity) while receiving no fluid ingestion (NF), voluntary fluid ingestion (VF), partial fluid ingestion equivalent to one-half of body mass loss (PF), and full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss (FF). Fluid (5°C, 3.4% carbohydrate, 10.5 mmol·L-1 sodium) was ingested just before commencing exercise and at 15, 33, 51, 69, and 87 min of exercise, and the total amount of fluid ingested in PF and FF was divided into six equal volumes. During exercise, body mass loss was 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.2, and 0.1 ± 0.2% in NF, VF, PF, and FF, respectively, whereas total sweat loss was about 2% of body mass in each trial. Subjects in VF ingested 719 ± 240 ml of fluid during exercise; the volume of fluid ingested was 1.1 ± 0.4% of body mass. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and free water clearance was significantly lower in FF than in NF during exercise. Urine flow rate during exercise decreased significantly in NF. There were significant decreases in creatinine and osmolar clearance and was a significant increase in free water clearance during exercise in NF and VF. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly and free water clearance increased significantly during exercise in PF. There was no statistical change in urinary indices of renal function during exercise in FF. The findings suggest that full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss has attenuated the decline in urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Key points During prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration, fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss results in no changes in

  11. [Urine specific gravity during general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Maho; Morioka, Nobutada; Nozaki, Chisato; Abe, Mikiko; Yamada, Arata; Ozaki, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    The urine volume and urine specific gravity per unit time during a short operation under volume loading were examined to explore the possibility of urine specific gravity as an indirect index of fluid therapy. After introducing anesthesia, under volume loading with acetic acid Ringer solution 10 ml x kg(-1) x hr(-1), urine volume and specific gravity per unit time at 30 min intervals from urination to 90 min later and the correlation between the urine volume and urine specific gravity were examined. A chronological increase of urine specific gravity was also confirmed. Therefore, the values of urine specific gravity of each 30 minute intervals were compared using Student's t-test. The urine volume and urine specific gravity per unit time showed no significant negative correlation until after 90 min. Increasing urine specific gravity even under volume loading became significant 90 min after urination. There is a possibility of employing urine specific gravity as an indirect index of fluid therapy.

  12. HOW DOES ADDING AND REMOVING LIQUID FROM SOCKET BLADDERS AFFECT RESIDUAL LIMB FLUID VOLUME?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Cagle, JC; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Adding and removing liquid from socket bladders is a means for people with limb loss to accommodate residual limb volume change. Nineteen people with trans-tibial amputation using their regular prosthetic socket fitted with fluid bladders on the inside socket surface underwent cycles of bladder liquid addition and removal. In each cycle, subjects sat, stood, and walked for 90s with bladder liquid added and then sat, stood, and walking for 90s again with the bladder liquid removed. The amount of bladder liquid added was increased in each cycle. Bioimpedance analysis was implemented to measure residual limb fluid volume. Results showed that the preferred bladder liquid volume was 16.8 mL (s.d.8.4), corresponding to 1.7% (s.d.0.8%) of the average socket volume between the bioimpedance voltage-sensing electrodes. Limb fluid volume driven out of the residual limb when bladder liquid was added was typically not recovered upon subsequent bladder liquid removal. Fifteen of nineteen subjects experienced a gradual limb fluid volume loss over the test session. Care should be taken when implementing adjustable socket technologies in people with limb amputation. Reducing socket volume may accentuate limb fluid volume loss. PMID:24203546

  13. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  14. Large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis used for the determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in rat urine.

    PubMed

    Maeso, Nuria; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Barbas, Coral

    2004-09-25

    Large-volume sample stacking using the electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump technique has been investigated for the quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine in urine of diabetic rats. The best separation conditions for these highly complex samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the reversed polarity mode (i.e., injecting at the cathode and detecting at the anode) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the running buffer. The optimum CE separation conditions were achieved using a phosphate buffer prepared with 0.15M phosphoric acid and 0.5 mM CTAB adjusted to pH 6.4 with sodium hydroxide. In such CE conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.77 microM for 3-nitrotyrosine with normal injection mode, meanwhile with the large-volume sample stacking technique a more than 20-fold improvement was observed (i.e., LOD = 0.08 microM was obtained) without noticeable loss of resolution. This value allowed the detection of 3-nitrotyrosine in urine from diabetic rats. To our knowledge, this work is one of the few applications showing the great possibilities of these stacking procedures to analyse biological samples by CE.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine volume as a result of dietary sodium chloride intake. Twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean ± SD: milk production 28.1±3.23 kg/d and 190±41 d in milk), of which 4 were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of sodium chloride (3, 9, 14, and 19 g of Na/kg of DM) according to a triple 4×4 Latin square design. Cows were fed at 95% of ad libitum intake, excluding salt addition. Milk was analyzed for MUN and protein content; urine was analyzed for total N, urea, and creatinine content; feces were analyzed for total N and DM content; and blood plasma was analyzed for urea and creatinine content. Creatinine clearance rate (CCR; L/min) and renal urea reabsorption ratio were estimated based on plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and total excretion of urea and creatinine in urine. Intake of DM and N, milk production, and milk protein content were (mean ± SD), on average, 21.4±1.24 kg/d, 522±32.0 g/d, 25.4±2.53 kg/d, and 3.64±0.186%, respectively. A linear relationship was found between Na intake and urine production [urine (kg/d; mean ± SE)=7.5±4.33+0.136±0.0143 × Na intake (g/d)] and between Na intake and MUN [MUN (mg/dL; mean ± SE)=13.5±0.35-0.0068±0.00104 × Na intake (g/d)]. Despite the decrease in MUN with increased Na intake, UN excretion increased linearly with Na intake. Excretion of UUN was not affected by dietary Na content. A linear plateau relationship was observed between CCR and renal urea reabsorption. An increase in CCR coincided with an increase in calculated renal urea reabsorption until a CCR breakpoint value (mean ± SD) of 1.56±0.063 L/min was reached. We

  16. Plutonium in human urine: Normal levels in the US public. 1991 Annual report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Xue, Ying-Hua

    1997-03-01

    A neutron induced fission track method was successfully developed for assaying {sup 239}Pu in human urine with a detection limit below 20 aCi/sample. The technique involves the co-precipitation of {sup 239}Pu with rhodizonic acid, separation of {sup 239}Pu from potentially interfering natural uranium and other inorganic materials by ion-exchange techniques, collection of the sample onto lexan detectors, irradiation of sample in MIT reactor at a fluence of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, etching of the lexan slide and counting the track either manually or by some automated counting system.

  17. Residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Shigeharu; Hine, Kotaro; Nagano, Nobuhiko; Taguchi, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Kayo; Okada, Tomoo; Mugishima, Hideo; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate residual blood volume in the umbilical cord of extremely premature infants. Twenty extremely premature infants were held at or below the placenta while the umbilical cord was clamped and cut at approximately 2-3 cm from the umbilicus within 30 s after birth. The umbilical cord was then clamped near the placenta to obtain a length of approximately 30 cm and cut. The residual blood volume in the segment of cord was drained and measured in milliliters. Mean birthweight was 846 ± 172 g (range, 587-1180 g). The average length of the clamped segment of umbilical cord was 29.8 ± 1.5 cm (range, 27-32 cm). Total residual blood volume and residual blood volume per cm were 15.5 ± 6.7 mL (range, 6-25 mL) and 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/cm (range, 0.2-0.8 mL/cm), respectively. The residual cord blood volume per kilogram of infant weight per 30 cm was 17.7 ± 5.5 mL/kg/30 cm (range, 8.9-29.0 mL/kg/30 cm). Infants could receive approximately 18 mL/kg of whole blood by one-time milking of 30 cm umbilical cord. With an average hematocrit of 40%, this volume is equivalent to approximately 13 mL of packed red blood cells (hematocrit 55%). © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Wildlife Linkages: Volumes and Values of Residual Timber in Riparian Zones in Eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Garry Allen Burns; R. Montague Whiting; George M. LeGrande; James G. Dickson

    1999-01-01

    In regenerating southern pine, maintenance of riparian zones (RZs)is a major land concession for soil and water protection and wildlife habitat enhancement. However, there are few data quantifying the volume and value of residual timber in such areas. We inventoried merchantable timber in nine RZs of three widths in sapling-class East Texas pine plantations. Present,...

  19. Logging residues on Douglas-fir region clearcuts—weights and volumes.

    Treesearch

    John D. Dell; Franklin R. Ward

    1971-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ground measurements of logging residue weights and volumes on 30 clearcut units in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington. Additional information is given on quantities of material left as slash which might be utilized. These measurements were made on public lands, using a method developed in Canada.

  20. Solvent accessibility, residue charge and residue volume, the three ingredients of a robust amino acid substitution matrix.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Hani; Katanforoush, Ali; Torabi, Noorossadat; Najafabadi, Hamed Shateri

    2007-04-21

    Cost measure matrices or different amino acid indices have been widely used for studies in many fields of biology. One major criticism of these studies might be based on the unavailability of an unbiased and yet effective amino acid substitution matrix. Throughout this study we have devised a cost measure matrix based on the solvent accessibility, residue charge, and residue volume indices. Performed analyses on this novel substitution matrix (i.e. solvent accessibility charge volume (SCV) matrix) support the uncontaminated nature of this matrix regarding the genetic code. Although highly similar to a number of previously available cost measure matrices, the SCV matrix results in a more significant optimality in the error-buffering capacity of the genetic code when compared to many other amino acid substitution matrices. Besides, a method to compare an SCV-based scoring matrix with a number of widely used matrices has been devised, the results of which highlights the robustness of this matrix in protein family discrimination.

  1. Function and volume recovery after partial hepatectomy: influence of preoperative liver function, residual liver volume, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lock, Johan Friso; Malinowski, Maciej; Seehofer, Daniel; Hoppe, Steffi; Röhl, Rhea Isabel; Niehues, Stefan Markus; Neuhaus, Peter; Stockmann, Martin

    2012-12-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is an essential pre-condition for the successful application of partial hepatectomy. However, the actual kinetics of functional recovery remains unspecified and no adequate tool for its clinical monitoring has yet been available. Eighty-five patients receiving major hepatectomy were investigated from the preoperative evaluation until 12 weeks after surgery. Liver function was determined by the LiMAx test for the enzymatic capacity of cytochrome P450 1A2. Liver volume was determined by volumetric analysis of repeated computer tomography scans. Functional and volume recovery were compared during follow-up. Major hepatectomy decreased liver function capacity to 35.7 ± 13.8% of preoperative function. It was shown that functional recovery already reaches 77.2 ± 33.5% of preoperative values within 10 days. The actual kinetics were dependent from the type and extent of hepatectomy. Complete functional restoration was achieved within 12 weeks, while liver volume still remained at 73.2 ± 14.8% of preoperative. A constant but interindividually variable correlation between function and volume was observed at all points in time. Partial hepatectomy leads to fast and complete functional recovery, while volume recovery is delayed and remains often incomplete. The functional recovery is mainly influenced by the preoperative liver function, the residual liver volume, and by obesity.

  2. Normal values and determinants of circadian urine production in older men: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Blanker, Marco H; Bernsen, Roos M D; Ruud Bosch, J L H Ruud; Thomas, Siep; Groeneveld, Frans P M J; Prins, Ad; Bohnen, Arthur M

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated circadian urine production and its determinants in a large population based sample of older men. We collected data on 1,688 men 50 to 78 years old, without radical prostatectomy, prostate or bladder cancer, neurogenic bladder disease or negative advice from their general practitioner, recruited from the population of Krimpen, the Netherlands. Measurements consisted of self-administered questionnaires, including the International Prostate Symptom Score, a 3-day frequency-volume chart, transrectal prostatic ultrasound, uroflowmetry and post-void residual volume. Hourly urine production was determined and urine production day-to-night ratio was calculated from the frequency-volume chart. Men younger than 65 years showed a clear circadian urine production pattern, whereas in older men this pattern was less clear. Smoking, use of diuretic drugs, post-void residual and 24-hour polyuria reinforced the circadian pattern, in favor of daytime urine production. The urine production day-to-night ratio was not associated with prostate enlargement, reduced urinary flow rate, body weight, hypertension, cardiac symptoms, diabetes mellitus, use of antidepressants, cardiac or hypnotic drugs. Urine production in men younger than 65 years showed a clear circadian pattern in contrast to men older than 65 years. These data can be used as a reference when describing urine production patterns in select populations. In daily practice frequency-volume charts can be used to determine urine production. This method is inexpensive, easy to use and provides valid information on urine production in a natural environment.

  3. Glyphosate Residues in Groundwater, Drinking Water and Urine of Subsistence Farmers from Intensive Agriculture Localities: A Survey in Hopelchén, Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rendon-von Osten, Jaime; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo

    2017-06-03

    The use of pesticides in Mexican agriculture creates an interest in learning about the presence of these substances in different environmental matrices. Glyphosate (GLY) is an herbicide widely used in the state of Campeche, located in the Mayan zone in the western Yucatan peninsula. Despite the fact that GLY is considered a non-toxic pesticide to humans, its presence in water bodies through spillage, runoff, and leaching are a risk to human health or biota that inhabit these ecosystems. In the present study, glyphosate residues were determined in groundwater, bottled drinking water, and the urine of subsistence farmers from various localities of the Hopelchén municipality in Campeche. Determination of GLY was carried out using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The highest concentrations of GLY were observed in the groundwater (1.42 μg/L) of Ich-Ek and urine (0.47 μg/L) samples of subsistence farmers from the Francisco J. Mújica communities. The glyphosate concentrations in groundwater and bottled drinking water indicate an exposure and excessive use of glyphosate in these agricultural communities. This is one of the first studies that reports glyphosate concentration levels in human urine and bottled drinking water in México and in the groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula as part of a prospective pilot study, to which a follow-up will be performed to monitor this trend over time.

  4. Glyphosate Residues in Groundwater, Drinking Water and Urine of Subsistence Farmers from Intensive Agriculture Localities: A Survey in Hopelchén, Campeche, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rendón-von Osten, Jaime; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides in Mexican agriculture creates an interest in learning about the presence of these substances in different environmental matrices. Glyphosate (GLY) is an herbicide widely used in the state of Campeche, located in the Mayan zone in the western Yucatan peninsula. Despite the fact that GLY is considered a non-toxic pesticide to humans, its presence in water bodies through spillage, runoff, and leaching are a risk to human health or biota that inhabit these ecosystems. In the present study, glyphosate residues were determined in groundwater, bottled drinking water, and the urine of subsistence farmers from various localities of the Hopelchén municipality in Campeche. Determination of GLY was carried out using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The highest concentrations of GLY were observed in the groundwater (1.42 μg/L) of Ich-Ek and urine (0.47 μg/L) samples of subsistence farmers from the Francisco J. Mújica communities. The glyphosate concentrations in groundwater and bottled drinking water indicate an exposure and excessive use of glyphosate in these agricultural communities. This is one of the first studies that reports glyphosate concentration levels in human urine and bottled drinking water in México and in the groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula as part of a prospective pilot study, to which a follow-up will be performed to monitor this trend over time. PMID:28587206

  5. Determining the Volume of Additive Solution and Residual Plasma in Whole Blood Filtered and Buffy Coat Processed Red Cell Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Andrew; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Residual plasma in transfused red cell concentrates (RCCs) has been associated with adverse transfusion outcomes. Despite this, there is no consensus on the standard procedure for measuring residual plasma volume. Methods The volumes of residual plasma and additive solution were measured in RCCs processed using two separation methods: whole blood filtration (WBF) and buffy coat (BC)/RCC filtration. The concentration of mannitol and albumin in RCC components was measured using colorimetric assays. Mannitol concentration was used to calculate additive solution volume. Residual plasma volume was calculated using two methods. Results Calculated RCC supernatant volumes were much lower in BC-processed components compared to WBF-processed components (BC = 97 ± 6 ml, WBF = 109 ± 4 ml; p < 0.05). Calculated additive solution volumes were greater in WBF- than in BC-processed components (BC = 81 ± 4 ml, WBF = 105 ± 2 ml; p < 0.05). Absolute residual plasma volume varied significantly based on the calculation method used. Conclusion Disparity between plasma volume calculation methods was observed. Efforts should be made to standardize residual plasma volume measurement methods in order to accurately assess the impact of residual plasma on transfusion outcomes. PMID:27330533

  6. Detection of residues in urine and tissues of sheep treated with trace levels of dietary ractopamine HCl

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ractopamine HCl was fed to sheep at 0 (Z), 0.001 (L), 0.01 (M), or 0.1 (H) mg/kg of diet (n = 4 per level, 0.5 kg of feed/day) for seven consecutive days and urine was collected daily about ~16 h post exposure. On-site lateral flow assays were able to reliably (0% false negatives) detect 20 ng of r...

  7. Large volume sample stacking for rapid and sensitive determination of antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-06

    Two CE methods with contactless conductivity detection have been developed for determining the oral antidiabetic drug metformin in human urine and blood. The determination of metformin is performed on a separation capillary with an effective length of 14 cm, using a maximum voltage of 30 kV and with a small injection of 50-fold diluted urine into the capillary. Under these conditions, the migration time of metformin is 35s and the LOD is 0.3 μM. Large-volume sample stacking was used to determine low metformin levels in serum. The injection of a sample of serum deproteinized with acetonitrile was 10 times greater compared to the injected amount of urine. This enabled reduction of the LOD to 0.03 μM and the metformin migration time equalled 86 s. The undesirable solvent from sample zone was forced out of the capillary to ensure rapidity and good repeatability of the determination. The RSD values for the migration time are 0.1% for urine and 0.7% for serum; RSD for the peak areas equalled 1.4% for urine and 2.6% for serum. The developed CE technique was tested on performance of routine analyses of metformin in the urine and serum of patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Volume of logging residues in Oregon, Washington, and California—initial results from a 1969-70 study.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1971-01-01

    A study conducted during 1969-70 in Oregon, Washington, and California indicates that the average net volume of logging residues ranged from 325 to 3,156 cubic feet per acre. The highest volume was on National Forests in the Douglas-fir region, which averaged 2.5 times greater than private lands. The lowest volumes of residue were found in the ponderosa pine region...

  9. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    PubMed

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  10. Preliminary investigation of residual-limb fluid volume changes within one day

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E.; Allyn, Katheryn J.; Harrison, Daniel S.; Myers, Timothy R.; Ciol, Marcia A.; Tsai, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rates of residual limb fluid volume change within a day on people with transtibial limb loss. Rates of fluid volume change during 30-minute test sessions of sitting, standing, and walking activities were measured twice a day on twelve regular prosthesis users, once in the morning and once in the afternoon, using bioimpedance analysis. Between test sessions all subjects consumed food and drink, and subject activity ranged from low to high. The rate of fluid volume change within sessions ranged from −8.5%/h to +5.9%/h with a median of −2.3%/h. The rate of fluid volume change between sessions ranged from −2.6%/h to 1.2%/h with a median of −1.0%/h. The between-session rate of fluid volume change was highly correlated with afternoon within-session rates of change (r=0.9) but not well-correlated with morning within-session rates of change (r=0.8). Subjects with peripheral arterial complications showed greater fluid volume loss rates during test sessions than between sessions. Rate of fluid volume change may be affected by sitting, standing, and walking activities; presence of peripheral arterial complications; being a female; time since amputation; and maintaining the socket without doffing for extended periods. PMID:23516051

  11. Tamsulosin reduces nighttime urine production in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with nocturnal polyuria: a prospective open-label long-term study using frequency-volume chart.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Shoichi; Imura, Makoto; Kubota, Yasue; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    The effects of tamsulosin treatment on changes in frequency-volume chart (FVC) data, especially nighttime urine production, over time were assessed, and the mechanisms underlying the improvement of nocturia in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with nocturnal polyuria (NP) are discussed. A total of 104 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH were enrolled. After enrollment in the study, the patients were treated with tamsulosin (0.2 mg) once daily. Visits were scheduled every 4 weeks until week 12 (month 3) after study entry, and then every 12 weeks subsequently. All patients completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, and 3-day FVC, and underwent uroflowmetry at enrollment and on each visit. Eighty-two patients (mean age: 70.9 ± 7.1 years) were analyzed for 24 months after treatment. Patients were divided into two groups, NP and nonNP, based on FVC outcome. The IPSS, QOL index, and maximum flow rate improved during the 24-month period after treatment in both groups. Mean daytime urine volume significantly increased in the NP group, but no changes were detected in the nonNP group. Mean nighttime urine frequency significantly decreased in the NP group over a 24-month period, and was associated with a significant decrease in nighttime urine volume that was not found in the nonNP group. Maximum voided volume increased most months after treatment in both groups. The present long-term prospective study using FVC demonstrated that tamsulosin reduced nighttime urine production in BPH patients with NP. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multi-residue analysis of eight thioamphetamine designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pirisi, Maria Antonietta; Baralla, Elena

    2009-10-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human urine of several thioamphetamine designer drugs (2C-T and ALEPH series) is reported. The quantitative analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and has been fully validated. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive-ion, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid-phase extraction was introduced in the method as a clean-up step. The entire method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method turned out to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the analysis of amphetamine derivatives in urine samples. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1 to 100 ng mL(-1) for all drugs with correlation coefficients that exceeded 0.996. The lower limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 ng mL(-1) and from 3.2 to 9.6 ng mL(-1), respectively.

  13. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinary system is healthy, your bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours. You may have problems with urination if you have Kidney failure Urinary tract infections An enlarged prostate Bladder control problems like ...

  14. Short-term Analysis of the Residual Volume of an Eye Drop Following 23-Gauge Microincision Vitrectomy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yong Koo; Im, Jong Chan; Shin, Jae Pil; Kim, In Taek; Park, Dong Ho

    2017-06-26

    To evaluate the change of residual volume of eye drop after instillation in patients with 23-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS). Patient who were treated 23-gauge MIVS from November 2014 to July 2015 were included. The residual volume was defined as the amount of remnant eye drop in patient's eyes after instillation, calculated as the difference between instillation volume and spilled volume of eye drop. Calculation of residual volume of eye drop was performed one day before surgery, and daily from postoperative day 1 to day 5. Forty consecutive patients were included. The residual volume of eye drop decreased from 30.3 ± 1.4 μL at baseline to 13.0 ± 1.5 μL at day 1, 18.3 ± 1.6 μL at day 2, 24.7 ± 1.5 μL at day 3, and 27.9 ± 1.4 μL in day 4, postoperatively (p < 0.001, respectively). The volume at postoperative day 5 was 29.4 ± 1.3 μL, but it was not different from the volume at baseline (p = 0.105). The change of residual volume was significantly correlated with postoperative chemosis (r = 0.672, p < 0.001) and effected by the number of quadrant with postoperative chemosis (p < 0.05). This study shows that postoperative residual volume of eye drop after instillation decreased until postoperative day 4, and postoperative chemosis affects the change of residual volume. Thus, checking proper use of eye drops and teaching about instillation technique by physician is necessary for patients with 23-gauge MIVS.

  15. Comparison of Lateral Flow Assay, Kidney Inhibition Swab, and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Penicillin G Residues in Sow Urine.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Chakrabarty, Shubhashis; Smith, David J

    2017-03-01

    Sows (n = 126) were administered penicillin G; urine, collected at slaughter, was screened by kidney inhibition swab (KIS; 4 h testing time) and then stored at -80 °C (∼1200 days) until analysis by lateral flow assay (LF, ∼5 min testing time) and tandem quadrupole LC-MS/MS (TQ) analysis. The stability of penicillin in urine during storage was verified using TQ analyses. Quantitative results were well-correlated (R(2) = 0.98) with only a ∼10% decrease in penicillin concentration during the 3-year storage period. KIS retesting of stored samples returned results consistent with the original analyses. Lateral flow assay results were highly correlated with the KIS and TQ results. A KIS positive sample, which was not confirmed by TQ or LF, was assayed by Triple-TOF LC-MS to determine the cause of the apparent false positive. This study suggests LF can be used to quickly and efficiently screen for penicillin G residues before slaughter.

  16. Does daily urine output really matter in renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Tillou, Xavier; Lee-Bion, Adrien; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Orczyk, Clément; Le Gal, Sophie; Desmonts, Alexis; Bensadoun, Henri; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2013-12-27

    Our objective was to clarify the clinical outcome of renal transplantation based on residual daily urine output (RDUO). We retrospectively analyzed a prospective database of 276 patients who underwent renal transplantation (Tx) between January 2008 and December 2012. Patients had pre-transplantation daily urine output measurement of 24-h proteinuria and were clinically re-evaluated the day before transplantation. We included patients with no daily urine output and those with residual daily urine output. Real bladder capacity was not measured. We excluded patients with a history of lower urinary tract malformation, those treated by trans-ileal conduit or enterocystoplasty, and those with early graft thrombosis or graft primary non-function. Sex ratio, age at Tx, pre-Tx MHC antibodies levels, donor age, and cold ischemia duration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Dialysis duration was longer in group I (p<0.001). The dialysis duration was correlated with the volume of residual urine output (r=0.12, p<0.0001). We found 14 (19.4%) urological complications in Group I (11 urinary leaks and 3 urethral stenosis) and 13 (6.4%) in Group II (5 urinary leaks and 8 stenosis). This difference was significant (p=0.0013 and relative risk [RR]=2.2). Absence of residual daily urine output was a risk factor of post-transplantation urinary leak (p<0.0001: RR=2.95). At 3 years, graft survival was 74.7% and 94.6%, respectively, in Group I and II (p=0.003). The absence of residual daily urine output seems to be a major risk factor for urological complications. Taking into account recipient residual daily urine output should modify surgical strategy during renal transplantation.

  17. Residual tumor volume versus extent of resection: predictors of survival after surgery for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Matthew M; Recinos, Pablo F; Nowacki, Amy S; Schroeder, Jason L; Angelov, Lilyana; Barnett, Gene H; Vogelbaum, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    The impact of extent of resection (EOR) on survival for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) continues to be a point of debate despite multiple studies demonstrating that increasing EOR likely extends survival for these patients. In addition, contrast-enhancing residual tumor volume (CE-RTV) alone has rarely been analyzed quantitatively to determine if it is a predictor of outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CE-RTV and T2/FLAIR residual volume (T2/F-RV) on overall survival. A retrospective review of 128 patients who underwent primary resection of supratentorial GBM followed by standard radiation/chemotherapy was undertaken utilizing quantitative, volumetric analysis of pre- and postoperative MR images. The results were compared with clinical data obtained from the patients' medical records. At analysis, 8% of patients were alive, and no patients were lost to follow-up. The overall median survival was 13.8 months, with a median Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score of 90 at presentation. The median contrast-enhancing preoperative tumor volume (CE-PTV) was 29.0 cm(3), and CE-RTV was 1.2 cm(3), equating to a 95.8% median EOR. The median T2/F-RV was 36.8 cm(3). CE-PTV, CE-RTV, T2/F-RV, and EOR were all statistically significant predictors of survival when controlling for age and KPS score. A statistically significant benefit in survival was seen with a CE-RTV less than 2 cm(3) or an EOR greater than 98%. Evaluation of the volumetric analysis methodology was performed by observers of varying degrees of experience-an attending neurosurgeon, a fellow, and a medical student. Both the medical student and fellow recorded correlation coefficients of 0.98 when compared with the attending surgeon's measured volumes of CE-PTV, while for CE-RTV, correlation coefficients of 0.67 and 0.71 (medical student and fellow, respectively) were obtained. CE-RTV and EOR were found to be significant predictors of survival after GBM resection. CERTV was the more

  18. Routine gastric residual volume measurement and energy target achievement in the PICU: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Bickerdike, Anna; Latten, Lynne; Davies, Simon; Lefèvre, Madeleine H; Nicolas, Gaëlle W; Valla, Frédéric V

    2017-09-18

    Critically ill children frequently fail to achieve adequate energy intake, and some care practices, such as the measurement of gastric residual volume (GRV), may contribute to this problem. We compared outcomes in two similar European Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs): one which routinely measures GRV (PICU-GRV) to one unit that does not (PICU-noGRV). An observational pilot comparison study was undertaken. Eighty-seven children were included in the study, 42 (PICU-GRV) and 45 (PICU-noGRV). There were no significant differences in the percentage of energy targets achieved in the first 4 days of PICU admission although PICU-noGRV showed more consistent delivery of median (and IQR) energy targets and less under and over feeding for PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV: day 1 37 (14-72) vs 44 (0-100), day 2 97 (53-126) vs 100 (100-100), day 3 84 (45-112) vs 100 (100-100) and day 4 101 (63-124) vs 100 (100-100). The incidence of vomiting was higher in PICU-GRV. No necrotising enterocolitis was confirmed in either unit, and ventilator-acquired pneumonia rates were not significantly different (7.01 vs 12 5.31 per 1000 ventilator days; p = 0.70) between PICU-GRV and PICU-noGRV units. The practice of routine gastric residual measurement did not significantly impair energy targets in the first 4 days of PICU admission. However, not measuring GRV did not increase vomiting, ventilator-acquired pneumonia or necrotising enterocolitis, which is the main reason clinicians cite for measuring GRV. What is known: • The practice of routinely measuring gastric residual volume is widespread in critical care units • This practice is increasingly being questioned in critically ill patients, both as a practice that increases • The likelihood of delivering inadequate enteral nutrition amounts and as a tool to assess feeding tolerance What is new: • Not routinely measuring gastric residual volume did not increase adverse events of ventilator acquired pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis

  19. Blackcurrant seed press residue increases tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool whilst biomarkers in stool and urine indicate increased oxidative stress in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Dorit; Wagner, Andreas; Glei, Michael; Basu, Samar; Schubert, Rainer; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2009-08-01

    Berry seeds are a tocopherol-rich by-product of fruit processing without specific commercial value. In a human intervention study, the physiological impact of blackcurrant seed press residue (PR) was tested. Thirty-six women (aged 24 +/- 3 years; twenty non-smokers, sixteen smokers) consumed 250 g bread/d containing 8% PR for a period of 4 weeks (period 3). Comparatively, a control bread without PR (250 g/d) was tested (period 2) and baseline data were obtained (period 1). Blood, stool and 24 h urine were collected during a 5 d standardised diet within each period. Tocopherol and Fe intakes were calculated from food intake. In serum, tocopherol concentration and Fe parameters were determined. In urine, oxidative stress markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2alpha and inflammatory response marker 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha were analysed. Stool tocopherol concentration, genotoxicity of faecal water (comet assay) and antioxidant capacity of stool (aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid) were determined. Fe and total tocopherol intake, total tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool, and genotoxicity of faecal water increased with PR bread consumption (P < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of stool decreased between baseline and intervention, expressed by increased formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in vitro (P < 0.05). In smokers, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine increased with PR consumption (P < 0.05). Prostane concentrations were unaffected by PR bread consumption. In summary, the intake of bread containing blackcurrant PR for 4 weeks increased serum and stool total tocopherol concentrations. However, various biomarkers indicated increased oxidative stress, suggesting that consumption of ground berry seed may not be of advantage.

  20. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  1. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection for creatinine, protein, calcium Blood tests such as PT , PTT or INR tests The treatment will depend on the cause of blood in the urine.

  2. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... rare disease of metabolism. Liver disease and certain metabolic disorders may cause musty-smelling urine. Some conditions that ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Metabolic Disorders Urinalysis Urinary Tract Infections Urine and Urination Browse ...

  3. The Impact of Routine Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volumes on the Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Arieh; Cohen, Keren; Kugelman, Amir; Toropine, Arina; Said, Waseem; Bader, David

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the time to full enteral feedings in preterm infants after a practice change from routine evaluation of gastric residual volume before each feeding to selective evaluation of gastric residual volume , and to evaluate the impact of this change on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Data were collected on all gavage-fed infants born at ≤34 weeks gestational age (GA) for 2 years before (n = 239) and 2 years after the change (n = 233). The median GA was 32.0 (IQR: 29.7-33.0) weeks before and 32.4 (30.4-33.4) weeks after the change (P = .02). Compared with historic controls, infants with selective evaluations of gastric residual volumes weaned from parenteral nutrition 1 day earlier (P < .001) and achieved full enteral feedings (150 cc/kg/day) 1 day earlier (P = .002). The time to full oral feedings and lengths of stay were similar. The rate of NEC (stage ≥ 2) was 1.7% in the selective gastric residual volume evaluation group compared with 3.3% in the historic control group (P = .4). Multiple regression analyses showed that the strongest predictor of time to full enteral feedings was GA. Routine evaluation of gastric residual volume and increasing time on noninvasive ventilation both prolonged the attainment of full enteral feedings. Findings were consistent in the subgroup with birth weights of <1500 g. Increased weight at discharge was most strongly associated with advancing postmenstrual, age but avoidance of routine evaluations of gastric residual volume also was a significant factor. Avoiding routine evaluation of gastric residual volume before every feeding was associated with earlier attainment of full enteral feedings without increasing risk for NEC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of feeding-tube properties on residual volume measurements in tube-fed patients.

    PubMed

    Metheny, Norma A; Stewart, Jena; Nuetzel, Gretel; Oliver, Dana; Clouse, Ray E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of feeding tube size and port configuration on the ability to measure gastric residual volume (GRV) is poorly understood. In addition, there is confusion about the need to measure GRVs during feedings into the small bowel. This study sought to (1) compare the volume of gastric contents obtained from small-diameter feeding tubes and large-diameter sump tubes concurrently positioned in the stomach and (2) describe the distribution of GRVs during small-bowel feedings. For the first objective, GRV measurements were made from 10-Fr tubes (n = 645) and 14-Fr or 18-Fr sump tubes (n = 645) concurrently present in 62 critically ill patients. Sixty-milliliter syringes were used to measure GRVs from the 10-Fr tubes; the fluid was returned to the stomach and measurements were repeated from the large-diameter sump tubes. To address the second research objective, 890 GRV measurements were made from 14-Fr or 18-Fr gastric sump tubes (not connected to suction) in 75 critically ill patients who were receiving small-bowel feedings. When GRVs were >50 mL, a linear regression equation indicated that volumes obtained from the large-diameter sump tubes were about 1.5 times greater than those obtained from the small-diameter tubes concurrently present in the stomach, p < .001. Gastric volumes > or =100 mL were found in 11.6% of the 890 measurements made in patients receiving small-bowel feedings; volumes > or =150 mL were found in 5.4% of the measurements. The findings suggest that GRVs obtained from large-diameter sump tubes are about 1.5 times greater than those obtained from 10-Fr tubes. Large GRVs occur in at least 5% of patients receiving postpyloric feedings.

  5. How do sock ply changes affect residual limb fluid volume in people with trans-tibial amputation?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Allyn, KJ; Myers, TR; Ciol, MA; Tsai, EC

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sock addition and sock removal on residual limb fluid volume in people using prosthetic limbs. We used bioimpedance analysis to measure residual limb extracellular fluid volume on 28 transtibial amputee subjects during 30-minute test sessions. Upon addition of a 1-ply polyester sock, residual limb fluid volume changes ranged from −4.0% to 0.8% (mean −0.9% (s.d.=1.3%)) of the initial limb fluid volume. Changes for sock removal ranged from −1.2% to 2.8% (mean 0.5% (s.d.=0.8%)). Subjects who reduced in fluid volume with both addition and removal of a sock and subjects with high positive ratios between the fluid volume loss upon sock addition and the gain upon sock removal (high Add/Remove(AR) ratios) tended to have arterial disease, were obese and smokers. Subjects with low positive AR ratios, subjects who increased in fluid volume both with sock addition and removal, and a single subject who increased in fluid volume with sock addition and decreased with sock removal tended to be non-smokers and either healthy individuals without complications or individuals without arterial problems. Results are relevant towards anticipating limb volume changes during prosthetic fitting and towards the design of adjustable-socket technologies. PMID:22773526

  6. GC/MS with post-column switching for large volume injection of headspace samples: sensitive determination of volatile organic compounds in human whole blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kanako; Fujita, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Koutaro; Gonmori, Kunio; Suzuki, Osamu

    2011-02-15

    When volatile or semivolatile compounds are measured by headspace (HS) gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS), the maximum gas volume to be injected is usually 0.5-1.0 mL; over the volume, the MS detector automatically shuts down due to impairment of the vacuum rate of the MS ionization chamber. To overcome the problem, we modified the gas flow routes of a new type of GC/MS instrument to create a postcolumn switching system, which can eliminate the large volume of gas before introduction of target compounds into the MS ionization chamber. Our HS-GC/MS system enabled injection of as large as 5 mL of HS gas without any disturbance. As the first example analysis, we tried to establish the analysis of naphthalene and p-dichlorobenzene in human whole blood and urine by this method with large volume injection. The limits of detection for both compounds in whole blood and urine were as low as about 10 and 5 pg/mL, respectively. The validation data and actual measurements were also demonstrated. The new GC/MS system has great potential to analyze any type of volatile or semivolatile organic compounds in biological matrixes with very high sensitivity and full automation.

