Science.gov

Sample records for residuales reglas formales

  1. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  2. Beyond formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  3. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  4. Geometry and Formal Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, George A.

    This paper presents a method of encoding geometric line-drawings in a way which allows sets of such drawings to be interpreted as formal languages. A characterization of certain geometric predicates in terms of their properties as languages is obtained, and techniques usually associated with generative grammars and formal automata are then applied…

  5. Integrated formal operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.; Dearholt, W.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Tyler, R.; Wrye, J.

    1994-01-05

    The concept of formal operations (that is, a collection of business practices to assure effective, accountable operations) has vexed the Laboratory for many years. To date most attempts at developing such programs have been based upon rigid, compliance-based interpretations of a veritable mountain of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, directives, notices, and standards. These DOE dictates seldom take the broad view but focus on highly specialized programs isolated from the overall context of formal operations. The result is a confusing array of specific, and often contradictory, requirements that produce a patchwork of overlapping niche programs. This unnecessary duplication wastes precious resources, dramatically increases the complexity of our work processes, and communicates a sense of confusion to our customers and regulators. Coupled with the artificial divisions that have historically existed among the Laboratory`s formal operations organizations (quality assurance, configuration management, records management, training, etc.), this approach has produced layers of increasingly vague and complex formal operations plans, each of which interprets its parent and adds additional requirements of its own. Organizational gridlock ensues whenever an activity attempts to implement these bureaucratic monstrosities. The integrated formal operations plan presented is to establish a set of requirements that must be met by an integrated formal operations program, assign responsibilities for implementation and operation of the program, and specify criteria against which the performance of the program will be measured. The accountable line manager specifies the items, processes, and information (the controlled elements) to which the formal operations program specified applies. The formal operations program is implemented using a graded approach based on the level of importance of the various controlled elements and the scope of the activities in which they are involved.

  6. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  7. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  8. Correlates of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

    This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

  9. Formal synthesis of (+)-discodermolide.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, Charles; Chen, Weichun; Kinder, Frederick R

    2003-04-17

    [structure: see text] Herein we report the formal total synthesis of (+)-discodermolide in 21 steps (longest linear sequence) from commercially available Roche ester. This synthesis features the assembly of C(9-18) and C(19-24) fragments via a metal-chelated aldol coupling reaction.

  10. Adolescence and Formal Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, A.; Hoeffel, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between the development of formal operations and the development of the adolescent personality, as hypothesized by Inhelder and Piaget. It is suggested that the concepts of possibility and reflectivity have a variety of meanings, and that once these meanings are examined, the logical foundation for the…

  11. Semisymmetric systems: Hermitian formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchdahl, H. A.

    1995-04-01

    The power series representing the characteristic function of a regular semisymmetric system involves four linearly independent rotational invariants XA (A=1,.. .,4) that jointly satisfy a quadratic identity. When the X A are appropriately chosen, this takes the form -(X1)2-(X2 )2-(X3)2+( X4)2=0 . The XA are thus the components of a null vector in a four-dimensional Euclidean space whose metric is gAB: =diag(-1,-1 ,-1,1) . Such a vector is equivalent to a simple 2-spinor xi alpha . The intrinsic presence of a spin vector in the formalism used hitherto suggests that it might be of advantage to replace the latter with an explicit 2-spinor formalism. A way of doing this is examined.

  12. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  13. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  14. Practical Issues with Formal Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenhofen, Michael; Brucker, Achim D.

    Many software companies still seem to be reluctant to use formal specifications in their development processes. Nevertheless, the trend towards implementing critical business applications in distributed environments makes such applications an attractive target for formal methods. Additionally, the rising complexity also increases the willingness of the development teams to apply formal techniques.

  15. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  16. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  17. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  18. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  19. NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.

  20. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.

  2. Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Systems Biology has taken advantage of computational tools and high-throughput experimental data to model several biological processes. These include signaling, gene regulatory, and metabolic networks. However, most of these models are specific to each kind of network. Their interconnection demands a whole-cell modeling framework for a complete understanding of cellular systems. We describe the features required by an integrated framework for modeling, analyzing and simulating biological processes, and review several modeling formalisms that have been used in Systems Biology including Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, Petri nets, process algebras, constraint-based models, differential equations, rule-based models, interacting state machines, cellular automata, and agent-based models. We compare the features provided by different formalisms, and discuss recent approaches in the integration of these formalisms, as well as possible directions for the future. PMID:22141422

  3. The Formal Semantics of PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1999-01-01

    A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

  4. Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel; Costa, Rafael S; Rocha, Miguel; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Tidor, Bruce; Rocha, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Systems Biology has taken advantage of computational tools and high-throughput experimental data to model several biological processes. These include signaling, gene regulatory, and metabolic networks. However, most of these models are specific to each kind of network. Their interconnection demands a whole-cell modeling framework for a complete understanding of cellular systems. We describe the features required by an integrated framework for modeling, analyzing and simulating biological processes, and review several modeling formalisms that have been used in Systems Biology including Boolean networks, Bayesian networks, Petri nets, process algebras, constraint-based models, differential equations, rule-based models, interacting state machines, cellular automata, and agent-based models. We compare the features provided by different formalisms, and discuss recent approaches in the integration of these formalisms, as well as possible directions for the future. PMID:22141422

  5. Formal verification of mathematical software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.

  6. The Traps of Formal Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Sandor

    The dangers of translation are discussed when the translator does not try to create textual equivalence, but settles for formal correspondence (i.e., with simple transcoding at a linguistic level) during the process of translating. Difficulties of explaining, commenting, or summarizing rather than translating are also discussed. Pedagogical and…

  7. Formal Analysis of Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Stephen F.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    The message passing paradigm underlies many important families of programs - for instance programs in the area of high performance computing that support science and engineering research. Unfortunately, very few formal methods researchers are involved in developing formal analysis tools and techniques for message passing programs. This paper summarizes research being done in our groups in support of this area, specifically with respect to the Message Passing Interface. We emphasize the need for specialized varieties of many familiar notions such as deadlock detection, race analysis, symmetry analysis, partial order reduction, static analysis and symbolic reasoning support. Since these issues are harbingers of those being faced in multicore programming, the time is ripe to build a critical mass of researchers working in this area.

  8. Formalizing narratives using nested circumscription

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, C.; Gabaldon, A.; Provetti, A.

    1996-12-31

    The representation of narratives of actions and observations is a current issue in Knowledge Representation, where traditional plan-oriented treatments of action seem to fall short. To address narratives, Pinto and Reiter have extended Situation Calculus axioms, Kowalski and Sergot have introduced the Event Calculus in Logic Programming, and Baral et al. have defined the specification language L which allows to express actual and hypothetical situations in a uniform setting. The L entailment relation can formalize several forms of reasoning about actions and change. In this paper we illustrate a translation of L theories into Nested Abnormality Theories, a novel form of circumscription. The proof of soundness and completeness of the translation is the main technical result of the paper, but attention is also devoted to the features of Nested Abnormality Theories to capture commonsense reasoning in general and to clarify which assumptions a logical formalization forces upon a domain. These results also help clarifying the relationship between L and other recent circumscriptive formalization for narratives, such as Miller and Shanahan`s.

  9. Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of Azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Mori, Naoki; Kitahara, Takeshi; Mori, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetric formal synthesis of azadirachtin, a potent insect antifeedant, was accomplished in 30 steps to Ley's synthetic intermediate (longest linear sequence). The synthesis features: 1) rapid access to the optically active right-hand segment starting from the known 5-hydroxymethyl-2-cyclopentenone scaffold; 2) construction of the B and E rings by a key intramolecular tandem radical cyclization; 3) formation of the hemiacetal moiety in the C ring through the α-oxidation of the six-membered lactone followed by methanolysis. PMID:26474211

  10. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  11. The formal de Rham complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharinov, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a formal construction generalizing the classic de Rham complex to a wide class of models in mathematical physics and analysis. The presentation is divided into a sequence of definitions and elementary, easily verified statements; proofs are therefore given only in the key case. Linear operations are everywhere performed over a fixed number field {F} = {R},{C}. All linear spaces, algebras, and modules, although not stipulated explicitly, are by definition or by construction endowed with natural locally convex topologies, and their morphisms are continuous.

  12. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  13. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  14. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  15. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  16. Formal apparatus of soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mathematical tools that may be applied for soil classification purposes are discussed. They include the evaluation of information contained in particular soil attributes, the grouping of soil objects into a given (automatically determined) number of classes, the optimization of the classification decisions, and the development of the models and rules (algorithms) used to classify soil objects. The algorithms of multivariate statistical methods and cluster analysis used for solving these problems are described. The major attention is paid to the development of the systems of informative attributes of soil objects and their classes and to the assessment of the quality of the classification decisions. Particular examples of the solution of the problems of soil classification with the use of formal mathematical methods are given. It is argued that the theoretical and practical problems of classification in science cannot find objective solutions without the application of the modern methods of information analysis. The major problems of the numerical taxonomy of the soil objects described in this paper and the appropriate software tools for their solution should serve as the basis for the creation of not only formal soil classification systems but also the theory of soil classification.

  17. Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination

  18. Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.

  19. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  20. Matrix Formalism of Synchrobetatron Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC

    2006-10-06

    In this paper we present a complete linear synchrobetatron coupling formalism by studying the transfer matrix which describes linear horizontal and longitudinal motions. With the technique established in the linear horizontal-vertical coupling study [D. Sagan and D. Rubin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 074001 (1999)], we found a transformation to block diagonalize the transfer matrix and decouple the betatron motion and the synchrotron motion. By separating the usual dispersion term from the horizontal coordinate first, we were able to obtain analytic expressions of the transformation under reasonable approximations. We also obtained the perturbations to the betatron tune and the Courant-Snyder functions. The closed orbit changes due to finite energy gains at rf cavities and radiation energy losses were also studied by the 5 x 5 extended transfer matrix with the fifth column describing kicks in the 4-dimension phase space.

  1. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  2. Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène

    2014-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.

  3. Formal and informal authority of hospital directors.

    PubMed

    Nirel, N; Schmid, H; Stern, Z

    1994-01-01

    Describes and contrasts the perceptions of formal and informal authority of hospital directors of two different kinds of organizations: hospitals that are part of public multi-hospital organizations (PMOs) and independent hospitals. Indicates that all the directors perceive their formal authority to be greater than their formal authority. However, there is a gap in the perception of formal and informal authority by directors of the two types of hospital. Directors of independent hospitals perceive themselves to have more formal and informal authority than do their colleagues at hospitals that are part of PMOs. Both structural and personal explanations for these findings are given. In addition, discusses the implications for policy making of the source of authority, informal, and formal authority in the transition to autonomous semi-independent hospitals in a changing environment.

  4. Anyons in the operational formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.

  5. Universal formalism of Fano resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Luo, Hong-Gang; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-15

    The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.

  6. Anyons in the operational formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip

    2015-01-13

    The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.

  7. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo

    2014-12-01

    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  8. Formalization of algorithms for relational database machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryvkin, V.M.; Komarov, P.I.; Nazarov, A.S.

    1986-11-01

    This paper applies the apparatus of algorithmic algebras to formalize the mapping of the relational algebra language into the internal database processor language. The apparatus is a popular tool for formal structured description of parallel algorithms. The MUL'TIPROTSESSIST automatic parallel program design system using systems of algorithmic algebras may be applied to automate the design of database machine operating algorithms in experimental research and to formalize the parallel organization of interpretation algorithms for the relational algebraic operations.

  9. Third NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This publication constitutes the proceedings of NASA Langley Research Center's third workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. This workshop brought together formal methods researchers, industry engineers, and academicians to discuss the potential of NASA-sponsored formal methods and to investigate new opportunities for applying these methods to industry problems. contained herein are copies of the material presented at the workshop, summaries of many of the presentations, a complete list of attendees, and a detailed summary of the Langley formal methods program. Much of this material is available electronically through the World-Wide Web via the following URL.

  10. Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1993-01-01

    The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.

  11. The Second NASA Formal Methods Workshop 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to bring together formal methods researchers and aerospace industry engineers to investigate new opportunities for applying formal methods to aerospace problems. The first part of the workshop was tutorial in nature. The second part of the workshop explored the potential of formal methods to address current aerospace design and verification problems. The third part of the workshop involved on-line demonstrations of state-of-the-art formal verification tools. Also, a detailed survey was filled in by the attendees; the results of the survey are compiled.

  12. Planning Non-Formal Education Curricula: The Case of Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Diana; Dror, Ilana

    This paper compares the formal and non-formal education systems currently operating in Israel, describing the special features of curriculum planning in non-formal education. The central argument is that the non-formal education system fulfills functions that constitute a critique of the formal education system. The non-formal system offers the…

  13. Formalisms for user interface specification and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.

  14. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  15. The Formalization of Theory and Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freese, Lee

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the formalization of theory and method in American sociology since World War II, particularly the growth of systematic-formal theories and quantitative methods for empirical research. Topics discussed include various methods of theorizing, trends in theoretical sociology, and increasing use of quantitative data for data design and…

  16. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  17. Formal Mentoring Programs and Organizational Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to test if formal mentoring programs enhance organizational attraction. Participants were 190 undergraduates looking for a job related to their major. Results indicated that participants were more attracted to an organization when it was depicted as having a formal mentoring program than when it was not so depicted. Drawing…

  18. Do Formal Supports Replace Informal Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.; And Others

    Health policy researchers have long been interested in the extent to which the provision of formal supports replaces or undermines the informal support system. This study examined the linkages between the formal and informal support system as they are mediated by a health care setting which readily provides patients with access to social services.…

  19. 37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that... distribution hearings. All parties intending to participate in a hearing of a Copyright Arbitration...

  20. Does (In)Formal Learning Enhance Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Meys, Ely

    2008-01-01

    Not much is known about the actual contribution of informal learning to employability over and above formal learning activities. This paper presents findings of a research project among university staff members and is aimed to determine the contribution of formal and informal learning activities in the light of future career potential. Findings…

  1. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  2. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  3. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  4. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  5. Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Faizal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation.

  6. 14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall be... does so under § 302.406(c). (b) Amendment. A formal complaint may be amended at any time before service of an answer to the complaint. After service of an answer but before institution of an...

  7. 14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall be... does so under § 302.406(c). (b) Amendment. A formal complaint may be amended at any time before service of an answer to the complaint. After service of an answer but before institution of an...

  8. 14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall be... does so under § 302.406(c). (b) Amendment. A formal complaint may be amended at any time before service of an answer to the complaint. After service of an answer but before institution of an...

  9. 14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall be... does so under § 302.406(c). (b) Amendment. A formal complaint may be amended at any time before service of an answer to the complaint. After service of an answer but before institution of an...

  10. 14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall be... does so under § 302.406(c). (b) Amendment. A formal complaint may be amended at any time before service of an answer to the complaint. After service of an answer but before institution of an...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  12. The Adolescent Personality, Formal Reasoning, and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from Rokeach Value Survey. Findings from 448 secondary school students revealed that subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on…

  13. Structuring the formal definition of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Kurt W.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the formal definition of Ada are described. At present, a difficult subset of Ada has been defined and the experience gained so far by this work is reported. Currently, the work continues towards the formal definition of the Ada language.

  14. Unified formalism for nonautonomous mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Diego, David Martín de; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2008-06-01

    We present a unified geometric framework for describing both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of regular and nonregular time-dependent mechanical systems, which is based on the approach of Skinner and Rusk ["Generalized Hamiltonian dynamics I. Formulation on T*Q⊗TQ," J. Math. Phys. 24, 2589 (1983)]. The dynamical equations of motion and their compatibility and consistency are carefully studied, making clear that all the characteristics of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms are recovered in this formulation. As an example, a semidiscretization of the nonlinear wave equation is studied, proving the applicability of the proposed formalism.

  15. Generalized effective operator formalism for decaying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv, Marius; Wölk, Sabine; Mannel, Thomas; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-10-01

    Systems of neutral kaons can be used to observe entanglement and the violation of Bell inequalities. The decay of these particles poses some problems, however, and recently an effective formalism for treating such systems has been derived. We generalize this formalism and make it applicable to other quantum systems that can be made to behave in a similar manner. As examples, we discuss two possible implementations of the generalized formalism using trapped ions such as 171Yb or 172Yb, which may be used to simulate kaonic behavior in a quantum optical system.

  16. A non-commuting stabilizer formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.

  17. Why Engineers Should Consider Formal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a logical analysis of a typical argument favoring the use of formal methods for software development, and suggests an alternative argument that is simpler and stronger than the typical one.

  18. Differences between Formal and Informal Communicative Channels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares formal and informal organizational communication structures within a large, technically oriented midwestern state governmental agency, specifically focusing on salience, channel factors, and channel usage. Suggests that informal channels in this organization were more highly evaluated in general. (SR)

  19. Importance of Reversibility in the Quantum Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, François

    2011-10-01

    In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C⋆ algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler’s theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.

  20. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  1. The adolescent personality, formal reasoning, and values.

    PubMed

    Darmody, J P

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from the Rokeach Value Survey. The subjects were 448 secondary school students (mean age = 16.25 years). The results of the study were consistent with predictions about the likely changes in value rankings as formal reasoning ability develops. Subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on immediate gratification. They also favored the instrumental values of self-reliance, competence, and independence. Low scorers on formal reasoning showed a preference for value groupings which were personal, hedonistic, and involved immediate gratification and social approval. PMID:1962555

  2. Formal Instruction in Dental Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozar, David T.

    1985-01-01

    Three common arguments against formal classes in professional ethics are examined. A minimum curriculum in dental professional ethics is proposed and a proposed program in professional ethics in dentistry is appended. (MLW)

  3. Open systems & non-formal education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.

    1988-10-01

    Professor Dib created an important structure that can be used to attach the many and various activities that fall in the category of this title. While I plan to use his structure, I will be emphasizing a different component of his spectrum and promoting a different need. Professor Dib suggested a critical need to move our teaching styles away from formal modes to non-formal modes of delivery. I suggest an equally critical need in the area of informal education. And, I will propose aways to move us toward the same goal, non-formal activities. I believe we need to find ways to use the many informal education activities that occur almost automatically in our societies to move our potential learners to richer non-formal endeavors. Both needs are real; both activities are valid.

  4. Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, the formal modeling provided a cost effective enhancement of the existing verification and validation processes. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  5. General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2015-11-01

    A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed.

  6. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  7. Elements of (Super-)Hamiltonian Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nersessian, A.

    In these lectures we discuss some basic aspects of Hamiltonian formalism, which usually do not appear in standard textbooks on classical mechanics for physicists. We pay special attention to the procedure of Hamiltonian reduction illustrating it by the examples related to Hopf maps. Then we briefly discuss the supergeneralization(s) of the Hamiltonian formalism and present some simple models of supersymmetric mechanics on Kähler manifolds.

  8. Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.

  9. Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages. PMID:27406253

  10. Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages.

  11. Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

    2013-11-01

    We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model.

  12. Formal methods for Hopfield-like networks.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Hedi; Corblin, Fabien; Fanchon, Eric; Elena, Adrien; Trilling, Laurent; Demongeot, Jacques; Glade, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Building a meaningful model of biological regulatory network is usually done by specifying the components (e.g. the genes) and their interactions, by guessing the values of parameters, by comparing the predicted behaviors to the observed ones, and by modifying in a trial-error process both architecture and parameters in order to reach an optimal fitness. We propose here a different approach to construct and analyze biological models avoiding the trial-error part, where structure and dynamics are represented as formal constraints. We apply the method to Hopfield-like networks, a formalism often used in both neural and regulatory networks modeling. The aim is to characterize automatically the set of all models consistent with all the available knowledge (about structure and behavior). The available knowledge is formalized into formal constraints. The latter are compiled into Boolean formula in conjunctive normal form and then submitted to a Boolean satisfiability solver. This approach allows to formulate a wide range of queries, expressed in a high level language, and possibly integrating formalized intuitions. In order to explore its potential, we use it to find cycles for 3-nodes networks and to determine the flower morphogenesis regulatory network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Applications of this technique are numerous and concern the building of models from data as well as the design of biological networks possessing specified behaviors. PMID:23381497

  13. Formal Methods Case Studies for DO-333

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal methods in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal methods are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case studies describing the use of different classes of formal methods to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case studies illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal methods can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.

  14. The Nation's Needs in Aviation Formal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation, both on-board systems and the National Airspace System, can be transformed by many current and future technical capabilities. To name but a few, improved efficiency may be achieved by integrating functions; robustness may be improved by distributing functions; and safety may be improved by building in risk mitigation through not only redundant, independent systems but also through operational concepts and effective interaction with human operators. This talk will review the key aspects of verification, validation and certification for which formal methods will provide a critical function in enabling truly revolutionary designs to enter the operational community, illustrating successes in formal modeling to date and posing further questions for the formal modeling community.

  15. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  16. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  17. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  18. The Interrelatedness of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Evidence from Labour Market Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…

  19. Formal and Non-Formal Digital Practices: Institutionalizing Transactional Learning Spaces in a Media Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…

  20. The Comparative Functionality of Formal and Non-Formal Education for Women: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Vivian Lowery

    This final report describes a five-phase study to ascertain whether formal or non-formal education has the greater functionality to accelerate women's integration into development activities. Part 1 (two chapters), introduction and background, defines the problem, sets parameters of the study, and provides definitions of education terms. Part 2…

  1. Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.

    2015-03-01

    In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.

  2. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  3. Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.

    2015-03-26

    In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.

  4. Formal Synthesis of (±)-Roseophilin

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

    2009-01-01

    A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via π-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21. PMID:19053717

  5. The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…

  6. Weak rigidity in the PPN formalism

    SciTech Connect

    del Olmo, V.; Olivert, J.

    1987-04-01

    The influence of the concept of weakly rigid almost-thermodynamic material schemes on the classical deformations is analyzed. The methods of the PPN approximation are considered. In this formalism, the equations that characterize the weak rigidity are expressed. As a consequence of that, an increase of two orders of magnitude in the strain rate tensor is obtained.

  7. Formalization and Analysis of Reasoning by Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Tibor; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Treur, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a novel approach for the analysis of the dynamics of reasoning processes and explores its applicability for the reasoning pattern called reasoning by assumption. More specifically, for a case study in the domain of a Master Mind game, it is shown how empirical human reasoning traces can be formalized and automatically…

  8. Helping Students Understand Formal Chemical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Charles R.; Herron, J. Dudley

    1980-01-01

    Investigated outcomes of the use of the learning cycle, which divides instruction into the Piagetian phases of exploration, invention, and discovery in general college chemistry laboratory experiments. Differences between concrete and formal operational students were explored in students' ability to master chemistry material varying in cognitive…

  9. Formal and Applied Counseling in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit

    2012-01-01

    Living in Israel is intensive and demanding but also meaningful and exciting. This article addresses the gap between the narrowly defined formal status of counseling in Israel and the widespread occurrence of counseling in various settings. It is argued that several recent changes, especially in the definition of treatment, along with the…

  10. A Simplified Approach to Product Operator Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiese, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of the simple and traditional vector model-based product operator formalism is highlighted. It is seen as a critical device in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry for a comprehensive analysis of spin coupling and quantum coherences.

