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Sample records for resin-based calcium phosphate

  1. Calcium and phosphate release from resin-based materials containing different calcium orthophosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela C; Natale, Livia C; Arana-Chaves, Victor E; Braga, Roberto R

    2015-11-01

    The study compared ion release from resin-based materials containing calcium orthophosphates. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and surface area (nitrogen adsorption isotherms, BET method). Nanoparticles were added to a dimethacrylate-based resin and materials were tested for degree of conversion (DC) and calcium/phosphate release up to 28 days under pH 5.5 and 7.0. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey test (alpha: 0.05).The crystallinity of DCPA, DCPD, and β-TCP were confirmed, as well as the ACP amorphous nature. DCPD and β-TCP presented larger agglomerates than DCPA and ACP. The surface area of ACP was 5-11 times higher than those of the other nanoparticles. Materials showed similar DC. The material containing ACP released significantly more ions than the others, which released similar amounts of calcium and, in most cases, phosphate. Ion release was not affected by pH. Calcium release decreased between 7 and 21 days, while phosphate levels remained constant after 14 days. In conclusion, ACP higher ion release can be ascribed to its high surface area. DCPA, DCPD, and β-TCP had similar performances as ion-releasing fillers.

  2. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  3. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful.

  15. Resorbable calcium phosphate bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Knaack, D; Goad, M E; Aiolova, M; Rey, C; Tofighi, A; Chakravarthy, P; Lee, D D

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo properties of a novel, fully resorbable, apatitic calcium phosphate bone substitute (ABS) are described. The ABS was prepared from calcium phosphate precursors that were hydrated to form an injectable paste that hardens endothermically at 37 degrees C to form a poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate (PCA). The PCA reaction product is stable in vivo as determined by FTIR and XRD analysis of rabbit intramuscular implants of ABS retrieved 4, 7, and 14 days postimplantation. Bone formation and resorption characteristics of the ABS material were characterized in a canine femoral slot defect model. Femoral slot defects in dogs were filled with either autologous bone implants or the ABS material. Sections of femoral bone defect site from animals sacrificed at 3, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks demonstrated that new bone formation proceeded similarly in both autograft and ABS filled slots. Defects receiving either material were filled with trabecular bone in the first 3 to 4 weeks after implantation; lamellar or cortical bone formation was well established by week 12. New bone formation in ABS filled defects followed a time course comparable to autologous bone graft filled defects. Histomorphometric evaluation of ABS resorption and new bone formation indicated that the ABS material was greater than 99% resorbed within 26 weeks; residual ABS occupied 0.36+/-0.36% (SEM, n = 4) of the original defect area at 26 weeks. Quantitatively and qualitatively, the autograft and ABS were associated with similar new bone growth and defect filling characteristics.

  16. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  17. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  18. Calcium Phosphate Transfection of Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, Victoria L.; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells. PMID:24300106

  19. Inherited Disorders of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gattineni, Jyothsna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis have variable presentation and can cause significant morbidity. Understanding the mode of inheritance and pathophysiology of these conditions will help in the diagnosis and early institution of therapy. Recent Findings Identification of genetic mutations in human subjects and animal models has advanced our understanding of many inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate regulation. Identification of mutations of CaSR also has improved our understanding of hypocalcemic and hypercalcemic conditions. Mutations of Fgf23, Klotho and phosphate transporter genes have been identified as causes for disorders of phosphate metabolism. Summary Calcium and phosphate homeostasis is tightly regulated in a narrow range due to their vital role in many biological processes. Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism though uncommon can have severe morbidity. Genetic counseling of the affected families is an important part of the follow up of these patients. PMID:24553630

  20. A Comparative Chemical Study of Calcium Silicate-Containing and Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers.

    PubMed

    Reszka, Przemysław; Nowicka, Alicja; Lipski, Mariusz; Dura, Włodzimierz; Droździk, Agnieszka; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study assessed the chemical elements in two novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers, BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST, compared to a calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer that has been on the market for several years, MTA Fillapex, and epoxy resin-based sealer AHPlus. Material and Methods. The sealers were mixed and manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Twelve cylindrical molds (inner diameter 4 mm; height 3 mm) were placed on a glass petri dish and packed with the materials. The dish was transferred to an incubator. After 72 h the molds were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results. BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST had high peaks of calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and chlorine. Well-Root ST also had sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and titanium peaks. MTA Fillapex and AHPlus had carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and bismuth peaks. A silicon peak was also observed for MTA Fillapex, and zirconium and tungsten peaks for AHPlus. Conclusion. BioRoot RSC had the highest degree of purity. The clinical implication of metals contained in the other sealers needs to be investigated.

  1. A Comparative Chemical Study of Calcium Silicate-Containing and Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Reszka, Przemysław; Dura, Włodzimierz; Droździk, Agnieszka; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study assessed the chemical elements in two novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers, BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST, compared to a calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer that has been on the market for several years, MTA Fillapex, and epoxy resin-based sealer AHPlus. Material and Methods. The sealers were mixed and manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Twelve cylindrical molds (inner diameter 4 mm; height 3 mm) were placed on a glass petri dish and packed with the materials. The dish was transferred to an incubator. After 72 h the molds were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results. BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST had high peaks of calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and chlorine. Well-Root ST also had sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and titanium peaks. MTA Fillapex and AHPlus had carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and bismuth peaks. A silicon peak was also observed for MTA Fillapex, and zirconium and tungsten peaks for AHPlus. Conclusion. BioRoot RSC had the highest degree of purity. The clinical implication of metals contained in the other sealers needs to be investigated. PMID:28097154

  2. Crystallization of calcium phosphate in polyacrylamide hydrogels containing phosphate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Taishi; Kawashita, Masakazu; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate crystals were formed in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels containing phosphate ions by diffusion of calcium ions from calcium nitrate (Ca(NO 3) 2) solutions covering the gels. Changes in crystalline phases and crystal morphology of calcium phosphate, and in ion concentrations of the Ca(NO 3) 2 solutions were investigated as a function of reaction time. Single or two coexisting crystalline phases of calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite (HAp), HAp/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) or octacalcium phosphate (OCP)/DCPD were formed in the gels. HAp crystals are formed near the surface of the gels. The dense HAp layer and HAp/DCPD layer prevented diffusion of calcium ions from the Ca(NO 3) 2 solution, thus formation of calcium phosphate in the gel phase was inhibited. Formation of DCPD was observed to follow the formation of OCP or HAp. The size of the OCP crystals gradually increased with reaction time, while changes in size of HAp crystals were not observed. The reaction time required for DCPD formation depended on the degree of supersaturation with respect to DCPD in the systems. DCPD formed within 1 day under high supersaturation conditions, whereas it formed at 10 days in low supersaturation conditions.

  3. Substitution of calcium by strontium within selected calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Hermes, C.; Nolting, H.-F.; Ryczek, J.

    1993-06-01

    Sr incorporation in the molecules of amorphous calcium phosphate, apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was investigated. The concentration of Sr ranged from 225 to 1010 μ g / g, i.e. it overlapped with the physiological range of Sr concentrations in human bone. The leading experimental technique was extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Sr K edge. Results of these studies demonstrated the following: (1) Sr incorporation in the calcium phosphates is compound-dependent, (2) the coordination of incorporated Sr atoms in the Ca-P molecules is similar to that of Ca atoms, but interatomic distances are ≈0.015 nm larger, (3) in apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate lattices Sr atoms may occupy selected Ca sites, which was not the case for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (4) in the apatite lattice Sr atoms are coordinated by 6 PO 4 tetrahedrals and (5) EXAFS spectra at the K edge of the incorporated Sr may be used to distinguish the structures of amorphous calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as well as apatite and its derivatives (apatitic tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate).

  4. Sonochemical synthesis of calcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    de Campos, M; Müller, F A; Bressiani, A H A; Bressiani, J C; Greil, P

    2007-05-01

    beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate powders (BCP), consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-TCP, were synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor powders obtained from neutralization method. The precursor powders with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 were prepared by adding an orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) solution to an aqueous suspension containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)). Mixing was carried out by vigorous stirring and under sonochemical irradiation at 50 kHz, respectively. Glycerol and D-glucose were added to evaluate their influence on the precipitation of the resulting calcium phosphate powders. After calcination at 1000 degrees C for 3 h BCP nanopowders of various HA/beta-TCP ratio were obtained.