  7. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  8. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding: monitoring by combined use of refractometry and traditional gastric residual volumes.

    PubMed

    Chang, W-K; McClave, S-A; Chao, Y-C

    2004-02-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs) is insensitive and cannot distinguish retained enteral formula from the large volume of endogenous secretions. We designed this prospective study to determine whether refractometry and Brix value (BV) measurements could be used to monitor gastric emptying and tolerance in patients receiving continuous enteral feeding. Thirty-six patients on continuous nasogastric tube feeding were divided into two groups; patients with lower GRVs (<75 ml) in Group 1, patients with higher GRVs (>75 ml) in Group 2. Upon entry, all gastric contents were aspirated, the volume was recorded (Asp GRV), BV measurements were made by refractometry, and then the contents were reinstilled but diluted with 30 ml additional water. Finally, a small amount was reaspirated and repeat BV measurements were made. Three hours later, the entire procedure was repeated a second time. The BV ratio, calculated (Cal) GRV, and volume of formula remaining were calculated by derived equations. Mean BV ratios were significantly higher for those patients in Group 2 compared to those in Group 1. All but one of the 22 patients (95%) in Group 1 had a volume of formula remaining in the stomach estimated on both measurements to be less than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios <70%). In contrast, six of the 14 patients in Group 2 (43%) on both measurements were estimated to have volumes of formula remaining that were greater than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios >70%). Three of the Group 2 patients (21%) whose initial measurement showed evidence for retention of formula, improved on repeat follow-up measurement assuring adequate gastric emptying. The remaining five patients from Group 2 (35%) had a volume of formula remaining that was less than the hourly infusion rate on both measurements. The pattern of Asp GRVs and serial pre- and post-dilution BVs failed to differentiate these patients in Group 2 with potential

  9. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  10. On-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with dilution line to achieve large volume urine injection for the improvement of sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Yan, Wei; Lin, Jin-Ming; Hashi, Yuki; Liu, Li-Bin; Wei, Yanlin

    2008-07-11

    A unique automated on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed allowing injection of a large volume of urine for the improvement of sensitivity using estrogens as analytes. The urine sample was precipitated by acetonitrile (sample:acetonitrile, 1:2, v/v) to remove most proteins. Then the supernatant was directly delivered at 0.3 mL/min by a pump, which broke through the limit of autosampler with fixed loop. Then the sample was loaded onto a restricted access media (RAM) pre-column after on-line dilution with NH(4)Ac solution which was delivered by another pump under high flow-rate. After the addition of on-line dilution line, the content of organic solvent in the sample aliquot was sharply decreased so that the analytes were effectively trapped by pre-column. In addition, another 6-port valve was added to selectively deliver the effluent containing analytes into MS, which minimized the pollution of the MS and matrix effect. After optimization of the condition of extraction method, 3 mL sample (containing 1 mL urine) could be successfully enriched. The injection volume increased 10 times compared with conventional on-line LC-MS methods for biofluid analysis, significantly improving sensitivity. Moreover, no obvious increase of column pressure was observed after 300 injections. The method was validated by spiking urine. Linearity was determined by sample which was in the range of 1-500 ng/mL. The process efficiency ranged from 70.2 to 106% with RSDs less than 15% with the exception of a few analytes. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.3 to 2 ng/mL and 1 to 8 ng/mL, respectively, corresponding a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude compared with those of off-line and on-line methods.

  11. Determination of stavudine in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reduced sample volume.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, M; Riba, N; Zamora, L; Carné, X

    2000-09-15

    Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assays have been developed for the quantification of stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine, d4T) in human plasma and urine. The methods are linear over the concentration ranges 0.025-25 and 2-150 microg/ml in plasma and urine, respectively. An aliquot of 200 microl of plasma was extracted with solid-phase extraction using Oasis cartridges, while urine samples were simply diluted 1/100 with HPLC water. The analytical column, mobile phase, instrumentation and chromatographic conditions are the same for both methods. The methods have been validated separately, and stability tests under various conditions have been performed. The detection limit is 12 ng/ml in plasma for a sample size of 200 microl. The bioanalytical assay has been used in a pharmacokinetic study of pregnant women and their newborns.

  12. Urine Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine odor. Urine that contains a lot of water and few waste products has little to no odor. If urine becomes highly concentrated — a high level of waste products with little water — your urine may have a strong ammonia odor. ...

  13. Automatic estimation of extent of resection and residual tumor volume of patients with glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Meier, Raphael; Porz, Nicole; Knecht, Urspeter; Loosli, Tina; Schucht, Philippe; Beck, Jürgen; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2017-01-06

    OBJECTIVE In the treatment of glioblastoma, residual tumor burden is the only prognostic factor that can be actively influenced by therapy. Therefore, an accurate, reproducible, and objective measurement of residual tumor burden is necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a fully automatic segmentation method-brain tumor image analysis (BraTumIA)-for estimating the extent of resection (EOR) and residual tumor volume (RTV) of contrast-enhancing tumor after surgery. METHODS The imaging data of 19 patients who underwent primary resection of histologically confirmed supratentorial glioblastoma were retrospectively reviewed. Contrast-enhancing tumors apparent on structural preoperative and immediate postoperative MR imaging in this patient cohort were segmented by 4 different raters and the automatic segmentation BraTumIA software. The manual and automatic results were quantitatively compared. RESULTS First, the interrater variabilities in the estimates of EOR and RTV were assessed for all human raters. Interrater agreement in terms of the coefficient of concordance (W) was higher for RTV (W = 0.812; p < 0.001) than for EOR (W = 0.775; p < 0.001). Second, the volumetric estimates of BraTumIA for all 19 patients were compared with the estimates of the human raters, which showed that for both EOR (W = 0.713; p < 0.001) and RTV (W = 0.693; p < 0.001) the estimates of BraTumIA were generally located close to or between the estimates of the human raters. No statistically significant differences were detected between the manual and automatic estimates. BraTumIA showed a tendency to overestimate contrast-enhancing tumors, leading to moderate agreement with expert raters with respect to the literature-based, survival-relevant threshold values for EOR. CONCLUSIONS BraTumIA can generate volumetric estimates of EOR and RTV, in a fully automatic fashion, which are comparable to the estimates of human experts. However, automated analysis showed a tendency to overestimate

  14. Gastric residual volume after split-dose compared with evening-before polyethylene glycol bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak; Elsbernd, Benjamin; Singal, Amit G; Rockey, Don

    2016-03-01

    Split-dose bowel preparation for colonoscopy results in superior preparation quality. However, some endoscopy units remain hesitant to prescribe split-dose preparation given theoretical concerns about possible aspiration caused by gastric residual fluid when a second dose is given close to the time of endoscopy. Our aim was to compare gastric residual volume (GRV) in patients taking split-dose bowel preparation and those taking preparation the evening before colonoscopy. We performed a prospective observational comparison of GRV among random inpatients undergoing same-day EGD and colonoscopy either after a split-dose bowel preparation or after a bowel preparation the prior evening. GRV was measured in 150 patients undergoing EGD and colonoscopy: 75 who completed a split-dose bowel preparation 2 to 3 hours before endoscopy and 75 who completed the bowel preparation regimen the prior evening. The mean GRV 2 to 3 hours after the last ingestion of bowel preparation among split-dose group patients was 21 ± 24 mL (± standard deviation; range, 0 to 125 mL), which was not different from the mean GRV of 24 ± 22 mL (range, 0 to 135 mL) in patients who ingested the preparation the prior evening (P = .08). GRV had no association with the presence of diabetes, gastroparesis, or opioid use. GRV is the same after a split preparation and fasting for 2 to 3 hours or after preparation with overnight fasting. The data suggest that the risk of aspiration is identical after either preparation technique and thus that sedation for colonoscopy can be performed safely 2 hours after bowel preparation ingestion. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Imafidon, Christian Eseigbe; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Sanusi, Abubakar Abefe; Ogundipe, Oluwadare Joshua; Olukiran, Olaoluwa Sesan; Ayowole, Oladele Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effects of a polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) on the feeding pattern of rats that are exposed to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml a 100 g rats), daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4) at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml per 100 g rats), respectively via oral route for 4 weeks after they were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. PMID:26649233

  16. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Imafidon, Christian Eseigbe; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Sanusi, Abubakar Abefe; Ogundipe, Oluwadare Joshua; Olukiran, Olaoluwa Sesan; Ayowole, Oladele Abraham

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) on the feeding pattern of rats that were exposed to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml/100 g), daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4) at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 after which they received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml/100 g), respectively via oral route for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05). PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced.

  17. Measuring tidal and residual currents and volume transport through a wide strait by use of the coastal acoustic tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Nan; Ma, Yun-Long; Fan, Xiaopeng; Long, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the tidal current and volume transport through the Qiongzhou Strait (QS) is vital to understanding circulation in the northern South China Sea. To measure the tidal current in the strait, a 15-day coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) experiment with four acoustic stations was carried out in March, 2013. The horizontal distributions of the tidal currents were calculated by an inverse analysis using the CAT data. Diurnal tidal current constituents are dominant: the ratio of the amplitudes of O1, K1, M2, S2 and MSF is1.00:0.60:0.47:0.21:0.11. The residual currents are westward in the northern QS and turn southward in the southern part of the strait. The velocities of residual current are larger in the northern area than in the southern area, with a maximum westward velocity of -12.4 cm/s, appearing at the northern part of the QS. Volume transport estimated using the CAT data, varies between -0.710 and 0.859 Sv, with a westward residual current transport of 0.044 Sv. Dynamic analyses indicate that tidal rectification and sea level difference between two entrances of the QS are important in maintaining the residual current through the strait. This is the first estimation from synchronous measurements on major tidal current constituents, residual current and volume transport in this strait.

  18. Measurement of tidal and residual currents and volume transport through the Qiongzhou Strait using coastal acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Nan; Guo, Xinyu; Ma, Yun-Long; Fan, Xiaopeng; Dong, Menghong; Zhang, Chuanzheng

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying the tidal current and volume transport through the Qiongzhou Strait (QS) is vital to understanding the circulation in the northern South China Sea. To measure the tidal current in the strait, a 15-day coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) experiment was carried out at four acoustic stations in March 2013. The horizontal distributions of the tidal currents were calculated by inverse analysis of CAT data. The diurnal tidal current constituents were found to dominate: the ratio of the amplitudes O1, K1, M2, S2, and MSF was 1.00:0.60:0.47:0.21:0.11. The residual currents were found to flow westward in the northern QS and turn southward in the southern QS. The residual current velocities were larger in the northern area than in the southern area, with a maximum westward velocity of 12.4 cm s-1 in the northern QS. Volume transport estimated using the CAT data varied between -0.710 Sv and 0.859 Sv, with residual current transport of -0.044 Sv, where negative values indicate westward. We conducted a dynamic analysis of the observations made during the study, which suggested that tidal rectification and sea level difference between the two entrances of the QS are important in maintaining the residual current through the strait. This is the first estimation, from synchronous measurements, of major tidal current constituents, residual currents, and volume transport in this strait.

  19. Respiratory volume-timing relationship during sustained elevation of functional residual capacity.

    PubMed

    Muza, S R; Lee, L Y; Pan, C P; Zechman, F W; Frazier, D T

    1984-10-01

    In 7 spontaneously breathing dial-urethane anesthetized cats a negative pressure was produced around the thorax and abdomen to increase the functional residual capacity (FRC) by about 1 tidal volume for up to 60 min. A tracheal cannula was connected to a resistive manifold for selective loading of inspiration or expiration. Two resistive loads and tracheal occlusion were presented six times each at control FRC (FRCc), after 60 min at elevated FRC (FRCe) and 30 min after return to FRCc. Inspiratory and expiratory durations (TI and TE) were measured from diaphragmatic EMG. We observed that TI at FRCe (0.88 +/- 0.11 sec) was not significantly shorter than TI at FRCc (1.06 +/- 0.14 sec). Tracheal occlusion at FRCe caused a shorter TI (1.37 +/- 0.15 sec) than at FRCc (1.79 +/- 0.21 sec) (P less than 0.05). The slope (m) of the VI-TI relationship generated by the resistive loads at FRCe was steeper (m = -65 +/- 7 ml X sec-1) and shifted upward from the VI-TI curve at FRCc (-50 +/- 6 ml X sec-1) (P less than 0.05). The VE-TE relationship at FRCe was not significantly changed from control. Thirty minutes following return to FRCc, TI was still slightly shorter (0.96 +/- 0.11 sec) than the initial TI at FRCc. We conclude: (1) The slope of the VI-TI relationship is determined to a great extent by the total lung volume. However, under the conditions of sustained elevation of FRC, this relationship is influenced by the partial adaptation of slowly adapting pulmonary receptors SARs. (2) The increased SAR activity at end expiration during FRCe may not influence the control of TE.

  20. Urine Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Urinalysis ; Blood Culture ; Susceptibility Testing ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; Gram Stain ; Urine Protein All content on Lab Tests ... growing at high colony counts is considered a positive urine culture. For clean catch samples that have ...

  1. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003607.htm Amylase - urine To use the sharing features on this ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps ...

  2. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often caused by medications, certain foods or food dyes. In some cases, though, changes in urine color ... may be caused by: Dyes. Some brightly colored food dyes can cause green urine. Dyes used for some ...

  3. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Conditions Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine Tests Bedwetting Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your Urinary System Bedwetting Urinary Tract Infections Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine ...

  4. Estimation of Residual Peritoneal Volume Using Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, Konstantinos P; Fotopoulos, Andrew D; Balafa, Olga C; Tsiouris, Spyridon Th; Triandou, Eleni G; Al-Bokharhli, Jichad B; Kitsos, Athanasios C; Dounousi, Evagelia C; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Residual peritoneal volume (RPV) may contribute in the development of ultrafiltration failure in patients with normal transcapillary ultrafiltration. The aim of this study was to estimate the RPV using intraperitoneal technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid (Tc). Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis were studied. RPV was estimated by: 1) intraperitoneal instillation of Tc (RPV-Tc) and 2) classic Twardowski calculations using endogenous solutes, such as urea (RPV-u), creatinine (RPV-cr), and albumin (RPV-alb). Each method's reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of patients in two consecutive measurements 48 h apart. Both methods displayed reproducibility (r = 0.93, p = 0.001 for RPVTc and r = 0.90, p = 0.001 for RPV-alb) between days 1 and 2, respectively. We found a statistically significant difference between RPV-Tc and RPV-cr measurements (347.3 ± 116.7 vs. 450.0 ± 67.8 ml; p =0.001) and RPV-u (515.5 ± 49.4 ml; p < 0.001), but not with RPV-alb (400.1 ± 88.2 ml; p = 0.308). A good correlation was observed only between RPV-Tc and RPV-alb (p < 0.001). The Tc method can estimate the RPV as efficiently as the high molecular weight endogenous solute measurement method. It can also provide an imaging estimate of the intraperitoneal distribution of RPV.

  5. To return or to discard? Randomised trial on gastric residual volume management.

    PubMed

    Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Valls-Miró, Consol; Carreño-Granero, Avelina; Martinez-Estalella, Gemma; Monterde-Prat, David; Domingo-Felici, Carmen-Maria; Llusa-Finestres, Joan; Asensio-Malo, Gemma

    2009-10-01

    The control of gastric residual volume (GRV) is a common nursing intervention in intensive care; however the literature shows a wide variation in clinical practice regarding the management of GRV, potentially affecting patients' clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of returning or discarding GRV, on gastric emptying delays and feeding, electrolyte and comfort outcomes in critically ill patients. A randomised, prospective, clinical trial design was used to study 125 critically ill patients, assigned to the return or the discard group. Main outcome measure was delayed gastric emptying. Feeding outcomes were determined measuring intolerance indicators, feeding delays and feeding potential complications. Fluid and electrolyte measures included serum potassium, glycaemia control and fluid balance. Discomfort was identified by significant changes in vital signs. Patients in both groups presented similar mean GRV with no significant differences found (p=0.111), but participants in the intervention arm showed a lower incidence and severity of delayed gastric emptying episodes (p=0.001). No significant differences were found for the rest of outcome measurements, except for hyperglycaemia. The results of this study support the recommendation to reintroduce gastric content aspirated to improve GRV management without increasing the risk for potential complications.

  6. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  7. The Utility of Post-Void Residual Volume versus Sphincter Electromyography to Distinguish between Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Asahina, Masato; Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Hirano, Shigeki; Fuse, Miki; Koga, Yasuko; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of sphincter electromyography (EMG) and post-void residual urine volume (PVR) during a free-flow study and a pressure-flow study (PFS) for distinguishing multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 241 case records; both urodynamic study and sphincter EMG were performed in patients with MSA (n = 147) and PD (n = 94). Results There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01) in the mean PVR during the free-flow study (113.1 ± 7.5 mL in MSA and 40.4 ± 3.8 mL in PD), mean PVR during PFS (230.1 ± 12.6 mL in MSA and 71.7 ± 6.6 mL in PD), and mean duration of MUP for sphincter EMG (9.3 ± 0.1 ms in MSA and 7.7 ± 0.1 ms in PD). The area under the curve used for differentiating MSA from PD was 0.79 and 0.73 for PVR during PFS and the free-flow study, respectively. There was a mean duration of 0.69 ms for the sphincter EMG. Conclusions The present results suggested that PVR was more appropriate than sphincter EMG for differentiating MSA from PD. PMID:28060892

  8. Residual Stress Changes in Fatigue. Volume 1. Residual Stress Measurements by X-Ray Diffraction in Notched Test Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    and the resulting x-ray stresses and error bands leads to several general conclusions: 1) The x-ray stresses (prior to yielding) in virtually all...cN IA __II____ I I I I .9-I LI I elIiAL O O 6p 0 .- .4 r� IS C -Wn FFTF ~F~rF1TFTFFTF~jH ~ U. N IA 35 NADC-88141-60 (Volume 1) 150 - Ti -6A - 4V...porportional counter, mounting brackets, and shaft encoder and motor drive assemblies . Alignment of the sample with respect to the center of rotation

  9. Evolution of residual stress, free volume, and hardness in the laser shock peened Ti-based metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Lu; Nie, Zhihua; Ren, Yang; Xue, Yunfei; Zhu, Ronghua; Zhang, Haifeng; Fu, Huameng

    2016-12-05

    Laser shock peening (LSP) with different cycles was performed on the Ti-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The sub-surface residual stress of the LSPed specimens was measured by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) and the near-surface residual stress was measured by scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM/FIB) instrument. The sub-surface residual stress in the LSP impact direction (about-170MPa) is much lower than that perpendicular to the impact direction (about -350 MPa), exhibiting anisotropy. The depth of the compressive stress zone increases from 400 mu m to 500 mu m with increasing LSP cycles. The highest near-surface residual stress is about -750 MPa. LSP caused the free volume to increase and the maximum increase appeared after the first LSP process. Compared with the hardness (567 +/- 7 HV) of the as-cast BMG, the hardness (590 +/- 9 HV) on the shocked surface shows a hardening effect due to the hardening mechanism of compressive residual stress; and the hardness (420 +/- 9 HV) on the longitudinal section shows a softening effect due to the softening mechanism of free volume.

  10. Analysis of ten abused drugs in urine by large volume sample stacking-sweeping capillary electrophoresis with an experimental design strategy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Chun-Chi; Hsiao, Yu-Tzu; Ko, Wei-Kung; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-06-21

    A statistical tool equipped with Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) was used for fast stacking analysis of ten frequently consumed drugs, namely codeine, morphine, methamphetamine, ketamine, alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, nitrazepam and oxazepam, by capillary electrophoresis (CE). This statistical design is expected to help quick analysis with few procedures, avoiding tedious work required because of the large number of variables or parameters. A large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-sweeping CE is developed for concentrating and analyzing the 10 abused drugs. First, phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.3) containing methanol was filled into a capillary and then the extracted urine sample was loaded (1 psi, 200 s) to enhance sensitivity. The sweeping and separating steps were completed simultaneously by phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.3) containing methanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, within 15 min. Better resolution was obtained by the experimental design than the "one factor at a time" (OFAT) approach. During method validation, calibration plots were linear (r>0.998), over a range of 25-1500 ng/mL for the six benzodiazepines, methamphetamine and ketamine, and 50-3000 ng/mL for codeine and morphine. The RSD of precision and absolute RE of accuracy in intra-day and inter-day assays were below 14.54% and 16.61%, respectively. The minimum limits for detection (S/N=3) of analytes were in the range of 7.5-30 ng/mL. This stacking method increased sensitivity more than 200-fold and can be applied for detection of the presence of methamphetamine in an abuser's urine (3600 ng/mL), which was confirmed by GC-MS. The method is considered feasible for fast screening of abused drugs in urine.

  11. Validity and reliability of a novel 3D scanner for assessment of the shape and volume of amputees’ residual limb models

    PubMed Central

    Seminati, Elena; Canepa Talamas, David; Young, Matthew; Twiste, Martin; Dhokia, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    Background Objective assessment methods to monitor residual limb volume following lower-limb amputation are required to enhance practitioner-led prosthetic fitting. Computer aided systems, including 3D scanners, present numerous advantages and the recent Artec Eva scanner, based on laser free technology, could potentially be an effective solution for monitoring residual limb volumes. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Artec Eva scanner (practical measurement) against a high precision laser 3D scanner (criterion measurement) for the determination of residual limb model shape and volume. Methods Three observers completed three repeat assessments of ten residual limb models, using both the scanners. Validity of the Artec Eva scanner was assessed (mean percentage error <2%) and Bland-Altman statistics were adopted to assess the agreement between the two scanners. Intra and inter-rater reliability (repeatability coefficient <5%) of the Artec Eva scanner was calculated for measuring indices of residual limb model volume and shape (i.e. residual limb cross sectional areas and perimeters). Results Residual limb model volumes ranged from 885 to 4399 ml. Mean percentage error of the Artec Eva scanner (validity) was 1.4% of the criterion volumes. Correlation coefficients between the Artec Eva and the Romer determined variables were higher than 0.9. Volume intra-rater and inter-rater reliability coefficients were 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Shape percentage maximal error was 2% at the distal end of the residual limb, with intra-rater reliability coefficients presenting the lowest errors (0.2%), both for cross sectional areas and perimeters of the residual limb models. Conclusion The Artec Eva scanner is a valid and reliable method for assessing residual limb model shapes and volumes. While the method needs to be tested on human residual limbs and the results compared with the current system used in clinical practice, it has the

  12. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  13. Interplay of volume, blood pressure, organ ischemia, residual renal function, and diet: certainties and uncertainties with dialytic management.

    PubMed

    Ok, Ercan; Levin, Nathan W; Asci, Gulay; Chazot, Charles; Toz, Huseyin; Ozkahya, Mehmet

    2017-09-01

    Extracellular fluid volume overload and its inevitable consequence, hypertension, increases cardiovascular mortality in the long term by leading to left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease in dialysis patients. Unlike antihypertensive medications, a strict volume control strategy provides optimal blood pressure control without need for antihypertensive drugs. However, utilization of this strategy has remained limited because of several factors, including the absence of a gold standard method to assess volume status, difficulties in reducing extracellular fluid volume, and safety concerns associated with reduction of extracellular volume. These include intradialytic hypotension; ischemia of heart, brain, and gut; loss of residual renal function; and vascular access thrombosis. Comprehensibly, physicians are hesitant to follow strict volume control policy because of these safety concerns. Current data, however, suggest that a high ultrafiltration rate rather than the reduction in excess volume is related to these complications. Restriction of dietary salt intake, increased frequency, and/or duration of hemodialysis sessions or addition of temporary extra sessions during the process of gradually reducing postdialysis body weight in conventional hemodialysis and discontinuation of antihypertensive medications may prevent these complications. We believe that even if an unwanted effect occurs while gradually reaching euvolemia, this is likely to be counterbalanced by favorable cardiovascular outcomes such as regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, prevention of heart failure, and, ultimately, cardiovascular mortality as a result of the eventual achievement of normal extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure over the long term. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Extracellular volume expansion and the preservation of residual renal function in Korean peritoneal dialysis patients: a long-term follow up study.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Harin; Baek, Min Ja; Chung, Hyun Chul; Park, Jong Man; Jung, Woo Jin; Park, Soo Min; Lee, Jang Won; Shin, Min Ji; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Seong, Eun Young

    2016-10-01

    In chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, preservation of residual renal function (RRF) is a major determinant of patient survival, and maintaining sufficient intravascular volume has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the preservation of RRF. The present study aimed to test this hypothesis using multifrequency bioimpedence analyzer (MFBIA), in Korean peritoneal dialysis patients. A total of 129 patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline MFBIA was checked, and the patients were divided into the following two groups: group 1, extracellular water per total body water (ECW/TBW) < median, group 2, ECW/TBW > median. We followed up the patients, and then we analyzed the changes in the urine output (UO) and the solute clearance (weekly uKt/V) in each group. Data associated with patient and technical survivor were collected by medical chart review. The volume measurement was made using Inbody S20 equipment (Biospace, Seoul, Korea). We excluded the anuric patients at baseline. The median value of ECW/TBW was 0.396. The mean patient age was 49.74 ± 10.01 years, and 62.1 % of the patients were male; most of the patients were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (89.1 %). The mean dialysis vintage was 26.20 ± 28.71 months. All of the patients were prescribed hypertensive medication, and 48.5 % of the patients had diabetes. After 25.47 ± 6.86 months of follow up, ΔUO and Δweekly Kt/V were not significantly different in the two groups as follows: ΔUO (-236.07 ± 185.15 in group 1 vs -212.21 ± 381.14 in group 2, p = 0.756); Δ weekly Kt/v (-0.23 ± 0.43 in group 1 vs -0.29 ± 0.49 in group 2, p = 0.461). The patient and technical survivor rate was inferior in the group 2, and in the multivariable analysis, initial hypervolemia was an independent factor that predicts both of the patient mortality [HR 1.001 (1.001-1.086), p = 0.047] and the technical failure [HR 1.024 (1.001-1.048), p = 0.042]. Extracellular volume expansion

  15. [Application of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support].

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Ye, X H; Li, J; Zhang, L N; Li, L; Zhang, W Y; Deng, L L

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To explore the effect of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support. Method: From March to August 2016, 70 critically neurological patients with continues enteral nutrition who admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were randomized into two groups. The observation group applied the bedside ultrasound monitoring gastric residual volume every day to guide the implementation of enteral nutrition. The control group used syringes withdrawing every 8 hours to measure the gastric residual volume. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of complications include regurgitation and aspiration in this two group patients (P=0.356; P=1.000), while the times of interrupting enteral nutrition was lower in the observation group(25.7% vs 5.7%, 74.3% vs 94.3%, P=0.045), the length of target feeding time and the length of ICU stay, the operation time was shortened, with a statistically significant difference[(2.37±0.69) d vs (3.49±0.74) d, P=0.028; (8.52±5.45) d vs (6.40±2.71) d, P=0.022; (58.29±11.22)s vs (67.60±7.05) s, P=0.000]. Conclusion: The application of bedside ultrasound to measure gastric residual volume can be a scientific method to guide enteral nutrition in neurosurgical critical patients, which can reduce the times of interrupting enteral nutrition and shorten the length of target feeding time and ICU length of stay, reduce the workload of nurses.

  16. Relation between nocturnal voiding frequency and nocturnal urine production in older men:a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Blanker, Marco H; Bernsen, Roos M D; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Thomas, Siep; Groeneveld, Frans P M J; Prins, A d; Bohnen, Arthur M

    2002-10-01

    To describe the normal values for nocturnal urine production and its determinants, as well as the relation between nocturnal urine production and voiding frequency. Data were collected from 1688 men aged 50 to 78 years without bladder or prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, or negative advice from their general practitioner. Measurements included self-administered questionnaires, a 3-day frequency-volume chart, transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate, uroflowmetry, and postvoid residual urine volume measurement. The mean nocturnal urine production was computed from the frequency-volume charts. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine associated factors for nocturnal urine production. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to describe the discriminative value of nocturnal urine production on nocturnal voiding frequency. A cutoff value for "increased" nocturnal urine production was defined using logistic regression analysis. The nocturnal urine production was 60.6 mL/hr for the total study population; it increased with age and was significantly higher in men with 24-hour polyuria. Nocturnal urine production was on average higher in men with increased nocturnal voiding frequency, but had only a reasonable discriminative value on nocturnal voiding frequency (areas under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71 and 0.76). Nocturnal urine production exceeding 90 mL/hr is suggested as abnormal. On average, nocturnal voiding frequency is indicative of nocturnal urine production. However, nocturnal urine production is only a modest discriminator for increased nocturnal voiding frequency. Therefore, the use of nocturnal urine production as an explanatory variable for nocturnal voiding frequency in daily practice is of little value.

  17. Gastric residual volume by magnetic ressonance after intake of maltodextrin and glutamine: a randomized double-blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Brianez, Luigi R; Caporossi, Cervantes; de Moura, Yure W; Dias, Lorena A; Leal, Regis V; de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E

    2014-01-01

    The addition of glutamine in preoperative drinks may enhance the benefits of carbohydrate alone. To evaluate the gastric residual volume after the intake of a beverage containing carbohydrate plus glutamine. Eleven healthy volunteers (24-30 years-old) were randomized in a crossover fashion to intake 400 mL (4h before) and 200 mL (2h before) of a beverage containing either 12.5% maltodextrin (carbohydrate group) or 12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g of glutamine (glutamine group) in two different moments 7 days apart. Magnetic ressonance was performed to measure the gastric residual volume (mL) 120 and 180 minutes after the last ingestion. Gastric residual volume similar to basal condition was found after 2h and 3h of the intake of beverages. There was no difference in the mean ±SD GRV (mL) found at 120 minutes (carbohydrate group: 22.9±16.6 and glutamine group: 19.7±10.7) and at 180 minutes (carbohydrate group: 21.5±24.1 and glutamine group: 15.1±10.1) between the two drinks. Gastric emptying is efficient, and occurs in up to two hours after the intake of a beverage containing either carbohydrate alone or carbohydrate associated with glutamine. The addition of glutamine to carbohydrate-enriched drink seems to be safe for the use up to 2h before an operation.

  18. Quantifying the residual volume transport through a multiple-inlet system in response to wind forcing: The case of the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran-Matute, Matias; Gerkema, Theo; Sassi, Maximiliano G.

    2016-12-01

    In multiple-inlet coastal systems like the western Dutch Wadden Sea, the tides (and their interaction with the bathymetry), the fresh water discharge, and the wind drive a residual flow through the system. In the current paper, we study the effect of the wind on the residual volume transport through the inlets and the system as a whole on both the short (one tidal period) and long (seasonal or yearly) time scales. The results are based on realistic three-dimensional baroclinic numerical simulations for the years 2009-2011. The length of the simulations (over 2000 tidal periods) allowed us to analyze a large variety of conditions and quantify the effect of wind on the residual volume transport. We found that each inlet has an anisotropic response to wind; i.e., the residual volume transport is much more sensitive to the wind from two inherent preferential directions than from any other directions. We quantify the effects of wind on the residual volume transport through the system and introduce the concept of the system's conductance for such wind driven residual transport. For the western Dutch Wadden Sea, the dominant wind direction in the region is close to the direction with the highest conductance and opposes the tidally driven residual volume transport. This translates in a large variability of the residual volume transport and a dominance of the wind in its long-term characteristics in spite of the episodic nature of storms.

  19. Urine sampling and collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Reinhardt, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    This specification defines the performance and design requirements for the urine sampling and collection system engineering model and establishes requirements for its design, development, and test. The model shall provide conceptual verification of a system applicable to manned space flight which will automatically provide for collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine.

  20. Urine Cytology

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bladder. Examining the urine sample in the laboratory Your urine sample is sent to a laboratory for testing by a doctor who specializes in ... can expect to wait for your results. Each laboratory has its own way of describing the results ...

  1. Development of a high-resolution automatic digital (urine/electrolytes) flow volume and rate measurement system of miniature size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    To aid in the quantitative analysis of man's physiological rhythms, a flowmeter to measure circadian patterns of electrolyte excretion during various environmental stresses was developed. One initial flowmeter was designed and fabricated, the sensor of which is the approximate size of a wristwatch. The detector section includes a special type of dielectric integrating type sensor which automatically controls, activates, and deactivates the flow sensor data output by determining the presence or absence of fluid flow in the system, including operation under zero-G conditions. The detector also provides qualitative data on the composition of the fluid. A compact electronic system was developed to indicate flow rate as well as total volume per release or the cumulative volume of several releases in digital/analog forms suitable for readout or telemetry. A suitable data readout instrument is also provided. Calibration and statistical analyses of the performance functions required of the flowmeter were also conducted.

  2. Comparison of lateral flow assay, kidney inhibition swab, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of penicillin G residues in sow urine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sows (n=126) were administered penicillin G procaine at 5x the label dose for 3 consecutive days. Eighteen sows were slaughtered on each withdrawal days, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, or 39 d after treatment. Urine samples were collected at slaughter and were frozen at -80 °C until screening as positive ...

  3. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  4. Urine monitoring system failure analysis and operational verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glanfield, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Failure analysis and testing of a prototype urine monitoring system (UMS) are reported. System performance was characterized by a regression formula developed from volume measurement test data. When the volume measurement test data. When the volume measurement data was imputted to the formula, the standard error of the estimate calculated using the regression formula was found to be within 1.524% of the mean of the mass of the input. System repeatability was found to be somewhat dependent upon the residual volume of the system and the evaporation of fluid from the separator. The evaporation rate was determined to be approximately 1cc/minute. The residual volume in the UMS was determined by measuring the concentration of LiCl in the flush water. Observed results indicated residual levels in the range of 9-10ml, however, results obtained during the flushing efficiency test indicated a residual level of approximately 20ml. It is recommended that the phase separator pumpout time be extended or the design modified to minimize the residual level.

  5. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer called multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM nephropathy White blood cell cancer ... 19. Read More Cancer Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Multiple myeloma Protein urine test ...

  7. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  8. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  9. Urine melanin

    MedlinePlus

    Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  10. Spatial and temporal quantification of forest residue volumes and delivered costs

    Treesearch

    Lucas A. Wells; Woodam Chung; Nathaniel M. Anderson; John S. Hogland

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts has increased interests in the utilization of biomass residues from forest treatments as feedstock. In areas with limited history of industrial biomass utilization, uncertainties in the quantity, distribution, and cost of biomass production and logistics can hinder the development of new bio-based...

  11. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  12. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  13. Methods to Reduce Forest Residue Volume after Timber Harvesting and Produce Black Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Matt D.; Archuleta, James G.; McAvoy, Darren; Roussel, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns. In many cases, fire can be beneficial to site conditions and soil properties, but slash piles, with a large concentration of wood, needles, forest floor, and sometimes mineral soil, can cause long-term damage. We describe several alternative methods for reducing nonmerchantable forest residues that will help remove excess woody biomass, minimize detrimental soil impacts, and create charcoal for improving soil organic matter and carbon sequestration. PMID:28377830

  14. Methods to Reduce Forest Residue Volume after Timber Harvesting and Produce Black Carbon.

    PubMed

    Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Busse, Matt D; Archuleta, James G; McAvoy, Darren; Roussel, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns. In many cases, fire can be beneficial to site conditions and soil properties, but slash piles, with a large concentration of wood, needles, forest floor, and sometimes mineral soil, can cause long-term damage. We describe several alternative methods for reducing nonmerchantable forest residues that will help remove excess woody biomass, minimize detrimental soil impacts, and create charcoal for improving soil organic matter and carbon sequestration.