  11. Quantum formalism to describe binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of the general character and operation of the process of perception, a formalism is sought to mathematically describe the subjective or abstract/mental process of perception. It is shown that the formalism of orthodox quantum theory of measurement, where the observer plays a key role, is a broader mathematical foundation which can be adopted to describe the dynamics of the subjective experience. The mathematical formalism describes the psychophysical dynamics of the subjective or cognitive experience as communicated to us by the subject. Subsequently, the formalism is used to describe simple perception processes and, in particular, to describe the probability distribution of dominance duration obtained from the testimony of subjects experiencing binocular rivalry. Using this theory and parameters based on known values of neuronal oscillation frequencies and firing rates, the calculated probability distribution of dominance duration of rival states in binocular rivalry under various conditions is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. This theory naturally explains an observed marked increase in dominance duration in binocular rivalry upon periodic interruption of stimulus and yields testable predictions for the distribution of perceptual alteration in time. PMID:19520143

  12. Conservation-dissipation formalism of irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu; Yang, Zaibao; Yong, Wen-An

    2015-06-01

    We propose a conservation-dissipation formalism (CDF) for coarse-grained descriptions of irreversible processes. This formalism is based on a stability criterion for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion ensures that non-equilibrium states tend to equilibrium in long time. As a systematic methodology, CDF provides a feasible procedure in choosing non-equilibrium state variables and determining their evolution equations. The equations derived in CDF have a unified elegant form. They are globally hyperbolic, allow a convenient definition of weak solutions, and are amenable to existing numerics. More importantly, CDF is a genuinely nonlinear formalism and works for systems far away from equilibrium. With this formalism, we formulate novel thermodynamics theories for heat conduction in rigid bodies and non-isothermal compressible Maxwell fluid flows as two typical examples. In these examples, the non-equilibrium variables are exactly the conjugate variables of the heat fluxes or stress tensors. The new theory generalizes Cattaneo's law or Maxwell's law in a regularized and nonlinear fashion.

  13. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... position of the intervenor with regard to the proposed changes in postal rates, fees, classifications, or... responses to discovery requests filed by that intervenor. (e) Effect of intervention. A person filing...

  14. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... proposed changes in postal rates, fees, classifications, or services, or the subject matter of the... intervention shall delay on a day-for-day basis, the date for responses to discovery requests filed by...

  15. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... position of the intervenor with regard to the proposed changes in postal rates, fees, classifications, or... responses to discovery requests filed by that intervenor. (e) Effect of intervention. A person filing...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... position of the intervenor with regard to the proposed changes in postal rates, fees, classifications, or... responses to discovery requests filed by that intervenor. (e) Effect of intervention. A person filing...

  17. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  18. Male caregivers' use of formal support.

    PubMed

    Coe, M; Neufeld, A

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore male caregivers' perceptions of formal support. The men were caregivers of adults with cognitive impairment. The study involved secondary analysis of interview data on perceptions of support that had not been previously analyzed from the perspective of formal support. Techniques of data analysis used in grounded theory were applied to 62 guided interactive interviews conducted with 24 male caregivers during a period of 18 months. The men experienced a process of making concessions for care in the following four sequential stages: resisting, giving in, opening the door, and making the match. Personal barriers deterred the caregivers from seeking help, and once the caregivers engaged formal help the influence of characteristics of the health care system and individual staff members had both enabling and disabling effects. For caregivers whose use of formal support involved admitting their relative to a long-term care facility, the phase of making the match was followed by redesigning their caregiver role. PMID:11512171

  19. Formal Schema Theory and Teaching EFL Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Man, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Inquirers designed and conducted a study investigating whether or not results derived from previous research focusing on teaching and learning English as a native or foreign language would be replicated in a learning environment in which English is taught as a foreign language as in China. Because activation of formal schemata plays an important…

  20. Formal Thought at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald

    1977-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the Piagetian stages of intellectual development of a group of Saskatchewan high school students. Results confirmed that the percentage of students at the final substage of formal thought was less than 50 percent, indicating serious problems. (JC)

  1. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  2. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  3. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  4. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  5. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  6. 28 CFR 68.39 - Formal hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal hearings. 68.39 Section 68.39 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT...

  7. Convergent formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuanjun; Liu, Hui; Hong, Meiling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jia, Feifei; Sun, Li; Pan, Zhenliang; Chang, Junbiao

    2012-01-01

    A facile convergent synthesis of the tricyclic core 2 of roseophilin is described, which represents the shortest route so far for the formal synthesis of roseophilin. The key step was a tandem pyrrole acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction to form the cyclopenta[b]pyrrole moiety 4. PMID:22098172

  8. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  9. Teaching Some Informatics Concepts Using Formal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sojung; Park, Seongbin

    2014-01-01

    There are many important issues in informatics and many agree that algorithms and programming are most important issues that need to be included in informatics education (Dagiene and Jevsikova, 2012). In this paper, we propose how some of these issues can be easily taught using the notion of a formal system which consists of axioms and inference…

  10. Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.

  11. Identifying Concrete and Formal Operational Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Edward M.

    This paper presents a study designed to determine if groups of concrete and formal operational children can be identified through the technique of cluster analysis, using a battery of Piagetian tasks. A Total of 64 subjects, 8 boys and 8 girls from each of the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth grade levels, were selected from a public elementary…

  12. An Elementary Formalism for General Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    1981-01-01

    An elementary formalism is developed for representing curved space-time which allows transparent qualitative explanation of general relativistic effects and is used to make a conceptual analysis of Einstein's principle of equivalence. A final section outlines a number of student activities. (Author/SK)

  13. Safety in Children's Formal Play Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Paul F.; Lockhart, Robert

    This study was designed to examine the issue of the safety of children's formal play environments. Safety was defined in terms of morbidity and mortality data. Protection and safety education were considered the prime factors in accident prevention while the goal of a safety program was considered to be the minimizing of injuries. Several data…

  14. HIV Education in the Formal Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsubuga, Yusuf K.; Bonnet, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic presents a complex of issues that require global answers, involving entire societies. The only sustainable solution is to include all sectors of society in a multidisciplinary collaboration, within which the formal education system plays a key role in delivering a comprehensive response to the disease at the national level.…

  15. Formalism and the notion of truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  16. 20 CFR 702.333 - Formal hearings; parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; parties. 702.333 Section 702... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.333 Formal hearings; parties. (a) The necessary parties for a formal hearing... pursuant to these regulations on behalf of the Director as an interested party....

  17. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  18. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  19. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  20. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings...

  1. 20 CFR 702.347 - Formal hearings; termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; termination. 702.347 Section 702.347 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.347 Formal hearings; termination. (a) Formal hearings are...

  2. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the formal hearing, the evidence presented warrants consideration of an issue or issues not previously...

  3. Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.

  4. Formal methods demonstration project for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining

  5. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be

  6. Non-Formal Education: The Definitional Problem. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education Discussion Papers Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleis, Russell J.; And Others

    The three essays in this discussion paper present ways of structuring the concept of non-formal education. "Toward a Contextual Definition of Non-Formal Education" isolates three primary sub-systems: organizational, human, and curricular. Within these subsets non-formal education is differentiated from formal education by a more loosely integrated…

  7. Formal verification of human-automation interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a formal and rigorous approach to the analysis of operator interaction with machines. It addresses the acute problem of detecting design errors in human-machine interaction and focuses on verifying the correctness of the interaction in complex and automated control systems. The paper describes a systematic methodology for evaluating whether the interface provides the necessary information about the machine to enable the operator to perform a specified task successfully and unambiguously. It also addresses the adequacy of information provided to the user via training material (e.g., user manual) about the machine's behavior. The essentials of the methodology, which can be automated and applied to the verification of large systems, are illustrated by several examples and through a case study of pilot interaction with an autopilot aboard a modern commercial aircraft. The expected application of this methodology is an augmentation and enhancement, by formal verification, of human-automation interfaces.

  8. Hamiltonian formalism of minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavian Yekta, Davood

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the three-dimensional minimal massive gravity (MMG) in the Hamiltonian formalism. At first, we define the canonical gauge generators as building blocks in this formalism and then derive the canonical expressions for the asymptotic conserved charges. The construction of a consistent asymptotic structure of MMG requires introducing suitable boundary conditions. In the second step, we show that the Poisson bracket algebra of the improved canonical gauge generators produces an asymptotic gauge group, which includes two separable versions of the Virasoro algebras. For instance, we study the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole as a solution of the MMG field equations, and the conserved charges give the energy and angular momentum of the BTZ black hole. Finally, we compute the black hole entropy from the Cardy formula in the dual conformal field theory and show our result is consistent with the value obtained by using the Smarr formula from the holographic principle.

  9. A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Glória

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.

  10. Formal Problem Domain Modeling within MDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osis, Janis; Asnina, Erika; Grave, Andrejs

    The proposed approach called Topological Functioning Modeling for Model Driven Architecture (TFM4MDA) uses formal mathematical foundations of Topological Functioning Model (TFM). It introduces the main feature of MDA - Separation of Concerns by formal analysis of a business system, enables mapping to functional requirements and verifying whether those requirements are in conformity with the TFM of the problem domain. By using a goal-based method, a holistic behavior of the planned application can be decomposed in accordance with the goals. Graph transformation from the TFM to a conceptual model (or a domain object model) enables establishing the definition of domain concepts and their relations. The paper also suggests a concept of a tool for TFM4MDA, which is realized as an Eclipse plug-in.

  11. Hartle formalism for rotating Newtonian configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Quevedo, Hernando; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Zhami, Bakytzhan

    2016-11-01

    We apply the Hartle formalism to study equilibrium configurations in the framework of Newtonian gravity. This approach allows one to study in a simple manner the properties of the interior gravitational field in the case of static as well as stationary rotating stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. It is shown that the gravitational equilibrium conditions reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations which can be integrated numerically. We derive all the relevant equations up to the second order in the angular velocity. Moreover, we find explicitly the total mass, the moment of inertia, the quadrupole moment, the polar and equatorial radii, the eccentricity and the gravitational binding energy of the rotating body. We also present the procedure to calculate the gravitational Love number. We test the formalism in the case of white dwarfs and show its compatibility with the known results in the literature.

  12. Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J

    2010-09-01

    Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others.

  13. A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work

  14. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  15. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  16. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  17. Formal Definition and Construction of Nominative Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dennis Y. W.; Wong, Duncan S.; Huang, Xinyi; Wang, Guilin; Huang, Qiong; Mu, Yi; Susilo, Willy

    Since the introduction of nominative signature in 1996, there are three problems that have still not been solved. First, there is no convincing application proposed; second, there is no formal security model available; and third, there is no proven secure scheme constructed, given that all the previous schemes have already been found flawed. In this paper, we give positive answers to these problems. First, we illustrate that nominative signature is a better tool for building user certification systems which were originally implemented using universal designated-verifier signature. Second, we propose a formal definition and adversarial model for nominative signature. Third, we show that Chaum's undeniable signature can be transformed to an efficient nominative signature by simply using a standard signature. The security of our transformation can be proven under the standard number-theoretic assumption.

  18. Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.

  19. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.

  20. Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daumas, Marc; Lester, David; Martin-Dorel, Erik; Truffert, Annick

    2009-01-01

    We provide a framework to bound the probability that accumulated errors were never above a given threshold on numerical algorithms. Such algorithms are used for example in aircraft and nuclear power plants. This report contains simple formulas based on Levy's and Markov's inequalities and it presents a formal theory of random variables with a special focus on producing concrete results. We selected four very common applications that fit in our framework and cover the common practices of systems that evolve for a long time. We compute the number of bits that remain continuously significant in the first two applications with a probability of failure around one out of a billion, where worst case analysis considers that no significant bit remains. We are using PVS as such formal tools force explicit statement of all hypotheses and prevent incorrect uses of theorems.

  1. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  2. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  3. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  4. Formalized Epistemology in a Philosophical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreau, Hervé

    The need for a formalized epistemology is recognized by all scholars who think that the relativity of all sciences must not be referred to a social relativism. In XXth century, Husserl was the protagonist of such an epistemic philosophy. But this philosophy was more successful in social and human sciences than in natural sciences. In this latter domain, quantum mechanics obeys the requirements of a Kantien perspective in a more precise sense that was the case with Newtonian mechanics.

  5. Toward a Formal Evaluation of Refactorings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, John; Kuzmina, Nadya; Gamboa, Ruben; Caldwell, James

    2008-01-01

    Refactoring is a software development strategy that characteristically alters the syntactic structure of a program without changing its external behavior [2]. In this talk we present a methodology for extracting formal models from programs in order to evaluate how incremental refactorings affect the verifiability of their structural specifications. We envision that this same technique may be applicable to other types of properties such as those that concern the design and maintenance of safety-critical systems.

  6. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    PubMed

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail.

  7. Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical formalism has been developed for predicting the postinstability motions of a dynamic system governed by a system of nonlinear equations and subject to initial conditions. Previously, there was no general method for prediction and mathematical modeling of postinstability behaviors (e.g., chaos and turbulence) in such a system. The formalism of nonlinear dynamics does not afford means to discriminate between stable and unstable motions: an additional stability analysis is necessary for such discrimination. However, an additional stability analysis does not suggest any modifications of a mathematical model that would enable the model to describe postinstability motions efficiently. The most important type of instability that necessitates a postinstability description is associated with positive Lyapunov exponents. Such an instability leads to exponential growth of small errors in initial conditions or, equivalently, exponential divergence of neighboring trajectories. The development of the present formalism was undertaken in an effort to remove positive Lyapunov exponents. The means chosen to accomplish this is coupling of the governing dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the flow of error probability. The underlying idea is to suppress the divergences of different trajectories that correspond to different initial conditions, without affecting a target trajectory, which is one that starts with prescribed initial conditions.

  8. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory

    PubMed Central

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's ‘formal Darwinism project’. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  9. Formal specification is an experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorner, D.

    1992-09-01

    Traditionally, abstract models of large, complex systems have been given in free-form mathematics, combining - often in ad-hoc, not formally supported ways - notions from the disciplines of partial differential equations, functional analysis, mathematical statistics, etc. Such models have been very useful for assimilation of information, analysis (investigation), and prediction (simulation). These models have, however, usually not been helpful in deriving computer representations of the modelled systems - for the purposes of computerized monitoring and control, Computing science, concerned with how to construct objects that can exist within the computer, offers ways of complementing, and in some cases, replacing or combining traditional mathematical models. Formal, model-, as well as property-oriented, specifications in the styles of denotational (respectively, algebraic semantics) represent major approaches to such modelling. In this expository, discursive paper we illustrate what we mean by model-oriented specifications of large, complex technological computing systems. The three modelling examples covers the introvert programming methodological subject of SDEs: software development environments, the distributed computing system subject of wfs`s: (transaction) work flow systems, and the extrovert subject of robots: robotics! the thesis is, just as for mathematical modelling, that we can derive much understanding, etc., from experimentally creating such formally specified models - on paper - and that we gain little in additionally building ad-hoc prototypes. Our models are expressed in a model-oriented style using the VDM specification language Meta-IV In this paper the models only reflect the {open_quotes}data modelling{close_quotes} aspects. We observe that such data models are more easily captured in the model-oriented siyle than in the algebraic semantics property-oriented style which originally was built of the abstraction of operations. 101 refs., 4 figs.

  10. A Formal Mentorship Program for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jennifer; Nazer, Lama; Hess, Karl; Wang, Jeffrey; Law, Anandi V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a formal mentorship program at a college of pharmacy. Methods. After extensive review of the mentorship literature within the health sciences, a formal mentorship program was developed between 2006 and 2008 to support and facilitate faculty development. The voluntary program was implemented after mentors received training, and mentors and protégés were matched and received an orientation. Evaluation consisted of conducting annual surveys and focus groups with mentors and protégés. Results. Fifty-one mentor-protégé pairs were formed from 2009 to 2012. A large majority of the mentors (82.8%-96.9%) were satisfied with the mentorship program and its procedures. The majority of the protégés (≥70%) were satisfied with the mentorship program, mentor-protégé relationship, and program logistics. Both mentors and protégés reported that the protégés most needed guidance on time management, prioritization, and work-life balance. While there were no significant improvements in the proteges’ number of grant submissions, retention rates, or success in promotion/tenure, the total number of peer-reviewed publications by junior faculty members was significantly higher after program implementation (mean of 7 per year vs 21 per year, p=0.03) in the college’s pharmacy practice and administration department. Conclusions. A formal mentorship program was successful as measured by self-reported assessments of mentors and protégés. PMID:24954940

  11. Formal Assurance Arguments: A Solution In Search of a Problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graydon, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    An assurance case comprises evidence and argument showing how that evidence supports assurance claims (e.g., about safety or security). It is unsurprising that some computer scientists have proposed formalizing assurance arguments: most associate formality with rigor. But while engineers can sometimes prove that source code refines a formal specification, it is not clear that formalization will improve assurance arguments or that this benefit is worth its cost. For example, formalization might reduce the benefits of argumentation by limiting the audience to people who can read formal logic. In this paper, we present (1) a systematic survey of the literature surrounding formal assurance arguments, (2) an analysis of errors that formalism can help to eliminate, (3) a discussion of existing evidence, and (4) suggestions for experimental work to definitively answer the question.

  12. Formal Aspects of Human-Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Moodi, Michael; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    While new versions of automated control systems such as flight guidance systems are introduced at a rapid pace, it is widely recognized that user interaction with these machines is increasingly problematic. One cause for this difficulty that is commonly cited in the literature, is the discrepancy between the machine's behavior and the operator's (e.g., pilot) expectations. This paper discusses a formal approach to the analysis of operator's interaction with complex automated control systems. We focus attention on the issue of interface correctness; that is, on the question whether the display provides adequate information about the machine's configurations (states, modes, and associated parameters) and transitions, so as to enable the operator to successfully perform the specified set of tasks. To perform the analysis several assumptions are made: (1) A complete formal model of the machine's behavior is available (e.g., as a state transition system, or as a hybrid-machine); (2) A specification of operator's tasks is available and can be formally described (e.g., the reliable and predictable transition between activities involved in executing a climb to a new altitude); (3) The pilot is well trained and has a correct 'mental' model of the machine's response-map. By 'comparing' the machine's model with the set of operator's tasks we formally (i.e., mathematically) evaluate two questions: 1) does the machine's output interface (display) enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the current configuration (e.g., mode) of the machine is, and 2) does the display enable the operator to determine, unambiguously, what the next configuration of the machine will be, in response to a specified interaction by the operator (e.g., engaging a mode or changing a parameter such as a speed or target altitude). This paper describes a methodology for conducting such an evaluation using examples from automated flight control systems of modem 'glass cockpit' jetliners

  13. Progress with Formalization in Medical Informatics?

    PubMed Central

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The prevailing view of medical informatics as a primarily subservient discipline in health care is challenged. Developments in both general informatics and medical informatics are described to identify desirable properties of modeling languages and tools needed to solve key problems in the application field. For progress in medical informatics, it is considered essential to develop far more formal modeling languages, modeling techniques, and tools. A major aim of this development should be to expel ambiguity from concepts essential to medicine, positioning medical informatics “at the heart of health care.” PMID:11230381

  14. The conformal window from the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoni, Adi

    2010-02-01

    We use the worldline formalism to derive a universal relation for the lower boundary of the conformal window in non-supersymmetric QCD-like theories. The derivation relies on the convergence of the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of Wilson loops. The expansion shares a similarity with the lattice strong coupling expansion and the genus expansion in string theory. Our result relates the lower boundary of the conformal window in theories with different representations and different gauge groups. Finally, we use SQCD to estimate the boundary of the conformal window in QCD-like theories and compare it with other approaches.

  15. Formal analysis of ORM using OWL DL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-lin; Liu, Da-xin

    2012-01-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling), current version is 2.0, is a fully communication oriented information modeling method. Currently, ORM has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontologies. To ensure the semantics of ORM model is consistent, it needs using reasoning engines to check semantic conflicts and redundancy. Furthermore, only publish ORM domain ontologies on the Semantic Web described by OWL can it is shared by different applications. Therefore, it needs to map ORM models into OWL DL. Several methods to transform ORM models have been considered and a series of general OWL DL formalization rules have been proposed.

  16. Formal analysis of ORM using OWL DL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Lin; Liu, Da-Xin

    2011-12-01

    ORM (Object Role Modeling), current version is 2.0, is a fully communication oriented information modeling method. Currently, ORM has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontologies. To ensure the semantics of ORM model is consistent, it needs using reasoning engines to check semantic conflicts and redundancy. Furthermore, only publish ORM domain ontologies on the Semantic Web described by OWL can it is shared by different applications. Therefore, it needs to map ORM models into OWL DL. Several methods to transform ORM models have been considered and a series of general OWL DL formalization rules have been proposed.

  17. BRST and the pure spinor formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J. Antonio

    2008-03-06

    The aim of this talk is to show the relation between the standard BRST approach of the GS superstring with the quantization technics used in the pure spinor approach to superstring. To that end we will use the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) conversion program of second class constraints to first class constraints in the GS superstring using light cone coordinates. By applying this systematic procedure we were able to obtain a gauge system that is equivalent to the recent model proposed in [1] to relate the GS superstring to the pure spinor formalism.

  18. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  19. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2014-10-01

    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  20. Formal scattering theory by an algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Levine, R. D.

    1985-02-01

    Formal scattering theory is recast in a Lie-algebraic form. The central result is an algebraic Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the wave operator from which an algebraic form of the Born series (containing only linked terms) is obtained. When a finite Lie algebra is sufficient, The Mo/ller wave operator, on the energy shell, can be solved for explicitly as an element of the corresponding group. The method is illustrated for the separable potential whose relevant algebra is found to be U(1,1).

  1. Formal Verification of Large Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, Xiang; Knight, John

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a scalable proof structure to facilitate formal verification of large software systems. In our approach, we mechanically synthesize an abstract specification from the software implementation, match its static operational structure to that of the original specification, and organize the proof as the conjunction of a series of lemmas about the specification structure. By setting up a different lemma for each distinct element and proving each lemma independently, we obtain the important benefit that the proof scales easily for large systems. We present details of the approach and an illustration of its application on a challenge problem from the security domain

  2. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the... considered, the hearing may be expanded to include the new issue. If in the opinion of the administrative...

  3. Formal-Operational Thinking and the Role of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mollie L.

    Studies exploring the transition from early to middle adolescence have found a significant increase in formal-operational thinking, but it is questionable whether the typical adolescent is capable of consistently applying formal operational logic. To examine the relationship between Piagetian-based training techniques and formal-operational…

  4. "Passing It On": Beyond Formal or Informal Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Informal pedagogies are a subject of debate in music education, and there is some evidence of teachers abandoning formal pedagogies in favour of informal ones. This article presents a case of one teacher's formal pedagogy and theorises it by comparing it with a case of informal pedagogy. The comparison reveals affordances of formal pedagogies…

  5. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who…

  6. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal competitive bidding. 1726.201 Section 1726.201... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.201 Formal competitive bidding. Formal competitive bidding is used for distribution, transmission, and...

