Science.gov

Sample records for residuales reglas formales

  1. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  2. Beyond formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  3. Formal Methods Tool Qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Lucas G.; Cofer, Darren; Slind, Konrad; Tinelli, Cesare; Mebsout, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Formal methods tools have been shown to be effective at finding defects in safety-critical digital systems including avionics systems. The publication of DO-178C and the accompanying formal methods supplement DO-333 allows applicants to obtain certification credit for the use of formal methods without providing justification for them as an alternative method. This project conducted an extensive study of existing formal methods tools, identifying obstacles to their qualification and proposing mitigations for those obstacles. Further, it interprets the qualification guidance for existing formal methods tools and provides case study examples for open source tools. This project also investigates the feasibility of verifying formal methods tools by generating proof certificates which capture proof of the formal methods tool's claim, which can be checked by an independent, proof certificate checking tool. Finally, the project investigates the feasibility of qualifying this proof certificate checker, in the DO-330 framework, in lieu of qualifying the model checker itself.

  4. The isotropic Hamiltonian formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2011-02-10

    A Hamiltonian formalism is a procedure that allows to associate a dynamical system to a function and that includes classical Hamiltonian mechanics as a particular case. The present, expository paper gives a survey of the Hamiltonian formalism defined by an isotropic subbundle of TM+T*M, in particular, by a Dirac structure. We discuss reduction and geometric quantization of the Hamiltonian dynamical systems provided by this formalism.

  5. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  6. Formality in Rhetorical Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Formality in rhetorical delivery can be defined as a complex variable that represents the speaker's efforts to invoke sociocultural rules of audience control through the nonverbal components of the delivery. This document describes some of the aspects of formality, outlines its significance in rhetorical contexts, and evaluates the concept in…

  7. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  8. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  9. Correlates of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

    This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

  10. Semisymmetric systems: Hermitian formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchdahl, H. A.

    1995-04-01

    The power series representing the characteristic function of a regular semisymmetric system involves four linearly independent rotational invariants XA (A=1,.. .,4) that jointly satisfy a quadratic identity. When the X A are appropriately chosen, this takes the form -(X1)2-(X2 )2-(X3)2+( X4)2=0 . The XA are thus the components of a null vector in a four-dimensional Euclidean space whose metric is gAB: =diag(-1,-1 ,-1,1) . Such a vector is equivalent to a simple 2-spinor xi alpha . The intrinsic presence of a spin vector in the formalism used hitherto suggests that it might be of advantage to replace the latter with an explicit 2-spinor formalism. A way of doing this is examined.

  11. Formal Methods for Privacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Against a vast and rich canvas of diverse types of privacy rights and violations, we argue technology’s dual role in privacy : new technologies raise...new threats to privacy rights and new technologies can help preserve privacy . Formal methods, as just one class of technology , can be applied to...differs from what a teenager thinks, and vice versa [18]. New technologies give rise to new privacy concerns. Warren and Brandeis’s 1890 seminal paper

  12. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  13. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  14. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  15. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  16. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  17. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  18. NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

  19. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.

  1. The Formal Semantics of PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

  2. Formal verification of mathematical software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.

  3. The Traps of Formal Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Sandor

    The dangers of translation are discussed when the translator does not try to create textual equivalence, but settles for formal correspondence (i.e., with simple transcoding at a linguistic level) during the process of translating. Difficulties of explaining, commenting, or summarizing rather than translating are also discussed. Pedagogical and…

  4. Formal Dining-In Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    variety of source material. The primary research document was the booklet, Formal Dining -In, published by the 1st Battalion, The School E rigade , United...CHAPTER 1: Background on British Regimental Mess, CHAPTER II: Background on US Regimental b Mess: CHAPTER III: Standards for Dining-In 9 CHAPTER IV: E ...entertaining guests in the surroundings of traditions and customs of the regiment, served to make the officers aware of the luxuries of life . Young

  5. Formal properties of the Metathesaurus.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, M S; Olson, N E; Campbell, K E; Sherertz, D D; Nelson, S J; Cole, W G

    1994-01-01

    The Metathesaurus is a machine-created, human edited and enhanced synthesis of authoritative biomedical terminologies. Its formal properties permit it to be a) exploited by computers, and b) modified and enhanced without compromising that usage. If further constraints were imposed on the existence and identity of Metathesaurus relationships, i.e., if every Metathesaurus concept had a "genus" and a "differentia," then the Metathesaurus could be converted into an "Aristotelian Hierarchy." In this sense, a genus is a concept that classifies another concept, and a differentia is a concept that distinguishes the classified concept from all other concepts in the same class. Since, in principle, these constraints would make the Metathesaurus easier to leverage and maintain computationally, it is interesting to ask to what degree the maintenance and enhancement procedures now in place are producing a Metathesaurus that is also an "Aristotelian Hierarchy." Given a liberal interpretation of the current Metathesaurus schema, the proportion of the Metathesaurus that is "Aristotelian" in each annual version is increasing in spite of dramatic concurrent increases in the number of Metathesaurus concepts. Without formality there is no modifiability nor scalability. [1] We need formal methods and computer-based tools that can help us with the task [of controlled medical vocabulary construction]. We need research in which controlled vocabulary development is the focus rather than a stepping stone for work on other theories and applications. [2

  6. The formal de Rham complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharinov, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a formal construction generalizing the classic de Rham complex to a wide class of models in mathematical physics and analysis. The presentation is divided into a sequence of definitions and elementary, easily verified statements; proofs are therefore given only in the key case. Linear operations are everywhere performed over a fixed number field {F} = {R},{C}. All linear spaces, algebras, and modules, although not stipulated explicitly, are by definition or by construction endowed with natural locally convex topologies, and their morphisms are continuous.

  7. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  8. Formalizing the Analysis of Algorithms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    worst case or in the average case. For the parameter A, the worst case analysis is no challenge . First, since the if-test is only performed once per...use of a counter variable; this approach was introduced by Knuth [ exercise 1.2.1-13 in 18]. We can add to the program a new variable C, set initially...encoded. Value of the Proposed System. It is worthwhile pausing for a moment to attempt to assess the benefits that such a formal system might have

  9. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  10. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  11. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  12. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  13. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  14. Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination

  15. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  16. Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

  17. Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène

    2014-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.

  18. Tensor formalism in anharmonic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nero, N.

    1984-11-01

    A new method is presented to compute cartesian tensors in the expansion of curvilinear internal coordinates. Second- and higher-order coefficients are related to the metrics of the space of displacements. Components of the metric tensor are taken from existing tables of inverse kinetic energy matrix elements or, when rotations are involved, derived from general invariance conditions of scalars within a molecule. This leads to a tensor formalism particularly convenient in dealing with curvilinear coordinates in anharmonic calculations of vibrational frequencies. Formulae are given for elements of the potential energy matrix, related to quadratic and cubic force constants in terms of Christoffel symbols. The latter quantities are also used in the expansion of redundancy relations, with explicit coefficients given up to the third order.

  19. M-Theory in the Gaugeon Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Faizal

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we will analyse the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in superspace formalism. We then study the quantum gauge transformations for this ABJM theory in gaugeon formalism. We will also analyse the extended BRST symmetry for this ABJM theory in gaugeon formalism and show that these BRST transformations for this theory are nilpotent and this in turn leads to the unitary evolution of the S-matrix.

  20. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo

    2014-12-01

    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  1. Third NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This publication constitutes the proceedings of NASA Langley Research Center's third workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. This workshop brought together formal methods researchers, industry engineers, and academicians to discuss the potential of NASA-sponsored formal methods and to investigate new opportunities for applying these methods to industry problems. contained herein are copies of the material presented at the workshop, summaries of many of the presentations, a complete list of attendees, and a detailed summary of the Langley formal methods program. Much of this material is available electronically through the World-Wide Web via the following URL.

  2. The Second NASA Formal Methods Workshop 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to bring together formal methods researchers and aerospace industry engineers to investigate new opportunities for applying formal methods to aerospace problems. The first part of the workshop was tutorial in nature. The second part of the workshop explored the potential of formal methods to address current aerospace design and verification problems. The third part of the workshop involved on-line demonstrations of state-of-the-art formal verification tools. Also, a detailed survey was filled in by the attendees; the results of the survey are compiled.

  3. Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1993-01-01

    The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.

  4. Anyons in the operational formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip

    2015-01-13

    The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.

  5. Universal formalism of Fano resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Luo, Hong-Gang; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-15

    The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.

  6. Formal language constrained path problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  7. Structuring the formal definition of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Kurt W.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the formal definition of Ada are described. At present, a difficult subset of Ada has been defined and the experience gained so far by this work is reported. Currently, the work continues towards the formal definition of the Ada language.

  8. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  9. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  10. Formal Moral Education and Individual Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Gary Gene

    This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…

  11. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  12. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  13. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  14. The Hierarchical Structure of Formal Operational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    1979-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of the formal operational period of Piaget's theory of cognitive development was explored through the application of ordering theoretical methods to a set of data that systematically utilized the various formal operational schemes. Results suggested a common structure underlying task performance. (Author/BH)

  15. Formalisms for user interface specification and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.

  16. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  17. Formal hardware verification of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.

  18. Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Faizal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation.

  19. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  20. Covariant Quantisation in the Antifield Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandoren, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis we give an overview of the antifield formalism and show how it must be used to quantise arbitrary gauge theories. The formalism is further developed and illustrated in several examples, including Yang-Mills theory, chiral W_3 and W_{2,5/2} gravity, strings in curved backgrounds and topological field theories. All these models are characterised by their gauge algebra, which can be open, reducible, or even infinitly reducible. We show in detail how to perform the gauge fixing and how to compute the anomalies using Pauli-Villars regularisation and the heat kernel method. Finally, we discuss the geometrical structure of the antifield formalism.

  1. Importance of Reversibility in the Quantum Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, François

    2011-10-01

    In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C⋆ algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler’s theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.

  2. The adolescent personality, formal reasoning, and values.

    PubMed

    Darmody, J P

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from the Rokeach Value Survey. The subjects were 448 secondary school students (mean age = 16.25 years). The results of the study were consistent with predictions about the likely changes in value rankings as formal reasoning ability develops. Subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on immediate gratification. They also favored the instrumental values of self-reliance, competence, and independence. Low scorers on formal reasoning showed a preference for value groupings which were personal, hedonistic, and involved immediate gratification and social approval.

  3. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  4. Importance of reversibility in the quantum formalism.

    PubMed

    David, François

    2011-10-28

    In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C^{⋆} algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler's theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.

  5. General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John D

    2015-11-01

    A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed.

  6. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  7. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  8. Why Engineers Should Consider Formal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a logical analysis of a typical argument favoring the use of formal methods for software development, and suggests an alternative argument that is simpler and stronger than the typical one.

  9. Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, the formal modeling provided a cost effective enhancement of the existing verification and validation processes. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  10. Design for validation, based on formal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1990-01-01

    Validation of ultra-reliable systems decomposes into two subproblems: (1) quantification of probability of system failure due to physical failure; (2) establishing that Design Errors are not present. Methods of design, testing, and analysis of ultra-reliable software are discussed. It is concluded that a design-for-validation based on formal methods is needed for the digital flight control systems problem, and also that formal methods will play a major role in the development of future high reliability digital systems.

  11. Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages.

  12. Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.

  13. Baxter Operator Formalism for Macdonald Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Anton; Lebedev, Dimitri; Oblezin, Sergey

    2013-11-01

    We develop basic constructions of the Baxter operator formalism for the Macdonald polynomials associated with root systems of type A. Precisely, we construct a bispectral pair of mutually commuting Baxter operators such that the Macdonald polynomials are their common eigenfunctions. The bispectral pair of Baxter operators is closely related to the bispectral pair of recursive operators for Macdonald polynomials leading to various families of their integral representations. We also construct the Baxter operator formalism for the q-deformed {{gl}_{ell+1}} -Whittaker functions and the Jack polynomials obtained by degenerations of the Macdonald polynomials associated with the type A ℓ root system. This note provides a generalization of our previous results on the Baxter operator formalism for the Whittaker functions. It was demonstrated previously that Baxter operator formalism for the Whittaker functions has deep connections with representation theory. In particular, the Baxter operators should be considered as elements of appropriate spherical Hecke algebras and their eigenvalues are identified with local Archimedean L-factors associated with admissible representations of reductive groups over {{R}}. We expect that the Baxter operator formalism for the Macdonald polynomials has an interpretation in representation theory over higher-dimensional local/global fields.

  14. Link-space formalism for network analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, David M D; Lee, Chiu Fan; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2008-03-01

    We introduce the link-space formalism for analyzing network models with degree-degree correlations. The formalism is based on a statistical description of the fraction of links l(i,j) connecting nodes of degrees i and j. To demonstrate its use, we apply the framework to some pedagogical network models, namely, random attachment, Barabási-Albert preferential attachment, and the classical Erdos and Rényi random graph. For these three models the link-space matrix can be solved analytically. We apply the formalism to a simple one-parameter growing network model whose numerical solution exemplifies the effect of degree-degree correlations for the resulting degree distribution. We also employ the formalism to derive the degree distributions of two very simple network decay models, more specifically, that of random link deletion and random node deletion. The formalism allows detailed analysis of the correlations within networks and we also employ it to derive the form of a perfectly nonassortative network for arbitrary degree distribution.

  15. Formal Methods Case Studies for DO-333

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal methods in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal methods are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case studies describing the use of different classes of formal methods to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case studies illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal methods can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.

  16. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  17. Digital Resource Developments for Mathematics Education Involving Homework across Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovic, Slaviša; Passey, Don

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore further an under-developed area--how drivers of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment conceptions and practices shape the creation and uses of technologically based resources to support mathematics learning across informal, non-formal and formal learning environments. The paper considers: the importance of…

  18. Enhancing the Intercultural Effectiveness of Exchange Programmes: Formal and Non-Formal Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joana; Fantini, Alvino E.; Simões, Ana Raquel; Costa, Nilza

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the addition of intercultural interventions carried out throughout European credit-bearing exchange programmes can enhance sojourners' development of intercultural competencies, and it explores how both formal and non-formal pedagogical interventions may be designed and implemented. Such interventions were conducted at a…

  19. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  20. About the Identity of Informational Geography for Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verduin-Muller, Henriette

    In a shrinking world where there is limited space, materials, and capital for men's basic needs, it is important to make well considered use of the physical and human geographical setting. To obtain from the geographical setting the information needed to attain adequate decision making, empirical research is needed, and through formal, non-formal,…

  1. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  2. Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.

    2015-03-26

    In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.

  3. Raman Tensor Formalism for Optically Anisotropic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kranert, Christian; Sturm, Chris; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-03-25

    We present a formalism for calculating the Raman scattering intensity dependent on the polarization configuration for optically anisotropic crystals. It can be applied to crystals of arbitrary orientation and crystal symmetry measured in normal incidence backscattering geometry. The classical Raman tensor formalism cannot be used for optically anisotropic materials due to birefringence causing the polarization within the crystal to be depth dependent. We show that in the limit of averaging over a sufficiently large scattering depth, the observed Raman intensities converge and can be described by an effective Raman tensor given here. Full agreement with experimental results for uniaxial and biaxial crystals is demonstrated.

  4. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  5. Differential matrix formalism for depolarizing anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2011-06-15

    Azzam's differential matrix formalism [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1756 (1978)], originally developed for longitudinally inhomogeneous anisotropic nondepolarizing media, is extended to include depolarizing media. The generalization is physically interpreted in terms of means and uncertainties of the elementary optical properties of the medium, as well as of three anisotropy absorption parameters introduced to describe the depolarization. The formalism results in a particularly simple mathematical procedure for the retrieval of the elementary properties of a generally depolarizing anisotropic medium, assumed to be globally homogeneous, from its experimental Mueller matrix. The approach is illustrated on literature data and the conditions of its validity are identified and discussed.

  6. Geometric formalism for DNA quadruplex folding.

    PubMed

    Webba da Silva, Mateus

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the control of self-assembly and stereochemical properties of DNA higher order architectural folds is of fundamental importance in biology as well as biochemical technological applications. Guanine-rich DNA sequences can form tetrahelical architectures termed quadruplexes. A formalism is presented describing the interdependency of a set of structural descriptors as a geometric basis for folding of unimolecular quadruplex topologies. It represents a standard for interpretation of structural characteristics of quadruplexes, and is comprehensive in explicitly harmonizing the results of published literature with a unified language. The formalism is a fundamental step towards prediction of unimolecular quadruplex folding topologies from primary sequence.

  7. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the formal..., the hearing may be expanded to include the new issue. If in the opinion of the administrative...

  8. 20 CFR 702.332 - Formal hearings; how conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; how conducted. 702.332 Section 702.332 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.332 Formal hearings; how conducted. Formal hearings shall...

  9. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  10. Informal and Formal Learning of General Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach: To obtain insight in various learning processes, semi-structured…

  11. HEALTH EDUCATION THROUGH NON – FORMAL EDUCATION

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, P. Selva Peter; Kumar, P. Surendra

    1990-01-01

    The non-availability of health care in the rural area leads to the problems like infant mortality, infectious disease deaths and malnutrition. Rural health can be promoted both at preventive and promotive levels through non-formal education. PMID:22556504

  12. On the Need for Practical Formal Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    either a good violin or a highly talented violinist . Light-weight techniques o er software developers good violins. A user need not be a talented... violinist to bene t. This is in contrast to heavy-duty techniques where the user needs to be a good violinist . Formal methods research has already produced a

  13. The formal path integral and quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2010-11-15

    Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R{sup d} and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.

  14. Formal Synthesis of (±)-Roseophilin

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

    2009-01-01

    A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via π-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21. PMID:19053717

  15. An Elementary Formalism for General Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    1981-01-01

    An elementary formalism is developed for representing curved space-time which allows transparent qualitative explanation of general relativistic effects and is used to make a conceptual analysis of Einstein's principle of equivalence. A final section outlines a number of student activities. (Author/SK)

  16. A Simplified Approach to Product Operator Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiese, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of the simple and traditional vector model-based product operator formalism is highlighted. It is seen as a critical device in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry for a comprehensive analysis of spin coupling and quantum coherences.

  17. Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.

  18. Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sojung; Park, Seongbin

    2014-01-01

    There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference…

  19. Helping Students Understand Formal Chemical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Charles R.; Herron, J. Dudley

    1980-01-01

    Investigated outcomes of the use of the learning cycle, which divides instruction into the Piagetian phases of exploration, invention, and discovery in general college chemistry laboratory experiments. Differences between concrete and formal operational students were explored in students' ability to master chemistry material varying in cognitive…

  20. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  1. The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…

  2. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time.

  3. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  4. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  5. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  6. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  7. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  8. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  9. Situationally Embodied Curriculum: Relating Formalisms and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barab, Sasha; Zuiker, Steve; Warren, Scott; Hickey, Dan; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Kwon, Eun-Ju; Kouper, Inna; Herring, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes an example of design-based research in which we make theoretical improvements in our understanding, in part based on empirical work, and use these to revise our curriculum and, simultaneously, our evolving theory of the relations between contexts and disciplinary formalisms. Prior to this study, we completed a first cycle of…

  10. 28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.39 Formal hearings. (a... Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law. (c) Rights of parties. Every party shall have the right of timely notice and all other rights essential to...

  11. 28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.39 Formal hearings. (a... Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law. (c) Rights of parties. Every party shall have the right of timely notice and all other rights essential to...

  12. 28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.39 Formal hearings. (a... Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law. (c) Rights of parties. Every party shall have the right of timely notice and all other rights essential to...

  13. STUDENTS' MANUAL OF MODERN FORMAL TAMIL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LISKER, LEIGH; VAIDYANATHAN, S.

    A BEGINNING TEXT IN TAMIL, ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY SPOKEN DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES IN INDIA, IS PRESENTED. THE FORMAL LANGUAGE STYLE USED IN THESE MATERIALS REPRESENTS THE STYLE USED IN LECTURES, RADIO BROADCASTS, AND CITATION FORMS, AND IS ESSENTIALLY THE SPOKEN VERSION OF THE MODERN STANDARD WRITTEN TAMIL. THIS MANUAL, WHILE SERVING AS INTRODUCTION TO…

  14. Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Elinor

    2006-01-01

    Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…

  15. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Formal Verification the verification tools developed by the Programming Languages and Software Engineering group were improved. A series of games...were developed by the Center for Game Science: Pipe Jam, Traffic Jam, Flow Jam and Paradox. Verification tools and games were integrated to verify...N/A i Contents List of Figures 1. SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 1 2

  16. Partial Acquisition of the Formal Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Anita-Louise

    Sixty adolescents, stratified by sex and grade level (i.e., 9th, 12th, and college sophomore) participated in an examination of Piaget's suggestion that the formal operations are prerequisite to the development of political idealism, abstract thought and future time perspective in adolescence. Analysis of the cognition data revealed that the…

  17. HIV Education in the Formal Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsubuga, Yusuf K.; Bonnet, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic presents a complex of issues that require global answers, involving entire societies. The only sustainable solution is to include all sectors of society in a multidisciplinary collaboration, within which the formal education system plays a key role in delivering a comprehensive response to the disease at the national level.…

  18. A Preliminary Search for Formal Operations Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimark, Edith D.

    In a test the presence or absence of a "structure" in the individual's cognitive processes of formal operations thinking, 61 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students were administered three tasks supposedly requiring such a method of thinking. The three tasks were (1) a problem solving task (PS), (2) a chemistry task requiring a certain combination…

  19. Identifying Concrete and Formal Operational Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Edward M.

    This paper presents a study designed to determine if groups of concrete and formal operational children can be identified through the technique of cluster analysis, using a battery of Piagetian tasks. A Total of 64 subjects, 8 boys and 8 girls from each of the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth grade levels, were selected from a public elementary…

  20. Formal and Applied Counseling in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit

    2012-01-01

    Living in Israel is intensive and demanding but also meaningful and exciting. This article addresses the gap between the narrowly defined formal status of counseling in Israel and the widespread occurrence of counseling in various settings. It is argued that several recent changes, especially in the definition of treatment, along with the…

  1. A formal theory of the selfish gene.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A; Welch, J J

    2011-08-01

    Adaptation is conventionally regarded as occurring at the level of the individual organism. In contrast, the theory of the selfish gene proposes that it is more correct to view adaptation as occurring at the level of the gene. This view has received much popular attention, yet has enjoyed only limited uptake in the primary research literature. Indeed, the idea of ascribing goals and strategies to genes has been highly controversial. Here, we develop a formal theory of the selfish gene, using optimization theory to capture the analogy of 'gene as fitness-maximizing agent' in mathematical terms. We provide formal justification for this view of adaptation by deriving mathematical correspondences that translate the optimization formalism into dynamical population genetics. We show that in the context of social interactions between genes, it is the gene's inclusive fitness that provides the appropriate maximand. Hence, genic selection can drive the evolution of altruistic genes. Finally, we use the formalism to assess the various criticisms that have been levelled at the theory of the selfish gene, dispelling some and strengthening others.