  15. Residual Stress Changes in Fatigue. Volume 2. A Simulation Model for Stress Measurements in Notched Test Specimens by X-Ray Diffraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Report No. NADC-88141-60 (Volume II) DTIC S F-!. r-CT E MAY 2 6 1~98D RESIDUAL STRESS CHANGES IN FATIGUE VOLUME II - A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STRESS ...Residual Stress Changes in Fatigue: Vol. II. A Simulation Model for Stress Measurements in Notched Test Specimens by X-Ray Diffraction 12 PERSONAL...Simulation; Residual Stress ; X-Ray Difraction ’/ -, . .. 20 11 1 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identif by block number) The state of

  16. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Schistosoma DNA in Small-Volume Urine Samples Reflects Focal Distribution of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Primary School Girls in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; Taylor, Myra; Zulu, Siphosenkosi G.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Hoekstra, Pytsje; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Kjetland, Eyrun F.; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium eggs and Schistosoma DNA levels were measured in urine samples from 708 girls recruited from 18 randomly sampled primary schools in South Africa. Microscopic analysis of two 10-mL urine subsamples collected on three consecutive days confirmed high day-to-day variation; 103 (14.5%) girls had positive results at all six examinations, and at least one positive sample was seen in 225 (31.8%) girls. Schistosoma-specific DNA, which was measured in a 200-μL urine subsample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, was detected in 180 (25.4%) cases, and levels of DNA corresponded significantly with average urine egg excretion. In concordance with microscopic results, polymerase chain reaction results were significantly associated with history of gynecologic symptoms and confirmed highly focal distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis. Parasite-specific DNA detection has a sensitivity comparable to single urine microscopy and could be used as a standardized high-throughput procedure to assess distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis in relatively large study populations by using small sample volumes. PMID:24470560

  17. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  18. Engineering task plan for AX-104 residual waste volume and inventory data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The purpose of this Engineering Task Plan is to document the strategy, equipment and responsibilities of the tasks required to preform the volume and inventory data collection of tank AX-104. The project is a part of the Hanford Tanks Initiative Plan document number WHC-SD-WM-PMP-022 Revision D.

  19. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS confirmatory method for residue analysis of cyproheptadine in urine of food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Fente, Cristina A; Regal, Patricia; Vázquez, Beatriz I; Feás, Xexús; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2009-03-25

    The possible off-label and illegal use of cyproheptadine (CYP) as an appetite stimulant for food-producing animals creates the need for methods capable of detecting it. A high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed to identify CYP in bovine urine, according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for each analyte were monitored: 288.1/96.1 and 288.1/191.2 for CYP and 282.1/167.2 and 282.1/116.3 for diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (DPP), which was used as an internal standard. The solid phase extraction technique without a liquid-liquid step gives good results in urine samples from treated animals. The analytical method was successfully validated for linearity (0.15-10 ng/mL), with intraday precision of 9.4%, interday precision of 20.4%, and accuracy of 96.7%. The decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) were 0.48 and 0.82 ng/mL, respectively.

  20. Needle coke and carbon fiber production from Venezuelan oil residues. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The conversion of high boiling petroleum residues to carbonaceous materials is investigated. A new integrated approach is presented in which Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, optical microscopy, physico-chemical separations, and pilot plant operations are combined to better understand the carbonization process and to develop criteria for prediction of product quality. This methodology is applied to several Venezuelan oil residues obtained from refinery and pilot plant operations to evaluate their potential for producing high value carbon products such as needle coke and carbon fibers. Feedstocks, reaction intermediates, and products are characterized by [sup 1]H and [sup 13]C NMR in terms of basic hydrocarbon constituents, and changes in carbon and proton distributions are measured. The extent of aromatization and other structural changes resulting from thermal cracking reactions are calculated for the first time by combining pilot plant data with NMR spectroscopic data in both the liquid and solid states. Improved methods for interpreting NMR data of liquid and solid materials from petroleum residues are developed. The effects of operating conditions and the role of different fractions obtained by distillation, n-pentane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography during reaction are documented. Delayed coking and thermal cracking pilot plant experiments were designed and carried out to simulate refinery operation and to provide samples for further characterization. Representative samples of coke were evaluated for use as electrodes in electric arc furnaces. It is shown that by proper selection of feedstock and operational parameters, premium quality needle cokes can be produced. A laboratory scale melt spinning apparatus to produce continuous mesophase pitch carbon fibers was designed and built. The ability to produce thin filaments (less than 20 [mu]m diameter) from petroleum pitches was demonstrated.

  1. A novel mutation affecting the arginine-137 residue of AVPR2 in dizygous twins leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and attenuated urine exosome aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Gitte R; Hansen, Louise H; Nielsen, Maria R; Fagerberg, Christina; Dieperink, Hans; Rittig, Søren; Jensen, Boye L

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor gene AVPR2 may cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by defective apical insertion of aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct principal cell. Substitution mutations with exchange of arginine at codon 137 can cause nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis or congenital X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We present a novel mutation in codon 137 within AVPR2 with substitution of glycine for arginine in male dizygotic twins. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was demonstrated by water deprivation test and resistance to vasopressin administration. While a similar urine exosome release rate was shown between probands and controls by western blotting for the marker ALIX, there was a selective decrease in exosome aquaporin-2 versus aquaporin-1 protein in probands compared to controls. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Determination of multiclass pesticide residues in apple juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Wang, Xiu-Lin

    2006-10-01

    This study presents two GC-MS SIM methods, in combination with large-volume injection programmed-temperature vaporization (LVI-PTV) injection, for the determination of 141 pesticide residues in apple juice. The sample was extracted with ACN, and coextractives were removed with primary/secondary amine sorbent. ACN extract (20 microL) was injected into a PTV injection port in solvent vent mode, and the pesticides were determined by GC-MS using retention time locking software. Deuterium-labeled pesticides (surrogate standards) were used for analytical quality control. In the validation experiments, pesticides recoveries were found to be 70-121% with RSDs of 4.6-21% (n = 6).

  3. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-03-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities.

  4. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  5. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed For this test, the specific gravity of urine , urine electrolytes , and/or urine osmolality ... it is tested right away. For urine specific gravity, the health care provider uses a dipstick made ...

  6. The Prognostic Value of Residual Volume/Total Lung Capacity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Rim; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Park, Joo Hun; Lee, Keu Sung; Oh, Sunghee; Kang, Dae Ryoung; Sheen, Seungsoo; Seo, Joon Beom; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lim, Seong Yong; Yoon, Ho Il; Rhee, Chin Kook; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do

    2015-10-01

    The prognostic role of resting pulmonary hyperinflation as measured by residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the factors related to resting pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD and to determine whether resting pulmonary hyperinflation is a prognostic factor in COPD. In total, 353 patients with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort recruited from 16 hospitals were enrolled. Resting pulmonary hyperinflation was defined as RV/TLC ≥ 40%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that older age (P = 0.001), lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P < 0.001), higher St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (P = 0.019), and higher emphysema index (P = 0.010) were associated independently with resting hyperinflation. Multivariate Cox regression model that included age, gender, dyspnea scale, SGRQ, RV/TLC, and 6-min walking distance revealed that an older age (HR = 1.07, P = 0.027), a higher RV/TLC (HR = 1.04, P = 0.025), and a shorter 6-min walking distance (HR = 0.99, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Our data showed that older age, higher emphysema index, higher SGRQ score, and lower FEV1 were associated independently with resting pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD. RV/TLC is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in COPD.

  7. Role of Residual Kidney Function and Convective Volume on Change in β2-Microglobulin Levels in Hemodiafiltration Patients

    PubMed Central

    Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Nubé, Menso J.; Lévesque, Renée; Bots, Michiel L.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Removal of β2-microglobulin (β2M) can be increased by adding convective transport to hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the change in β2M levels after 6-mo treatment with hemodiafiltration (HDF) and to evaluate the role of residual kidney function (RKF) and the amount of convective volume with this change. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Predialysis serum β2M levels were evaluated in 230 patients with and 176 patients without RKF from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST) at baseline and 6 mo after randomization for online HDF or low-flux HD. In HDF patients, potential determinants of change in β2M were analyzed using multivariable linear regression models. Results: Mean serum β2M levels decreased from 29.5 ± 0.8 (±SEM) at baseline to 24.3 ± 0.6 mg/L after 6 mo in HDF patients and increased from 31.9 ± 0.9 to 34.4 ± 1.0 mg/L in HD patients, with the difference of change between treatment groups being statistically significant (regression coefficient −7.7 mg/L, 95% confidence interval −9.5 to −5.6, P < 0.001). This difference was more pronounced in patients without RKF as compared with patients with RKF. In HDF patients, β2M levels remained unchanged in patients with GFR >4.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. The β2M decrease was not related to convective volume. Conclusions: This study demonstrated effective lowering of β2M levels by HDF, especially in patients without RKF. The role of the amount of convective volume on β2M decrease appears limited, possibly because of resistance to β2M transfer between body compartments. PMID:19965537

  8. Urine as a biological specimen for forensic analysis of alcohol and variability in the urine-to-blood relationship.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the use of urine as a biological specimen for determination of alcohol in clinical and forensic toxicology and discusses factors that might influence variability in the urine/blood concentration ratio of alcohol. A large number of human drinking experiments were conducted to determine the time course of urine-alcohol concentrations (UAC) in relation to blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC). The UAC and BAC curves were shifted in time and the BAC curve always began to decrease before the UAC started to decline. During the early absorption phase the UAC/BAC ratio was less than unity, whereas in the late absorption/distribution period the ratio was between 1.0-1.2. On reaching the post-absorptive phase, the UAC always exceeded BAC and UAC/BAC ratios averaged 1.3-1.4, increasing appreciably as BAC decreased towards zero. Alcohol-induced diuresis was most pronounced during the rising portion of the BAC curve and near to the peak value. After about 2 hours post-drinking, the production rate of urine diminished to the pre-drinking rate of about 0.5-1 mL/min. Drinking water during the post-absorptive phase of the alcohol curve produced dilute urine, as reflected in lower creatinine content and osmolality, although the concentration of ethanol remained unchanged. After subjects drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.54-0.85 g/kg) about 2% of the dose was recoverable in the urine after 7 hours. Ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was measured in urine samples from drunk drivers. The UAC/BAC ratio of ethanol in drunk drivers did not depend on the creatinine content of the urine and therefore the relative dilution of the specimens. When alcohol-free urine was spiked with glucose and infected with the yeast species Candida albicans, ethanol was produced by fermentation after approximately 24 hours storage at room temperature. This post-sampling synthesis of ethanol was prevented by sodium fluoride (1% weight by volume) in the urine tubes or by

  9. A fabric phase sorptive extraction-High performance liquid chromatography-Photo diode array detection method for the determination of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marcello; Kabir, Abuzar; Innosa, Denise; Lopatriello, Teresa; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues that include ketoconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, econazole, butoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and itraconazole in human plasma and urine samples. The selected azole antimicrobial drugs were well resolved by using a Luna C18 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 36min. The analytical method was calibrated and validated in the range from 0.1 to 8μg/mL for all the drug compounds. Blank human plasma and urine were used as the sample matrix for the analysis; while benzyl-4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification of the FPSE-HPLC-PDA method was found as 0.1μg/mL and the weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves of the drugs showed a good linearity upto a concentration of 8μg/mL. The parallelism tests were also performed to evaluate whether overrange sample can be analyzed after dilution, without compromising the analytical performances of the validated method. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were found ≤13.1% and ≤13.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day trueness (bias%) values were found in the range from -12.1% to 10.5%. The performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real samples collected from healthy volunteers after a single dose administration of itraconazole and miconazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied on plasma and urine samples for the simultaneous determination of twelve azole drugs possessing a wide range of logKow values (extending from 0.4 for fluconazole to 6.70 of butoconazole) and could be adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for clinical and

  10. Impact of Measured vs. Predicted Residual Lung Volume on Body Fat Percentage Using Underwater Weighing and 4-Compartment Model.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Bishop, Phillip A; Schumacker, Randall E; Richardson, Mark T; Fedewa, Michael V; Wingo, Jonathan E; Welborn, Bailey A

    2017-09-01

    Nickerson, BS, Esco, MR, Bishop, PA, Schumacker, RE, Richardson, MT, Fedewa, MV, Wingo, JE, and Welborn, BA. Impact of measured vs. predicted residual lung volume on body fat percentage using underwater weighing and 4-compartment model. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2519-2527, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare underwater weighing (UWW) and 4-compartment (4C) model body fat percentage (BF%) for predicted vs. simultaneously measured residual lung volume (RLV). Forty-seven women and 33 men (age = 22 ± 5 years) had UWW and 4C model BF% determined using Boren et al. (RLVBOREN), Goldman and Becklake (RLVGB), and Miller et al. (RLVMILLER) RLV prediction equations. Criterion UWW BF% included body density (BD) values with simultaneous RLV. Criterion 4C model BF% included BD through UWW with simultaneous RLV, total body water through bioimpedance spectroscopy, and bone mineral content through dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The standard error of estimate (SEE) for UWW and 4C model BF% determined through RLV prediction equations varied from 2.0 to 2.6% and from 1.3 to 1.5%, respectively. The constant error (CE) was significantly different for UWW BF% when using RLVBOREN, RLVGB, and RLVMILLER (all p < 0.016; CE = 0.7, -2.0, 1.0%, respectively). However, the CEs for RLVBOREN and RLVMILLER were not significant in the 4C model (p = 0.73 and 0.11; CE = 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively), whereas RLVGB remained significantly different (p < 0.001; CE = -1.5%). The 95% limits of agreement were less than ±5.2% for UWW BF% and less than ±3.1% for the 4C model when using the 3 RLV equations. When used in a 4C model, the RLV equations yielded a smaller CE, SEE, and 95% limits of agreement than UWW BF% results. However, because of the range of individual error shown in the current study, caution should be employed when using the 4C model as a criterion method with predicted RLV.

  11. Large volume inside the cage leading incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual back pain after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Osuka, Koji; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare intervertebral bone fusion and clinical outcomes in L4-5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using the same posterior instrumentation with four combinations of one of three types of interbody cage with one of two bone grafts, iliac and local or only local. In 67 patients who underwent L4-5 PLIF, 19 patients had the Brantigan cage and iliac and local bone graft, 18 with the TELAMON C cage and iliac and local bone graft, 16 with the TELAMON C cage and local bone graft (TL), and 14 with the OIC PEEK cage and local bone graft. Clinical assessments were based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and on the visual analogue scale (VAS). The bone fusion assessments were based on radiography and CT scans according to the Brantigan, Steffee, and Fraser criteria. More than 2 years after surgery, these assessments were made. In the results, the fusion outcome for the group receiving TL was significantly less than those for the other three groups. In TL, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the inside volume of the cage of ≥2.0 mL was the only significant factor for incomplete fusion. Moreover, the VAS (low back pain) score was significantly higher for TL than for the other three groups. In conclusions, we believe that the large volume inside the cage (≥2.0 mL) with local bone graft may lead incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual postsurgical low back pain after PLIF.

  12. Use of gastric residual volume to guide enteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a brief systematic review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Kuppinger, David D; Rittler, Peter; Hartl, Wolfgang H; Rüttinger, Dominik

    2013-09-01

    In critically ill patients, the optimal procedure to monitor upper gastrointestinal function is controversial. Several authors have proposed gastric residual volume (GRV) as a tool to guide enteral nutrition. The aim of this contribution is to briefly discuss corresponding studies. We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for studies relevant to the subject. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six prospective observational studies were identified. Each analyzed different thresholds of GRV to guide enteral nutrition and to avoid complications (e.g., vomiting, aspiration, nosocomial pneumonia) in artificially ventilated patients. Due to heterogeneity in outcome measures, patient populations, type and diameter of feeding tubes, and randomization procedures, combination of the results of the six RCTs into a meta-analysis was not appropriate. High-quality RCTs studying medical patients could not demonstrate an association between complication rate and the magnitude of GRV. The only observational study that adjusted results to potential confounders and that studied surgical patients found, however, that the frequency of aspiration increased significantly if a GRV > 200 mL was registered more than once. For mechanically ventilated patients with a medical diagnosis at admission to the intensive care unit, monitoring of GRV appears unnecessary to guide nutrition. Surgical patients might profit, however, from a low GRV threshold (200 mL). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  15. Dispersed and piled woody residues volumes in coastal Douglas-fir cutblocks determined using high-resolution imagery from a UAV and from ground-based surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.

    2015-12-01

    After forest harvest significant amounts of woody residues are left dispersed on site and some subsequently piled and burned. Quantification of residues is required for estimating C budgets, billable waste, harvest efficiency, bioenergy potential and smoke emissions. Trofymow (et al 2014 CJFR) compared remote sensing methods to ground-based waste and residue survey (WRS) methods for residue piles in 4 cutblocks in the Oyster River (OR) area in coastal BC. Compared to geospatial methods using 15cm orthophotos and LiDAR acquired in 2011 by helicopter, the WRS method underestimated pile wood by 30% to 50% while a USFS volume method overestimated pile wood by 50% if site specific packing ratios were not used. A geospatial method was developed in PCI Geomatica to analyze 2-bit images of logs >15cm diameters to determine dispersed wood residues in OR and compare to WRS methods. Across blocks, geospatial and WRS method wood volumes were correlated (R2=0.69), however volumes were 2.5 times larger for the geospatial vs WRS method. Methods for dispersed residues could not be properly compared as individual WRS plots were not georeferenced, only 12 plots were sampled in total, and low-resolution images poorly resolved logs. Thus, a new study in 2 cutblocks in the Northwest Bay (NWB) area acquired 2cm resolution RGB air-photography in 2014-15 using an Aeryon Sky Ranger UAV prior to and after burn pile construction. A total of 57 dispersed WRS plots and 24 WRS pile or accumulation plots were georeferenced and measured. Stero-pairs were used to generate point-clouds for pile bulk volumes. Images processed to 8-bit grey scale are being analyzed with a revised PCI method that better accounts for log overlaps. WRS methods depend on a good sample of plots and accurate determination of stratum (dispersed, roadside, piles, accumulations) areas. Analysis of NWB blocks shows WRS field methods for stratum area differ by 5-20% from that determined using orthophotos. Plot-level wood

  16. Achieving second order advantage with multi-way partial least squares and residual bi-linearization with total synchronous fluorescence data of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Calimag-Williams, Korina; Knobel, Gaston; Goicoechea, H C; Campiglia, A D

    2014-02-06

    An attractive approach to handle matrix interference in samples of unknown composition is to generate second- or higher-order data formats and process them with appropriate chemometric algorithms. Several strategies exist to generate high-order data in fluorescence spectroscopy, including wavelength time matrices, excitation-emission matrices and time-resolved excitation-emission matrices. This article tackles a different aspect of generating high-order fluorescence data as it focuses on total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. This approach refers to recording synchronous fluorescence spectra at various wavelength offsets. Analogous to the concept of an excitation-emission data format, total synchronous data arrays fit into the category of second-order data. The main difference between them is the non-bilinear behavior of synchronous fluorescence data. Synchronous spectral profiles change with the wavelength offset used for sample excitation. The work presented here reports the first application of total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy to the analysis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples of unknown composition. Matrix interference is appropriately handled by processing the data either with unfolded-partial least squares and multi-way partial least squares, both followed by residual bi-linearization.

  17. Effect of not monitoring residual gastric volume on risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults receiving mechanical ventilation and early enteral feeding: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reignier, Jean; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Le Gouge, Amelie; Boulain, Thierry; Desachy, Arnaud; Bellec, Frederic; Clavel, Marc; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-16

    Monitoring of residual gastric volume is recommended to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients receiving early enteral nutrition. However, studies have challenged the reliability and effectiveness of this measure. To test the hypothesis that the risk of VAP is not increased when residual gastric volume is not monitored compared with routine residual gastric volume monitoring in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and early enteral nutrition. Randomized, noninferiority, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from May 2010 through March 2011 in adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 2 days and given enteral nutrition within 36 hours after intubation at 9 French intensive care units (ICUs); 452 patients were randomized and 449 included in the intention-to-treat analysis (3 withdrew initial consent). Absence of residual gastric volume monitoring. Intolerance to enteral nutrition was based only on regurgitation and vomiting in the intervention group and based on residual gastric volume greater than 250 mL at any of the 6 hourly measurements and regurgitation or vomiting in the control group. Proportion of patients with at least 1 VAP episode within 90 days after randomization, as assessed by an adjudication committee blinded to patient group. The prestated noninferiority margin was 10%. In the intention-to-treat population, VAP occurred in 38 of 227 patients (16.7%) in the intervention group and in 35 of 222 patients (15.8%) in the control group (difference, 0.9%; 90% CI, -4.8% to 6.7%). There were no significant between-group differences in other ICU-acquired infections, mechanical ventilation duration, ICU stay length, or mortality rates. The proportion of patients receiving 100% of their calorie goal was higher in the intervention group (odds ratio, 1.77; 90% CI, 1.25-2.51; P = .008). Similar results were obtained in the per-protocol population. Among adults requiring mechanical ventilation and receiving

  18. A Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis with Refractory Volume Overload

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The management of volume in patients with diabetes on peritoneal dialysis is affected by several factors, including the degree of residual renal function, peritoneal membrane small-solute transport, salt and water intake, blood sugar control, comorbidity, and nutritional status. It requires sequential evaluation of volume status and adjustment of the peritoneal dialysis prescription on the basis of assessments of membrane function and alterations in urine volume. Steps should be taken to preserve residual renal function for as long as possible. Ultimately, in patients who have become anuric and have developed ultrafiltration failure, timely transfer to hemodialysis may be necessary, requiring discussion and planning with the patient. PMID:26185264

  19. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000142.htm Urine drainage bags To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach ...

  20. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  1. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  2. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  3. Evaluation of residual functional lung volume on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy in primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Lai, Yung-Chuang; Lu, Chia-Ying; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2008-12-01

    Kartagener syndrome is diagnosed as sinusitis, bronchitis (bronchiectasis), and situs inversus by the clinical features. It is a subclass of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) disease. A 12-year-old girl who had frequent upper and lower airway infections since birth, which was confirmed as Kartagener syndrome by HRCT imaging. We present the residual functional lung volume and mucociliary clearance findings seen on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy.

  4. GreenLight laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with different post-void residual urine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Sun, Hong-Hong; Su, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Ya-Shen; Zhao, Zhen; Li, Jian

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of GreenLight laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) in patients with different post-void residual urine (PVR). BPH/LUTS patients treated with PVP from January 2014 to January 2016 were enrolled in the present study. All patients were divided into PVR > 50, 50 ≤ PVR < 400, and PVR ≥ 400 ml groups, and standard general and urological methods for BPH/LUTS were carried out. PVP surgery was performed, and the follow-up outcome was investigated 6 months after surgery. A total of 429 patients were included, and there were no significant differences in comorbid diseases or habits among the three groups. The maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) differed significantly among the groups (P < 0.001), while patients in the PVR < 50 ml group had higher maximum detrusor pressure (Pdet.max) level than the other two groups (P < 0.001). Patients in 50 ≤ PVR < 400 (P < 0.001) and PVR ≥ 400 (P < 0.001) ml groups were more likely to develop detrusor underactivity than those in the PVR < 50 ml group. All patients were treated with PVP, and there were no severe complications requiring rehospitalization or reoperation except nine designed re-treatments. Follow-up data of 387 patients were available. Significant improvement in outcome parameters (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS], Qmax, and PVR) was observed in comparison with baseline measurements for the three groups. PVP significantly improved the IPSS, Qmax, and PVR in patients with different PVR; PVP is a safe and effective procedure for BPH/LUTS patients.

  5. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  6. Validation of a novel method for measuring intra-abdominal pressure and gastric residual volume in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Van Stappen, Johan; Pigozzi, Chiara; Tepaske, Robert; Van Regenmortel, Niels; De Laet, Inneke; Schoonheydt, Karen; Dits, Hilde; Severgnini, Paolo; Roberts, Derek J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Gastric residual volume (GRV) can be measured in a variety of ways in critically ill patients, most often, the nasogastric tube is disconnected and the GRV is aspirated via a 60 mL syringe. Bladder pressure (IBP) measurement is the gold standard for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) estimation. This study will look at the validation of a novel method combining measurement of GRV and estimation of IAP via intra-gastric pressure (IGP). In total 135 paired IAP and 146 paired GRV measurements were performed in 37 mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The IAP was estimated via the bladder (i.e. IBP) using the FoleyManometer and via the stomach (i.e. IGP) with the new device. The GRV was measured with the new device (GRVprototype) and via the classic method (GRVclassic). The devices were provided by Holtech Medical (Charlottenlund, Denmark) and data were retrospectively analysed. The number of paired measurements in each patient was 4 ± 1. The mean IBP was 10.7 ± 4.1 and mean IGP was 11.6 ± 4.1 mm Hg. Correlation between the IBP and IGP was significant, however moderate (R2 = 0.51). Analysis according to Bland and Altman showed a bias and precision of 0.8 and 2.7 mm Hg respectively, however the limits of agreement (LA) were large and ranged from -4.5 to 6.1 mm Hg. Changes in IGP correlated well with changes in IBP. The median GRVprototype was 80 mL (0-1050) and equal to the median GRVclassic of 80 mL (0-1250). Correlation between the 2 methods was excellent (R2 = 0.89). Analysis according to Bland and Altman showed a bias and precision of -0.8 and 52.3 mL respectively and the LA ranged from -103 to 102 mL. Changes in GRVclassic correlated well with changes in GRVprototype. The results of this multicentre pilot study show that GRV can be measured with the new device. Furthermore this allows simultaneous screening for intra-abdominal hypertension with IAP estimation via IGP.

  7. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  8. Comparison of the impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality in hemodialysis patients with and without residual renal function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of flux membranes on mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients is controversial. Residual renal function (RRF) has shown to not only be as a predictor of mortality but also a contributor to β2-microglobulin clearance in HD patients. Our study aimed to determine the interaction of residual renal function with dialyzer membrane flux on mortality in HD patients. HD Patients were included from the Clinical Research Center registry for End Stage Renal Disease, a prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study the association between use of high-flux dialysis membranes and all-cause mortality with RRF and without RRF. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. This study included 893 patients with 24 h-residual urine volume ≥100 ml (569 and 324 dialyzed using low-flux and high-flux dialysis membranes, respectively) and 913 patients with 24 h-residual urine volume <100 ml (570 and 343 dialyzed using low-flux and high-flux dialysis membranes, respectively). After a median follow-up period of 31 months, mortality was not significantly different between the high and low-flux groups in patients with 24 h-residual urine volume ≥100 ml (HR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.38-1.95, P = 0.723). In patients with 24 h-residual urine volume <100 ml, HD using high-flux dialysis membrane was associated with decreased mortality compared to HD using low-flux dialysis membrane in multivariate analysis (HR 0.40, 95% CI, 0.21-0.78, P = 0.007). Our data showed that HD using high-flux dialysis membranes had a survival benefit in patients with 24 h-residual urine volume <100 ml, but not in patients with 24 h-residual urine volume ≥100 ml. These findings suggest that high-flux dialysis rather than low-flux dialysis might be considered in HD patients without RRF.

  9. Estimation of vitamin B1 excretion in 24-hr urine by assay of first-morning urine.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kakinoki, Takashi; Shino, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Reiko; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2008-01-01

    Urinary B1 (vitamin B1) excretion is commonly determined in 24-hr urine specimens to obtain an estimate of nutritional status. The aim of our study was to investigate whether B1 in random urine specimens, corrected for the urine creatinine (Cr), can be substituted for B1 in 24-hr urines. Collection of such hour urines is often fraught with errors; an alternative method is described here. All urine specimens voided over 24 hr were collected from 32 healthy adults as were the first-morning urines from 30 healthy Japanese women. The B1 excretion was expressed as the ratio of B1 to Cr. Although the B1 excretion was expressed as the B1/Cr ratio, the B1 excretion varied with the urine volume and the time of urine collection. The B1/Cr ratio in random urine specimens not collected at a fixed time may mislead the evaluation of the nutritional status. We found that the B1/Cr ratio in the first-morning urine correlated significantly with the ratio in 24-hr urines (r=0.970, P<0.001) and also with the concentration of total B1 (B1 plus its phosphate esters) in whole blood (r=0.733, P<0.001). We conclude that the B1/Cr ratio in 24-hr urines could be estimated by measuring the ratio in the first-morning urine.

  10. Relation between residential magnetic fields, light-at-night, and nocturnal urine melatonin levels in women: Volume 2 -- Magnetic field exposure analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaune, W.; Davis, S.; Stevens, R.

    1997-11-01

    Scientists have postulated a link between exposure to magnetic fields and reduced blood melatonin levels. This EPRI study was designed to supplement a National Cancer Institute study (NCI-BC) of magnetic fields, light-at-night, and the risk of breast cancer. By expanding the exposure assessment of the NCI-BC and collecting data on urine melatonin levels, this project provides new insight into a possible magnetic field-melatonin link. It has been proposed that exposure to 60-Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields may increase the risk of breast cancer by suppressing the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin production in the pineal gland. It remains unknown whether the human pineal gland is reproducibly responsive or sensitive to magnetic field exposure, and whether such exposures could alter elements of the endogenous hormonal environment in women that might be important in the etiology of breast cancer. The objective of this research was to investigate whether exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and/or light-at-night is associated with levels of the primary urinary melatonin metabolite in women without a history of breast cancer.

  11. Relation between residential magnetic fields, light-at-night, and nocturnal urine melatonin levels in women: Volume 1 -- Background and purpose, methods, results, discussion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaune, W.; Davis, S.; Stevens, R.

    1997-11-01

    Scientists have postulated a link between exposure to magnetic fields and reduced blood melatonin levels. This EPRI study was designed to supplement a National Cancer Institute study (NCI-BC) of magnetic fields, light-at-night, and the risk of breast cancer. By expanding the exposure assessment of the NCI-BC and collecting data on urine melatonin levels, this project provides new insight into a possible magnetic field-melatonin link. It has been proposed that exposure to 60-Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields may increase the risk of breast cancer by suppressing the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin production in the pineal gland. It remains unknown whether the human pineal gland is reproducibly responsive or sensitive to magnetic field exposure, and whether such exposures could alter elements of the endogenous hormonal environment in women that might be important in the etiology of breast cancer. The objective of this research was to investigate whether exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and/or light-at-night is associated with levels of the primary urinary melatonin metabolite in women without a history of breast cancer.

  12. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested in the lab. This is called a random urine sample. If needed, your health care provider ... For a random urine sample, a negative test result is considered normal. If the test is done on a 24-hour ...

  13. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The osmolality urine test measures the concentration of particles in urine. Osmolality can also be measured using ... different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

  14. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  15. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  16. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003752.htm Urine culture - catheterized specimen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Catheterized specimen urine culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs ...

  17. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  18. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  19. The volume and pH of residual pharyngeal fluid aspirated from the TaperGuard Evac™ Endotracheal Tube following elective surgery: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schumann, R; Gandhi, P; Switkowski, K; Grant, M A B; Bonney, I

    2013-03-01

    Oropharyngeal suctioning prior to extubation aims to minimize postextubation tracheal soiling from remaining fluid. We investigated the amount and nature of any fluid remaining after such suctioning and contributing factors. ASA I - III patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation participated in this prospective observational pilot study. Following oropharyngeal suctioning immediately prior to extubation, a dedicated port of the endotracheal tube (TaperGuard Evac™ Endotracheal Tube) was aspirated. The amount and pH of residual fluid was recorded. Data collection included age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, ASA status, procedure type and duration. The Chi-Square, Wilcoxon Rank-Sum, t-tests, and univariate regression analysis were used as appropriate. Ninety-eight patients completed the study. The mean aspirated volume in 38 (38.8%) patients was 0.9 ± 1.3 mL and sixty patients (61.2%) had no aspirate. A body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with the presence of fluid (P=0.03), and a higher volume (P=0.03). The fluid pH was 7 ± 0.81 (mean ± SD). A duration of surgery ≥ 120 minutes predicted a lower pH. The prevalence and amount of residual fluid after oropharyngeal suctioning was low and likely clinically insignificant. A higher body mass index was associated with a higher incidence and volume of residual fluid. Longer procedure duration determined a slightly lower pH, with a mildly acidic pH range. The possibility of a lower fluid pH after prolonged surgery contributing to postoperative sore throat via mucosal irritation warrants investigation.

  20. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    PubMed

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role.

  1. Evaluation of storage and evaporation in the removal efficiency of D-norgestrel and progesterone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Priscilla Garozi; Heringer, Otávio; Scherer, Rodrigo; Pacheco, Henrique Poltronieri; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pena, Angelina

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants and it must be noted that approximately 70 % of them are excreted via urine. Therefore, urine usage implies the risk of transfer of pharmaceutical residues to agricultural fields and environment contamination. Thus, this study aimed on the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for D-norgestrel (D-NOR) and progesterone (PRO) determination in human urine, as well as the evaluation of the removal efficiency of two methods (storage and evaporation), and the effects of acidification with sulfuric acid. The storage process was evaluated for 6 weeks, while the evaporation was assessed at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 °C). All experiments were done with normal urine (pH = 6.0) and acidified urine (pH = 2.0, with sulfuric acid). The results of validation showed good method efficiency. In the second week of storage, higher hormone degradation was observed. In the evaporation method, both D-NOR and PRO were almost completely degraded when the volume was reduced to the lowermost level. Results also indicate that acidification did not affect degradation. Overall, the results showed that combination of two methods can be employed for more efficient hormone removal in urine.

  2. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

  3. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePlus

    ... of urination for an adult is more than 2.5 liters of urine per day. However, this can vary depending on how much water you drink and what your total body water is. This problem is different from needing to urinate often. Polyuria ...

  4. Source Separation of Urine as an Alternative Solution to Nutrient Management in Biological Nutrient Removal Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose; Bott, Charles; Love, Nancy; Bratby, John

    2015-12-01

    Municipal wastewater contains a mixture of brown (feces and toilet paper), yellow (urine), and gray (kitchen, bathroom and wash) waters. Urine contributes approximately 70-80% of the nitrogen (N), 50-70% of the phosphorus (P) load and 60-70% of the pharmaceutical residues in normal domestic sewage. This study evaluated the impact of different levels of source separation of urine on an existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. A process model of an existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant was used. Increasing the amount of urine diverted from the water reclamation facilities, has little impact on effluent ammonia (NH₃-N) concentration, but effluent nitrate (NO₃-N) concentration decreases. If nitrification is necessary then no reduction in the sludge age can be realized. However, a point is reached where the remaining influent nitrogen load matches the nitrogen requirements for biomass growth, and no residual nitrogen needs to be nitrified. That allows a significant reduction in sludge age, implying reduced process volume requirements. In situations where nitrification is required, lower effluent nitrate (NO₃-N) concentrations were realized due to both the lower influent nitrogen content in the wastewater and a more favorable nitrogen-to-carbon ratio for denitrification. The external carbon requirement for denitrification decreases as the urine separation efficiency increases due to the lower influent nitrogen content in the wastewater and a more favorable nitrogen-to-carbon ratio for denitrification. The effluent phosphorus concentration decreases when the amount of urine sent to water reclamation facilities is decreased due to lower influent phosphorus concentrations. In the case of chemical phosphate removal, urine separation reduces the amount of chemicals required.