  7. Is Lawson's Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, C.; Hacker, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A unidimensional latent trait model was used to test a single-factor hypothesis of the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning. The test failed to provide a valid measure of formal reasoning. This was a result of test format which neglected aspects of formal reasoning emphasized by Inhelder and Piaget. (Author/DWH)

  8. 25 CFR 151.14 - Formalization of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formalization of acceptance. 151.14 Section 151.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.14 Formalization of acceptance. Formal acceptance of land in trust status shall be accomplished by the issuance...

  9. 49 CFR 1111.1 - Content of formal complaints; joinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of formal complaints; joinder. 1111.1... § 1111.1 Content of formal complaints; joinder. (a) General. A formal complaint must contain the correct... language the facts upon which it is based. It should include specific reference to pertinent...

  10. Generalized Boltzmann formalism for oscillating neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Strack, P.; Burrows, A.

    2005-05-01

    In the standard approaches to neutrino transport in the simulation of core-collapse supernovas, one will often start from the classical Boltzmann equation for the neutrino's spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution. For each neutrino species, and its antiparticle, the classical density in phase space, or the associated specific intensity, will be calculated as a function of time. The neutrino radiation is coupled to matter by source and sink terms on the 'right-hand side' of the transport equation and together with the equations of hydrodynamics this set of coupled partial differential equations for classical densities describes, in principle, the evolution of core collapse and explosion. However, with the possibility of neutrino oscillations between species, a purely quantum-physical effect, how to generalize this set of Boltzmann equations for classical quantities to reflect oscillation physics has not been clear. To date, the formalisms developed have retained the character of quantum operator physics involving complex quantities and have not been suitable for easy incorporation into standard supernova codes. In this paper, we derive generalized Boltzmann equations for quasiclassical, real-valued phase-space densities that retain all the standard oscillation phenomenology, including the matter-enhanced resonant flavor conversion (Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between decohering matter coupling and flavor oscillations. With this formalism, any code(s) that can now handle the solution of the classical Boltzmann or transport equation can easily be generalized to include neutrino oscillations in a quantum-physically consistent fashion.

  11. Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukic, Bojan

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.

  12. Indigenous Knowledge and Education from the Quechua Community to School: Beyond the Formal/Non-Formal Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth; Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose to approach Indigenous education beyond the formal/non-formal dichotomy. We argue that there is a critical need to conscientiously include Indigenous knowledge in education processes from the school to the community; particularly, when formal systems exclude Indigenous cultures and languages. Based on ethnographic…

  13. Guidance for Using Formal Methods in a Certification Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Duncan; Delseny, Herve; Hayhurst, Kelly; Wiels, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describes the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to propose guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach. This guidance, expected to take the form of a Formal Methods Technical Supplement to DO-178C/ED-12C, is described, including the activities that are needed when using formal methods, new or modified objectives with respect to the core DO-178C/ED-12C document, and evidence needed for meeting those objectives.

  14. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education. Working Paper No. 2005-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I explore two beliefs about learning and teaching that I argue are prevalent among educators. The first is the belief that subject matter expertise is sufficient for success in teaching. The second belief is that to learn a specific content area, one needs to begin with an understanding of the formal structure and abstract…

  15. Multilevel structured program design: formalization and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, V.M.; Tseitlin, G.E.; Yushchenko, E.L.

    1981-07-01

    The authors present the conception of structured design grammars (SDG), which provide the basis for the MSPD method. A classification of program development methods according to top-down, bottom-up, and mixed strategy is proposed. The SDG formalism makes it possible to consider the problem of multilevel partial program verification, program transformation, and documentation generation during program development and subsequent maintenance. The MSPD method is demonstrated in application to a number of program design projects. They develop the arsenal of structured programming using MSPD method. Language and software tools constituting the basis of structured programming are considered. The problem of multilevel optimizing translation is treated in the context of the mul'tiprotsessist system oriented to automatic structured parallel programming by the MSPD method. Applications of the MSPD method to symbolic processing are considered. The process of structured design of the partran system and of software modules for mini- and microcomputers is described. 70 references.

  16. Formalization of Embodied Sensorimotor Coupling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kohei

    2008-10-01

    Theoretical conception of an active behavior of the system is one of the most challengeable topics in complex systems research. Recently, especially in the fields of robotics and artificial intelligence, there broadly exists the study to understand the interface between the system and its environment by creating an autonomous agent that carries a sensorimotor coupling. In this paper, an embodied sensorimotor coupling system is discussed. Applying a generative pointer, the system is formalized to contain an intrinsic discrepancy induced by heterarichical duality in a flow construction by using category theory. In the system, the body plays a positive role as a dynamical mediator, or interface, between two conflicting layers, a relational layers and a constituent layers. As a result, it induces a structural change of the system itself. Implementing the construction to a Braitenberg type vehicle, we observed dynamical changes of system parameters and its behavior revealed various motion patterns compared with the conventional sensorimotor coupling system.

  17. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  18. A formal language for computational systems biology.

    PubMed

    Errampalli, Daniel D; Priami, Corrado; Quaglia, Paola

    2004-01-01

    The post-genomic era has opened new insights into the complex biochemical reaction systems present in the cell and has generated huge amount of information. The biological systems are highly complex and can overwhelm the numerically computable models. Therefore, models employing symbolical techniques might provide a faster insight. This paper presents some preliminary results and recent trends in the above direction. Specifically, it presents an overview of the main features of some formalisms and techniques from the field of specification languages for concurrency and mobility, which have been proposed to model and simulate the dynamics of the interaction of complex biological systems. The ultimate goal of these symbolic approaches is the modeling, analysis, simulation, and hopefully prediction of the behavior of biological systems (vs. biological components).

  19. A very general electromagnetic gyrokinetic formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, B. F.; Sharma, A.

    2016-09-01

    We derive a gyrokinetic formalism which is very generally valid: the ordering allows both large inhomogeneities in plasma flow and magnetic field at long wavelength, such as typical drift-kinetic theories, as well as fluctuations at the gyro-scale. The underlying approach is to order the vorticity to be small, and to assert that the timescales in the local plasma frame are long compared to the gyrofrequency. Unlike most other derivations, we do not treat the long and short wavelength components of the fluctuating fields separately; the single-field description defines the particle motion and their interaction with the electromagnetic field at small-scale, the system-scale, and intermediate length scales in a unified fashion. As in earlier literature, the work consists of identifying a coordinate system where the gyroangle-dependent terms are small, and using a near-unity transform to systematically find a set of coordinates where the gyroangle dependence vanishes. We derive a gyrokinetic Lagrangian which is valid where the vorticity | ∇ × ( E × B / B ) | is small compared to the gyrofrequency Ω, and the magnetic field scale length is long compared to the gyroradius; we also require that time variation be slow in an appropriately chosen reference frame. This appears to be a minimum set of constraints on a gyrokinetic theory and is substantially more general than earlier approaches. It is the general-geometry electromagnetic extension of Dimits, Phys. Plasmas 17, 055901 (2010) (which is an electrostatic formalism with a homogeneous background magnetic field). This approach also does not require a separate treatment of fluctuating and background components of the magnetic field, unlike much of the previous literature. As a consequence, the "cross terms" due to a combination of long- and short-wavelength variation, which were ignored in the earlier work (but derived in a more restrictive ordering in Parra and Calvo, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 045001 (2011

  20. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and

  1. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  2. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  3. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  4. An enantioselective formal synthesis of montelukast sodium.

    PubMed

    Bollikonda, Satyanarayana; Mohanarangam, Saravanan; Jinna, Rajender Reddy; Kandirelli, Venkata Kiran Kumar; Makthala, Laxman; Sen, Saikat; Chaplin, David A; Lloyd, Richard C; Mahoney, Thomas; Dahanukar, Vilas Hareshwar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Fox, Martin E

    2015-04-17

    A formal synthesis of the antiasthma drug montelukast sodium is described, wherein the key chiral diol intermediate was accessed with greater convergence of the C-C bond-forming steps as compared to previous routes. Improved synthetic efficiency was achieved by deploying homogeneous metal-based catalysis in two pivotal steps. In the first, a tandem Mizoroki-Heck reaction and double-bond isomerization between a previously known allyl alcohol intermediate and a hindered 2-(2-halophenyl)propan-2-ol secured direct access to the 3-(2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-1-phenylpropan-1-one moiety in the product. In the second step, asymmetric hydrogenation of the ketone functionality in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction product provided a convenient method to introduce the benzylic alcohol chiral center and obtain the desired chiral diol precursor of montelukast sodium. A detailed catalyst screening led to the identification of ((R)-Xyl-BINAP)((R,R)-DPEN)RuCl2 as a catalyst that afforded an enantioselectivity of 99% ee in the hydrogenation step on a multigram lab scale at a molar substrate:catalyst loading of 5000:1. PMID:25807000

  5. Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311

  6. A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.

    2008-09-01

    We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.

  7. Formal policies for flexible EHR security.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    State of the Art methodologies for establishing requirements and solutions to securing applications are based on narrative descriptions about the use of available system, sometimes also dedicated to system components. Even nowadays new developments to ruling application security services by the use of predicate logic suffer from being administered manually. Therefore, security and privacy requirements cannot be properly met resulting in restrictions and fears for allowing the use of sensitive data and functions. Because of the sensitivity of personal health information and especially of genetic data with its wider implications beyond the original subject of care, weaknesses in guaranteeing fine-grained security and privacy rules lead to less acceptance or even the avoidance of essential information transfer and use. To overcome the problem, security and privacy have to become properties of the architectural components of the respective health information system. Embedding security into the systems architecture allows for negotiating and enforcing any security and privacy services related to principals, their roles, their relationships, further contextual information as well as other regulations summarized in formally modeled policies. The paper introduces the evolving paradigm of the model-driven architecture, first time also comprehensively deployed for security and privacy services in bio-genetic and health information systems.

  8. The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitagliano, Luca

    2010-06-01

    We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.

  9. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäckdahl, Thomas; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-02-01

    We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.

  10. Stability formalism of a flowing two-fluid plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hideaki; Katano, Takayuki; Ishida, Akio; Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2003-04-01

    An improved formalism for a stability analysis of flowing two-fluid equilibria with constant density is developed. The two-fluid formalism, in which the generalized vorticity of each species is introduced as characteristic quantity, extends the usual single-fluid formalism. A new relation between the perturbed generalized vorticity and the displacement is found for each species. The spectral formalism is developed for stability of axisymmetric equilibrium. The missing elements in the single-fluid analysis of Frieman and Rotenberg [Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 898 (1960)] are identified.

  11. A Formal Semantics for the SRI Hierarchical Program Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A formal statement of what it means to use (a subset of) the methodology is presented. It is formally defined that some specified module exists and what it means to say that another module is paid correctly implemented on top of it. No attention is to motivation, either of the methodology or of the formal development of it. Concentration is entirely upon mathematical succinctness and precision. A discussion is presented of how to use certain INTERLISP programs which implement the formal definitions. Among these are a program which generates Floyd like verification conditions sufficient to imply the correctness of a module implementation.

  12. Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B R

    2006-05-17

    OpenMP [1] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [1]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. This paper focuses on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a proposed formal memory model that is derived from the existing prose model [1]. Our formalization provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.

  13. Formal education and back pain: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, C; Von Korff, M; Koepsell, T; Deyo, R; Barlow, W; Checkoway, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To summarise the scientific evidence on the relation between educational status and measures of the frequency and the consequences of back pain and of the outcomes of interventions among back pain patients, and to outline possible mechanisms that could explain such an association if found.
DESIGN—Sixty four articles published between 1966 and 2000 that documented the association of formal education with back pain were reviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—Overall, the current available evidence points indirectly to a stronger association of low education with longer duration and/or higher recurrence of back pain than to an association with onset. The many reports of an association of low education with adverse consequences of back pain also suggest that the course of a back pain episode is less favourable among persons with low educational attainment. Mechanisms that could explain these associations include variations in behavioural and environmental risk factors by educational status, differences in occupational factors, compromised "health stock" among people with low education, differences in access to and utilisation of health services, and adaptation to stress. Although lower education was not associated with the outcomes of interventions in major studies, it is difficult, in light of the current limited available evidence, to draw firm conclusions on this association.
CONCLUSION—Scientific evidence supports the hypothesis that less well educated people are more likely to be affected by disabling back pain. Further study of this association may help advance our understanding of back pain as well as understanding of the relation between socioeconomic status and disease as a general phenomenon.


Keywords: back pain; educational status PMID:11413174

  14. A formal model of interpersonal inference

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, Michael; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; El-Deredy, Wael; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference—a general framework for decision-making—can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: (1) Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to “mentalizing” in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. (2) We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g., self-serving biases) can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. (3) Mentalizing naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one's own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modeling intersubject variability in mentalizing during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalizing is distorted. PMID:24723872

  15. Environmental Education in the Formal Sector of Education in Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucunguzi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a critical review of the present state of environmental education in the formal sector of education in Uganda. Recommends an improved approach to formal environmental education based on a multidisciplinary foundation that embraces the biophysical environment, people, culture, politics, and socioeconomic systems. (LZ)

  16. I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…

  17. Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The terms "concreteness fading" and "progressive formalization" have been used to describe instructional approaches to science and mathematics that use grounded representations to introduce concepts and later transition to more formal representations of the same concepts. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to…

  18. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  19. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  20. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  1. 47 CFR 8.14 - General formal complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General formal complaint procedures. 8.14 Section 8.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.14 General formal complaint procedures. (a) Complaints. In addition to the general...

  2. Financing Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Moshood Ayinde

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how adult and non formal education is financed in Nigeria; and to examine areas or forms of and the problems of financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. Three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents from government agencies,…

  3. Toward the Characterization of Non-Formal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman-Keller, Diana

    This study examined characteristic attributes of non-formal education and the non-formal pedagogy directing its teaching and learning processes. Data were collected on organizational and pedagogical characteristics in several out-of-school organizations (youth movements, youth organizations, community centers, bypass educational systems, local…

  4. Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…

  5. How Online Journalists Learn within a Non-Formal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstad, Morten; Eide, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of workplace learning, with a focus on the non-formal learning that takes place among online journalists. The focus of this article is journalists working in an online newspaper and their experiences with workplace and non-formal learning, centering on framework conditions…

  6. Beyond Formalism: Literary Criticism Now and in the Immediate Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Fred L.

    Formalism, an amalgamation of literary critical methods originating in the 1920's, which emphasize close textual analysis of the literary work itself, is declining as the predominant critical approach due to its self-imposed limitations. New perspectives, attempting to counter the fragmentation of formalism and demonstrating an awareness of the…

  7. A Construction and Validation of Formal Operational Reasoning Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.

    In Piaget's developmental psychology the fourth and highest stage of human cognitive development is that of formal operations. The research on formal thought instruments is outlined. This study was designed to construct and validate paper-and-pencil instruments which could be used to select students capable of abstract conceptualization,…

  8. The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…

  9. Recognising Non-Formal and Informal Learning: An Open Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perulli, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The social-institutional endorsement towards the perspective of recognising and enhancing learning acquired outside the formal education and training contexts (non-formal and informal learning), has been gaining strength and has entered policy agendas throughout Europe, but also in other major non-European countries. Nevertheless there are still…

  10. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  11. 21 CFR 1404.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 1404.835 Section 1404.835 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.835 Are debarment proceedings formal? (a) Debarment proceedings are conducted...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 1404.740 Section 1404.740 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.740 Are suspension proceedings formal? (a)...

  13. Formal Education, Eminence, and Dogmatism: The Curvilinear Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    The relationship between formal education and creativity was investigated in two studies. A reanalysis of Cox's (1926) 301 geniuses indicated that achieved eminence of creators is a curvilinear inverted-U function of formal education. Secondly, a study of 33 American presidents found that dogmatism (i.e., idealistic inflexibility) is a curvilinear…

  14. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  15. 13 CFR 301.10 - Formal application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal application requirements. 301.10 Section 301.10 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Projects selected from successful proposals, EDA will invite the proponents to submit a formal...

  16. Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betül C.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…

  17. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  18. On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

  19. Adolescent Egocentrism and Formal Operations: Tests of a Theoretical Assumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, David K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes two studies of the theoretical relation between adolescent egocentrism and formal operations. Study 1 used the Adolescent Egocentrism Scale (AES) and Lunzer's battery of formal reasoning tasks to assess 183 adolescents. Study 2 administered the AES, the Imaginary Audience Scale (IAS), and the Test of Logical Thinking to 138 adolescents.…

  20. On the formalization and reuse of scientific research.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Liakata, Maria; Lu, Chuan; Oliver, Stephen G; Soldatova, Larisa N

    2011-10-01

    The reuse of scientific knowledge obtained from one investigation in another investigation is basic to the advance of science. Scientific investigations should therefore be recorded in ways that promote the reuse of the knowledge they generate. The use of logical formalisms to describe scientific knowledge has potential advantages in facilitating such reuse. Here, we propose a formal framework for using logical formalisms to promote reuse. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by using it in a worked example from biology: demonstrating cycles of investigation formalization [F] and reuse [R] to generate new knowledge. We first used logic to formally describe a Robot scientist investigation into yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) functional genomics [f(1)]. With Robot scientists, unlike human scientists, the production of comprehensive metadata about their investigations is a natural by-product of the way they work. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the research in investigating yeast phenotypes [r(1) = R(f(1))]. This investigation found that the removal of non-essential enzymes generally resulted in enhanced growth. The phenotype investigation was then formally described using the same logical formalism as the functional genomics investigation [f(2) = F(r(1))]. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the phenotype investigation to investigate yeast systems-biology modelling [r(2) = R(f(2))]. This investigation found that yeast flux-balance analysis models fail to predict the observed changes in growth. Finally, the systems biology investigation was formalized for reuse in future investigations [f(3) = F(r(2))]. These cycles of reuse are a model for the general reuse of scientific knowledge. PMID:21490004

  1. On the formalization and reuse of scientific research

    PubMed Central

    King, Ross D.; Liakata, Maria; Lu, Chuan; Oliver, Stephen G.; Soldatova, Larisa N.

    2011-01-01

    The reuse of scientific knowledge obtained from one investigation in another investigation is basic to the advance of science. Scientific investigations should therefore be recorded in ways that promote the reuse of the knowledge they generate. The use of logical formalisms to describe scientific knowledge has potential advantages in facilitating such reuse. Here, we propose a formal framework for using logical formalisms to promote reuse. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by using it in a worked example from biology: demonstrating cycles of investigation formalization [F] and reuse [R] to generate new knowledge. We first used logic to formally describe a Robot scientist investigation into yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) functional genomics [f1]. With Robot scientists, unlike human scientists, the production of comprehensive metadata about their investigations is a natural by-product of the way they work. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the research in investigating yeast phenotypes [r1 = R(f1)]. This investigation found that the removal of non-essential enzymes generally resulted in enhanced growth. The phenotype investigation was then formally described using the same logical formalism as the functional genomics investigation [f2 = F(r1)]. We then demonstrated how this formalism enabled the reuse of the phenotype investigation to investigate yeast systems-biology modelling [r2 = R(f2)]. This investigation found that yeast flux-balance analysis models fail to predict the observed changes in growth. Finally, the systems biology investigation was formalized for reuse in future investigations [f3 = F(r2)]. These cycles of reuse are a model for the general reuse of scientific knowledge. PMID:21490004

  2. New Technologies and Learning Environments: A Perspective from Formal and Non-Formal Education in Baja California, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…

  3. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills, and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to literacy and essential skills, as well as the learning of second and other languages in Canada. It builds upon the work of the OECD (n.d.) and Werquin…

  4. Correlates of formal reasoning: Content and problem effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven; Gans, Adrienne

    Piaget's structural theory of formal thought suggests that a general construct of formal reasoning exists. The content of the task and type of problem employed are often ignored in Piagetian based studies but are important for generalizing findings to other studies and to educational problems. The study reported here examines content and problem effects of formal thought in 13-year-old adolescents. Specifically, three controlling variables tasks with different content and two question type tests (analysis and controlling questions) were administered to 120 seventh graders. Ability measures and personality dimensions associated with formal reasoning in the literature are used to clarify what formal reasoning is and how content and problem type are involved in formal reasoning. Significant main effects were found for problem and content effects (p = 0.001), and a significant interaction was found between the two (p = 0.001). Across the three tasks general ability, field dependency, and locus of control were consistently and significantly related to the controlling questions. However, only measures of field dependency were related to the analysis questions. Combinations of ability and personality factors were found to be uniquely related to each task, within each question type. Results have implications for a theory of formal thought and the teaching of the controlling variables strategy.

  5. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  6. A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in the development of formal reasoning? (2) Are Piaget's formal tasks reliable and valid? (3) Does formal reasoning constitute a unified and general mode of intellectual functioning? (4) How does the presence or absence of formal reasoning affect school achievement? (5) Can formal reasoning be taught? (6) What is the structural or functional nature of advanced reasoning? The general conclusion drawn is that although Piaget's work and that which has sprung from it leaves a number of unresolved theoretical and methodological problems, it provides an important background from which to make substantial progress toward a most significant educational objective.All our dignity lies in thought. By thought we must elevate ourselves, not by space and time which we can not fill. Let us endeavor then to think well; therein lies the principle of morality. Blaise Pascal 1623-1662.

  7. Automatic derivation of formal software specifications from informal descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1991-01-01

    SPECIFIER, an interactive system which derives formal specifications of data types and programs from their informal descriptions, is described. The process of deriving formal specifications is viewed as a problem-solving process. The system uses common problem-solving techniques such as schemas, analogy, and difference-based reasoning to derive formal specifications. If an informal description is a commonly occurring operation for which the system has a schema, then the formal specification is derived by instantiating the schema. If there is no such schema, SPECIFIER tries to find a previously solved problem which is analogous to the current problem. If the problem found is directly analogous to the current problem, it applies an analogy mapping to obtain a formal specification. On the other hand, if the analogy found is only approximate, it solves the directly analogous part of the problem by analogy and performs difference-based reasoning using the remaining (unmatched) parts to transform the formal specification obtained by analogy to a formal specification for the entire original problem.

  8. Proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in Washington D.C. April 13-15, 2010. Topics covered include: Decision Engines for Software Analysis using Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solvers; Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems; Formal Methods at Intel -- An Overview; Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification; Hardware-independent Proofs of Numerical Programs; Slice-based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z; How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project; A Machine-Checked Proof of A State-Space Construction Algorithm; Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications; Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving; Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol; Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?; Synthesis of Greedy Algorithms Using Dominance Relations; A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines; Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS; Phase Two Feasibility Study for Software Safety Requirements Analysis Using Model Checking; A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover; SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink; Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness; Software Model Checking of ARINC-653 Flight Code with MCP; Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B; Formal Verification of Large Software Systems; Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation; Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System; Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking; Model Checking with Edge-valued Decision Diagrams

  9. Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2006-12-19

    OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.