  2. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  3. Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Strategy Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Eric; Oglesby, David; Bhatt, Devesh; Murugesan, Anitha; Engstrom, Eric; Mueller, Joe; Pelican, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This is the Final Report of a research project to investigate issues and provide guidance for the qualification of formal methods tools under the DO-330 qualification process. It consisted of three major subtasks spread over two years: 1) an assessment of theoretical soundness issues that may affect qualification for three categories of formal methods tools, 2) a case study simulating the DO-330 qualification of two actual tool sets, and 3) an investigation of risk mitigation strategies that might be applied to chains of such formal methods tools in order to increase confidence in their certification of airborne software.

  4. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be

  5. Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.

  6. A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Glória

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.

  7. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  8. A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work

  9. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  10. Theory of connectivity for formally symmetric operators

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Ismael

    1977-01-01

    A previous paper introduced the notion of complete connectivity conditions and developed variational principles for diffraction problems subjected to such restrictions. Here, an abstract definition of formally symmetric operators is given and it is shown that the problem of connecting solutions of equations associated with this kind of operators leads to complete connectivity conditions. The variational principles previously developed as well as a present more general one are thus applicable. The problem of connecting solutions defined in different regions is basic for finite element formulations. Formally symmetric operators occur in many branches of science and engineering. Applications are given here to potential theory, wave propagation, elasticity, and a general class of boundary integral equations. PMID:16592459

  11. Hartle formalism for rotating Newtonian configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Quevedo, Hernando; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Zhami, Bakytzhan

    2016-11-01

    We apply the Hartle formalism to study equilibrium configurations in the framework of Newtonian gravity. This approach allows one to study in a simple manner the properties of the interior gravitational field in the case of static as well as stationary rotating stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. It is shown that the gravitational equilibrium conditions reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations which can be integrated numerically. We derive all the relevant equations up to the second order in the angular velocity. Moreover, we find explicitly the total mass, the moment of inertia, the quadrupole moment, the polar and equatorial radii, the eccentricity and the gravitational binding energy of the rotating body. We also present the procedure to calculate the gravitational Love number. We test the formalism in the case of white dwarfs and show its compatibility with the known results in the literature.

  12. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  13. Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J

    2010-09-01

    Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others.

  14. Formal Definition of Measures for BPMN Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, Luis; Rolón, Elvira; Genero, Marcela; García, Félix; Ruiz, Francisco; Piattini, Mario

    Business process models are currently attaining more relevance, and more attention is therefore being paid to their quality. This situation led us to define a set of measures for the understandability of BPMN models, which is shown in a previous work. We focus on understandability since a model must be well understood before any changes are made to it. These measures were originally informally defined in natural language. As is well known, natural language is ambiguous and may lead to misunderstandings and a misinterpretation of the concepts captured by a measure and the way in which the measure value is obtained. This has motivated us to provide the formal definition of the proposed measures using OCL (Object Constraint Language) upon the BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) metamodel presented in this paper. The main advantages and lessons learned (which were obtained both from the current work and from previous works carried out in relation to the formal definition of other measures) are also summarized.

  15. Formal verification of human-automation interaction.

    PubMed

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a formal and rigorous approach to the analysis of operator interaction with machines. It addresses the acute problem of detecting design errors in human-machine interaction and focuses on verifying the correctness of the interaction in complex and automated control systems. The paper describes a systematic methodology for evaluating whether the interface provides the necessary information about the machine to enable the operator to perform a specified task successfully and unambiguously. It also addresses the adequacy of information provided to the user via training material (e.g., user manual) about the machine's behavior. The essentials of the methodology, which can be automated and applied to the verification of large systems, are illustrated by several examples and through a case study of pilot interaction with an autopilot aboard a modern commercial aircraft. The expected application of this methodology is an augmentation and enhancement, by formal verification, of human-automation interfaces.

  16. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.

  17. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  18. Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daumas, Marc; Lester, David; Martin-Dorel, Erik; Truffert, Annick

    2009-01-01

    We provide a framework to bound the probability that accumulated errors were never above a given threshold on numerical algorithms. Such algorithms are used for example in aircraft and nuclear power plants. This report contains simple formulas based on Levy's and Markov's inequalities and it presents a formal theory of random variables with a special focus on producing concrete results. We selected four very common applications that fit in our framework and cover the common practices of systems that evolve for a long time. We compute the number of bits that remain continuously significant in the first two applications with a probability of failure around one out of a billion, where worst case analysis considers that no significant bit remains. We are using PVS as such formal tools force explicit statement of all hypotheses and prevent incorrect uses of theorems.

  19. Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grappone, Arturo G.

    2000-05-01

    This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.

  20. Toward a Formal Evaluation of Refactorings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, John; Kuzmina, Nadya; Gamboa, Ruben; Caldwell, James

    2008-01-01

    Refactoring is a software development strategy that characteristically alters the syntactic structure of a program without changing its external behavior [2]. In this talk we present a methodology for extracting formal models from programs in order to evaluate how incremental refactorings affect the verifiability of their structural specifications. We envision that this same technique may be applicable to other types of properties such as those that concern the design and maintenance of safety-critical systems.

  1. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  2. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  3. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  4. Structure Based Formal Methods for Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-27

    9 3.4 The Initial PegaSys Prototype ....... ...................... 9 4 Related Research 11 References 12 Accession For NI T 1... PegaSys - that uses pictures as for- mal documentation. To our knowledge, PegaSys is the first system to manipu- late nontrivial design structures in...The Initial PegaSys Prototype PegaSys is a display-oriented, interactive environment that uses intuitive graphical pictures as formal documentation to

  5. Formal Synthesis of (±)-Platensimycin

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yefen; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Taylor, Christopher D.; Foxman, Bruce M.; Snider, Barry B.

    2008-01-01

    Reductive alkylation of 5-methoxy-1-tetralone (6) with 2,3-dibromopropene gave an equilibrium mixture of bicyclic diones 7 (51%) and 8 (35%). Radical cyclization of 7 afforded tricyclic dione 5 (84%), which was reduced, cyclized and dehydrated to give tetracyclic alkene 13 in 63% yield. Allylic oxidation of 13 with SeO2 and activated MnO2 afforded enone 2 in 85% yield, thereby completing a short formal synthesis of (±)-platensimycin. PMID:17407302

  6. Formalized Epistemology in a Philosophical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreau, Hervé

    The need for a formalized epistemology is recognized by all scholars who think that the relativity of all sciences must not be referred to a social relativism. In XXth century, Husserl was the protagonist of such an epistemic philosophy. But this philosophy was more successful in social and human sciences than in natural sciences. In this latter domain, quantum mechanics obeys the requirements of a Kantien perspective in a more precise sense that was the case with Newtonian mechanics.

  7. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    PubMed

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail.

  8. Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical formalism has been developed for predicting the postinstability motions of a dynamic system governed by a system of nonlinear equations and subject to initial conditions. Previously, there was no general method for prediction and mathematical modeling of postinstability behaviors (e.g., chaos and turbulence) in such a system. The formalism of nonlinear dynamics does not afford means to discriminate between stable and unstable motions: an additional stability analysis is necessary for such discrimination. However, an additional stability analysis does not suggest any modifications of a mathematical model that would enable the model to describe postinstability motions efficiently. The most important type of instability that necessitates a postinstability description is associated with positive Lyapunov exponents. Such an instability leads to exponential growth of small errors in initial conditions or, equivalently, exponential divergence of neighboring trajectories. The development of the present formalism was undertaken in an effort to remove positive Lyapunov exponents. The means chosen to accomplish this is coupling of the governing dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the flow of error probability. The underlying idea is to suppress the divergences of different trajectories that correspond to different initial conditions, without affecting a target trajectory, which is one that starts with prescribed initial conditions.

  9. A thermodynamical formalism describing mechanical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, R. F. S.; Souza, A. M. C.; Curado, E. M. F.; Nobre, F. D.

    2014-10-01

    The dynamical behavior of an overdamped mechanical model devoid of any usual thermal effects is analyzed by a formalism that is similar to usual thermodynamics, and completely independent of any ad hoc assumption of a probability distribution of states in phase space of the mechanical model. It leads to the definition of a new entropy function, which does not coincide with the usual thermodynamical entropy. The new step making the difference to previous studies of this system is the identification of two non-equivalent mechanical interaction mechanisms, which are defined and identified as work and pseudo-heat. Together with the introduced effective temperature θ, they make it possible to characterize the equivalent to isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, and isochoric processes. Three statements, formally analogous to the zeroth, first, and second law of thermodynamics, are issued. The statement of the second law results from the asymmetry in the way energy can be exchanged along the two processes. A Carnot cycle is defined, for which the efficiency is expressed in terms of θ in the operating pseudo-heat reservoirs. The analogous Clausius theorem for the system operating an arbitrary reversible cycle is proved, leading to the new entropy function. Consequences of the extension of thermodynamic formalism to mechanical models with different processes of transferring energy are discussed.

  10. Formal Assurance Arguments: A Solution In Search of a Problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graydon, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    An assurance case comprises evidence and argument showing how that evidence supports assurance claims (e.g., about safety or security). It is unsurprising that some computer scientists have proposed formalizing assurance arguments: most associate formality with rigor. But while engineers can sometimes prove that source code refines a formal specification, it is not clear that formalization will improve assurance arguments or that this benefit is worth its cost. For example, formalization might reduce the benefits of argumentation by limiting the audience to people who can read formal logic. In this paper, we present (1) a systematic survey of the literature surrounding formal assurance arguments, (2) an analysis of errors that formalism can help to eliminate, (3) a discussion of existing evidence, and (4) suggestions for experimental work to definitively answer the question.

  11. Prerequisites to Deriving Formal Specifications from Natural Language Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Special 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side Ii nocessary and Identify by block number) formal specifications, English specifications, modules, software... English specifications and formal specifications of modules are complementary and since formal specifications require so much effort to write, our...involved four areas of work. The firtt is,A\\ comparing English descriptions with formal specifications of the same software module. This work is now complete

  12. Canonical formalism for coupled beam optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.A.

    1989-09-01

    Beam optics of a lattice with an inter-plane coupling is treated using canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The method developed is equally applicable both to a circular (periodic) machine and to an open transport line. A solution of the equation of a particle motion (and correspondingly transfer matrix between two arbitrary points of the lattice) are described in terms of two amplitude functions (and their derivatives and corresponding phases of oscillations) and four coupling functions, defined by a solution of the system of the first-order nonlinear differential equations derived in the paper. Thus total number of independent parameters is equal to ten. 8 refs.

  13. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  14. BRST and the pure spinor formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J. Antonio

    2008-03-06

    The aim of this talk is to show the relation between the standard BRST approach of the GS superstring with the quantization technics used in the pure spinor approach to superstring. To that end we will use the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) conversion program of second class constraints to first class constraints in the GS superstring using light cone coordinates. By applying this systematic procedure we were able to obtain a gauge system that is equivalent to the recent model proposed in [1] to relate the GS superstring to the pure spinor formalism.

  15. Formal specification and verification of Ada software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hird, Geoffrey R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods in software development achieves levels of quality assurance unobtainable by other means. The Larch approach to specification is described, and the specification of avionics software designed to implement the logic of a flight control system is given as an example. Penelope is described which is an Ada-verification environment. The Penelope user inputs mathematical definitions, Larch-style specifications and Ada code and performs machine-assisted proofs that the code obeys its specifications. As an example, the verification of a binary search function is considered. Emphasis is given to techniques assisting the reuse of a verification effort on modified code.

  16. Formal Aspects of Human-Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Moodi, Michael; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    While new versions of automated control systems such as flight guidance systems are introduced at a rapid pace, it is widely recognized that user interaction with these machines is increasingly problematic. One cause for this difficulty that is commonly cited in the literature, is the discrepancy between the machine's behavior and the operator's (e.g., pilot) expectations. This paper discusses a formal approach to the analysis of operator's interaction with complex automated control systems. We focus attention on the issue of interface correctness; that is, on the question whether the display provides adequate information about the machine's configurations (states, modes, and associated parameters) and transitions, so as to enable the operator to successfully perform the specified set of tasks. To perform the analysis several assumptions are made: (1) A complete formal model of the machine's behavior is available (e.g., as a state transition system, or as a hybrid-machine); (2) A specification of operator's tasks is available and can be formally described (e.g., the reliable and predictable transition between activities involved in executing a climb to a new altitude); (3) The pilot is well trained and has a correct 'mental' model of the machine's response-map. By 'comparing' the machine's model with the set of operator's tasks we formally (i.e., mathematically) evaluate two questions: 1) does the machine's output interface (display) enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the current configuration (e.g., mode) of the machine is, and 2) does the display enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the next configuration of the machine will be, in response to a specified interaction by the operator (e.g., engaging a mode or changing a parameter such as a speed or target altitude). This paper describes a methodology for conducting such an evaluation using examples from automated flight control systems of modem 'glass cockpit' jetliners

  17. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  18. Toward the Identification of Styles of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Susan; Bart, William M.

    A method of examining individual variation in responses to Inhelder-Piaget formal reasoning tasks is proposed as a means of identifying cognitive style components of formal reason and as a means of generating more complete descriptions of observable manifestations of formal reasoning. The method is one used by human ethologists and consists of…

  19. 19 CFR 128.25 - Formal entry procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal entry procedures. 128.25 Section 128.25... TREASURY EXPRESS CONSIGNMENTS Procedures § 128.25 Formal entry procedures. Formal entry, as provided for under 19 U.S.C. 1484 in parts 141, 142, and 143 (except for subpart C), of this chapter, is required...

  20. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the... considered, the hearing may be expanded to include the new issue. If in the opinion of the administrative...

  1. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...

  5. "Passing It On": Beyond Formal or Informal Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Informal pedagogies are a subject of debate in music education, and there is some evidence of teachers abandoning formal pedagogies in favour of informal ones. This article presents a case of one teacher's formal pedagogy and theorises it by comparing it with a case of informal pedagogy. The comparison reveals affordances of formal pedagogies…

  6. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who do not…

  7. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35... advertising. Each contract shall be awarded after formal advertising, unless negotiation is permitted in accordance with § 35.936-18. Formal advertising shall be in accordance with the following: (a)...

  8. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    SciTech Connect

    Witzel, Wayne; Rudinger, Kenneth Michael; Sarovar, Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  9. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  10. Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilce, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.

  11. Generalized Boltzmann formalism for oscillating neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Strack, P.; Burrows, A.

    2005-05-01

    In the standard approaches to neutrino transport in the simulation of core-collapse supernovas, one will often start from the classical Boltzmann equation for the neutrino's spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution. For each neutrino species, and its antiparticle, the classical density in phase space, or the associated specific intensity, will be calculated as a function of time. The neutrino radiation is coupled to matter by source and sink terms on the 'right-hand side' of the transport equation and together with the equations of hydrodynamics this set of coupled partial differential equations for classical densities describes, in principle, the evolution of core collapse and explosion. However, with the possibility of neutrino oscillations between species, a purely quantum-physical effect, how to generalize this set of Boltzmann equations for classical quantities to reflect oscillation physics has not been clear. To date, the formalisms developed have retained the character of quantum operator physics involving complex quantities and have not been suitable for easy incorporation into standard supernova codes. In this paper, we derive generalized Boltzmann equations for quasiclassical, real-valued phase-space densities that retain all the standard oscillation phenomenology, including the matter-enhanced resonant flavor conversion (Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between decohering matter coupling and flavor oscillations. With this formalism, any code(s) that can now handle the solution of the classical Boltzmann or transport equation can easily be generalized to include neutrino oscillations in a quantum-physically consistent fashion.

  12. Günther's formalism (κ-symplectic formalism) in classical field theory: Skinner-Rusk approach and the evolution operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Angel M.; Román-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto

    2005-05-01

    The first aim of this paper is to extend the Skinner-Rusk formalism on classical mechanics for first-order field theories. The second is to generalize the definition and properties of the evolution K-operator on classical mechanics for first-order field theories using in both cases Günther's formalism (k-symplectic formalism).

  13. Indigenous Knowledge and Education from the Quechua Community to School: Beyond the Formal/Non-Formal Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…

  14. Guidance for Using Formal Methods in a Certification Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Duncan; Delseny, Herve; Hayhurst, Kelly; Wiels, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describes the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to propose guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach. This guidance, expected to take the form of a Formal Methods Technical Supplement to DO-178C/ED-12C, is described, including the activities that are needed when using formal methods, new or modified objectives with respect to the core DO-178C/ED-12C document, and evidence needed for meeting those objectives.

  15. Information Superiority via Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Bjoern; Schmidt, Stefan E.

    This chapter will show how to get more mileage out of information. To achieve that, we first start with an introduction to the fundamentals of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). FCA is a highly versatile field of applied lattice theory, which allows hidden relationships to be uncovered in relational data. Moreover, FCA provides a distinguished supporting framework to subsequently find and fill information gaps in a systematic and rigorous way. In addition, we would like to build bridges via a universal approach to other communities which can be related to FCA in order for other research areas to benefit from a theory that has been elaborated for more than twenty years. Last but not least, the essential benefits of FCA will be presented algorithmically as well as theoretically by investigating a real data set from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base and also by demonstrating an application in the field of Web Information Retrieval and Web Intelligence.

  16. Whatever Happened to Formal Methods for Security?

    PubMed

    Voas, J; Schaffer, K

    2016-08-01

    We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare "How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?" [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in "safety-critical" has succeeded as well for today's "build it, hack it, patch it" mindset. Our experts were John McLean (Naval Research Labs), Paul Black (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Karl Levitt (University of California at Davis), Joseph Williams (CloudEconomist.Com), Connie Heitmeyer (Naval Research Labs), Eugene Spafford (Purdue University), and Joseph Kiniry (Galois, Inc.). The questions and responses follow.

  17. Thermodynamic consistency of the interaction parameter formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, S.; Jacob, K. T.

    1988-04-01

    The apparent contradiction between the exact nature of the interaction parameter formalism as presented by Lupis and Elliott and the inconsistencies discussed recently by Pelton and Bale arise from the truncation of the Maclaurin series in the latter treatment. The truncation removes the exactness of the expression for the logarithm of the activity coefficient of a solute in a multi-component system. The integrals are therefore path dependent. Formulae for integration along paths of constant Xi, or X i/Xj are presented. The expression for In γsolvent given by Pelton and Bale is valid only in the limit that the mole fraction of solvent tends to one. The truncation also destroys the general relations between interaction parameters derived by Lupis and Elliott. For each specific choice of parameters special relationships are obtained between interaction parameters.

  18. The stable computation of formal orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckermann, Bernhard

    1996-12-01

    For many applications - such as the look-ahead variants of the Lanczos algorithm - a sequence of formal (block-)orthogonal polynomials is required. Usually, one generates such a sequence by taking suitable polynomial combinations of a pair of basis polynomials. These basis polynomials are determined by a look-ahead generalization of the classical three term recurrence, where the polynomial coefficients are obtained by solving a small system of linear equations. In finite precision arithmetic, the numerical orthogonality of the polynomials depends on a good choice of the size of the small systems; this size is usually controlled by a heuristic argument such as the condition number of the small matrix of coefficients. However, quite often it happens that orthogonality gets lost.

  19. Geodesic Acoustic Propagation and Ballooning Mode Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Young, G. G.; Arakawa, M.

    2005-10-01

    Relevance of ballooning formalism (BMF) in nonlinear interaction of toroidal electromagnetic drift waves in the presence of zonal flows and Geodesic Acoustic Oscillation (GAO) is critically examined from a physical argument of radial propagation of wave packets. To achieve the quasi-translational invariance of poloidal harmonics which is necessary for the BMF, the geodesic curvature induced transfer [1] of fluctuation energy in radial direction should occur faster than the time scale of physical interest. Of course, this does not happen necessarily in drift-Alfven (DALF) turbulence simulations [2]. This observation casts considerable doubts on the applicability of various codes based on the BMF concept to nonlinear electromagnetic problems. [1] B. Scott, Phys. Letters A 320 (2003) 53. [2] B. Scott, New J. Phys 7 (2005) 92.

  20. A very general electromagnetic gyrokinetic formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, B. F.; Sharma, A.

    2016-09-01

    We derive a gyrokinetic formalism which is very generally valid: the ordering allows both large inhomogeneities in plasma flow and magnetic field at long wavelength, such as typical drift-kinetic theories, as well as fluctuations at the gyro-scale. The underlying approach is to order the vorticity to be small, and to assert that the timescales in the local plasma frame are long compared to the gyrofrequency. Unlike most other derivations, we do not treat the long and short wavelength components of the fluctuating fields separately; the single-field description defines the particle motion and their interaction with the electromagnetic field at small-scale, the system-scale, and intermediate length scales in a unified fashion. As in earlier literature, the work consists of identifying a coordinate system where the gyroangle-dependent terms are small, and using a near-unity transform to systematically find a set of coordinates where the gyroangle dependence vanishes. We derive a gyrokinetic Lagrangian which is valid where the vorticity | ∇ × ( E × B / B ) | is small compared to the gyrofrequency Ω, and the magnetic field scale length is long compared to the gyroradius; we also require that time variation be slow in an appropriately chosen reference frame. This appears to be a minimum set of constraints on a gyrokinetic theory and is substantially more general than earlier approaches. It is the general-geometry electromagnetic extension of Dimits, Phys. Plasmas 17, 055901 (2010) (which is an electrostatic formalism with a homogeneous background magnetic field). This approach also does not require a separate treatment of fluctuating and background components of the magnetic field, unlike much of the previous literature. As a consequence, the "cross terms" due to a combination of long- and short-wavelength variation, which were ignored in the earlier work (but derived in a more restrictive ordering in Parra and Calvo, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 045001 (2011

  1. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  2. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and

  3. Formal Techniques for Synchronized Fault-Tolerant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1992-01-01

    We present the formal verification of synchronizing aspects of the Reliable Computing Platform (RCP), a fault-tolerant computing system for digital flight control applications. The RCP uses NMR-style redundancy to mask faults and internal majority voting to purge the effects of transient faults. The system design has been formally specified and verified using the EHDM verification system. Our formalization is based on an extended state machine model incorporating snapshots of local processors clocks.