  5. Risk factors for loss of residual renal function in children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Il-Soo; Yap, Hui K; Munarriz, Reyner L; Zambrano, Pedro H; Flynn, Joseph T; Bilge, Ilmay; Szczepanska, Maria; Lai, Wai-Ming; Antonio, Zenaida L; Gulati, Ashima; Hooman, Nakysa; van Hoeck, Koen; Higuita, Lina M S; Verrina, Enrico; Klaus, Günter; Fischbach, Michel; Riyami, Mohammed A; Sahpazova, Emilja; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In dialyzed patients, preservation of residual renal function is associated with better survival, lower morbidity, and greater quality of life. To analyze the evolution of residual diuresis over time, we prospectively monitored urine output in 401 pediatric patients in the global IPPN registry who commenced peritoneal dialysis (PD) with significant residual renal function. Associations of patient characteristics and time-variant covariates with daily urine output and the risk of developing oligoanuria (under 100 ml/m2/day) were analyzed by mixed linear modeling and Cox regression analysis including time-varying covariates. With an average loss of daily urine volume of 130 ml/m2 per year, median time to oligoanuria was 48 months. Residual diuresis significantly subsided more rapidly in children with glomerulopathies, lower diuresis at start of PD, high ultrafiltration volume, and icodextrin use. Administration of diuretics significantly reduced oligoanuria risk, whereas the prescription of renin–angiotensin system antagonists significantly increased the risk oligoanuria. Urine output on PD was significantly associated in a negative manner with glomerulopathies (−584 ml/m2) and marginally with the use of icodextrin (−179 ml/m2) but positively associated with the use of biocompatible PD fluid (+111 ml/m2). Children in both Asia and North America had consistently lower urine output compared with those in Europe perhaps due to regional variances in therapy. Thus, in children undergoing PD, residual renal function depends strongly on the cause of underlying kidney disease and may be modifiable by diuretic therapy, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and choice of PD fluid. PMID:25874598

  6. Risk factors for loss of residual renal function in children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Il-Soo; Yap, Hui K; Munarriz, Reyner L; Zambrano, Pedro H; Flynn, Joseph T; Bilge, Ilmay; Szczepanska, Maria; Lai, Wai-Ming; Antonio, Zenaida L; Gulati, Ashima; Hooman, Nakysa; van Hoeck, Koen; Higuita, Lina M S; Verrina, Enrico; Klaus, Günter; Fischbach, Michel; Riyami, Mohammed A; Sahpazova, Emilja; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-09-01

    In dialyzed patients, preservation of residual renal function is associated with better survival, lower morbidity, and greater quality of life. To analyze the evolution of residual diuresis over time, we prospectively monitored urine output in 401 pediatric patients in the global IPPN registry who commenced peritoneal dialysis (PD) with significant residual renal function. Associations of patient characteristics and time-variant covariates with daily urine output and the risk of developing oligoanuria (under 100 ml/m(2)/day) were analyzed by mixed linear modeling and Cox regression analysis including time-varying covariates. With an average loss of daily urine volume of 130 ml/m(2) per year, median time to oligoanuria was 48 months. Residual diuresis significantly subsided more rapidly in children with glomerulopathies, lower diuresis at start of PD, high ultrafiltration volume, and icodextrin use. Administration of diuretics significantly reduced oligoanuria risk, whereas the prescription of renin-angiotensin system antagonists significantly increased the risk oligoanuria. Urine output on PD was significantly associated in a negative manner with glomerulopathies (-584 ml/m(2)) and marginally with the use of icodextrin (-179 ml/m(2)) but positively associated with the use of biocompatible PD fluid (+111 ml/m(2)). Children in both Asia and North America had consistently lower urine output compared with those in Europe perhaps due to regional variances in therapy. Thus, in children undergoing PD, residual renal function depends strongly on the cause of underlying kidney disease and may be modifiable by diuretic therapy, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and choice of PD fluid.

  7. Effects of residual stand density on growth and volume production in even-aged red maple stands

    Treesearch

    Terry F. Strong; Gayne G. Erdmann

    2000-01-01

    The effects of five residual stand densities (9.2, 13.8, 16.1, 18.4 m2/ha, and an unthinned control (27.2 m2/ha)) on 10-year stand and crop tree growth and bole quality were studied in an even-aged red maple stand in Michigan. A secondary treatment of removing the understory trees (5-10 cm DBH) was applied on half the...

  8. [Simultaneous determination of 103 pesticide residues in cabbages and apples using programmable temperature vaporizer-based large volume injection by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Pan, Yuxiang; Qin, Yaping; Lü, Jianxia; Yu, Qiongwei

    2010-07-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of 103 pesticide residues in cabbages and apples using programmable temperature vaporizer-based large volume injection (PTV-LVI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI). It was found that much lower detection limits for the investigated pesticides can be obtained. Prior to GC-NCI/MS analysis, the optimized parameters of PTV-LVI were as follows: inlet temperature was set at 45 degrees C, split vent flow rate was 20 mL/min, evaporation time was 1 min and evaporation temperature was set at 60 degrees C. The volume of injection was 10 microL. Co-extractives were removed from the acetonitrile extracts using solid phase extraction with octadecyl (200 mg) and primary secondary amine (100 mg) sorbents. Matrix matched calibration solutions were used for all the analyses. To evaluate performance of the method, validation experiments were carried out in cabbages and apples at two spiking levels (5 and 10 microg/kg). The average recoveries ranged from 58.5% to 113.2%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were in the range of 3.3% - 14.5%. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were less than 5 microg/kg for all the pesticides. The results show that this method is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific. It is appropriate for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the multi-residues in cabbages and apples.

  9. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  10. Residual amniotic fluid volume in preterm rupture of membranes: association with fetal presentation and incidence of clinical and histologic evidence of infection.

    PubMed

    Sherer, D M; Spong, C Y; Salafia, C M

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this study was assess whether residual amniotic fluid volume (AFV) following premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is associated with fetal presentation, or the prevalence of either clinical or histologic infection in patients delivering below 32 weeks' gestation. From an established database of 465 deliveries below 32 weeks' gestation, patients with singleton, nonanomalous fetuses with AFV assessment within 24 hours of delivery were studied (n = 146). Fetal presentation was confirmed by ultrasound identifying 46 breech and 100 vertex-presenting fetuses. Premature rupture of the membranes was diagnosed by sterile speculum examination. Clinical chorioamnionitis was diagnosed by previously published criteria. Histopathology examination of the extraplacental amnion and the umbilical cord were performed by a single pathologist blinded to clinical data. Outcome variables evaluated: rupture-to-delivery interval, gestational age at delivery, neonatal morbidity parameters (1- and 5-min Apgar scores < 5 and 7, respectively; incidence of respiratory distress syndrome; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; retinopathy of prematurity; neonatal sepsis; intraventricular hemorrhage; days of ventilation; and hospitalization), and placental histologic parameters of maternal and/or fetal acute inflammation. Statistical analysis included contingency tables and analysis of variance with p < .05 considered significant, after corrections for multiple comparisons when appropriate. Residual AF volume following PROM was significantly lower in breech compared with vertex presentation (AFV = 0 in 20 vs. 34; AFV = 1 in 19 vs. 27; AFV = 2 in 7 vs. 39, respectively, p = .014). No significant difference was noted in the rupture-to-delivery interval, gestational age at delivery, neonatal morbidity parameters, or histologic evidence of maternal and/or fetal acute inflammation (50% vs. 42%, p > .2) between gestations with breech or vertex presentations. The incidence of clinical

  11. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  13. Urine specific gravity values in clinically healthy young pet ferrets (Mustela furo).

    PubMed

    Eshar, D; Wyre, N R; Brown, D C

    2012-02-01

    To determine urine specific gravity values in clinically healthy pet ferrets and explore possible associations with sex, sampling techniques, hydration status and urine analytes. Sixty-nine entire ferrets of both sexes, under one year of age, were included in this study. Physical examination, complete blood count, blood biochemistry, urine microscopy, urine dipstick and urine specific gravity were performed on all ferrets. Urine specific gravity was determined using a handheld urine refractometer. Statistical analysis was performed to determine urine specific gravity value intervals and to test for associations with sex, sample collection method, packed cell volume, plasma total protein concentrations and urine analytes. Urine specific gravity differed by sex in ferrets as females exhibited a lower urine specific gravity (P<0·001). There was no significant correlation between urine specific gravity, sampling method, packed cell volume/total protein and urine dipstick analytes. Mean urine specific gravity reported in this study was 1·051 for entire males (sd ±9; range 1·034 to 1·070) and 1·042 for entire females (sd ±8; range 1·026 to 1·060). Results of this study may allow clinicians to have a more accurate evaluation of the ability of those animals to concentrate urine by comparing their urine specific gravity results to those obtained from this cohort of clinically healthy animals. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Purple urine bags.

    PubMed

    Dealler, S F; Belfield, P W; Bedford, M; Whitley, A J; Mulley, G P

    1989-09-01

    Purple urine drainage bags were found in 7 of 71 chronically catheterized elderly women. The purple staining of the bags is due to a violet discoloration (indirubin) of the plastic of the catheter bag and fine blue crystals of indigo in the urine. The colors are formed from the substrate indoxyl sulfate (indican) and all 7 patients had bacteria in the urine that would produce blue colonies on agar enriched with the urine (filter sterilized) of the patients involved. Organisms identified were Providencia or Klebsiella species. Indican excretion was higher in patients with purple urinary catheter bags than in controls.

  15. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  16. [Balanitis xerotica obliterans with phimosis in elderly patients presenting with difficulty in urination].

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kaoru; Ishidate, Takuzo

    2013-06-01

    Eight elderly patients (average age 76.1±4.3 years) with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) accompanied by phimosis presented with difficulty in urination. Preoperative average international prostate symptom score, average maximum urinary flow rate, and average volume of residual urine were 20.7±6.3 points (n=8), 5.1±3.6 ml/s (n=5), and 85.4±77.3 ml (n=8), respectively. Some of the patient's complaints, such as severe dribbling of urine, urinary stream division, and ballooning of the foreskin, were not included in the items of the major questionnaire on urination. Dorsal incision and circumcision was performed in all patients, and all were pathologically diagnosed with BXO. Meatoplasty was performed in one patient with a meatal stenosis. No coexistence of penile cancer was observed. Statistically significant improvements were observed in subjective and objective findings after treatment. In conclusion, BXO with phimosis in elderly patients should be considered as a cause of lower urinary tract symptoms.

  17. A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effect of Neostigmine and Metoclopramide on Gastric Residual Volume of Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Alipour, Abbas; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Moarab, Laleh; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In critically ill patients, enteral feeding through the nasogastric tube is the method of choice for nutritional support. Gastrointestinal feeding intolerance and disturbed gastric emptying are common challenges in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Neostigmine and Metoclopramide on gastric residual volume (GRV) in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Methods: In a double blind, randomized clinical trial, a total of 60 mechanically ventilated ICU patients with GRV >120 mL (3 hours after the last gavage), were randomly assigned into two groups A and B. At baseline and 6 hours later, patients in group A and B received intravenous infusion of neostigmine in a dose of 2.5 mg and metoclopramide in a dose of 10 mg in 100 ml of normal saline, within 30 minutes. Patients’ gastric residual volumes were evaluated before the beginning of the intervention, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours after the intervention. Results: After adjusting of other variables (Sex, BMI and ICU stay period) generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed that neostigmine treatment increased odds of GRV improvement compare to metoclopramide group (Estimate 1.291, OR= 0.3.64, 95% CI 1.07-12.34). However there is a statistically significant time trend (within-subject differences or time effect) regardless of treatment groups (P<0.001). The median time from intervention to GRV improvement was 6 hours (95% CI 3.75-8.25) and 9 hours (95% CI 7.38-10.17) in neostigmine and metoclopramide groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that neostigmine is more effective than metoclopramide in reducing GRV and improving gastric emptying in mechanically ventilated ICU patients without significant complication and this protocol may be effective on the tolerance of enteral feeding in ICU patients. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed. PMID:28077899

  18. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-04

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk.

  19. Reliability of Peak Exercise Stroke Volume Assessment by Impedance Cardiography in Patients with Residual Right Outflow Tract Lesions After Congenital Heart Disease Repair.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Antoine; Bonnet, D; Bosquet, L

    2017-09-25

    Global ventricular response to exercise may be useful in follow-up of patients with residual right outflow tract lesions after congenital heart disease repair. In this context, impedance cardiography is considered accurate for stroke volume (SV) measurement during exercise testing, however, to date, only partial assessment of its reliability has been reported. We retrospectively evaluated relative and absolute reliability of peak SV by impedance cardiography during exercise using intraclass correlation (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) in this population. Peak SV was measured in 30 young patients (mean age 14.4 years ± 2.1) with right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction who underwent two cardiopulmonary exercise tests at a mean one-year interval. SV was measured using a signal morphology impedance cardiography analysis device (PhysioFlow(®)) and was indexed to body surface area. ICC of peak indexed SV measurement was 0.80 and SEM was 10.5%. High heterogeneity was seen when comparing patients according to peak indexed SV; in patients with peak SV < 50 ml/m(2) (15 patients), ICC rose to 0.95 and SEM dropped to 2.7%, while in patients with a peak SV > 50 ml/m(2) relative and absolute reliability decreased (ICC = 0.45, SEM = 12.2%). Peak exercise SV assessment by a PhysioFlow(®) device represents a highly reliable method in patients with residual right outflow tract lesions after congenital heart disease repair, especially in patients with peak SV < 50 ml/m(2). In this latter group, a peak SV decrease > 7.3% (corresponding to the minimum "true" difference) should be considered a clinically-relevant decrease in global ventricular performance and taken into account when deciding whether to perform residual lesion removal.

  20. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  1. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  2. Treatment processes for source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Pronk, W; Larsen, T A

    2006-10-01

    The separate collection and treatment of urine has attracted considerable attention in the engineering community in the last few years and is seen as a viable option for enhancing the flexibility of wastewater treatment systems. This comprehensive review focuses on the status of current urine treatment processes and summarises the properties of collected urine. We distinguish between seven main purposes of urine-treatment processes: hygienisation (storage), volume reduction (evaporation, freeze-thaw, reverse osmosis), stabilisation (acidification, nitrification), P-recovery (struvite formation), N-recovery (ion-exchange, ammonia stripping, isobutylaldehyde-diurea (IBDU) precipitation), nutrient removal (anammox) and handling of micropollutants (electrodialysis, nanofiltration, ozonation). The review shows clearly that a wide range of technical options is available to treat collected urine effectively, but that none of these single options can accomplish all seven purposes. Depending on the overall goal of the treatment process, a specific technical solution or a combination of solutions can be found to meet the requirements. Such combinations are not discussed in this paper unless they are explicitly presented in the literature. Except for 'evaporation' and 'storage', none of the processes described have so far advanced beyond the laboratory stage. Considerable development work remains to be done to optimise urine-processing techniques in order to create marketable products.

  3. Development of an analytical method for the targeted screening and multi-residue quantification of environmental contaminants in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for evaluation of human exposures.

    PubMed

    Cortéjade, A; Kiss, A; Cren, C; Vulliet, E; Buleté, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method and contribute to the assessment of the Exposome. Thus, a targeted analysis of a wide range of contaminants in contact with humans on daily routines in urine was developed. The method focused on a list of 38 contaminants, including 12 pesticides, one metabolite of pesticide, seven veterinary drugs, five parabens, one UV filter, one plastic additive, two surfactants and nine substances found in different products present in the everyday human environment. These contaminants were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqToF) instrument from a raw urinary matrix. A validation according to the FDA guidelines was employed to evaluate the specificity, linear or quadratic curve fitting, inter- and intra-day precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification (LOQ). The developed analysis allows for the quantification of 23 contaminants in the urine samples, with the LOQs ranging between 4.3 ng.mL(-1) and 113.2 ng.mL(-1). This method was applied to 17 urine samples. Among the targeted contaminants, four compounds were detected in samples. One of the contaminants (tributyl phosphate) was detected below the LOQ. The three others (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and O,O-diethyl thiophosphate potassium) were detected but did not fulfill the validation criteria for quantification. Among these four compounds, two of them were found in all samples: tributyl phosphate and the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  5. Urination and its discontents.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J

    1994-01-01

    "Urination and Its Discontents" is an attempt to answer why various twentieth-century artists have made works that use or are about urination. Andy Warhol's act of "pissing" onto a canvas in his Oxidation Paintings is related to homosexual "sex clubs," but also to the iconoclasm of Mapplethorpe, Serrano, Duchamp, and Pollock. Freud's idea that civilization began with the renunciation of the "homosexual competition" of urinating on the fire is discussed and compared to Ellis's idealization of the erotics of bodily functions. Weinberg suggests that artists follow Ellis instead of Freud in undermining the boundaries society places on what is clean and dirty and what is sexually permissible.

  6. Effect of Icodextrin Solution on the Preservation of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tae Ik; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kang, Ea Wha; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Yoon, Soo Young; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2016-03-01

    Although icodextrin solution has been highlighted in the fluid management compared to glucose-based solutions, proof of a beneficial effect of icodextrin solution on residual renal function (RRF) is lacking. We conducted a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open-label trial to investigate whether icodextrin solution can preserve RRF.One hundred patients with urine volume ≥750 mL/day from 8 centers in Korea were randomly assigned to receive 1 exchange of icodextrin solution for a ≥8 hour-dwell time and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible neutral pH solution or 1 exchange of ≥2.5% and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible solutions. Using mixed-effects general linear models, we analyzed changes in residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and daily urine volume at 1 year.Forty-nine patients were assigned to the icodextrin group and 51 to the glucose solution group. During follow-up, the slope of the decline in residual GFR was -0.170 mL/min/month/1.73 m² in the icodextrin group, while it was -0.155 mL/min/month/1.73 m² in the glucose solution group (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.10; P = 0.701). Daily urine volume decreased faster in the glucose solution group than in the icodextrin group (-31.02 vs -11.88 mL per month; 95% CI, -35.85 to -2.44; P = 0.025). Results were consistent when we analyzed using intention-to-treat and per protocol principles. There were no differences in fluid status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal transport between groups during follow-up.This study clearly showed that icodextrin solution preserves residual urine volume better than glucose solution.

  7. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    Urgent urination; Urinary frequency or urgency; Urgency-frequency syndrome; Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome; Urge syndrome ... Also call your provider if: You have urinary frequency or urgency, but you are not pregnant and ...

  8. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  9. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  10. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Leucine aminopeptidase - urine URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  11. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  12. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... of diabetes ? Does nighttime urination interfere with your sleep? Tests that may be performed include: Blood sugar (glucose) Blood urea nitrogen Fluid deprivation Osmolality , blood Serum creatinine or creatinine clearance Serum ...

  13. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... team. Kidney Tests Read more Lymphoma Read more Multiple Myeloma Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  14. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  15. Inactivation and Anion Selectivity of Volume-regulated Anion Channels (VRACs) Depend on C-terminal Residues of the First Extracellular Loop.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Florian; Reincke, S Momsen; Voss, Felizia K; Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-08-12

    Canonical volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are crucial for cell volume regulation and have many other important roles, including tumor drug resistance and release of neurotransmitters. Although VRAC-mediated swelling-activated chloride currents (ICl,vol) have been studied for decades, exploration of the structure-function relationship of VRAC has become possible only after the recent discovery that VRACs are formed by differently composed heteromers of LRRC8 proteins. Inactivation of ICl,vol at positive potentials, a typical hallmark of VRACs, strongly varies between native cell types. Exploiting the large differences in inactivation between different LRRC8 heteromers, we now used chimeras assembled from isoforms LRRC8C and LRRC8E to uncover a highly conserved extracellular region preceding the second LRRC8 transmembrane domain as a major determinant of ICl,vol inactivation. Point mutations identified two amino acids (Lys-98 and Asp-100 in LRRC8A and equivalent residues in LRRC8C and -E), which upon charge reversal strongly altered the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation. Importantly, charge reversal at the first position also reduced the iodide > chloride permeability of ICl,vol This change in selectivity was stronger when both the obligatory LRRC8A subunit and the other co-expressed isoform (LRR8C or -E) carried such mutations. Hence, the C-terminal part of the first extracellular loop not only determines VRAC inactivation but might also participate in forming its outer pore. Inactivation of VRACs may involve a closure of the extracellular mouth of the permeation pathway.

  16. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  17. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  18. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  19. Residual Tumor Volume as Best Outcome Predictor in Low Grade Glioma – A Nine-Years Near-Randomized Survey of Surgery vs. Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Roelz, Roland; Strohmaier, David; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Kraeutle, Rainer; Egger, Karl; Coenen, Volker A.; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Reinacher, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG) are continuously progressive primary brain neoplasms that lead to neurological deficits and death. Treatment strategies are controversial. Randomized trials establishing the prognostic value of surgery do not exist. Here, we report the results of a nine-year near-randomized patient distribution between resection and biopsy. Until 2012, the Department of Neurosurgery and the Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery at the University Medical Center Freiburg were organized as separate administrative units both coordinating DLGG patient treatment independently. All consecutive adult patients with a new diagnosis of DLGG by either stereotactic biopsy or resection were included. Pre- and post-operative tumor volumetry was performed. 126 patients, 87 men (69%), 39 women (31%), median age 41 years, were included. 77 (61%) were initially managed by biopsy, 49 (39%) by resection. A significant survival benefit was found for patients with an initial management by resection (5-year OS 82% vs. 54%). The survival benefit of patients with initial resection was reserved to patients with a residual tumor volume of less than 15 cm3. Maximum safe resection is the first therapy of choice in DLGG patients if a near-complete tumor removal can be achieved. Accurate prediction of the extent-of-resection is required for selection of surgical candidates. PMID:27574036

  20. A Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis with Refractory Volume Overload.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Martin

    2016-01-07

    The management of volume in patients with diabetes on peritoneal dialysis is affected by several factors, including the degree of residual renal function, peritoneal membrane small-solute transport, salt and water intake, blood sugar control, comorbidity, and nutritional status. It requires sequential evaluation of volume status and adjustment of the peritoneal dialysis prescription on the basis of assessments of membrane function and alterations in urine volume. Steps should be taken to preserve residual renal function for as long as possible. Ultimately, in patients who have become anuric and have developed ultrafiltration failure, timely transfer to hemodialysis may be necessary, requiring discussion and planning with the patient. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Biomass production on the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington: updated logging residue ratios, slash pile volume-to-weight ratios, and supply curves for selected locations

    Treesearch

    Jason C. Cross; Eric C. Turnblom; Gregory J. Ettl

    2013-01-01

    Biomass residue produced by timber harvest operations is estimated for the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington. Scattered residues were sampled in 53 harvest units and piled residues were completely enumerated in 55 harvest units. Production is based on 2008 and 2009 data and is stratified by forest location, ownership type, harvest intensity, and harvest method...

  2. Effects of water dilution, housing, and food on rat urine collected from the metabolism cage.

    PubMed

    Lee, K M; Reed, L L; Bove, D L; Dill, J A

    1998-10-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to investigate three factors that may affect the amounts of water consumed and urine excreted by a rat in the metabolism cage: water dilution, housing, and food. Young F344/N rats (eight per group) were used for all experiments. Food was withheld from rats before each 16-h urine collection, then rats were transferred into a metabolism cage. For trial A (water dilution), urine was collected from rats supplied with dyed water (0.05%, vol/vol). This was repeated three times over a 2-week period. Dye in water or urine was quantified, using a spectrophotometer. For trial B (housing), rats were individually housed in wire cages for 3 weeks before the first urine collection. Then they were group housed in the solid-bottom cage (four per cage). After 2 weeks of acclimation, urine collection was repeated. For trial C (food), one group of rats was provided with food, the other was not, during urine collection. About 8% of urine samples of small volume (< or = 3 ml) from trial A were contaminated with drinking water up to 13% of volume. The average urine volume associated with individual housing was approximately twice as large as that associated with group housing. When food was provided during urine collection, rats consumed similar amounts of water but excreted significantly smaller amounts of urine than did rats without food. It was concluded that water dilution of a urine sample from a sipper bottle is relatively small; rats individually housed in wire caging before urine collection can consume and excrete a larger quantity of water, compared with rats group housed in solid-bottom cages; and highly variable urine volumes are, in part, associated with lack of access to food during urine collection.

  3. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Panja, Anindya Sundar; Bandopadhyay, Bidyut; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-01-01

    <0.001, respectively) in thermophilic and GLU-ARG is higher in the mesophilic proteins. The Ramachandran plot/ data suggest a higher abundance of the helix, left-handed helix, sheet, nonplanar peptide and lower occurrence of cis peptide, loop/ turn and outlier in thermophiles. Pearson’s correlation result suggests that the isoelectric points of mesophilic and thermophilic proteins are positively correlated (r = 0.93 and 0.84, respectively; p<0.001) to their corresponding charges. And their hydrophilicity is negatively associated with the corresponding hydrophobicity (r = -0.493, p<0.001 and r = -0.324, p<0.05) suggesting their reciprocal evolvement. Conclusions Present results for the first time with this large amount of datasets and multiple contributing factors suggest the greater occurrence of hydrophobicity, salt-bridges and smaller volume nonpolar residues (Gly, Ala and Val) and lesser occurrence of bulky polar residues in the thermophilic proteins. A more stoichiometric relationship amongst these factors minimized the hindrance due to side chain burial and increased compactness and secondary structural stability in thermophilic proteins. PMID:26177372

  4. Residual volume/total lung capacity ratio confers limited additive significance to lung clearance index for assessment of adults with bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing-jing; Huang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2017-01-01

    Background Mosaicism and hyperinflation are common pathophysiologic features of bronchiectasis. The magnitude of ventilation heterogeneity might have been affected by the degree of hyperinflation. Some studies have evaluated the discriminative performance of lung clearance index (LCI) in bronchiectasis patients, but the additive diagnostic value of hyperinflation metrics to LCI is unknown. Objective To compare LCI and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), along with the LCI normalized with RV/TLC, in terms of discriminative performance, correlation and concordance with clinical variables in adults with bronchiectasis. Methods Measurement items included chest high-resolution computed tomography, multiple-breath nitrogen washout test, spirometry, and sputum culture. We analyzed bronchodilator responses by stratifying LCI and RV/TLC according to their median levels (LCIHigh/RV/TLCHigh, LCILow/RV/TLCHigh, LCIHigh/RV/TLCLow, and LCILow/RV/TLCLow). Results Data from 127 adults with clinically stable bronchiectasis were analyzed. LCI had greater diagnostic value than RV/TLC in discriminating moderate-to-severe from mild bronchiectasis, had greater concordance in reflecting clinical characteristics (including the number of bronchiectatic lobes, radiological severity score, and the presence of cystic bronchiectasis). Normalization of LCI with RV/TLC did not contribute to greater discriminative performance or concordance with clinical variables. The LCI, before and after normalization with RV/TLC, correlated statistically with age, sex, HRCT score, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, cystic bronchiectasis, and ventilation heterogeneity (all P<0.05). Different bronchodilator responses were not significant among the four subgroups of bronchiectasis patients, including those with discordant LCI and RV/TLC levels. Conclusion LCI is superior to RV/TLC for bronchiectasis assessment. Normalization with RV/TLC is not required. Stratification of LCI and RV

  5. Low-volume application by mist-blower compared with conventional compression sprayer treatment of houses with residual pyrethroid to control the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C; Rodriguez, M H; Bown, D N; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I

    1995-04-01

    Village-scale trials were carried out in southern Mexico to compare the efficacy of indoor-spraying of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin applied either as low-volume (LV) aqueous emulsion or as wettable-powder (WP) aqueous suspension for residual control of the principal coastal malaria vector Anopheles albimanus. Three indoor spray rounds were conducted at 3-month intervals using back-pack mist-blowers to apply lambda-cyhalothrin 12.5 mg a.i./m2 by LV, whereas the WP was applied by conventional compression sprayer at a mean rate of 26.5 mg a.i./m2. Both treatments caused mosquito mortality indoors and outdoors (collected inside house curtains) as a result of contact with treated surfaces before and after feeding, but had no significant impact on overall population density of An. albimanus resting indoors or assessed by human bait collections. Contact bioassays showed that WP and LV treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin were effective for 12-20 weeks (> 75% mortality) without causing excito-repellency. Compared to the WP treatment (8 houses/man/day), LV treatment (25 houses/man/day) was more than 3 times quicker per house, potentially saving 68% of labour costs. This is offset, however, by the much lower unit price of a compression sprayer (e.g. Hudson 'X-pert' at US$120) than a mist-blower (e.g. 'Super Jolly' at US$350), and higher running costs for LV applications. It was calculated, therefore, that LV becomes more economical than WP after 18.8 treatments/100 houses/10 men at equivalent rates of application, or after 7.6 spray rounds with half-rate LV applications.

  6. Residual gastric volume evaluation with ultrasonography after ingestion of carbohydrate- or carbohydrate plus glutamine-enriched beverages: a randomized, crossover clinical trial with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Paulo Cesar; Caporossi, Cervantes; Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Eduardo; Silva, Ageo Mario Candido da; Araujo, Viviane Maeve Tavares de

    2017-01-01

    - Abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 hours with maltodextrin (CHO)-enriched beverage is a safe procedure and may enhance postoperative recovery. Addition of glutamine (GLN) to CHO beverages may include potential benefits to the metabolism. However, by adding a nitrogenous source to CHO beverages, gastric emptying may be delayed and increase the risk of bronchoaspiration during anesthesia. - In this study of safety, we aimed at investigating the residual gastric volume (RGV) 2 hours after the intake of either CHO beverage alone or CHO beverage combined with GLN. - We performed a randomized, crossover clinical trial. We assessed RGV by means of abdominal ultrasonography (US) in 20 healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females) after an overnight fast of 8 hours. Then, they were randomized to receive 600 mL (400 mL immediately after US followed by another 200 mL 2 hours afterwards) of either CHO (12.5% maltodextrin) or CHO-GLN (12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g GLN). Two sequential US evaluations were done at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of the second dose. The interval of time between ingestion of the two types of beverages was 2 weeks. - The mean (SD) RGV observed after 8 hours fasting (13.56±13.25 mL) did not statistically differ (P>0.05) from the RGV observed after ingesting CHO beverage at both 120 (16.32±11.78 mL) and 180 minutes (14.60±10.39 mL). The RGV obtained at 120 (15.63±18.83 mL) and 180 (13.65±10.27 mL) minutes after CHO-GLN beverage also was not significantly different from the fasting condition. - The RGV at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of CHO beverage combined with GLN is similar to that observed after an overnight fast.

  7. Correlations among residual multiparticle entropy, local atomic-level pressure, free volume and the phase-ordering rule in several liquids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Long; Wang, Wei-Lu; Li, Y D; Liu, C S

    2011-01-28

    A modified Wang-Landau density-of-states sampling approach has been performed to calculate the excess entropy of liquid metals, Lennard-Jones (LJ) system and liquid Si under NVT conditions; and it is then the residual multiparticle entropy (S(RMPE)) is obtained by subtraction of the pair correlation entropy. The temperature dependence of S(RMPE) has been investigated along with the temperature dependence of the local atomic-level pressure and the pair correlation functions. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy is well described by T(-1) scaling while T(-0.4) scaling well describes the relationship between the excess entropy and temperature. For liquid metals and LJ system, the -S(RMPE) versus temperature curves show positive correlations and the -S(RMPE) of liquid Si is shown to have a negative correlation with temperature, the phase-ordering criterion (based on the S(RMPE)) for predicting freezing transition works in liquid metals and LJ but fails in liquid Si. The local atomic-level pressure scaled with the virial pressure (σ(al)/σ(av)) exhibits the much similar temperature dependence as -S(RMPE) for all studied systems, even though simple liquid metals and liquid Si exhibit opposite temperature dependence in both σ(al)/σ(av) and -S(RMPE). The further analysis shows that the competing properties of the two effects due to localization and free volume on the S(RMPE) exist in simple liquid metals and LJ system but disappear in liquid Si, which may be the critical reason of the failure of the phase-ordering criterion in liquid Si.

  8. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  9. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. Alternative Names Urine potassium Images Male urinary system References Batlle D, Chen S, Haque SK. Physiologic principles in the clinical evaluation of electrolyte, water, and acid-base disorders. In: Alpern RJ, Orson WM, Caplan M, eds. Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney . ...

  10. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  11. Purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman.

  12. HCG in urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  13. [Purple urine bag syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fain-Ghironi, Nathalie; Le Gonidec, Patricia; Schaeffer, Mathilde

    2003-06-14

    The report of purple discoloration in a urinary drainage system, known as Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (P.U.B.S.) is rarely described in the literature. In an 85 year-old woman, with permanent indwelling urinary catheter, the appearance of purple coloration in the urine collecting bag, without change in the colour of the urine, was observed four times in one year. During these different episodes, a Gram negative lower urinary infection diagnoses. The germs identified were Providencia stuartii and Citrobacter koseri. Symptoms resolved completely after treatment with ceftriaxone. The clinical and biological symptoms usually described in cases of P.U.B.S. are observed in the medical history of this elderly woman: indwelling catheter with delay before onset of coloration greater than 15 days following catheterization, alkaline urinary pH, Gram negative lower urinary tract infection. However, during one of the episodes of PUBS in our patient, Citrobacter koseri was identified, germ not mentioned, as far as we know, in the literature. Moreover, in the published cases, Proteus species was identified as potentially associated with P.U.B.S., but a Proteus mirabilis urinary infection with was diagnosed in our patient, without any purple coloration of the urine in the collection bag.

  14. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  15. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more

  16. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with providing a urine sample. Alternative Names Quantitative urinary copper Images Copper urine test References McPherson ... for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis ...

  17. Cortisol concentrations in blood and urine of horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, J M; Stenhouse, A M; Stenhouse, N S; Buck, G J; Lucks, S F; Reynoldson, J A; Bolton, J R

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the concentrations of cortisol in blood and urine samples taken from thoroughbred and standardbred horses after racing is presented. Statistical analysis showed the only significant difference between thoroughbred and standardbred horses was a higher cortisol concentration in thoroughbred urine. Urine volume and pH had no significant influence on the urinary cortisol concentration, however 9.5% of the urinary cortisol variation could be explained due to the influence of plasma cortisol concentration. The results of cortisol and ACTH administrations are also shown and compared with the survey results.

  18. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  19. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  20. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  1. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  2. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  3. Management of urine leak after laparoscopic cyst decortication with retrograde endoscopic fibrin glue application and ureteral stent placement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mang L; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Matoka, Derek J; Ost, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Urine leakage is an uncommon complication after renal cyst decortication that typically resolves with adequate drainage. With prolonged large volume urine leakage from a perinephric drain, however, consideration for open surgical repair must be taken into account. We present the successful management of persistent urine leakage after laparoscopic cyst decortication with endoscopic retrograde fibrin glue injection and ureteral stent placement.

  4. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  5. Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

  6. Development of an Inline Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Banelle R.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to microgravity during spaceflight causes bone loss. Calcium and other metabolic byproducts are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is essential to determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Previous US Space Shuttle (SS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to cross contamination between users and fluid system instabilities. Currently, urine voids must be collected manually in a flexible plastic bag containing a known tracer quantity. The crew member must completely mix the bag then withdraw a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The current bag system accuracy is highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures the void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After operations, the ISS UMS delivers the urine to the WHC for normal processing then flushes its plumbing with a small water volume. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, greatly reduces cross contamination between urine voids (< 0.5 ml urine), and provides accurate volume measurements (< +/- 2% error for 100 to 1000 ml void volumes). The system performance has been validated with extensive ground tests and reduced gravity aircraft flights. The lockersized ISS UMS is currently being modified to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian ACY hardware. The operation principles, characteristics, and results are outlined in the paper.

  7. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  8. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  9. Development of an Inline Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Banelle R.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to microgravity during spaceflight causes bone loss. Calcium and other metabolic byproducts are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is essential to determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Previous US Space Shuttle (SS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to cross contamination between users and fluid system instabilities. Currently, urine voids must be collected manually in a flexible plastic bag containing a known tracer quantity. The crew member must completely mix the bag then withdraw a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The current bag system accuracy is highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures the void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After operations, the ISS UMS delivers the urine to the WHC for normal processing then flushes its plumbing with a small water volume. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, greatly reduces cross contamination between urine voids (< 0.5 ml urine), and provides accurate volume measurements (< +/- 2% error for 100 to 1000 ml void volumes). The system performance has been validated with extensive ground tests and reduced gravity aircraft flights. The lockersized ISS UMS is currently being modified to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian ACY hardware. The operation principles, characteristics, and results are outlined in the paper.