  10. Multisymplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formalisms of Classical Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Roy, Narciso

    2009-11-01

    This review paper is devoted to presenting the standard multisymplectic formulation for describing geometrically classical field theories, both the regular and singular cases. First, the main features of the Lagrangian formalism are revisited and, second, the Hamiltonian formalism is constructed using Hamiltonian sections. In both cases, the variational principles leading to the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton-De Donder-Weyl equations, respectively, are stated, and these field equations are given in different but equivalent geometrical ways in each formalism. Finally, both are unified in a new formulation (which has been developed in the last years), following the original ideas of Rusk and Skinner for mechanical systems.

  11. A Novel Concept Acquisition Approach Based on Formal Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ting; Wei, Ling

    2014-01-01

    As an important tool for data analysis and knowledge processing, formal concept analysis (FCA) has been applied to many fields. In this paper, we introduce a new method to find all formal concepts based on formal contexts. The amount of intents calculation is reduced by the method. And the corresponding algorithm of our approach is proposed. The main theorems and the corresponding algorithm are examined by examples, respectively. At last, several real-life databases are analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is simple and effective. PMID:25147834

  12. Symmetric Space σ-MODEL Dynamics:. Current Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Nejat T.

    After explicitly constructing the symmetric space sigma model Lagrangian in terms of the coset scalars of the solvable Lie algebra gauge in the current formalism, we derive the field equations of the theory.

  13. Scalar heat kernel with boundary in the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Pisani, Pablo A. G.; Schubert, Christian

    2008-10-01

    The worldline formalism has in recent years emerged as a powerful tool for the computation of effective actions and heat kernels. However, implementing nontrivial boundary conditions in this formalism has turned out to be a difficult problem. Recently, such a generalization was developed for the case of a scalar field on the half-space Bbb R+ × Bbb RD-1, based on an extension of the associated worldline path integral to the full Bbb RD using image charges. We present here an improved version of this formalism which allows us to write down non-recursive master formulas for the n-point contribution to the heat kernel trace of a scalar field on the half-space with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. These master formulas are suitable to computerization. We demonstrate the efficiency of the formalism by a calculation of two new heat-kernel coefficients for the half-space, a4 and a9/2.

  14. Uncovering the triple omeron vertex from Wilson line formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chirilli, G. A.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the triple omeron vertex from the Wilson line formalism, including both planar and nonplanar contributions, and get perfect agreement with the result obtained in the Extended Generalized Logarithmic Approximation based on Reggeon calculus.

  15. Formal Organizational Structure and Participation in Planning Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    1981-01-01

    This study explored and described the relationship between formal organizational structures and the extent of participation of clients, faculty, and program administrators in planning continuing professional education programs in six Southern land-grant universities. (Author/CT)

  16. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-01

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  17. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  18. A logarithmic correction in the entropy functional formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    The entropy functional formalism allows one to recover general relativity, modified gravity theories, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. In most approaches to quantum gravity, the Bekenstein-Hawking’s entropy formula acquires a logarithmic correction term. As such terms occur almost universally in most approaches to quantum gravity, we analyze the effect of such terms on the entropy functional formalism. We demonstrate that the leading correction to the micro-canonical entropy in the entropy functional formalism can be used to recover modified theories of gravity already obtained with an uncorrected micro-canonical entropy. Furthermore, since the entropy functional formalism reproduces modified gravity, the rise of gravity-dependent logarithmic corrections turns out to be one way to impose constraints on these theories of modified gravity. The constraints found here for the simple case of an ℱ(R)-gravity are the same as those obtained in the literature from cosmological considerations.

  19. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  20. Experiences Using Lightweight Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes three case studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, formal methods enhanced the existing verification and validation processes, by testing key properties of the evolving requirements, and helping to identify weaknesses. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  1. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  2. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  3. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  4. Formal functional test designs with a test representation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hops, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the category-partition method to the test design phase of hardware, software, or system test development is discussed. The method provides a formal framework for reducing the total number of possible test cases to a minimum logical subset for effective testing. An automatic tool and a formal language were developed to implement the method and produce the specification of test cases.

  5. Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.

    PubMed

    Dulit, E

    1972-12-01

    Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some.

  6. Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.

  7. Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A neo-piagetian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    Most Piagetian formal operational reasoning tasks show horizontal decalage; that is, subjects pass certain tasks and fail others that have the same logical structure. The study reported here analyzes the importance of individual difference variables, as postulated by the neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone, in explaining subject performance in formal reasoning. A sample of 72 freshman students were administered a test of formal reasoning having 20 items of different types of reasoning, and the tests of the individual difference variables. Results obtained from multiple regression analyses show that Pascual-Leone's structural M-capacity (Ms) is the most consistent predictor of success in the different formal reasoning tasks, followed by Witkin's cognitive style, and to a much lesser degree Raven's progressive matrices, and Pascual-Leone's functional M-capacity (Mf). It was found that in the total score on the 20 items of formal reasoning, Ms accounted for 23.3% of the variance (R = 0.483, F = 6.39, p = 0.014) and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test, increased the multiple R significantly (F = 7.77, p = 0.007) and accounted for 7.6% of the variance. Mf and the Raven test did not make a significant contribution to the regression equation. Correlation coefficients among most of the items having the same reasoning pattern but different content are generally low but statistically significant (p < 0.01). Intercorrelations among items having the same formal reasoning pattern and content are fairly high (p < 0.001). These results emphasize the importance of individual difference variables: information-processing capacity (Pascual-Leone) and oversensitivity to potentially misleading information (Witkin). It is suggested that in order to understand student performance in formal reasoning tasks, we should expect horizontal decalages as a rule and not the exception, as Piaget had postulated. Educational implications are drawn.

  8. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Paul

    The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

  9. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  10. Silent Partners to Cancer Patients: Formal Caregivers and Oncologists.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, G; Rottenberg, Yakir; Peretz, Tamar; Baider, Lea

    2015-12-01

    Given the worldwide aging of the population, the projected increase of older people diagnosed with cancer, and the changes in the structure of society and family, it is predictable that larger numbers of aged cancer patients will be supported by formal caregivers. This exploratory study attempts to gain insight into and to make recommendations to oncologists based on the comparison of two groups of foreign formal caregivers-those providing care to elderly cancer patients and those providing care to the elderly suffering from other chronic illnesses. Our sample included 108 Filipino formal caregivers to older persons (age 65+) suffering from cancer or other chronic diseases. Participants completed a short questionnaire targeting background information, subjective perception of distress, attachment to the care recipient family, and the Distress Thermometer. Participants reported extreme levels of distress, with only seven (6.48%) scoring less than 5 on the Distress Thermometer. Caregivers to cancer patients reported significantly higher levels of distress and tended to feel less attached to the family of the patient in comparison to caregivers to patients with other chronic illnesses. Cultural differences regarding cancer among the elderly may explain the higher levels of distress reported among Filipino formal caregivers and need to be acknowledged by oncologists. As a precondition for simultaneously improving the caregiver's well-being and the patient's quality of care, it is recommended that oncologists relate directly to formal caregivers, specifically to their extreme distress and apprehension regarding cancer. PMID:25316613

  11. Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.

  12. Evidence Arguments for Using Formal Methods in Software Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    We describe a generic approach for automatically integrating the output generated from a formal method/tool into a software safety assurance case, as an evidence argument, by (a) encoding the underlying reasoning as a safety case pattern, and (b) instantiating it using the data produced from the method/tool. We believe this approach not only improves the trustworthiness of the evidence generated from a formal method/tool, by explicitly presenting the reasoning and mechanisms underlying its genesis, but also provides a way to gauge the suitability of the evidence in the context of the wider assurance case. We illustrate our work by application to a real example-an unmanned aircraft system- where we invoke a formal code analysis tool from its autopilot software safety case, automatically transform the verification output into an evidence argument, and then integrate it into the former.

  13. Formal verification of a fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Vonhenke, Frieder

    1989-01-01

    A formal specification and mechanically assisted verification of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm of Lamport and Melliar-Smith is described. Several technical flaws in the analysis given by Lamport and Melliar-Smith were discovered, even though their presentation is unusally precise and detailed. It seems that these flaws were not detected by informal peer scrutiny. The flaws are discussed and a revised presentation of the analysis is given that not only corrects the flaws but is also more precise and easier to follow. Some of the corrections to the flaws require slight modifications to the original assumptions underlying the algorithm and to the constraints on its parameters, and thus change the external specifications of the algorithm. The formal analysis of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm was performed using the Enhanced Hierarchical Development Methodology (EHDM) formal specification and verification environment. This application of EHDM provides a demonstration of some of the capabilities of the system.

  14. Formalizing New Navigation Requirements for NASA's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a recent NASA-sponsored pilot project intended to gauge the effectiveness of using formal methods in Space Shuttle software requirements analysis. Several Change Requests (CRs) were selected as promising targets to demonstrate the utility of formal methods in this demanding application domain. A CR to add new navigation capabilities to the Shuttle, based on Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is the focus of this industrial usage report. Portions of the GPS CR were modeled using the language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). During a limited analysis conducted on the formal specifications, numerous requirements issues were discovered. We present a summary of these encouraging results and conclusions we have drawn from the pilot project.

  15. Formal Verification of the AAMP-FV Microcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Greve, David A.; Wilding, Matthew M.; Srivas, Mandayam

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the experiences of Collins Avionics & Communications and SRI International in formally specifying and verifying the microcode in a Rockwell proprietary microprocessor, the AAMP-FV, using the PVS verification system. This project built extensively on earlier experiences using PVS to verify the microcode in the AAMP5, a complex, pipelined microprocessor designed for use in avionics displays and global positioning systems. While the AAMP5 experiment demonstrated the technical feasibility of formal verification of microcode, the steep learning curve encountered left unanswered the question of whether it could be performed at reasonable cost. The AAMP-FV project was conducted to determine whether the experience gained on the AAMP5 project could be used to make formal verification of microcode cost effective for safety-critical and high volume devices.

  16. An envelope function formalism for lattice-matched heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Put, Maarten L.; Vandenberghe, William G.; Magnus, Wim; Sorée, Bart

    2015-08-01

    The envelope function method traditionally employs a single basis set which, in practice, relates to a single material because the k · p matrix elements are generally only known in a particular basis. In this work, we defined a basis function transformation to alleviate this restriction. The transformation is completely described by the known inter-band momentum matrix elements. The resulting envelope function equation can solve the electronic structure in lattice matched heterostructures without resorting to boundary conditions at the interface between materials, while all unit-cell averaged observables can be calculated as with the standard envelope function formalism. In the case of two coupled bands, this heterostructure formalism is equivalent to the standard formalism while taking position dependent matrix elements.

  17. Formal Grammars for Product Data Management on Distributed Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Rui M.; Martins, Paulo J.; Lima, Rui M.

    This work shows how formal grammars with attributes can be advantageously used to deal with two fundamental aspects of product data management - product diversity management and generation of specific product data based on clients’ specification - in the context of distributed manufacturing systems, while networks of geographically distant collaborative entities. This contribution will constitute a new component for an existing model, developed by the authors, for dynamic production planning and control which includes the interoperability with industrial equipment. The proposed approach is centered on attributed formal grammars, allowing the formalization of the data representation for each family of products and also of some of the inherent processing (e.g. generation of specific products’ bill-of-materials).

  18. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  19. Formal mechanization of device interactions with a process algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, Karl; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    The principle emphasis is to develop a methodology to formally verify correct synchronization communication of devices in a composed hardware system. Previous system integration efforts have focused on vertical integration of one layer on top of another. This task examines 'horizontal' integration of peer devices. To formally reason about communication, we mechanize a process algebra in the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Using this formalization we show how four types of device interactions can be represented and verified to behave as specified. The report also describes the specification of a system consisting of an AVM-1 microprocessor and a memory management unit which were verified in previous work. A proof of correct communication is presented, and the extensions to the system specification to add a direct memory device are discussed.

  20. A reanalysis of a strong-flow gyrokinetic formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A. Y.; McMillan, B. F.

    2015-03-15

    We reanalyse an arbitrary-wavelength gyrokinetic formalism [A. M. Dimits, Phys. Plasmas 17, 055901 (2010)], which orders only the vorticity to be small and allows strong, time-varying flows on medium and long wavelengths. We obtain a simpler gyrocentre Lagrangian up to second order. In addition, the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, derived either via variation of the system Lagrangian or explicit density calculation, is consistent with that of the weak-flow gyrokinetic formalism [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Fluids 31, 2670 (1988)] at all wavelengths in the weak flow limit. The reanalysed formalism has been numerically implemented as a particle-in-cell code. An iterative scheme is described which allows for numerical solution of this system of equations, given the implicit dependence of the Euler-Lagrange equations on the time derivative of the potential.

  1. Formally Verified Practical Algorithms for Recovery from Loss of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Caesar A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and formally verify practical algorithms for recovery from loss of separation. The formal verification is performed in the context of a criteria-based framework. This framework provides rigorous definitions of horizontal and vertical maneuver correctness that guarantee divergence and achieve horizontal and vertical separation. The algorithms are shown to be independently correct, that is, separation is achieved when only one aircraft maneuvers, and implicitly coordinated, that is, separation is also achieved when both aircraft maneuver. In this paper we improve the horizontal criteria over our previous work. An important benefit of the criteria approach is that different aircraft can execute different algorithms and implicit coordination will still be achieved, as long as they all meet the explicit criteria of the framework. Towards this end we have sought to make the criteria as general as possible. The framework presented in this paper has been formalized and mechanically verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  2. Weak Quantum Theory: Formal Framework and Selected Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Roemer, Hartmann

    2006-01-04

    Two key concepts of quantum theory, complementarity and entanglement, are considered with respect to their significance in and beyond physics. An axiomatically formalized, weak version of quantum theory, more general than the ordinary quantum theory of physical systems, is described. Its mathematical structure generalizes the algebraic approach to ordinary quantum theory. The crucial formal feature leading to complementarity and entanglement is the non-commutativity of observables.The ordinary Hilbert space quantum mechanics can be recovered by stepwise adding the necessary features. This provides a hierarchy of formal frameworks of decreasing generality and increasing specificity. Two concrete applications, more specific than weak quantum theory and more general than ordinary quantum theory, are discussed: (i) complementarity and entanglement in classical dynamical systems, and (ii) complementarity and entanglement in the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli.

  3. A Formal Approach to Requirements-Based Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    No significant general-purpose method is currently available to mechanically transform system requirements into a provably equivalent model. The widespread use of such a method represents a necessary step toward high-dependability system engineering for numerous application domains. Current tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The "gap" unfilled by such tools and methods is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the requirements. We offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. This method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. Finally, we describe further application areas we are investigating for use of the approach.

  4. Matrix formalism for current-independent optics design.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-x.; Kim, K.-J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    Matrix formalism has been a powerful tool for beam optics designs. It not only facilitates computations but also plays an important role in formulating various design concepts. Here we extend the standard matrix formalism for the purpose of designing an optics that transports space-charge-dominated intense beam. Furthermore, we explore the concept of current-independent optics, which can be useful for systems such as high-brightness injectors and space-charge-dominated rings. Our discussion here is preliminary and limited to axisymmetric systems.

  5. Unified formalism for higher order non-autonomous dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-03-01

    This work is devoted to giving a geometric framework for describing higher order non-autonomous mechanical systems. The starting point is to extend the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk for these kinds of systems, generalizing previous developments for higher order autonomous mechanical systems and first-order non-autonomous mechanical systems. Then, we use this unified formulation to derive the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, including the Legendre-Ostrogradsky map and the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton equations, both for regular and singular systems. As applications of our model, two examples of regular and singular physical systems are studied.

  6. Skinner Rusk unified formalism for optimal control systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Martín de Diego, David; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2007-10-01

    A geometric approach to time-dependent optimal control problems is proposed. This formulation is based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. The corresponding unified formalism developed for optimal control systems allows us to formulate geometrically the necessary conditions given by a weak form of Pontryagin's maximum principle, provided that the differentiability with respect to controls is assumed and the space of controls is open. Furthermore, our method is also valid for implicit optimal control systems and, in particular, for the so-called descriptor systems (optimal control problems including both differential and algebraic equations).

  7. A proposed formal structure for assessing bear-human encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, William A.; Wilman, Elizabeth A.

    1988-03-01

    A formal model for the interaction of bear and hiker populations in national parks is developed. A number of alternative interactive scenarios are identified and some specific cases explored in detail. Some examples of the insights to be gained by the use of such a formal structure by park managers charged with the dual mandate of preservation of fauna and provision of safe recreational opportunities are presented. The entire problem is then discussed within the context of the more general “tragedy of the commons” problem.

  8. Sudakov resummation in the small-x saturation formalism.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A H; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2013-02-22

    Through an explicit calculation of massive scalar particle (e.g., Higgs boson) production in high energy pA collisions up to one-loop order, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the Sudakov-type logarithms in hard processes in the small-x saturation formalism can be systematically separated from the small-x logarithms. The generic feature of the Sudakov logarithms and all order resummation is derived. This calculation shall provide us deep insights into the understanding of factorizations in the saturation formalism. We further comment on the phenomenological implications in the LHC energy regime and extension to other hard processes in small-x calculations.

  9. Formal training in forensic mental health: psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Sadoff, Robert L; Dattilio, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic mental health has grown exponentially in the past decades to include forensic psychiatrists and psychologists serving as the primary experts to the court systems. However, many colleagues have chosen to pursue the avenue of serving as forensic experts without obtaining formal training and experience. This article discusses the importance of formal education, training and experience for psychiatrists and psychologists working in forensic settings and the ethical implications that befall those who fail to obtain such credentials. Specific aspects of training and supervised experience are discussed in detail.

  10. Manifesting color-kinematics duality in the scattering equation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Feng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    We prove that the scattering equation formalism for Yang-Mills amplitudes can be used to make manifest the theory's color-kinematics duality. This is achieved through a concrete reduction algorithm which renders this duality manifest term-by-term. The reduction follows from the recently derived set of identities for amplitudes expressed in the scattering equation formalism that are analogous to monodromy relations in string theory. A byproduct of our algorithm is a generalization of the identities among gravity and Yang-Mills amplitudes.

  11. The generation of gravitational waves. II - The postlinear formalism revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, R. J.; Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two different versions of the Green's function for the scalar wave equation in weakly curved spacetime (one due to DeWitt and DeWitt, the other to Thorne and Kovacs) are compared and contrasted; and their mathematical equivalence is demonstrated. Then the DeWitt-DeWitt Green's function is used to construct several alternative versions of the Thorne-Kovacs postlinear formalism for gravitational-wave generation. Finally it is shown that, in calculations of gravitational bremsstrahlung radiation, some of our versions of the postlinear formalism allow one to treat the interacting bodies as point masses, while others do not.

  12. 47 CFR 7.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 7.16 Section 7.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.16 Informal or...

  13. 47 CFR 7.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 7.16 Section 7.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.16 Informal or...

  14. Structuring Formal Control Systems Specifications for Reuse: Surviving Hardware Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Erickson, Debra M.

    2000-01-01

    Formal capture and analysis of the required behavior of control systems have many advantages. For instance, it encourages rigorous requirements analysis, the required behavior is unambiguously defined, and we can assure that various safety properties are satisfied. Formal modeling is, however, a costly and time consuming process and if one could reuse the formal models over a family of products, significant cost savings would be realized. In an ongoing project we are investigating how to structure state-based models to achieve a high level of reusability within product families. In this paper we discuss a high-level structure of requirements models that achieves reusability of the desired control behavior across varying hardware platforms in a product family. The structuring approach is demonstrated through a case study in the mobile robotics domain where the desired robot behavior is reused on two diverse platforms-one commercial mobile platform and one build in-house. We use our language RSML (-e) to capture the control behavior for reuse and our tool NIMBUS to demonstrate how the formal specification can be validated and used as a prototype on the two platforms.

  15. Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogbaga, David M. E.; Nwankwo, Oliver U.; Onwa, Doris O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined how conflicts and crisis can be avoided through formal communication. It was necessitated by the observation that most of the conflicts and crisis which tend to mar school management today are functions of the inconsistencies arising from "grapevines, rumours, and gossips" generated through informal communication…

  16. Acquisition of Formal Operations: The Effects of Two Training Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Doreen A.

    1979-01-01

    A study of 11- and 12-year-old girls indicates that either of two training procedures, method training or dimension training, can aid in the transition from concrete operational to formal operational thought by promoting a hypothesis-testing attitude. (BH)

  17. Mea Culpa: Formal Education and the Dis-Integrated World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Brian P.; Daniels, Douglas S.

    Formal education has removed itself so far from any truly integrated view of the Natural World that fragmentation and certainty are prevailing ethics. Technological progress has resulted in increased specialization within academic disciplines and their concurrent separation from each other. Knowledge is extracted from a fully integrated world, but is examined and defined by the 'dis-integrated' objectives.

  18. Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The role of formal verification techniques in system validation was examined. The value and the state of the art of performance proving for fault-tolerant compuers were assessed. The investigation, development, and evaluation of performance proving tools were reviewed. The technical issues related to proof methodologies are examined. The technical issues discussed are summarized.

  19. Adapting Formal Education Materials for Out-of-School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Gibbons, H.

    2006-12-01

    Out-of-school programs present significant opportunities to reinforce and extend classroom learning. How can we work effectively with these programs to engage youth in science and technology? What types of materials can be easily integrated into out-of-school learning experiences? How can existing formal education materials be adapted for use in out-of-school settings? To address these questions, the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Pacific Science Center have engaged in a project that builds on a network of informal science education centers and community-based organizations developed for a national outreach program associated with the NOVA/PBS Origins series. As part of this effort, the Pacific Science Center has held a focus group with local community-based organizations serving underserved and underrepresented youth, and engaged 20 sites in Washington, California, and Tennessee in testing formal education materials adapted for use in out-of-school settings. We report preliminary focus group and field-test results, including emerging best practices for adapting formal education materials for use in out-of-time settings. Results from this project will enable a variety of education and public outreach programs to extend the reach of their materials to new audiences in a way that bridges the formal and informal science education realms.

  20. Formal Training in Collective Bargaining: Superintendents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Celine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate superintendents' perspectives of the value of formal training in collective bargaining negotiations. Dependent on their responses, one could propose negotiation skills training as a crucial area of need for superintendents. Social interdependence theory provides the theoretical framework…

  1. 36 CFR 215.18 - Formal review and disposition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal review and disposition procedures. 215.18 Section 215.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  2. 36 CFR 215.18 - Formal review and disposition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal review and disposition procedures. 215.18 Section 215.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  3. 36 CFR 215.18 - Formal review and disposition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formal review and disposition procedures. 215.18 Section 215.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  4. 36 CFR 215.18 - Formal review and disposition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal review and disposition procedures. 215.18 Section 215.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  5. 36 CFR 215.18 - Formal review and disposition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal review and disposition procedures. 215.18 Section 215.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  6. Communication and Ethics: The Informal and Formal Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    Noting that humans are educated more by than about the mass media, this paper argues that modern society has produced an informal (mediated) ethics curriculum which may be more powerful than the formal (institutionally educational) curriculum developed by academics and administrators. It first examines the informal curriculum, listing statistics…

  7. 18 CFR 5.14 - Formal study dispute resolution process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 31 CFR part 301. (h) To facilitate the delivery of information to the dispute resolution panel, the... resolution process. 5.14 Section 5.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... PROCESS § 5.14 Formal study dispute resolution process. (a) Within 20 days of the Study Plan...