  4. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Bäckdahl, Thomas; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-02-15

    We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.

  5. Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications.

  6. The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitagliano, Luca

    2010-06-01

    We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.

  7. A Formal Semantics for the SRI Hierarchical Program Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A formal statement of what it means to use (a subset of) the methodology is presented. It is formally defined that some specified module exists and what it means to say that another module is paid correctly implemented on top of it. No attention is to motivation, either of the methodology or of the formal development of it. Concentration is entirely upon mathematical succinctness and precision. A discussion is presented of how to use certain INTERLISP programs which implement the formal definitions. Among these are a program which generates Floyd like verification conditions sufficient to imply the correctness of a module implementation.

  8. Functional Lagrange formalism for time-non-local Lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferialdi, L.; Bassi, A.

    2012-05-01

    We develop a time-non-local (TNL) formalism based on variational calculus, which allows for the analysis of TNL Lagrangians. We derive the generalized Euler-Lagrange equations starting from the Hamilton's principle and, by defining a generalized momentum, we introduce the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. We apply the formalism to second order TNL Lagrangians and we show that it reproduces standard results in the time-local limit. An example will show how the formalism works, and will provide an interesting insight on the non-standard features of TNL equations.

  9. Historical revision of the differential Stokes-Mueller formalism: discussion.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2017-03-01

    The differential Stokes-Mueller matrix formalism expresses the local evolution of the Mueller matrix or the Stokes parameters for light propagating through a homogeneous optical medium. This paper presents a historical revision of the development of the differential Stokes-Mueller matrix formalism and highlights several important early contributions that have been overlooked. Particularly relevant is that this formalism was pioneered as early as 1929 by Paul Soleillet, almost 50 years earlier than it has been usually assumed. This historical revision demonstrates that several different authors independently formulated the differential Stokes-Mueller formalism during the 20th century and they found equivalent results studying the propagation problem from different approaches.

  10. On Applicability of Formal Methods and Tools to Dependable Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    As a variety of digital services are provided through networks, more and more efforts are made to ensure dependability of software behavior implementing services. Formal methods and tools have been considered as promising means to support dependability in complex software systems during the development. On the other hand, there have been serious doubts on practical applicability of formal methods. This paper overviews the present state of formal methods and discusses their applicability, especially focusing on two representative methods (SPIN and B Method) and their recent industrial applications. This paper also discusses applications of formal methods to dependable networked software.

  11. Formal policies for flexible EHR security.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    State of the Art methodologies for establishing requirements and solutions to securing applications are based on narrative descriptions about the use of available system, sometimes also dedicated to system components. Even nowadays new developments to ruling application security services by the use of predicate logic suffer from being administered manually. Therefore, security and privacy requirements cannot be properly met resulting in restrictions and fears for allowing the use of sensitive data and functions. Because of the sensitivity of personal health information and especially of genetic data with its wider implications beyond the original subject of care, weaknesses in guaranteeing fine-grained security and privacy rules lead to less acceptance or even the avoidance of essential information transfer and use. To overcome the problem, security and privacy have to become properties of the architectural components of the respective health information system. Embedding security into the systems architecture allows for negotiating and enforcing any security and privacy services related to principals, their roles, their relationships, further contextual information as well as other regulations summarized in formally modeled policies. The paper introduces the evolving paradigm of the model-driven architecture, first time also comprehensively deployed for security and privacy services in bio-genetic and health information systems.

  12. Toward solotronics design in the Wigner formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, J. M.; Dimov, I.

    2015-01-01

    The capability of manipulating single dopant atoms in semiconductor materials, with atomic precision, has given birth to a new branch of electronics known as solotronics (solitary dopant optoelectronics). While experiments are advancing rapidly, the theoretical comprehension of quantum phenomena occurring at that scale is relatively basic. Indeed, in this context, simulations come with incredible mathematical challenges. This eventually prevents practical design and optimization of solotronic devices. In this work, we focus our attention on a planar honeycomb structure exploiting single dopants embedded in silicon and study under which conditions it behaves as an electron ballistic channel. To this aim, we apply the time-dependent Wigner Monte Carlo formalism, based on signed particles to simulate and analyze the phenomena occurring in the proposed structure. We show that, by positioning the dopant atoms (phosphorus and boron) in particular planar patterns (honeycomb), it is possible to control the dynamics of a single electron. Finally, by introducing spatial distortions, we can show how the time-dependent electron dynamics is eventually affected. The results confirm that the Wigner Monte Carlo method is an efficient TCAD (Technology Computer Aided Design) tool which can be exploited for the time-dependent simulation of even more realistic situations necessary for the design of active solotronic devices.

  13. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: cornelius.rampf@port.ac.uk

    2015-04-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c{sub eff}{sup 2},c{sub vis}{sup 2})-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles.

  14. Formal groups and Z-entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-11-01

    We shall prove that the celebrated Rényi entropy is the first example of a new family of infinitely many multi-parametric entropies. We shall call them the Z-entropies. Each of them, under suitable hypotheses, generalizes the celebrated entropies of Boltzmann and Rényi. A crucial aspect is that every Z-entropy is composable (Tempesta 2016 Ann. Phys. 365, 180-197. (doi:10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.013)). This property means that the entropy of a system which is composed of two or more independent systems depends, in all the associated probability space, on the choice of the two systems only. Further properties are also required to describe the composition process in terms of a group law. The composability axiom, introduced as a generalization of the fourth Shannon-Khinchin axiom (postulating additivity), is a highly non-trivial requirement. Indeed, in the trace-form class, the Boltzmann entropy and Tsallis entropy are the only known composable cases. However, in the non-trace form class, the Z-entropies arise as new entropic functions possessing the mathematical properties necessary for information-theoretical applications, in both classical and quantum contexts. From a mathematical point of view, composability is intimately related to formal group theory of algebraic topology. The underlying group-theoretical structure determines crucially the statistical properties of the corresponding entropies.

  15. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  16. The Parametrized Post-Newtonian-Vainshteinian formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Avilez-Lopez, A.; Padilla, A.; Saffin, Paul M.; Skordis, C. E-mail: antonio.padilla@nottingham.ac.uk E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy

    2015-06-01

    Light degrees of freedom that modify gravity on cosmological scales must be ''screened' on solar system scales in order to be compatible with data. The Vainshtein mechanism achieves this through a breakdown of classical perturbation theory, as large interactions involving new degrees of freedom become important below the so-called Vainshtein radius. We begin to develop an extension of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism that is able to handle Vainshteinian corrections. We argue that theories with a unique Vainshtein scale must be expanded using two small parameters. In this Parameterized Post-Newtonian-Vainshteinian (PPNV) expansion, the primary expansion parameter that controls the PPN order is, as usual, the velocity v. The secondary expansion parameter, α, controls the strength of the Vainshteinian correction and is a theory-specific combination of the Schwarzschild radius and the Vainshtein radius of the source that is independent of its mass. We present the general framework and apply it to Cubic Galileon theory both inside and outside the Vainshtein radius. The PPNV framework can be used to determine the compatibility of such theories with solar system and other strong-field data.

  17. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  18. Formal groups and Z-entropies.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-11-01

    We shall prove that the celebrated Rényi entropy is the first example of a new family of infinitely many multi-parametric entropies. We shall call them the Z-entropies. Each of them, under suitable hypotheses, generalizes the celebrated entropies of Boltzmann and Rényi. A crucial aspect is that every Z-entropy is composable (Tempesta 2016 Ann. Phys.365, 180-197. (doi:10.1016/j.aop.2015.08.013)). This property means that the entropy of a system which is composed of two or more independent systems depends, in all the associated probability space, on the choice of the two systems only. Further properties are also required to describe the composition process in terms of a group law. The composability axiom, introduced as a generalization of the fourth Shannon-Khinchin axiom (postulating additivity), is a highly non-trivial requirement. Indeed, in the trace-form class, the Boltzmann entropy and Tsallis entropy are the only known composable cases. However, in the non-trace form class, the Z-entropies arise as new entropic functions possessing the mathematical properties necessary for information-theoretical applications, in both classical and quantum contexts. From a mathematical point of view, composability is intimately related to formal group theory of algebraic topology. The underlying group-theoretical structure determines crucially the statistical properties of the corresponding entropies.

  19. Whatever Happened to Formal Methods for Security?

    PubMed Central

    Voas, J.; Schaffer, K.

    2016-01-01

    We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare “How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?” [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in “safety-critical” has succeeded as well for today’s “build it, hack it, patch it” mindset. Our experts were John McLean (Naval Research Labs), Paul Black (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Karl Levitt (University of California at Davis), Joseph Williams (CloudEconomist.Com), Connie Heitmeyer (Naval Research Labs), Eugene Spafford (Purdue University), and Joseph Kiniry (Galois, Inc.). The questions and responses follow. PMID:27890940

  20. Formal education and back pain: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, C; Von Korff, M; Koepsell, T; Deyo, R; Barlow, W; Checkoway, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To summarise the scientific evidence on the relation between educational status and measures of the frequency and the consequences of back pain and of the outcomes of interventions among back pain patients, and to outline possible mechanisms that could explain such an association if found.
DESIGN—Sixty four articles published between 1966 and 2000 that documented the association of formal education with back pain were reviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—Overall, the current available evidence points indirectly to a stronger association of low education with longer duration and/or higher recurrence of back pain than to an association with onset. The many reports of an association of low education with adverse consequences of back pain also suggest that the course of a back pain episode is less favourable among persons with low educational attainment. Mechanisms that could explain these associations include variations in behavioural and environmental risk factors by educational status, differences in occupational factors, compromised "health stock" among people with low education, differences in access to and utilisation of health services, and adaptation to stress. Although lower education was not associated with the outcomes of interventions in major studies, it is difficult, in light of the current limited available evidence, to draw firm conclusions on this association.
CONCLUSION—Scientific evidence supports the hypothesis that less well educated people are more likely to be affected by disabling back pain. Further study of this association may help advance our understanding of back pain as well as understanding of the relation between socioeconomic status and disease as a general phenomenon.


Keywords: back pain; educational status PMID:11413174

  1. A formal model of interpersonal inference

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, Michael; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; El-Deredy, Wael; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference—a general framework for decision-making—can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: (1) Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to “mentalizing” in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. (2) We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g., self-serving biases) can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. (3) Mentalizing naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one's own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modeling intersubject variability in mentalizing during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalizing is distorted. PMID:24723872

  2. On a purported local extension of the quantum formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Joseph; Redhead, Michael

    1999-09-01

    It is widely believed that Bell has proved there can be no consistent local extension of the quantum formalism. Against this, Angelidis has presented a hidden variable theory which, he claims, makes precisely the same predictions as the quantum formalism and which also satisfies locality. In this note, we argue that Angelidis' theory does not live up to its inventor's claims.

  3. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  4. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  5. Adolescent Egocentrism and Formal Operations: Tests of a Theoretical Assumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, David K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes two studies of the theoretical relation between adolescent egocentrism and formal operations. Study 1 used the Adolescent Egocentrism Scale (AES) and Lunzer's battery of formal reasoning tasks to assess 183 adolescents. Study 2 administered the AES, the Imaginary Audience Scale (IAS), and the Test of Logical Thinking to 138 adolescents.…

  6. Formal or Nonformal Education? Entrepreneurial Women in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Claire C.

    1984-01-01

    Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…

  7. Does the nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2015-06-01

    We reformulate the Lagrange deformed field-antifield BV-formalism suggested, in terms of the general Euler vector field N generated by the antisymplectic potential. That N generalizes, in a natural anticanonically-invariant manner, the usual power-counting operator. We provide for the "usual" gauge-fixing mechanism as applied to the deformed BV-formalism.

  8. 47 CFR 6.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 6.16 Section 6..., TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 6.16 Informal or formal complaints. Complaints against manufacturers or providers, as defined under this...

  9. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  10. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  11. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  12. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  13. Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betül C.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…

  14. On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

  15. Beyond Formalism: Literary Criticism Now and in the Immediate Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Fred L.

    Formalism, an amalgamation of literary critical methods originating in the 1920's, which emphasize close textual analysis of the literary work itself, is declining as the predominant critical approach due to its self-imposed limitations. New perspectives, attempting to counter the fragmentation of formalism and demonstrating an awareness of the…

  16. The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…

  17. Automatically Grading Customer Confidence in a Formal Specification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukur, Zarina; Burke, Edmund; Foxley, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Describes an automatic grading system for a formal methods computer science course that is able to evaluate a formal specification written in the Z language. Quality is measured by considering first, specification correctness (syntax, semantics, and satisfaction of customer requirements), and second, specification maintainability (comparison of…

  18. 49 CFR 209.8 - Depositions in formal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions in formal proceedings. 209.8 Section... in formal proceedings. (a) Any party to a proceeding under subpart B, C, or D of this part may take... witnesses may be compelled by subpoena as provided in § 209.7 and, for proceedings under subpart D of...

  19. The Role of Formal Rules in Pronunciation Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Wayne B.

    Both aural-oral practice with the sounds of English and formal rules are important in pronunciation instruction, and have a role to play in interlanguage development. Formal rules provide self-evaluation for purposes of self-correction, a process which allows learners to judge or self-correct their own utterances against rule-generated predictions…

  20. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  1. Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…

  2. I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…

  3. Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The terms "concreteness fading" and "progressive formalization" have been used to describe instructional approaches to science and mathematics that use grounded representations to introduce concepts and later transition to more formal representations of the same concepts. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to…

  4. Home Education Transitions with Formal Schooling: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Glenda

    2007-01-01

    Home education is a well established phenomenon in Australia but little is known about the movement of students between home schooling and formal education and how students view and handle the transitions. A sociocultural theoretical framework has been used to explore student perceptions of their transition experiences between formal education and…

  5. Toward the Characterization of Non-Formal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman-Keller, Diana

    This study examined characteristic attributes of non-formal education and the non-formal pedagogy directing its teaching and learning processes. Data were collected on organizational and pedagogical characteristics in several out-of-school organizations (youth movements, youth organizations, community centers, bypass educational systems, local…

  6. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  7. 7 CFR 1487.7 - How are agreements formalized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are agreements formalized? 1487.7 Section 1487.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT....7 How are agreements formalized? Following the approval of a proposal, the CCC will enter into...

  8. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  9. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills, and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to literacy and essential skills, as well as the learning of second and other languages in Canada. It builds upon the work of the OECD (n.d.) and Werquin…

  10. Correlates of formal reasoning: Content and problem effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven; Gans, Adrienne

    Piaget's structural theory of formal thought suggests that a general construct of formal reasoning exists. The content of the task and type of problem employed are often ignored in Piagetian based studies but are important for generalizing findings to other studies and to educational problems. The study reported here examines content and problem effects of formal thought in 13-year-old adolescents. Specifically, three controlling variables tasks with different content and two question type tests (analysis and controlling questions) were administered to 120 seventh graders. Ability measures and personality dimensions associated with formal reasoning in the literature are used to clarify what formal reasoning is and how content and problem type are involved in formal reasoning. Significant main effects were found for problem and content effects (p = 0.001), and a significant interaction was found between the two (p = 0.001). Across the three tasks general ability, field dependency, and locus of control were consistently and significantly related to the controlling questions. However, only measures of field dependency were related to the analysis questions. Combinations of ability and personality factors were found to be uniquely related to each task, within each question type. Results have implications for a theory of formal thought and the teaching of the controlling variables strategy.

  11. Automatic derivation of formal software specifications from informal descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1991-01-01

    SPECIFIER, an interactive system which derives formal specifications of data types and programs from their informal descriptions, is described. The process of deriving formal specifications is viewed as a problem-solving process. The system uses common problem-solving techniques such as schemas, analogy, and difference-based reasoning to derive formal specifications. If an informal description is a commonly occurring operation for which the system has a schema, then the formal specification is derived by instantiating the schema. If there is no such schema, SPECIFIER tries to find a previously solved problem which is analogous to the current problem. If the problem found is directly analogous to the current problem, it applies an analogy mapping to obtain a formal specification. On the other hand, if the analogy found is only approximate, it solves the directly analogous part of the problem by analogy and performs difference-based reasoning using the remaining (unmatched) parts to transform the formal specification obtained by analogy to a formal specification for the entire original problem.

  12. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  13. A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in the development of formal reasoning? (2) Are Piaget's formal tasks reliable and valid? (3) Does formal reasoning constitute a unified and general mode of intellectual functioning? (4) How does the presence or absence of formal reasoning affect school achievement? (5) Can formal reasoning be taught? (6) What is the structural or functional nature of advanced reasoning? The general conclusion drawn is that although Piaget's work and that which has sprung from it leaves a number of unresolved theoretical and methodological problems, it provides an important background from which to make substantial progress toward a most significant educational objective.All our dignity lies in thought. By thought we must elevate ourselves, not by space and time which we can not fill. Let us endeavor then to think well; therein lies the principle of morality. Blaise Pascal 1623-1662.

  14. Proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in Washington D.C. April 13-15, 2010. Topics covered include: Decision Engines for Software Analysis using Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solvers; Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems; Formal Methods at Intel -- An Overview; Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification; Hardware-independent Proofs of Numerical Programs; Slice-based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z; How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project; A Machine-Checked Proof of A State-Space Construction Algorithm; Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications; Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving; Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol; Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?; Synthesis of Greedy Algorithms Using Dominance Relations; A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines; Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS; Phase Two Feasibility Study for Software Safety Requirements Analysis Using Model Checking; A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover; SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink; Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness; Software Model Checking of ARINC-653 Flight Code with MCP; Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B; Formal Verification of Large Software Systems; Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation; Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System; Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking; Model Checking with Edge-valued Decision Diagrams

  15. Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2006-12-19

    OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.

  16. A Formalization of HIPAA for a Medical Messaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Peifung E.; Mitchell, John C.; Sundaram, Sharada

    The complexity of regulations in healthcare, financial services, and other industries makes it difficult for enterprises to design and deploy effective compliance systems. We believe that in some applications, it may be practical to support compliance by using formalized portions of applicable laws to regulate business processes that use information systems. In order to explore this possibility, we use a stratified fragment of Prolog with limited use of negation to formalize a portion of the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). As part of our study, we also explore the deployment of our formalization in a prototype hospital Web portal messaging system.

  17. Multisymplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalisms of Classical Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Roy, Narciso

    2009-11-01

    This review paper is devoted to presenting the standard multisymplectic formulation for describing geometrically classical field theories, both the regular and singular cases. First, the main features of the Lagrangian formalism are revisited and, second, the Hamiltonian formalism is constructed using Hamiltonian sections. In both cases, the variational principles leading to the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton-De Donder-Weyl equations, respectively, are stated, and these field equations are given in different but equivalent geometrical ways in each formalism. Finally, both are unified in a new formulation (which has been developed in the last years), following the original ideas of Rusk and Skinner for mechanical systems.

  18. Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; López, Carlos; Marín-Solano, Jesús; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2004-01-01

    The Rusk-Skinner formalism was developed in order to give a geometrical unified formalism for describing mechanical systems. It incorporates all the characteristics of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions of these systems (including dynamical equations and solutions, constraints, Legendre map, evolution operators, equivalence, etc.). In this work we extend this unified framework to first-order classical field theories, and show how this description comprises the main features of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, both for the regular and singular cases. This formulation is a first step toward further applications in optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  19. A Formal Investigation of Human Spatial Control Skills: Mathematical Formalization, Skill Development, and Skill Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin

    Spatial control behaviors account for a large proportion of human everyday activities from normal daily tasks, such as reaching for objects, to specialized tasks, such as driving, surgery, or operating equipment. These behaviors involve intensive interactions within internal processes (i.e. cognitive, perceptual, and motor control) and with the physical world. This dissertation builds on a concept of interaction pattern and a hierarchical functional model. Interaction pattern represents a type of behavior synergy that humans coordinates cognitive, perceptual, and motor control processes. It contributes to the construction of the hierarchical functional model that delineates humans spatial control behaviors as the coordination of three functional subsystems: planning, guidance, and tracking/pursuit. This dissertation formalizes and validates these two theories and extends them for the investigation of human spatial control skills encompassing development and assessment. Specifically, this dissertation first presents an overview of studies in human spatial control skills encompassing definition, characteristic, development, and assessment, to provide theoretical evidence for the concept of interaction pattern and the hierarchical functional model. The following, the human experiments for collecting motion and gaze data and techniques to register and classify gaze data, are described. This dissertation then elaborates and mathematically formalizes the hierarchical functional model and the concept of interaction pattern. These theories then enables the construction of a succinct simulation model that can reproduce a variety of human performance with a minimal set of hypotheses. This validates the hierarchical functional model as a normative framework for interpreting human spatial control behaviors. The dissertation then investigates human skill development and captures the emergence of interaction pattern. The final part of the dissertation applies the hierarchical

  20. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  1. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  2. Why are Formal Methods Not Used More Widely?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.; DeJong, Colleen L.; Gibble, Matthew S.; Nakano, Luis G.

    1997-01-01

    Despite extensive development over many years and significant demonstrated benefits, formal methods remain poorly accepted by industrial practitioners. Many reasons have been suggested for this situation such as a claim that they extent the development cycle, that they require difficult mathematics, that inadequate tools exist, and that they are incompatible with other software packages. There is little empirical evidence that any of these reasons is valid. The research presented here addresses the question of why formal methods are not used more widely. The approach used was to develop a formal specification for a safety-critical application using several specification notations and assess the results in a comprehensive evaluation framework. The results of the experiment suggests that there remain many impediments to the routine use of formal methods.

  3. Rayleigh-Lagrange formalism for classical dissipative systems.

    PubMed

    Virga, Epifanio G

    2015-01-01

    It is often believed that the Rayleigh-Lagrange formalism for classical dissipative systems is unable to encompass forces described by nonlinear functions of the velocities. Here we show that this is indeed a misconception.