  10. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Icodextrin Solution on the Preservation of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tae Ik; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kang, Ea Wha; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Yoon, Soo Young; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although icodextrin solution has been highlighted in the fluid management compared to glucose-based solutions, proof of a beneficial effect of icodextrin solution on residual renal function (RRF) is lacking. We conducted a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open-label trial to investigate whether icodextrin solution can preserve RRF. One hundred patients with urine volume ≥750 mL/day from 8 centers in Korea were randomly assigned to receive 1 exchange of icodextrin solution for a ≥8 hour-dwell time and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible neutral pH solution or 1 exchange of ≥2.5% and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible solutions. Using mixed-effects general linear models, we analyzed changes in residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and daily urine volume at 1 year. Forty-nine patients were assigned to the icodextrin group and 51 to the glucose solution group. During follow-up, the slope of the decline in residual GFR was −0.170 mL/min/month/1.73 m2 in the icodextrin group, while it was −0.155 mL/min/month/1.73 m2 in the glucose solution group (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.06 to 0.10; P = 0.701). Daily urine volume decreased faster in the glucose solution group than in the icodextrin group (−31.02 vs −11.88 mL per month; 95% CI, −35.85 to −2.44; P = 0.025). Results were consistent when we analyzed using intention-to-treat and per protocol principles. There were no differences in fluid status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal transport between groups during follow-up. This study clearly showed that icodextrin solution preserves residual urine volume better than glucose solution. PMID:27043667

  12. Effects of Hydration and Calcium Supplementation on Urine Calcium Concentration in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Harris, Susan S; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether calcium supplementation, compared with placebo, increases urine calcium concentrations to levels indicative of increased renal stone risk, and the role that fluid intake, as indicated by urine volume, may play in mitigating this risk. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 500 mg/d calcium supplementation to prevent bone loss. Subjects were 240 white postmenopausal women age 40 to 70 years in good general health. Effects of supplementation on 1-year changes in 24h urine calcium concentration and urine volume were examined. Both treatment group and urine volume were strong independent predictors of urine calcium concentration (p < 0.001). Among subjects with urine volume under 2 L/24 h, more than half of placebo subjects were at lowest risk for renal stones compared with less than 35% of calcium-supplemented subjects. Among those with higher urine volumes, all placebo subjects and more than 80% of calcium supplemented subjects were at lowest risk. The increased risk of renal stones with calcium supplement use may be largely eliminated with adequate fluid intake, but older adults may not spontaneously consume adequate fluids to minimize this risk and should be counseled to do so.

  13. The ASCE Residuals Transport Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, O.E.; Bizier, P.A.; Brown, J.; Koch, C.; Sadick, T.

    1999-07-01

    This presentation will highlight the ASCE Residuals Transport Manual, which has been published by ASCE this year. This document, which represents the state of the art in information on residuals transport, is designed to be used by both the active practitioner, as well as for instructional purposes. The authors will present the various chapters which cover the following topics: Conveyance of Water and Wastewater Residuals, Rheology, Sludge Characteristics, Quality and Quantity, Overview of Residuals Conveyance Devices, Pumping of Viscous Sludges and Slurries, Transport of Thickened Residuals, Conveyance of Dewatered Residuals, Transport of Granular and Compactable Residuals, and Case Studies. The Objective of the Transport Monograph is to summarize in one concise volume the general state of knowledge regarding residuals transport from both water and wastewater residuals. The presentation will cover each chapter and will review the pertinent information contained in the manual.

  14. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  15. Stagewise processing of yellow water using clinoptilolite for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery and higher residual quality.

    PubMed

    Allar, A D; Beler Baykal, B

    2015-01-01

    Source-separated human urine may be used as a source of fertilizers indirectly through processing with clinoptilolite. The suggested form of fertilizer is clinoptilolite loaded with plant nutrients from urine, where nitrogen and phosphorus will be released upon contact with water. Triggered by the need for handling high concentrations remaining in the liquid phase to be disposed of, this paper aims to present the option of improving the residual nutrient quality through stagewise processing with clinoptilolite, while investigating any improvement in nutrient removal. Two sets of experiments, stagewise operation under (i) constant loadings and (ii) variable loadings in each stage, are discussed. Stagewise operation has been observed to be successful for attaining reduced residual liquid phase concentrations as well as improvements in nitrogen recovery as compared to single-stage operation. Comparing constant and variable stagewise loadings, the final concentration is 10 times lower with variable loadings. The latter is comparable to a level found in only 1% of conventional domestic wastewater volume. Stagewise operation was beneficial from the standpoint of both additional nutrient recovery and for residuals control, with more pronounced benefits for attaining higher quality residual liquid phase concentrations to be disposed of.

  16. The only presence of sperm in urine does not imply retrograde ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Ariagno, J I; Mendeluk, G R; Pugliese, M N; Sardi, S L M; Acuña, C; Repetto, H E H; Curi, S M

    2005-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of clinical experience collected at the University Clinical Hospital over a 19-year period. Semen samples were analyzed according to WHO criteria. In the postmasturbatory urine, sperm count was performed. Data were expressed as total sperm number in urine (TSNU) and using a retroejaculation index. Patients were categorized into four groups according to the presence of sperm in the studied samples: a) in semen and urine; b) only in urine; c) only in semen; d) neither in semen nor in urine. A control group included nonretroejaculator patients. Retroejaculator patients are those whose TSNU is superior to 3.8 x 10(6) and the RI superior to 2.16%. While diagnosing retroejaculation, the only presence of sperm in the postmasturbatory urine is not adequate. The proposed index added to total sperm number in urine and semen volume may identify true retroejaculator patients.

  17. Development of online NIR urine analyzing system based on AOTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Xiaoxia

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, some key techniques on development of on-line MR urine analyzing system based on AOTF (Acousto - Optics Tunable Filter) are introduced. Problems about designing the optical system including collimation of incident light and working distance (the shortest distance for separating incident light and diffracted light) are analyzed and researched. DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) controlled by microprocessor is used to realize the wavelength scan. The experiment results show that this MR urine analyzing system based on. AOTF has 10000 - 4000cm -1 wavelength range and O.3ms wavelength transfer rate. Compare with the conventional Fourier Transform NIP. spectrophotometer for analyzing multi-components in urine, this system features low cost, small volume and on-line measurement function. Unscrambler software (multivariate statistical software by CAMO Inc. Norway) is selected as the software for processing the data. This system can realize on line quantitative analysis of protein, urea and creatinine in urine.

  18. Tryptophan glycoconjugates in food and human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, B; Grun, C; Scheutzow, D; Herderich, M

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the formation of tryptophan glycoconjugates other than well-established Amadori rearrangement products, HPLC-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of human urine collected from several healthy individuals proved the presence of one distinct tryptophan C-glycosyl compound [Horiuchi, Yonekawa, Iwahara, Kanno, Kurihara and Fujise (1994) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 115, 362-366]. After isolation, unambiguous identification of this novel tryptophan metabolite as 2-(alpha-mannopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan was achieved by tandem MS combined with NMR spectroscopy including homonuclear COSY, heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity and (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence experiments. Remarkably, a thorough evaluation of vicinal proton-proton coupling constants in different solvents and nuclear Overhauser effect experiments demonstrate the predominant axial orientation of the hydroxymethyl group of the hexopyranosyl residue. Likewise this spatial arrangement indicates that the respective alpha-anomeric C-mannosylhexopyranose is preferentially adopting a (1)C(4) conformation in acidic methanol. Whereas only one distinct tryptophan mannoconjugate could be observed in human urine, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of food samples for the first time led to the identification of numerous N(1)-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan, 2-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan and 1-(1,2,3,4,5-pentahyd- roxypent-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives derived from the condensation of tryptophan with aldohexoses. Taking into consideration the significant differences between profiles and configurations of tryptophan glycoconjugates originating from dietary sources and human urine, C-2 mannosylation of tryptophan residues [de Beer, Vliegenthart, Loeffler and Hofsteenge (1995) Biochemistry 34, 11785-11789] represents a novel enzymic pathway in tryptophan metabolism in humans. PMID:10493906

  19. Urine collected from diapers can be used for 2-D PAGE in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Griffin, Angela; Su, Ruifeng; Merchant, Michael; Klein, Jon

    2009-08-01

    Urinary proteomic profiling has potential to identify candidate biomarkers of renal injury in infants provided an adequate urine sample can be obtained. Although diapers are used to obtain urine for clinical evaluation, their use for proteomic analysis has not been investigated. We therefore performed feasibility studies on the use of diaper-extracted urine for 2-D PAGE. Pediatric waste urine (2-20 mL) was applied to gel-containing, non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers and then mechanically expressed. Urine volume and total protein were measured pre- and post-extraction. Proteins were separated via 2-D PAGE following application of urine (20-40 mL) to each matrix. 2-D PAGE was also performed on clinical specimens collected using each diaper type. Differences in the adsorption and retention of urine volume and protein were noted between matrices. Non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers provided the best protein/volume recovery and the lowest interference with the Bradford assay. 2-D PAGE was also successfully completed using urine samples from both cotton fiber matrices. Conversely, samples from low-gel diapers demonstrated poor protein separation and reproducibility. Diapers containing cotton-fiber matrices appear adequate for 2-D PAGE. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of resolved proteins using replicate, high-resolution gels will be required, however, before diaper-extracted urine can be applied in proteomic profiling.

  20. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects.

  1. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  2. Comparison of urine composition of healthy Labrador retrievers and miniature schnauzers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A E; Markwell, P J

    2001-11-01

    To compare urine composition in Labrador Retrievers (LR) and Miniature Schnauzers (MS) fed the same dog food. 8 healthy LR (mean [+/- SD] age, 3.1+/-1.7 years) and 8 healthy MS (mean age, 3.7+/-1.3 years). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to the dogs for 24 days. Urinary pH, volume, specific gravity, frequency of urination, and urinary concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog; urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with calcium oxalate and brushite (calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate) were calculated from these values. MS urinated significantly less often and had a lower urine volume (ml/kg of body weight per d) and a significantly higher urine pH, compared with LR. Urinary calcium concentration and brushite RSS were significantly higher in the urine of MS. As a result of a high calorie requirement, primarily as a result of high surface area to volume ratio, MS had significantly higher intake (per kg body weight) of dietary minerals, compared with LR. Differences in urine composition exist between breeds fed the same diet, some of which, including lower urine volume, higher calcium concentration, and higher brushite RSS, may contribute to the high prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths observed in MS. Differences between breeds should be considered when evaluating strategies for controlling calcium oxalate stone formation.

  3. Quantifying the sources of error in measurements of urine activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, P.D.; Kim, H.J.; McElgin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate scintigraphic measurements of radioactivity in the bladder and voided urine specimens can be limited by scatter, attenuation, and variations in the volume of urine that a given dose is distributed in. The purpose of this study was to quantify some of the errors that these problems can introduce. Transmission scans and 41 conjugate images of the bladder were sequentially acquired on a dual headed camera over 24 hours in 6 subjects after the intravenous administration of 100-150 MBq (2.7-3.6 mCi) of a novel I-123 labeled benzamide. Renal excretion fractions were calculated by measuring the counts in conjugate images of 41 sequentially voided urine samples. A correction for scatter was estimated by comparing the count rates in images that were acquired with the photopeak centered an 159 keV and images that were made simultaneously with the photopeak centered on 126 keV. The decay and attenuation corrected, geometric mean activities were compared to images of the net dose injected. Checks of the results were performed by measuring the total volume of each voided urine specimen and determining the activity in a 20 ml aliquot of it with a dose calibrator. Modeling verified the experimental results which showed that 34% of the counts were attenuated when the bladder had been expanded to a volume of 300 ml. Corrections for attenuation that were based solely on the transmission scans were limited by the volume of non-radioactive urine in the bladder before the activity was administered. The attenuation of activity in images of the voided wine samples was dependent on the geometry of the specimen container. The images of urine in standard, 300 ml laboratory specimen cups had 39{plus_minus}5% fewer counts than images of the same samples laid out in 3 liter bedpans. Scatter through the carbon fiber table substantially increased the number of counts in the images by an average of 14%.

  4. The Impact of Preradiation Residual Disease Volume on Time to Locoregional Failure in Cutaneous Merkel Cell Carcinoma—A TROG Substudy

    SciTech Connect

    Finnigan, Renee; Hruby, George; Wratten, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Dickie, Graeme; Rischin, Danny; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of margin status and gross residual disease in patients treated with chemoradiation therapy for high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell cancer (MCC). Methods and Materials: Data were pooled from 3 prospective trials in which patients were treated with 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary lesion and draining lymph nodes and 2 schedules of carboplatin based chemotherapy. Time to locoregional failure was analyzed according to the burden of disease at the time of radiation therapy, comparing patients with negative margins, involved margins, or macroscopic disease. Results: Analysis was performed on 88 patients, of whom 9 had microscopically positive resection margins and 26 had macroscopic residual disease. The majority of gross disease was confined to nodal regions. The 5-year time to locoregional failure, time to distant failure, time to progression, and disease-specific survival rates for the whole group were 73%, 69%, 62%, and 66% respectively. The hazard ratio for macroscopic disease at the primary site or the nodes was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.57-2.77), P=.58. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences in time to locoregional failure were identified between patients with negative margins and those with microscopic or gross residual disease. These results must, however, be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size.

  5. Ryegrass uptake of carbamazepine and ibuprofen applied by urine fertilization.

    PubMed

    Winker, Martina; Clemens, Joachim; Reich, Margrit; Gulyas, Holger; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2010-03-15

    Human urine is a potential alternative fertilizer for agriculture. However, its usage is associated with a risk of spreading pharmaceutical residues to fields. The individual and combined behavior of carbamazepine and ibuprofen was investigated by GC/MS analysis in a greenhouse experiment using ryegrass fertilized with pharmaceutical-spiked urine. Only carbamazepine could be detected in soil, roots, and aerial plant parts. Fifty-three per cent of carbamazepine originally present in the urine was recovered in soil samples taken after three months. Additionally, 34% of carbamazepine was found in aerial plant parts and 0.3% in roots. Model calculations showed that neither roots nor Casparian strip posed a considerable barrier to uptake. Carbamazepine transport was clearly driven by transpiration. Ibuprofen was not detected in the soil or in any plant parts after three months. This was assumed to be due to biodegradation of ibuprofen. Carbamazepine and ibuprofen, singly or in combination, did not adversely affect the growth of ryegrass.

  6. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  7. Urea stabilisation and concentration for urine-diverting dry toilets: Urine dehydration in ash.

    PubMed

    Senecal, Jenna; Vinnerås, Björn

    2017-05-15

    Human excreta contain the same nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K) as the fertilisers used to produce the food consumed. However, human excreta are considered unwanted waste throughout the world, creating humanitarian and environmental problems. In order to replace the nutrients removed from fields during crop harvesting, more fertilisers are manufactured, in processes contributing to environmental changes at global level. The limitation of human urine as a fertiliser is its low nutrient concentration compared with commercial fertilisers. This study developed a technique to increase the N concentration (from 0.6% to >6%) through urine dehydration to produce a dry fertiliser of monetary value and avoid the need for liquid disposal from the toilet. The technique is intended for a container-based sanitation system that collects, contains, treats and reduces the volume of urine within the container. In tests, fresh human urine was added at various intervals to wood ash at 35°C and 65°C, to alkalise and thus inhibit the enzyme urease from catalysing hydrolysis of urea to ammonia. Mass balance calculations demonstrated a 95% reduction during dehydration, while preserving up to 90% of the N. Such a system would greatly simplify the logistics and costs of storage, transportation and application of urine as a fertiliser. The truly innovative feature is the final product: a dry powder with 7.8% N, 2.5% P and 10.9% K by weight, i.e. equivalent to commercial fertiliser. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Computed tomographic measurement of canine urine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zwingenberger, Allison L; Carrade Holt, Danielle D

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is able to measure the attenuation of urine in Hounsfield units (HU) on abdominal imaging studies. This study was designed to measure the correlation of urine attenuation with urine specific gravity in urine samples of 40 dogs, providing a noninvasive measure of urine concentration. The HU of urine explained 72% of the variance in measured urine specific gravity [R(2) = 0.72, F(1,38) = 95.55, P < 0.001]. This noninvasive measurement can be used to estimate urine concentration in dogs undergoing abdominal CT imaging.

  9. Electrochemically driven extraction and recovery of ammonia from human urine.

    PubMed

    Luther, Amanda K; Desloover, Joachim; Fennell, Donna E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-12-15

    Human urine contains high concentrations of nitrogen, contributing about 75% of the nitrogen in municipal wastewaters yet only 1% of the volume. Source separation of urine produces an ideal waste stream for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, reducing downstream costs of nutrient treatment at wastewater treatment facilities. We examined the efficiency and feasibility of ammonia extraction and recovery from synthetic and undiluted human urine using an electrochemical cell (EC). EC processing of synthetic urine produced an ammonium flux of 384 ± 8 g N m(-2) d(-1) with a 61 ± 1% current efficiency at an energy input of 12 kWh kg(-1) N removed. EC processing of real urine displayed similar performance, with an average ammonium flux of 275 ± 5 g N m(-2) d(-1) sustained over 10 days with 55 ± 1% current efficiency for ammonia and at an energy input of 13 kWh kg(-1) N removed. With the incorporation of an ammonia stripping and absorption unit into the real urine system, 57 ± 0.5% of the total nitrogen was recovered as ammonium sulfate. A system configuration additionally incorporating stripping of the influent headspace increased total nitrogen recovery to 79% but led to reduced performance of the EC as the urine ammonium concentration decrease. Direct stripping of ammonia (NH3) from urine with no chemical addition achieved only 12% total nitrogen recovery at hydraulic retention times comparable with the EC systems. Our results demonstrate that ammonia can be extracted via electrochemical means at reasonable energy inputs of approximately 12 kWh kg(-1) N. Considering also that the hydrogen generated is worth 4.3 kWh kg(-1) N, the net electrical input for extraction becomes approximately 8 kWh kg(-1) N if the hydrogen can be used. Critical for further development will be the inclusion of a passive means for ammonia stripping to reduce additional energy inputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microanalyzer for biomonitoring lead (Pb) in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. State-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments can only analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turnaround times, and they are expensive. In response to the growing need for a metal analyzer capable of on-site, real-time monitoring of trace toxic metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/stripping voltammetry (ASV), and validated the system using rat blood and urine spiked with known amounts of Pb. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with suitable sample pretreatment and by establishing turbulent flow of blood and urine containing Pb onto the electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. No matrix effect was observed for the voltammetric Pb signals, even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration ranges relevant to Pb exposure levels in humans (0-20 ppb in 10% blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50% urine samples). The device showed excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.44 ppb and 0.46 ppb, and % R.S.D. was 4.9 and 2.4 in 50% urine and 10% blood samples, respectively. It gave similar Pb concentrations in blood and urine to those measured by ICP-MS. It offered high throughput (3 min per sample) and economical use of samples (60 microL per measurement) as well as low reagent consumption (1 microg of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing environmental concerns associated with mercury use. Since it is miniaturized, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it shows much promise as the next-generation analyzer for the biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  11. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  12. Preservation of residual kidney function in hemodialysis patients: reviving an old concept.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Anna T; Fishbane, Steven; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Residual kidney function (RKF) may confer a variety of benefits to patients on maintenance dialysis. RKF provides continuous clearance of middle molecules and protein-bound solutes. Whereas the definition of RKF varies across studies, interdialytic urine volume may emerge as a pragmatic alternative to more cumbersome calculations. RKF preservation is associated with better patient outcomes including survival and quality of life and is a clinical parameter and research focus in peritoneal dialysis. We propose the following practical considerations to preserve RKF, especially in newly transitioned (incident) hemodialysis patients: (1) periodic monitoring of RKF in hemodialysis patients through urine volume and including residual urea clearance with dialysis adequacy and outcome markers such as anemia, fluid gains, minerals and electrolytes, nutritional, status and quality of life; (2) avoidance of nephrotoxic agents such as radiocontrast dye, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aminoglycosides; (3) more rigorous hypertension control and minimizing intradialytic hypotensive episodes; (4) individualizing the initial dialysis prescription with consideration of an incremental/infrequent approach to hemodialysis initiation (e.g., twice weekly) or peritoneal dialysis; and (5) considering a lower protein diet, especially on nondialysis days. Because RKF appears to be associated with better patient outcomes, it requires more clinical and research focus in the care of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

  13. Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  14. REFRACTOMETRIC URINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FREE-LIVING EGYPTIAN FRUIT BATS (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS).

    PubMed

    Eshar, David; Lapid, Roi; Weinberg, Maya; King, Roni; Pohlman, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    In both human and veterinary medicine, urine specific gravity (USG) is commonly measured by refractometry to indirectly reflect the osmolality of urine to thereby evaluate the kidney's ability to concentrate or dilute urine according to physiologic need and certain disease conditions. However, for accurate interpretation of the significance of any value, knowledge of the expected USG for the healthy species in question is required. It is generally believed that fruit bats, and Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in particular, are unable to highly concentrate their urine. In this study, the USG was determined using a handheld urine refractometer in 43 free-living Egyptian fruit bats of both sexes. The calculated nonparametric 90% confidence interval for Egyptian fruit bats in this study was 1.006-1.050, with no association with capture site, sex, weight, or packed cell volume and total solids. Results suggest that free-living Egyptian fruit bats are able to highly concentrate their urine.

  15. Urine metabolomics analysis for kidney cancer detection and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Aronov, Pavel; Zakharkin, Stanislav O; Anderson, Danielle; Perroud, Bertrand; Thompson, Ian M; Weiss, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 11,000 deaths per year in the United States. When detected early, generally serendipitously by imaging conducted for other reasons, long term survival is generally excellent. When detected with symptoms, prognosis is poor. Under these circumstances, a screening biomarker has the potential for substantial public health benefit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of urine metabolomics analysis for metabolomic profiling, identification of biomarkers, and ultimately for devising a urine screening test for RCC. Fifty urine samples were obtained from RCC and control patients from two institutions, and in a separate study, urine samples were taken from 13 normal individuals. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to identify small molecule metabolites present in each sample. Cluster analysis, principal components analysis, linear discriminant analysis, differential analysis, and variance component analysis were used to analyze the data. Previous work is extended to confirm the effectiveness of urine metabolomics analysis using a larger and more diverse patient cohort. It is now shown that the utility of this technique is dependent on the site of urine collection and that there exist substantial sources of variation of the urinary metabolomic profile, although group variation is sufficient to yield viable biomarkers. Surprisingly there is a small degree of variation in the urinary metabolomic profile in normal patients due to time since the last meal, and there is little difference in the urinary metabolomic profile in a cohort of pre- and postnephrectomy (partial or radical) renal cell carcinoma patients, suggesting that metabolic changes associated with RCC persist after removal of the primary tumor. After further investigations relating to the discovery and identity of individual biomarkers and attenuation of residual sources of variation, our work shows that urine metabolomics

  16. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  17. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematuria is when blood in the urine is invisible to the naked eye; it only shows up ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  18. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  19. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... imbalances in the urine, like too much calcium kidney stones kidney diseases taking certain medicines, like some over- ... is a sign of something more serious — like kidney stones or a specific kidney disease — doctors will treat ...

  20. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  1. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  2. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  3. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  4. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  6. Foamy Urine: What Does It Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Urine color What does it mean when urine looks foamy? Should I be concerned if it doesn't go away after a ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urine-color/expert-answers/foamy-urine/FAQ-20057871 . Mayo Clinic ...

  7. Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L

    2011-04-01

    Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition.

  8. Measurement uncertainty for the determination of amphetamines in urine by liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Franco de Oliveira, Sarah Carobini Werner de Souza Eller; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of amphetamines in urine samples by means of liquid-phase microextraction was validated, including calculation of measurement uncertainty. After extraction in the three-phase mode, acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber and the residue was derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The method showed to be very simple, rapid and it required a significantly low amount of organic solvent for extraction. The limits of detection were 10 and 20μg/L for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the specified range (20μg/L to 1400μg/L; r(2)>0.99). The method showed to be both precise and accurate and a relative combined uncertainty of 2% was calculated. In order of importance, the factors which were more determinant for the calculation of method uncertainty were: analyte concentration, sample volume, trueness and method precision.

  9. Urine flow rate monitoring in hypovolemic multiple trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Klein, Yoram; Toledano, Ronen; Koyfman, Leonid; Frank, Dmitry; Shamir, Micha Y; Klein, Moti

    2017-01-01

    The urine output is an important clinical parameter of renal function and blood volume status, especially in critically ill multiple trauma patients. In the present study, the minute-to-minute urine flow rate and its variability were analyzed in hypotensive multiple trauma patients during the first 6 h of their ICU (intensive care unit) stay. These parameters have not been previously reported. The study was retrospective and observational. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the computerized Register Information Systems. A total of 59 patients were included in the study. The patients were divided into two study groups. Group 1 consisted of 29 multiple trauma patients whose systolic blood pressure was greater than 90 mmHg on admission to the ICU and who were consequently deemed to be hemodynamically compromised. Group 2 consisted of 30 patients whose systolic blood pressure was less than 90 mmHg on admission to the ICU and who were therefore regarded as hemodynamically uncompromised. The urine output and urine flow rate variability during the first 6 h of the patients' ICU stay was significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (p < 0.001 and 0.006 respectively). Statistical analysis by the Pearson method demonstrated a strong direct correlation between decreased urine flow rate variability and decreased urine output per hour (R = 0.17; P = 0.009), decreased mean arterial blood pressure (R = 0.24; p = 0.001), and increased heart rate (R = 0.205; p = 0.001). These findings suggest that minute-to-minute urine flow rate variability is a reliable incipient marker of hypovolemia and that it should therefore take its place among the parameters used to monitor the hemodynamic status of critically ill multiple trauma patients.

  10. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  11. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  12. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  13. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C.; Grassi, G.

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  14. An automatic critical care urine meter.

    PubMed

    Otero, Abraham; Fernandez, Roemi; Apalkov, Andrey; Armada, Manuel

    2012-09-26

    Nowadays patients admitted to critical care units have most of their physiological parameters measured automatically by sophisticated commercial monitoring devices. More often than not, these devices supervise whether the values of the parameters they measure lie within a pre-established range, and issue warning of deviations from this range by triggering alarms. The automation of measuring and supervising tasks not only discharges the healthcare staff of a considerable workload but also avoids human errors in these repetitive and monotonous tasks. Arguably, the most relevant physiological parameter that is still measured and supervised manually by critical care unit staff is urine output (UO). In this paper we present a patent-pending device that provides continuous and accurate measurements of patient's UO. The device uses capacitive sensors to take continuous measurements of the height of the column of liquid accumulated in two chambers that make up a plastic container. The first chamber, where the urine inputs, has a small volume. Once it has been filled it overflows into a second bigger chamber. The first chamber provides accurate UO measures of patients whose UO has to be closely supervised, while the second one avoids the need for frequent interventions by the nursing staff to empty the container.

  15. An Automatic Critical Care Urine Meter

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Abraham; Fernández, Roemi; Apalkov, Andrey; Armada, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays patients admitted to critical care units have most of their physiological parameters measured automatically by sophisticated commercial monitoring devices. More often than not, these devices supervise whether the values of the parameters they measure lie within a pre-established range, and issue warning of deviations from this range by triggering alarms. The automation of measuring and supervising tasks not only discharges the healthcare staff of a considerable workload but also avoids human errors in these repetitive and monotonous tasks. Arguably, the most relevant physiological parameter that is still measured and supervised manually by critical care unit staff is urine output (UO). In this paper we present a patent-pending device that provides continuous and accurate measurements of patient's UO. The device uses capacitive sensors to take continuous measurements of the height of the column of liquid accumulated in two chambers that make up a plastic container. The first chamber, where the urine inputs, has a small volume. Once it has been filled it overflows into a second bigger chamber. The first chamber provides accurate UO measures of patients whose UO has to be closely supervised, while the second one avoids the need for frequent interventions by the nursing staff to empty the container. PMID:23201988

  16. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy.

  17. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  18. Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.

    PubMed

    Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates.

  19. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of hazardous wastes and urine from rats fed these wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Inmon, J.P.; Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.; Pasley, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    15 hazardous industrial-waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes were also evaluated. 7 of the crude wastes were mutagenic, but only 2 of the extracts of these 7 wastes were mutagenic; extracts of 2 additional wastes also were mutagenic. In addition, 10 of the crude wastes were administered by gavage to F-344 rats, and 24-h urine samples were collected. Of the 10 raw urines evaluated, 3 were mutagenic in strain TA98 in the presence of S9 and beta-glucuronidase. The 3 crude wastes that produced these 3 mutagenic urines were, themselves, mutagenic. Adequate volumes of 6 of the 10 raw urines were available for extraction/concentration. These 6 urines were incubated with beta-glucuronidase and eluted through Sep-Pak C18 columns; the methanol eluates of 3 of the urines were mutagenic, and these were the same 3 whose raw urines also were mutagenic. In general, the C18/methanol extraction procedure reduced the cytotoxicity and increased the mutagenic potency of the urines. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of the mutagenicity of urine from rodents exposed to hazardous wastes.

  20. Measurement of urine crystallites and its influencing factors by nanoparticle size analyzer.

    PubMed

    Gui, Bao-Song; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Jing; Li, Mei-Ru; He, Jie-Yu; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2010-08-01

    The difference of urine crystallites under 1000 nm in 10 patients with urolithiasis and 10 healthy subjects with no history of urolithiasis was comparatively studied with the nanoparticle size analyzer. By comparing the differences of intensity-autocorrelation curve, polydispersity index (PDI), Zeta potential, and relative error of average diameter of the two kinds of urine crystallites, it was concluded that the urine crystallites of healthy subjects were more stable than those of patients. The urine crystallites of healthy subjects had a narrower size distribution from 100 nm to 350 nm and a better dispersion (PDI < 0.3). However, the urine crystallites of patients with urolithiasis had a wider distribution from dozens of nanometers to 1000 nm and a worse dispersion (PDI > 0.5). The best processing method for urine crystallites detection was found: after antisepticising and protein-coagulating with formaldehyde, the urine was diluted with distilled water of the same volume, then filtrated through a micropore film of 3 microm, and the filtrate was centrifugalized at 4000 rpm for 15 minutes. This method can remove the cell fragments and macromolecular substances in the urine without affecting the detection of the urine crystallites under 1000 nm. The results were consistent with those obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  1. Ratios for estimating logging residue in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1981-01-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating the volume of logging residue for any location in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. They show cubic-foot volume of logging residue per 1,000 board feet of timber harvested and per acre harvested. Tables show gross and net volumes, with and without bark. The volumes of live and dead and cull residue at the time of harvest are also given...

  2. Aviator’s Urine Collection Devices: Preliminary Laboratory Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-09

    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) adopted a UCD, the Disposable Absorption Containment Trunk (DACT), which is a diaper -like device for high...500 for each diaper that can be worn once, then discarded even ifnot used to collect urine.3 Under normal conditions, a woman has a certain bladder...regardless of bladder volume. Urge incontinence , the involuntary loss ofurine associated with a strong desire to void, may be related to both urinary

  3. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  4. In vitro monitoring of natural thorium in urine using fluorimeter.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, S; Lakshmanan, A R; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2011-12-15

    A relatively less expensive and less time consuming radio analytical technique for quantitative determination of Th(nat) in urine at mBq level is developed and reported in this paper. Th in urine is co-precipitated with Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) from wet oxidized urine matrix and the precipitate is dissolved in HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in 3M HCl and 200mg of Na-EDTA is added to mask Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. Th(4+) is extracted into 0.01M PC-88A (2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester), dissolved in toluene from the experimentally optimized pH 2.5 ± 0.3 in aqueous phase. Th(4+) is stripped into 8.0M HCl and evaporated to dryness. The content of the beaker is dissolved in pH 1.8 HCl and complexed with 3-hydroxy flavone. The sample is excited at 397 nm and fluorescence intensity is measured at 462 nm. The detailed study of the method is presented in this paper. Interference study on elements that are normally present in urine and other actinides (if present) is also given.

  5. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a urine dipstick test may point to a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney disease, diabetes, or a urinary tract injury. If test results are abnormal, other tests will be needed before a definite diagnosis can be made. Preparation No preparation other than ...

  6. MELFI Urine Sample First Insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-11

    ISS019-E-005715 (11 April 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, performs an insertion of urine samples into the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) study in the Japanese Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  7. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  8. Logging utilization research in the Pacific Northwest: residue prediction and unique research challenges

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2015-01-01

    Logging utilization research results have informed land managers of changes in utilization of forest growing stock for more than 40 years. The logging utilization residue ratio- growing stock residue volume/mill delivered volume- can be applied to historic or projected timber harvest volumes to predict woody residue volumes at varied spatial scales. Researchers at the...

  9. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... is detected in a urine sample collected at random , over 4 hours, or overnight, the test may ... both albumin and creatinine are measured in a random urine sample and an albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ...

  10. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematuria is a symptom. Microscopic hematuria has no visible signs. Doctors will only know someone has it ... kidney function urine tests to look for protein, calcium, and creatinine (a waste product found in urine) ...

  11. Fatal water intoxication of an Army trainee during urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Frank D; Gardner, John W

    2002-05-01

    An Army trainee developed acute water intoxication, hyponatremia, pulmonary edema, and fatal cerebral edema. This is the first report of a fatality related to urine drug testing. This resulted from supervised excessive water ingestion in an attempt to induce a sufficient urine specimen for substance abuse testing. To avoid a similar preventable death in the future, we make several recommendations. These include limiting the volume of ingested fluid to eight ounces every 30 to 45 minutes, not to exceed 40 ounces, and providing a relaxed, reassuring environment when obtaining urine specimens for substance abuse detection.

  12. Male urine signals social rank in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Eduardo N; Hubbard, Peter C; Almeida, Olinda G; Miranda, António; Canário, Adelino VM

    2007-01-01

    Background The urine of freshwater fish species investigated so far acts as a vehicle for reproductive pheromones affecting the behaviour and physiology of the opposite sex. However, the role of urinary pheromones in intra-sexual competition has received less attention. This is particularly relevant in lek-breeding species, such as the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), where males establish dominance hierarchies and there is the possibility for chemical communication in the modulation of aggression among males. To investigate whether males use urine during aggressive interactions, we measured urination frequency of dye-injected males during paired interactions between size-matched males. Furthermore, we assessed urinary volume stored in the bladder of males in a stable social hierarchy and the olfactory potency of their urine by recording of the electro-olfactogram. Results Males released urine in pulses of short duration (about one second) and markedly increased urination frequency during aggressive behaviour, but did not release urine whilst submissive. In the stable hierarchy, subordinate males stored less urine than males of higher social rank; the olfactory potency of the urine was positively correlated with the rank of the male donor. Conclusion Dominant males store urine and use it as a vehicle for odorants actively released during aggressive disputes. The olfactory potency of the urine is positively correlated with the social status of the male. We suggest that males actively advertise their dominant status through urinary odorants which may act as a 'dominance' pheromone to modulate aggression in rivals, thereby contributing to social stability within the lek. PMID:18076759

  13. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color.

  14. Anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A B; Mandavia, D R; Barvaliya, M J; Baxi, S N; Tripathi, C B

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine) on ethylene glycol (EG) induced renal calculi. 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups) received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups) received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value < 0.05) It also significantly restored kidney weight. (p value < 0.05) Cow urine ark inhibited 40% and 35% crystallization of CaOx and calcium phosphate, respectively. Cow urine ark is effective in prevention and treatment of EG induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats.