  8. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  9. A robot control formalism based on an information quality concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekman, A.; Torne, A.; Stromberg, D.

    1994-01-01

    A relevance measure based on Jaynes maximum entropy principle is introduced. Information quality is the conjunction of accuracy and relevance. The formalism based on information quality is developed for one-agent applications. The robot requires a well defined working environment where properties of each object must be accurately specified.

  10. Spacetime path formalism for massive particles of any spin

    SciTech Connect

    Seidewitz, Ed

    2009-02-15

    Earlier work presented spacetime path formalism for relativistic quantum mechanics arising naturally from the fundamental principles of the Born probability rule, superposition, and spacetime translation invariance. The resulting formalism can be seen as a foundation for a number of previous parametrized approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics in the literature. Because time is treated similarly to the three-space coordinates, rather than as an evolution parameter, such approaches have proved particularly useful in the study of quantum gravity and cosmology. The present paper extends the foundational spacetime path formalism to include massive, non-scalar particles of any (integer or half-integer) spin. This is done by generalizing the principle of translational invariance used in the scalar case to the principle of full Poincare invariance, leading to a formulation for the non-scalar propagator in terms of a path integral over the Poincare group. Once the difficulty of the non-compactness of the component Lorentz group is dealt with, the subsequent development is remarkably parallel to the scalar case. This allows the formalism to retain a clear probabilistic interpretation throughout, with a natural reduction to non-relativistic quantum mechanics closely related to the well-known generalized Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation.

  11. Proportional Reasoning Tasks as a Measure of Formal Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Michal

    A nonequivalent control group design study, with a math unit on ratio and proportion as the treatment, was conducted to examine the validity of some written tasks as a measure of formal reasoning. Subjects in the study were 68 fifth grade students who enrolled in two classes in a small urban school. The experimental group learned a 12-lesson math…

  12. Recognising Women's Skill. EAE647 Non-Formal Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Eva; Leonard, Helen

    The material in this monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Non-Formal Learning, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It is designed to raise issues relating to skill definition. "Choosing a Worker or How Good Are Your Job Descriptions?" explores why interpersonal or…

  13. 41 CFR 105-68.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 105-68.740 Section 105-68.740 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  14. 5 CFR 919.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 919.740 Section 919.740 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... your representative must submit any documentary evidence you want the suspending official to consider....

  15. 2 CFR 180.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 180.835 Section 180.835 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... the decision whether to debar. (b) You or your representative must submit any documentary evidence...

  16. 2 CFR 180.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 180.740 Section 180.740 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... suspension decision. (b) You as a respondent or your representative must submit any documentary evidence...

  17. 41 CFR 105-68.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 105-68.835 Section 105-68.835 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  18. 5 CFR 919.835 - Are debarment proceedings formal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are debarment proceedings formal? 919.835 Section 919.835 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...) You or your representative must submit any documentary evidence you want the debarring official...

  19. Parental Involvement Practices in Formalized Home-School Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeck, Unn-Doris Karlsen

    2010-01-01

    The topic for this article is parents' participation and willingness to participate in formalized home-school cooperation. The analyses are based on a nationwide survey among parents in lower secondary schools in Norway. A main finding is that parental involvement practices differ according to parents' level of education in the sense that parents…

  20. Bias and No Free Lunch in Formal Measures of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, Bill

    2009-12-01

    This paper shows that a constraint on universal Turing machines is necessary for Legg's and Hutter's formal measure of intelligence to be unbiased. Their measure, defined in terms of Turing machines, is adapted to finite state machines. A No Free Lunch result is proved for the finite version of the measure.

  1. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  2. Coaches' Experiences of Formal Coach Education: A Critical Sociological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, David

    2012-01-01

    According to recent academic reviews, formal coach education courses are rarely considered important or useful events in a broader coach learning process. At present, there is insufficient research to define the nature and extent of this problem which is likely to become more important under the prevailing governing rationalities of modernisation…

  3. Improving Children's Formal Word Definitions: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to define a word with accuracy and precision is an important skill that has been associated with academic achievement. This study investigated the feasibility of conducting a lesson on formal word definitions to improve children's definitional production. The participants were 18 children in grade 4 (mean age: 9 years; 8 months) who…

  4. Lfm2000: Fifth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is the proceedings of Lfm2000: Fifth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop. The workshop was held June 13-15, 2000, in Williamsburg, Virginia. See the web site for complete information about the event.

  5. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  6. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  7. 7 CFR 18.5 - Formal complaint procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... formal written complaint if a complainant is not satisfied with the result of informal procedure or if the complainant does not desire to follow the informal procedure. A complaint procedure shall contain... organization may file a complaint of general discriminatory practices: Provided, however, That upon request...

  8. Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnab, Sylvester; Berta, Riccardo; Earp, Jeffrey; de Freitas, Sara; Popescu, Maria; Romero, Margarida; Stanescu, Ioana; Usart, Mireia

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays formal education systems are under increasing pressure to respond and adapt to rapid technological innovation and associated changes in the way we work and live. As well as accommodation of technology in its ever-diversifying forms, there is a fundamental need to enhance learning processes through evolution in pedagogical approaches, so…

  9. Multi-User Virtual Environments Fostering Collaboration in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about how serious games based on MUVEs in formal education can foster collaboration. More specifically, it is about a large case-study with four different programs which took place from 2002 to 2009 and involved more than 9,000 students, aged between 12 and 18, from various nations (18 European countries, Israel and the USA). These…

  10. Prayer and Adolescence: Can Formal Instruction Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigel, Deena

    2016-01-01

    This design experiment in prayer education for Jewish students was motivated by a current educational concern: educating for spirituality and religious practice. Educators are tasked with formally nurturing spirituality (Wright 2001). It is known that attitude to religious observance may change during adolescence (Hyde 1963), thus attitude to…

  11. Can Formal Long-Range Planning Solve Your School's Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    States that in meeting the financial problems of parochial schools formal long-range planning is the best solution. Discusses the specific advantages of long-range financial planning which includes stability, direction, marketing and stewardship. Also considers student enrollment, staffing, curriculum and plant and facilities--factors which must…

  12. ESL Students' Perceptions of Formal and Informal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiske, Sally

    A study investigating the perceptions of students of English as a second language (ESL) regarding formal and informal speech in English also looked at their implications for teaching ESL. It was proposed that because the manner of speech a teacher uses may influence the students' ability to acquire the material presented, it may be helpful to…

  13. Learner Perception of Formal and Informal Pronouns in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Lisa Dewaard

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates whether learners of Russian perceive the sociocultural weight of the two personal pronouns for "you", "ty" (informal/intimate) and "vy" (formal/polite) when they listen to native speech. Research on address pronoun use shows it to be an important sociocultural variable and, while there is some general consistency in use,…

  14. Matrix Formalism to Describe Functional States of Transcriptional Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nathan D; Joyce, Andrew R; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2006-01-01

    Complex regulatory networks control the transcription state of a genome. These transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been mathematically described using a Boolean formalism, in which the state of a gene is represented as either transcribed or not transcribed in response to regulatory signals. The Boolean formalism results in a series of regulatory rules for the individual genes of a TRN that in turn can be used to link environmental cues to the transcription state of a genome, thereby forming a complete transcriptional regulatory system (TRS). Herein, we develop a formalism that represents such a set of regulatory rules in a matrix form. Matrix formalism allows for the systemic characterization of the properties of a TRS and facilitates the computation of the transcriptional state of the genome under any given set of environmental conditions. Additionally, it provides a means to incorporate mechanistic detail of a TRS as it becomes available. In this study, the regulatory network matrix, R, for a prototypic TRS is characterized and the fundamental subspaces of this matrix are described. We illustrate how the matrix representation of a TRS coupled with its environment (R*) allows for a sampling of all possible expression states of a given network, and furthermore, how the fundamental subspaces of the matrix provide a way to study key TRS features and may assist in experimental design. PMID:16895435

  15. Combining Formal and Functional Approaches to Topic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers, Margaret; Post, Brechtje

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this kind of variation. We argue that it is fruitful to…

  16. Animating Event B Models by Formal Data Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Sadoune, Idir; Ait-Ameur, Yamine

    We present a formal approach allowing to animate event B formal models. Invariants, deadlock freeness properties are expressed and proved on these models. This paper presents an approach that suggests to complete the proof activity in the event B method by animation activity. The obtained animator may be used to check if the event B models obtained fulfill user requirements, or to provide a help to the developer when describing its formal event B models and particularly in defining event B invariants and guards. More precisely, event B models are translated into data models expressed in the EXPRESS formal data modeling technique. The obtained data models are instantiated and provide an animation of the original B models. Following this approach, it becomes possible to trigger event B models, which themselves trigger entity instantiation on the EXPRESS side. As a further step, we show that the B models can be used as a monitoring system raising alarms in case of incorrect systems behavior. The proposed approach is operationally implemented in the B2EXPRESS tool which handles animation of event B models. It has been experimented for the validation of multimodal human interfaces in the context of VERBATIM project.

  17. Non-Formal Educator Use of Evaluation Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Sarah; Boyd, Heather H.; Franz, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability in educational programming have resulted in increasing calls for program evaluation in educational organizations. Many organizations include conducting program evaluations as part of the job responsibilities of program staff. Cooperative Extension is a complex organization offering non-formal educational…

  18. The Slow Death of Formal Learning: A Polemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, David; Gubbins, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, approaches to education and training have become more informal, situated, outcome focused and experiential. Within this context, formal learning now plays a greatly diminished role, being supplanted by activity-based and technologically-based learning. This article, structured in the form of a polemic challenges readers to…

  19. 7 CFR 1.23 - Records in formal adjudication proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records in formal adjudication proceedings. 1.23 Section 1.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official... Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, and shall be made available to the public....

  20. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  1. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  2. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  3. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  4. 50 CFR 402.16 - Reinitiation of formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.16 Reinitiation of formal... statement is exceeded; (b) If new information reveals effects of the action that may affect listed...

  5. Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education in US Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Marshall, Helaine W.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on the challenges of English language learners without age-appropriate formal education and first language literacy. They are viewed here as students with high-context learning experiences and expectations (Hall in Beyond culture, Anchor, New York, 1976), and a collectivistic orientation, with a pragmatic, rather…

  6. Towards a formalism for conversation protocols using joint intention theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Huber, Marcus J.; Cohen, Philip R.; McGee, David R. )

    2001-12-01

    Conversation protocols are meant to achieve certain tasks or to bring about certain state of affairs in the world. Therefore, one may identify the landmarks or the state of affairs that must be brought about during the execution of a protocol in order to achieve its goal. Accordingly, the most important aspect of protocols is these landmarks rather than the communicative actions needed to achieve the landmarks. We show that families of conversation protocols can be expressed formally as partially ordered landmarks where each landmark is characterized by propositions that are true in the state represented by that landmark. Dialogue in natural languages is regarded as joint activity. Conversation protocols in multi-agent systems are treated as dialogue templates and are composed using speech acts from natural language dialogues. As such, we treat conversation protocols as joint action expressions and gainfully apply existing formal theories of dialogue, specifically the Joint Intention Theory, to protocols and their compositions. Conversation protocols may require agents to communicate with groups as well as individuals. However, most contemporary agent communication languages, notably FIPA and KQML, have either no provision or no well-defined semantics for group communication. Furthermore, the research on protocols so far does not correctly incorporate groups into the protocols. We give a formal semantics to group communicative acts and use it to handle group communication in a formal treatment of protocols.

  7. Spatial Proportional Reasoning Is Associated with Formal Knowledge about Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S.; Levine, Susan C.; Frick, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves thinking about parts and wholes (i.e., about fractional quantities). Yet, research on proportional reasoning and fraction learning has proceeded separately. This study assessed proportional reasoning and formal fraction knowledge in 8- to 10-year-olds. Participants (N = 52) saw combinations of cherry juice and water…

  8. 39 CFR 3001.72 - Filing of formal requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requests for Changes in the Nature of Postal Services § 3001.72 Filing of formal requests. Whenever the... in the nature of postal services subject to this subpart, the Postal Service shall file with the... Postal Service proposes to make effective the change in the nature of postal services involved. Within...

  9. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as described in 7 CFR 1726.201, were followed in awarding this contract.” The certification executed... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.201 Formal... taking any other action necessary to procure full, free and competitive bidding. The borrower should...

  10. The Formalization of the University: Rules, Roots, and Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Christensen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the formal organization of two universities and two schools within these universities, the University of Oslo and Stanford University. We focus on role differentiation, rule formation, and resource seeking structures and describe organizational developments along these dimensions. We find that both these…

  11. Formal Description of Trust-based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoning, Ma

    Different from traditional access control technologies, such as discretionary access control, mandatory access control, role-based access control, trust-based access control can solve the problem of uncertainty, risk and vulnerability coming from authorization. In this paper, strict definition and formal description of trust-based access control is defined.

  12. 40 CFR 35.938-4 - Formal advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal advertising. 35.938-4 Section 35.938-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.938-4...

  13. Formal Operations from a Twenty-First Century Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on Piaget's 1972 article, "Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood," addressed to questions regarding what he alleged to be the final, most advanced level of cognition in his developmental stage theory--formal operations, as described in his 1958 volume coauthored with Inhelder, "The growth of logical thinking from…

  14. FORMAL AND ON-THE JOB TRAINING IN MILITARY OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BATEMAN, C.W.

    A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED TO DETERMINE THE BEST PROPORTION OF FORMAL AND ON-THE-JOB TRAINING IN MILITARY OCCUPATIONS. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION IS GIVEN TO THE UNIQUE SITUATION OF ENLISTED PERSONNEL'S FIXED LENGTH OF SERVICE, THE SMALL PERCENTAGE OF RE-ENLISTMENT, AND THE NECESSITY OF TRAINING ALL ENLISTEES FOR ASSIGNED OCCUPATIONS. THE MODEL FORMULA…

  15. 7 CFR 1.23 - Records in formal adjudication proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records in formal adjudication proceedings. 1.23 Section 1.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official... Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250, and shall be made available to the public....

  16. Formal, nonformal and informal learning: Some North-South contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Kenneth

    1982-06-01

    It is argued that in the countries both of the South and of the North, inadequate attention has been given to the interactive dimensions of informal and formal learning. The differences between informal and formal learning have often been stressed in the past, but it is equally important to acknowledge the critical similarities as far as individual motivation and interest in learning are concerned. Before erecting new models for the integration of all three modes of learning, formal, nonformal and informal, into a system, it should be noticed that they already constitute a single comprehensive system — at least for the middle-class child. The problem in both the North and the South is often that the individual's learning is unsupported by any strong infrastructure of informal or nonformal education. This can happen in the industrialised countries, where the resources for informal learning are rich and varied, as well as in the developing world, where all too often the formal school has to operate without the support of a rich environment of literacy and learning.

  17. Formal verification of an MMU and MMU cache

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. T.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the formal verification of a hardware subsystem consisting of a memory management unit and a cache. These devices are verified independently and then shown to interact correctly when composed. The MMU authorizes memory requests and translates virtual addresses to real addresses. The cache improves performance by maintaining a LRU (least recently used) list from the memory resident segment table.

  18. Recognition of Emotions in Autism: A Formal Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uljarevic, Mirko; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Determining the integrity of emotion recognition in autistic spectrum disorder is important to our theoretical understanding of autism and to teaching social skills. Previous studies have reported both positive and negative results. Here, we take a formal meta-analytic approach, bringing together data from 48 papers testing over 980 participants…

  19. Learning Conditions for Non-Formal and Informal Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…

  20. Feedback and rewards, part II: formal and informal feedback reviews.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay

    2013-02-01

    There are 2 major classes of feedback. One class of feedback consists of the informal, numerous conversations between various people in the organization regarding the performance, behavior, and goals of an individual. Another class of feedback consists of formal reviews held once or twice a year between a supervisor and an individual. This article discusses both types of feedback.

  1. Blending Student Technology Experiences in Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…

  2. Mathematical Proof as Formal Procept in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Erh-Tsung

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the notion of "procept" (in the sense of Gray & Tall, 1994) is extended to advanced mathematics by considering mathematical proof as "formal procept". The statement of a theorem as a symbol may theoretically evoke the proof deduction as a process that may contain sequential procedures and require the synthesis of distinct cognitive…

  3. 47 CFR 7.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 7.16 Section 7.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.16 Informal or...

  4. 47 CFR 7.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 7.16 Section 7.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.16 Informal or...

  5. Formal design review report project W-151 mixer pump procurement

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.

    1997-01-21

    A formal design review for WHC-S-0040 was held on January 21, 1993. The review was completed January 29, 1993. No outstanding action items existed. Comments were recorded on Record Comment Record (RCR) forms and incorporated into the specification. The specification was considered acceptable, approved and issued as WHC-S-0040, Rev. 0 on March 4, 1993.

  6. Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.

  7. Hamel's Formalism for Infinite-Dimensional Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Donghua; Berchenko-Kogan, Yakov; Zenkov, Dmitry V.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce Hamel's formalism for infinite-dimensional mechanical systems and in particular consider its applications to the dynamics of nonholonomically constrained systems. This development is a nontrivial extension of its finite-dimensional counterpart. The analysis is applied to several continuum mechanical systems of interest, including coupled systems and systems with infinitely many constraints.

  8. A Test of the Formal and Modern Theories of Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested a formal, or purely mathematical, theory of matching, and a modern account derived by McDowell (1986) that incorporates deviations from strict matching--bias and sensitivity. Six humans pressed a lever for monetary reinforcers on five concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. All schedules were…

  9. The Newcomer Booklet: A Project for Limited Formally Schooled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Helaine W.; DeCapua, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The Newcomer Booklet has become a popular classroom activity among ESL teachers at many different levels and with many types of learners. In this article, we explore why this is the case and why this type of project works so well for a particular population of English language learners, those with limited or interrupted formal schooling. We…

  10. Informal Learning and Non-Formal Education for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The following article examines the issues of open, distance and technology-based informal learning and non-formal education for individual and community development. It argues that these two modes of education, which are estimated to constitute 70-90% of lifelong learning, are insufficiently represented in the literature of open and distance…

  11. The Role of Critical Formalism in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louth, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the emancipatory potential of critical formalism, a mode of critique that may be helpful in revealing to music students the taken-for-granted nature of some common musical and educational notions whose socially constructed nature may not always appear evident. The work is presented in two parts: "theory" and "praxis." The…

  12. Formal Mate Selection Networks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Davor

    1980-01-01

    Mate selection barriers beyond individuals' control are presented as reasons for development of formal mate selection networks. Network processes are described and classified according to the degree of third-party involvement and the degree to which anonymity of participants is protected. (Author)

  13. Formal and Informal Mentoring: Complementary, Compensatory, or Consistent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.; Hochberg, Eric D.; Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, L. Joy

    2014-01-01

    Informal mentors likely play a substantial role in novice teacher learning, yet we know little about them, especially in relation to formal mentoring, which is the cornerstone to most induction programs. This study analyzes survey and interview data from 57 first-year mathematics teachers from 11 districts to investigate differences in the…

  14. School in the Park: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Carla; Wachowiak, Susan; Feldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In San Diego, California, 800 public school students from the inner city are attending a program called School in the Park (SITP), for approximately one-fourth of their 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-grade education. This unique program blends rigorous academic standards (formal learning) with hands-on, experiential curricula (informal learning), using…

  15. Transitioning from Introductory Calculus to Formal Limit Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…

  16. A Survey of Library Support for Formal Undergraduate Research Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research is defined by the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) as "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." This study serves as a snapshot of current library practices in relation to formal undergraduate research…

  17. Formal Computer Validation of the Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, Wayne; Rudinger, Kenneth; Sarovar, Mohan; Carr, Robert

    While peer review and scientific consensus provide some assurance to the validity of ideas, people do make mistakes that can slip through the cracks. A plethora of formal methods tools exist and are in use in a variety of settings where high assurance is demanded. Existing tools, however, require a great deal of expertise and lack versatility, demanding a non-trivial translation between a high-level description of a problem and the formal system. Our software, called Prove-It, allows a nearly direct translation between human-recognizable formulations and the underlying formal system. While Prove-It is not designed for particularly efficient automation, a primary goal of other formal methods tools, it is extremely flexible in following a desired line of reasoning (proof structure). This approach is particularly valuable for validating proofs that are already known. We will demonstrate a validation of the Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm using Prove-It. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. 47 CFR 6.16 - Informal or formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal or formal complaints. 6.16 Section 6.16 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 6.16...

  19. Formal Operations, the Imaginary Audience and the Personal Fable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lynne M.; Gray, William M.

    1986-01-01

    Administered the Adolescent Egocentrism Scale (AES) to middle and high school students (N=129). Found partial support for Inhelder and Piaget's and Elkind's views that adolescent egocentrism is a function of beginning formal operations. Discusses the difficulty of assessing the true thoughts/feelings of persons who are worried how they will appear…

  20. Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

  1. A Formal Approach to Domain-Oriented Software Design Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a formal approach to domain-oriented software design environments, based on declarative domain theories, formal specifications, and deductive program synthesis. A declarative domain theory defines the semantics of a domain-oriented specification language and its relationship to implementation-level subroutines. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that guides them in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory, which includes an axiomatization of JPL's SPICELIB subroutine library. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development. Furthermore, AMPHION synthesizes one to two page programs consisting of calls to SPICELIB subroutines from these specifications in just a few minutes. Test results obtained by metering AMPHION's deductive program synthesis component are examined. AMPHION has been installed at JPL and is currently undergoing further refinement in preparation for distribution to hundreds of SPICELIB users worldwide. Current work to support end-user customization of AMPHION's specification acquisition subsystem is briefly discussed, as well as future work to enable domain-expert creation of new AMPHION applications through development of suitable domain theories.