  5. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  6. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. Calcium-Activated Phosphate Uptake in Contracting Corn Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Truelove, B.; Hanson, J. B.

    1966-01-01

    The phosphate inhibition of succinate-powered contraction in corn mitochondria can be reversed with calcium. Associated with this reversal is an accumulation of phosphate and calcium. Both ions are essential for accumulation, although strontium will partially substitute for calcium. Arsenate does not substitute for phosphate except in producing the inhibition of contraction. The antibiotics oligomycin and aurovertin do not block the phosphate inhibition of contraction or the calcium-activated phosphate uptake associated with the release of the inhibition. Dinitrophenol uncouples the phosphate uptake but permits full contraction. Calcium promotes inorganic phosphate accumulation in root tissue as well as in mitochondria. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of theories of calcium reaction with high energy intermediates of oxidative phosphorylation. It is concluded that calcium probably reacts with X∼P in corn mitochondria, rather than with X∼I as with animal mitochondria. PMID:16656343

  6. Cytotoxicity of a calcium aluminate cement in comparison with other dental cements and resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander; Konradsson, Katarina; König, Franz; Van Dijken, Jan W V; Schedle, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of a calcium aluminate cement with several currently used direct restorative materials. Specimens of three composites (QuiXfil, Tetric Ceram, Filtek Supreme), one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard Cement), one glass ionomer cement (Ketac Molar), and one calcium aluminate cement (DoxaDent), were used fresh or after 7-days' preincubation in cell culture medium at 37 degrees C, pH 7.2. PVC strips for ISO 10993-5 cytotoxicity test were used as positive control and glass specimens as negative control. L-929 fibroblasts (5-ml aliquots, containing 3 x 10(4) cells/ml), cultivated in DMEM with 10% FCS, 1% glutamine, and 1% penicillin/streptomycin at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 and trypsinized, were exposed to the specimens for 72 h. The cells were harvested, centrifuged, and resuspended in 500 microl DMEM and then counted in 500 microl DMEM for 30 s with a flow cytometer at 488 nm. The analysis of variance comparing the six materials showed different influences on L-929 fibroblast cytotoxicity (p <0.0001). The cytotoxicity of all specimens diminished with increasing preincubation time (p <0.0001). Fresh DoxaDent exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity, followed by QuiXfil. Ketac Molar showed the highest cytotoxicity. After 7 days of preincubation, Harvard Cement and Filtek Supreme demonstrated more cytotoxicity than the other materials (p <0.005).

  7. [Effect of phosphate upon calcium intestinal absorption (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Digaud, A; Fournier, A

    1976-11-01

    Adult rats receive 5 to 50 mM CaCl2 solutions in which glycerophosphate or sodium diacid phosphate may be added in variable quantity. These solutions are administered by gavage or in situ ligatured jejunal loop. The inhibition of calcium absorption dependent on simultaneously administered phosphate doses is well characterized: high for the lowest concentration, the inhibiting effect of phosphate doses decreases more and more reaching a limit from which phosphate supplementation has no effect. These observations discarding an intervention of phosphate by calcium insolubilization seem to demonstrate that the control supplied by phosphates on calcium absorption is of enzymatic character. Facts related to the respective effects of calcium and phosphates on the action of alkaline phosphatases lead to discuss a possible intervention of these enzymes upon calcium transfer.

  8. Crystal growth of calcium phosphates - epitaxial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoukos, P. G.; Nancollas, G. H.

    1981-05-01

    The growth of one crystalline phase on the surface of another that offers a good crystal lattice match, may be important in environmental, physiological and pathological mineralization processes. The epitaxial relationships and kinetics of growth of hydroxyapatite on crystals of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, calcium fluoride and calcite have been studied at sustained low supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite. At the very low supersaturations, the crystallization of hydroxyapatite takes place without the formation of precursor phases. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical predictions for epitaxial growth, while the kinetics of hydroxyapatite crystallization on the foreign substrates is the same as that for the growth of hydroxyapatite on synthetic hydroxyapatite crystals.

  9. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  10. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials.

  11. Osteoclastic resorption of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburgh, S; Layrolle, P; Barrère, F; de Bruijn, J; Schoonman, J; van Blitterswijk, C A; de Groot, K

    2001-08-01

    A new biomimetic method for coating metal implants enables the fast formation of dense and homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were coated with a thin, carbonated, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) by immersion in a saturated solution of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, and carbonate. The ACP-coated disks then were processed further by incubation in calcium phosphate solutions to produce either crystalline carbonated apatite (CA) or octacalcium phosphate (OCP). The resorption behavior of these three biomimetic coatings was studied using osteoclast-enriched mouse bone-marrow cell cultures for 7 days. Cell-mediated degradation was observed for both carbonated apatite and octacalcium phosphate coatings. Numerous resorption lacunae characteristic of osteoclastic resorption were found on carbonated apatite after cell culture. The results showed that carbonated apatite coatings are resorbed by osteoclasts in a manner consistent with normal osteoclastic resorption. Osteoclasts also degraded the octacalcium phosphate coatings but not by classical pit formation.

  12. Nano-porous calcium phosphate balls.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ildyko; Kosmella, Sabine; Prietzel, Claudia; Bagdahn, Christian; Koetz, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    By dropping a NaH2PO4·H2O precursor solution to a CaCl2 solution at 90°C under continuous stirring in presence of two biopolymers, i.e. gelatin (G) and chitosan (C), supramolecular calcium phosphate (CP) card house structures are formed. Light microscopic investigations in combination with scanning electron microscopy show that the GC-based flower-like structure is constructed from very thin CP platelets. Titration experiments indicate that H-bonding between both biopolymers is responsible for the synergistic effect in presence of both polymers. Gelatin-chitosan-water complexes play an important role with regard to supramolecular ordering. FTIR spectra in combination with powder X-ray diffraction show that after burning off all organic components (heating up >600°C) dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate crystallites are formed. From high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) it is obvious to conclude, that individual crystal platelets are dicalcium phosphates, which build up ball-like supramolecular structures. The results reveal that the GC guided crystal growth leads to nano-porous supramolecular structures, potentially attractive candidates for bone repair.

  13. Phase transformation of calcium phenyl phosphate in calcium hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hidekazu . E-mail: hidekazu@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp; Ibaraki, Koshiro; Uemura, Masao; Hino, Ryozi; Kandori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Tatsuo

    2007-07-03

    Calcium phenyl phosphate (CaPP) was synthesized from a mixture of Ca(OH){sub 2} and phenyl phosphate (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}) in an aqueous media. XRD pattern of CaPP exhibited five diffraction peaks at 2{theta} = 6.6, 13.3, 20.0, 26.8 and 33.7{sup o}. The d-spacing ratio of these peaks was ca. 1:1/2:1/3:1/4:1/5. The molar ratios of Ca/P and phenyl/P of CaPP were 1.0 and 0.92, respectively, and the chemical formula of the material was expressed as (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}PO{sub 4}){sub 0.92}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 0.08}Ca.1.3H{sub 2}O, similar to that of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O: DCPD). These results allowed us to infer that CaPP is composed of a multilayer alternating bilayer of phenyl groups of the phosphates and DCPD-like phase. The structure of the material was essentially not altered after aging at pH 9.0-11.0 and 85 deg. C in an aqueous media. While, after aging at pH {<=}8.0, the diffraction peaks of CaPP were suddenly weakened and disappeared at pH 7.0. Besides, new peaks due to calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}: Hap) appeared and their intensity was strengthened with decreasing the solution pH. TEM observation revealed that the Hap particles formed at pH 6.0 are fibrous with ca. 1.5 {mu}m in length and ca. 0.2 {mu}m in width. From these results, it is presumed that the layered CaPP was dissolved, hydrolyzed and reprecipitated to fibrous Hap particles at pH {<=}8.0 and 85 deg. C in aqueous media. This phase transformation of CaPP in Hap resembled to the formation mechanism of Hap in animal organism.