  15. Changes in urination according to the sound of running water using a mobile phone application.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Whi-An; Kim, Sung Han; Kim, Sohee; Joung, Jae Young; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Sang-Jin; Seo, Ho Kyung

    2015-01-01

    The sound of running water (SRW) has been effectively used for toilet training during toddlerhood. However, the effect of SRW on voiding functions in adult males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has not been evaluated. To determine the effect of SRW on urination in male patients with LUTS, multiple voiding parameters of uroflowmetry with postvoid residual urine (PVR) were assessed according to the presence of SRW played by a mobile application. Eighteen consecutive male patients with LUTS were prospectively enrolled between March and April 2014. Uroflowmetry with PVR measured by a bladder scan was randomly performed once weekly for two consecutive weeks with and without SRW in a completely sealed room after pre-checked bladder volume was scanned to be more than 150 cc. SRW was played with river water sounds amongst relaxed melodies from a smartphone mobile application. The mean age of enrolled patients and their mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were 58.9 ± 7.7 years (range: 46-70) and 13.1 ± 5.9, respectively. All patients had not been prescribed any medications, including alpha-blockers or anti-muscarinic agents, in the last 3 months. There was a significant increase in mean peak flow rate (PFR) with SRW in comparison to without SRW (15.7 mL/s vs. 12.3 mL/s, respectively, p = 0.0125). However, there were no differences in other uroflowmetric parameters, including PVR. The study showed that SRW from a mobile phone application may be helpful in facilitating voiding functions by increasing PFR in male LUTS patients.

  16. Changes in Urination According to the Sound of Running Water Using a Mobile Phone Application

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohee; Joung, Jae Young; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Sang-Jin; Seo, Ho Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The sound of running water (SRW) has been effectively used for toilet training during toddlerhood. However, the effect of SRW on voiding functions in adult males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has not been evaluated. To determine the effect of SRW on urination in male patients with LUTS, multiple voiding parameters of uroflowmetry with postvoid residual urine (PVR) were assessed according to the presence of SRW played by a mobile application. Methods Eighteen consecutive male patients with LUTS were prospectively enrolled between March and April 2014. Uroflowmetry with PVR measured by a bladder scan was randomly performed once weekly for two consecutive weeks with and without SRW in a completely sealed room after pre-checked bladder volume was scanned to be more than 150 cc. SRW was played with river water sounds amongst relaxed melodies from a smartphone mobile application. Results The mean age of enrolled patients and their mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were 58.9 ± 7.7 years (range: 46–70) and 13.1 ± 5.9, respectively. All patients had not been prescribed any medications, including alpha-blockers or anti-muscarinic agents, in the last 3 months. There was a significant increase in mean peak flow rate (PFR) with SRW in comparison to without SRW (15.7 mL/s vs. 12.3 mL/s, respectively, p = 0.0125). However, there were no differences in other uroflowmetric parameters, including PVR. Conclusions The study showed that SRW from a mobile phone application may be helpful in facilitating voiding functions by increasing PFR in male LUTS patients. PMID:25978378

  17. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  18. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  19. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric quantitation of sulfamethazine and its metabolites: direct analysis of swine urine by triple quadrupole and by ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, G; Pieraccini, G; Villanelli, F; Moneti, G; Triolo, A

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a new method for the quantitation of trace amounts of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and its main metabolite, N4-acetylsulfamethazine (Ac-SMZ), in swine urine, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometric analysis of crude urine after addition of internal standard and simple dilution with water. The aim was to determine whether residues of this sulfamidic drug, normally administered to swine in order to prevent infectious diseases, were present in urine at levels lower than those permitted by regulatory authorities before human consumption (EU Project SMT, contract number CT 96-2092). A 10 microL volume of diluted urine was injected into a very short, narrow-bore chromatographic column (Zorbax SB-C18 2.1 i. d. x30 mm length, 3.5 microm pore size). Elution of the analytes of interest was achieved in less than seven minutes using a rapid gradient (from 20 to 80% methanol in 3 minutes). Either a PE Sciex API 365 triple quadrupole (QqQ), operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, or a Finnigan LCQ ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer, operated in narrow-range product ion scan, was used as the final detector. Electrospray (ESI) was used as the ionization technique. A comparison of the two tandem mass spectrometers was performed by analyzing the same set of test samples, at three concentration levels, on three different days. Linearity of responses of the calibration standards, intra- and inter-assay precision of the samples, specificity and limits of detection were evaluated for both systems. Both the QqQ and the IT instrument was suitable for rapid, sensitive and specific determination of the analytes, although the overall performance of the QqQ was slightly superior in terms of linearity, precision and sensitivity.

  20. Catecholamines in urine after death.

    PubMed

    Tormey, W P; Carney, M; FitzGerald, R J

    1999-07-12

    Noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical detection and related to urine creatinine in 30 specimens from unselected autopsies. Values calculated from patients with essential hypertension were used as a reference and raised values of noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine were found in 76.6, 80 and 23.3%, respectively. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, there was no difference between the 11 patients with myocardial infarction and the seven who died from severe head injury or multiple trauma. The median values in mmol/mol creatinine for patients with myocardial infarction and trauma were 0.07 and 0.12 for noradrenaline and 0.012 and 0.024 for adrenaline, respectively. Physiological stress is common before death and urine noradrenaline values at autopsy overlap those found in some normal subjects and at autopsy in patients with phaeochromocytoma.

  1. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  2. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  3. Urine concentrating and diluting ability during aging.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Urine concentrating ability is reduced during normal aging in people and rats. The abundance of many of the key transport proteins that contribute to urine concentrating ability is reduced in the kidney medulla of aged rats. The reductions in water, sodium, and urea transport protein abundances, and their reduced response to water restriction, contribute to the reduced ability of aged rats to concentrate their urine and conserve water. If similar mechanisms occur in human kidneys, it would provide a molecular explanation for the reduced urine concentrating ability in aging and may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to improve urine concentrating ability and/or nocturnal polyuria.

  4. Incremental Hemodialysis, Residual Kidney Function, and Mortality Risk in Incident Dialysis Patients: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Ravel, Vanessa; Amin, Alpesh N; Cupisti, Adamasco; Chen, Jing; Mathew, Anna T; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis is typically prescribed thrice weekly irrespective of a patient's residual kidney function (RKF). We hypothesized that a less frequent schedule at hemodialysis therapy initiation is associated with greater preservation of RKF without compromising survival among patients with substantial RKF. A longitudinal cohort. 23,645 patients who initiated maintenance hemodialysis therapy in a large dialysis organization in the United States (January 2007 to December 2010), had available RKF data during the first 91 days (or quarter) of dialysis, and survived the first year. Incremental (routine twice weekly for >6 continuous weeks during the first 91 days upon transition to dialysis) versus conventional (thrice weekly) hemodialysis regimens during the same time. Changes in renal urea clearance and urine volume during 1 year after the first quarter and survival after the first year. Among 23,645 included patients, 51% had substantial renal urea clearance (≥3.0mL/min/1.73m(2)) at baseline. Compared with 8,068 patients with conventional hemodialysis regimens matched based on baseline renal urea clearance, urine volume, age, sex, diabetes, and central venous catheter use, 351 patients with incremental regimens exhibited 16% (95% CI, 5%-28%) and 15% (95% CI, 2%-30%) more preserved renal urea clearance and urine volume at the second quarter, respectively, which persisted across the following quarters. Incremental regimens showed higher mortality risk in patients with inadequate baseline renal urea clearance (≤3.0mL/min/1.73m(2); HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.44), but not in those with higher baseline renal urea clearance (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76-1.28). Results were similar in a subgroup defined by baseline urine volume of 600mL/d. Potential selection bias and wide CIs. Among incident hemodialysis patients with substantial RKF, incremental hemodialysis may be a safe treatment regimen and is associated with greater preservation of RKF, whereas higher mortality

  5. Urine biomarkers in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ploussard, Guillaume; de la Taille, Alexandre

    2010-02-01

    The deficiencies of serum PSA as a prostate-cancer-specific diagnostic test are well recognized. Thus, the development of novel biomarkers for prostate cancer detection remains an important and exciting challenge. Noninvasive urine-based tests are particularly attractive candidates for large-scale screening protocols, and biomarker discovery programs using urine samples have emerged for detecting and predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Some new biomarkers already outperform serum PSA in the diagnosis of this disease. Currently, the PCA3 (prostate cancer antigen 3) urine test is probably the best adjunct to serum PSA for predicting biopsy outcome, and has proven its clinical relevance by surpassing the predictive abilities of traditional serum biomarkers. New research methods are also emerging, and high-throughput technologies will facilitate high-dimensional biomarker discovery. Future approaches will probably integrate proteomic, transcriptomic and multiplex approaches to detect novel biomarkers, and aim to identify combinations of multiple biomarkers to optimize the detection of prostate cancer. In addition, an unmet need remains for markers that differentiate indolent from aggressive cancers, to better inform treatment decisions.

  6. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis.

    PubMed

    İnce, Fatma Demet; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Koseoğlu, Mehmet; Şimşek, Neşe; Yalçın, Hülya; Zengin, Mustafa Osman

    2016-08-01

    Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (İris Diagnostics, USA), Dirui FUS-200 (DIRUI Industrial Co., China) automatic urine sediment analyzers and by manual microscopic examination. The degree of concordance (Kappa coefficient) and the rates within the same grading were evaluated. For erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, bacteria, crystals and yeasts, the degree of concordance between the two instruments was better than the degree of concordance between the manual microscopic method and the individual devices. There was no concordance between all methods for casts. The results from the automated analyzers for erythrocytes, leukocytes and epithelial cells were similar to the result of microscopic examination. However, in order to avoid any error or uncertainty, some images (particularly: dysmorphic cells, bacteria, yeasts, casts and crystals) have to be analyzed by manual microscopic examination by trained staff. Therefore, the software programs which are used in automatic urine sediment analysers need further development to recognize urinary shaped elements more accurately. Automated systems are important in terms of time saving and standardization.

  7. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  8. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  9. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  10. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  11. Determination of penicillin G in heavy sow urine using immunochromatographic assay and microbial inhibition swab tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Penicillin is a commonly used antibiotic in food animals. Unfortunately, violative penicillin residues in animal carcasses are sometimes identified by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Ante-mortem matrices such as urine could prove valuable for predicting possible violativ...

  12. Current state of the art for enhancing urine biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Harpole, Michael; Davis, Justin; Espina, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a highly desirable biospecimen for biomarker analysis because it can be collected recurrently by non-invasive techniques, in relatively large volumes. Urine contains cellular elements, biochemicals, and proteins derived from glomerular filtration of plasma, renal tubule excretion, and urogenital tract secretions that reflect, at a given time point, an individual's metabolic and pathophysiologic state. High-resolution mass spectrometry, coupled with state of the art fractionation systems are revealing the plethora of diagnostic/prognostic proteomic information existing within urinary exosomes, glycoproteins, and proteins. Affinity capture pre-processing techniques such as combinatorial peptide ligand libraries and biomarker harvesting hydrogel nanoparticles are enabling measurement/identification of previously undetectable urinary proteins. Future challenges in the urinary proteomics field include a) defining either single or multiple, universally applicable data normalization methods for comparing results within and between individual patients/data sets, and b) defining expected urinary protein levels in healthy individuals. PMID:27232439

  13. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  14. Analysis of goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis L., and related alkaloids in urine using HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Michelle L; Brettell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A screening method was developed to extract and detect berberine and hydrastine alkaloids from goldenseal root powder and urine samples using HPLC with UV detection. The isocratic method was developed to detect alkaloids in 5 mL of urine prior to drug screening. Urine samples were spiked with the alkaloids at varying concentrations and extracted twice with 3:1 chloroform:2-propanol (CHCl(3):2-propanol). The extracts were combined, concentrated using nitrogen gas and the residue was then reconstituted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:buffer (32:68). A 17 min isocratic run time was performed with a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min, and UV detection at 230 nm using a C(18) (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column at room temperature. The method showed good linearity for berberine (r(2)=0.9990) and hydrastine (r(2)=0.9983) over a range of 11.80 ng/mL to 17.64 μg/mL. The LOD for berberine in urine was 12.74 ng/mL and the LOD for hydrastine in urine was 54.48 ng/mL. Urine samples were spiked with goldenseal root powder and liquid extract as part of a blinded study to determine whether berberine and hydrastine alkaloids could also be extracted in vitro from goldenseal and show a presence in urine samples. Out of the 37 blinded urine samples extracted the two spiked samples were correctly identified based on the presence or absence of berberine and hydrastine. The results demonstrated that this method will enable laboratories to test for the herbal supplement in submitted urine samples prior to drug testing, avoiding false negative results.

  15. Understanding Measurements of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Humans with Urine Lactulose and Mannitol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Lamsam, Jesse; Nord, Sara Linker; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Sweetser, Seth; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Singh, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to understand the information from differential two-sugar excretion (2-SE) in measuring intestinal permeability. In a crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers, we compared urinary excretion ratios of lactulose (L) to mannitol [(M) LMR] after ingestion in liquid formulation (LF) or in delayed-release, methacrylate-coated capsules (CAP). Both formulations were radiolabeled. Urine was collected every 2 hours from 0–8h, and from 8–24h. Two hours after LF, gastric residual was 15.9 ± 6.2 % (SEM), and the percentage in colon was 49.6 ± 7.8 %; in 11/12 participants, liquid had entered colon within 2h. Average CAP arrival time in colon was 5.16 ± 0.46h (mode 6 h). After LF, mannitol was extensively absorbed in the first 8h; lactulose absorption was low thoughout the 24h. After the LF, the LMR (geometric mean, 95% CI/hour) in the 0–2h urine was 0.08 [0.05, 0.11]), which was lower than in 8–24h urine (0.32,[0.16, 0.46]; p<0.05). Urine LMRs at 8–24h were similar after LF or CAP. We concluded that, after LF, sugar excretion in 0–2h urine may reflect both SI and colon permeability. Colonic permeability is reflected by urine sugar excretion between 6 and 24h. CAP delivery reduces mannitol excreted at 0–6h, compared to LF. The 0 to 5 or 6h 2-SE urine likely reflects both SI and colon permeability; the higher LMR in the 8–24h urine relative to 0–2h urine should be interpreted with caution and does not mean that colon is more permeable than SI. PMID:19614866

  16. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  17. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since.

  18. Papain: a novel urine adulterant.

    PubMed

    Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the

  19. A brief review of Rhazes, Avicenna, and Jorjani's views on diagnosis of diseases through urine examination.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Mohsen; Haghverdi, Farshid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    The present survey aims at studying the opinions of three famous medical scholars in history (Rhazes, Avicinna, and Jorjani) on the diagnosis of diseases via urine examination and their compatiblity with modern science. Refering to original authentic sources in traditional medicine, including Al-Hawi (The Virtuous Life), Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi (Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm), and Al-Canon fi al Tibb (The Canon on Medicine), we compared the ideas of the authors with modern medicine. In traditional medicine, physicians would pay attention to the methods of urine collection and urinary features such as color, consistency, volume, frequency, odor, and foam as the means of diagnosis, all of which still serve as the bases for today's diagnostic approach. Moreover, symptoms of the diagnosis of the disease through urine are consistent in tradition and modern medicine; some examples are blood in the urine (hematuria), decreased urine output (oliguria), change in urine color together with headache (Alport syndrome), diluted urine (tubular dysfunction in reabsorption of water or initial polydipsy), and urinary floor with tiny bubbles (one of the main symptoms of proteinuria).

  20. Preservation of residual renal function with limited water removal in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zongli; Zhang, Dongliang; Dai, Wendi; Ding, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Aihua; Liu, Wenhu

    2011-01-01

    Residual renal function (RRF) is of paramount importance for hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, morbidity, and mortality. Some studies have shown that overhydration is beneficial for preservation of RRF, but it can also increase the probability of adverse events such as hypertension and heart failure in HD patients. To determine the optimal amount of dehydration, we performed HD with limited water removal in HD patients. Eighteen HD patients included in this self-controlled study underwent HD with limited water removal. Water removal volume was determined by a previous volume as follows. Total water removal volume was divided into levels: ≤3.0, 3.0-9.0, and >9.0 L per week. Water removal was performed to obtain dry weight in the last dialysis, and was performed three times with a ratio of 1:1:2 and 2:2:3, respectively. Urine volume, endogenous creatinine clearance rate, Kt/V, hemoglobin, and serum albumin were recorded before and after the study at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The follow-up period was 12 months. Ten patients withdrew from the study because of adverse events including hypertension (n = 3), heart failure (n = 3), angina (n = 1), polycystic kidney rupture (n = 1), obvious edema (n = 1), and one patient had too much interdialytic weight gain to continue. As a result, we stopped this study after 1 month. Our data suggest that the preservation of RRF with limited water removal in HD patients must be interpreted with caution.

  1. Does a high concentration of calcium in the urine cause an important renal concentrating defect in human subjects?

    PubMed

    Lam, G S; Asplin, J R; Halperin, M L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that a high concentration of ionized calcium in the lumen of the medullary collecting duct causes an osmole-free water diuresis. The urine flow rate and osmolality were measured in normal human subjects, as well as in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis who excreted more than 5 mmol of calcium per 24 h. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of calcium in the urine and the 24 h urine volume both in normal subjects and in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. When the concentration of calcium in the urine was greater than 5 mmol/l, the urine volume was less than 1 litre per day in the majority of subjects. After 16 h of water deprivation, when the concentration of calcium in the urine was as high as 17 mmol/l (ionized calcium 7.4 mmol/l), urine osmolality was 1258 mOsm/kg of water and the urine flow rate was 0.30 ml/min. We conclude that, although a calcium receptor may be present in the lumen of the medullary collecting duct in human subjects, an extremely high concentration of urinary total and ionized calcium does not cause a clinically important defect in the renal concentrating process.

  2. Spot urine tests in predicting 24-hour urine sodium excretion in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Srinivas; Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Koh, Yun Yin; Li, Jialiang; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C

    2013-11-01

    The control of hypertension is often suboptimal, and it is frequently due to excessive sodium intake. Monitoring sodium intake is cumbersome and involves 24-hour collection of urine. We hypothesize that a spot urine test can accurately predict 24-hour urine sodium excretion in an Asian population. This is a prospective, observational study. We used stored urine specimens (n = 333) from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and Singapore Kidney Function Study Phase I. We measured spot urine tests and correlated these variables to the previously measured 24-hour urine sodium measurements. Age, gender, ethnicity, diastolic blood pressure, height, weight, body mass index, serum creatinine, spot urine sodium, spot urine chloride, and spot urine osmolality were associated with 24-hour urine sodium excretion. The final model for predicting 24-hour urine sodium less than 100 mmol included age, gender, ethnicity, weight, and spot urine sodium. Spot urine sodium can help monitor a patient's sodium intake when used in the derived 5-variable equation. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings.

  4. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-05-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of normal and pathological urine was studied. The presence of pathological salts leads to extinguishing of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional stripes with maxima nearly 118 and 205K, except of characteristic stripes with the maxima nearly 173 and 260K. TSL stripes depend on urine constituents. The comparison of TSL intensity of normal and pathological urine is carried out and energies of thermal activation are determined for most intensive TSL stripes.

  5. Behavioral and pharmacologic approaches to problem urination in cats.

    PubMed

    Hart, B L

    1996-05-01

    Problem urination is the most frequent feline behavior problem for which veterinary consultation is sought. The first step is to differentiate between inappropriate urination and urine marking. This is an array of behavioral approaches that are particularly useful with inappropriate urination and may also be useful with urine marking. Anti-anxiety drugs may be used if behavioral approaches are not effective in treating urine marking or inappropriate urination.

  6. Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

    2004-11-05

    Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human.

  7. Comparison of logging residue from lump sum and log scale timber sales.

    Treesearch

    James O Howard; Donald J. DeMars

    1985-01-01

    Data from 1973 and 1980 logging residues studies were used to compare the volume of residue from lump sum and log scale timber sales. Covariance analysis was used to adjust the mean volume for each data set for potential variation resulting from differences in stand conditions. Mean residue volumes from the two sale types were significantly different at the 5-percent...

  8. Optimization of screening for radioactivity in urine by liquid scintillation.

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Reese, Robert P.; Preston, Rose T.

    2007-08-01

    Numerous events have or could have resulted in the inadvertent uptake of radionuclides by fairly large populations. Should a population receive an uptake, valuable information could be obtained by using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques to quickly screen urine from a sample of the affected population. This study investigates such LSC parameters as discrimination, quench, volume, and count time to yield guidelines for analyzing urine in an emergency situation. Through analyzing variations of the volume and their relationships to the minimum detectable activity (MDA), the optimum ratio of sample size to scintillating chemical cocktail was found to be 1:3. Using this optimum volume size, the alpha MDA varied from 2100 pCi/L for a 30-second count time to 35 pCi/L for a 1000-minute count time. The typical count time used by the Sandia National Laboratories Radiation Protection Sample Diagnostics program is 30 minutes, which yields an alpha MDA of 200 pCi/L. Because MDA is inversely proportional to the square root of the count time, count time can be reduced in an emergency situation to achieve the desired MDA or response time. Note that approximately 25% of the response time is used to prepare the samples and complete the associated paperwork. It was also found that if the nuclide of interest is an unknown, pregenerated discriminator settings and efficiency calibrations can be used to produce an activity value within a factor of two, which is acceptable for a screening method.

  9. Effect of processing on 14C-chlorfenvinphos residues in maize oil and bioavailability of its cake residues on rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, F M; El-Maghraby, S I

    2010-05-01

    Maize seeds obtained from 14C-chlorfenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and cake amounted to 10%, 6% and 69%, respectively of original residues inside the seeds. The 14C-activity in the crude oil could be a gradually reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are the most effective steps in these processes. The refined oil contained small amount of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain the parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailability. After feeding rats for five days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5%), while about 20% excreted in the feces. About 15% of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs.

  10. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  11. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  12. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive

    2016-11-01

    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  13. Recommendations for provoked challenge urine testing.

    PubMed

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2013-12-01

    "Urine mobilization test," "challenge test," and "provoked urine test" are all terms used to describe the administration of a chelating agent to a person prior to collection of their urine to test for metals. There is no standard, validated challenge test. Despite recommendations by professional and government organizations against the use of provoked urine testing, the tests are still commonly used and recommended by some practitioners. Challenge testing utilizes a variety of chelating agents, including dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The agents are given by a variety of routes of administration, doses used are inconsistent, and urine collection procedures vary. Additional problems with challenge tests include comparison of results to inappropriate reference ranges and creatinine correction of urine obtained within hours of chelator administration. Human volunteer studies demonstrate that mercury is detected in the urine of most people even in the absence of known exposure or chelator administration, and that urinary mercury excretion rises after administration of a chelator, regardless of exposure history and in an unpredictable fashion. Studies also demonstrate that challenge testing fails to reveal a "body burden" of mercury due to remote exposure. Chelating agents have been associated with adverse reactions. Current evidence does not support the use of DMPS, DMSA, or other chelation challenge tests for the diagnosis of metal toxicity. Since there are no established reference ranges for provoked urine samples in healthy subjects, no reliable evidence to support a diagnostic value for the tests, and potential harm, these tests should not be utilized.

  14. Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

  15. Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

  16. Odorous urine following asparagus ingestion in man.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S C; Waring, R H; Land, D; Thorpe, W V

    1987-04-15

    The production of odorous urine after the ingestion of asparagus has been shown to occur in 43% of 800 volunteers investigated. This characteristic is reproducible over a 12-month-period and has been shown to remain with individuals for virtually a lifetime. Family studies suggest that the ability to produce the odorous urine is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

  17. An update on purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Taro; Takada, Shimon; Inoue, Toshiya; Sorano, Sumire

    2012-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.

  18. [Remifentanil does not increase urine output during oral surgery, contrary to its effect during other surgeries - a cohort study].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    An increase in urine output by remifentanil injection during laparoscopic procedures and surgeries such as cardiac and gynecological procedures, due to suppression of the stress response to surgery, has been reported. The aim of our prospective, observational, cohort study was to assess the effect of remifentanil analgesia on urine output during dental and minor oral surgery by comparing intraoperative urine output under defined infusion volumes with and without the use of remifentanil. Dental patients aged 16 years or older, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1, with no renal diseases or abnormal blood values of serum creatinine and BUN, not on treatment with diuretic drugs, and undergoing minor oro-maxillofacial surgery or dental treatment under inhalation general anesthesia were included in this study. Urethral catheterization was performed after anesthesia induction, and urine output was measured every 30minutes. We measured urine volume (mL) and rate of urine output (mL.kg(-1).h(-1)) intraoperatively, and compared these parameters between patients who did and did not receive remifentanil during the intraoperative period. Eighty-seven patients were categorized into the remifentanil group (n=43) or remifentanil non-use group (n=44). Both volume of urine (mL) and rate of urine output (mL.kg(-1).h(-1)) were not significantly different between the two groups (remifentanil group, 372.3±273.5mL, 1.8±1.1mL.kg(-1).h(-1); remifentanil non-use group, 343.3±283.3mL, 1.9±1.2mL.kg(-1).h(-1); p=0.63; 0.57). Our results show that use of remifentanil during dental and minor oral surgeries does not increase urine output. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  20. Does low urine creatinine level indicate the presence of urine alcohol in methadone maintenance treatment patients?

    PubMed

    Varenbut, Michael; Plater-Zyberk, Carolyn J; Worster, Andrew; Daiter, Jeff

    2010-07-01

    We sought to test the assumption that a low urine creatinine level is indicative of the presence of alcohol in the urine of patients prescribed methadone. This is a medical record review of 261,055 urine samples from approximately 6,000 patients prescribed methadone during a one-year period and for whom both urine creatinine and ethanol levels were simultaneously measured. We defined a creatinine level of less than 2.26 mmol/L as 'low' used a urine ethanol level of greater than 2.0 mmol/L as the reference standard for alcohol consumption. The sensitivity and specificity of low urine creatinine as a marker for the detection of urine ethanol are 11.9% (95% CI: 11.3, 12.5%) and 96.7% (95% CI: 96.7, 96.7%), respectively. In this patient population with a low (3.6%) prevalence of alcohol in the urine, the results correspond to a positive predictive value of 11.9% (95% CI: 11.3, 12.6%) and a negative predictive value of 96.7% (95% CI: 96.7, 96.7%), respectively. Low urine creatinine is a poor screening test for detecting alcohol consumption among patients on methadone. However, a normal creatinine level has a 96.7% probability of no alcohol urine present in the urine.

  1. Residual Renal Function in Children Treated with Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Residual renal function (RRF) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy is defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins. Preserved RRF improves survival and quality of life in adult ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. In children, RRF was shown not only to help preserve adequacy of renal replacement therapy but also to accelerate growth rate, improve nutrition and blood pressure control, reduce the risk of adverse myocardial changes, facilitate treatment of anemia and calcium-phosphorus balance abnormalities, and result in reduced serum and dialysate fluid levels of advanced glycation end-products. Factors contributing to RRF loss in children treated with peritoneal dialysis include the underlying renal disease such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hereditary nephropathy, small urine volume, severe proteinuria at the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and hypertension. Several approaches can be suggested to decrease the rate of RRF loss in pediatric patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis: potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides), episodes of hypotension, and uncontrolled hypertension should be avoided, urinary tract infections should be treated promptly, and loop diuretics may be used to increase salt and water excretion. PMID:24376376

  2. Determination of colistin in human plasma, urine and other biological samples using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Wang, Jiping; Gerber, Jacobus P; Milne, Robert W

    2008-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify colistin in human plasma and urine, and perfusate and urine from the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPK). Solid phase extraction (SPE) preceded chromatography on a Synergi Fusion-RP column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile, water and acetic acid (80/19/1) at 0.2mL/min. Ions were generated using electrospray ionization and detected in the positive-ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed using precursor-product ion combinations. Calibration curves were linear from 0.028microg/mL (human plasma, IPK perfusate and urine)/0.056microg/mL (human urine) to 1.78microg/mL (all four media) for colistin A sulfate; corresponding values for colistin B sulfate were 0.016/0.032 to 1.01microg/mL. Accuracy and precision were within 10%. The LLOQ for colistin A sulfate was 0.028microg/mL in human plasma, IPK perfusate and urine and 0.056microg/mL in human urine; corresponding values for colistin B sulfate were 0.016 and 0.032microg/mL. The low sample volume, short analysis time and low LLOQ are ideal for pre-clinical and human pharmacokinetic studies of colistin.

  3. Plutonium baseline study in human urine. 1993 Annual report, - Progress report to the DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Salamon, M.; Xue, Ying-Hua

    1993-07-28

    Last year, {sup 239}Pu was identified in 8 liter urine samples. This identification involved the establishment of an elution pattern characteristic of plutonium in which the track number decreased monotonically with volume of plutonium eluted from the column. This elution pattern was observed with urine obtained from middle aged adults born well before the 1960`s and in some younger adults, with less {sup 239}Pu being found in the latter. Both groups were from the general public and had no occupational exposure to plutonium. In addition, last year approximately 11 aCi/liter of {sup 239}Pu was found in synthetic urine. This was a surprising result, although this is a smaller amount than was found in normal human urine. Accordingly,the charges from the Advisory Committee included: (1) Identify the origin of the small amount of {sup 239}Pu found in synthetic urine and eliminate it, if possible; (2) Development of the automated track counting system; (3) Utilization of appropriate plutonium tracer to reduce the variation in the determinations of yield; (4) Collection of urine samples from various geographic locations of Utah and analysis of these samples; (5) Continue inter-laboratory comparison studies with Brookhaven National Laboratory, and other laboratories which possibly may have the capability of determining plutonium at similar levels.

  4. Rapid detection of E. coli cells in urine samples using a self-capacitance touchscreen device.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Jennifer Panugan; Tao Dong

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). E. coli is commonly detected from urine using standard culture method. However, the urine sampling and analysis required for these methods can be costly, time consuming (requires 24 to 48 hours) and labor-intensive. This work proposes a capacitive touch screen sensor concept as possible alternative device for rapid detection of E. coli in urine samples. E. coli solutions prepared at different concentrations and urine samples (with spiked and nor spike E. coli) obtained from healthy women participants, have been analyzed using a capacitance evaluation kit. It has been demonstrated in this study that the use of this evaluation kit provides a low-cost and simple alternative system for detecting E. coli present in urine. Several experimental tests were performed to determine the optimal testing volume, the sensitivity of the sensor, limit of detection and repeatability. The optimal testing volume was 80 microliters and the analytical sensitivity was 17 counts per picofarad (pF). The lowest detectable concentration is around 3.98 × 10(5) CFU/ml. The repeatability (r) was found to be 7.2 or 6.2 % (in r%). The capacitive touch sensor gave promising results that could be used to design and realize a portable diagnostic device for early-stage detection of UTIs.

  5. Abnormal diurnal rhythm of urine output following renal transplantation: the impact of blood pressure and diuretics.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, K; Graugaard-Jensen, C; Rittig, S; Jørgensen, K A

    2010-11-01

    Nocturnal polyuria is the excretion at night of an excessive volume of urine. A major problem following renal transplantation is an abnormal diurnal rhythmicity in urine output. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria among renal transplant recipients in the early period after transplantation as well as at least 1 year after transplantation. We aimed to explore possible pathophysiological mechanisms behind nocturnal polyuria in this group of patients, focusing on the impact of blood pressure and medication. Seventeen recently transplanted patients 17 late transplant recipients, and 17 healthy controls were included in the study. Voiding habits were assessed by completion of a frequency-volume chart recording all fluid intakes and voiding. A concomitant 24-hour blood pressure profile was obtained in all. Renal transplant recipients had a high prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (74%) and a disturbed blood pressure profile with a lack of appropriate nocturnal dipping (P < .0001) compared to controls. We found a positive correlation between increased nocturnal blood pressure and urine output at night (r = .368, P = .008). Patients taking diuretics had a circadian diurnal rhythm of urine output and a blood pressure profile similar to controls. Nocturnal polyuria was very common among both recent and late transplant recipients. A high fluid intake during daytime and hypervolemia were suggested as causes of a disturbed blood pressure profile, which partly seemed to explain the high urine output at night. Daytime diuretics may be an effective treatment of this inconvenient complication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Ion Exchange Adsorbents for Nitrogen Recovery from Source-Separated Urine.

    PubMed

    Tarpeh, William A; Udert, Kai M; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-02-21

    Separate collection of urine, which is only 1% of wastewater volume but contains the majority of nitrogen humans excrete, can potentially reduce the costs and energy input of wastewater treatment and facilitate recovery of nitrogen for beneficial use. Ion exchange was investigated for recovery of nitrogen as ammonium from urine for use as a fertilizer or disinfectant. Cation adsorption curves for four adsorbents (clinoptilolite, biochar, Dowex 50, and Dowex Mac 3) were compared in pure salt solutions, synthetic urine, and real stored urine. Competition from sodium and potassium present in synthetic and real urine did not significantly decrease ammonium adsorption for any of the adsorbents. Dowex 50 and Dowex Mac 3 showed nearly 100% regeneration efficiencies. Estimated ion exchange reactor volumes to capture the nitrogen for 1 week from a four-person household were lowest for Dowex Mac 3 (5 L) and highest for biochar (19 L). Although Dowex Mac 3 had the highest adsorption capacity, material costs ($/g N removed) were lower for clinoptilolite and biochar because of their substantially lower unit cost.

  7. Urine Concentrating Capacity, Vasopressin and Copeptin in ADPKD and IgA Nephropathy Patients with Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Boesten, Lianne S. M.; Duit, A. A. Margreeth; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) patients have an impaired urine concentrating capacity. Increased circulating vasopressin (AVP) concentrations are supposed to play a role in the progression of ADPKD. We hypothesized that ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired urine concentrating capacity in comparison to other patients with chronic kidney disease at a similar level of kidney function, with consequently an enhanced AVP response to water deprivation with higher circulating AVP concentrations. Methods 15 ADPKD (eGFR<60) patients and 15 age-, sex- and eGFR-matched controls with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), underwent a water deprivation test to determine maximal urine concentrating capacity. Plasma and urine osmolality, urine aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and plasma AVP and copeptin (a surrogate marker for AVP) were measured at baseline and after water deprivation (average 16 hours). In ADPKD patients, height adjusted total kidney volume (hTKV) was measured by MRI. Results Maximal achieved urine concentration was lower in ADPKD compared to IgAN controls (533±138 vs. 642±148 mOsm/kg, p = 0.046), with particularly a lower maximal achieved urine urea concentration (223±74 vs. 299±72 mmol/L, p = 0.008). After water deprivation, plasma osmolality was similar in both groups although change in plasma osmolality was more profound in ADPKD due to a lower baseline plasma osmolality in comparison to IgAN controls. Copeptin and AVP increased significantly in a similar way in both groups. AVP, copeptin and urine AQP2 were inversely associated with maximal urine concentrating in both groups. Conclusions ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired maximal urine concentrating capacity with a lower maximal achieved urine urea concentration in comparison to IgAN controls with similar endogenous copeptin and AVP responses. PMID:28081165

  8. Relation between blood- and urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Karlsson, L

    2005-12-01

    Amphetamine undergoes extensive renal excretion and significant amounts are present in urine as the unchanged parent drug. This prompted us to investigate whether a quantitative relationship existed between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine in the body fluids of drug-impaired drivers apprehended in Sweden, where this stimulant is the major drug of abuse. The relationship between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine was determined by multivariate analysis with urinary pH and creatinine as predictor variables. Amphetamine was determined in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with deuterium-labelled internal standards. The concentration of amphetamine in urine was about 200 times greater than the concentration in blood; the mean and median urine/blood ratios were 214 and 160, respectively, with large individual variations. The Pearson correlation coefficient between urine (y) and blood (x) amphetamine was r = 0.53, n = 48, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001), although the residual standard deviation (SD) was large (+/- 181 mg/L). The correlation coefficient increased (r = 0.60) when the concentration of amphetamine in urine was normalized for dilution by dividing with the creatinine content. When urinary pH and creatinine were both included as predictor variables, the correlation coefficient was even higher (r = 0.69), now explaining 48% (r2 = 0.48) of the variation in urine-amphetamine concentration. However, the partial regression coefficient for creatinine (53 +/- 28.7) was not statistically significant (t = 1.85, P > 0.05), whereas the corresponding regression coefficient for pH was highly significant and had a negative sign (-102 +/- 32.6, t= -3.12, P < 0.005). Other factors could impact on the urine-blood amphetamine relationship, such as route of administration, pattern of voiding and time elapsed after use of the drug.