  4. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  5. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-01

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  6. Experiences Using Lightweight Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes three case studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, formal methods enhanced the existing verification and validation processes, by testing key properties of the evolving requirements, and helping to identify weaknesses. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  7. A logarithmic correction in the entropy functional formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    The entropy functional formalism allows one to recover general relativity, modified gravity theories, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. In most approaches to quantum gravity, the Bekenstein-Hawking’s entropy formula acquires a logarithmic correction term. As such terms occur almost universally in most approaches to quantum gravity, we analyze the effect of such terms on the entropy functional formalism. We demonstrate that the leading correction to the micro-canonical entropy in the entropy functional formalism can be used to recover modified theories of gravity already obtained with an uncorrected micro-canonical entropy. Furthermore, since the entropy functional formalism reproduces modified gravity, the rise of gravity-dependent logarithmic corrections turns out to be one way to impose constraints on these theories of modified gravity. The constraints found here for the simple case of an ℱ(R)-gravity are the same as those obtained in the literature from cosmological considerations.

  8. Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, C.

    2001-12-01

    Formal learning skills are enhanced throughout our daily lives through the public media, (television, newspapers, radio); while hiking our favorite park; or by visiting a museum or science center. Over the past few years the informal science community has started to bridge the gap with the formal education community. Although few informal education organizations have established set curriculum guidelines, many have adapted the use of the National Science Standards. In so doing, these organizations have raised their level of professionalism. Many formal school programs are now actively seeking collaborative science education programs to enhance and expand their hands-on, inquiry based curriculia through informal science organizations. This paper/presentation will address my current research within this field. I will discuss selected federal science agencies education and outreach efforts. Key points will include media useage, age of target audiences, credentials of interpretation staff, and level(s) of collaboration with formal schools.

  9. Formal Approaches to Ensuring the Safety of Space Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph describing formal approaches taken to assure the safety of space software is presented. The topics include: 1) Certifiable Program Generation; 2) Certification Framework; 3) Annotation Generation; 4) Experiments; and 5) Future Work.

  10. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  11. Formal Foundations for the Specification of Software Architecture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    AFIT/DSG/ENG/95M-01 "DTIC ELECTE AUG 1 5 1995 F FORMAL FOUNDATIONS FOR THE SPECIFICATION OF SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE DISSERTATION Mark James Gerken...Captain, USAF AFIT/DSG/ENG/95M-O1 19950811 050 DTI QUALIT1 CTD 5 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited AFIT/DSG/ENG/95M-01 FORMAL...4-13 4.4 Summary ..................................... 4-15 V. Mathematical Foundations ................................... 5 -1 5.1

  12. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  13. Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI Stavros Tripakis David Broman Electrical Engineering and Computer...Modeling Formalisms and FMI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT FMI (Functional Mockup Interface) is a standard for exchanging and co-simulating model components (called FMUs) coming

  14. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  15. FORMED: Bringing Formal Methods to the Engineering Desktop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    other languages and tools, such as Coq. While the language was easy to pick up, based on Lisp, the tools took a while to learn . Documentation...Tree DSL Domain Specific Language FORMED Formal Methods Engineering Desktop IDE Integrated Development Environment OCL Object Constraint Language ... integrates formal verification into software design and development by precisely defining semantics for a restricted subset of the Unified Modeling

  16. Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.

  17. Incremental and unifying modelling formalism for biological interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Yartseva, Anastasia; Klaudel, Hanna; Devillers, Raymond; Képès, François

    2007-01-01

    Background An appropriate choice of the modeling formalism from the broad range of existing ones may be crucial for efficiently describing and analyzing biological systems. Results We propose a new unifying and incremental formalism for the representation and modeling of biological interaction networks. This formalism allows automated translations into other formalisms, thus enabling a thorough study of the dynamic properties of a biological system. As a first illustration, we propose a translation into the R. Thomas' multivalued logical formalism which provides a possible semantics; a methodology for constructing such models is presented on a classical benchmark: the λ phage genetic switch. We also show how to extract from our model a classical ODE description of the dynamics of a system. Conclusion This approach provides an additional level of description between the biological and mathematical ones. It yields, on the one hand, a knowledge expression in a form which is intuitive for biologists and, on the other hand, its representation in a formal and structured way. PMID:17996051

  18. Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.

    PubMed

    Dulit, E

    1972-12-01

    Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some.

  19. A mathematical formalism for hyperspectral, multipoint plastic scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Louis; Therriault-Proulx, François; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc

    2012-11-07

    The aim of this paper is to generalize and extend the mathematical formalism used with plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs). By doing so, we show the feasibility of multi-point PSD. The new formalism is based on the sole hypothesis that a PSD optical signal is a linear superposition of spectra. Two calibration scenarios were developed. Both involve solving a linear equation of the form Y = XB, but the process and input data depend on the information available on the detector system. Simulations were carried out to validate both scenarios and demonstrate the advantages of the new formalism. In this paper, we prove the following results. (1) Multi-point PSDs are feasible. Simulations have shown that six different spectra could be resolved accurately even in the presence of up to 10% Gaussian noise. (2) The new formalism leads to more precise PSD measurements. (3) By using the condition number of the measurement matrix, the ideal sets of calibration measurements can be identified. (4) By using principal component analysis it was possible to identify the best set of wavelength filters. We have shown through numerical simulations that multi-point detectors are feasible. This has potential for applications such as in vivo dose verification. Furthermore, our new formalism can be used to improve the robustness and ease of use of PSDs.

  20. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  1. Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.

  2. Introduction to Wave Turbulence Formalisms for Incoherent Optical Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Antonio; Garnier, Josselin; Xu, Gang; Rica, Sergio

    We provide an introduction to different wave turbulence formalisms describing the propagation of partially incoherent optical waves in nonlinear media. We consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a representative model accounting for a nonlocal or a noninstantaneous nonlinearity, as well as higher-order dispersion effects. We discuss the wave turbulence kinetic equation describing, e.g., wave condensation or wave thermalization through supercontinuum generation; the Vlasov formalism describing incoherent modulational instabilities and the formation of large scale incoherent localized structures in analogy with long-range gravitational systems; and the weak Langmuir turbulence formalism describing spectral incoherent solitons, as well as spectral shock or collapse singularities. Finally, recent developments and some open questions are discussed, in particular in relation with a wave turbulence formulation of laser systems and different mechanisms of breakdown of thermalization.

  3. Formal Verification of the AAMP-FV Microcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Greve, David A.; Wilding, Matthew M.; Srivas, Mandayam

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the experiences of Collins Avionics & Communications and SRI International in formally specifying and verifying the microcode in a Rockwell proprietary microprocessor, the AAMP-FV, using the PVS verification system. This project built extensively on earlier experiences using PVS to verify the microcode in the AAMP5, a complex, pipelined microprocessor designed for use in avionics displays and global positioning systems. While the AAMP5 experiment demonstrated the technical feasibility of formal verification of microcode, the steep learning curve encountered left unanswered the question of whether it could be performed at reasonable cost. The AAMP-FV project was conducted to determine whether the experience gained on the AAMP5 project could be used to make formal verification of microcode cost effective for safety-critical and high volume devices.

  4. Formal mechanization of device interactions with a process algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, Karl; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    The principle emphasis is to develop a methodology to formally verify correct synchronization communication of devices in a composed hardware system. Previous system integration efforts have focused on vertical integration of one layer on top of another. This task examines 'horizontal' integration of peer devices. To formally reason about communication, we mechanize a process algebra in the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Using this formalization we show how four types of device interactions can be represented and verified to behave as specified. The report also describes the specification of a system consisting of an AVM-1 microprocessor and a memory management unit which were verified in previous work. A proof of correct communication is presented, and the extensions to the system specification to add a direct memory device are discussed.

  5. DNA quadruplex folding formalism--a tutorial on quadruplex topologies.

    PubMed

    Karsisiotis, Andreas Ioannis; O'Kane, Christopher; Webba da Silva, Mateus

    2013-11-01

    Quadruplexes of DNA adopt a large variety of topologies that are dependent on their environment. We have been developing a formalism for quadruplex folding based on the relationship between base and its sugar--as defined by the glycosidic bond angle. By reducing the quadruplex stem to a description based on two finite states of the range of angles the glycosidic bond angle may adopt, the description of the relationships of type of loop and groove widths of a quadruplex stem are possible. In its current form this formalism has allowed for the prediction of some unimolecular quadruplex topologies. Its rules, whilst developed for unimolecular quadruplexes of three loops, are of general utility in understanding the interdependency of structural characteristics of multimolecular folds, as well as unimolecular quadruplexes of more than three loops. Here we describe current understanding of the interdependent structural features that define the quadruplex fold, and provide a tutorial for the use and application of this formalism.

  6. Weak Quantum Theory: Formal Framework and Selected Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Roemer, Hartmann

    2006-01-04

    Two key concepts of quantum theory, complementarity and entanglement, are considered with respect to their significance in and beyond physics. An axiomatically formalized, weak version of quantum theory, more general than the ordinary quantum theory of physical systems, is described. Its mathematical structure generalizes the algebraic approach to ordinary quantum theory. The crucial formal feature leading to complementarity and entanglement is the non-commutativity of observables.The ordinary Hilbert space quantum mechanics can be recovered by stepwise adding the necessary features. This provides a hierarchy of formal frameworks of decreasing generality and increasing specificity. Two concrete applications, more specific than weak quantum theory and more general than ordinary quantum theory, are discussed: (i) complementarity and entanglement in classical dynamical systems, and (ii) complementarity and entanglement in the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli.

  7. Evidence Arguments for Using Formal Methods in Software Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    We describe a generic approach for automatically integrating the output generated from a formal method/tool into a software safety assurance case, as an evidence argument, by (a) encoding the underlying reasoning as a safety case pattern, and (b) instantiating it using the data produced from the method/tool. We believe this approach not only improves the trustworthiness of the evidence generated from a formal method/tool, by explicitly presenting the reasoning and mechanisms underlying its genesis, but also provides a way to gauge the suitability of the evidence in the context of the wider assurance case. We illustrate our work by application to a real example-an unmanned aircraft system- where we invoke a formal code analysis tool from its autopilot software safety case, automatically transform the verification output into an evidence argument, and then integrate it into the former.

  8. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  9. A Formal Approach to Requirements-Based Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    No significant general-purpose method is currently available to mechanically transform system requirements into a provably equivalent model. The widespread use of such a method represents a necessary step toward high-dependability system engineering for numerous application domains. Current tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The "gap" unfilled by such tools and methods is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the requirements. We offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. This method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. Finally, we describe further application areas we are investigating for use of the approach.

  10. Formally Verified Practical Algorithms for Recovery from Loss of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Caesar A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and formally verify practical algorithms for recovery from loss of separation. The formal verification is performed in the context of a criteria-based framework. This framework provides rigorous definitions of horizontal and vertical maneuver correctness that guarantee divergence and achieve horizontal and vertical separation. The algorithms are shown to be independently correct, that is, separation is achieved when only one aircraft maneuvers, and implicitly coordinated, that is, separation is also achieved when both aircraft maneuver. In this paper we improve the horizontal criteria over our previous work. An important benefit of the criteria approach is that different aircraft can execute different algorithms and implicit coordination will still be achieved, as long as they all meet the explicit criteria of the framework. Towards this end we have sought to make the criteria as general as possible. The framework presented in this paper has been formalized and mechanically verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  11. Formal verification of a fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Vonhenke, Frieder

    1989-01-01

    A formal specification and mechanically assisted verification of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm of Lamport and Melliar-Smith is described. Several technical flaws in the analysis given by Lamport and Melliar-Smith were discovered, even though their presentation is unusally precise and detailed. It seems that these flaws were not detected by informal peer scrutiny. The flaws are discussed and a revised presentation of the analysis is given that not only corrects the flaws but is also more precise and easier to follow. Some of the corrections to the flaws require slight modifications to the original assumptions underlying the algorithm and to the constraints on its parameters, and thus change the external specifications of the algorithm. The formal analysis of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm was performed using the Enhanced Hierarchical Development Methodology (EHDM) formal specification and verification environment. This application of EHDM provides a demonstration of some of the capabilities of the system.

  12. How Formal Dynamic Verification Tools Facilitate Novel Concurrency Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aananthakrishnan, Sriram; Delisi, Michael; Vakkalanka, Sarvani; Vo, Anh; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kirby, Robert M.; Thakur, Rajeev

    With the exploding scale of concurrency, presenting valuable pieces of information collected by formal verification tools intuitively and graphically can greatly enhance concurrent system debugging. Traditional MPI program debuggers present trace views of MPI program executions. Such views are redundant, often containing equivalent traces that permute independent MPI calls. In our ISP formal dynamic verifier for MPI programs, we present a collection of alternate views made possible by the use of formal dynamic verification. Some of ISP’s views help pinpoint errors, some facilitate discerning errors by eliminating redundancy, while others help understand the program better by displaying concurrent even orderings that must be respected by all MPI implementations, in the form of completes-before graphs. In this paper, we describe ISP’s graphical user interface (GUI) capabilities in all these areas which are currently supported by a portable Java based GUI, a Microsoft Visual Studio GUI, and an Eclipse based GUI whose development is in progress.

  13. Formalization of a synthesis problem and methods for its solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    A formal formulation is proposed for the synthesis problem of finding objects with certain properties described only by a collection of precedents. A key feature of this formalization is that it is closely related to the pattern recognition theory. A general approach to solving the synthesis problem is described, and particular solution methods are presented in two important cases. For this purpose, a new recognition method is proposed that exhibits a high speed as applied to the data of the structure under study. The performance of the methods is demonstrated on actual data.

  14. Formal training in forensic mental health: psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Sadoff, Robert L; Dattilio, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic mental health has grown exponentially in the past decades to include forensic psychiatrists and psychologists serving as the primary experts to the court systems. However, many colleagues have chosen to pursue the avenue of serving as forensic experts without obtaining formal training and experience. This article discusses the importance of formal education, training and experience for psychiatrists and psychologists working in forensic settings and the ethical implications that befall those who fail to obtain such credentials. Specific aspects of training and supervised experience are discussed in detail.

  15. Formalism for determining pseudostates in modified close-coupling calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Philip W.

    1980-08-01

    A formalism for determining pseudostate wave functions for use in modified close-coupling calculations is presented. Applications to low-energy electron-hydrogen scattering are discussed. The 2p― pseudostate proposed by Damburg and Karule is analyzed using this formalism and a reason for its success is given which is independent of the fact that it fully accounts for the ground-state polarizability of atomic hydrogen. The analysis suggests, in agreement with expectations of Burke and Schey and others, that short-range correlations are more important than long-range polarization in determining the best form of the pseudostates.

  16. Predator-prey quasicycles from a path-integral formalism.

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas; Reynolds, David

    2009-03-01

    The existence of beyond mean-field quasicycle oscillations in a simple spatial model of predator-prey interactions is derived from a path-integral formalism. The results agree substantially with those obtained from analysis of similar models using system size expansions of the master equation. In all of these analyses, the discrete nature of predator-prey populations and finite-size effects lead to persistent oscillations in time, but spatial patterns fail to form. The path-integral formalism goes beyond mean-field theory and provides a focus on individual realizations of the stochastic time evolution of population not captured in the standard master-equation approach.

  17. Statistical foundation of the fluid analogue of the soliton formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    A fully nonlinear analysis is used to develop a general soliton formalism for the description of the nonlinear evolution of soliton fluctuations in both plasmas and classical fluids. From the Navier-Stokes equations for plasmas and compressible fluids of two scales, two equations for the propagation of density waves are derived. A fast soliton field is spontaneously created by rarefaction, and a slow density wave modulates the field intensity as a ponderomotive force. Constitutive properties are demonstrated using a Lagrangian-kinetic formalism of the fluctuation-dissipation theory.

  18. The generation of gravitational waves. II - The postlinear formalism revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, R. J.; Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two different versions of the Green's function for the scalar wave equation in weakly curved spacetime (one due to DeWitt and DeWitt, the other to Thorne and Kovacs) are compared and contrasted; and their mathematical equivalence is demonstrated. Then the DeWitt-DeWitt Green's function is used to construct several alternative versions of the Thorne-Kovacs postlinear formalism for gravitational-wave generation. Finally it is shown that, in calculations of gravitational bremsstrahlung radiation, some of our versions of the postlinear formalism allow one to treat the interacting bodies as point masses, while others do not.

  19. Sudakov resummation in the small-x saturation formalism.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A H; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2013-02-22

    Through an explicit calculation of massive scalar particle (e.g., Higgs boson) production in high energy pA collisions up to one-loop order, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the Sudakov-type logarithms in hard processes in the small-x saturation formalism can be systematically separated from the small-x logarithms. The generic feature of the Sudakov logarithms and all order resummation is derived. This calculation shall provide us deep insights into the understanding of factorizations in the saturation formalism. We further comment on the phenomenological implications in the LHC energy regime and extension to other hard processes in small-x calculations.

  20. A New Measure of Text Formality: An Analysis of Discourse of Mao Zedong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C.; Conley, Mark; Cai, Zhiqiang; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Formality has long been of interest in the study of discourse, with periodic discussions of the best measure of formality and the relationship between formality and text categories. In this research, we explored what features predict formality as humans perceive the construct. We categorized a corpus consisting of 1,158 discourse samples published…

  1. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  2. Formal and Informal Mentoring: Complementary, Compensatory, or Consistent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.; Hochberg, Eric D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, L. Joy

    2014-01-01

    Informal mentors likely play a substantial role in novice teacher learning, yet we know little about them, especially in relation to formal mentoring, which is the cornerstone to most induction programs. This study analyzes survey and interview data from 57 first-year mathematics teachers from 11 districts to investigate differences in the…

  3. Multi-User Virtual Environments Fostering Collaboration in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about how serious games based on MUVEs in formal education can foster collaboration. More specifically, it is about a large case-study with four different programs which took place from 2002 to 2009 and involved more than 9,000 students, aged between 12 and 18, from various nations (18 European countries, Israel and the USA). These…

  4. Transitioning from Introductory Calculus to Formal Limit Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…

  5. Adapting Formal Education Materials for Out-of-School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Gibbons, H.

    2006-12-01

    Out-of-school programs present significant opportunities to reinforce and extend classroom learning. How can we work effectively with these programs to engage youth in science and technology? What types of materials can be easily integrated into out-of-school learning experiences? How can existing formal education materials be adapted for use in out-of-school settings? To address these questions, the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Pacific Science Center have engaged in a project that builds on a network of informal science education centers and community-based organizations developed for a national outreach program associated with the NOVA/PBS Origins series. As part of this effort, the Pacific Science Center has held a focus group with local community-based organizations serving underserved and underrepresented youth, and engaged 20 sites in Washington, California, and Tennessee in testing formal education materials adapted for use in out-of-school settings. We report preliminary focus group and field-test results, including emerging best practices for adapting formal education materials for use in out-of-time settings. Results from this project will enable a variety of education and public outreach programs to extend the reach of their materials to new audiences in a way that bridges the formal and informal science education realms.

  6. 7 CFR 1.23 - Records in formal adjudication proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records in formal adjudication proceedings. 1.23 Section 1.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official... Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, and shall be made available to the public....

  7. 7 CFR 1.23 - Records in formal adjudication proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records in formal adjudication proceedings. 1.23 Section 1.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official... Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, and shall be made available to the public....

  8. 20 CFR 702.334 - Formal hearings; representatives of parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; representatives of parties. 702.334 Section 702.334 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND...

  9. 20 CFR 702.331 - Formal hearings; procedure initiating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; procedure initiating. 702.331 Section 702.331 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND...

  10. 20 CFR 702.335 - Formal hearings; notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; notice. 702.335 Section 702.335 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE...

  11. 20 CFR 702.333 - Formal hearings; parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; parties. 702.333 Section 702.333 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE...

  12. Managing Risk in Mobile Applications with Formal Security Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Alternatively, Breaux and Powers (2009) found the Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ), a declarative language for describing business processes, to be...the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), preferred as the candidate formal semantics for BPMN , only works for limited classes of BPMN models

  13. 30 CFR 865.15 - Formal adjudicatory proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal adjudicatory proceedings. 865.15 Section 865.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... with compensation. At the request of the employee a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs...

  14. Combining Formal and Functional Approaches to Topic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers, Margaret; Post, Brechtje

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this kind of variation. We argue that it is fruitful to…

  15. What Makes Proteges Take Mentors' Advice in Formal Mentoring Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, SuJin; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the factors affecting a protege's willingness to take a mentor's advice. The sample for this study consisted of 183 proteges from two different South Korean organizations who were part of formal mentoring programs. We found protege commitment to be the principal factor that predisposes a protege to take advice from mentors and…

  16. A robot control formalism based on an information quality concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekman, A.; Torne, A.; Stromberg, D.

    1994-01-01

    A relevance measure based on Jaynes maximum entropy principle is introduced. Information quality is the conjunction of accuracy and relevance. The formalism based on information quality is developed for one-agent applications. The robot requires a well defined working environment where properties of each object must be accurately specified.

  17. 39 CFR 3001.72 - Filing of formal requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requests for Changes in the Nature of Postal Services § 3001.72 Filing of formal requests. Whenever the... in the nature of postal services subject to this subpart, the Postal Service shall file with the... Postal Service proposes to make effective the change in the nature of postal services involved. Within...

  18. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive bidding. Formal competitive bidding is used for distribution, transmission, and headquarters..., if applicable) will compile a list of qualified bidders for each proposed contract. The borrower will... considered when determining whether to include a particular bidder on the qualified bidders list....

  19. Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The role of formal verification techniques in system validation was examined. The value and the state of the art of performance proving for fault-tolerant compuers were assessed. The investigation, development, and evaluation of performance proving tools were reviewed. The technical issues related to proof methodologies are examined. The technical issues discussed are summarized.

  20. Mathematical Proof as Formal Procept in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Erh-Tsung

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the notion of "procept" (in the sense of Gray & Tall, 1994) is extended to advanced mathematics by considering mathematical proof as "formal procept". The statement of a theorem as a symbol may theoretically evoke the proof deduction as a process that may contain sequential procedures and require the synthesis…

  1. Formal Training in Collective Bargaining: Superintendents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Celine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate superintendents' perspectives of the value of formal training in collective bargaining negotiations. Dependent on their responses, one could propose negotiation skills training as a crucial area of need for superintendents. Social interdependence theory provides the theoretical framework…

  2. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  3. The Formalization of the University: Rules, Roots, and Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Christensen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the formal organization of two universities and two schools within these universities, the University of Oslo and Stanford University. We focus on role differentiation, rule formation, and resource seeking structures and describe organizational developments along these dimensions. We find that both these…

  4. 5 CFR 919.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 919.835 Section 919.835 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...) You or your representative must submit any documentary evidence you want the debarring official...

  5. 2 CFR 180.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 180.740 Section 180.740 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... suspension decision. (b) You as a respondent or your representative must submit any documentary evidence...