  14. Effect of the calcium to phosphate ratio of tetracalcium phosphate on the properties of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena F; Guitian, Francisco; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-06-01

    Six different tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) products were synthesized by solid state reaction at high temperature by varying the overall calcium to phosphate ratio of the synthesis mixture. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the calcium to phosphate ratio on a TTCP-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cement. The resulting six TTCP-DCPD cement mixtures were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pH measurements. Setting times and compressive strength (CS) were also measured. Using the TTCP product with a Ca/P ratio of 2.0 resulted in low strength values (25.61 MPa) when distilled water was used as the setting liquid, even though conversion to hydroxyapatite was not prevented, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The suspected CaO presence in this TTCP may have affected the cohesiveness of the cement mixture but not the cement setting reaction, however no direct evidence of CaO presence was found. Lower Ca/P ratio products yielded cements with CS values ranging from 46.7 MPa for Ca/P ratio of 1.90 to 38.32 MPa for Ca/P ratio of 1.85. When a dilute sodium phosphate solution was used as the setting liquid, CS values were 15.3% lower than those obtained with water as the setting liquid. Setting times ranged from 18 to 22 min when water was the cement liquid and from 7 to 8 min when sodium phosphate solution was used, and the calcium to phosphate ratio did not have a marked effect on this property.

  15. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Calcium phosphate (CaP) composites with Ca and P ion release can remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. But the ion release lasts only a few months. The objectives of this study were to develop rechargeable CaP dental composite for the first time, and investigate the Ca and P recharge and re-release of composites with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) to achieve long-term inhibition of caries. Methods Three NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with resin matrix of: (1) bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) at 1:1 mass ratio (referred to as BT group); (2) pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at 1:1 ratio (PE group); (3) BisGMA, TEGDMA, and Bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (BisMEP) at 2:1:1 ratio (BTM group). Each resin was filled with 20% NACP and 50% glass particles, and the composite was photo-cured. Specimens were tested for flexural strength and elastic modulus, Ca and P ion release, and Ca and P ion recharge and re-release. Results NACP nanocomposites had strengths 3-fold of, and elastic moduli similar to, commercial resin-modified glass ionomer controls. CaP ion recharge capability was the greatest for PE group, followed by BTM group, with BT group being the lowest (p < 0.05). For each recharge cycle, CaP re-release reached similarly high levels, showing that CaP re-release did not decrease with more recharge cycles. After six recharge/re-release cycles, NACP nanocomposites without further recharge had continuous CaP ion release for 42 d. Significance Novel rechargeable CaP composites achieved long-term and sustained Ca and P ion release. Rechargeable NACP nanocomposite is promising for caries-inhibiting restorations, and the Ca and P ion recharge and re-release method has wide applicability to dental composites, adhesives, cements and sealants to achieve long-term caries-inhibition. PMID:26743970

  16. Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie; Guo, Han; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-12-01

    Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 degrees C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could reach 47 MPa after setting for 48 h, indicating that the prepared cement has relatively high initial mechanical strength. The results of in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated the good degradability of the injectable CMPC, and its degradation rate occurred significantly faster than that of pure CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. It can be concluded that the novel injectable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement is highly promising for a wide variety of clinical applications, especially for the development of minimally invasive techniques.

  17. Chemistry misconceptions associated with understanding calcium and phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cliff, William H

    2009-12-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration when calcium ions were added to a saturated calcium phosphate solution. Fifty-two percent of the students correctly predicted that the phosphate concentration would decrease in accord with the common ion effect. Forty-two percent of the students predicted that the phosphate concentration would not change. Written explanations showed that most students failed to evoke the idea of competing chemical equilibria. A second question assessed the predicted change in calcium concentration after solid calcium phosphate was added to a saturated solution. Only 11% of the students correctly predicted no change in calcium concentration; 86% of the students predicted an increase, and many based their prediction on a mistaken application of Le Chatelier's principle to heterogeneous equilibria. These results indicate that many students possess misconceptions about chemical equilibrium that may hamper understanding of the processes of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Instructors can help students gain greater understanding of these physiochemical phenomena by adopting strategies that enable students achieve more accurate conceptions of chemical equilibria.

  18. Production of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Comesaña, R.; Riveiro, A.

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles represent an important object of investigation in the field of biomaterials due to the new properties obtainable at nanoscale. In this work calcium phosphate nanoparticles are obtained by laser ablation of hydroxyapatite (HA) targets in water and in ambient conditions; on the other hand particles of HA are reduced to nanoscale by laser-induced fracture. The results show that nanometric particles of calcium phosphate can be obtained. The morphology and the composition of the obtained particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM).

  19. Calcium phosphate scaffold from biogenic calcium carbonate by fast ambient condition reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Fermani, Simona; Arjun Tekalur, Srinivasan; Vanderberg, Abigail; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Calcium phosphate biogenic materials are biocompatible and promote bioactivity and osteoconductivity, which implies their natural affinity and tendency to bond directly to bones subsequently replacing the host bone after implantation owing to its biodegradability. Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, CaHPO 4·2H 2O, is known to be a nucleation precursor, in aqueous solutions, for apatitic calcium phosphates and, hence, a potential starting material for bone substitutes. Numerous approaches, via hydrothermal and ambient synthetic routes, have been used to produce calcium phosphate from biogenic calcium carbonate, taking advantage of the peculiar architecture and composition of the latter. In this article, the lamellar region of the cuttlefish bone ( Sepia officinalis) was used as a framework for the organized deposition of calcium phosphate crystals, at ambient conditions via a fast procedure involving an amorphous calcium carbonate intermediate, and ending with a conversion to calcium phosphate and a fixation procedure, thereby resulting in direct conversion of biogenic calcium carbonate into calcium phosphates at ambient conditions from the scale of months to hours.

  20. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  1. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-02-24

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous "jaw". From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait.

  2. Calcium phosphate mineralization is widely applied in crustacean mandibles

    PubMed Central

    Bentov, Shmuel; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Tynyakov, Jenny; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous “jaw”. From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait. PMID:26906263

  3. TRANSIENT AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN FORMING ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Beniash, Elia; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, begins as a three-dimensional network of nanometer size mineral particles, suspended in a protein gel. This mineral network serves as a template for mature enamel formation. To further understand the mechanisms of enamel formation we characterized the forming enamel mineral at an early secretory stage using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectromicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR microspectroscopy and polarized light microscopy. We show that the newly formed enamel mineral is amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which eventually transforms into apatitic crystals. Interestingly, the size, shape and spatial organization of these amorphous mineral particles and older crystals are essentially the same, indicating that the mineral morphology and organization in enamel is determined prior to its crystallization. Mineralization via transient amorphous phases has been previously reported in chiton teeth, mollusk shells, echinoderm spicules and spines, and recent reports strongly suggest the presence transient amorphous mineral in forming vertebrate bones. The present finding of transient ACP in murine tooth enamel suggests that this strategy might be universal. PMID:19217943

  4. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  5. Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cements With Different Tetracalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous Molar Ratios.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Markovic, Milenko; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with TTCP/DCPA molar ratios of 1/1, 1/2, or 1/3, with the powder and water as the liquid. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity, and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the set specimens have been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 5 d, and 10 d. Cement dissolution rates in an acidified PLS were measured using a dual constant composition method. Setting times ((30 ± 1) min) were the same for all cements. DTS decreased with decreasing TTCP/DCPA ratio and, in some cases, also decreased with PLS immersion time. Porosity and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation increased with PLS immersion time. Cements with TTCP/DCPA ratios of 1/2 and 1/3, which formed calcium-deficient HA, dissolved more rapidly than the cement with a ratio of 1/1. In conclusion, cements may be prepared with a range of TTCP/DCPA ratios, and those with lower ratio had lower strengths but dissolved more rapidly in acidified PLS.

  6. ESR spectra of VO2+ ions adsorbed on calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Oniki, T; Doi, Y

    1983-07-01

    The ESR spectra of oxovanadium(IV) ions, (VO2+), adsorbed on hydroxyapatite(OHAp), fluorhydroxyapatite(FHAp), Mg-containing tricalcium phosphate(Mg-TCP), .octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and amorphous calcium phosphate(ACP) were measured at room temperature. The ESR parameters of VO2+ adsorbed on these compounds were slightly different from one another and accordingly, the ESR technique by use of VO2+ was useful for an analysis of the calcium phosphates precipitated from supersaturated solutions. The ESR parameters of VO2+ adsorbed on ACP and Mg-TCP were found to be very similar to each other, suggesting that ACP and TCP resemble each other in the structure of their crystal surfaces.