  2. A Formal Methods Approach to the Analysis of Mode Confusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly becoming a major contributor as well. The January 30, 1995 issue of Aviation Week lists 184 incidents and accidents involving mode awareness including the Bangalore A320 crash 2/14/90, the Strasbourg A320 crash 1/20/92, the Mulhouse-Habsheim A320 crash 6/26/88, and the Toulouse A330 crash 6/30/94. These incidents and accidents reveal that pilots sometimes become confused about what the cockpit automation is doing. Consequently, human factors research is an obvious investment area. However, even a cursory look at the accident data reveals that the mode confusion problem is much deeper than just training deficiencies and a lack of human-oriented design. This is readily acknowledged by human factors experts. It seems that further progress in human factors must come through a deeper scrutiny of the internals of the automation. It is in this arena that formal methods can contribute. Formal methods refers to the use of techniques from logic and discrete mathematics in the specification, design, and verification of computer systems, both hardware and software. The fundamental goal of formal methods is to capture requirements, designs and implementations in a mathematically based model that can be analyzed in a rigorous manner. Research in formal methods is aimed at automating this analysis as much as possible. By capturing the internal behavior of a flight deck in a rigorous and detailed formal model, the dark corners of a design can be analyzed. This paper will explore how formal

  3. A New Measure of Text Formality: An Analysis of Discourse of Mao Zedong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C.; Conley, Mark; Cai, Zhiqiang; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Formality has long been of interest in the study of discourse, with periodic discussions of the best measure of formality and the relationship between formality and text categories. In this research, we explored what features predict formality as humans perceive the construct. We categorized a corpus consisting of 1,158 discourse samples published…

  4. Modeling Cyber Conflicts Using an Extended Petri Net Formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrzewska, Anita N; Ferragut, Erik M

    2011-01-01

    When threatened by automated attacks, critical systems that require human-controlled responses have difficulty making optimal responses and adapting protections in real- time and may therefore be overwhelmed. Consequently, experts have called for the development of automatic real-time reaction capabilities. However, a technical gap exists in the modeling and analysis of cyber conflicts to automatically understand the repercussions of responses. There is a need for modeling cyber assets that accounts for concurrent behavior, incomplete information, and payoff functions. Furthermore, we address this need by extending the Petri net formalism to allow real-time cyber conflicts to be modeled in a way that is expressive and concise. This formalism includes transitions controlled by players as well as firing rates attached to transitions. This allows us to model both player actions and factors that are beyond the control of players in real-time. We show that our formalism is able to represent situational aware- ness, concurrent actions, incomplete information and objective functions. These factors make it well-suited to modeling cyber conflicts in a way that allows for useful analysis. MITRE has compiled the Common Attack Pattern Enumera- tion and Classification (CAPEC), an extensive list of cyber attacks at various levels of abstraction. CAPEC includes factors such as attack prerequisites, possible countermeasures, and attack goals. These elements are vital to understanding cyber attacks and to generating the corresponding real-time responses. We demonstrate that the formalism can be used to extract precise models of cyber attacks from CAPEC. Several case studies show that our Petri net formalism is more expressive than other models, such as attack graphs, for modeling cyber conflicts and that it is amenable to exploring cyber strategies.

  5. Background on Non-Formal Education and Suggestions for the Improvement of Non-Formal Education in Developing Countries and the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerez Gomez, Maximo J.

    Divided into two areas of emphasis, this paper explores the potential of non-formal education in developing countries and non-formal education as it relates to the Dominican Republic. The first section presents background material on non-formal education and discusses types of programs being applied in a number of countries throughout the world.…

  6. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  7. Informal in Formal: The Relationship of Informal and Formal Learning in Popular and Jazz Music Master Workshops in Conservatoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The present article will examine informal learning in popular and jazz music education in Finland and evaluate it as a part of formal upper secondary vocational musicians' training, which is typically teacher directed. It is not necessarily the best model of working in popular and jazz music learning, which has traditionally benefitted from…

  8. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  9. Three-Particle Relativistic Harmonic Dynamics in the Constraint Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, A.

    1982-05-01

    Three-particle relativistic harmonic dynamics in the constraint formalism has been studied in two different schemes for the reduction of the 24-dimensional covariant phase space to an 18-dimensional minimum phase space. Three-body potential for the harmonic problem has been determined from the Bidikov-Todorov equation. It is found that the classical equations of motion are separable in a single time formalism in the case when the phase space is reduced by a set of first class kinematic constraints and the Hamiltonian is introduced as an independent dynamic constraint. For this case in the centre of mass frame the Hamiltonian constraint leads to a time-independent Schrödinger equation which is separable as two independent harmonic oscillators as a special case.

  10. Addition Theorems, Formal Group Laws and Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Bunkova, E. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    We consider elliptic curves, given in the Weierstrass parametrization by the equation y2+μ1xy+μ3y = x3+μ2x2+μ4x+μ6. In Tate coordinates t = -x/y and s = -1/y, the geometric addition laws on this curves correspond to the general elliptic formal group law over the ring Z[μ1,μ2,μ3,μ4,μ6]. This formal group law is well-known in the number theory and cryptography. One can find this law in recent works on the theory of elliptic functions and algebraic topology. In the focus of our interest are questions, important from the point of view of Hirzebruch genera and the theory of integrable systems (see references).

  11. Developing a formal representation for medication appropriateness criteria.

    PubMed

    Salmasian, Hojjat; Tran, Tran H; Friedman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate medications use (IMU) is a serious issue of global concern that leads to a waste of resources and potentially harms the patients. IMU can usually be identified by extracting information about the patient's conditions and treatments, and comparing them with "medication appropriateness criteria". To enable automation of these criteria, we developed a formal representation for them, which we called Objective Medication Appropriateness Criteria (OMAC). OMAC represents four aspects of the criteria: trigger, rules, action and metadata. Our evaluation showed that OMAC can completely represent explicitly defined medication appropriateness criteria using links to external knowledge sources. OMAC is the first formal representation for medication appropriateness criteria, and will enable development of structured rules for appropriate use of medications that can be implemented using standards for clinical decision support.

  12. Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.

  13. A formalism and computer program for coupled lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper, a formalism to calculate the lattice functions and emittances of a coupled electron/positron storage ring is presented. The lattice functions are calculated directly from the modal matrix of the betatron transport matrix for the ring. The emittances and damping rates are then calculated from the invariants found in the diagonalized representation. In addition, a computer program is described which uses the formalism to calculate the coupled lattice functions, emittances and damping rates. The program can either reconstruct the closed orbit from BPM data and dipole corrector strengths, or construct an orbit from misalignments entered into the the lattice and then optionally correct the orbit with dipole correctors. The lattice functions, emittances, etc. are then calculated about the resulting closed orbit. 7 refs.

  14. A FORMALISM FOR COVARIANT POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSPORT BY RAY TRACING

    SciTech Connect

    Gammie, Charles F.; Leung, Po Kin

    2012-06-20

    We write down a covariant formalism for polarized radiative transfer appropriate for ray tracing through a turbulent plasma. The polarized radiation field is represented by the polarization tensor (coherency matrix) N{sup {alpha}{beta}} {identical_to} (a{sup {alpha}}{sub k} a*{sup {beta}}{sub k}), where a{sub k} is a Fourier coefficient for the vector potential. Using Maxwell's equations, the Liouville-Vlasov equation, and the WKB approximation, we show that the transport equation in vacuo is k{sup {mu}}{nabla}{sub {mu}} N{sup {alpha}{beta}} = 0. We show that this is equivalent to Broderick and Blandford's formalism based on invariant Stokes parameters and a rotation coefficient, and suggest a modification that may reduce truncation error in some situations. Finally, we write down several alternative approaches to integrating the transfer equation.

  15. Matrix Formalism for Spin Dynamics Near a Single Depolarization Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2005-10-26

    A matrix formalism is developed to describe the spin dynamics in a synchrotron near a single depolarization resonance as the particle energy (and therefore its spin precession frequency) is varied in a prescribed pattern as a function of time such as during acceleration. This formalism is first applied to the case of crossing the resonance with a constant crossing speed and a finite total step size, and then applied also to other more involved cases when the single resonance is crossed repeatedly in a prescribed manner consisting of linear ramping segments or sudden jumps. How repeated crossings produce an interference behavior is discussed using the results obtained. For a polarized beam with finite energy spread, a spin echo experiment is suggested to explore this interference effect.

  16. Formal design specification of a Processor Interface Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work to formally specify the requirements and design of a processor interface unit (PIU), a single-chip subsystem providing memory-interface bus-interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. The need for high-quality design assurance in such applications is an undisputed fact, given the disastrous consequences that even a single design flaw can produce. Thus, the further development and application of formal methods to fault-tolerant systems is of critical importance as these systems see increasing use in modern society.

  17. On the Formal Verification of Conflict Detection Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky W.; Carreno, Victor A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment of new air traffic management systems is a main issue for civil aviation authorities. Standard techniques such as testing and simulation have serious limitations in new systems that are significantly more autonomous than the older ones. In this paper, we present an innovative approach, based on formal verification, for establishing the correctness of conflict detection systems. Fundamental to our approach is the concept of trajectory, which is a continuous path in the x-y plane constrained by physical laws and operational requirements. From the Model of trajectories, we extract, and formally prove, high level properties that can serve as a framework to analyze conflict scenarios. We use the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) alerting algorithm as a case study of our approach.

  18. Explicating formal epistemology: Carnap's legacy as Jeffrey's radical probabilism.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Quine's "naturalized epistemology" presents a challenge to Carnapian explication: why try to rationally reconstruct probabilistic concepts instead of just doing psychology? This paper tracks the historical development of Richard C. Jeffrey who, on the one hand, voiced worries similar to Quine's about Carnapian explication but, on the other hand, claims that his own work in formal epistemology—what he calls "radical probabilism"—is somehow continuous with both Carnap's method of explication and logical empiricism. By examining how Jeffrey's claim could possibly be accurate, the paper suggests that Jeffrey's radical probabilism can be seen as a sort of alternative explication project to Carnap's own inductive logic. In so doing, it deflates both Quine's worries about Carnapian explication and so also, by extension, similar worries about formal epistemology.

  19. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review.

  20. Representing ICD-11 JLMMS Using IHTSDO Representation Formalisms.

    PubMed

    Mamou, Marzouk; Rector, Alan; Schulz, Stefan; Campbell, James; Solbrig, Harold; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    It is investigated whether the content of the Joint Linearization for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics of the 11th ICD revision can be semantically represented by formalisms acting on the clinical terminology SNOMED CT, viz. the IHTSDO Compositional Grammar (CG) and the Expression Constraint Language (ECL). Whereas CG provides a composition syntax for building coordinated SNOMED CT expressions, ECL provides a powerful query mechanism. Both formalisms can be leveraged to guarantee inter-operation between an ontology-based terminology like SNOMED CT and a statistical classification like ICD, characterized by single hierarchies and exhaustive, mutually exclusive classes. We test the feasibility of the method on the circulatory chapter of ICD-11 JLMMS. PMID:27577419

  1. Application of Lightweight Formal Methods to Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Formal specification and verification of security has proven a challenging task. There is no single method that has proven feasible. Instead, an integrated approach which combines several formal techniques can increase the confidence in the verification of software security properties. Such an approach which species security properties in a library that can be reused by 2 instruments and their methodologies developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described herein The Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) is a model based verijkation instrument that uses Promela and the SPIN model checker. The Property Based Tester (PBT) uses TASPEC and a Text Execution Monitor (TEM). They are used to reduce vulnerabilities and unwanted exposures in software during the development and maintenance life cycles.

  2. Explicating formal epistemology: Carnap's legacy as Jeffrey's radical probabilism.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Quine's "naturalized epistemology" presents a challenge to Carnapian explication: why try to rationally reconstruct probabilistic concepts instead of just doing psychology? This paper tracks the historical development of Richard C. Jeffrey who, on the one hand, voiced worries similar to Quine's about Carnapian explication but, on the other hand, claims that his own work in formal epistemology—what he calls "radical probabilism"—is somehow continuous with both Carnap's method of explication and logical empiricism. By examining how Jeffrey's claim could possibly be accurate, the paper suggests that Jeffrey's radical probabilism can be seen as a sort of alternative explication project to Carnap's own inductive logic. In so doing, it deflates both Quine's worries about Carnapian explication and so also, by extension, similar worries about formal epistemology. PMID:26386528

  3. An elementary tutorial on formal specification and verification using PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1993-01-01

    A tutorial on the development of a formal specification and its verification using the Prototype Verification System (PVS) is presented. The tutorial presents the formal specification and verification techniques by way of specific example - an airline reservation system. The airline reservation system is modeled as a simple state machine with two basic operations. These operations are shown to preserve a state invariant using the theorem proving capabilities of PVS. The technique of validating a specification via 'putative theorem proving' is also discussed and illustrated in detail. This paper is intended for the novice and assumes only some of the basic concepts of logic. A complete description of user inputs and the PVS output is provided and thus it can be effectively used while one is sitting at a computer terminal.

  4. Formal analysis of imprecise system requirements with Event-B.

    PubMed

    Le, Hong Anh; Nakajima, Shin; Truong, Ninh Thuan

    2016-01-01

    Formal analysis of functional properties of system requirements needs precise descriptions. However, the stakeholders sometimes describe the system with ambiguous, vague or fuzzy terms, hence formal frameworks for modeling and verifying such requirements are desirable. The Fuzzy If-Then rules have been used for imprecise requirements representation, but verifying their functional properties still needs new methods. In this paper, we propose a refinement-based modeling approach for specification and verification of such requirements. First, we introduce a representation of imprecise requirements in the set theory. Then we make use of Event-B refinement providing a set of translation rules from Fuzzy If-Then rules to Event-B notations. After that, we show how to verify both safety and eventuality properties with RODIN/Event-B. Finally, we illustrate the proposed method on the example of Crane Controller. PMID:27398276

  5. Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernits, Juhan; Dearden, Richard; Pebody, Miles

    2009-01-01

    This is a progress report on applying formal methods in the context of building an automated diagnosis and recovery system for Autosub 6000, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The diagnosis task involves building abstract models of the control system of the AUV. The diagnosis engine is based on Livingstone 2, a model-based diagnoser originally built for aerospace applications. Large parts of the diagnosis model can be built without concrete knowledge about each mission, but actual mission scripts and configuration parameters that carry important information for diagnosis are changed for every mission. Thus we use formal methods for generating the mission control part of the diagnosis model automatically from the mission script and perform a number of invariant checks to validate the configuration. After the diagnosis model is augmented with the generated mission control component model, it needs to be validated using verification techniques.

  6. Towards the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we show that using frame-like gauge invariant formulation for the massive bosonic and fermionic fields in three dimensions the free Lagrangians for these fields can be rewritten in the explicitly gauge invariant form in terms of the appropriately chosen set of gauge invariant objects. This in turn opens the possibility to apply the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism to the investigation of possible interactions of such fields.

  7. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  8. The Formalism of Generalized Contexts and Decay Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories is used to investigate the possibility to consider the survival probability as the probability of no decay property at a given time conditional to no decay property at an earlier time. A negative result is found for an isolated system. The inclusion of two quantum measurement instruments at two different times makes possible to interpret the survival probability as a conditional probability of the whole system.

  9. Have "formal investigations" into fishing vessel losses ceased?

    PubMed

    Reilly, M S

    1987-01-01

    Systematic studies of 618 fishing vessel losses between January 1961 and December 1982 have shown a significantly increased incidence of total losses from 1972 onwards. Comparison of mean pre- and post-1972 rates indicated an increase of 120% from 2.54 to 5.58 losses per 1000 vessels at risk. Parallel examination of the mortality of fishermen from all occupational accidents showed no improvement. For deaths arising from vessel losses alone, the mean crude death rate, for the same periods, increased by 13%. Despite these findings, formal investigations (courts of inquiry) into fishing losses, ordered by the Department of Transport according to specified criteria, decreased in number from about 1975 onwards. The mean number fell by 61% from 3.1 (1961-71) to 1.2 a year (1972-82). Furthermore, the reduction in the rate of formal investigations into fishing vessel losses (-84%; p less than 0.0001) was greater than the corresponding reduction (-61%; p less than 0.001) in United Kingdom merchant vessel investigations and this difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). During 1972-82 there were 61 fewer fishing investigations than predicted from the rate at which these were ordered during 1961-71. The last took place in 1979. None of the 141 fishing vessel losses between January 1980 and December 1982 proceeded to formal investigation. The possibility that the criteria for ordering formal investigations have not been fulfilled by the circumstances of fishing vessel losses from 1975 onwards is assessed as one explanation for this paradoxical finding of an inverse relation between losses and investigations. The accident investigation and public reporting procedures for aviation accidents should be adobted for marine accidents in general and fishing vessel losses in particular. PMID:3814538

  10. Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.

  11. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  12. Integration of inhomogeneous cosmological spacetimes in the BSSN formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, James B.; Giblin, John T.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-06-01

    We present cosmological-scale numerical simulations of an evolving universe in full general relativity and introduce a new numerical tool, cosmograph, which employs the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism on a three-dimensional grid. Using cosmograph, we calculate the effect of an inhomogeneous matter distribution on the evolution of a spacetime. We also present the results of a set of standard stability tests to demonstrate the robustness of our simulations.

  13. Interpretation of the quantum formalism and Bell's theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, E. )

    1991-02-01

    It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states.

  14. Regioselective, Asymmetric Formal Hydroamination of Unactivated Internal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yumeng; Butcher, Trevor W; Zhang, Jing; Hartwig, John F

    2016-01-11

    We report the regioselective and enantioselective formal hydroamination of unsymmetrical internal alkenes catalyzed by a copper catalyst ligated by DTBM-SEGPHOS. The regioselectivity of the reaction is controlled by the electronic effects of ether, ester, and sulfonamide groups in the homoallylic position. The observed selectivity underscores the influence of inductive effects of remote substituents on the selectivity of catalytic processes occurring at hydrocarbyl groups, and the method provides direct access to various 1,3-aminoalcohol derivatives with high enantioselectivity. PMID:26592363

  15. A short formal synthesis of squalamine from a microbial metabolite.

    PubMed

    Kinney, W A; Zhang, X; Williams, J I; Johnston, S; Michalak, R S; Deshpande, M; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    2000-09-21

    A short formal synthesis of squalamine is described, utilizing the biotransformation product 2, which is available in one step from commercially available 3-keto-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-ol (1). Regioselective C-22 oxidation and C-24 sulfation of the corresponding alcohols in the presence of a free C-7 alcohol make for an efficient preparation of squalamine intermediate 11. PMID:10986072

  16. From Livingstone to SMV: Formal Verification for Autonomous Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Simmons, Reid

    2000-01-01

    To fulfill the needs of its deep space exploration program, NASA is actively supporting research and development in autonomy software. However, the reliable and cost-effective development and validation of autonomy systems poses a tough challenge. Traditional scenario-based testing methods fall short because of the combinatorial explosion of possible situations to be analyzed, and formal verification techniques typically require a tedious, manual modelling by formal method experts. This paper presents the application of formal verification techniques in the development of autonomous controllers based on Livingstone, a model-based health-monitoring system that can detect and diagnose anomalies and suggest possible recovery actions. We present a translator that converts the models used by Livingstone into specifications that can be verified with the SMV model checker. The translation frees the Livingstone developer from the tedious conversion of his design to SMV, and isolates him from the technical details of the SMV program. We describe different aspects of the translation and briefly discuss its application to several NASA domains.

  17. Foundations of a spacetime path formalism for relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Seidewitz, Ed

    2006-11-15

    Quantum field theory is the traditional solution to the problems inherent in melding quantum mechanics with special relativity. However, it has also long been known that an alternative first-quantized formulation can be given for relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the parametrized paths of particles in spacetime. Because time is treated similarly to the three space coordinates, rather than as an evolution parameter, such a spacetime approach has proved particularly useful in the study of quantum gravity and cosmology. This paper shows how a spacetime path formalism can be considered to arise naturally from the fundamental principles of the Born probability rule, superposition, and Poincare invariance. The resulting formalism can be seen as a foundation for a number of previous parametrized approaches in the literature, relating, in particular, 'off-shell' theories to traditional on-shell quantum field theory. It reproduces the results of perturbative quantum field theory for free and interacting particles, but provides intriguing possibilities for a natural program for regularization and renormalization. Further, an important consequence of the formalism is that a clear probabilistic interpretation can be maintained throughout, with a natural reduction to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.

  18. A test of the formal and modern theories of matching.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Soto, Paul L; McDowell, J J

    2005-09-01

    The present study tested a formal, or purely mathematical, theory of matching, and a modern account derived by McDowell (1986) that incorporates deviations from strict matching-bias and sensitivity. Six humans pressed a lever for monetary reinforcers on five concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. All schedules were presented during each session. The magnitude on one alternative remained constant, and five magnitudes were presented across sessions on the other alternative. To test the formal account, two absolute response rate equations were fitted to the response and reinforcement rates at each alternative at each magnitude. Although the equations accounted for a high percentage of variance, there was a significant negative correlation between the standardized residuals and the predicted response rates. To test the modern account, an ensemble of four equations was fitted to the data. The equations predicted relative and absolute responding, and the independent variables in each equation were adjusted for bias and sensitivity. The equations accounted for a high percentage of variance, and the standardized residuals were not correlated with the predicted response rates. The values of the parameters were consistent with empirical findings and theoretical predictions, including the prediction that k should remain constant across changes in reinforcer magnitude. The results suggest that the formal theory of matching does not describe the data, and that the modern theory may provide an accurate and coherent description of concurrent and single-alternative responding.

  19. Formal specification of the plain UCN layer in LOTOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheerde, Jan Willem; Kremer, Harro; Pasch, Hans

    1992-12-01

    A new high speed local area network design that can be made to behave either like a token ring or a slotted ring, is presented. The name of the new proposal is Universal Channel Network (UCN). The UCN layer protocol and the formal specification of the UCN layer are summarized. While the token ring outperforms the slotted ring for long messages, a slotted ring performs significantly better for short messages. The factor that causes this difference is the number of tokens on the ring. In UCN, the number of tokens is adaptive, resulting in a network that can be made to behave like a token ring and a slotted ring or anything in between. The UCN performs optimally for any given message length. The reference model of UCN consists of the following layers: the medium layer, the basic slot layer, the UCN layer, and the UCN adaptation layer. The formal specification of UCN uses the specification language LOTOS. The service of the basic slot layer, which is used by the UCN layer, is described informally and formally.

  20. Non-formal educator use of evaluation results.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Sarah; Boyd, Heather H; Franz, Nancy K

    2012-08-01

    Increasing demands for accountability in educational programming have resulted in increasing calls for program evaluation in educational organizations. Many organizations include conducting program evaluations as part of the job responsibilities of program staff. Cooperative Extension is a complex organization offering non-formal educational programs through land grant universities. Many Extension services require non-formal educational program evaluations be conducted by field-based Extension educators. Evaluation research has focused primarily on the efforts of professional, external evaluators. The work of program staff with many responsibilities including program evaluation has received little attention. This study examined how field based Extension educators (i.e. program staff) in four Extension services use the results of evaluations of programs that they have conducted themselves. Four types of evaluation use are measured and explored; instrumental use, conceptual use, persuasive use and process use. Results indicate that there are few programmatic changes as a result of evaluation findings among the non-formal educators surveyed in this study. Extension educators tend to use evaluation results to persuade others about the value of their programs and learn from the evaluation process. Evaluation use is driven by accountability measures with very little program improvement use as measured in this study. Practical implications include delineating accountability and program improvement tasks within complex organizations in order to align evaluation efforts and to improve the results of both. There is some evidence that evaluation capacity building efforts may be increasing instrumental use by educators evaluating their own programs.