  6. 2 CFR 180.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 180.835 Section 180.835 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... the decision whether to debar. (b) You or your representative must submit any documentary evidence...

  7. 5 CFR 919.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 919.740 Section 919.740 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... your representative must submit any documentary evidence you want the suspending official to consider....

  8. Mea Culpa: Formal Education and the Dis-Integrated World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Brian P.; Daniels, Douglas S.

    Formal education has removed itself so far from any truly integrated view of the Natural World that fragmentation and certainty are prevailing ethics. Technological progress has resulted in increased specialization within academic disciplines and their concurrent separation from each other. Knowledge is extracted from a fully integrated world, but is examined and defined by the 'dis-integrated' objectives.

  9. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND... proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner. The suspending official may use flexible...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1404.835 Section 1404.835 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... a fair and informal manner. The debarring official may use flexible procedures to allow you as...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND... proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner. The suspending official may use flexible...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1404.835 Section 1404.835 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... a fair and informal manner. The debarring official may use flexible procedures to allow you as...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1404.835 Section 1404.835 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... a fair and informal manner. The debarring official may use flexible procedures to allow you as...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND... proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner. The suspending official may use flexible...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND... proceedings are conducted in a fair and informal manner. The suspending official may use flexible...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1404.835 Section 1404.835 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... a fair and informal manner. The debarring official may use flexible procedures to allow you as...

  17. Measuring Infant Communicative Abilities: A Guide to Formal Test Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    This guide was prepared to facilitate the practitioner's selection of formal tests for evaluating communicative behavior in clinical infant populations during the first year of life. Clinical instruments with particular emphasis on communication and emerging language and speech abilities were identified in terms of publishers' recommended…

  18. School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

  19. Lfm2000: Fifth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is the proceedings of Lfm2000: Fifth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop. The workshop was held June 13-15, 2000, in Williamsburg, Virginia. See the web site for complete information about the event.

  20. Formal verification of an MMU and MMU cache

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. T.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the formal verification of a hardware subsystem consisting of a memory management unit and a cache. These devices are verified independently and then shown to interact correctly when composed. The MMU authorizes memory requests and translates virtual addresses to real addresses. The cache improves performance by maintaining a LRU (least recently used) list from the memory resident segment table.

  1. Benzothiazines in Synthesis. A Formal Total Synthesis of Pseudopteroxazole

    PubMed Central

    Harmata, Michael; Cai, Zhengxin; Chen, Yugang

    2010-01-01

    A formal total synthesis of the antitubercular natural product was accomplished. This work was undertaken to address certain stereochemical problems in our initial synthesis. By using an ester group as a surrogate for a methyl group, we were able to intercept a key intermediate in our first synthesis with better selectivity and greater convergence than had previously been the case. PMID:19537725

  2. Formal design review report project W-151 mixer pump procurement

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.

    1997-01-21

    A formal design review for WHC-S-0040 was held on January 21, 1993. The review was completed January 29, 1993. No outstanding action items existed. Comments were recorded on Record Comment Record (RCR) forms and incorporated into the specification. The specification was considered acceptable, approved and issued as WHC-S-0040, Rev. 0 on March 4, 1993.

  3. Towards a formalism for conversation protocols using joint intention theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Huber, Marcus J.; Cohen, Philip R.; McGee, David R. )

    2001-12-01

    Conversation protocols are meant to achieve certain tasks or to bring about certain state of affairs in the world. Therefore, one may identify the landmarks or the state of affairs that must be brought about during the execution of a protocol in order to achieve its goal. Accordingly, the most important aspect of protocols is these landmarks rather than the communicative actions needed to achieve the landmarks. We show that families of conversation protocols can be expressed formally as partially ordered landmarks where each landmark is characterized by propositions that are true in the state represented by that landmark. Dialogue in natural languages is regarded as joint activity. Conversation protocols in multi-agent systems are treated as dialogue templates and are composed using speech acts from natural language dialogues. As such, we treat conversation protocols as joint action expressions and gainfully apply existing formal theories of dialogue, specifically the Joint Intention Theory, to protocols and their compositions. Conversation protocols may require agents to communicate with groups as well as individuals. However, most contemporary agent communication languages, notably FIPA and KQML, have either no provision or no well-defined semantics for group communication. Furthermore, the research on protocols so far does not correctly incorporate groups into the protocols. We give a formal semantics to group communicative acts and use it to handle group communication in a formal treatment of protocols.

  4. FORMAL AND ON-THE JOB TRAINING IN MILITARY OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BATEMAN, C.W.

    A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED TO DETERMINE THE BEST PROPORTION OF FORMAL AND ON-THE-JOB TRAINING IN MILITARY OCCUPATIONS. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION IS GIVEN TO THE UNIQUE SITUATION OF ENLISTED PERSONNEL'S FIXED LENGTH OF SERVICE, THE SMALL PERCENTAGE OF RE-ENLISTMENT, AND THE NECESSITY OF TRAINING ALL ENLISTEES FOR ASSIGNED OCCUPATIONS. THE MODEL FORMULA…

  5. Formal and Informal CALL Preparation and Teacher Attitude toward Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a general lack of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) presence in teacher preparation programs. There is also evidence that teachers obtain a majority of their CALL knowledge from informal sources and personal experience rather than through formalized preparation. Further, graduates of these programs…

  6. Recognition of Emotions in Autism: A Formal Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uljarevic, Mirko; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Determining the integrity of emotion recognition in autistic spectrum disorder is important to our theoretical understanding of autism and to teaching social skills. Previous studies have reported both positive and negative results. Here, we take a formal meta-analytic approach, bringing together data from 48 papers testing over 980 participants…

  7. The Newcomer Booklet: A Project for Limited Formally Schooled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Helaine W.; DeCapua, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The Newcomer Booklet has become a popular classroom activity among ESL teachers at many different levels and with many types of learners. In this article, we explore why this is the case and why this type of project works so well for a particular population of English language learners, those with limited or interrupted formal schooling. We…

  8. Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.

  9. Finite anticanonical transformations in field-antifield formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.; Tyutin, Igor V.

    2015-06-01

    We study the role of arbitrary (finite) anticanonical transformations in the field-antifield formalism and the gauge-fixing procedure based on the use of these transformations. The properties of the generating functionals of the Green functions subjected to finite anticanonical transformations are considered.

  10. 47 CFR 7.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 7.16 Section 7.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.16 Informal or...

  11. Prayer and Adolescence: Can Formal Instruction Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigel, Deena

    2016-01-01

    This design experiment in prayer education for Jewish students was motivated by a current educational concern: educating for spirituality and religious practice. Educators are tasked with formally nurturing spirituality (Wright 2001). It is known that attitude to religious observance may change during adolescence (Hyde 1963), thus attitude to…

  12. Parental Involvement Practices in Formalized Home-School Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

    2010-01-01

    The topic for this article is parents' participation and willingness to participate in formalized home-school cooperation. The analyses are based on a nationwide survey among parents in lower secondary schools in Norway. A main finding is that parental involvement practices differ according to parents' level of education in the sense that parents…

  13. Communication and Ethics: The Informal and Formal Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    Noting that humans are educated more by than about the mass media, this paper argues that modern society has produced an informal (mediated) ethics curriculum which may be more powerful than the formal (institutionally educational) curriculum developed by academics and administrators. It first examines the informal curriculum, listing statistics…

  14. Formal Computer Validation of the Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, Wayne; Rudinger, Kenneth; Sarovar, Mohan; Carr, Robert

    While peer review and scientific consensus provide some assurance to the validity of ideas, people do make mistakes that can slip through the cracks. A plethora of formal methods tools exist and are in use in a variety of settings where high assurance is demanded. Existing tools, however, require a great deal of expertise and lack versatility, demanding a non-trivial translation between a high-level description of a problem and the formal system. Our software, called Prove-It, allows a nearly direct translation between human-recognizable formulations and the underlying formal system. While Prove-It is not designed for particularly efficient automation, a primary goal of other formal methods tools, it is extremely flexible in following a desired line of reasoning (proof structure). This approach is particularly valuable for validating proofs that are already known. We will demonstrate a validation of the Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm using Prove-It. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. Formal Languages as an Approach to Modelling Distance Education Fora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarcheas, Kiriakos; Xenos, Michalis

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a formal language defined in mathematical terms to represent messages at distance education fora. This language has an alphabet for terminal symbols, an alphabet for non-terminal symbols, a grammar and a symbol where each sentence in the language is generated from this.

  16. Non-Formal Education Services for Prison Inmates in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phatininnart, Chuleeporn

    2009-01-01

    The making of changes inside prisons necessarily implies education. In Thailand, the point is not only to organise professional training courses but also to make detainees aware of the fact that they belong to a community of values. Non-formal education allows the necessary flexibility to an individual approach of training that must take into…

  17. Chomsky: From Formalism to Mentalism and Psychological Invalidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Danny D.

    1975-01-01

    Prior to 1959, Chomsky was a formalist. He retains a formalism in his mentalistic theorizing; he denies that the competence process has a correlate in speakers. Because he has based rules, grammar organization and derivations on the non-psychological process, they are not generally psychologically valid. (Author/RM)

  18. Permanency Planning Options for Children in Formal Kinship Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Mark F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes efforts in Illinois to improve permanency outcomes for children in formal kinship care: the state developed Delegated Relative Authority (DRA) status for children in stable family foster care with relatives while maintaining state support in situations where adoption was unlikely. Presents findings from 1,116 feasibility assessments. (SD)

  19. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  20. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  1. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  2. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  3. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  4. The Role of Critical Formalism in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louth, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the emancipatory potential of critical formalism, a mode of critique that may be helpful in revealing to music students the taken-for-granted nature of some common musical and educational notions whose socially constructed nature may not always appear evident. The work is presented in two parts: "theory" and "praxis." The…

  5. Informal Learning and Non-Formal Education for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The following article examines the issues of open, distance and technology-based informal learning and non-formal education for individual and community development. It argues that these two modes of education, which are estimated to constitute 70-90% of lifelong learning, are insufficiently represented in the literature of open and distance…

  6. Spacetime path formalism for massive particles of any spin

    SciTech Connect

    Seidewitz, Ed

    2009-02-15

    Earlier work presented spacetime path formalism for relativistic quantum mechanics arising naturally from the fundamental principles of the Born probability rule, superposition, and spacetime translation invariance. The resulting formalism can be seen as a foundation for a number of previous parametrized approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics in the literature. Because time is treated similarly to the three-space coordinates, rather than as an evolution parameter, such approaches have proved particularly useful in the study of quantum gravity and cosmology. The present paper extends the foundational spacetime path formalism to include massive, non-scalar particles of any (integer or half-integer) spin. This is done by generalizing the principle of translational invariance used in the scalar case to the principle of full Poincare invariance, leading to a formulation for the non-scalar propagator in terms of a path integral over the Poincare group. Once the difficulty of the non-compactness of the component Lorentz group is dealt with, the subsequent development is remarkably parallel to the scalar case. This allows the formalism to retain a clear probabilistic interpretation throughout, with a natural reduction to non-relativistic quantum mechanics closely related to the well-known generalized Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation.

  7. A Survey of Library Support for Formal Undergraduate Research Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research is defined by the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) as "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." This study serves as a snapshot of current library practices in relation to formal undergraduate research…

  8. Going Deeper: Formal Small-Group Learning in Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes formal, intensive small group activities in large college classes, as well as initiatives to redesign courses around small-group learning. Strategies include "jigsaw," structured controversy, problem-based cooperative learning, and restructured lecture-recitation-laboratory activities. Notes basis of such strategies in constructivist…

  9. Improving Children's Formal Word Definitions: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to define a word with accuracy and precision is an important skill that has been associated with academic achievement. This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a lesson on formal word definitions to improve children's definitional production. The participants were 18 children in grade 4 (mean age: 9 years; 8 months) who…

  10. A STUDENT'S REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF MODERN FORMAL INDONESIAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACDONALD, R. ROSS; SOENJONO, DARJOWIDJOJO

    THE INDONESIAN DESCRIBED IN THIS GRAMMAR IS THE FORMAL LANGUAGE USED IN PUBLISHED TEXTS RATHER THAN THE COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE. ALL OF THE TEXTS USED WERE PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1945 AND 1966 AND THEY INCLUDE POLITICAL SPEECHES, LEGAL DOCUMENTS, AND TEXTBOOKS. SINCE THIS BOOK WAS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR GENERAL STUDENTS OF THE INDONESIAN LANGUAGE AND ONLY…

  11. 28 CFR 16.203 - Closed meetings-Formal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.203 Closed meetings—Formal procedure. (a... through 2.58 (parole, release, supervision, and recommitment of prisoners, youth offenders, and juvenile... meetings closed pursuant to this section, the General Counsel of the Parole Commission shall...

  12. Formal Correspondence and Translation Equivalence in Contrastive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalatin, Leonardo

    In this paper the author contends that no useful results can be obtained if contrastive analysis is confined to formal correspondence: it is not enough to compare languages as to the presence or absence of corresponding systems and as to the similarities or dissimilarities in the distribution of the terms of the contrasted systems. Formal…

  13. The Rural Hospice: Integrating Formal and Informal Helping Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lowell; Cook, Alicia S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the implementation of the hospice philosophy in rural areas and provides a model of how formal helping systems and natural helping networks can work together effectively. Suggests the emergence of the hospice can reorient social workers to the basic concepts of helping. (Author/JAC)

  14. The Construction and Validation of an Objective Formal Reasoning Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Gilbert McCollum

    The purpose of this study was the development and validation of a paper-and-pencil instrument to assess the formal stage of development as defined by Piaget. Initially, a 42-item test was constructed; item content included syllogisms, verbal analogies, combinatorial and probabilistic reasoning, and questions similar to Piagetian tasks. This…

  15. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  16. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  17. Spatial Proportional Reasoning Is Associated with Formal Knowledge about Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S.; Levine, Susan C.; Frick, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves thinking about parts and wholes (i.e., about fractional quantities). Yet, research on proportional reasoning and fraction learning has proceeded separately. This study assessed proportional reasoning and formal fraction knowledge in 8- to 10-year-olds. Participants (N = 52) saw combinations of cherry juice and water…

  18. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... competitive bidding. Formal competitive bidding is used for distribution, transmission, and headquarters..., if applicable) will compile a list of qualified bidders for each proposed contract. The borrower will... considered when determining whether to include a particular bidder on the qualified bidders list....

  19. Non-Formal Educator Use of Evaluation Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Sarah; Boyd, Heather H.; Franz, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability in educational programming have resulted in increasing calls for program evaluation in educational organizations. Many organizations include conducting program evaluations as part of the job responsibilities of program staff. Cooperative Extension is a complex organization offering non-formal educational…

  20. Formal Education and Early Childhood Education: An Essential Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1986-01-01

    This paper declares war against the miseducation of young children, who learn best through direct encounters rather than through formalized inculcation of symbolic rules. A variety of socioeconomic forces (including the civil rights and women's movements) are forcing preschoolers into learning environments originally designed for school-age…

  1. Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

  2. A Formal Model for the Study of Communication Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsapple, Clyde W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Documents the lack of conceptual frameworks for integrating research on organizational computer-based communications technologies. Formalizes an integrated model for studying computer communication support phenomena in organizations using a knowledge management perspective and set-theoretic notation. Defines two types of communications support…

  3. Structuring Formal Control Systems Specifications for Reuse: Surviving Hardware Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Erickson, Debra M.

    2000-01-01

    Formal capture and analysis of the required behavior of control systems have many advantages. For instance, it encourages rigorous requirements analysis, the required behavior is unambiguously defined, and we can assure that various safety properties are satisfied. Formal modeling is, however, a costly and time consuming process and if one could reuse the formal models over a family of products, significant cost savings would be realized. In an ongoing project we are investigating how to structure state-based models to achieve a high level of reusability within product families. In this paper we discuss a high-level structure of requirements models that achieves reusability of the desired control behavior across varying hardware platforms in a product family. The structuring approach is demonstrated through a case study in the mobile robotics domain where the desired robot behavior is reused on two diverse platforms-one commercial mobile platform and one build in-house. We use our language RSML (-e) to capture the control behavior for reuse and our tool NIMBUS to demonstrate how the formal specification can be validated and used as a prototype on the two platforms.

  4. Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking from…

  5. Conceptual graph grammar--a simple formalism for sublanguage.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S B

    1998-11-01

    There are a wide variety of computer applications that deal with various aspects of medical language: concept representation, controlled vocabulary, natural language processing, and information retrieval. While technical and theoretical methods appear to differ, all approaches investigate different aspects of the same phenomenon: medical sublanguage. This paper surveys the properties of medical sublanguage from a formal perspective, based on detailed analyses cited in the literature. A review of several computer systems based on sublanguage approaches shows some of the difficulties in addressing the interaction between the syntactic and semantic aspects of sublanguage. A formalism called Conceptual Graph Grammar is presented that attempts to combine both syntax and semantics into a single notation by extending standard Conceptual Graph notation. Examples from the domain of pathology diagnoses are provided to illustrate the use of this formalism in medical language analysis. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are then considered. Conceptual Graph Grammar is an attempt to synthesize the common properties of different approaches to sublanguage into a single formalism, and to begin to define a common foundation for language-related research in medical informatics.

  6. Formalizing Evaluation Procedures for Marketing Faculty Research Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Dennis R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results of a national survey of marketing department heads (n=142) indicate that few marketing departments have formalized the development and communication of research performance standards to faculty. Guidelines and methods to accomplish those procedures most efficiently were proposed. (Author/JOW)

  7. A Formal Methods Approach to the Analysis of Mode Confusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly becoming a major contributor as well. The January 30, 1995 issue of Aviation Week lists 184 incidents and accidents involving mode awareness including the Bangalore A320 crash 2/14/90, the Strasbourg A320 crash 1/20/92, the Mulhouse-Habsheim A320 crash 6/26/88, and the Toulouse A330 crash 6/30/94. These incidents and accidents reveal that pilots sometimes become confused about what the cockpit automation is doing. Consequently, human factors research is an obvious investment area. However, even a cursory look at the accident data reveals that the mode confusion problem is much deeper than just training deficiencies and a lack of human-oriented design. This is readily acknowledged by human factors experts. It seems that further progress in human factors must come through a deeper scrutiny of the internals of the automation. It is in this arena that formal methods can contribute. Formal methods refers to the use of techniques from logic and discrete mathematics in the specification, design, and verification of computer systems, both hardware and software. The fundamental goal of formal methods is to capture requirements, designs and implementations in a mathematically based model that can be analyzed in a rigorous manner. Research in formal methods is aimed at automating this analysis as much as possible. By capturing the internal behavior of a flight deck in a rigorous and detailed formal model, the dark corners of a design can be analyzed. This paper will explore how formal

  8. Background on Non-Formal Education and Suggestions for the Improvement of Non-Formal Education in Developing Countries and the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerez Gomez, Maximo J.

    Divided into two areas of emphasis, this paper explores the potential of non-formal education in developing countries and non-formal education as it relates to the Dominican Republic. The first section presents background material on non-formal education and discusses types of programs being applied in a number of countries throughout the world.…

  9. Modeling Cyber Conflicts Using an Extended Petri Net Formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrzewska, Anita N; Ferragut, Erik M

    2011-01-01

    When threatened by automated attacks, critical systems that require human-controlled responses have difficulty making optimal responses and adapting protections in real- time and may therefore be overwhelmed. Consequently, experts have called for the development of automatic real-time reaction capabilities. However, a technical gap exists in the modeling and analysis of cyber conflicts to automatically understand the repercussions of responses. There is a need for modeling cyber assets that accounts for concurrent behavior, incomplete information, and payoff functions. Furthermore, we address this need by extending the Petri net formalism to allow real-time cyber conflicts to be modeled in a way that is expressive and concise. This formalism includes transitions controlled by players as well as firing rates attached to transitions. This allows us to model both player actions and factors that are beyond the control of players in real-time. We show that our formalism is able to represent situational aware- ness, concurrent actions, incomplete information and objective functions. These factors make it well-suited to modeling cyber conflicts in a way that allows for useful analysis. MITRE has compiled the Common Attack Pattern Enumera- tion and Classification (CAPEC), an extensive list of cyber attacks at various levels of abstraction. CAPEC includes factors such as attack prerequisites, possible countermeasures, and attack goals. These elements are vital to understanding cyber attacks and to generating the corresponding real-time responses. We demonstrate that the formalism can be used to extract precise models of cyber attacks from CAPEC. Several case studies show that our Petri net formalism is more expressive than other models, such as attack graphs, for modeling cyber conflicts and that it is amenable to exploring cyber strategies.

  10. Informal in Formal: The Relationship of Informal and Formal Learning in Popular and Jazz Music Master Workshops in Conservatoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The present article will examine informal learning in popular and jazz music education in Finland and evaluate it as a part of formal upper secondary vocational musicians' training, which is typically teacher directed. It is not necessarily the best model of working in popular and jazz music learning, which has traditionally benefitted from…

  11. Rule acquisition in formal decision contexts based on formal, object-oriented and property-oriented concept lattices.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yue; Li, Jinhai; Aswani Kumar, Cherukuri; Liu, Wenqi

    2014-01-01

    Rule acquisition is one of the main purposes in the analysis of formal decision contexts. Up to now, there have been several types of rules in formal decision contexts such as decision rules, decision implications, and granular rules, which can be viewed as ∧-rules since all of them have the following form: "if conditions 1,2,…, and m hold, then decisions hold." In order to enrich the existing rule acquisition theory in formal decision contexts, this study puts forward two new types of rules which are called ∨-rules and ∨-∧ mixed rules based on formal, object-oriented, and property-oriented concept lattices. Moreover, a comparison of ∨-rules, ∨-∧ mixed rules, and ∧-rules is made from the perspectives of inclusion and inference relationships. Finally, some real examples and numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed rule acquisition algorithms with the existing one in terms of the running efficiency.

  12. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  13. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  14. An elementary tutorial on formal specification and verification using PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1993-01-01

    A tutorial on the development of a formal specification and its verification using the Prototype Verification System (PVS) is presented. The tutorial presents the formal specification and verification techniques by way of specific example - an airline reservation system. The airline reservation system is modeled as a simple state machine with two basic operations. These operations are shown to preserve a state invariant using the theorem proving capabilities of PVS. The technique of validating a specification via 'putative theorem proving' is also discussed and illustrated in detail. This paper is intended for the novice and assumes only some of the basic concepts of logic. A complete description of user inputs and the PVS output is provided and thus it can be effectively used while one is sitting at a computer terminal.