  7. The use of size-defined DNA-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles to minimise intracellular calcium disturbance during transfection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Sebastian; Kovtun, Anna; Dietzel, Irmgard D; Epple, Matthias; Heumann, Rolf

    2009-12-01

    Calcium phosphate-based transfection methods are frequently used to transfer DNA into living cells. However, it has so far not been studied in detail to what extend the different transfection methods lead to a net calcium uptake. Upon subsequent resolution of the calcium phosphate, intracellular free ionic calcium-surges could result, inducing as side effect various physiological responses that may finally result in cell death. Here we investigated the overall calcium uptake by the human bladder carcinoma cell line T24 during the standard calcium phosphate transfection method and also during transfection with custom-made calcium phosphate/DNA nanoparticles by isotope labelling with (45)calcium. (45)Calcium uptake was strongly increased after 7h of standard calcium phosphate transfection but not if the transfection was performed with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Time lapse imaging microscopy using the calcium-sensitive dye Fura-2 revealed large transient increases of the intracellular free calcium level during the standard calcium phosphate transfection but not if calcium phosphate nanoparticles were used. Consistently, the viability of cells transfected by calcium phosphate/DNA nanoparticles was not changed, in remarkable contrast to the standard method where considerable cell death occurred.

  8. A Review Paper on Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; de Groot, K.; Wang, D.; Hu, Q.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings have been developed for bone regeneration and repair because of their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and easy preparation. They can be rendered osteoinductive by incorporating an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), into the crystalline lattice work in physiological situations. The biomimetic calcium phosphate coating enables a controlled, slow and local release of BMP-2 when it undergoes cell mediated coating degradation induced by multinuclear cells, such as osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells, which mimics a physiologically similar release mode, to achieve sustained ectopic or orthotopic bone formation. Therefore, biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings are considered to be a promising delivery vehicle for osteogenic agents. In this review, we present an overview of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings including their preparation techniques, physico-chemical properties, potential as drug carrier, and their pre-clinical application both in ectopic and orthotopic animal models. We briefly review some features of hydroxyapatite coatings and their clinical applications to gain insight into the clinical applications of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in the near future. PMID:25893016

  9. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  10. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  11. Polymer-based material containing calcium phosphate particles functionalized with a dimethacrylate monomer for use in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela C; Xavier, Tathy A; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Braga, Roberto R

    2016-11-23

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate particles functionalized with triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate were synthesized and added to a photocurable mixture of bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate with the purpose of developing a resin composite capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions to foster dental remineralization. Particle functionalization would minimize the deleterious effect of adding low cohesive strength nano-structured particles with no chemical interaction with the organic matrix on the material's mechanical properties. The results showed that calcium release over 28 days was not impaired by particle functionalization. A statistically significant 32% increase in strength was recorded with the use of functionalized dicalcium phosphate dihydrate in comparison to the material containing non-functionalized particles. However, the strength of the unfilled resin was not matched by the composite with functionalized particles. Elastic modulus increased with particle incorporation, regardless of functionalization. Degree of conversion and optical properties (total transmittance and color change/ΔE) of the resin-based materials were not affected by the addition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate particles (functionalized or not).

  12. The Ca/P range of nanoapatitic calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Driessens, F C M; Boltong, M G; de Maeyer, E A P; Wenz, R; Nies, B; Planell, J A

    2002-10-01

    Nanoapatites are apatites consisting of nanometer size crystals. The commercial calcium phosphate cements set by the precipitation of nanoapatitic calcium phosphates in the range 1.5 < or = Ca/P < 1.8. In this study it is shown that a continuum of nanoapatites can precipitate in the range 0.8 < Ca/P< or = 1.5. In order to be formed these nanoapatites need to incorporate K+ ions. In addition they can incorporate some Na+ ions. Upon immersion in aqueous solutions these nanoapatites loose phosphate, K+ and Na+ so that in an open system they are transformed into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite Ca9(HPO4)(PO4)5OH within about 2 months.

  13. Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants

    PubMed Central

    Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti–6Al–4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

  14. Formation of silver incorporated calcium phosphate film for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Seop; Whang, Chung-Nam; Oh, Kyung-Sik; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Kwon-Yong; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Chung, Sung-Min; Sun, Xiao-Dan

    2006-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coating layers were formed by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with and without simultaneous Ar ion bombardments. The Ca/P ratio of film, which determined the biological properties, was controlled by ion beam current. Without ion beam bombardments, the film had the low Ca/P ratio of 1.30, however, the ratio increased to 2.02 by bombarding of Ar ion beam extracted from the end-hall type ion gun set to 0.6 A. Silver incorporated calcium phosphate films were formed by immersing calcium phosphate coated samples in 0.4 M AgNO3 for 30 min, and the Ag doped surface was almost 100% effective in reducing bacteria on contact with respect to controls.

  15. The NEXAFS of biological calcium phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, C.J.; Bellamy, S.J. ); Zhang, X. ); Dermody, G. ); Hulbert, S. )

    1995-02-01

    The absorption cross section of a number of calcium salts has been assessed at the calcium [ital L] edge by measuring the total electron yield (TEY) at the NSLS U13UA beamline. TEY was used because of distortions introduced by instrumentation when using a transmission signal. The effect of these distortions has been evaluated and is presented. The TEY signal was normalized to the incident beam using the signal from a new beam monitor which is detailed here. Comparative spectra are presented for some calcium salts associated with osteoarthritis.

  16. High resolution electron microscopy study of amorphous calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brès, E. F.; Moebus, G.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Pourroy, G.; Werkmann, J.; Ehret, G.

    1993-03-01

    "Amorphous" calcium phosphate (ACP) from human tooth enamel and different synthetic materials has been analysed by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). All the materials studied showed, in addition to a "truly" amorphous phase, other calcium phosphate phases such as poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (OHAP), well crystallized OHAP and poorly crystalline CaO type phase. Such structural heterogeneities have not been observed before in ACP, and are only possible to be detected by HREM as this is the only technique able to analyse nanometre size materials in the real space.

  17. Calcium phosphate forming ability of thermally oxidized titanium implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kyu-Seog; Yun, Yeon-Hum; Min, Seon-Suk; Lee, Yong-Ryeol; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2002-07-01

    Commercially pure titanium disks as-received and heat treated at 600°C in air for 10 min were used to investigate differences in calcium phosphate forming ability. Crystallinity and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy were used to collect information on chemical composition and chemical surface structure. TiO2 layers with a heterogeneous structure produced by heat treatment showed high in vitro calcium phosphate forming ability in contact with Eagle's minimum essential medium.

  18. Gelatin powders accelerate the resorption of calcium phosphate cement and improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Waka; Ikada, Yoshito; Sobajima, Satoshi; Neo, Masashi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of combining calcium phosphate cement and gelatin powders to promote bone regeneration in the canine mandible. We mixed gelatin powders with calcium phosphate cement to create a macroporous composite. In four beagle dogs, two saddle-type bone defects were created on each side of the mandible, and calcium phosphate cement alone or calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders was implanted in each of the defects. After a healing period of six months, mandibles were removed for µCT and histological analyses. The µCT and histological analyses showed that at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement alone had been placed new bone had formed only around the periphery of the residual calcium phosphate cement and that there had been little or no ingrowth into the calcium phosphate cement. On the other hand, at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders had been placed, we observed regenerated new bone in the interior of the residual calcium phosphate cement as well as around its periphery. The amount of resorption of calcium phosphate cement and bone regeneration depended on the mixing ratio of gelatin powders to calcium phosphate cement. New bone replacement was significantly better in the sites treated with calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders than in those treated with calcium phosphate cement alone.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    PubMed Central

    Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

  20. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    PubMed

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  1. Calcium phosphate porous composites and ceramics prospective as bone implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabadjieva, D.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Gergulova, R.; Sezanova, K.; Ilieva, R.; Gabrashanska, M.; Alexandrov, M.

    2013-12-01

    Two types of calcium phosphate materials prospective as bone implants were prepared in the shape of granules and their biochemical behavior was tested by in vivo studies: (i) composite materials consisting of gelatin and bi-phase ion modified calcium phosphate Mg,Zn-(HA + β-TCP); and (ii) ceramics of ion modified calcium phosphate Mg,Zn-(HA + β-TCP). The starting fine powders were prepared by the method of biomimetic precipitation of the precursors followed by hightemperature treatment. Then granules were prepared by dispersion in liquid paraffin of a thick suspension containing 20% of gelatin gel and thus prepared calcium phosphate powders (1:1 ratios). The composite granules were obtained by subsequent hardening in a glutaraldehyde solution, while the highly porous ceramic granules - by further sintering at 1100°C. The in vivo behavior of both types of granules was tested in experimental rat models. Bone defects were created in rat tibia and were filled with the implants. Biochemical studies were performed. Three months after operation both bio-materials displayed analogous behavior.