  1. Convoys of care: Theorizing intersections of formal and informal care

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most care to frail elders is provided informally, much of this care is paired with formal care services. Yet, common approaches to conceptualizing the formal–informal intersection often are static, do not consider self-care, and typically do not account for multi-level influences. In response, we introduce the “convoy of care” model as an alternative way to conceptualize the intersection and to theorize connections between care convoy properties and caregiver and recipient outcomes. The model draws on Kahn and Antonucci's (1980) convoy model of social relations, expanding it to include both formal and informal care providers and also incorporates theoretical and conceptual threads from life course, feminist gerontology, social ecology, and symbolic interactionist perspectives. This article synthesizes theoretical and empirical knowledge and demonstrates the convoy of care model in an increasingly popular long-term care setting, assisted living. We conceptualize care convoys as dynamic, evolving, person- and family-specific, and influenced by a host of multi-level factors. Care convoys have implications for older adults’ quality of care and ability to age in place, for job satisfaction and retention among formal caregivers, and for informal caregiver burden. The model moves beyond existing conceptual work to provide a comprehensive, multi-level, multi-factor framework that can be used to inform future research, including research in other care settings, and to spark further theoretical development. PMID:23273553

  2. The formal pace of Sesame Street over 26 years.

    PubMed

    Koolstra, Cees M; van Zanten, Juliette; Lucassen, Nicole; Ishaak, Nazreen

    2004-08-01

    Television producers often use a high rate in the succession of visual and auditory features in their programs to attract the attention of viewers. In this study an attempt was made to measure the formal pace of television programs by scoring the rates of an extensive set of formal visual and auditory characteristics. Sesame Street was chosen as a focal point because this educational program--with its high pace--is very successful in its competition with the majority of commercial programs from which children can choose to watch at home. The analyzed material consisted of 49 Dutch episodes of Sesame Street broadcast between 1977 and 2003. The formal pace characteristics of separate program items from Sesame Street could be reliably established. Factor analysis indicated that clear pace factors were (a) "editing," consisting of a frequent use of different types of shots (total shots, medium shots, and close-ups) combined with a large number of cuts and (b) speech rate. Over a period of 26 years, the pace of editing increased: the mean number of cuts increased from about 4 to 8 per minute. The mean speech rate decreased from 175 to 139 words per minute.

  3. Formal versus heuristic modeling for multitarget Bayes filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald P. S.

    2004-08-01

    The multisensor-multitarget Bayes filter is the foundation for multi-sensor-multitarget detection, tracking, and identification. This paper addresses the question of principled implementation of this filter. Algorithms can always be cobbled together using catch-as-catch-can heuristic techniques. In formal Bayes modeling one instead derives statistically precise, implementation-independent equations from which principle approximations can then be derived. Indeed, this has become the accepted methodology for single-sensor, single-target tracking R&D. In the case of the multitarget filter, however, partisans of a so-called "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach" have disparaged formal Bayes modelling, and have protrayed specific, ad hoc implementations as completely general, "powerful and robust computational methods." In this and a companion paper I expose the speciousness of such claims. This paper reviews the elements of formal Bayes modeling and approximation, describes what they must look like in the multitarget case, and contrasts them with the "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach."

  4. Multi-formalism modelling and simulation: application to cardiac modelling

    PubMed Central

    Defontaine, Antoine; Hernández, Alfredo; Carrault, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular modelling has been a major research subject for the last decades. Different cardiac models have been developed at a cellular level as well as at the whole organ level. Most of these models are defined by a comprehensive cellular modelling using continuous formalisms or by a tissue-level modelling often based on discrete formalisms. Nevertheless, both views still suffer from difficulties that reduce their clinical applications: the first approach requires heavy computational resources while the second one is not able to reproduce certain pathologies. This paper presents an original methodology trying to gather advantages from both approaches, by means of an hybrid model mixing discrete and continuous formalisms. This method has been applied to define a hybrid model of cardiac action potential propagation on a 2D grid of endocardial cells, combining cellular automata and a set of cells defined by the Beeler Reuter model. For simulations under physiologic and ischemic conditions, results show that the action potential propagation as well as electrogram reconstructions are consistent with clinical diagnosis. Finally, the interest of the proposed approach is discussed within the frame of cardiac modelling and simulation. PMID:15520534

  5. Formal reasoning ability and misconceptions concerning genetics and natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Thompson, Lois D.

    Students often hold misconceptions about natural phenomena. To overcome misconceptions students must become aware of the scientific conceptions, the evidence that bears on the validity of their misconceptions and the scientific conceptions, and they must be able to generate the logical relationships among the evidence and alternative conceptions. Because formal operational reasoning patterns are necessary to generate these logical relationships, it was predicted that, following instruction, formal operational students would hold significantly fewer misconceptions than their concrete operational classmates. To test this hypothesis 131 seventh-grade students were administered an essay test on principles of genetics and natural selection following instruction. Responses were categorized in terms of the number of misconceptions present. The number of misconceptions was compared to reasoning ability (concrete, transitional, formal), mental capacity (<6, 6, 7), verbal intelligence (low, medium, high), and cognitive style (field dependent, intermediate, field independent). The only student variable consistently and significantly related to the number of misconceptions was reasoning ability; thus, support for the major hypothesis of the study was obtained.

  6. Formal Analysis of the Remote Agent Before and After Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Mike; Park, SeungJoon; Pecheur, Charles; Penix, John; Visser, Willem; White, Jon L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes two separate efforts that used the SPIN model checker to verify deep space autonomy flight software. The first effort occurred at the beginning of a spiral development process and found five concurrency errors early in the design cycle that the developers acknowledge would not have been found through testing. This effort required a substantial manual modeling effort involving both abstraction and translation from the prototype LISP code to the PROMELA language used by SPIN. This experience and others led to research to address the gap between formal method tools and the development cycle used by software developers. The Java PathFinder tool which directly translates from Java to PROMELA was developed as part of this research, as well as automatic abstraction tools. In 1999 the flight software flew on a space mission, and a deadlock occurred in a sibling subsystem to the one which was the focus of the first verification effort. A second quick-response "cleanroom" verification effort found the concurrency error in a short amount of time. The error was isomorphic to one of the concurrency errors found during the first verification effort. The paper demonstrates that formal methods tools can find concurrency errors that indeed lead to loss of spacecraft functions, even for the complex software required for autonomy. Second, it describes progress in automatic translation and abstraction that eventually will enable formal methods tools to be inserted directly into the aerospace software development cycle.

  7. Formal Requirements-Based Programming for Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Computer science as a field has not yet produced a general method to mechanically transform complex computer system requirements into a provably equivalent implementation. Such a method would be one major step towards dealing with complexity in computing, yet it remains the elusive holy grail of system development. Currently available tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The gap that such tools and methods leave unfilled is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the system requirements as originated by the customer For the classes of complex systems whose behavior can be described as a finite (but significant) set of scenarios, we offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements (expressed in restricted natural language, or appropriate graphical notations) into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. While other techniques are available, this method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. We illustrate the application of the method to an example procedure from the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission currently under study and preliminary formulation at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. Formal Verification of Security Policy Implementations in Enterprise Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dasgupta, Pallab

    In enterprise networks, the management of security policies and their configurations becoming increasingly difficult due to complex security constraints of the organizations. In such networks, the overall organizational security policy (global policy) is defined as a collection of rules for providing service accesses between various network zones. Often, the specification of the global policy is incomplete; where all possible service access paths may not be covered explicitly by the "permit" and "deny" rules. This policy is implemented in a distributed manner through appropriate sets of access control rules (ACL rules) in the network interfaces. However, the implementation must be complete i.e., all service access paths across the network must be implemented as "permit" and "deny" ACL rules. In that case, the unspecified access paths in a given policy must be implemented as either "permit" or "deny" rules; hence there may exist multiple ACL implementations corresponding to that policy. Formally verifying that the ACL rules distributed across the network interfaces guarantees proper enforcement of the global security policy is an important requirement and a major technical challenge. The complexity of the problem is compounded by the fact that some combination of network services may lead to inconsistent hidden access paths in the network. The ACL implementations ignoring these hidden access paths may result in violation of one or more policy rules implicitly. This paper presents a formal verification framework for analyzing security policy implementations in enterprise networks. It stems from boolean modeling of the network topology, network services and security policy where the unspecified access paths are modeled as "don't-care" rules. The framework formally models the hidden access rules and incorporates them in the distributed ACL implementations for extracting a security implementation model, and finally formulates a QSAT (satisfiability of quantified boolean

  9. Formal consensus: the development of a national clinical guideline

    PubMed Central

    Rycroft-Malone, J

    2001-01-01

    Background—There is currently a political enthusiasm for the development and use of clinical guidelines despite, paradoxically, there being relatively few healthcare issues that have a sound research evidence base. As decisions have to be made even where there is an undetermined evidence base and that limiting recommendations to where evidence exists may reduce the scope of guidelines, thus limiting their value to practitioners, guideline developers have to rely on various different sources of evidence and adapt their methods accordingly. This paper outlines a method for guideline development which incorporates a consensus process devised to tackle the challenges of a variable research evidence base for the development of a national clinical guideline on risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers. Method—To inform the recommendations of the guideline a formal consensus process based on a nominal group technique was used to incorporate three strands of evidence: research, clinical expertise, and patient experience. Results—The recommendations for this guideline were derived directly from the statements agreed in the formal consensus process and from key evidence-based findings from the systematic reviews. The existing format of the statements that participants had rated allowed a straightforward revision to "active" recommendations, thus reducing further risk of subjectivity entering into the process. Conclusions—The method outlined proved to be a practical and systematic way of integrating a number of different evidence sources. The resultant guideline is a mixture of research based and consensus based recommendations. Given the lack of available guidance on how to mix research with expert opinion and patient experiences, the method used for the development of this guideline has been outlined so that other guideline developers may use, adapt, and test it further. Key Words: guidelines; guideline development; formal consensus process; nominal group

  10. Mending the Gap, An Effort to Aid the Transfer of Formal Methods Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods can be applied to many of the development and verification activities required for civil avionics software. RTCA/DO-178B, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, gives a brief description of using formal methods as an alternate method of compliance with the objectives of that standard. Despite this, the avionics industry at large has been hesitant to adopt formal methods, with few developers have actually used formal methods for certification credit. Why is this so, given the volume of evidence of the benefits of formal methods? This presentation will explore some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describe the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to develop guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach.

  11. Quantum error correcting codes from the compression formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Man-Duen; Kribs, David W.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2006-08-01

    We solve the fundamental quantum error correction problem for bi-unitary channels on two-qubit Hilbert space. By solving an algebraic compression problem, we construct qubit codes for such channels on arbitrary dimension Hilbert space, and identify correctable codes for Pauli-error models not obtained by the stabilizer formalism. This is accomplished through an application of a new tool for error correction in quantum computing called the "higher-rank numerical range". We describe its basic properties and discuss possible further applications.

  12. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics. PMID:25210664

  13. Adjusting game difficulty level through Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Martín, Marco A.; Gómez-Martín, Pedro P.; Gonzâlez-Calero, Pedro A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén

    In order to reach as many players as possible, videogames usually allow the user to choose the difficulty level. To do it, game designers have to decide the values that some game parameters will have depending on that decision. In simple videogames this is almost trivial: minesweeper is harder with longer board sizes and number of mines. In more complex games, game designers may take advantage of data mining to establish which of all the possible parameters will affect positively to the player experience. This paper describes the use of Formal Concept Analysis to help to balance the game using the logs obtained in the tests made prior the release of the game.

  14. Formal Direct Cross-Coupling of Phenols with Amines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengwang; Zeng, Huiying; Girard, Simon A; Wang, Feng; Chen, Ning; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-11-23

    The transition-metal-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has been the most powerful method for the formation of aryl amines over the past decades. Phenols are regarded as ideal alternatives to aryl halides as coupling partners in cross-couplings. An efficient palladium-catalyzed formal cross-coupling of phenols with various amines and anilines has now been developed. A variety of substituted phenols were compatible with the standard reaction conditions. Secondary and tertiary aryl amines could thus be synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:26531683

  15. Link-based formalism for time evolution of adaptive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Xiao, Gaoxi; Chen, Guanrong

    2013-09-01

    Network topology and nodal dynamics are two fundamental stones of adaptive networks. Detailed and accurate knowledge of these two ingredients is crucial for understanding the evolution and mechanism of adaptive networks. In this paper, by adopting the framework of the adaptive SIS model proposed by Gross [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.96.208701 96, 208701 (2006)] and carefully utilizing the information of degree correlation of the network, we propose a link-based formalism for describing the system dynamics with high accuracy and subtle details. Several specific degree correlation measures are introduced to reveal the coevolution of network topology and system dynamics.

  16. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  17. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed. PMID:27627270

  18. Characterizing cerebrovascular dynamics with the wavelet-based multifractal formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Abdurashitov, A. S.; Sindeeva, O. A.; Sindeev, S. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Shihalov, G. M.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    Using the wavelet-transform modulus maxima (WTMM) approach we study the dynamics of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rats aiming to reveal responses of macro- and microcerebral circulations to changes in the peripheral blood pressure. We show that the wavelet-based multifractal formalism allows quantifying essentially different reactions in the CBF-dynamics at the level of large and small cerebral vessels. We conclude that unlike the macrocirculation that is nearly insensitive to increased peripheral blood pressure, the microcirculation is characterized by essential changes of the CBF-complexity.

  19. Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez Ruiz, Eduardo R.; Lemoine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of EDEMOI - a French national project that proposed the use of semiformal and formal methods to infer the consistency and robustness of aeronautical regulations through the analysis of faithfully representative models- a methodology had been suggested (and applied) to different (safety and security-related) aeronautical regulations. This paper summarizes the preliminary results of this experience by stating which were the methodology s expected benefits, from a scientific point of view, and which are its useful benefits, from a regulatory body s point of view.

  20. A Formal Enantiospecific Synthesis of 7,20-Diisocyanoadociane.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Philipp C; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-06-13

    7,20-Diisocyanoadociane (DICA) is a potent antimalarial isocyanoterpene endowed with a fascinating tetracyclic structure composed of fused chair cyclohexanes. We report a highly stereocontrolled synthesis of a late-stage intermediate, the "Corey dione", from which DICA has been made previously. This formal synthesis features a rapid buildup of much of the complexity of the target through a sequence of enone tandem vicinal difunctionalization, Friedel-Crafts cyclodehydration, and sequential stereocontrolled reductions. Most importantly, this success establishes the broader feasibility of our previously developed general synthesis approach to the isocyanoterpene family and provides a blueprint for a very direct synthesis of DICA and related natural products. PMID:27162155

  1. Two-state vector formalism and quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, F. A.; Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-08-01

    We show that two-state vector formalism (TSVF), applied to quantum systems that make use of delicate interference effects, can lead to paradoxes. We consider a few schemes of nested Mach–Zehnder interferometers that make use of destructive interference. A particular interpretation of TSVF applied to these schemes makes predictions that are contradictory to quantum theory and can not always be verified. Our results suggest that TSVF might not be a suitable tool to describe quantum systems that make use of delicate quantum interference effects.

  2. Formalization of the engineering science discipline - knowledge engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao

    Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an

  3. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  4. Disentangling the imaginary-time formalism at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S. M. H.

    2001-07-15

    We rewrite the imaginary-time formalism of finite temperature field theory in a form that all graphs used in calculating physical processes do not have any loops. Any production of a particle from a heat bath which is itself not thermalized or the decay and absorption of a similar particle in the bath is expressed entirely in terms of the sum of particle interaction processes. These are themselves very general in meaning. They can be straightforward interactions or the more subtle and less well-known purely interference processes that do not have a counterpart in the vacuum.

  5. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  6. Formal Verification for a Next-Generation Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy D.; Pecheur, Charles; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the verification and validation (V&2) of advanced software used for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM), in the context of NASA's next-generation space shuttle. We survey the current VBCV practice and standards used in selected NASA projects, review applicable formal verification techniques, and discuss their integration info existing development practice and standards. We also describe two verification tools, JMPL2SMV and Livingstone PathFinder, that can be used to thoroughly verify diagnosis applications that use model-based reasoning, such as the Livingstone system.

  7. Three-dimensional gauge theory in Dirac formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Kiyoshi

    1986-08-01

    The Hagen model [C. R. Hagen, Ann. Phys. (NY) 157, 342 (1984); Phys. Rev. D 31, 331 (1985)] is studied using the method of constrained Hamiltonian formalism developed by Dirac [P. A. M. Dirac, Can. J. Math. 2, 129 (1950); Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (Yeshiva U. P., New York, 1964)]. The results recently obtained by Burnel and Van Der Rest-Jaspers [A. Burnel and M. Van Der Rest-Jaspers, J. Math. Phys. 26, 3155 (1985)] are reexamined and modified. There appear two second-class constraints and their choice is not crucial. The equivalence of different gauges is proved without referring to the current conservation law.

  8. Imaginary-time formalism for triple-α reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahori, T.; Funaki, Y.; Yabana, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using imaginary-time formalism, it is shown that the triple-α reaction rate can be reliably calculated without the need to solve scattering problems involving three charged particles. The calculated reaction rate is found to agree well with the empirical NACRE rate, which is widely adopted in stellar evolution calculations. The reason for this is explained using R -matrix theory. Extremely slow convergence is found to occur when a coupled-channel expansion is introduced, which helps to explain the very different reaction rates obtained using a coupled-channel approach.

  9. Two-state vector formalism and quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, F. A.; Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-08-01

    We show that two-state vector formalism (TSVF), applied to quantum systems that make use of delicate interference effects, can lead to paradoxes. We consider a few schemes of nested Mach-Zehnder interferometers that make use of destructive interference. A particular interpretation of TSVF applied to these schemes makes predictions that are contradictory to quantum theory and can not always be verified. Our results suggest that TSVF might not be a suitable tool to describe quantum systems that make use of delicate quantum interference effects.

  10. On the CJT formalism in multi-field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    1996-02-01

    The issues that arise when using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism in multi-field theories are investigated. Particular attention is devoted to the interplay between temperature effects, ultraviolet structure, and the interdependence of the gap equations. Results are presented explicitly in the case of the evaluation of the finite temperature effective potential of a theory with two scalar fields which has attracted interest as a toy model for symmetry nonrestoration at high temperatures. The lowest nontrivial order of approximation of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective potential is shown to lead to consistent results, which are relevant for recent studies of symmetry nonrestoration by Bimonte and Lozano.

  11. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  12. Formal methods in the design of Ada 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David

    1995-01-01

    Formal, mathematical methods are most useful when applied early in the design and implementation of a software system--that, at least, is the familiar refrain. I will report on a modest effort to apply formal methods at the earliest possible stage, namely, in the design of the Ada 95 programming language itself. This talk is an 'experience report' that provides brief case studies illustrating the kinds of problems we worked on, how we approached them, and the extent (if any) to which the results proved useful. It also derives some lessons and suggestions for those undertaking future projects of this kind. Ada 95 is the first revision of the standard for the Ada programming language. The revision began in 1988, when the Ada Joint Programming Office first asked the Ada Board to recommend a plan for revising the Ada standard. The first step in the revision was to solicit criticisms of Ada 83. A set of requirements for the new language standard, based on those criticisms, was published in 1990. A small design team, the Mapping Revision Team (MRT), became exclusively responsible for revising the language standard to satisfy those requirements. The MRT, from Intermetrics, is led by S. Tucker Taft. The work of the MRT was regularly subject to independent review and criticism by a committee of distinguished Reviewers and by several advisory teams--for example, the two User/Implementor teams, each consisting of an industrial user (attempting to make significant use of the new language on a realistic application) and a compiler vendor (undertaking, experimentally, to modify its current implementation in order to provide the necessary new features). One novel decision established the Language Precision Team (LPT), which investigated language proposals from a mathematical point of view. The LPT applied formal mathematical analysis to help improve the design of Ada 95 (e.g., by clarifying the language proposals) and to help promote its acceptance (e.g., by identifying a

  13. The Influence of Formal and Informal Formative Pre-Service Experiences on Teacher Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Elie; Isaacs, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Formal pre-service training has been shown to be effective in building teacher self-efficacy beliefs. However, the impact of other, less formal, "teacher-like" pre-service experiences on the formation of efficacy beliefs has not previously been investigated. This study examines the associations between both formal and informal formative…

  14. Systems, methods and apparatus for implementation of formal specifications derived from informal requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Erickson, John D. (Inventor); Gracinin, Denis (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an informal specification is translated without human intervention into a formal specification. In some embodiments the formal specification is a process-based specification. In some embodiments, the formal specification is translated into a high-level computer programming language which is further compiled into a set of executable computer instructions.

  15. Interrelationships among Elements of Formal Mentoring and the Dimensions of Organizational Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations created formal mentoring programs to replicate the benefits of informal mentoring. With regard to measuring mentoring functions, organizations are using informal measures to measure formal mentoring programs. As a result, empirical measurements of the effectiveness of university formal mentoring programs are limited. Researchers…

  16. 20 CFR 702.345 - Formal hearings; consolidated issues; consolidated cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal hearings; consolidated issues; consolidated cases. 702.345 Section 702.345 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... AND PROCEDURE Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.345 Formal hearings; consolidated...

  17. 20 CFR 702.345 - Formal hearings; consolidated issues; consolidated cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; consolidated issues; consolidated cases. 702.345 Section 702.345 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURE Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.345 Formal hearings; consolidated...

  18. From Regulation to Virtue: A Critique of Ethical Formalism in Research Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Timothy N.; Butler, Jesse W.

    2012-01-01

    The following article argues that the research compliance system has some flaws that should be addressed, particularly with regard to excessive emphasis of and reliance upon formal regulations in research administration. Ethical formalism, understood here as the use of formal rules for the determination of behavior, is not an optimal perspective…

  19. Formality and Informality in Speech Events, Working Papers in Sociolinquistics, No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Judith T.

    This paper considers a distinction frequently used in sociolinguistics and ethnography of speaking to describe speech events: their formality or informality. Three principle meanings of "formality" found in the literature concern whether the formality relates to properties of a communicative code, properties of the social setting in which a code…

  20. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  1. Non-Formal Learning: Clarification of the Concept and Its Application in Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, On Nei Annie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of non-formal learning, which falls outside the categories of informal and formal learning, has not been as widely discussed, especially in the music education literature. In order to bridge this gap and to provide supplementary framework to the discussion of informal and formal learning, therefore, this paper will first summarize…

  2. Non-formal Education in the Philippines: A Fundamental Step towards Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Ma. Celeste T.; Pijano, Ma. Concepcion V.

    In order to significantly contribute to human resource development, the Philippines must develop an integrated educational system of lifelong learning, with a special emphasis on non-formal education. Despite the value that is placed on formal, or sequential academic schooling, it is non-formal schooling that makes accessible the acquisition of…

  3. 76 FR 66875 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... the language requiring formal entry for certain articles, because with the elimination of absolute... proposes to remove language stating that formal entry is required for certain ``articles valued in excess... States (HTSUS). We propose to remove this language because CBP no longer needs to require formal...