  15. A formalism and computer program for coupled lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper, a formalism to calculate the lattice functions and emittances of a coupled electron/positron storage ring is presented. The lattice functions are calculated directly from the modal matrix of the betatron transport matrix for the ring. The emittances and damping rates are then calculated from the invariants found in the diagonalized representation. In addition, a computer program is described which uses the formalism to calculate the coupled lattice functions, emittances and damping rates. The program can either reconstruct the closed orbit from BPM data and dipole corrector strengths, or construct an orbit from misalignments entered into the the lattice and then optionally correct the orbit with dipole correctors. The lattice functions, emittances, etc. are then calculated about the resulting closed orbit. 7 refs.

  16. Some tree-level string amplitudes in the NSR formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Robbins, Daniel; Royston, Andrew B.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate tree level scattering amplitudes for open strings using the NSR formalism. We present a streamlined symmetry-based and pedagogical approach to the computations, which we first develop by checking two-, three-, and four-point functions involving bosons and fermions. We calculate the five-point amplitude for massless gluons and find agreement with an earlier result by Brandt, Machado and Medina. We then compute the five-point amplitudes involving two and four fermions respectively, the general form of which has not been previously obtained in the NSR formalism. The results nicely confirm expectations from the supersymmetric F 4 effective action. Finally we use the prescription of Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) to compute the amplitudes for the closed string sector.

  17. Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernits, Juhan; Dearden, Richard; Pebody, Miles

    2009-01-01

    This is a progress report on applying formal methods in the context of building an automated diagnosis and recovery system for Autosub 6000, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The diagnosis task involves building abstract models of the control system of the AUV. The diagnosis engine is based on Livingstone 2, a model-based diagnoser originally built for aerospace applications. Large parts of the diagnosis model can be built without concrete knowledge about each mission, but actual mission scripts and configuration parameters that carry important information for diagnosis are changed for every mission. Thus we use formal methods for generating the mission control part of the diagnosis model automatically from the mission script and perform a number of invariant checks to validate the configuration. After the diagnosis model is augmented with the generated mission control component model, it needs to be validated using verification techniques.

  18. Formal design specification of a Processor Interface Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work to formally specify the requirements and design of a processor interface unit (PIU), a single-chip subsystem providing memory-interface bus-interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. The need for high-quality design assurance in such applications is an undisputed fact, given the disastrous consequences that even a single design flaw can produce. Thus, the further development and application of formal methods to fault-tolerant systems is of critical importance as these systems see increasing use in modern society.

  19. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review.

  20. Spatially covariant theories of a transverse, traceless graviton: Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Justin; Miller, Godfrey E. J.; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2012-04-01

    General relativity is a generally covariant, locally Lorentz covariant theory of two transverse, traceless graviton degrees of freedom. According to a theorem of Hojman, Kuchař, and Teitelboim, modifications of general relativity must either introduce new degrees of freedom or violate the principle of local Lorentz covariance. In this paper, we explore modifications of general relativity that retain the same graviton degrees of freedom, and therefore explicitly break Lorentz covariance. Motivated by cosmology, the modifications of interest maintain explicit spatial covariance. In spatially covariant theories of the graviton, the physical Hamiltonian density obeys an analogue of the renormalization group equation which encodes invariance under flow through the space of conformally equivalent spatial metrics. This paper is dedicated to setting up the formalism of our approach and applying it to a realistic class of theories. Forthcoming work will apply the formalism more generally.

  1. Application of Lightweight Formal Methods to Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Formal specification and verification of security has proven a challenging task. There is no single method that has proven feasible. Instead, an integrated approach which combines several formal techniques can increase the confidence in the verification of software security properties. Such an approach which species security properties in a library that can be reused by 2 instruments and their methodologies developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described herein The Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) is a model based verijkation instrument that uses Promela and the SPIN model checker. The Property Based Tester (PBT) uses TASPEC and a Text Execution Monitor (TEM). They are used to reduce vulnerabilities and unwanted exposures in software during the development and maintenance life cycles.

  2. Green's function formalism for calculating spin-wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasetiawan, F.; Karlsson, K.

    1999-09-01

    We propose a formalism for calculating ab initio spin-wave spectra which is based on the many-body temperature Green's function. The main quantity to be calculated is the linear magnetic susceptibility from which all magnetic excitations involving the creation of an additional spin in the system can formally be obtained. The Schwinger functional derivative technique is employed in calculating the self-energy. The approach avoids both the assumption of local spins (Heisenberg model) and the use of a local exchange and correlation interaction (local-density approximation). Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the kernel describing the interaction between electrons in both spin channels. However, this kernel exhibits a nonlocal screened interaction.

  3. On the Formal Verification of Conflict Detection Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky W.; Carreno, Victor A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment of new air traffic management systems is a main issue for civil aviation authorities. Standard techniques such as testing and simulation have serious limitations in new systems that are significantly more autonomous than the older ones. In this paper, we present an innovative approach, based on formal verification, for establishing the correctness of conflict detection systems. Fundamental to our approach is the concept of trajectory, which is a continuous path in the x-y plane constrained by physical laws and operational requirements. From the Model of trajectories, we extract, and formally prove, high level properties that can serve as a framework to analyze conflict scenarios. We use the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) alerting algorithm as a case study of our approach.

  4. Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.

  5. Appplications of the post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Glampedakis, Kostas; Pappas, George; Berti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Besides their astrophysical interest, neutron stars are promising candidates for testing theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. It is known that, generically, modifications to general relativity affect the bulk properties of neutron stars, e.g. their masses and radii, in a way that depends on the specific choice of theory. In this presentation we review a theory-agnostic approach to model relativistic stars, called the post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism. Drawing inspiration from the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, this framework allows us to describe perturbative deviations from general relativity in the structure of neutrons stars in a parametrized manner. We show that a variety of astrophysical observables (namely the surface redshift, the apparent radius, the Eddington luminosity and the orbital frequency of particles in geodesic motion around neutron stars) can be parametrized using only two parameters.

  6. Angular diameter distances reconsidered in the Newman and Penrose formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Aly, Aly

    2016-02-01

    Using the Newman and Penrose spin coefficient (NP) formalism, we provide a derivation of the Dyer-Roeder equation for the angular diameter distance in cosmological space-times. We show that the geodesic deviation equation written in NP formalism is precisely the Dyer-Roeder equation for a general Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time, and then we examine the angular diameter distance to redshift relation in the case that a flat FRW metric is perturbed by a gravitational potential. We examine the perturbation in the case that the gravitational potential exhibits the properties of a thin gravitational lens, demonstrating how the weak lensing shear and convergence act as source terms for the perturbed Dyer-Roeder equation.

  7. Matrix Formalism for Spin Dynamics Near a Single Depolarization Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2005-10-26

    A matrix formalism is developed to describe the spin dynamics in a synchrotron near a single depolarization resonance as the particle energy (and therefore its spin precession frequency) is varied in a prescribed pattern as a function of time such as during acceleration. This formalism is first applied to the case of crossing the resonance with a constant crossing speed and a finite total step size, and then applied also to other more involved cases when the single resonance is crossed repeatedly in a prescribed manner consisting of linear ramping segments or sudden jumps. How repeated crossings produce an interference behavior is discussed using the results obtained. For a polarized beam with finite energy spread, a spin echo experiment is suggested to explore this interference effect.

  8. [Formal care systems consequences of a vision on informal caretakers].

    PubMed

    Escuredo Rodríguez, Bibiana

    2006-10-01

    Care for dependent persons falls, fundamentally, on their family members who usually perceive this situation as a problem due to its repercussions on the family group in general and on the health and quality of life for the informal caretaker in particular. The burden which an informal caretaker assumes depends on diverse variables among which the most important are considered to be social assistance and the forms of help which the caretaker has to rely on. At the same time, the resources and help available are determined by the vision which the formal system has for informal caretakers; therefore, it is important that nurses, as caretakers in the formal system, have a clear idea about the situations that are created and that nurses reflect on the alternatives which allow a dependent person to be cared for without forgetting the needs and rights of the caretakers.

  9. Explicating formal epistemology: Carnap's legacy as Jeffrey's radical probabilism.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Quine's "naturalized epistemology" presents a challenge to Carnapian explication: why try to rationally reconstruct probabilistic concepts instead of just doing psychology? This paper tracks the historical development of Richard C. Jeffrey who, on the one hand, voiced worries similar to Quine's about Carnapian explication but, on the other hand, claims that his own work in formal epistemology—what he calls "radical probabilism"—is somehow continuous with both Carnap's method of explication and logical empiricism. By examining how Jeffrey's claim could possibly be accurate, the paper suggests that Jeffrey's radical probabilism can be seen as a sort of alternative explication project to Carnap's own inductive logic. In so doing, it deflates both Quine's worries about Carnapian explication and so also, by extension, similar worries about formal epistemology.

  10. Petri Nets - A Mathematical Formalism to Analyze Chemical Reaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ina

    2010-12-17

    In this review we introduce and discuss Petri nets - a mathematical formalism to describe and analyze chemical reaction networks. Petri nets were developed to describe concurrency in general systems. We find most applications to technical and financial systems, but since about twenty years also in systems biology to model biochemical systems. This review aims to give a short informal introduction to the basic formalism illustrated by a chemical example, and to discuss possible applications to the analysis of chemical reaction networks, including cheminformatics. We give a short overview about qualitative as well as quantitative modeling Petri net techniques useful in systems biology, summarizing the state-of-the-art in that field and providing the main literature references. Finally, we discuss advantages and limitations of Petri nets and give an outlook to further development.

  11. A Formalization of Floating Point Numeric Base Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The process of converting arbitrary real numbers into a floating point format is formalized as a mapping of the reals into a specified subset of real...numbers. The structure of this subset, the set of a significant digit base beta floating point numbers, is analyzed and properties of conversion...implications of these results with regards to establishing goals and standards for floating point formats and conversion procedures are considered.

  12. Formal Specification and Analysis of a Wireless Media Access Protocol.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    MACAW for Multiple Access Collision Avoidance Wireless, was described in ACM SIGCOMM Proceedings 94 Vol. 24 #4. The approach taken was to use the formal...specification of MACAW as originally proposed and a refined specification which provides an unambiguous understanding of the protocol. The analysis...determined that the protocol is free of deadlock. Also presented are three new transitions between MACAW states, which were suggested by the analysis.

  13. Computational Uses of the Manipulation of Formal Proofs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    letter u to refer both to the algorithm, considered as an abstract method which can be formalized in various ways, and to the above concrete ...specify that input values to the proof viewed as an algorithm bc substituted for the frcc variablcs. More precisely, in order to compute an upper...34 ’incomipletely given construct: t does not denote any particular o ject, but will do so once a 29 concrete value has been supplied for x and substituted into

  14. A Survey of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris; Holloway, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Mishap investigations provide important information about adverse events and near miss incidents. They are intended to help avoid any recurrence of previous failures. Over time, they can also yield statistical information about incident frequencies that helps to detect patterns of failure and can validate risk assessments. However, the increasing complexity of many safety critical systems is posing new challenges for mishap analysis. Similarly, the recognition that many failures have complex, systemic causes has helped to widen the scope of many mishap investigations. These two factors have combined to pose new challenges for the analysis of adverse events. A new generation of formal and semi-formal techniques have been proposed to help investigators address these problems. We introduce the term mishap logics to collectively describe these notations that might be applied to support the analysis of mishaps. The proponents of these notations have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. These proofs can be used to reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have argued that one cannot use logic formalisms to prove causes in the same way that one might prove propositions or theorems. Such mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators must use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper provides an overview of these mishap logics. It also identifies several additional classes of logic that might also be used to support mishap analysis.

  15. In-in formalism on tunneling background: Multidimensional quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    We reformulate quantum tunneling in a multidimensional system where the tunneling sector is nonlinearly coupled to oscillators. The WKB wave function is explicitly constructed under the assumption that the system was in the ground state before tunneling. We find that the quantum state after tunneling can be expressed in the language of the conventional in-in formalism. Some implications of the result to cosmology are discussed.

  16. Interpretation of the quantum formalism and Bell's theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, E. )

    1991-02-01

    It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states.

  17. Formal modeling of a system of chemical reactions under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Schlipf, John

    2014-10-01

    We describe a novel formalism representing a system of chemical reactions, with imprecise rates of reactions and concentrations of chemicals, and describe a model reduction method, pruning, based on the chemical properties. We present two algorithms, midpoint approximation and interval approximation, for construction of efficient model abstractions with uncertainty in data. We evaluate computational feasibility by posing queries in computation tree logic (CTL) on a prototype of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.

  18. Formal and informal support received by carers of elderly dependents.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D A; Vetter, N J

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the activity of informal carers who look after elderly dependents and particularly investigates the role of formal services in supporting these carers in maintaining dependent, elderly people in the community. The results lend no support to the view that families neglect their elderly relatives or that community services displace the role of informal carers, but rather suggest that carers support elderly dependents at great cost to themselves and with inadequate support from community services. PMID:3161579

  19. Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.

  20. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  1. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  2. Towards Rapid Re-Certification Using Formal Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    the problem… • Brooks’ Law. • Too many cooks! Increases accidental complexity. • “9 women can’t make a baby in 1 month!” 7 What kind of...the analysis determine the impact. • Result: Rapid analysis at recertification (or design ) time. • Focus on the parts that commensurate with...Zumwalt’s radar system, designating it as high- confidentiality data. Application Profile Language Formalization in Description Logic P COLLECT

  3. Formal Analysis of the Remote Agent Before and After Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Mike; Park, SeungJoon; Pecheur, Charles; Penix, John; Visser, Willem; White, Jon L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes two separate efforts that used the SPIN model checker to verify deep space autonomy flight software. The first effort occurred at the beginning of a spiral development process and found five concurrency errors early in the design cycle that the developers acknowledge would not have been found through testing. This effort required a substantial manual modeling effort involving both abstraction and translation from the prototype LISP code to the PROMELA language used by SPIN. This experience and others led to research to address the gap between formal method tools and the development cycle used by software developers. The Java PathFinder tool which directly translates from Java to PROMELA was developed as part of this research, as well as automatic abstraction tools. In 1999 the flight software flew on a space mission, and a deadlock occurred in a sibling subsystem to the one which was the focus of the first verification effort. A second quick-response "cleanroom" verification effort found the concurrency error in a short amount of time. The error was isomorphic to one of the concurrency errors found during the first verification effort. The paper demonstrates that formal methods tools can find concurrency errors that indeed lead to loss of spacecraft functions, even for the complex software required for autonomy. Second, it describes progress in automatic translation and abstraction that eventually will enable formal methods tools to be inserted directly into the aerospace software development cycle.

  4. Convoys of care: Theorizing intersections of formal and informal care

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most care to frail elders is provided informally, much of this care is paired with formal care services. Yet, common approaches to conceptualizing the formal–informal intersection often are static, do not consider self-care, and typically do not account for multi-level influences. In response, we introduce the “convoy of care” model as an alternative way to conceptualize the intersection and to theorize connections between care convoy properties and caregiver and recipient outcomes. The model draws on Kahn and Antonucci's (1980) convoy model of social relations, expanding it to include both formal and informal care providers and also incorporates theoretical and conceptual threads from life course, feminist gerontology, social ecology, and symbolic interactionist perspectives. This article synthesizes theoretical and empirical knowledge and demonstrates the convoy of care model in an increasingly popular long-term care setting, assisted living. We conceptualize care convoys as dynamic, evolving, person- and family-specific, and influenced by a host of multi-level factors. Care convoys have implications for older adults’ quality of care and ability to age in place, for job satisfaction and retention among formal caregivers, and for informal caregiver burden. The model moves beyond existing conceptual work to provide a comprehensive, multi-level, multi-factor framework that can be used to inform future research, including research in other care settings, and to spark further theoretical development. PMID:23273553

  5. Schwinger-Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuehua

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger-Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

  6. Between formal and enacted policy: changing the contours of boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Nissim; Shuval, Judith T

    2005-04-01

    This study examines the strategies of the biomedical discourse vis-à-vis the growing public demand for alternative medicine by comparing formal and informal claims for jurisdiction. The analysis is based on two main sources of data from Israel: (a) two formal position statements, and (b) a series of participant observations and interviews with practitioners in clinical settings where biomedical and alternative practitioners collaborate. At the formal level, the biomedical discourse seeks to secure its dominant position by drawing strict cognitive and moral lines differentiating "proper biomedicine" from "improper alternative medicine." At this level alternative medicine appears morally "contaminated" and its knowledge-base delegitimized by extreme forms of boundary-work. At the informal level, the contour of boundaries change. In the hospital field where alternative and biomedical practitioners are collaborating, mutual respect was expressed even as social and symbolic boundaries were being demarcated. Modifying the forms of boundary-work appears to be biomedicine's reactive strategy in the field to changing environmental and market demands. It is a strategy that allows biomedical discourse to absorb its competitor within its professional jurisdiction with no battle, while retaining absolute epistemological hegemony and Institutional Control.

  7. Multi-formalism modelling and simulation: application to cardiac modelling

    PubMed Central

    Defontaine, Antoine; Hernández, Alfredo; Carrault, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular modelling has been a major research subject for the last decades. Different cardiac models have been developed at a cellular level as well as at the whole organ level. Most of these models are defined by a comprehensive cellular modelling using continuous formalisms or by a tissue-level modelling often based on discrete formalisms. Nevertheless, both views still suffer from difficulties that reduce their clinical applications: the first approach requires heavy computational resources while the second one is not able to reproduce certain pathologies. This paper presents an original methodology trying to gather advantages from both approaches, by means of an hybrid model mixing discrete and continuous formalisms. This method has been applied to define a hybrid model of cardiac action potential propagation on a 2D grid of endocardial cells, combining cellular automata and a set of cells defined by the Beeler Reuter model. For simulations under physiologic and ischemic conditions, results show that the action potential propagation as well as electrogram reconstructions are consistent with clinical diagnosis. Finally, the interest of the proposed approach is discussed within the frame of cardiac modelling and simulation. PMID:15520534

  8. Formal Requirements-Based Programming for Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Computer science as a field has not yet produced a general method to mechanically transform complex computer system requirements into a provably equivalent implementation. Such a method would be one major step towards dealing with complexity in computing, yet it remains the elusive holy grail of system development. Currently available tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The gap that such tools and methods leave unfilled is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the system requirements as originated by the customer For the classes of complex systems whose behavior can be described as a finite (but significant) set of scenarios, we offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements (expressed in restricted natural language, or appropriate graphical notations) into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. While other techniques are available, this method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. We illustrate the application of the method to an example procedure from the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission currently under study and preliminary formulation at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  9. Devising an unconventional formal logic for bioinspired spacefaring automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, Salvatore

    2011-03-01

    The field of robotics is increasingly moving from robots confined to factory floors and assembly lines and bound to perform the same tasks over and over in an uncertainty-free, well foreseeable environment, to robots designed for operating in highly dynamic and uncertainty domains, like those of interest in space exploration. According to an idea of a "new system of formal logic less rigid than past and present formal logic" advocated by von Neumann for building a powerful theory of automata, such system should be "closer to another discipline which has been little linked in the past with logic, i.e. thermodynamics, primarily in the form it was received by Boltzmann". Following that idea, which is particularly interesting now with the emerging computational nano-sciences, it is stressed here that a full set of isomorphisms can be established between the fundamental logical principles and the information flows, Hamiltonian or dissipative, in phase space. This form of logic, dubbed here kinetic logic, takes standard formal logic out of the field of combinatorics and into the field of the Boltzmannian form of thermodynamics, i.e. kinetics.

  10. From Livingstone to SMV: Formal Verification for Autonomous Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Simmons, Reid

    2000-01-01

    To fulfill the needs of its deep space exploration program, NASA is actively supporting research and development in autonomy software. However, the reliable and cost-effective development and validation of autonomy systems poses a tough challenge. Traditional scenario-based testing methods fall short because of the combinatorial explosion of possible situations to be analyzed, and formal verification techniques typically require a tedious, manual modelling by formal method experts. This paper presents the application of formal verification techniques in the development of autonomous controllers based on Livingstone, a model-based health-monitoring system that can detect and diagnose anomalies and suggest possible recovery actions. We present a translator that converts the models used by Livingstone into specifications that can be verified with the SMV model checker. The translation frees the Livingstone developer from the tedious conversion of his design to SMV, and isolates him from the technical details of the SMV program. We describe different aspects of the translation and briefly discuss its application to several NASA domains.

  11. A Formal Environment Model for Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Paulo Salem; de Melo, Ana C. V.

    Multi-agent systems are employed to model complex systems which can be decomposed into several interacting pieces called agents. In such systems, agents exist, evolve and interact within an environment. In this paper we present a model for the specification of such environments. This Environment Model for Multi-Agent Systems (EMMAS), as we call it, defines both structural and dynamic aspects of environments. Structurally, EMMAS connects agents by a social network, in which the link between agents is specified as the capability that one agent has to act upon another. Dynamically, EMMAS provides operations that can be composed together in order to create a number of different environmental situations and to respond appropriately to agents' actions. These features are founded on a mathematical model that we provide and that defines rigorously what constitutes an environment. Formality is achieved by employing the π-calculus process algebra in order to give the semantics of this model. This allows, in particular, a simple characterization of the evolution of the environment structure. Moreover, owing to this formal semantics, it is possible to perform formal analyses on environments thus described. For the sake of illustration, a concrete example of environment specification using EMMAS is also given.

  12. Equations of motion for rotating finite bodies in the extended PPN formalism. [Parametrized Post-Newtonian formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallas, S. S.

    1977-01-01

    The equations of motion for rotating finite bodies are computed in the perfect fluid metric in the extended parametric post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt (1972) and are used to build a model of the solar system consisting of N oblate, homogeneous, stationary, self-gravitating masses of rotating perfect fluid. These equations contain relativistic acceleration terms which are currently observable or may be observable in the future with improved radio and laser ranging techniques.