  2. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Liu, Yu; Sun, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Hai

    2011-07-08

    Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry.

  3. Dissolution behaviour of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Clèries, L; Fernández-Pradas, J M; Sardin, G; Morenza, J L

    1998-08-01

    Pulsed laser deposited calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy have been tested under simulated physiological conditions in order to evaluate the changes in morphology, composition and structure. The coatings were deposited under different conditions to obtain different crystalline structures, ranging from amorphous and mixed crystalline phases to pure crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). The coated samples were immersed in a Ca-free Hank's balanced salt solution for up to 5 days. Characterization of the coatings was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy before and after immersion. Their dissolution behaviour was also monitored through their mass loss and calcium release. Coatings of pure HA preserve their morphology and structure during the exposure time in solution. In multiphasic coatings, consisting of HA with tetracalcium phosphate (TetraCP) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) with a-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP), microporosity is induced by the complete dissolution of TetraCP or gamma-TCP. Amorphous calcium phosphate coatings totally dissolve.

  4. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated by robocasting.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Pedro; Pajares, Antonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Guiberteau, Fernando

    2008-04-01

    The mechanical behavior under compressive stresses of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds fabricated by direct-write assembly (robocasting) technique is analyzed. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from beta-TCP and HA commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3-D tetragonal mesh of interpenetrating ceramic rods. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of these model scaffolds were determined by uniaxial testing to compare the relative performance of the selected materials. The effect of a 3-week immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the strength of the scaffolds was also analyzed. The results are compared with those reported in the literature for calcium phosphate scaffolds and human bone. The robocast calcium phosphate scaffolds were found to exhibit excellent mechanical performances in terms of strength, especially the HA structures after SBF immersion, indicating a great potential of this type of scaffolds for use in load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Fibre-reinforced calcium phosphate cements: a review.

    PubMed

    Canal, C; Ginebra, M P

    2011-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) consist of one or more calcium orthophosphate powders, which upon mixing with water or an aqueous solution, form a paste that is able to set and harden after being implanted within the body. Different issues remain still to be improved in CPC, such as their mechanical properties to more closely mimic those of natural bone, or their macroporosity to favour osteointegration of the artificial grafts. To this end, blends of CPC with polymer and ceramic fibres in different forms have been investigated. The present work aims at providing an overview of the different approaches taken and identifying the most significant achievements in the field of fibre-reinforced calcium phosphate cements for clinical applications, with special focus on their mechanical properties.

  6. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  7. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Titanium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharapudchenko, E.; Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Tverdokhlebov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid multilayer coatings were obtained on titanium substrates by the combination of two methods: the micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid solution with the addition of calcium compounds to high supersaturated state and RF magnetron sputtering of the target made of synthetic hydroxyapatite. 16 different groups of coatings were formed on titanium substrates and in vitro studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 23317 in the solution simulating body fluid. The studies using SEM, XRD of the coatings of the samples before and after exposure to SBF were performed. The features of morphology, chemical and phase composition of the studied coatings are shown.

  8. Biomineralization of calcium phosphate crystals on chitin nanofiber hydrogel for bone regeneration material.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Mari; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-01-20

    We previously reported a chitin nanofiber hydrogel from squid pen β-chitin by a simple NaOH treatment. In the present study, a calcium phosphate/chitin nanofiber hydrogel was prepared for bone tissue engineering. Calcium phosphate was mineralized on the hydrogel by incubation in a solution of diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution followed by calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the formation of calcium phosphate crystals. The morphology of the calcium phosphate crystals changed depending on the calcification time. After mineralization, the mechanical properties of the hydrogel improved due to the reinforcement effect of calcium phosphate crystal. In an animal experiment, calcium phosphate/chitin nanofiber hydrogel accelerated mineralization in subcutaneous tissues. Morphological osteoblasts were observed.

  9. A safer disposal of hazardous phosphate coating sludge by formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Pérez-Nicolás, M; Fernández, J M; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

    2015-08-15

    Phosphate coating hazardous wastes originated from the automotive industry were efficiently encapsulated by an acid-base reaction between phosphates present in the sludge and calcium aluminate cement, yielding very inert and stable monolithic blocks of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Two different compositions of industrial sludge were characterized and loaded in ratios ranging from 10 to 50 wt.%. Setting times and compressive strengths were recorded to establish the feasibility of this method to achieve a good handling and a safe landfilling of these samples. Short solidification periods were found and leaching tests showed an excellent retention for toxic metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn) and for organic matter. Retentions over 99.9% for Zn and Mn were observed even for loadings as high as 50 wt.% of the wastes. The formation of ACP phase of low porosity and high stability accounted for the effective immobilization of the hazardous components of the wastes.

  10. Short-fibre reinforcement of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, F; Gallagher, L; Jack, V; Dunne, N

    2007-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets to form hydroxyapatite, a major component of mineral bone, and is gaining increasing interest in bone repair applications. However, concerns regarding its brittleness and tendency to fragment have limited its widespread use. In the present study, short-fibre reinforcement of an apatitic calcium phosphate has been investigated to improve the fracture behaviour. The fibres used were polypropylene (PP) fibres, 50 microm in diameter and reduced in length by cryogenic grinding. The compressive strength and fracture behaviour were examined. Fibre addition of up to 10 wt % had a significant effect on composite properties, with the energy absorbed during failure being significantly increased, although this tended to be accompanied with a slight drop in compressive strength. The fibre reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack bridging and fibre pull-out. The setting time of the CPC with fibre reinforcement was also investigated and was found to increase with fibre volume fraction.

  11. The influence of Sr content in calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Carl; Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Hoess, Andreas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this study calcium phosphate coatings with different amounts of strontium (Sr) were prepared using a biomineralization method. The incorporation of Sr changed the composition and morphology of coatings from plate-like to sphere-like morphology. Dissolution testing indicated that the solubility of the coatings increased with increased Sr concentration. Evaluation of extracts (with Sr concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.37 μg/mL) from the HA, 0.06Sr, 0.6Sr, and 1.2Sr coatings during in vitro cell cultures showed that Sr incorporation into coatings significantly enhanced the ALP activity in comparison to cells treated with control and HA eluted media. These findings show that calcium phosphate coatings could promote osteogenic differentiation even in a low amount of strontium.

  12. Critical review: Injectability of calcium phosphate pastes and cements.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, R; McCarthy, H O; Montufar, E B; Ginebra, M-P; Wilson, D I; Lennon, A; Dunne, N

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have seen clinical success in many dental and orthopaedic applications in recent years. The properties of CPC essential for clinical success are reviewed in this article, which includes properties of the set cement (e.g. bioresorbability, biocompatibility, porosity and mechanical properties) and unset cement (e.g. setting time, cohesion, flow properties and ease of delivery to the surgical site). Emphasis is on the delivery of calcium phosphate (CaP) pastes and CPC, in particular the occurrence of separation of the liquid and solid components of the pastes and cements during injection; and established methods to reduce this phase separation. In addition a review of phase separation mechanisms observed during the extrusion of other biphasic paste systems and the theoretical models used to describe these mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Transmission electron microscopic study on setting mechanism of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous-based calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Jiin-Huey Chern; Ju, Chien-Ping

    2003-03-15

    This work studied transmission electron microscopy on the setting mechanism of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (TTCP/DCPA)-based calcium phosphate cement. The results suggest the process for early-stage apatite formation as the follows: when TTCP and DCPA powders are mixed in the phosphate-containing solution, the TTCP powder is quickly dissolved because of its higher solubility in the acidic solution. The dissolved calcium and phosphate ions, along with those ions readily in the solution, are then precipitated predominantly on the surface of DCPA particles. Few apatite crystals were observed on the surface of TTCP powder. During the later stages of reaction, the extensive growth of apatite crystals/whiskers, with a calcium/phosphorous ratio very close to that of hydroxyapatite, effectively linked DCPA particles together and also bridged the larger TTCP particles. It is suggested that, when the large TTCP particles are locked in place by the bridging apatite crystals/whiskers, the CPC is set and would not dissolve when immersed in Hanks' solution after 20-40 min of reaction.