  4. Roulettes: a weak lensing formalism for strong lensing: I. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new perspective on gravitational lensing. We describe a new extension of the weak lensing formalism capable of describing strongly lensed images. By integrating the nonlinear geodesic deviation equation, the amplification matrix of weak lensing is generalised to a sum over independent amplification tensors of increasing rank. We show how an image distorted by a generic lens may be constructed as a sum over ‘roulettes’, which are the natural curves associated with the independent spin modes of the amplification tensors. Highly distorted images can be constructed even for large sources observed near or within the Einstein radius of a lens where the shear and convergence are large. The amplitude of each roulette is formed from a sum over appropriate derivatives of the lensing potential. Consequently, measuring these individual roulettes for images around a lens gives a new way to reconstruct a strong lens mass distribution without requiring a lens model. This formalism generalises the convergence, shear and flexion of weak lensing to arbitrary order, and provides a unified bridge between the strong and weak lensing regimes. This overview paper is accompanied by a much more detailed paper II, arXiv:1603.04652.

  5. Astrophysical applications of the post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Pappas, George; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-08-01

    The bulk properties of spherically symmetric stars in general relativity can be obtained by integrating the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations. In previous work [K. Glampedakis, G. Pappas, H. O. Silva, and E. Berti, Phys. Rev. D 92, 024056 (2015)], we developed a "post-TOV" formalism—inspired by parametrized post-Newtonian theory—which allows us to classify in a parametrized, phenomenological form all possible perturbative deviations from the structure of compact stars in general relativity that may be induced by modified gravity at second post-Newtonian order. In this paper we extend the formalism to deal with the stellar exterior, and we compute several potential astrophysical observables within the post-TOV formalism: the surface redshift zs, the apparent radius Rapp, the Eddington luminosity at infinity LE∞ and the orbital frequencies. We show that, at leading order, all of these quantities depend on just two post-TOV parameters μ1 and χ , and we discuss the possibility to measure (or set upper bounds on) these parameters.

  6. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  7. Los Alamos Center for Computer Security formal computer security model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J.; Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The need to test and verify DOE computer security policy implementation first motivated this effort. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present formal mathematical models for computer security. The fundamental objective of computer security is to prevent the unauthorized and unaccountable access to a system. The inherent vulnerabilities of computer systems result in various threats from unauthorized access. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The model is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell and LaPadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 6 refs.

  8. A simple classification of the volvocine algae by formal languages.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yokomori, Takashi; Suyama, Akira

    2005-11-01

    There are several explanations of why certain primitive multicellular organisms aggregate in particular forms and why their constituent cells cooperate with one another to a particular degree. Utilizing the framework of formal language theory, we have derived one possible simple classification of the volvocine algae-one of the primitive multicells-for some forms of aggregation and some degrees of cooperation among cells. The volvocine algae range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox globator, which has thousands of cells. The classification we use in this paper is based on the complexity of Parikh sets of families on Chomsky hierarchy in formal language theory. We show that an alga with almost no space closed to the environment, e.g., Gonium pectorale, can be characterized by PsFIN, one with a closed space and no cooperation, e.g., Eudorina elegans, by PsCF, and one with a closed space and cooperation, e.g., Volvox globator, by PslambdauSC. This classification should provide new insights into the necessity for specific forms and degrees of cooperation in the volvocine algae. PMID:16005503

  9. Fair subject selection in clinical research: formal equality of opportunity.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, I explore the ethics of subject selection in the context of biomedical research. I reject a key principle of what I shall refer to as the standard view According to this principle, investigators should select participants so as to minimise aggregate risk to participants and maximise aggregate benefits to participants and society. On this view, investigators should exclude prospective participants who are more susceptible to risk than other prospective participants. I argue instead that investigators should select subjects in accordance with an alternative principle: formal equality of opportunity. According to this principle, investigators must treat all prospective participants the same unless differential treatment is warranted by the scientific goals of the study or the need to promote participants' medically related interests. All prospective participants (1) who meet the scientifically defined eligibility criteria and (2) for whom participation is consistent with their medically related interests should have an equal, formal opportunity to participate in the study. Prospective participants should not be excluded simply because they are more susceptible to risk than others.

  10. The formal Darwinism project: a mid-term report.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A

    2007-07-01

    For 8 years I have been pursuing in print an ambitious and at times highly technical programme of work, the 'Formal Darwinism Project', whose essence is to underpin and formalize the fitness optimization ideas used by behavioural ecologists, using a new kind of argument linking the mathematics of motion and the mathematics of optimization. The value of the project is to give stronger support to current practices, and at the same time sharpening theoretical ideas and suggesting principled resolutions of some untidy areas, for example, how to define fitness. The aim is also to unify existing free-standing theoretical structures, such as inclusive fitness theory, Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) theory and bet-hedging theory. The 40-year-old misunderstanding over the meaning of fitness optimization between mathematicians and biologists is explained. Most of the elements required for a general theory have now been implemented, but not together in the same framework, and 'general time' remains to be developed and integrated with the other elements to produce a final unified theory of neo-Darwinian natural selection.

  11. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV. PMID:27333337

  12. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  13. A Formal Model of Partitioning for Integrated Modular Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    1998-01-01

    The aviation industry is gradually moving toward the use of integrated modular avionics (IMA) for civilian transport aircraft. An important concern for IMA is ensuring that applications are safely partitioned so they cannot interfere with one another. We have investigated the problem of ensuring safe partitioning and logical non-interference among separate applications running on a shared Avionics Computer Resource (ACR). This research was performed in the context of ongoing standardization efforts, in particular, the work of RTCA committee SC-182, and the recently completed ARINC 653 application executive (APEX) interface standard. We have developed a formal model of partitioning suitable for evaluating the design of an ACR. The model draws from the mathematical modeling techniques developed by the computer security community. This report presents a formulation of partitioning requirements expressed first using conventional mathematical notation, then formalized using the language of SRI'S Prototype Verification System (PVS). The approach is demonstrated on three candidate designs, each an abstraction of features found in real systems.

  14. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-07-19

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the 'artificial grammar-learning' paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective.

  15. Formalizing procedures for operations automation, operator training and spacecraft autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecouat, Francois; Desaintvincent, Arnaud

    1994-01-01

    The generation and validation of operations procedures is a key task of mission preparation that is quite complex and costly. This has motivated the development of software applications providing support for procedures preparation. Several applications have been developed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE (MMS) over the last five years. They are presented in the first section of this paper. The main idea is that if procedures are represented in a formal language, they can be managed more easily with a computer tool and some automatic verifications can be performed. One difficulty is to define a formal language that is easy to use for operators and operations engineers. From the experience of the various procedures management tools developed in the last five years (including the POM, EOA, and CSS projects), MMS has derived OPSMAKER, a generic tool for procedure elaboration and validation. It has been applied to quite different types of missions, ranging from crew procedures (PREVISE system), ground control centers management procedures (PROCSU system), and - most relevant to the present paper - satellite operation procedures (PROCSAT developed for CNES, to support the preparation and verification of SPOT 4 operation procedures, and OPSAT for MMS telecom satellites operation procedures).

  16. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  17. Evolution of the environmental justice movement: activism, formalization and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colsa Perez, Alejandro; Grafton, Bernadette; Mohai, Paul; Hardin, Rebecca; Hintzen, Katy; Orvis, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To complement a recent flush of research on transnational environmental justice movements, we sought a deeper organizational history of what we understand as the contemporary environmental justice movement in the United States. We thus conducted in-depth interviews with 31 prominent environmental justice activists, scholars, and community leaders across the US. Today’s environmental justice groups have transitioned from specific local efforts to broader national and global mandates, and more sophisticated political, technological, and activist strategies. One of the most significant transformations has been the number of groups adopting formal legal status, and emerging as registered environmental justice organizations (REJOs) within complex partnerships. This article focuses on the emergence of REJOs, and describes the respondents’ views about the implications of this for more local grassroots groups. It reveals a central irony animating work across groups in today’s movement: legal formalization of many environmental justice organizations has made the movement increasingly internally differentiated, dynamic, and networked, even as the passage of actual national laws on environmental justice has proven elusive.

  18. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2004-01-01

    The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

  19. IMGT-Kaleidoscope, the formal IMGT-ONTOLOGY paradigm.

    PubMed

    Duroux, Patrice; Kaas, Quentin; Brochet, Xavier; Lane, Jérôme; Ginestoux, Chantal; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Giudicelli, Véronique

    2008-04-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (http://imgt.cines.fr), is the reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. IMGT standardizes and manages the complex immunogenetic data which include the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, the T cell receptors (TR), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the related proteins of the immune system (RPI) which belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and the MHC superfamily (MhcSF). The accuracy and consistency of IMGT data and the coherence between the different IMGT components (databases, tools and Web resources) are based on IMGT-ONTOLOGY, the first ontology for immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. IMGT-ONTOLOGY manages the immunogenetics knowledge through diverse facets relying on seven axioms, "IDENTIFICATION", "DESCRIPTION", "CLASSIFICATION", "NUMEROTATION", "LOCALIZATION", "ORIENTATION" and "OBTENTION", that postulate that objects, processes and relations have to be identified, described, classified, numerotated, localized, orientated, and that the way they are obtained has to be determined. These axioms constitute the Formal IMGT-ONTOLOGY, also designated as IMGT-Kaleidoscope. Through the example of the IG molecular synthesis, the concepts generated from the "IDENTIFICATION", "DESCRIPTION", "CLASSIFICATION" and "NUMEROTATION" axioms are detailed with their main instances and semantic relations. The axioms have been essential for the conceptualization of the molecular immunogenetics knowledge and can be used to generate concepts for multi scale approaches at the molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organism or population level, emphasizing the generalization of the application domain. In that way the Formal IMGT-ONTOLOGY represents a paradigm for the elaboration of ontologies in system biology.

  20. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  1. Embodied language, best-fit analysis, and formal compositionality.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jerome

    2010-12-01

    This review brings together two fundamental, but unreconciled, aspects of human language: embodiment and compositionality. One major scientific advance in recent decades has been Embodiment - the realization that scientific understanding of mind and language entails detailed modeling of the human brain and how it evolved to control a physical body in a social community. The ability to learn and use language is one of the most characteristically human traits. Many animals signal, but only people can express and understand an essentially unbounded range of messages. The technical term for the ability of human language to support all these messages from a few dozen alphabetic symbols is Compositionality. Rigor is essential for the advancement of any science, but there has been essentially no overlap between efforts to formalize language compositionality and the manifest embodiment of thought. Recent developments suggest that it is feasible to formalize the compositionality of embodied language, but that this requires a focus on conceptual composition and better understanding of contextual best-fit.

  2. A simple classification of the volvocine algae by formal languages.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yokomori, Takashi; Suyama, Akira

    2005-11-01

    There are several explanations of why certain primitive multicellular organisms aggregate in particular forms and why their constituent cells cooperate with one another to a particular degree. Utilizing the framework of formal language theory, we have derived one possible simple classification of the volvocine algae-one of the primitive multicells-for some forms of aggregation and some degrees of cooperation among cells. The volvocine algae range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox globator, which has thousands of cells. The classification we use in this paper is based on the complexity of Parikh sets of families on Chomsky hierarchy in formal language theory. We show that an alga with almost no space closed to the environment, e.g., Gonium pectorale, can be characterized by PsFIN, one with a closed space and no cooperation, e.g., Eudorina elegans, by PsCF, and one with a closed space and cooperation, e.g., Volvox globator, by PslambdauSC. This classification should provide new insights into the necessity for specific forms and degrees of cooperation in the volvocine algae.

  3. Embodied language, best-fit analysis, and formal compositionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Jerome

    2010-12-01

    This review brings together two fundamental, but unreconciled, aspects of human language: embodiment and compositionality. One major scientific advance in recent decades has been Embodiment - the realization that scientific understanding of mind and language entails detailed modeling of the human brain and how it evolved to control a physical body in a social community. The ability to learn and use language is one of the most characteristically human traits. Many animals signal, but only people can express and understand an essentially unbounded range of messages. The technical term for the ability of human language to support all these messages from a few dozen alphabetic symbols is Compositionality. Rigor is essential for the advancement of any science, but there has been essentially no overlap between efforts to formalize language compositionality and the manifest embodiment of thought. Recent developments suggest that it is feasible to formalize the compositionality of embodied language, but that this requires a focus on conceptual composition and better understanding of contextual best-fit.

  4. A High-Level Formalization of Floating-Point Number in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldo, Sylvie; Munoz, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    We develop a formalization of floating-point numbers in PVS based on a well-known formalization in Coq. We first describe the definitions of all the needed notions, e.g., floating-point number, format, rounding modes, etc.; then, we present an application to polynomial evaluation for elementary function evaluation. The application already existed in Coq, but our formalization shows a clear improvement in the quality of the result due to the automation provided by PVS. We finally integrate our formalization into a PVS hardware-level formalization of the IEEE-854 standard previously developed at NASA.

  5. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  6. Informal and formal mental health: preliminary qualitative findings

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Linda; George, Serena; Koehn, Corinne; Shepard, Blythe

    2013-01-01

    Background Northern-based research on mental health support, no matter the specific profession, helps to inform instruction of new practitioners and practitioners already working in rural or isolated conditions. Understanding the complexities of northern mental health support not only benefits clients and practitioners living in the North, but also helps prepare psychologists and counsellors preparing to work in other countries with large rural and isolated populations. The qualitative phase is part of a multi-year research study on informal and formal mental health support in northern Canada involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Objective The main objective of the qualitative phase interviews was to document in-depth the situation of formal and informal helpers in providing mental health support in isolated northern communities in northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon and Northwest Territories (NWT). The intent of in-depth interviews was to collect descriptive information on the unique working conditions of northern helping practitioners for the development of a survey and subsequent community action plans for helping practitioner support. Design Twenty participants in northern BC, Yukon and NWT participated in narrative interviews. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) was used in the analysis completed by 7 researchers. The principal researcher and research associate then worked through all 7 analyses, defining common categories and themes, and using selections from each researcher in order to ensure that everyone's analysis was represented in the final consensual summary. Results The preliminary results include 7 main categories consisting of various themes. Defining elements of northern practice included the need for generalist knowledge and cultural sensitivity. The task of working with and negotiating membership in community was identified as essential for northern mental health support. The need

  7. GRADSPMHD: A parallel MHD code based on the SPH formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaverbeke, S.; Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present GRADSPMHD, a completely Lagrangian parallel magnetohydrodynamics code based on the SPH formalism. The implementation of the equations of SPMHD in the “GRAD-h” formalism assembles known results, including the derivation of the discretized MHD equations from a variational principle, the inclusion of time-dependent artificial viscosity, resistivity and conductivity terms, as well as the inclusion of a mixed hyperbolic/parabolic correction scheme for satisfying the ∇ṡB→ constraint on the magnetic field. The code uses a tree-based formalism for neighbor finding and can optionally use the tree code for computing the self-gravity of the plasma. The structure of the code closely follows the framework of our parallel GRADSPH FORTRAN 90 code which we added previously to the CPC program library. We demonstrate the capabilities of GRADSPMHD by running 1, 2, and 3 dimensional standard benchmark tests and we find good agreement with previous work done by other researchers. The code is also applied to the problem of simulating the magnetorotational instability in 2.5D shearing box tests as well as in global simulations of magnetized accretion disks. We find good agreement with available results on this subject in the literature. Finally, we discuss the performance of the code on a parallel supercomputer with distributed memory architecture. Catalogue identifier: AERP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 620503 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19837671 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90/MPI. Computer: HPC cluster. Operating system: Unix. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI. RAM: ˜30 MB for a

  8. Integrating public risk perception into formal natural hazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, Th.; Plapp, T.; Hebel, B.

    2006-06-01

    An urgent need to take perception into account for risk assessment has been pointed out by relevant literature, its impact in terms of risk-related behaviour by individuals is obvious. This study represents an effort to overcome the broadly discussed question of whether risk perception is quantifiable or not by proposing a still simple but applicable methodology. A novel approach is elaborated to obtain a more accurate and comprehensive quantification of risk in comparison to present formal risk evaluation practice. A consideration of relevant factors enables a explicit quantification of individual risk perception and evaluation. The model approach integrates the effective individual risk reff and a weighted mean of relevant perception affecting factors PAF. The relevant PAF cover voluntariness of risk-taking, individual reducibility of risk, knowledge and experience, endangerment, subjective damage rating and subjective recurrence frequency perception. The approach assigns an individual weight to each PAF to represent its impact magnitude. The quantification of these weights is target-group-dependent (e.g. experts, laypersons) and may be effected by psychometric methods. The novel approach is subject to a plausibility check using data from an expert-workshop. A first model application is conducted by means of data of an empirical risk perception study in Western Germany to deduce PAF and weight quantification as well as to confirm and evaluate model applicbility and flexibility. Main fields of application will be a quantification of risk perception by individual persons in a formal and technical way e.g. for the purpose of risk communication issues in illustrating differing perspectives of experts and non-experts. For decision making processes this model will have to be applied with caution, since it is by definition not designed to quantify risk acceptance or risk evaluation. The approach may well explain how risk perception differs, but not why it differs. The

  9. Formalized landscape models for surveying and modelling tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwner, Marc-Oliver

    2010-05-01

    We present a formalization of main geomorphic landscape models, mainly the concept of slopes, to clarify the needs and potentials of surveying technologies and modelling approaches. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) it is implemented as a exchangeable Geography Markup Language (GML3) -based application schema and therefore supports shared measurement campaigns. Today, knowledge in Geomorphology is given synoptically in textbooks in a more or less lyrical way. This knowledge is hard to implement for the use of modelling algorithms or data storage and sharing questions. On the other hand physical based numerical modelling and high resolution surveying technologies enable us to investigate case scenarios within small scales. Bringing together such approaches and organizing our data in an appropriate way will need the formalization of the concepts and knowledge that is archived in the science of geomorphology. The main problem of comparing research results in geomorphology but is that the objects under investigation are composed of 3-dimensional geometries that change in time due to processes of material fluxes, e. g. soil erosion or mass movements. They have internal properties, e. g. soil texture or bulk density, that determine the effectiveness of these processes but are under change as well. The presented application schema is available on the Internet and therefore a first step to enable researchers to share information using an OGC's Web feature service. In this vein comparing modelling results of landscape evolution with results of other scientist's observations is possible. Compared to prevalent data concepts the model presented makes it possible to store information about landforms, their geometry and the characteristics in more detail. It allows to represent the 3D-geometry, the set of material properties and the genesis of a landform by associating processes to a geoobject. Thus, time slices of a geomorphic system can be represented as well as

  10. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  11. Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Anna

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

  12. Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

  13. Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

  14. Fokker-Planck formalism in magnetic resonance simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Fokker-Planck formalism for non-biological magnetic resonance simulations, describes its existing applications and proposes some novel ones. The most attractive feature of Fokker-Planck theory compared to the commonly used Liouville - von Neumann equation is that, for all relevant types of spatial dynamics (spinning, diffusion, stationary flow, etc.), the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian is time-independent. Many difficult NMR, EPR and MRI simulation problems (multiple rotation NMR, ultrafast NMR, gradient-based zero-quantum filters, diffusion and flow NMR, off-resonance soft microwave pulses in EPR, spin-spin coupling effects in MRI, etc.) are simplified significantly in Fokker-Planck space. The paper also summarises the author's experiences with writing and using the corresponding modules of the Spinach library - the methods described below have enabled a large variety of simulations previously considered too complicated for routine practical use.

  15. Conditions for periodic and aperiodic behavior of formal neural nets.

    PubMed

    Labos, E

    1994-05-01

    Formal neural networks (FNN) can display dynamical behaviours, more or less different from each other depending on their units, the functions attributed to these units, interconnections, parameters, state spaces and initial states, etc. Whatever is 'chaos' - of which several practical and more exact definitions exist -, it used to be emerging at special conditions. Its prediction most often requires an individual analysis of the dynamical system (DS) in question. A study of such conditions is usually necessary in order to reach suitable control, which now seems to become a new trend in chaos theory. In chaos control tasks quick commands and at least short-term foresight of trends are required. It is a primary question also to define in advance what is regarded to be a controlled case of chaos. Possible importance of these general considerations at molecular scale is also discussed, avoiding not well-founded speculations.

  16. Association Analysis of Alumni Giving: A Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Ray R.; Le Blanc, Louis A.; Bahar, Mahmood; Traywick, Bryan

    A large sample (initially 33,000 cases representing a ten percent trial) of university alumni giving records for a large public university in the southwestern United States are analyzed by Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This likely represents the initially attempt to perform analysis of such data by means of a machine learing technique. The variables employed include the gift amount to the university foundation (UF) as well as traditional demographic variables such as year of graduation, gender, ethnicity, marital status, etc. The UF serves as one of the institution's non-profit, fund-raising organizations. It pursues substantial gifts that are designated for the educational or leadership programs of the giver's choice. Although they process gifts of all sizes, the UF focus is on major gifts and endowments.

  17. [Maps and territories: formalizing professional knowledge in the curriculum].

    PubMed

    Moya, José Luis Medina

    2008-01-01

    At present time, nursing knowledge is characterized epistemologically as practical knowledge which, due to its own personal and tacit nature, can not be formalized nor transmitted, only demonstrated. This reflexive practical knowledge exists in an implicit and personal manner in professional action and it develops in a complex, uncertain reality which is saturated by values. In professional development, this practical knowledge should guide curricular planning and actions. Beyond just asking how to improve the application of academic knowledge in practice, we should search for ways so that students understand how competent nurses are capable to manage undetermined zones in their professional practice. In this report, the author introduces epistemological foundations for alternative conceptions to the dominant technological vision of the hierarchal relationship between technical knowledge and the practical educational or caretaking knowledge.

  18. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  19. [Maps and territories: formalizing professional knowledge in the curriculum].

    PubMed

    Moya, José Luis Medina

    2008-01-01

    At present time, nursing knowledge is characterized epistemologically as practical knowledge which, due to its own personal and tacit nature, can not be formalized nor transmitted, only demonstrated. This reflexive practical knowledge exists in an implicit and personal manner in professional action and it develops in a complex, uncertain reality which is saturated by values. In professional development, this practical knowledge should guide curricular planning and actions. Beyond just asking how to improve the application of academic knowledge in practice, we should search for ways so that students understand how competent nurses are capable to manage undetermined zones in their professional practice. In this report, the author introduces epistemological foundations for alternative conceptions to the dominant technological vision of the hierarchal relationship between technical knowledge and the practical educational or caretaking knowledge. PMID:18757015

  20. Formalism for Hypercomplex Multidimensional NMR Employing Partial-Component Subsampling

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Adam D; Maciejewski, Mark W; Stern, Alan S; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy typically employs phase-sensitive detection, which results in hypercomplex data (and spectra) when utilized in more than one dimension. Nonuniform sampling approaches have become commonplace in multidimensional NMR, enabling dramatic reductions in experiment time, increases in sensitivity and/or increases in resolution. In order to utilize nonuniform sampling optimally, it is necessary to characterize the relationship between the spectrum of a uniformly sampled data set and the spectrum of a subsampled data set. In this work we construct an algebra of hypercomplex numbers suitable for representing multidimensional NMR data along with partial-component nonuniform sampling (i.e. the hypercomplex components of data points are subsampled). This formalism leads to a modified DFT–convolution relationship involving a partial-component, hypercomplex point-spread function set. The framework presented here is essential for the continued development and appropriate characterization of partial-component nonuniform sampling. PMID:23246651