  13. The development of a model of creative space and its potential for transfer from non-formal to formal education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Irene; Lorenzi, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    Creativity has been emerging as a key concept in educational policies since the mid-1990s, with many Western countries restructuring their education systems to embrace innovative approaches likely to stimulate creative and critical thinking. But despite current intentions of putting more emphasis on creativity in education policies worldwide, there is still a relative dearth of viable models which capture the complexity of creativity and the conditions for its successful infusion into formal school environments. The push for creativity is in direct conflict with the results-driven/competitive performance-oriented culture which continues to dominate formal education systems. The authors of this article argue that incorporating creativity into mainstream education is a complex task and is best tackled by taking a systematic and multifaceted approach. They present a multidimensional model designed to help educators in tackling the challenges of the promotion of creativity. Their model encompasses three distinct yet interrelated dimensions of a creative space - physical, social-emotional and critical. The authors use the metaphor of space to refer to the interplay of the three identified dimensions. Drawing on confluence approaches to the theorisation of creativity, this paper exemplifies the development of a model before the background of a growing trend of systems theories. The aim of the model is to be helpful in systematising creativity by offering parameters - derived from the evaluation of an example offered by a non-formal educational environment - for the development of creative environments within mainstream secondary schools.

  14. Formal description of aggregates of a generalised model of interaction processes in computer networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ratsin, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    The realisation using PL/1 of a formal description of a set of interaction process functions in computer networks using the language of discrete parallel processes is described. The formal description is intended for conducting computer modelling experiments. 4 references.

  15. Mending the Gap, An Effort to Aid the Transfer of Formal Methods Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods can be applied to many of the development and verification activities required for civil avionics software. RTCA/DO-178B, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, gives a brief description of using formal methods as an alternate method of compliance with the objectives of that standard. Despite this, the avionics industry at large has been hesitant to adopt formal methods, with few developers have actually used formal methods for certification credit. Why is this so, given the volume of evidence of the benefits of formal methods? This presentation will explore some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describe the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to develop guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach.

  16. Gluon mass generation in the massless bound-state formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibañez, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed, all-order study of gluon mass generation within the massless bound-state formalism, which constitutes the general framework for the systematic implementation of the Schwinger mechanism in non-Abelian gauge theories. The main ingredient of this formalism is the dynamical formation of bound states with vanishing mass, which give rise to effective vertices containing massless poles; these latter vertices, in turn, trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and allow for the gauge-invariant generation of an effective gluon mass. This particular approach has the conceptual advantage of relating the gluon mass directly to quantities that are intrinsic to the bound-state formation itself, such as the “transition amplitude” and the corresponding “bound-state wave function.” As a result, the dynamical evolution of the gluon mass is largely determined by a Bethe-Salpeter equation that controls the dynamics of the relevant wave function, rather than the Schwinger-Dyson equation of the gluon propagator, as happens in the standard treatment. The precise structure and field-theoretic properties of the transition amplitude are scrutinized in a variety of independent ways. In particular, a parallel study within the linear-covariant (Landau) gauge and the background-field method reveals that a powerful identity, known to be valid at the level of conventional Green’s functions, also relates the background and quantum transition amplitudes. Despite the differences in the ingredients and terminology employed, the massless bound-state formalism is absolutely equivalent to the standard approach based on Schwinger-Dyson equations. In fact, a set of powerful relations allows one to demonstrate the exact coincidence of the integral equations governing the momentum evolution of the gluon mass in both frameworks.

  17. General Green's function formalism for layered systems: Wave function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle Green's function (GF) of mesoscopic structures plays a central role in mesoscopic quantum transport. The recursive GF technique is a standard tool to compute this quantity numerically, but it lacks physical transparency and is limited to relatively small systems. Here we present a numerically efficient and physically transparent GF formalism for a general layered structure. In contrast to the recursive GF that directly calculates the GF through the Dyson equations, our approach converts the calculation of the GF to the generation and subsequent propagation of a scattering wave function emanating from a local excitation. This viewpoint not only allows us to reproduce existing results in a concise and physically intuitive manner, but also provides analytical expressions of the GF in terms of a generalized scattering matrix. This identifies the contributions from each individual scattering channel to the GF and hence allows this information to be extracted quantitatively from dual-probe STM experiments. The simplicity and physical transparency of the formalism further allows us to treat the multiple reflection analytically and derive an analytical rule to construct the GF of a general layered system. This could significantly reduce the computational time and enable quantum transport calculations for large samples. We apply this formalism to perform both analytical analysis and numerical simulation for the two-dimensional conductance map of a realistic graphene p -n junction. The results demonstrate the possibility of observing the spatially resolved interference pattern caused by negative refraction and further reveal a few interesting features, such as the distance-independent conductance and its quadratic dependence on the carrier concentration, as opposed to the linear dependence in uniform graphene.

  18. Formal Verification of Security Policy Implementations in Enterprise Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dasgupta, Pallab

    In enterprise networks, the management of security policies and their configurations becoming increasingly difficult due to complex security constraints of the organizations. In such networks, the overall organizational security policy (global policy) is defined as a collection of rules for providing service accesses between various network zones. Often, the specification of the global policy is incomplete; where all possible service access paths may not be covered explicitly by the "permit" and "deny" rules. This policy is implemented in a distributed manner through appropriate sets of access control rules (ACL rules) in the network interfaces. However, the implementation must be complete i.e., all service access paths across the network must be implemented as "permit" and "deny" ACL rules. In that case, the unspecified access paths in a given policy must be implemented as either "permit" or "deny" rules; hence there may exist multiple ACL implementations corresponding to that policy. Formally verifying that the ACL rules distributed across the network interfaces guarantees proper enforcement of the global security policy is an important requirement and a major technical challenge. The complexity of the problem is compounded by the fact that some combination of network services may lead to inconsistent hidden access paths in the network. The ACL implementations ignoring these hidden access paths may result in violation of one or more policy rules implicitly. This paper presents a formal verification framework for analyzing security policy implementations in enterprise networks. It stems from boolean modeling of the network topology, network services and security policy where the unspecified access paths are modeled as "don't-care" rules. The framework formally models the hidden access rules and incorporates them in the distributed ACL implementations for extracting a security implementation model, and finally formulates a QSAT (satisfiability of quantified boolean

  19. Semi-Formal Description of KVM/370 Trusted Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-09

    rmnNT A~ /( -Ap.rove.d foT public zlaw 12 22 L v0 Distri ~ubution unlimited / MI 3 December 1377 System Development Corporation Contract MDA903-76-C...Dist Special 11 3+ 9 December 1577 System Development Corporation Operator ProcessTI-9/1/9 Operator Process Semi-Formal Description This section...llapUser Id) Answer: recordJ HMIS: string Text: string emd 2 9 Decemberr 1977 System Development Corporation Operator Process TM-68G2/111/08

  20. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  1. A Formal Foundation for the Trace Method of Software Specification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    both formal logic and the trace method. Nevertheless, some background in logic, as , e. g., can be obtained from (10), would be useful, as would an...informal understanding of the trace method, as presented in [l). An elementary knowledge of set theory, as , e. g., given in f1l1, is assumed. i -I... As such, in so far as the terms "abstract data type" and "module" are used to refer to sets of related programs, it is a method for their

  2. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Nugier, F.; Veneziano, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ``geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ``redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  3. Light-cone averaging in cosmology: formalism and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.; Nugier, F. E-mail: giovanni.marozzi@college-de-france.fr E-mail: gabriele.veneziano@cern.ch

    2011-07-01

    We present a general gauge invariant formalism for defining cosmological averages that are relevant for observations based on light-like signals. Such averages involve either null hypersurfaces corresponding to a family of past light-cones or compact surfaces given by their intersection with timelike hypersurfaces. Generalized Buchert-Ehlers commutation rules for derivatives of these light-cone averages are given. After introducing some adapted ''geodesic light-cone'' coordinates, we give explicit expressions for averaging the redshift to luminosity-distance relation and the so-called ''redshift drift'' in a generic inhomogeneous Universe.

  4. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  5. Stokes vector formalism based second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianjun; Mazumder, Nirmal; Tsai, Han-Ruei; Hu, Chih-Wei; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we have developed a four-channel Stokes vector formalism based second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to map and analyze SHG signal. A four-channel Stokesmeter setup is calibrated and integrated into a laser scanning microscope to measure and characterize the SH's corresponding Stokes parameters. We are demonstrating the use of SH and its Stokes parameters to visualize the birefringence and crystalline orientation of KDP and collagen. We believe the developed method can reveal unprecedented information for biomedical and biomaterial studies.

  6. Hausdorff dimensions in two-dimensional maps and thermodynamic formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladin, G.; Vaienti, S.

    1989-10-01

    We compute numerically the Hausdorff dimensions of the Gibbs measures on the invariant sets of Axiom A systems. In particular, we stress the existence of a measure which has maximal dimension and can be relevant for the ergodic properties of the system. For hyperbolic maps of the plane with constant Jacobian j, we apply the Bowen-Ruelle formula, using the relation F( β= d H-1)=ln j, which links the Hausdorff dimension d H of an attractor to a free energy functional F(β) defined in the thermodynamic formalism. We provide numerical evidence that this relation remains valid for some nonhyperbolic maps, such as the Hénon map.

  7. Dynamics of Compact Binaries in Effective Field Theory Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrodin, Delphine

    2010-02-01

    Coalescing compact binaries are predicted to be powerful emitters of gravitational waves, and provide a strong gravity environment ideal for the testing of gravity theories. We study the gravitational dynamics in the early inspiral phase of coalescing compact binaries using Non-Relativistic General Relativity (NRGR) - an effective field theory formalism based on the Post-Newtonian approximation to General Relativity, but which provides a consistent lagrangian framework and a systematic way in which to study binary dynamics and gravitational wave emission. We calculate in this framework the spin-orbit correction to the newtonian potential at 2.5 PN. )

  8. Imaginary-time formalism for triple-α reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahori, T.; Funaki, Y.; Yabana, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using imaginary-time formalism, it is shown that the triple-α reaction rate can be reliably calculated without the need to solve scattering problems involving three charged particles. The calculated reaction rate is found to agree well with the empirical NACRE rate, which is widely adopted in stellar evolution calculations. The reason for this is explained using R -matrix theory. Extremely slow convergence is found to occur when a coupled-channel expansion is introduced, which helps to explain the very different reaction rates obtained using a coupled-channel approach.

  9. Formal Methods for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis: Emerging Issues and Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory...Ferguson and Schneier [27] found an attack in which an intruder could trick an initiator into agreeing on the wrong SA by making use of the fact that...of some the techniques used for this last). The trick now, of course, is to integrate the formal analysis into the standard- ization process. With the

  10. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  11. Recovering the quantum formalism from physically realist axioms.

    PubMed

    Auffèves, Alexia; Grangier, Philippe

    2017-03-03

    We present a heuristic derivation of Born's rule and unitary transforms in Quantum Mechanics, from a simple set of axioms built upon a physical phenomenology of quantization. This approach naturally leads to the usual quantum formalism, within a new realistic conceptual framework that is discussed in details. Physically, the structure of Quantum Mechanics appears as a result of the interplay between the quantized number of "modalities" accessible to a quantum system, and the continuum of "contexts" that are required to define these modalities. Mathematically, the Hilbert space structure appears as a consequence of a specific "extra-contextuality" of modalities, closely related to the hypothesis of Gleason's theorem, and consistent with its conclusions.

  12. The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.

    PubMed

    Kats, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction.

  13. Discrete Quantum Gravity in the Regge Calculus Formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2005-09-01

    We discuss an approach to the discrete quantum gravity in the Regge calculus formalism that was developed in a number of our papers. The Regge calculus is general relativity for a subclass of general Riemannian manifolds called piecewise flat manifolds. The Regge calculus deals with a discrete set of variables, triangulation lengths, and contains continuous general relativity as a special limiting case where the lengths tend to zero. In our approach, the quantum length expectations are nonzero and of the order of the Plank scale, 10{sup -33} cm, implying a discrete spacetime structure on these scales.

  14. Projective limits of state spaces I. Classical formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Jerzy Kijowski (1977) and Andrzej Okołów (2009, 2013, 2014), which describes the states of a quantum (field) theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in [27]. The present first paper aims at clarifying the classical structures that underlies this formalism, namely projective limits of symplectic manifolds [27, subsection 2.1]. In particular, this allows us to discuss accurately the issues hindering an easy implementation of the dynamics in this context, and to formulate a strategy for overcoming them [27, subsection 4.1].

  15. Formal Verification for a Next-Generation Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy D.; Pecheur, Charles; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the verification and validation (V&2) of advanced software used for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM), in the context of NASA's next-generation space shuttle. We survey the current VBCV practice and standards used in selected NASA projects, review applicable formal verification techniques, and discuss their integration info existing development practice and standards. We also describe two verification tools, JMPL2SMV and Livingstone PathFinder, that can be used to thoroughly verify diagnosis applications that use model-based reasoning, such as the Livingstone system.

  16. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-15

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  17. Formalization Studies in Functional Size Measurement: How Do They Help?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, Baris; Demirors, Onur

    Functional size has been favored as a software characteristic that can be measured early and independent of language, tools, techniques and technology; hence has many uses in software project management. It has been about three decades since Albrecht introduced the concept of functional size. However, Functional Size Measurement (FSM) has not been a common practice in the software community. The problems with FSM method structures and practices have been discussed to be the major factors to explain this situation. In this paper, we make a review of formalization proposals to the problems in Functional Size Measurement (FSM). We analyze the works included in the papers and we explore the extent of their contributions.

  18. Three-dimensional gauge theory in Dirac formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Kiyoshi

    1986-08-01

    The Hagen model [C. R. Hagen, Ann. Phys. (NY) 157, 342 (1984); Phys. Rev. D 31, 331 (1985)] is studied using the method of constrained Hamiltonian formalism developed by Dirac [P. A. M. Dirac, Can. J. Math. 2, 129 (1950); Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (Yeshiva U. P., New York, 1964)]. The results recently obtained by Burnel and Van Der Rest-Jaspers [A. Burnel and M. Van Der Rest-Jaspers, J. Math. Phys. 26, 3155 (1985)] are reexamined and modified. There appear two second-class constraints and their choice is not crucial. The equivalence of different gauges is proved without referring to the current conservation law.

  19. Adjusting game difficulty level through Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Martín, Marco A.; Gómez-Martín, Pedro P.; Gonzâlez-Calero, Pedro A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén

    In order to reach as many players as possible, videogames usually allow the user to choose the difficulty level. To do it, game designers have to decide the values that some game parameters will have depending on that decision. In simple videogames this is almost trivial: minesweeper is harder with longer board sizes and number of mines. In more complex games, game designers may take advantage of data mining to establish which of all the possible parameters will affect positively to the player experience. This paper describes the use of Formal Concept Analysis to help to balance the game using the logs obtained in the tests made prior the release of the game.

  20. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  1. Formal methods in the design of Ada 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David

    1995-01-01

    Formal, mathematical methods are most useful when applied early in the design and implementation of a software system--that, at least, is the familiar refrain. I will report on a modest effort to apply formal methods at the earliest possible stage, namely, in the design of the Ada 95 programming language itself. This talk is an 'experience report' that provides brief case studies illustrating the kinds of problems we worked on, how we approached them, and the extent (if any) to which the results proved useful. It also derives some lessons and suggestions for those undertaking future projects of this kind. Ada 95 is the first revision of the standard for the Ada programming language. The revision began in 1988, when the Ada Joint Programming Office first asked the Ada Board to recommend a plan for revising the Ada standard. The first step in the revision was to solicit criticisms of Ada 83. A set of requirements for the new language standard, based on those criticisms, was published in 1990. A small design team, the Mapping Revision Team (MRT), became exclusively responsible for revising the language standard to satisfy those requirements. The MRT, from Intermetrics, is led by S. Tucker Taft. The work of the MRT was regularly subject to independent review and criticism by a committee of distinguished Reviewers and by several advisory teams--for example, the two User/Implementor teams, each consisting of an industrial user (attempting to make significant use of the new language on a realistic application) and a compiler vendor (undertaking, experimentally, to modify its current implementation in order to provide the necessary new features). One novel decision established the Language Precision Team (LPT), which investigated language proposals from a mathematical point of view. The LPT applied formal mathematical analysis to help improve the design of Ada 95 (e.g., by clarifying the language proposals) and to help promote its acceptance (e.g., by identifying a

  2. Formalization of the engineering science discipline - knowledge engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao

    Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an

  3. New quasidilaton theory in partially constrained vielbein formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tanahashi, Norihiro

    2016-05-25

    In this work we study the partially constrained vielbein formulation of the new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity, where the quasidilaton field couples to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously via a composite effective metric and Lorentz violation is introduced by a constraint on the vielbein. This formalism improves the new quasidilaton model since the Boulware-Deser ghost is removed fully non-linearly at all scales. This also yields crucial implications in the cosmological applications. We derive the governing cosmological background evolution and study the stability of the attractor solution.

  4. Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez Ruiz, Eduardo R.; Lemoine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of EDEMOI - a French national project that proposed the use of semiformal and formal methods to infer the consistency and robustness of aeronautical regulations through the analysis of faithfully representative models- a methodology had been suggested (and applied) to different (safety and security-related) aeronautical regulations. This paper summarizes the preliminary results of this experience by stating which were the methodology s expected benefits, from a scientific point of view, and which are its useful benefits, from a regulatory body s point of view.

  5. The Sociocultural Psychology as a Postformal Theory of Academic Achievement: Interrogating Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper interrogates the dominance of formal education. As formal education system relies on ability based academic achievement as a goal, exploring post-formal approaches, such as sociocultural notion of academic achievement is the hallmark of present paper. An attempt is made to interrogate the existing cultural dominance in formal…

  6. 25 CFR 42.9 - What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? 42.9 Section 42.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.9 What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? In formal...

  7. 25 CFR 42.9 - What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? 42.9 Section 42.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.9 What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? In formal...

  8. 43 CFR 30.210 - How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... probate proceeding? 30.210 Section 30.210 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Notice § 30.210 How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding? OHA will provide notice of the formal probate proceeding under §...

  9. 43 CFR 30.210 - How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... probate proceeding? 30.210 Section 30.210 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Notice § 30.210 How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding? OHA will provide notice of the formal probate proceeding under §...

  10. 43 CFR 30.210 - How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... probate proceeding? 30.210 Section 30.210 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Notice § 30.210 How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding? OHA will provide notice of the formal probate proceeding under §...

  11. 43 CFR 30.235 - What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... probate proceeding contain? 30.235 Section 30.235 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Decisions in Formal Proceedings § 30.235 What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain? The judge must decide...

  12. 43 CFR 30.210 - How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... probate proceeding? 30.210 Section 30.210 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Notice § 30.210 How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding? OHA will provide notice of the formal probate proceeding under §...

  13. 43 CFR 30.235 - What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... probate proceeding contain? 30.235 Section 30.235 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Decisions in Formal Proceedings § 30.235 What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain? The judge must decide...

  14. 43 CFR 30.235 - What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... probate proceeding contain? 30.235 Section 30.235 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Decisions in Formal Proceedings § 30.235 What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain? The judge must decide...

  15. 43 CFR 30.210 - How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... probate proceeding? 30.210 Section 30.210 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Notice § 30.210 How will I receive notice of the formal probate proceeding? OHA will provide notice of the formal probate proceeding under §...

  16. 43 CFR 30.235 - What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... probate proceeding contain? 30.235 Section 30.235 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Decisions in Formal Proceedings § 30.235 What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain? The judge must decide...

  17. 43 CFR 30.235 - What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... probate proceeding contain? 30.235 Section 30.235 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Formal Probate Proceedings Decisions in Formal Proceedings § 30.235 What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain? The judge must decide...

  18. From Regulation to Virtue: A Critique of Ethical Formalism in Research Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Timothy N.; Butler, Jesse W.

    2012-01-01

    The following article argues that the research compliance system has some flaws that should be addressed, particularly with regard to excessive emphasis of and reliance upon formal regulations in research administration. Ethical formalism, understood here as the use of formal rules for the determination of behavior, is not an optimal perspective…

  19. One-parameter extension of the Doi-Peliti formalism and its relation with orthogonal polynomials.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2012-10-01

    An extension of the Doi-Peliti formalism for stochastic chemical kinetics is proposed. Using the extension, path-integral expressions consistent with previous studies are obtained. In addition, the extended formalism is naturally connected to orthogonal polynomials. We show that two different orthogonal polynomials, i.e., Charlier polynomials and Hermite polynomials, can be used to express the Doi-Peliti formalism explicitly.

  20. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  1. 24 CFR 3282.309 - Formal and informal presentations of views held by SAAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal and informal presentations... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS State Administrative Agencies § 3282.309 Formal and informal presentations of views held by SAAs. (a) When an SAA is the appropriate agency to hold a Formal or Informal Presentation...

  2. Systems, methods and apparatus for implementation of formal specifications derived from informal requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Erickson, John D. (Inventor); Gracinin, Denis (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an informal specification is translated without human intervention into a formal specification. In some embodiments the formal specification is a process-based specification. In some embodiments, the formal specification is translated into a high-level computer programming language which is further compiled into a set of executable computer instructions.

  3. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  4. Rural dementia carers: formal and informal sources of support.

    PubMed

    Orpin, Peter; Stirling, Christine; Hetherington, Sharon; Robinson, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Primary carers provide much of the day-to-day care for community-dwelling people living with dementia (PWD). Maintaining that contribution will require a more in-depth understanding of the primary carer role and the support needs that flow from that role. This study explored patterns of formal and informal support utilisation by people caring for a PWD in a rural-regional context. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 rural primary carers of a PWD and thematically analysed. Participant primary carers' almost total commitment to, and absorption in their role and their assumption of ultimate responsibility for the PWD's wellbeing meant that external social context, such as rurality, became less relevant. Carer networks effectively contracted to those key individuals who were central to supporting them in their caring task. External sources of support were tightly managed with strong boundaries around the provision of direct care to the PWD largely excluding all but professional providers. Primary carers are generally categorised along with other family and friends as informal care. However, in assuming primary responsible for the care and wellbeing for the PWD they effectively become the key care provider, suggesting that it would be productive in both research and practice to treat primary carers as key members of a care partnership alongside professional carers, rather than as adjuncts to formal care and/or another client.

  5. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2004-01-01

    The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

  6. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  7. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  8. Embodied language, best-fit analysis, and formal compositionality.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jerome

    2010-12-01

    This review brings together two fundamental, but unreconciled, aspects of human language: embodiment and compositionality. One major scientific advance in recent decades has been Embodiment - the realization that scientific understanding of mind and language entails detailed modeling of the human brain and how it evolved to control a physical body in a social community. The ability to learn and use language is one of the most characteristically human traits. Many animals signal, but only people can express and understand an essentially unbounded range of messages. The technical term for the ability of human language to support all these messages from a few dozen alphabetic symbols is Compositionality. Rigor is essential for the advancement of any science, but there has been essentially no overlap between efforts to formalize language compositionality and the manifest embodiment of thought. Recent developments suggest that it is feasible to formalize the compositionality of embodied language, but that this requires a focus on conceptual composition and better understanding of contextual best-fit.