  14. A biomimetic gelatin-calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Bigi, A; Torricelli, P; Fini, M; Bracci, B; Panzavolta, S; Sturba, L; Giardino, R

    2004-08-01

    The interest in new bone substitutes is rapidly increasing in the field of orthopedic surgery. A variety of calcium phosphate bone cement has been developed and different additives have been used to improve their biocompatibility and bioactivity. Following a biomimetic strategy aimed at reproducing bone characteristics, this study investigates the biological properties of a new gelatin enriched calcium phosphate cement (GEL-CP) that exhibits improved mechanical properties with respect to cement prepared without gelatin (C-CP). Human osteoblast MG63 were cultured on the surfaces of GEL-CP and were compared to cells cultured on C-CP samples, and on polystyrene of plate culture as control (C). Cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated up to 21 days. SEM revealed that osteoblasts grown on GEL-CP showed a normal morphology and biological tests demonstrated very good rate of proliferation and viability in every experimental time. The presence of gelatin stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen and transforming growth factor 31 production. The data indicate that the new cement GEL-CP favors osteoblast proliferation, activation of their metabolism and differentiation. The remarkable improvement of the setting properties of the calcium phosphate cement due to the presence of gelatin suggest that the biomimetic composite material could be successfully applied as bone substitute.

  15. Osteoinduction of calcium phosphate biomaterials in small animals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lijia; Shi, Yujun; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2013-04-01

    Although osteoinduction mechanism of calcium phosphate (CP) ceramics is still unclear, several essential properties have been reported, such as chemical composition, pore size and porosity, etc. In this study, calcium phosphate powder (Ca3(PO4)2, CaP, group 1), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic powder (BCP, group 2), and intact BCP rods (group 3) were implanted into leg muscles of mice and dorsal muscles of rabbits. One month and three months after implantation, samples were harvested for biological and histological analysis. New bone tissues were observed in 10/10 samples in group 1, 3/10 samples in group 2, and 9/10 samples in group 3 at 3rd month in mice, but not in rabbits. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured with trace CaP and BCP powder, and osteogenic differentiation was observed at day 7. Our results suggested that chemical composition is the prerequisite in osteoinduction, and pore structure would contribute to more bone formation.

  16. Cell growth and function on calcium phosphate reinforced chitosan scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Miqin

    2004-03-01

    Macroporous chitosan scaffolds reinforced by calcium phosphate powders such as hydroxyapatite (HA) or calcium phosphate invert glass were fabricated using a thermally induced phase separation technique. Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the composite scaffolds for up to 11 days, and the cell growth and function were analyzed. The cell growth is much faster on the chitosan/HA scaffolds incorporated with the glass (CHG) than on the chitosan/HA scaffold without the glass (CH). The total protein content of cells were quantified and increased over time on both composites (CH, CHG) but was significantly higher on CHG after 7 days of culture. The cells on CHG also expressed significantly higher amount of alkaline phosphatase at days 7 and 11 and osteocalcin at day 7 than those on CH. The results suggested that the addition of glass in chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds might enhance the proliferation and osteoblastic phenotype expression of MG63 cells. However, the chitosan-matrix scaffolds did not show higher phenotype expression of MG63 cells, in comparison with the TCPS plate, probably due to the degradation of chitosan and release of acidic byproducts. Larger amount of soluble calcium phosphate invert glasses should be added into the scaffolds to prevent chitosan from fast degradation that may affect the differentiation of osteoblast cells.

  17. Single Step Sintered Calcium Phosphate Fibers from Avian EGG Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadhich, Prabhash; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-11-01

    Different forms of calcium-phosphate (Hydoxyapatite, α-TCP, β-TCP, CDHA) minerals are found to be major component of bone tissue. Development of calcium-phosphate (CaP) based fibrous microstructures is of significant research interest worldwide owing to its improved mechanical properties and higher interconnectivity. Here we represent a method for single step sintered wet-spun Fibers of calcium phosphate from avian egg shells for biomedical applications. Raw egg shell powder was mixed with chitosan solution and Phosphoric acid. The mixture is milled in a ball mill overnight and then filtered. The slurry was de-aired using 100 microliter 1-octanol per 100 ml of slurry as antifoaming and wet spun in coagulation bath. Fiber was dried overnight and sintered at different temperatures for microstructure and phase analysis. Both green and sintered Fibers were physico-chemical characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR, and stereo-zoom microscopy. The fibers obtained in this procedure are found to have highly porous interconnected structures which can provide good cell adhesion and therefore can be used for bioactive scaffold making.

  18. Development of magnesium calcium phosphate biocement for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Junfeng; Zhou, Huanjun; Wei, Jie; Jiang, Xin; Hua, Hong; Chen, Fangping; Wei, Shicheng; Shin, Jung-Woog; Liu, Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium calcium phosphate biocement (MCPB) with rapid-setting characteristics was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide (MgO) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O). The results revealed that the MCPB hardened after mixing the powders with water for about 7 min, and the compressive strength reached 43 MPa after setting for 1 h, indicating that the MCPB had a short setting time and high initial mechanical strength. After the acid–base reaction of MCPB containing MgO and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, the final hydrated products were Mg3(PO4)2 and Ca3(PO4)2. The MCPB was degradable in Tris–HCl solution and the degradation ratio was obviously higher than calcium phosphate biocement (CPB) because of its fast dissolution. The attachment and proliferation of the MG63 cells on the MCPB were significantly enhanced in comparison with CPB, and the alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells on the MCPB was significantly higher than on the CPB at 7 and 14 days. The MG63 cells with normal phenotype spread well on the MCPB surfaces, and were attached in close proximity to the substrate, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the MCPB had a good ability to support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and exhibited good cytocompatibility. PMID:20181560

  19. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of new calcium phosphate bioactive coatings.

    PubMed

    Taddei, P; Tinti, A; Bottura, G; Bertoluzza, A

    2000-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate (CaP) compounds with different PO(3-)(4)/HPO(2-)(4) R molar ratios in the 0.65-149 range were synthesized. In fact, all these CaPs contain different amounts of HPO(2-)(4) and PO(3-)(4) ions as well as the amorphous precursors (tricalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate) of hydroxyapatite deposition, which was shown by in vitro and in vivo measurements. Spectroscopical IR and Raman results showed the presence of bands whose intensity ratio can be related to the molar ratio R; in particular, the Raman I(962)/I(987) and the IR I(1035)/I(1125) intensity ratios were characterized as markers of the molar ratio. For these CaP compounds a nucleation model, which was based on the ability of HPO(2-)(4) ions to form strong H bonds with PO(3-)(4) ions, was proposed.

  20. Metastable states in calcium phosphate - aqueous phase equilibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessens, F. C. M.; Verbeeck, R. M. H.

    1981-05-01

    A critical evaluation of the literature reveals that during equilibration of well crystallized hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions metastable states can occur. They are characterized by a persistent supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and a systematical dependence of the ion activity product of this compound on the solution composition. For products synthesized by thermal treatment it is known that they are transformed into oxyhydroxyapatite so that the theoretical solubility behaviour could be predicted from the extrapolated value of the free energy of oxyapatite at room temperature: the negative logarithm of the ionic product for hydroxyapatite should become close to that of oxyapatite during equilibration. The discrepancy with experimental data is probably due to the formation of thin layers seeming dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octocalcium phosphate or defective hydroxyapatite as coatings on the apatite crystals. This is derived from the apparent Ca/P ratio of the solubility controlling phase. According to chemical potential plots this apparent Ca/P ratio can have values close to 1, 1.33, 1.50 or 1.67. The aqueous solutions are clearly undersaturated with respect to the more acidic calcium phosphates so that the coatings must deviate from the compositions of these compounds in their pure state. The formation of these metastable states during equilibration of oxyhydroxyapatites is compared with others occuring during precipitation and crystal growth of calcium phosphates. A model is proposed which explains the observations qualitatively.