  9. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordun, O. M.; Drobchak, O. Z.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of urine salts in the normal state and with oxalate, urate, and phosphate salts. We found that the presence of pathological salts leads to a decrease of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional TLS bands with maxima at 118 and 205 K in addition to the characteristic bands at 173 and 260 K. The TLS bands are related to the urine components. The TSL intensities of urine salts of different chemical composition are compared. The thermal activation energy of the strongest TSL bands is determined.

  10. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture.

  11. Development of a stand-alone affinity clean-up for lysergic acid diethylamide in urine.

    PubMed

    Francis, J M; Craston, D H

    1996-02-01

    A total analysis scheme for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) from human urine is described. A simple ELISA technique led to the development and optimization of an affinity clean-up cartridge, resulting in high purification factors with a single combined extraction/clean-up step. LSD can be measured with a straightforward HPLC-fluorescence technique, which minimizes operating complexity and process implementation time. The method has been applied to urine containing 0.5 ng ml-1 LDS, and the ability of high-affinity materials to preconcentrate a sample into a small volume should allow the working range of the procedure to be adjusted as required.

  12. Determination of gentian violet in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rushing, L G; Bowman, M C

    1980-05-01

    Sensitive and specific procedures are described for the analysis of residues of gentian violet in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels of 1000 ppm down to 10 ppb, 1 ppb, and 10 ppb, respectively. The cleaned-up extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography by using an absorption detector at 588 nm. Recoveries of the compound from animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at the 10 ppb level were 79%, 58%, and 60%, respectively. Information concerning the stability of the compound in animal feed and the efficiency of extracting the residues is presented. Ancillary information is also reported concerning the separation and analysis of six related triphenylmethane dyes.

  13. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  14. [Positive urine pneumococcal antigen test and vaccination].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Botrán, Alejandro; Martín-Rico, Patricia; Valdivia, Antonio; Pellicer, Ángel; Esparcia, Óscar

    2016-04-15

    Although urine pneumococcal antigen is an useful test, it has false positives such as pneumococcal vaccination. Positive urine pneumococcal antigen in Hospital de Denia (January-February/2015). We studied epidemiological, radiological and microbiological variables as well as previous pneumococcal vaccination (neumo-23 and/or neumo-13). Urine pneumococcal antigen test was positive in 12.4% of 385 cases. Only 33.3% of positive cases had pneumonia in chest X-ray, and 35.4% of patients had previous pneumococcal vaccination. In most cases (87.5%), an antibiotic was prescribed. Pneumococcal vaccination can produce a false positive result in the urine pneumococcal antigen test in clinical practice, leading to an unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of mercury in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D. M.; Clarke, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS2O4 followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm. No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 3·0-9·7 μg of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  16. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  17. Urine cytology in patients with calculi.

    PubMed Central

    Highman, W; Wilson, E

    1982-01-01

    The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed in 154 patients with calculi. No abnormality was seen in 52.6%; 40.9% contained smooth-bordered clusters of transitional cells with essentially normal, centrally placed nuclei. These, when found in routine urines, were reliable in predicting calculi in 62.5% of cases. Of the calculus urines, 6.5% showed features suspicious of differentiated transitional carcinoma. Although their morphological features overlapped with those observed in urines from 40 cases of proved differentiated transitional carcinoma, they contained significantly fewer single and clusters of transitional cells with abnormal nuclear morphology. Histological examination of urothelium adjacent to calculi in eight patients showed no evidence of malignancy although one case showed hyperplasia and severe epithelial atypia. Images PMID:7068927

  18. Does the Exposure of Urine Samples to Air Affect Diagnostic Tests for Urine Acidification?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Joo-Hark; Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Sun-Moon; Han, Sang-Woong; Oh, Man-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives For accurate measurement of pH, urine collection under oil to limit the escape of CO2 on air exposure is recommended. This study aims to test the hypothesis that urine collection under oil is not necessary in acidic urine in which bicarbonate and CO2 are minor buffers, because loss of CO2 would have little effect on its pH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements One hundred consecutive random urine samples were collected under oil and analyzed for pH, pCO2, and HCO3− immediately and after 5 minutes of vigorous shaking in uncovered flasks to allow CO2 escape. Results The pH values in 97 unshaken samples ranged from 5.03 to 6.83. With shaking, urine pCO2 decreased by 76%, whereas urine HCO3− decreased by 60%. Meanwhile, urine baseline median pH (interquartile range) of 5.84 (5.44–6.25) increased to 5.93 (5.50–6.54) after shaking (ΔpH=0.12 [0.07–0.29], P<0.001). ΔpH with pH≤6.0 was significantly lower than the ΔpH with pH>6.0 (0.08 [0.05–0.12] versus 0.36 [0.23–0.51], P<0.001). Overall, the lower the baseline pH, the smaller the ΔpH. Conclusions The calculation of buffer reactions in a hypothetical acidic urine predicted a negligible effect on urine pH on loss of CO2 by air exposure, which was empirically proven by the experimental study. Therefore, exposure of urine to air does not substantially alter the results of diagnostic tests for urine acidification, and urine collection under oil is not necessary. PMID:22700881

  19. Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals

    PubMed Central

    Danish, Lisa Michelle; Heistermann, Michael; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new

  20. Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals.

    PubMed

    Danish, Lisa Michelle; Heistermann, Michael; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new

  1. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    PubMed

    Van de Loo, Aurora; Mackus, Marlou; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; Brookhuis, Karel; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claim to be hangover immune (hangover-immune group). On each test day at 9.30 am, urine samples were collected. Participants rated their overall hangover severity on a scale from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme), as well as 18 individual hangover symptoms. Urine ethanol concentration was significantly higher on the hangover day when compared to the control day (p = 0.006). On the hangover day, urine ethanol concentration was significantly lower in the hangover-immune group when compared to the hangover group (p = 0.027). In the hangover-immune group, none of the correlations of urine ethanol concentration with individual hangover symptoms was significant. In contrast, in the hangover group, significant correlations were found with a variety of hangover symptoms, including nausea, concentration problems, sleepiness, weakness, apathy, sweating, stomach pain, thirst, heart racing, anxiety, and sleep problems. Urine ethanol levels are significantly associated with the presence and severity of several hangover symptoms.

  2. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  3. Estimating 24-hour urine sodium level with spot urine sodium and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Yong Chul; Ahn, Shin Young; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun; Park, Jung Hwan

    2014-09-01

    The 24-hr urine sodium excretion level was estimated based on the spot urine sodium, and the efficacy of the formula was validated to determine the status of low salt intake <100 mEq Na/day. The 24-hr urine samples were collected from 400 patients. The 24-hr urine creatinine level was estimated with the use of three formulas: a newly derived Korean equation (E24UCR_K), and Tanaka (E24UCR_T) and Cockcroft-Gault (E24UCR_CG) equations. The correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine creatinine for these three equations were 0.863, 0.846, and 0.896, respectively (All P<0.001). After estimating the 24-hr urine sodium levels, the correlation coefficients between the estimated and measured 24-hr urine sodium levels were 0.466, 0.490, and 0.516, respectively (All P<0.001). The sensitivity of three formulas to estimate the measured 24-hr urine sodium≥100 mEq/day using the estimated amount≥100 mEq/day was 84.3%, 87.6%, and 84.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the three equations used to estimate the 24-hr urine sodium content were useful to determine the status of low salt intake.

  4. Urine osmolality in the US population: implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Weidemann, Darcy; Weaver, Virginia; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Neu, Alicia; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    For many environmental chemicals, concentrations in spot urine samples are considered valid surrogates of exposure and internal dose. To correct for urine dilution, spot urine concentrations are commonly adjusted for urinary creatinine. There are, however, several concerns about the use of urine creatinine. While urine osmolality is an attractive alternative; its characteristics and determinants in the general population remain unknown. Our objective was to describe the determinants of urine osmolality and to contrast the difference between osmolality and creatinine in urine. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2009-2010), 10,769 participants aged 16 years or older with measured urine osmolality and creatinine were used in the analysis. Very dilute and very concentrated urine was defined as urine creatinine lower than 0.3g/l and higher than 3g/l, respectively. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of interest. Urine osmolality and creatinine were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75) and their respective median values were 648 mOsm/kg and 1.07 g/l. The prevalence of very dilute and very concentrated urine samples was 8.1% and 3.1%, respectively. Factors associated in the same direction with both urine osmolality and urine creatinine included age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, water intake, and blood osmolality. The magnitude of associations expressed as percent change was significantly stronger with creatinine than osmolality. Compared to urine creatinine, urine osmolality did not vary by diabetes status but was affected by daily total protein intake. Participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) had significantly higher urine creatinine concentrations but lower urine osmolality. Both very dilute and concentrated urine were associated with a diverse array of sociodemographic, medical conditions, and dietary factors. For instance, females were

  5. Analytical investigations about the presence of prednisolone in cow urine.

    PubMed

    Dusi, Guglielmo; Vago, Giorgio; Ghidelli, Valentina; Pellegrino, Roberto M; Galarini, Roberta

    2012-09-01

    Since 2008, the analyses carried out in the Lombardia region as part of National Residue Control Plans have evidenced unexpected frequent detection of the corticosteroid prednisolone (PRED) in cow urine samples taken to the slaughterhouse. Considering the scarce plausibility of these high frequent findings, analytical investigations were started to ascertain the real presence of this corticosteroid. The applied confirmatory method involved liquid-chromatography low-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole) as instrumental technique, and it was validated in compliance with the requirements of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. However, recently some criticism regarding Commission Decision 2002/657/EC identification criteria has been pointed out, experimentally demonstrating false positive results (wrong identification) although these criteria have been strictly observed. Therefore, considering the serious implications (i.e. the possibility that PRED could be considered endogenous in particular animal conditions), studies were carried out to investigate the reliability of PRED identification through the change of the chromatographic conditions (mobile phases, gradient and analytical column) of the confirmatory procedure routinely applied. Further confirmation came from the application of high-resolution mass spectrometry technique (MS(2) and MS(3) experiments) to analyze incurred cow urines samples. All the obtained results confirmed definitively the real presence of this corticosteroid excluding false-positive findings in routine analysis. In addition, other experiments demonstrated that high-resolution mass spectrometers (Time of Flight and Orbitrap technologies) could be successfully applied to routine determination of steroid residues in biological fluids at very low concentrations (< 1 µg L(-1)). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

  7. The Association between Nutritional Markers and Biochemical Parameters and Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Wangqun; Ye, Ting; Chen, Zhenyan; Zuo, Xuezhi; Du, Xiang; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Chunxiu; Hu, Xiangrong; Li, Junhua; Wang, Le; Ma, Zufu; Yao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Residual renal function (RRF) is an important prognostic factor for peritoneal dialysis patients as it influences the quality of life and mortality. This study was conducted to explore the potential factors correlated with RRF. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 155 patients with residual GFR more than 1mL/min per 1.73m2 at the initiation of peritoneal dialysis. We collected the demographic characteristics, nutritional markers and biochemical parameters of all participants, and analyzed the correlation between these variables and residual GFR as well. The odds ratio of RRF loss associated with each of the nutritional markers and biochemical parameters were estimated by logistic regression model. The residual GFR was negatively correlated with serum phosphate (ORQ3 = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.03-6.92; ORQ4 = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.35-9.04), magnesium (ORQ4 = 3.77, 95%CI: 1.48-3.63), and creatinine (ORQ3 = 2.93, 95%CI: 1.09-7.88; ORQ4 = 8.64 95%CI: 2.79-26.78), while positively associated with normalized protein catabolic rate (ORQ3 = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.09-0.65; ORQ4 = 0.11, 95%CI: 0.03-0.35), 24 hours urine volume(ORQ1 = 22.87, 95%CI: 2.76-189.24; ORQ3 = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.02-0.28) and serum chlorine concentrations (ORQ1 = 5.34, 95%CI: 1.94-14.68; ORQ4 = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.09-0.85), respectively. Our study suggested that the nutritional markers and biochemical parameters, though not all, but at least in part were closely correlated with RRF in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  8. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... involves measuring the amount of a protein called albumin in the urine (pee). The amount of urine albumin is compared with the quantity of a waste ... steady rate, so comparing the ratio of urine albumin with creatinine in the same urine specimen helps ...

  9. Effect of sodium [36Cl]chlorate dose on total radioactive residues and residues of parent chlorate in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Oliver, C E; Caton, J S; Anderson, R C

    2005-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to determine total radioactive residues and chlorate residues in edible tissues of cattle administered at three levels of sodium [36Cl]chlorate over a 24-h period and slaughtered after a 24-h withdrawal period. Three sets of cattle, each consisting of a heifer and a steer, were intraruminally dosed with a total of 21, 42, or 63 mg of sodium [36Cl]chlorate/kg of body weight. To simulate a 24-h exposure, equal aliquots of the respective doses were administered to each animal at 0, 8, 16, and 24 h. Urine and feces were collected in 12-h increments for the duration of the 48-h study. At 24 h after the last chlorate exposure, cattle were slaughtered and edible tissues were collected. Urine and tissue samples were analyzed for total radioactive residues and for metabolites. Elimination of radioactivity in urine and feces equaled 20, 33, and 48% of the total dose for the low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Chlorate and chloride were the only radioactive chlorine species present in urine; the fraction of chlorate present as a percentage of the total urine radioactivity decreased with time regardless of the dose. Chloride was the major radioactive residue present in edible tissues, comprising over 98% of the tissue radioactivity for all animals. Chlorate concentrations in edible tissues ranged from nondetectable to an average of 0.41 ppm in skeletal muscle of the high-dosed animals. No evidence for the presence of chlorite was observed in any tissue. Results of this study suggest that further development of chlorate as a preharvest food safety tool merits consideration.

  10. Urine flow acceleration is superior to Qmax in diagnosing BOO in patients with BPH.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian-guo; Cui, Lin-gang; Li, Yi-dong; Shang, Xiao-ping; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Rui-li; Meng, Qing-jun; Zhang, Sheng-jun

    2013-08-01

    We performed a retrospective, case-control study to evaluate whether the urine flow acceleration (UFA, mL/s(2)) is superior to maximum uroflow (Qmax, mL/s) in diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, a total of 50 men with BPH (age: 58±12.5 years) and 50 controls (age: 59±13.0 years) were included. A pressure-flow study was used to determine the presence of BOO according to the recommendations of Incontinence Control Society (ICS). The results showed that the UFA and Qmax in BPH group were much lower than those in the control group [(2.05±0.85) vs. (4.60±1.25) mL/s(2) and (8.50±1.05) vs. (13.00±3.35) mL/s] (P<0.001). According to the criteria (UFA<2.05 mL/s(2), Qmax<10 mL/s), the sensitivity and specificity of UFA vs. Qmax in diagnosing BOO were 88%, 75% vs. 81%, 63%. UFA vs. Omax, when compared with the results of P-Q chart (the kappa values in corresponding analysis), was 0.55 vs. 0.35. The prostate volume, post void residual and detrusor pressure at Qmax between the two groups were 28.6±9.8 vs. 24.2±7.6 mL, 60.4±1.4 vs. 21.3±2.5 mL and 56.6±8.3 vs. 21.7±6.1 cmH2O, respectively (P<0.05). It was concluded that the UFA is a useful urodynamic parameter, and is superior to Qmax in diagnosing BOO in patients with BPH.

  11. Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.

    PubMed

    Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-04-01

    Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis.

  12. Gel filtration of urine: a method to detect nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, P J; de Beer, J O

    1981-03-01

    Sephadex G-100 gel filtration of urine from male Wistar rats revealed 3 protein peaks: peak I (eluted with the void volume of the column), peak II (Mr between 67 000 and 43 000), and peak III (Mr about 13 700). Nephrotoxic compounds were given as a single i.p. injection. Peak I, and especially peak II were significantly increased in 24-h urine samples from rats receiving mercuric acetate (1.58 mg/kg), mercuric trifluoroacetate (MTFA) (2.22 mg/kg), sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate (EMTSA) (20.2 mg/kg), sodium tetrathionate (250 mg/kg), ammonium fluoride (18.5 mg/kg), paramomycin sulfate (800 mg/kg), ochratoxin A (5 mg/kg) and cis-platinum (4 mg/kg). It is concluded that gel filtration of urine can be used as a method to detect nephrotoxicity in rats.

  13. Energy efficient reconcentration of diluted human urine using ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Tice, Ryan C; Kim, Younggy

    2014-11-01

    Nutrients can be recovered from source separated human urine; however, nutrient reconcentration (i.e., volume reduction of collected urine) requires energy-intensive treatment processes, making it practically difficult to utilize human urine. In this study, energy-efficient nutrient reconcentration was demonstrated using ion exchange membranes (IEMs) in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) where substrate oxidation at the MEC anode provides energy for the separation of nutrient ions (e.g., NH4(+), HPO4(2-)). The rate of nutrient separation was magnified with increasing number of IEM pairs and electric voltage application (Eap). Ammonia and phosphate were reconcentrated from diluted human urine by a factor of up to 4.5 and 3.0, respectively (Eap = 1.2 V; 3-IEM pairs). The concentrating factor increased with increasing degrees of volume reduction, but it remained stationary when the volume ratio between the diluate (urine solution that is diluted in the IEM stack) and concentrate (urine solution that is reconcentrated) was 6 or greater. The energy requirement normalized by the mass of nutrient reconcentrated was 6.48 MJ/kg-N (1.80 kWh/kg-N) and 117.6 MJ/kg-P (32.7 kWh/kg-P). In addition to nutrient separation, the examined MEC reactor with three IEM pairs showed 54% removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in 47-hr batch operation. The high sulfate concentration in human urine resulted in substantial growth of both of acetate-oxidizing and H2-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria, greatly diminishing the energy recovery and Coulombic efficiency. However, the high microbial activity of sulfate reducing bacteria hardly affected the rate of nutrient reconcentration. With the capability to reconcentrate nutrients at a minimal energy consumption and simultaneous COD removal, the examined bioelectrochemical treatment method with an IEM application has a potential for practical nutrient recovery and sustainable treatment of source-separated human urine. Copyright © 2014

  14. Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J; Oenema, O; van Groenigen, J W; Spek, J W; van Vuuren, A M; Bannink, A

    2013-06-01

    Ruminant production contributes to emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment, principally ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and di-nitrogen (N2) to air, nitrate (NO3 -) to groundwater and particulate N to surface waters. Variation in dietary N intake will particularly affect excretion of urinary N, which is much more vulnerable to losses than is faecal N. Our objective is to review dietary effects on the level and form of N excreted in cattle urine, as well as its consequences for emissions of N2O. The quantity of N excreted in urine varies widely. Urinary N excretion, in particular that of urea N, is decreased upon reduction of dietary N intake or an increase in the supply of energy to the rumen microorganisms and to the host animal itself. Most of the N in urine (from 50% to well over 90%) is present in the form of urea. Other nitrogenous components include purine derivatives (PD), hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine. Excretion of PD is related to rumen microbial protein synthesis, and that of hippuric acid to dietary concentration of degradable phenolic acids. The N concentration of cattle urine ranges from 3 to 20 g/l. High-dietary mineral levels increase urine volume and lead to reduced urinary N concentration as well as reduced urea concentration in plasma and milk. In lactating dairy cattle, variation in urine volume affects the relationship between milk urea and urinary N excretion, which hampers the use of milk urea as an accurate indicator of urinary N excretion. Following its deposition in pastures or in animal houses, ubiquitous microorganisms in soil and waters transform urinary N components into ammonium (NH4 +), and thereafter into NO3 - and ultimately in N2 accompanied with the release of N2O. Urinary hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine decompose more slowly than urea. Hippuric acid may act as a natural inhibitor of N2O emissions, but inhibition conditions have not been defined properly yet. Environmental and soil conditions at the site of

  15. The Urine Preservative Acetic Acid Degrades Urine Protein: Implications for Urine Biorepositories and the AASK Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Almaani, Salem; Hebert, Lee A; Rovin, Brad H; Birmingham, Daniel J

    2017-05-01

    Patients enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study who exhibited overt proteinuria have been reported to show high nonalbumin proteinuria (NAP), which is characteristic of a tubulopathy. To determine whether African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension nephropathy (AASK-N) is a tubulopathy, we obtained urine samples of 37 patients with AASK-N, with 24-hour protein-to-creatinine ratios (milligrams per milligram) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0, from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases repository and tested for seven markers of tubular proteinuria. By protocol, each sample had been collected in acetic acid (0.5%; mean final concentration). Compared with samples from patients with lupus nephritis or healthy black controls, AASK-N samples had lower amounts of six markers. Four markers (albumin, β-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, and osteopontin) were undetectable in most AASK-N samples. Examination by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining revealed protein profiles indicative of severe protein degradation in 34 of 37 AASK-N urine samples. Treatment of lupus nephritis urine samples with 0.5% acetic acid produced the same protein degradation profile as that of AASK-N urine. We conclude that the increased NAP in AASK-N is an artifact of acetic acid-mediated degradation of albumin. The AASK-N repository urine samples have been compromised by the acetic acid preservative. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Poirotte, Clémence; Kappeler, Peter M; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Bourgeois, Stéphanie; Moussodji, Maick; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2016-02-08

    Parasites are sometimes capable of inducing phenotypic changes in their hosts to improve transmission [1]. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects a broad range of warm-blooded species, is one example that supports the so-called 'parasite manipulation hypothesis': it induces modifications in rodents' olfactory preferences, converting an innate aversion for cat odor into attraction and probably favoring trophic transmission to feline species, its only definitive hosts [2]. In humans, T. gondii induces behavioral modifications such as personality changes, prolonged reaction times and decreased long-term concentration [3]. However, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because they are no longer preyed upon by felines. Consequently, behavioral modifications in infected people are generally assumed to be side effects of toxoplasmosis or residual manipulation traits that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation [3,4]. As such, T. gondii also alters olfactory preferences in humans; infected men rate cat urine, but not tiger urine, as pleasant while non-infected men do not [5]. To unravel the origin of Toxoplasma-induced modifications in humans, we performed olfactory tests on a living primate still predated by a feline species. We found in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), that Toxoplasma-infected (TI) animals lost their innate aversion towards the urine of leopards (Panthera pardus), their only natural predator. By contrast, we observed no clear difference in the response of TI and Toxoplasma-non-infected (TN) animals towards urine collected from other definitive feline hosts that chimpanzees do not encounter in nature. Although the adaptive value of parasitically induced behavior should be assessed carefully, we suggest that the

  17. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R.; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A.; Luke, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes 2H and 18O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of 2H and 18O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that 2H and 18O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  18. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Dugas, Lara R; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2015-07-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes (2)H and (18)O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of (2)H and (18)O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that (2)H and (18)O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    PubMed

    Mackus, M; Van de Loo, A J A E; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Van Neer, R H P; Wang, X; Nguyen, T T; Brookhuis, K A; Garssen, J; Verster, J C

    2017-03-01

    Congeners are substances, other than ethanol, that are produced during fermentation. Previous research found that the consumption of congener-rich drinks contributes to the severity of alcohol hangover. Methanol is such a congener that has been related to alcohol hangover. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine methanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers (22 females, 14 males), aged 18-30 years old, participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day (no alcohol consumed the previous day). N = 18 of them had regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claimed to be hangover-immune (hangover-immune group). Overall hangover severity was assessed, and that of 23 individual hangover symptoms. Urine methanol concentrations on the hangover and control days were compared, and correlated to hangover (symptom) severity. Urine methanol concentration was significantly higher on hangover days compared to control days (p = 0.0001). No significant differences in urine methanol concentration were found between the hangover group and hangover-immune group. However, urine methanol concentration did not significantly correlate with overall hangover severity (r = -0.011, p = 0.948), nor with any of the individual hangover symptoms. These findings were observed also when analyzing the data separately for the hangover-immune group. In the hangover group, a significant correlation with urine methanol concentration was found only with vomiting (r = 0.489, p = 0.037). No significant correlation was observed between urine methanol concentration and hangover severity, nor with individual core hangover symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Depletion Strategies for the Enrichment of Low-Abundance Proteins in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Szymon; Vougas, Konstantinos; Zoidakis, Jerome; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Mullen, William; Spasovski, Goce; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Proteome analysis of complex biological samples for biomarker identification remains challenging, among others due to the extended range of protein concentrations. High-abundance proteins like albumin or IgG of plasma and urine, may interfere with the detection of potential disease biomarkers. Currently, several options are available for the depletion of abundant proteins in plasma. However, the applicability of these methods in urine has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we compared different, commercially available immunodepletion and ion-exchange based approaches on urine samples from both healthy subjects and CKD patients, for their reproducibility and efficiency in protein depletion. A starting urine volume of 500 μL was used to simulate conditions of a multi-institutional biomarker discovery study. All depletion approaches showed satisfactory reproducibility (n=5) in protein identification as well as protein abundance. Comparison of the depletion efficiency between the unfractionated and fractionated samples and the different depletion strategies, showed efficient depletion in all cases, with the exception of the ion-exchange kit. The depletion efficiency was found slightly higher in normal than in CKD samples and normal samples yielded more protein identifications than CKD samples when using both initial as well as corresponding depleted fractions. Along these lines, decrease in the amount of albumin and other targets as applicable, following depletion, was observed. Nevertheless, these depletion strategies did not yield a higher number of identifications in neither the urine from normal nor CKD patients. Collectively, when analyzing urine in the context of CKD biomarker identification, no added value of depletion strategies can be observed and analysis of unfractionated starting urine appears to be preferable. PMID:26208298

  1. Dried urine spots - A novel sampling technique for comprehensive LC-MS(n) drug screening.

    PubMed

    Michely, Julian A; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2017-08-22

    Dried matrix spot (DMS) technique as alternative sampling strategy, especially dried urine spots (DUS), might be an alternative for drug screening. So far only particular drugs or drug classes were covered in DMS screenings. Therefore, workup of DUS for a broad comprehensive library-based LC-MS(n) screening was developed. It consisted of enzymatic on-spot deconjugation followed by liquid extraction and LC-MS(n) analysis. This workup was compared to established urine precipitation (UP) and validated according to international guidelines for qualitative approaches, using exemplary compounds of several drug classes (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, cardiovascular drugs, neuroleptics, opioids, stimulants, etc.) with a broad range of (physico-)chemical properties and chromatographic behaviors. On-spot conjugate cleavage and liquid extraction was sufficient for most compounds and the validation results comparable to those obtained after simple UP. For demonstrating the applicability, 103 authentic urine samples, six rat urine samples after low dose substance administrations, and two proficiency tests for systematic toxicological urinalysis were worked up with the new DUS approach or by UP without or with conjugate cleavage. In the authentic urine samples, 112 different drugs out of 43 categories plus metabolites were identified via the used LC-MS(n) library. With the new DUS approach, 5% less positive hits could be found compared to the UP approach and 15% less than the latter after conjugate cleavage. The differences should be caused mainly by smaller urine volumes used for DUS. In the two proficiency tests, all 15 drugs could be detected. Unfortunately, all three approaches were not able to detect very low-dosed substances in rat urine samples. However, they could be detected using a more sensitive LC-high resolution-MS/MS approach showing that the DUS workup was also suitable for those. In conclusion, DUS might be an alternative sampling technique for comprehensive

  2. Biomonitoring of infant exposure to phenolic endocrine disruptors using urine expressed from disposable gel diapers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Zhang, Xueqin; Barr, Dana Boyd; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2014-08-01

    Infant exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) may cause adverse health effects because of their fast growth and development during this life stage. However, collecting urine from infants for exposure assessment using biological monitoring is not an easy task. For this purpose, we evaluated the feasibility of using urine expressed from disposable gel absorbent diapers (GADs) as a matrix for biomonitoring selected phenolic EDs. GADs urine was expressed with the assistance of CaCl(2) and was collected using a device fabricated in our laboratory. The analytes were extracted and concentrated using a liquid-liquid method and their hydroxyl groups were modified by dansyl chloride to enhance their chromatography and detection. Finally, the analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The target chemicals were bisphenol A, triclosan, 17 α-ethynylestradiol, the natural hormone estrone, and 17 β-estradiol. The ratio of the CaCl(2) to the urine-wetted gel absorbent, variation of the inter-urination volume, and analyte deposition bias in the diaper were assessed. Analyte blank values in the diapers, the sample storage stabilities, and recoveries of the analytes were also evaluated. The results showed that 70-80 % of the urine could be expressed from the diaper with the assistance of CaCl(2) and 70.5-124 % of the spiked analytes can be recovered in the expressed urine. The limits of detections (LODs) were 0.02-0.27 ng/mL, well within the range for detection in human populations. Our pilot data suggest that infants are widely exposed to the selected EDs.

  3. Cubic-foot tree volumes and product recoveries for eastern redcedar in the Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks

    1979-01-01

    Tree volume tables and equations for eastern redcedar are presented for gross volume, cant volume, and volume of sawmill residue. These volumes, when multiplied by the average value per cubic foot of cants and residue, provide a way to estimate tree value.

  4. AT1 receptors in the collecting duct directly modulate the concentration of urine.

    PubMed

    Stegbauer, Johannes; Gurley, Susan B; Sparks, Matthew A; Woznowski, Magdalena; Kohan, Donald E; Yan, Ming; Lehrich, Ruediger W; Coffman, Thomas M

    2011-12-01

    Mice lacking AT(1) angiotensin receptors have an impaired capacity to concentrate the urine, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. To determine whether direct actions of AT(1) receptors in epithelial cells of the collecting duct regulate water reabsorption, we used Cre-Loxp technology to specifically eliminate AT(1A) receptors from the collecting duct in mice (CD-KOs). Although levels of AT(1A) receptor mRNA in the inner medulla of CD-KO mice were significantly reduced, their kidneys appeared structurally normal. Under basal conditions, plasma and urine osmolalities and urine volumes were similar between CD-KO mice and controls. The increase in urine osmolality in response to water deprivation or vasopressin administration, however, was consistently attenuated in CD-KO mice. Similarly, levels of aquaporin-2 protein in inner and outer medulla after water deprivation were significantly lower in CD-KO mice compared with controls, despite its normal localization to the apical membrane. In summary, these results demonstrate that AT(1A) receptors in epithelial cells of the collecting duct directly modulate aquaporin-2 levels and contribute to the concentration of urine.

  5. [Evaluation of urine specific gravity as an index of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Sudani, Tomoko; Inoue, Chieko; Nishimura, Kazumi; Takada, Motoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Dohi, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    Although most cesarean sections are done under spinal anesthesia, we often experience severe hypotension. Fluid resuscitation is usually carried out for prevention of hypotension, but it is difficult to assess the suitable infusion volume. We examined whether the urine specific gravity can predict hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety nine patients (ASA 1 or 2) undergoing elective cesarean section were recruited. After dural puncture, we collected the cerebrospinal fluid and injected 2 ml of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. Thereafter urethral catheters were inserted, and then we collected the urine sample. The specific gravity of each sample was measured by using refractometer after the operation. There was a good correlation between the urinary output and the urine specific gravity. The minimum systolic blood pressure until delivery, the total dose of ephedrine, and the maximum sensory block level showed a significant, but not particularly strong correlation with the urine specific gravity. We concluded that it was difficult to predict hypotension by using urine specific gravity because the correlation was too weak.

  6. Dried Urine Spots for Detection and Quantification of Cytomegalovirus in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Michael; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2012-01-01

    Dried urine spots (DUS) have been reported to provide a simple screening tool for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We developed a standardized method for CMV quantification from DUS. Two applications of 20 μ L urine remained within the rim of the filter paper disc and were used to determine the analytical performance of Towne CMV spiked into urine and applied on the discs. The measurable range spanned 3.7 to ≥8.0 log10 copies/mL. The detection limit was 22 DNA copies/disc. Urine samples from congenitally-infected newborns and negative controls were either diluted 1:10 or applied on filter paper at the same volume. DNA copy number from DUS correlated well with copy number from 1:10 diluted urine, although there was a trend for lower levels from DUS (0.3 log10 difference). Our standardized method for CMV detection and quantification may facilitate CMV studies in resource-limited areas and allow for longitudinal monitoring of viral loads in treated infants. PMID:22658885

  7. Usefulness of Elevated Urine Neopterin Levels In Assessing Cardiac Dysfunction AND Exercise Ventilation Inefficiency in Patients with Chronic Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhili; Zhang, Renliang; Shrestha, Kevin; Borowski, Allen G; Schuster, Andres; Thakur, Akanksha; Hazen, Stanley L.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Neopterin is synthesized by macrophages upon stimulation with γ-interferon, and high neopterin production is associated with cellular immune activation and increased production of reactive oxygen species (oxidant stress), but the clinical utility of urine neopterin levels in patients with heart failure (HF) have not been explored. 53 ambulatory patients with chronic systolic HF (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction ≤40%) underwent comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Urine neopterin levels were quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric analyses and corrected to urine creatinine (Cr) levels. In our study cohort, median urine neopterin level was 60 [interquartile range 40–86] μmol/mol Cr. There were modest correlations between urine neopterin levels and abnormalities in cardiac structure and function by echocardiography: LV ejection fraction (r= −0.33, p=0.017), indexed LV end-diastolic volume (r=0.31, p=0.029), indexed LV end-systolic volume (r=0.32, p=0.024), and E/septal Ea (r=0.28, p=0.041). Although there was no significant correlation between urine neopterin and maximal oxygen uptake (peak VO2: r= −0.25, p=0.07), there was a modest correlation between urine neopterin and maximal ventilation/carbon dioxide production ratio (VE/VCO2 max: r=0.38, p=0.005). In conclusion, increase in urine neopterin levels track with disease severity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. PMID:24837262

  8. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, E.; Rayner, S.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  9. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  10. Urine Proteome Biomarkers in Kidney Diseases. I. Limits, Perspectives, and First Focus on Normal Urine

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, Laura; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Lugani, Francesca; Petretto, Andrea; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine. Main issues are techniques for urine pretreatment, separation of exosomes, use of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, mass spectrometry approaches, and analysis of data sets. Available studies show important differences, suggesting a major confounding effect of the technologies utilized for analysis. The objective is to obtain consensus about which approaches should be utilized for studying urine proteome in renal diseases. PMID:26997865

  11. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats.

  12. Swelling of cattle heel horn by urine.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G

    2004-03-01

    To understand the likely mechanisms responsible for heel horn softening when cattle stand in their own effluent. To examine the effectiveness of some footbath chemicals in preventing heel horn softening. Shavings from the heels of cattle were used in a laboratory test to examine the swelling effects of cow urine, urea, sulphide and ammonia. Formalin, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, alum, tannic acid and a compound containing nitrocellulose plus nylon, were compared for their ability to prevent swelling in heel shavings induced by urea plus 2-mercaptoethanol. Cow urine caused heel horn to swell. Urea caused swelling at concentrations normally found in cow urine. Sulphide caused swelling at concentrations normally found in cow slurry. Low concentrations of ammonia solution also resulted in swelling. Formalin and glutaraldehyde prevented swelling induced by high concentrations of urea plus 2-mercaptoethanol. Copper sulphate had a moderate anti-swelling effect. Zinc sulphate, alum, tannic acid, and nitrocellulose plus nylon were relatively ineffective in preventing swelling. Cow urine can cause degradation of heel horn in cattle feet. The chemical agents that cause this could be urea, sulphide anions and ammonia. Degradation by urine can be prevented by pretreating heel horn with formalin. Glutaraldehyde may be an effective noncarcinogenic alternative to formalin.