  9. Identifying genes of gene regulatory networks using formal concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Jutta; Motameny, Susanne; Faigle, Ulrich; Forst, Christian V; Schrader, Rainer

    2008-03-01

    In order to understand the behavior of a gene regulatory network, it is essential to know the genes that belong to it. Identifying the correct members (e.g., in order to build a model) is a difficult task even for small subnetworks. Usually only few members of a network are known and one needs to guess the missing members based on experience or informed speculation. It is beneficial if one can additionally rely on experimental data to support this guess. In this work we present a new method based on formal concept analysis to detect unknown members of a gene regulatory network from gene expression time series data. We show that formal concept analysis is able to find a list of candidate genes for inclusion into a partially known basic network. This list can then be reduced by a statistical analysis so that the resulting genes interact strongly with the basic network and therefore should be included when modeling the network. The method has been applied to the DNA repair system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this application, our method produces comparable results to an already existing method of component selection while it is applicable to a broader range of problems.

  10. Extended Ginzburg-Landau formalism for two-band superconductors.

    PubMed

    Shanenko, A A; Milošević, M V; Peeters, F M; Vagov, A V

    2011-01-28

    Recent observation of unusual vortex patterns in MgB(2) single crystals raised speculations about possible "type-1.5" superconductivity in two-band materials, mixing the properties of both type-I and type-II superconductors. However, the strict application of the standard two-band Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory results in simply proportional order parameters of the two bands-and does not support the "type-1.5" behavior. Here we derive the extended GL formalism (accounting all terms of the next order over the small τ=1-T/T(c) parameter) for a two-band clean s-wave superconductor and show that the two condensates generally have different spatial scales, with the difference disappearing only in the limit T→T(c). The extended version of the two-band GL formalism improves the validity of GL theory below T(c) and suggests revisiting the earlier calculations based on the standard model.

  11. A Formal Model of Partitioning for Integrated Modular Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    1998-01-01

    The aviation industry is gradually moving toward the use of integrated modular avionics (IMA) for civilian transport aircraft. An important concern for IMA is ensuring that applications are safely partitioned so they cannot interfere with one another. We have investigated the problem of ensuring safe partitioning and logical non-interference among separate applications running on a shared Avionics Computer Resource (ACR). This research was performed in the context of ongoing standardization efforts, in particular, the work of RTCA committee SC-182, and the recently completed ARINC 653 application executive (APEX) interface standard. We have developed a formal model of partitioning suitable for evaluating the design of an ACR. The model draws from the mathematical modeling techniques developed by the computer security community. This report presents a formulation of partitioning requirements expressed first using conventional mathematical notation, then formalized using the language of SRI'S Prototype Verification System (PVS). The approach is demonstrated on three candidate designs, each an abstraction of features found in real systems.

  12. Evolution of the environmental justice movement: activism, formalization and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colsa Perez, Alejandro; Grafton, Bernadette; Mohai, Paul; Hardin, Rebecca; Hintzen, Katy; Orvis, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To complement a recent flush of research on transnational environmental justice movements, we sought a deeper organizational history of what we understand as the contemporary environmental justice movement in the United States. We thus conducted in-depth interviews with 31 prominent environmental justice activists, scholars, and community leaders across the US. Today’s environmental justice groups have transitioned from specific local efforts to broader national and global mandates, and more sophisticated political, technological, and activist strategies. One of the most significant transformations has been the number of groups adopting formal legal status, and emerging as registered environmental justice organizations (REJOs) within complex partnerships. This article focuses on the emergence of REJOs, and describes the respondents’ views about the implications of this for more local grassroots groups. It reveals a central irony animating work across groups in today’s movement: legal formalization of many environmental justice organizations has made the movement increasingly internally differentiated, dynamic, and networked, even as the passage of actual national laws on environmental justice has proven elusive.

  13. Formalization and web-based implementation of spatial data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemann, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Spatial data fusion plays an important role for spatial information retrieval from disconnected data sources and is thus a precondition for comprehensive and consistent decision making. In particular on the Web, it can help to combine spatial data from the variety of existing, but distributed sources, e.g. as provided by Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). However, standardized spatial data processing on the Web still lacks broad acceptance beyond the scientific domain. This article describes a formalization and service-based implementation of the spatial data fusion process. The formalization builds on a set theoretic description of the considered domain and derives a number of possible fusion objectives. Geoprocessing patterns are used to describe commonly used sub-routines of the fusion process and therefore support the workflow composition. The implementation is based on open standards and comprises a Web-client, several geoprocessing services and a fusion engine to support the Web-based compilation and execution of spatial data fusion workflows in an ad hoc manner.

  14. Writing Formal Physics Laboratory Reports During Laboratory Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.

    2003-03-01

    Physics is a required, two-semester sequence of courses at USIP. During a semester, students performed twelve physics experiments, and wrote three formal lab reports at home. This year, the number of experiments has been reduced by three, and these laboratory periods are used for writing formal reports. During these lab periods, students write, by hand, individual complete reports (including graphs, tables etc.) based on their lab notes under the supervision of a laboratory instructor. Students may seek help from the instructor, but not from one another. The draft reports are initialed. The following week, students submit the same hand-written report along with a typed (word-processing/spreadsheet) version for grading. These two versions must be substantially the same. The physics department has posted a sample lab report (on an experiment that is not done in the course) on the "Blackboard" software for guidance. The results of this approach to report writing will be discussed. Acknowledgments: The author wishes to thank Drs. B. J. Brunner and Stanley Zietz for useful discussions and encouragement to implement this idea in the course.

  15. Astrophysical applications of the post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Pappas, George; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-08-01

    The bulk properties of spherically symmetric stars in general relativity can be obtained by integrating the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations. In previous work [K. Glampedakis, G. Pappas, H. O. Silva, and E. Berti, Phys. Rev. D 92, 024056 (2015)], we developed a "post-TOV" formalism—inspired by parametrized post-Newtonian theory—which allows us to classify in a parametrized, phenomenological form all possible perturbative deviations from the structure of compact stars in general relativity that may be induced by modified gravity at second post-Newtonian order. In this paper we extend the formalism to deal with the stellar exterior, and we compute several potential astrophysical observables within the post-TOV formalism: the surface redshift zs, the apparent radius Rapp, the Eddington luminosity at infinity LE∞ and the orbital frequencies. We show that, at leading order, all of these quantities depend on just two post-TOV parameters μ1 and χ , and we discuss the possibility to measure (or set upper bounds on) these parameters.

  16. Roulettes: a weak lensing formalism for strong lensing: I. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new perspective on gravitational lensing. We describe a new extension of the weak lensing formalism capable of describing strongly lensed images. By integrating the nonlinear geodesic deviation equation, the amplification matrix of weak lensing is generalised to a sum over independent amplification tensors of increasing rank. We show how an image distorted by a generic lens may be constructed as a sum over ‘roulettes’, which are the natural curves associated with the independent spin modes of the amplification tensors. Highly distorted images can be constructed even for large sources observed near or within the Einstein radius of a lens where the shear and convergence are large. The amplitude of each roulette is formed from a sum over appropriate derivatives of the lensing potential. Consequently, measuring these individual roulettes for images around a lens gives a new way to reconstruct a strong lens mass distribution without requiring a lens model. This formalism generalises the convergence, shear and flexion of weak lensing to arbitrary order, and provides a unified bridge between the strong and weak lensing regimes. This overview paper is accompanied by a much more detailed paper II, arXiv:1603.04652.

  17. Radiative transfer calculated from a Markov chain formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.; House, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of Markov chains is used to formulate the radiative transport problem in a general way by modeling the successive interactions of a photon as a stochastic process. Under the minimal requirement that the stochastic process is a Markov chain, the determination of the diffuse reflection or transmission from a scattering atmosphere is equivalent to the solution of a system of linear equations. This treatment is mathematically equivalent to, and thus has many of the advantages of, Monte Carlo methods, but can be considerably more rapid than Monte Carlo algorithms for numerical calculations in particular applications. We have verified the speed and accuracy of this formalism for the standard problem of finding the intensity of scattered light from a homogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere with an arbitrary phase function for scattering. Accurate results over a wide range of parameters were obtained with computation times comparable to those of a standard 'doubling' routine. The generality of this formalism thus allows fast, direct solutions to problems that were previously soluble only by Monte Carlo methods. Some comparisons are made with respect to integral equation methods.

  18. Isothermal titration calorimetry: general formalism using binding polynomials.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ernesto; Schön, Arne; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The theory of the binding polynomial constitutes a very powerful formalism by which many experimental biological systems involving ligand binding can be analyzed under a unified framework. The analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for systems possessing more than one binding site has been cumbersome because it required the user to develop a binding model to fit the data. Furthermore, in many instances, different binding models give rise to identical binding isotherms, making it impossible to discriminate binding mechanisms using binding data alone. One of the main advantages of the binding polynomials is that experimental data can be analyzed by employing a general model-free methodology that provides essential information about the system behavior (e.g., whether there exists binding cooperativity, whether the cooperativity is positive or negative, and the magnitude of the cooperative energy). Data analysis utilizing binding polynomials yields a set of binding association constants and enthalpy values that conserve their validity after the correct model has been determined. In fact, once the correct model is validated, the binding polynomial parameters can be immediately translated into the model specific constants. In this chapter, we describe the general binding polynomial formalism and provide specific theoretical and experimental examples of its application to isothermal titration calorimetry.

  19. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  20. A compact analytical formalism for current transients in electrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pradeep R; Alam, Muhammad A

    2013-01-21

    Micro- and nanostructured electrodes form an integral part of a wide variety of electrochemical systems for biomolecular detection, batteries, solar cells, scanning electrochemical microscopy, etc. Given the complexity of the electrode structures, the Butler-Volmer formalism of redox reactions, and the diffusion transport of redox species, it is hardly surprising that only a few problems are amenable to closed-form, compact analytical solutions. While numerical solutions are widely used, it is often difficult to integrate the insights gained into the design and optimization of electrochemical systems. In this article, we develop a comprehensive analytical formalism for current transients that not only anticipate the responses of complex electrode structures to complicated voltammetry measurements, but also intuitively interpret diverse experiments such as redox detection of molecules at nanogap electrodes, scanning electrochemical microscopy, etc. The results from the analytical model, well supported through detailed numerical simulations and experimental data from the literature, have broad implications in the design and optimization of nanostructured electrodes for healthcare and energy storage applications.

  1. Multifractal Formalism of Oscillating Singularities for Random Wavelet Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimane, Mourad; Halouani, Borhen

    2015-04-01

    The oscillating multifractal formalism is a formula conjectured by Jaffard expected to yield the spectrum d(h, β) of oscillating singularity exponents from a scaling function ζ(p, s'), for p > 0 and s' ∈ ℝ, based on wavelet leaders of fractional primitives f-s' of f. In this paper, using some results from Jaffard et al., we first show that ζ(p, s') can be extended on p ∈ ℝ to a function that is concave with respect to p ∈ ℝ and independent on orthonormal wavelet bases in the Schwartz class. We also establish its concavity with respect to s' when p > 0. Then, we prove that, under some assumptions, the extended scaling function ζ(p, s') is the Legendre transform of the wavelet leaders density of f-s'. Finally, as an application, we study the validity of the extended oscillating multifractal formalism for random wavelet series (under the assumption of independence and laws depending only on the scale).

  2. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-07-19

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the 'artificial grammar-learning' paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective.

  3. Strengths and limitations of formal ontologies in the biomedical domain

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Stefan; Stenzhorn, Holger; Boeker, Martin; Smith, Barry

    2010-01-01

    We propose a typology of representational artifacts for health care and life sciences domains and associate this typology with different kinds of formal ontology and logic, drawing conclusions as to the strengths and limitations for ontology of different kinds of logical resources, with a focus on description logics. The four types of domain representation we consider are: (i) lexico-semantic representation, (ii) representation of types of entities, (iii) representations of background knowledge, and (iv) representation of individuals. We advocate a clear distinction of the four kinds of representation in order to provide a more rational basis for using of ontologies and related artifacts to advance integration of data and interoperability of associated reasoning systems. We highlight the fact that only a minor portion of scientifically relevant facts in a domain such as biomedicine can be adequately represented by formal ontologies when the latter are conceived as representations of entity types. In particular, the attempt to encode default or probabilistic knowledge using ontologies so conceived is prone to produce unintended, erroneous models. PMID:20640238

  4. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  5. a Unified Formalism of Thermal Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H.; Umezawa, H.

    We present a comprehensive review of the most fundamental and practical aspects of thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including some of the most recent developments in the field. To make TFD fully consistent, some suitable changes in the structure of the thermal doublets and the Bogoliubov transformation matrices have been made. A close comparison between TFD and the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path formalism (SKF) is presented. We find that TFD and SKF are in many ways the same in form; in particular, the two approaches are identical in stationary situations. However, TFD and SKF are quite different in time-dependent nonequilibrium situations. The main source of this difference is that the time evolution of the density matrix itself is ignored in SKF while in TFD it is replaced by a time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation. In this sense TFD is a better candidate for time-dependent quantum field theory. Even in equilibrium situations, TFD has some remarkable advantages over the Matsubara approach and SKF, the most notable being the Feynman diagram recipes, which we will present. We will show that the calculations of two-point functions are simplified, instead of being complicated, by the matrix nature of the formalism. We will present some explicit calculations using TFD, including space-time inhomogeneous situations and the vacuum polarization in equilibrium relativistic QED.

  6. Formalizing procedures for operations automation, operator training and spacecraft autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecouat, Francois; Desaintvincent, Arnaud

    1994-01-01

    The generation and validation of operations procedures is a key task of mission preparation that is quite complex and costly. This has motivated the development of software applications providing support for procedures preparation. Several applications have been developed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE (MMS) over the last five years. They are presented in the first section of this paper. The main idea is that if procedures are represented in a formal language, they can be managed more easily with a computer tool and some automatic verifications can be performed. One difficulty is to define a formal language that is easy to use for operators and operations engineers. From the experience of the various procedures management tools developed in the last five years (including the POM, EOA, and CSS projects), MMS has derived OPSMAKER, a generic tool for procedure elaboration and validation. It has been applied to quite different types of missions, ranging from crew procedures (PREVISE system), ground control centers management procedures (PROCSU system), and - most relevant to the present paper - satellite operation procedures (PROCSAT developed for CNES, to support the preparation and verification of SPOT 4 operation procedures, and OPSAT for MMS telecom satellites operation procedures).

  7. Fiber-bundle formalism for quantization in curved spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrozumski, T. )

    1990-08-15

    We set up a geometrical formulation of the canonical quantization of a free Klein-Gordon field on a gravitational background. We introduce the notion of the Bogolubov bundle as the principal fiber bundle over the space of all Cauchy surfaces belonging to some fixed foliation of space-time, with the Bogolubov group as the structure group, as a tool in considering local Bogolubov transformations. Sections of the associated complex structure bundle have the meaning of attaching Hilbert spaces to Cauchy surfaces. We single out, as physical, sections defined by the equation of parallel transport on the Bogolubov bundle. The connection is then subjected to a certain nonlinear differential equation. We find a particular solution, which happens to coincide with a formula given by Parker for Robertson-Walker space-times. Finally, we adopt the adiabatic hypothesis as the physical input to the formalism and fix in this way a free parameter in the connection. Concluding, we comment on a possible geometrical interpretation of the regularization of the stress-energy tensor and on generalizations of the formalism toward quantum gravity.

  8. The formal Darwinism project: a mid-term report.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A

    2007-07-01

    For 8 years I have been pursuing in print an ambitious and at times highly technical programme of work, the 'Formal Darwinism Project', whose essence is to underpin and formalize the fitness optimization ideas used by behavioural ecologists, using a new kind of argument linking the mathematics of motion and the mathematics of optimization. The value of the project is to give stronger support to current practices, and at the same time sharpening theoretical ideas and suggesting principled resolutions of some untidy areas, for example, how to define fitness. The aim is also to unify existing free-standing theoretical structures, such as inclusive fitness theory, Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) theory and bet-hedging theory. The 40-year-old misunderstanding over the meaning of fitness optimization between mathematicians and biologists is explained. Most of the elements required for a general theory have now been implemented, but not together in the same framework, and 'general time' remains to be developed and integrated with the other elements to produce a final unified theory of neo-Darwinian natural selection.

  9. δN formalism from superpotential and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Urakawa, Yuko; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: urakawa.yuko@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2016-02-01

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of D scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the δN formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with D mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results agree with the ones obtained by using conformal perturbation theory in the dual picture.

  10. Electron transfer and energy transfer through bridged systems. I. Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, J. R.; Hush, N. S.

    1989-07-01

    A time-dependent formalism is developed for reactions in which energy (vibrational or electronic excitation, electron or hole transfer, etc.) is transferred coherently between centres through a bridge. This approach is inspired by the Robinson and Frosch model of energy transfer within two-level systems. This formalism yields a completely general algorithm which, in particular limits, reduces to a generalised form of both Fermi's golden rule and Rabi's rate equation, and, in so doing, unifies many existing theories. It is shown that, only in the limit of the bridge states being non-resonant with the initial and final states, can the full problem be represented by an effective two-level model. Existing methods based upon Löwdin diagonalization are shown to be appropriate only when this limit applies, and ambiguities which arise from the ad hoc nature of these methods are resolved. Also, it is typically only in this limit that the transfer of energy proceeds exponentially in time and can be described by a simple single-parameter rate constant. Only problems which can be modelled using a single set of quantum numbers are treated in this paper. Applications and more general problems are treated in subsequent papers.

  11. A High-Level Formalization of Floating-Point Number in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldo, Sylvie; Munoz, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    We develop a formalization of floating-point numbers in PVS based on a well-known formalization in Coq. We first describe the definitions of all the needed notions, e.g., floating-point number, format, rounding modes, etc.; then, we present an application to polynomial evaluation for elementary function evaluation. The application already existed in Coq, but our formalization shows a clear improvement in the quality of the result due to the automation provided by PVS. We finally integrate our formalization into a PVS hardware-level formalization of the IEEE-854 standard previously developed at NASA.

  12. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  13. Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

  14. Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Anna

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

  15. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  16. Assessment of formal thought disorder: The relation between the Kiddie Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale and clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Esther I; Verheij, Fop; Wiegman, Tamar; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2007-01-15

    The presence of formal thought disorder (FTD) in childhood is sometimes viewed as a possible precursor of psychotic symptoms or adult schizophrenia. It is possible to assess FTD in childhood in a valid and reliable manner, by using the Kiddie Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale (K-FTDS). However, training and rating procedures are very time consuming, and may be particularly difficult during clinical assessment. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the clinician's rapid judgment of FTD to the detailed ratings of the K-FTDS. The K-FTDS was administered to 172 consecutively referred children, aged 6 to 12 years and subsequently rated by two blind raters. The same criteria, as used in the K-FTDS (illogical thinking, loose associations, incoherence, and poverty of content of speech), were rated by nine clinicians. The overall agreement between K-FTDS scores and FTD scores as rated by the clinician was low. The clinician's judgment of FTD did not correspond very highly with ratings on the K-FTDS. Thus, although detecting FTD has important clinical value, the assessment of its presence or absence seemed to depend highly on which measure was used.

  17. GRADSPMHD: A parallel MHD code based on the SPH formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaverbeke, S.; Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present GRADSPMHD, a completely Lagrangian parallel magnetohydrodynamics code based on the SPH formalism. The implementation of the equations of SPMHD in the “GRAD-h” formalism assembles known results, including the derivation of the discretized MHD equations from a variational principle, the inclusion of time-dependent artificial viscosity, resistivity and conductivity terms, as well as the inclusion of a mixed hyperbolic/parabolic correction scheme for satisfying the ∇ṡB→ constraint on the magnetic field. The code uses a tree-based formalism for neighbor finding and can optionally use the tree code for computing the self-gravity of the plasma. The structure of the code closely follows the framework of our parallel GRADSPH FORTRAN 90 code which we added previously to the CPC program library. We demonstrate the capabilities of GRADSPMHD by running 1, 2, and 3 dimensional standard benchmark tests and we find good agreement with previous work done by other researchers. The code is also applied to the problem of simulating the magnetorotational instability in 2.5D shearing box tests as well as in global simulations of magnetized accretion disks. We find good agreement with available results on this subject in the literature. Finally, we discuss the performance of the code on a parallel supercomputer with distributed memory architecture. Catalogue identifier: AERP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 620503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19837671 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90/MPI. Computer: HPC cluster. Operating system: Unix. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI. RAM: ˜30 MB for a

  18. On quadrupole and octupole gravitational radiation in the ANK formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozameh, Carlos N.; Ortega, R. G.; Rojas, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Following the approach of Adamo-Newman-Kozameh (ANK) we derive the equations of motion for the center of mass and intrinsic angular moment for isolated sources of gravitational waves in axially symmetric spacetimes. The original ANK formulation is generalized so that the angular momentum coincides with the Komar integral for a rotational Killing symmetry. This is done using the Winicour-Tamburino Linkages which yields the mass dipole-angular momentum tensor for the isolated sources. The ANK formalism then provides a complex worldline in a fiducial flat space to define the notions of center of mass and spin. The equations of motion are derived and then used to analyse a very simple astrophysical process where only quadrupole and octupole contributions are included. The results are then compared with those coming from the post newtonian approximation.

  19. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  20. Attractors and first order formalism in five dimensions revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, S.; Ferrara, S.; Shcherbakov, A.; Yeranyan, A.

    2011-03-15

    The attractor mechanism in five dimensional Einstein-Maxwell Chern-Simons theory is studied. The expression of the five-dimensional rotating black object potential depending on Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino, electric and magnetic charges as well as on all the scalar and gauge fields, is investigated. The first order formalism in d=5 is constructed and analyzed. We derive a general expression defining the fake superpotential which is valid for all charge configurations. An explicit expression for the fake superpotential is constructed, for all very special geometries, in the case of vanishing Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino charge. We carry out an analogous construction in the very special geometries corresponding to t{sup 3} and stu models, for the most general charge configurations. The attractor flows and horizon values of all fields are given.