  1. Phase Transformation of Calcium Phosphates by Electrodeposition and Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Li; Wang, Szu-Hao; Li, Wang-Long; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the calcium phosphate deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using an electrolytic process is investigated. The calcium phosphate was deposited in a 0.04 M Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O (MCPM) solution on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate at 333 K (60 °C), 10 V, and 80 Torr for 1 hour, and calcined at various temperatures for 4 hours. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that the phases are dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4, DCPD) and hydroxyapatile [Ca(PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP] for the as-deposited samples. When the deposited sample was calcined at 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours, the XRD results show that the transformation of DCPD to HAP occurs. Moreover, HAP converts to β-TCP, CPP, and CaO. For the sample calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph reveals that the crack of the calcined sample propagates with a width of about 3 μm. This result is due to HAP becoming decomposed and converting to β-TCP, CPP, CaO, and H2O. The vaporization of H2O within the calcined sample promotes the crack propagation and growth.

  2. Calcium phosphate bioceramics induce mineralization modulated by proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kefeng; Leng, Yang; Lu, Xiong; Ren, Fuzeng

    2013-08-01

    Proteins play an important role in the process of biomineralization, which is considered the critical process of new bone formation. The calcium phosphate (Ca-P) mineralization happened on hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) when proteins presented were investigated systematically. The results reveal that the presence of protein in the revised simulated body fluid (RSBF) did not alter the shape and crystal structure of the precipitated micro-crystals in the Ca-P layer formed on the three types of bioceramics. However, the morphology of the Ca-P precipitates was regulated but the structure of Ca-P crystal was unchanged in vivo. The presence of proteins always inhibits Ca-P mineralization in RSBF and the degree of inhibitory effect is concentration dependent. Furthermore, Protein presence can increase the possibility of HA precipitation in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained in this study can be helpful for better understanding the mechanism of biomineralization induced by the Ca-P bioceramics.

  3. Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei; Campbell, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

  4. Selective laser sintering of calcium phosphate materials for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Goonhee

    Two technologies, Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) and bioceramics are combined in this work to prepare bone replacement implants with complex geometry. SFF has emerged as a crucial technique for rapid prototyping in the last decade. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is one of the established SFF manufacturing processes that can build three-dimensional objects directly from computer models without part-specific tooling or human intervention. Meanwhile, there have been great efforts to develop implantable materials that can assist in regeneration of bone defects and injuries. However, little attention has been focused in shaping bones from these materials. The main thrust of this research was to develop a process that can combine those two separate efforts. The specific objective of this research is to develop a process that can construct bone replacement material of complex geometry from synthetic calcium phosphate materials by using the SLS process. The achievement of this goal can have a significant impact on the quality of health care in the sense that complete custom-fit bone and tooth structures suitable for implantation can be prepared within 24--48 hours of receipt of geometric information obtained either from patient Computed Tomographic (CT) data, from Computer Aided Design (CAD) software or from other imaging systems such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Holographic Laser Range Imaging (HLRI). In this research, two different processes have been developed. First is the SLS fabrication of porous bone implants. In this effort, systematic procedures have been established and calcium phosphate implants were successfully fabricated from various sources of geometric information. These efforts include material selection and preparation, SLS process parameter optimization, and development of post-processing techniques within the 48-hour time frame. Post-processing allows accurate control of geometry and of the chemistry of calcium phosphate, as well as

  5. Antibacterial and physical properties of calcium-phosphate and calcium-fluoride nanocomposites with chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have developed calcium phosphate and fluoride releasing composites. Other studies have incorporated chlorhexidine (CHX) particles into dental composites. However, CHX has not been incorporated in calcium phosphate and fluoride composites. The objectives of this study were to develop nanocomposites containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) or calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanoparticles and CHX particles, and investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and lactic acid production for the first time. Methods Chlorhexidine was frozen via liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain a particle size of 0.62 µm. Four nanocomposites were fabricated with fillers of: Nano ACP; nano ACP+10% CHX; nano CaF2; nano CaF2+10% CHX. Three commercial materials were tested as controls: A resin-modified glass ionomer, and two composites. S. mutans live/dead assay, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, biofilm metabolic activity, and lactic acid were measured. Results Adding CHX fillers to ACP and CaF2 nanocomposites greatly increased their antimicrobial capability. ACP and CaF2 nanocomposites with CHX that were inoculated with S. mutans had a growth medium pH > 6.5 after 3 d, while the control commercial composites had a cariogenic pH of 4.2. Nanocomposites with CHX reduced the biofilm metabolic activity by 10–20 folds and reduced the acid production, compared to the controls. CFU on nanocomposites with CHX were three orders of magnitude less than that on commercial composite. Mechanical properties of nanocomposites with CHX matched a commercial composite without fluoride. Significance The novel calcium phosphate and fluoride nanocomposites could be rendered antibacterial with CHX to greatly reduce biofilm formation, acid production, CFU and metabolic activity. The antimicrobial and remineralizing nanocomposites with good mechanical properties may be promising for a wide range of tooth restorations with anti-caries capabilities. PMID:22317794

  6. Processing and in vivo evaluation of multiphasic calcium phosphate cements with dual tricalcium phosphate phases.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A; Bongio, Matilde; Bohner, Marc; Cuijpers, Vincent; Winnubst, Louis A J A; van Dijk, Natasja; Wolke, Joop G C; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Jansen, John A

    2012-09-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) use the simultaneous presence of several calcium phosphates phases. This is done to generate specific bulk and in vivo properties. This work has processed and evaluated novel multiphasic CPCs containing dual tricalcium phosphate (TCPs) phases. Dual TCPs containing α- and β-TCP phases were obtained by thermal treatment. Standard CPC (S-CPC) was composed of α-TCP, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate and precipitated hydroxyapatite, while modified CPC (DT-CPC) included both α- and β-TCP. Physicochemical characterization of these CPCs was based on scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area (SSA) and particle size (PS) analysis and mechanical properties. This characterization allowed the selection of one DT-CPC for setting time, cohesion and biological assessment compared with S-CPC. Biological assessment was carried out using a tibial intramedullary cavity model and subcutaneous pouches in guinea pigs. Differences in the surface morphology and crystalline phases of the treated TCPs were detected, although PS analysis of the milled CPC powders produced similar results. SSA analysis was significantly higher for DT-CPC with α-TCP treated at 1100°C for 5h. Poorer mechanical properties were found for DT-CPC with α-TCP treated at 1000°C. Setting time and cohesion, as well as the in vivo performance, were similar in the selected DT-CPC and the S-CPC. Both CPCs created the desired host reactions in vivo.

  7. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-05-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity.

  8. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on Polyactive 1000/70/30.

    PubMed

    Du, C; Klasens, P; Haan, R E; Bezemer, J; Cui, F Z; de Groot, K; Layrolle, P

    2002-03-05

    Precalcification of Polyactive 1000/70/30 with a biomimetic calcium phosphate coating is expected to enhance the bioactivity of this biodegradable polymer for the application as bone filler or scaffold of bone tissue engineering. This study presents a 1-day one-step incubation method to obtain either amorphous or bone-like apatitic calcium phosphate coating on Polyactive 1000/70/30. Either dense plates or three-dimensional porous blocks of the polymer were incubated in a simplified but concentrated simulated body fluid-derived solution at 37 degrees C. By bubbling CO2 gas, a solution was prepared with calcium and phosphate ion concentrations five times of that of regular simulated body fluid. With controlled stirring, the CO2 was released out of the solution and exchanged by air. The pH of the solution increased to induce coating formation. Adjusting stirring rate and CO2/air exchange rate controlled the process kinetics. The reaction kinetics had little influence on the crystallographic structure of the final coating mineral for a given solution composition as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. However, the interface structure between the coating and substrate was kinetics-dependent. A fast precipitation condition resulted in a uniform but superficial calcification pattern at the surface of polymer. A slow process by selecting either a slow stirring or a slow CO2/air exchange, on the contrary, induced a localized but deep inside calcification pattern. A tensile test showed no statistically significant difference in the mechanical properties among uncoated and coated polymers. The cracking behavior of coatings from different kinetics, however, exhibited different manners, as can be attributed to different interface structures and interfacial strengths.