  13. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  14. [Difference in urine concentration according to gender and ethnicity: possible involvement in the different susceptibility to various renal and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Perucca, Julie; Bouby, Nadine; Valeix, Pierre; Jungers, Paul; Bankir, Lise

    2008-06-01

    Men and African-Americans are known to be at greater risk of urolithiasis and cardiovascular and renal diseases than women and Caucasians. Previous studies suggest that the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin and/or a greater urine concentration are associated with the rate of progression of these diseases. The present review addresses possible sex and ethnic-related differences in urine volume and osmolality which could participate in this male and black higher predominance. We reanalyzed 24h-urine data collected previously by different investigators for other purposes. In studies concerning healthy subjects (six studies) or patients with chronic kidney disease or Diabetes mellitus (three studies), men excreted a larger osmolar load than women, with a 15 to 30% higher urinary osmolality (or another index of urine concentration based on the urine/plasma creatinine concentration ratio) and a similar 24h urine volume than in women. In two American studies, African-Americans showed a significantly higher urinary concentration than Caucasians and a lower 24h-urine volume. Sex and ethnic differences in thirst threshold, vasopressin level, or other regulatory mediators may contribute to the higher urinary concentration of men and of African Americans. These differences could play a role in the greater susceptibility of these subjects to these pathologies. New prospective studies should take into account the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin as a potential risk factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  15. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  16. 24-Hour Urine Samples Are More Reproducible Than Spot Urine Samples for Evaluation of Iodine Status in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Yalan; Lin, Laixiang; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Wanqi

    2016-01-01

    Variation in different urinary measurements for evaluation of iodine status is of concern to clinicians and researchers. This study evaluated variations between urine iodine concentration (UIC), spot and 24-h urine sample creatinine concentrations, and 24-h urine iodine excretion (24-h UIE) in repeated samples from school-age children. Urine samples (24 h and morning spot) were collected on 2 occasions from 981 children in Ningjin and Lingxian counties, China. Samples from Ningjin were collected in October and November 2013, and samples from Lingxian were collected in April and May 2014. Morning spot urine iodine concentration (MUIC), morning spot urine creatinine, 24-h UIC, and 24-h urine creatinine were measured in all samples. The 24-h UIE was calculated by multiplying the 24-h UIC by the 24-h urine volume. In Ningjin County, the 24-h UIC and 24-h UIE did not differ between repeated collections [192 and 172 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIC (P = 0.08); 123 and 120 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.56)], whereas the MUIC was lower in November 2013 than in October 2013 (170 and 190 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.034). In Lingxian County, no significant differences were observed in 24-h UIC between the repeated collections (230 and 218 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.79), whereas the 24-h UIE and MUIC were higher in the samples collected in May 2014 than in April 2014 [161 and 155 μg/L, respectively, for 24-h UIE (P = 0.002); 244 and 203 μg/L, respectively, for MUIC (P < 0.001)]. When data from both counties were combined, no difference was observed between repeated 24-h UIC (214 compared with 196 μg/L; P = 0.17) and 24-h UIE (143 compared with 143 μg/d; P = 0.06), but MUICs were lower in the first collection than in the second collection (199 and 207 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.002). The κ values were >0.4 for 24-h UIC and mean UIE, whereas relatively low κ values were observed for MUIC and mean UIE. The 24-h UIC was more accurate and reproducible than the MUIC

  17. Veterinary antibiotics in food, drinking water, and the urine of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Ho, Keith W K; Ying, Guang-Guo; Deng, Wen-Jing

    2017-11-01

    Due to the harmful effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) residues in food on children's health, urine samples from 31 preschool and primary school children were analyzed for 13 common VAs. Samples of raw and cooked pork, chicken, fish, milk and drinking water from the children's living areas were also analyzed for residual VAs. Urinalysis revealed one to four target antibiotics in 77.4% of the sample group, with concentrations as high as 0.36ng/mL. Norfloxacin and penicillin had the highest detection rates (48.4% and 35.5%, respectively), with median concentrations of 0.037 and 0.13ng/mL, respectively. The VA burden of children in HK was lower than that in Shanghai. Enrofloxacin, penicillin, and erythromycin were the most detected VAs in raw and cooked food. Only oxytetracycline was detected in terminal tap water, and none were detected in milk. Tetracycline and doxycycline hyclate were detected in organic eggs (up to 7.1ng/g) and regular eggs (up to 6.6ng/g), which were common in children's diets. Traditional Chinese cooking processes did not completely eliminate VAs, and the concentrations of some VAs increased, especially after frying and roasting. The estimated daily intake (EDI) results show that the contribution of dietary intake and that based on the urine concentrations of VAs were far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The EDIs from urine were significantly lower than those based on cooked foods. The highest level of achievement percentage (LAP) based on dietary consumption and urine concentrations were 39.7% and 1.79%, respectively, and thus current levels of exposure to VAs would not seem to pose a risk to children's health. However, harmful effects of residual VAs during developmental periods may occur with exposure to much lower doses than those considered harmful to adults, and further investigation of these emerging pollutants is urgently encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogenic microbes isolated from rabbit urine.

    PubMed

    Akinboade, O A; Adegoke, G O; Ogunji, F O; Nwufoh, K J

    1981-07-01

    Asymptomatic urinary tract infections were recovered from the urine of 40 of 100 rabbits, and identical bacteria were isolated when the rabbits were retested. Urine samples which yielded significant growths of bacteria also had pus cells. Some specimens yielded more than 2 different isolates, and staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Oxalate and uric acid crystals were seen in 6% of the samples, particularly those with significant growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No ova, parasites or fungal elements were seen in 'wet-mount' preparations and no fungi were seen when urine samples were cultured. Female rabbits showed a higher number of bacterial isolates than males. Animals with significant isolates were treated with suitable antibiotics and repeat samples yielded no growth.

  19. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  20. The significance of interleukin 8 in urine

    PubMed Central

    Rao, W; Evans, G; Finn, A

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the implications of detection of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in urine.
METHODS—IL-8 was measured by immunoassay in all 305 urine samples from children aged 0-18.4 years received by our microbiology laboratory during four weeks, with a retrospective structured case note audit for all those in whom IL-8, white cells, or bacteria were detected. Patients were divided into three groups: urinary tract infection (UTI), at least one sample with ⩾5 leucocytes × 109/l and ⩾105 cultured bacteria/ml; possible UTI, at least one sample with ⩾5 leucocytes × 109/l or ⩾105 cultured bacteria/ml but not both; UTI unlikely, sample(s) with <5 leucocytes × 109/l and <105 cultured bacteria/ml. Medical records were sought for all in groups 1 (14/14 found) and 2 (18/21 found) and those in group 3 (41/59 found) in whose urine any leucocytes, cultured bacteria, or IL-8 were detected.
RESULTS—IL-8 was detected in 58/305 samples from 48/264 patients. IL-8 was detected in at least one urine sample from 13/14 patients with confirmed UTI (group 1); in 11/21 patients with possible UTI (group 2), of whom two were treated as UTI; and in 23/228 patients without UTI. Using a cut off of 200 pg/ml, urine IL-8 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 90% for diagnosing UTI.
CONCLUSIONS—Urine IL-8 is a sensitive test for UTI, but is poorly specific as it is also present in a variety of other infectious and inflammatory disorders.

 PMID:11517116

  1. Three-dimensional method for determination of amniotic fluid volume in intrauterine pockets.

    PubMed

    Grover, J; Mentakis, E A; Ross, M G

    1997-12-01

    Although current ultrasound techniques provide a linear (amniotic fluid index; AFI) or two-dimensional area index of amniotic fluid (AF), these indices have limited correlation with actual AF volume. We sought to quantify the three-dimensional volume of ultrasound-identified AF pockets, as assessed by the AFI and two-dimensional area methods. The BVI 2500 (Bladder Volume Instrument 2500; Diagnostic Ultrasound Corp., Redmond, WA) has been used to quantify the volume of residual urine in the bladder. INSTRUMENT AND METHOD: The BVI 2500 (Diagnostic Ultrasound Corp.) ultrasound uses a rotating 2-MHz transducer, computer-defined fluid interface, and computer integration of 12 cross-sectional images to calculate three-dimensional fluid volume. After providing written informed consent, 14 term pregnant patients (36-42 weeks) were evaluated using the BVI 2500 and an Ultramark 8 sector scan (Advanced Technology Laboratory, Bothell, WA). The largest vertical fluid pocket in each quadrant of the abdomen was identified with the sector scan, and vertical and horizontal measurements for AFI and two-dimensional area were recorded. Simultaneous AF volume measurements of each pocket were performed three times with the bladder volume instrument, and maximum values were used. Three-dimensional volume, two-dimensional area, and AFI values were compared by correlation analysis, with P < or = .05 considered statistically significant. Among all patients, the average (+/- standard deviation) AFI was 7.6 +/- 4.1 (range 1.5-16.4) cm, and the average two-dimensional area was 30.9 +/- 21.1 (range 4.3-81.3) cm2. This corresponded to an average three-dimensional volume of 215 +/- 134 (range 23-497) cm3. Three-dimensional volume correlated highly with both AFI (r = 0.9; P < .001) and two-dimensional area (r = 0.86; P < .001). One AFI centimeter was equivalent to a volume of 30 cm3. There are highly significant linear correlations of three-dimensional amniotic fluid volumes with AFI and two

  2. Voided stain on paper method for analysis of mouse urination.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Y; Kanematsu, A; Hayashi, Y; Haga, H; Yoshimura, N; Yoshimura, K; Ogawa, O

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a quantification method using filter paper for analyzing minute voided urine of the mouse. Voided stain on paper (VSOP) method; the correlation between area of stained spot on a filter paper and amount of applied liquid was calculated. Voiding behavior of the mice was analyzed by placing the animal above the same filter paper and recording voided time and area over 2 hr. The usefulness of the VSOP method was tested in analysis of the voiding behavior of five female 7-week-old ddY mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CPM, 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and five control ones, in comparison with the histology of CPM-induced cystitis. Further, the voided volume of male and female ddY mouse ranging from 2 to 13 weeks was assessed. There was a linear correlation between liquid volume and stained area on the filter paper (y = 16.472x - 22.411, R(2) = 0.9981). Between control mice and those with histologically proven CPM cystitis, there was a significant difference in voided volume (362.7 +/- 51.9 and 127.8 +/- 100.0 microl, < 0.001) and voiding interval (10.30 +/- 3.10 and 4.47 +/- 1.70 min, < 0.001). Voided volume of ddY mice was quantifiable from as early as 2-week old, increased along with their growth and correlated well with their body weight [(voided volume: microl) = 10.8 x (body weight: g) + 32, R(2) = 0.762]. The VSOP method is a useful tool for evaluating voiding behavior of the mouse, including those with small bladder capacity.

  3. A multiregional Italian cohort of 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Esperto, Francesco; Marangella, Martino; Trinchieri, Alberto; Petrarulo, Michele; Miano, Roberto

    2017-09-07

    Nephrolithiasis is a common condition with several studies documenting an increased prevalence over the past four decades. EAU and AUA guidelines recommend 24-hour urine metabolic evaluation in high-risk stone formers. Aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the first three years of experience with Lithotest® (Biohealth Italia Srl, Turin, Italy) through the analysis of demographic, clinical and biochemical data collected from a large cohort of patients with kidney stones. We retrospectively analysed data from the LithoCenter database, including data from outpatient consultations, between January 2007 and December 2009 from all over Italy. Lithotest® was performed through a 24-h urine collection and included measurements of urine volume and pH, 24-h excretion of creatinine as well as main cations and anions, including calcium, magnesium sodium potassium, ammonium, uric acid, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, inorganic sulphate and chloride. Urine state of saturation for calcium oxalate (ßCaOx), calcium hydrogen phosphate or brushite (ßbsh) and uric acid (ßUA) were also calculated by means of the computer program Lithorisk. Brand's test for cystinuria was also carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using the S-PSS 22.0 software. The number of patients with data available for analysis was 435, 236 males (54%) and 199 females (46%). Complete 24-h urine measurements were available for all 435 patients. Compared to men, women had significantly lower values for creatinine, irate, oxalate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride excretion, whereas 24-hour pH and citrate excretion were higher. No significant differences were found for the other examined variables. ßCaOx and ßUA were significantly higher in men than women, whereas no significant difference was found for ßbsh. There was a direct relationship between calcium and sodium urine excretion. Excessive sodium excretion was recorded in 191 patients (44%) and low urine volumes in 201

  4. Application of a Rapid Assay for Detection of Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Urine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    epidemiologic surveys, and in devel- and no false-negative results when compared with the Western blot . oping countries. The authors evaluated the...in urine. AL of sample was required. By Western blot analysis, antibody profiles Test performance and applicability of the SUDS test were compared in...compromised when larger volumes were used. The au- immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot using 139 serum and thors concluaed that this rapid

  5. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 2 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 21-36) on nursing skills based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (21) urine elimination; (22) bowel elimination; (23)…

  6. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 2 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 21-36) on nursing skills based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (21) urine elimination; (22) bowel elimination; (23)…

  7. Estimators and characteristics of logging residue in California. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.O.; Bulgrin, J.K.

    1986-03-01

    Ratios are presented for estimating volume and characteristics of logging residue. The ratios relate cubic-foot volume of residue to thousand board feet of timber harvested and to acres harvested. Tables show gross and net volume of residue with and without bark, by diameter and length classes, by number of pieces per acre, by softwoods and hardwoods, by percent soundness, and by degree of slope and distance to roads.

  8. Detection of synthetic corticosteroids in bovine urine by chemiluminescence high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, B I; Feás, X; Lolo, M; Fente, C A; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A

    2005-01-01

    The development of a black market of chemical cocktails for illegal growth promotion in food-producing animals includes substances that are potentially dangerous for human health, such as synthetic corticosteroids. The potential presence of these residues in food makes it necessary to develop rapid and sensitive analytical methodologies to detect such substances, preferably in live animals before they arrive at the market. A chemiluminescence (CL) detection method for the determination of four synthetic corticosteroids (prednisolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone and flumethasone) in bovine urine has been developed. The proposed system, which does not need any derivatization procedure, offers an easy method well suited for routine research. Urine samples were homogenized with methanol:water (50:50, v/v) and centrifuged. The upper layer was collected and Strata X cartridges were used for cleaning up. The purified residues were evaporated to dryness and then redissolved in the mobile phase. Analysis of the extracts was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection, employing luminol as the CL reagent. The recovery curves, obtained at four spiking levels (different for each corticosteroid), showed that recoveries of at least 70% could be obtained for urine. The chemiluminescence detection procedure afforded satisfactory results with respect to sensitivity and the LOD and LOQ, taken as the first point of the regression curve, ranged from 4 ppb to 65 ppb. The maximum mean RSD was below 13% and below 15% for intra- and inter-day assay, respectively, in all cases.

  9. Comparison between prostate volume and intravesical prostatic protrusion in detecting bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A K M S; Alam, A K M K; Habib, A K M K; Rashid, M M; Rahman, H; Islam, A K M A; Jahan, M U

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the correlation of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and prostate volume (PV) with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). This study was conducted in the department of urology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, between July 2009 to September 2010. Fifty benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were included in the study. Their evaluation consisted of history along with International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), digital rectal examination (DRE), transabdominal ultrasonography to measure prostate volume, intravesical prostatic protrusion & post voidal residual (PVR) urine and pressure-flow studies to detect bladder outflow obstruction (BOO). Statistical analysis included Unpaired 't' test, Chi-square test and Spearman's Rank correlation test. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the correlation of PV and IPP with BOO. Mean prostate volume was significantly larger in bladder outlet obstructed patients (P<0.05). Mean IPP was significantly greater in obstructed patients (P<0.001). Area under ROC curve was 0.700 for PV and 0.821 for IPP. Prostate volume & intravesical prostatic protrusion measured through transabdominal ultrasonography are noninvasive and accessible method that significantly correlates with bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and the correlation of IPP is much more stronger than that of prostate volume.

  10. Automated detection of bacteria in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

  11. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  12. Preparation of urine samples for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Rembert

    2008-01-01

    Reproducible procedures for the preparation of protein samples isolated from human urine are essential for meaningful proteomic analyses. Key applications are the discovery of novel proteins or their modifications in the human urine as well as protein biomarker discovery for diseases and drug treatments. The methodology presented here features experimental steps aimed at limiting protein losses because of organic solvent precipitation, effective separation of proteins from other compounds in the human urine and molecular weight-based enrichment of proteins in two distinct fractions. Urinary proteins are separated from cellular debris in the urine via centrifugation, concentrated with 5-kDa-cutoff membrane concentration devices and separated via size exclusion chromatography into fractions with a higher and a lower molecular weight than 30 kDa, respectively. A successive optional affinity removal step for highly abundant plasma proteins is described. Finally, buffer exchange steps useful for specific downstream proteomic analysis experiments of urinary proteins are presented, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, differential protein or peptide labeling and digestion with trypsin for LC-MS/MS analysis.

  13. Urine drug screening: a valuable office procedure.

    PubMed

    Standridge, John B; Adams, Stephen M; Zotos, Alexander P

    2010-03-01

    Urine drug screening can enhance workplace safety, monitor medication compliance, and detect drug abuse. Ordering and interpreting these tests requires an understanding of testing modalities, detection times for specific drugs, and common explanations for false-positive and false-negative results. Employment screening, federal regulations, unusual patient behavior, and risk patterns may prompt urine drug screening. Compliance testing may be necessary for patients taking controlled substances. Standard immunoassay testing is fast, inexpensive, and the preferred initial test for urine drug screening. This method reliably detects morphine, codeine, and heroin; however, it often does not detect other opioids such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, and tramadol. Unexpected positive test results should be confirmed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography. A positive test result reflects use of the drug within the previous one to three days, although marijuana can be detected in the system for a longer period of time. Careful attention to urine collection methods can identify some attempts by patients to produce false-negative test results.

  14. The subversion of urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Berge, Keith H; Bush, Donna M

    2010-08-01

    Since government and private industry have instituted urine drug testing to ensure a drug-free work force, an industry dedicated to subverting the results of those tests has developed. This article describes that industry, the types of products it markets, and efforts to curb the sale of those products.

  15. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  17. Case report: purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joaquim Palmeiro; Marcelino, Paulo; Marum, Susan; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Grilo, Ana

    2004-06-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was first reported in 1978. PUBS is rare, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with some bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. A chain reaction begins in the gastrointestinal tract with tryptophan as described in the article.

  18. Bladder aspergillosis detected by urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Santiago; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín

    2015-05-01

    Bladder aspergillosis is an unusual infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with clinical records of transitional cell carcinoma diagnosed 5 years ago. The presence of a fruiting body and septate hyphae in urine cytological smears were the key for a final diagnosis of fungal bladder infection caused by Aspergillus niger.

  19. Prostatic cavitary lesions containing urine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bokemeyer, J; Peppler, C; Thiel, C; Failing, K; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the proportion of urine-containing prostatic cavitary lesions ("urinary cysts") in dogs and to describe their clinical management. The study included dogs with clinically relevant prostatic-retention cyst/abscess (n=87) treated initially by percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the prostatic cavity. Based on a prostatic fluid:serum creatinine ratio, the study population was divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) with and group 2 (n=71) without evidence of urine within the lesion. Medical records of both the groups were reviewed. Cavitary lesions containing urine were observed in 16 of the 87 dogs (18·4%; group 1). In 10 (62·5%) of the group 1 dogs, abdominal surgery was recommended, because of recurrent filling during follow-up. In group 2, abdominal surgery was recommended in only 11 of 71 cases (15·5%). In dogs, 18·4% (95% confidence interval, 10·9 to 28·1%) of the prostatic cavitary lesions contain urine. Measurement of creatinine within the prostatic cavity fluid is a helpful tool in diagnosing a presurgical intra-prostatic urethral fistulation, and these dogs tend to require a more aggressive surgical therapy than percutaneous drainage alone. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D

    2001-01-01

    Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax. PMID:11480523

  1. Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D

    2001-07-01

    Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax.

  2. Estimation of daily interfractional larynx residual setup error after isocentric alignment for head and neck radiotherapy: Quality-assurance implications for target volume and organ-at-risk margination using daily CT-on-rails imaging

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Charles A.; Awan, Musaddiq J.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Akel, Imad; Rosenthal, David I.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Garden, Adam S.; Dyer, Brandon A.; Court, Laurence; Sevak, Parag R; Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Fuller, Clifton D.

    2016-01-01

    Larynx may alternatively serve as a target or organ-at-risk (OAR) in head and neck cancer (HNC) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The objective of this study was to estimate IGRT parameters required for larynx positional error independent of isocentric alignment and suggest population–based compensatory margins. Ten HNC patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) with daily CT-on-rails imaging were assessed. Seven landmark points were placed on each daily scan. Taking the most superior anterior point of the C5 vertebra as a reference isocenter for each scan, residual displacement vectors to the other 6 points were calculated post-isocentric alignment. Subsequently, using the first scan as a reference, the magnitude of vector differences for all 6 points for all scans over the course of treatment were calculated. Residual systematic and random error, and the necessary compensatory CTV-to-PTV and OAR-to-PRV margins were calculated, using both observational cohort data and a bootstrap-resampled population estimator. The grand mean displacements for all anatomical points was 5.07mm, with mean systematic error of 1.1mm and mean random setup error of 2.63mm, while bootstrapped POIs grand mean displacement was 5.09mm, with mean systematic error of 1.23mm and mean random setup error of 2.61mm. Required margin for CTV-PTV expansion was 4.6mm for all cohort points, while the bootstrap estimator of the equivalent margin was 4.9mm. The calculated OAR-to-PRV expansion for the observed residual set-up error was 2.7mm, and bootstrap estimated expansion of 2.9mm. We conclude that the interfractional larynx setup error is a significant source of RT set-up/delivery error in HNC both when the larynx is considered as a CTV or OAR. We estimate the need for a uniform expansion of 5mm to compensate for set up error if the larynx is a target or 3mm if the larynx is an OAR when using a non-laryngeal bony isocenter. PMID:25679151

  3. Corn stalk as matrix in decomposting toilet for treating urine and feces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintawardani, N.; Nilawati, D.; Astuti, J. T.

    2017-03-01

    Bio-Toilet technology (BT) which is appropriate for the habits of Indonesian people has been studied and developed. BT is a dry toilet technology commonly uses ligno-cellulosic waste materials as matrix to facilitate the growth of natural microbes. In aerobic condition, microbes degrade feces and urine. Mineral as the leftover of feces and urine, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) remain in the rest of matrix waste. After certain period. matrix can be harvested and used as soil conditioner. BT uses much less water, mobile, and very useful to be applied in areas where water availability is limited. BT type with different capacities, user amounts and mixing systems has been developed using sawdust for matrix. Since corn stalk is categorized as useless and priceless waste, its application in BT is challenging. Performance of BT with corn stalk as matrix to degrade feces and urine of carnivore imitating the human waste was observed. BT M-15 manual mixing type with paddle was filled with chopped corn stalk as much as 45% of total volume. This BT was designed for 15 person as users per day if 80% reactor volume was filled with ligno-cellulosic matrix. It is assumed that 150 g of feces are discharged once per person/day and 1000 mL of urine 6-8 times per day. Start up process was made in the beginning to initialize the needed microbes in the reactor (matrix). The discharge of feces and urine were increased slowly and gradually the users were increased from 1 to 4 users per day. Performance of BT was indicated by the change in the pile that showed by moisture content, temperature and pH. C/N ratio in matrix decreased significantly from 43 to 17. This result showed that the corn stalk could be used as matrix in BT.

  4. Residual Kidney Function Decline and Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Rhee, Connie M; Mathew, Anna T; Shah, Gaurang; Streja, Elani; Brunelli, Steven M; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-12-01

    In patients with ESRD, residual kidney function (RKF) contributes to achievement of adequate solute clearance. However, few studies have examined RKF in patients on hemodialysis. In a longitudinal cohort of 6538 patients who started maintenance hemodialysis over a 4-year period (January 2007 through December 2010) and had available renal urea clearance (CLurea) data at baseline and 1 year after hemodialysis initiation, we examined the association of annual change in renal CLurea rate with subsequent survival. The median (interquartile range) baseline value and mean±SD annual change of CLurea were 3.3 (1.9-5.0) and -1.1±2.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively. Greater CLurea rate 1 year after hemodialysis initiation associated with better survival. Furthermore, we found a gradient association between loss of RKF and all-cause mortality: changes in CLurea rate of -6.0 and +3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year associated with case mix-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.00 (1.55 to 2.59) and 0. 61 (0.50 to 0.74), respectively (reference: -1.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year). These associations remained robust against adjustment for laboratory variables and ultrafiltration rate and were consistent across strata of baseline CLurea, age, sex, race, diabetes status, presence of congestive heart failure, and hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum phosphorus levels. Sensitivity analyses using urine volume as another index of RKF yielded consistent associations. In conclusion, RKF decline during the first year of dialysis has a graded association with all-cause mortality among incident hemodialysis patients. The clinical benefits of RKF preservation strategies on mortality should be determined. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Feasibility of collecting 24-h urine to monitor sodium intake in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Terry, Ana L; Cogswell, Mary E; Wang, Chia-Yih; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Wright, Jacqueline D; Zhang, Xinli; Lacher, David A; Merritt, Robert K; Bowman, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine sodium excretion is recommended for monitoring population sodium intake. Because of concerns about participation and completion, sodium excretion has not been collected previously in US nationally representative surveys. We assessed the feasibility of implementing 24-h urine collections as part of a nationally representative survey. We selected a random half sample of nonpregnant US adults aged 20-69 y in 3 geographic locations of the 2013 NHANES. Participants received explicit instructions, started and ended the urine collection in a urine study mobile examination center, and answered questions about their collection. Among those with a complete 24-h urine collection, a random one-half were asked to collect a second 24-h urine sample. Sodium, potassium, chloride, and creatinine excretion were analyzed. The final NHANES examination response rate for adults aged 20-69 y in these 3 study locations was 71%. Of those examined (n = 476), 282 (59%) were randomly selected to participate in the 24-h urine collection. Of these, 212 persons [75% of those selected for 24-h urine collection; 53% (equal to 71% × 75% of those selected for the NHANES)] collected a complete initial 24-h specimen and 92 persons (85% of 108 selected) collected a second complete 24-h urine sample. More men than women completed an initial collection (P = 0.04); otherwise, completion did not vary by sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, education, or employment status for either collection. Mean 24-h urine volume and sodium excretion were 1964 ± 1228 mL and 3657 ± 2003 mg, respectively, for the first 24-h urine sample, and 2048 ± 1288 mL and 3773 ± 1891 mg, respectively, for the second collection. Given the 53% final component response rate and 75% completion rate, 24-h urine collections were deemed feasible and implemented in the NHANES 2014 on a subsample of adults aged 20-69 y to assess population sodium intake. This study was registered at clinicaltrials

  6. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine specimen. A urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might instead be used ... Infants may occasionally experience skin irritation from the adhesive tape on the collection bag. If a catheterized ...

  7. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  8. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  9. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  10. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  11. Logging residue in the Pacific Northwest: characteristics affecting utilization.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1981-01-01

    Information on the characteristics of logging residue in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon is presented. Tables show volume by diameter and length, number of pieces per acre, percent of residue that is sound, distribution by slope and distance to road, and average proportion of bark. Results are shown for 19 strata (harvest method by geographic area and owner).

  12. Using "residual depths" to monitor pool depths independently of discharge

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1987-01-01

    As vital components of habitat for stream fishes, pools are often monitored to follow the effects of enhancement projects and natural stream processes. Variations of water depth with discharge, however, can complicate monitoring changes in the depth and volume of pools. To subtract the effect of discharge on depth in pools, residual depths can be measured. Residual...

  13. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  14. A first look at logging residue characteristics in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    In 1973 and 1974, the Forest Products Marketing Laboratory obtained some preliminary information about characteristics of logging residues in West Virginia. Sixteen 1-acre plots were measured in conjunction with a test of the line-intersect sampling method. Findings from the 16 plots showed that hardwood residue volumes ranged from 100 to 1,300 cubic feet per acre,...

  15. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  16. Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system.

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, M; McDonnell, C; Ashton, J K

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1,500 clean-voided urine specimens were analyzed for the presence of bacteria by urine screening with the Autobac 1 system. The specimens found positive by this method were further processed on the same day for identification and for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the AutoMicrobic system with the Enterobacteriaceae-plus Card and the General Susceptibility Card, respectively. The inocula for these tests were prepared from the centrifuged and washed growth in the eugonic broth aspirated from the Autobac cuvette chambers. Of 1,500 specimens that were analyzed, 183 contained single isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The results of these rapid procedures were compared with results for the same organisms isolated from urine specimens cultured by the conventional method. The data showed 92.3% agreement for identification and a correlation of 93.6% for antibiotic susceptibility between the two procedures. It is concluded that gram-negative bacilli can be rapidly identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a high degree of accuracy from the centrifuged eugonic broth after urine screening. These findings also suggest that the AutoMicrobic system provides a rapid and convenient method for same-day processing of positive urine cultures when combined with the urine screening procedure. PMID:6759524

  17. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of suxibuzone and its metabolites in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, T; Shibata, T; Minami, Y; Umeno, Y; Shindo, T

    1980-11-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of the anti-inflammatory agent suxibuzone and its metabolites, 4-hydroxymethylphenylbutazone, phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, and gamma-hydroxyphenylbutazone, in plasma and urine. Acidified plasma or urine is extracted with benzenecyclohexane (1:1). The organic extract is reduced to dryness and the resulting residue is redissolved in methanol. Aliquots of this solution are chromatographed on a reversed-phase column using a mobile phase of methanol--0.5 M KH2PO4 (linear gradient from 0 to 100% methanol at 8% min with a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min) on a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV absorbance detector (254 nm). Detection is limited to 0.10 microgram/ml for suxibuzone and 4-hydroxymethylphenylbutazone and to 0.05 microgram/ml for the other metabolites.

  18. Direct electrical power generation from urine, wastes and biomass with simultaneous photodecomposition and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masao; Ueno, Hirohito; Ohnuki, Keita; Horikawa, Mizuki; Saito, Rie; Nemoto, Junichi

    2007-08-30

    Electric power was for the first time generated directly from urine, wastes, and biomass with simultaneous photodecomposition and cleaning by using a biophotofuel cell (BPFC) composed of a nanoporous TiO2 film semiconductor photoanode and an O2-reducing cathode. Human urine exhibited a PFC characteristics with J(sc) 0.086 mA cm(-2), Voc 0.56 V, and fill factor (FF) 0.50 under irradiation by a solar simulator with AM 1.5 G and 100 mW cm(-2) incident light intensity. Both the soluble and residual parts of waste paper partially solubilized by a H3PO4 aqueous solution were also photodecomposed with simultaneous electrical power generation. As trials of various biomass materials, Coca-Cola (to test colored sample), Japanese rice wine (to test alcohol aqueous solution), and grated radish (to test slurry state sample) also generated effectively electrical power during photodecomposition by a solar simulator.

  19. Fate of 17β-Estradiol as a model estrogen in source separated urine during integrated chemical P recovery and treatment using partial nitritation-anammox process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Mukherji, Sachiyo T; Wu, Sha; Muller, James; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-10-15

    Recently, research on source separation followed by the treatment of urine and/or resource recovery from human urine has shown promise as an emerging management strategy. Despite contributing only 1% of the total volume of wastewater, human urine contributes about 80% of the nitrogen, 70% of the potassium, and up to 50% of the total phosphorus in wastewater. It is also a known fact that many of the micropollutants, especially selected estrogens, get into municipal wastewater through urine excretion. In this research, we investigated the fate of 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model estrogen during struvite precipitation from synthetic urine followed by the treatment of urine using a partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A) system. Single-stage and two-stage suspended growth PN/A configurations were used to remove the nitrogen in urine after struvite precipitation. The results showed an almost 95% phosphorous and 5% nitrogen recovery/removal from the synthetic urine due to struvite precipitation. The single and two stage PN/A processes were able to remove around 50% and 75% of ammonia and nitrogen present in the post struvite urine solution, respectively. After struvite precipitation, more than 95% of the E2 remained in solution and the transformation of E2 to E1 happened during urine storage. Most of the E2 removal that occurred during the PN/A process was due to sorption on the biomass and biodegradation (transformation of E2 to E1, and slow degradation of E1 to other metabolites). These results demonstrate that a combination of chemical and biological unit processes will be needed to recover and manage nutrients in source separated urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  1. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  3. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  4. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  5. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  6. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  7. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  8. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  9. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  11. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  12. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as...

  13. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  14. Forest residues in hemlock-spruce forests of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska: a state-of-knowledge review with recommendations for residue management.

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Ruth; A.S. Harris

    1975-01-01

    The forest manager must balance all the interacting and often conflicting factors influencing residue management and decide on the best course of action. He needs to determine optimum volume, size, and arrangement of residues to leave on an area after logging, then to select the harvesting methods and residue management alternatives that best provide these conditions....

  15. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  16. Nephron-specific deletion of the prorenin receptor causes a urine concentration defect.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Stuart, Deborah; Calquin, Matias; Quadri, Syed; Wang, Shuping; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Siragy, Helmy M; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-07-01

    The prorenin receptor (PRR), a recently discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system, is expressed in the nephron in general and the collecting duct in particular. However, the physiological significance of nephron PRR remains unclear, partly due to developmental abnormalities associated with global or renal-specific PRR gene knockout (KO). Therefore, we developed mice with inducible nephron-wide PRR deletion using Pax8-reverse tetracycline transactivator and LC-1 transgenes and loxP flanked PRR alleles such that ablation of PRR occurs in adulthood, after induction with doxycycline. Nephron-specific PRR KO mice have normal survival to ∼1 yr of age and no renal histological defects. Compared with control mice, PRR KO mice had 65% lower medullary PRR mRNA and protein levels and markedly diminished renal PRR immunofluorescence. During both normal water intake and mild water restriction, PRR KO mice had significantly lower urine osmolality, higher water intake, and higher urine volume compared with control mice. No differences were seen in urine vasopressin excretion, urine Na(+) and K(+) excretion, plasma Na(+), or plasma osmolality between the two groups. However, PRR KO mice had reduced medullary aquaporin-2 levels and arginine vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the isolated renal medulla compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest nephron PRR can potentially modulate renal water excretion.

  17. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  18. Twenty-four-hour urine osmolality as a physiological index of adequate water intake.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Erica T; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (U(Osm)) threshold that would provide an index of "optimal hydration," sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m(-2)) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A U(Osm) threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg(-1) may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  19. Urine-sampling methods for environmental chemicals in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen J; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2009-11-01

    This review paper examines and evaluates urine-sampling methodologies in infants and young children, to determine which methods are suitable for use in large biomonitoring surveys or studies of environmental chemicals in children younger than 6 years. Methods for non-toilet-trained children include the use of urine bags, collection pads (e.g., cotton or gauze inserts), disposable diapers, cotton diapers, and the clean catch method. In toilet-trained children, collection methods include use of a commode insert pan as well as specimen collection cups. The advantages and disadvantages of these various methods need to be evaluated with respect to the target population, timing and frequency of collection, minimum sample volume required, method of urine extraction, potential for contamination of the sample, stability of the analyte of interest, and burden on participants and research team. Collection methods must not introduce contamination or affect the integrity of the sample, should be logistically practical, and should minimize discomfort experienced by the child. Although collection of urine samples from children who are not toilet-trained is more challenging than collection from older toilet-trained children, the vulnerability of younger children to the exposure to and health effects of environmental chemicals makes finding suitable methods a priority.

  20. Sports drug testing: Analytical aspects of selected cases of suspected, purported, and proven urine manipulation.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Sigmund, Gerd; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-01-05

    Manipulation of urine specimens provided by elite athletes for doping control purposes has been reported several times in the past, and in most of these cases urine substitution was eventually proven. Recent findings of suspected and substantiated manipulation have outlined the complexity and diversity of tampering options, sample appearance alterations resulting from non-manipulative influence, and the analytical challenges arising from these scenarios. Using state-of-the-art mass spectrometric and immunological doping control and forensic chemistry methodologies, four unusual findings were observed. One sports drug testing specimen was found to contain an unusually high content of saccharides accompanied by hordenine and Serpine-Z4, while no endogenous steroid (e.g. testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) was detected. This specimen was identified as non-alcoholic beer filled into the doping control sample container, constituting an undisputed doping offense. A doping control sample of bright green color was received and found to contain residues of methylene blue, which is not considered relevant for doping controls as no masking or manipulative effect is known. In addition, the number of urine samples of raspberry to crimson red coloration received at doping control laboratories has constantly increased during the last years, attributed to the presence of hemoglobin or betanin/isobetanin. Also here, no doping rule violation was given and an impact on routine analytical results was not observed. Finally, a total of 8 sports drug testing samples collected at different competition sites was shown to contain identical urine specimens as indicated by steroid profile analysis and conclusively proven by DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. Here, the athletes in question were not involved in the urine substitution act but the doping control officer was convicted of sample manipulation.