  9. Preparation and characterization of novel biphasic calcium phosphate powders (alpha-TCP/HA) derived from carbonated amorphous calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbao; Kong, Fanzhi; Weng, Wenjian

    2009-05-01

    Novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) powders composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared by thermal decomposition of carbonated amorphous calcium phosphates (CACP). At first, the CACP precipitates were synthesized by adding ammonium carbonate in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) at pH 10 with an initial Ca/P molar ratio of 1.60 at 5 degrees C. The Ca/P molar ratios of the CACP precursors are between 1.50 and 1.67 investigated by ICP. Then BCP (alpha-TCP/HA) powders were obtained after heating the CACP precursors at relatively low temperature (800 degrees C) for 3 h. alpha-TCP/HA powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectra, transmission electron microscopy/scanning electron microscopy, and sedimentation experiment. The results show that alpha-TCP and HA phases form in one powder, alpha-TCP/HA powders are sphere with the diameter of 300 nm to less than 100 nm varied with their chemical compositions and the ratio of alpha-TCP and HA in the powders can be adjusted by the adding amount of carbonates. The possible formation process of biphasic alpha-TCP/HA powders was proposed.

  10. Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.

    PubMed

    Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-25

    Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk.

  11. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs.Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in

  12. Twelve-month bracket failure rate with amorphous calcium phosphate bonding system.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Shaza M; El Banna, Mai S; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the survival rate of orthodontic brackets over a 12-month period using amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) bonding system with a conventional adhesive (CA). In 30 patients with a mean age of 15 years 7 months, one operator bonded 138 brackets with a split-mouth design, using a resin-based CA and ACP-containing adhesive. The survival rate of the brackets was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Bracket survival distributions with respect to bonding procedure, dental arch, type of tooth (incisor, canine, and premolar), and patients' gender were compared using the log-rank test. The bond failure interface was determined using the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The bond failure rates of the CA and ACP-containing adhesive were 2.67 and 3.8 per cent, respectively. There was no significant difference between the failure rates of ACP and CA-bonded systems (P > 0.05). Survival rates did not show significant differences between the upper and lower dental arches (P > 0.05). Lower survival rates were found for canine and premolar teeth than incisors (P < 0.05). Bond failure rates were higher for males than females (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference for ARI scores between the adhesive materials (P = 0.028); more of the ACP-based adhesive was left on the tooth at debond. ACP-containing adhesive can be effectively used to bond orthodontic brackets and can serve as a practicable alternative to the conventional bonding adhesives.

  13. Microporous calcium phosphate ceramics driving osteogenesis through surface architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barbieri, Davide; ten Hoopen, Hetty; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Yuan, Huipin

    2015-03-01

    The presence of micropores in calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics has shown its important role in initiating inductive bone formation in ectopic sites. To investigate how microporous CaP ceramics trigger osteoinduction, we optimized two biphasic CaP ceramics (i.e., BCP-R and BCP-S) to have the same chemical composition, equivalent surface area per volume, comparable protein adsorption, similar ion (i.e., calcium and phosphate) exchange and the same surface mineralization potential, but different surface architecture. In particular, BCP-R had a surface roughness (Ra) of 325.4 ± 58.9 nm while for BCP-S it was 231.6 ± 35.7 nm. Ceramic blocks with crossing or noncrossing channels of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µm were implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks. The percentage of bone volume in the channels was not affected by the type of pores (i.e., crossing vs. closed) or their size, but it was greatly influenced by the ceramic type (i.e., BCP-R vs. BCP-S). Significantly, more bone was formed in the channels of BCP-R than in those of BCP-S. Since the two CaP ceramics differed only in their surface architecture, the results hereby demonstrate that microporous CaP ceramics may induce ectopic osteogenesis through surface architecture.

  14. Nucleation, growth and evolution of calcium phosphate films on calcite.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sonia; Scherer, George W

    2014-12-01

    Marble, a stone composed of the mineral calcite, is subject to chemically induced weathering in nature due to its relatively high dissolution rate in acid rain. To protect monuments and sculpture from corrosion, we are investigating the application of thin layers of hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto marble. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and crystal and lattice compatibility with calcite. A mild, wet chemical synthesis route, in which diammonium hydrogen phosphate salt was reacted with marble, alone and with cationic and anionic precursors under different reaction conditions, was used to produce inorganic HAP layers on marble. Nucleation and growth on the calcite substrate was studied, as well as metastable phase evolution, using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Film nucleation was enhanced by surface roughness. The rate of nucleation and the growth rate of the film increased with cationic (calcium) and anionic (carbonate) precursor additions. Calcium additions also influenced phase formation, introducing a metastable phase (octacalcium phosphate) and a different phase evolution sequence.

  15. Dual-setting calcium phosphate cement modified with ammonium polyacrylate.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luís Alberto; Carrodeguas, Raúl García; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; de Arruda, Antônio Celso

    2003-05-01

    alpha-Tricalcium phosphate bone cement, as formerly designed and developed by Driessens et al., consists of a powder composed by alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) seeds, and an aqueous solution of Na2HPO4 as mixing liquid. After mixing powder and liquid, alpha-TCP dissolves into the liquid and calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), more insoluble than the former, precipitates as an entanglement of crystals, which causes the setting and hardening of the cement. alpha-TCP bone cement offers several advantages in comparison to calcium phosphate bioceramics and acrylic bone cements as bone graft and repairing material, like perfect adaptability to the defect size and shape, osteotransductibility, and absence of thermal effect during setting. The main handicap is its low mechanical strength. Therefore, approaching its mechanical strength to that of human bone could considerably extend its applications. In the present work, an in situ polymerization system based on acrylamide (AA) and ammonium polyacrylate (PA) as liquid reducer was added to alpha-TCP cement to increase its mechanical strength. The results showed that the addition of 20 wt% of acrylamide and 1 wt% AP to the liquid increased the compressive and tensile strength of alpha-TCP bone cement by 149 and 69% (55 and 21 MPa), respectively. The improvement in mechanical strength seems to be caused by a decrease of porosity and the reinforcing effect of a polyacrylamide network coexisting with the entanglement of CDHA crystals. The studied additives do not affect the nature of the final product of the setting reaction, CDHA, but promote the reduction of its crystal size.

  16. Geometrically structured implants for cranial reconstruction made of biodegradable polyesters and calcium phosphate/calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Carsten; Rasche, Christian; Wehmöller, Michael; Beckmann, Felix; Eufinger, Harald; Epple, Matthias; Weihe, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a processing pathway for manufacturing of biodegradable skull implants with individual geometry. The implants on the basis of polylactide and calcium phosphate/calcium carbonate were prepared by a combination of hot pressing and gas foaming. On the inside, the implant consists of a macroporous and faster degradable material (poly(D,L-lactide)+CaCO3) to allow the ingrowth of bone cells. The pore size is in the range of 200-400 microm. On the outside, the implant consists of a compact and slower biodegradable material (poly(L-lactide) and calcium phosphate) to ensure mechanical stability and protection. To overcome problems like inflammatory reactions caused by acidic degradation products of polylactide, the polyester was combined with basic filling materials (calcium salts). The filler neutralises the lactic acid produced during polymer degradation and increases the bioactivity of the material. The stabilised pH was demonstrated by long-term in vitro pH studies. Over a time period of 250 d in demineralised water, the pH was in the physiological range. The in vitro biocompatibility was shown by cell cultures with human osteoblasts. A good proliferation of the cells was observed over the whole test period of 4 weeks.

  17. The flame photometric determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, H.

    1957-01-01

    A flame photometric method of determining calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate locks has been developed Aluminum and phosphate interference was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. The method is rapid and suitable for routine analysis Results obtained are within ?? 2% of the calcium oxide content. ?? 1957.

  18. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimised mechanical properties: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    This work establishes the in vivo performance of modified calcium phosphate bone cements for vertebroplasty of spinal fractures using a lapine model. A non-modified calcium phosphate bone cement and collagen-calcium phosphate bone cements composites with enhanced mechanical properties, utilising either bovine collagen or collagen from a marine sponge, were compared to a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Conical cement samples (8 mm height × 4 mm base diameter) were press-fit into distal femoral condyle defects in New Zealand White rabbits and assessed after 5 and 10 weeks. Bone apposition and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity around cements were assessed. All implants were well tolerated, but bone apposition was higher on calcium phosphate bone cements than on poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Incorporation of collagen showed no evidence of inflammatory or immune reactions. Presence of positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining within cracks formed in calcium phosphate bone cements suggested active osteoclasts were present within the implants and were actively remodelling within the cements. Bone growth was also observed within these cracks. These findings confirm the biological advantages of calcium phosphate bone cements over poly(methyl methacrylate) and, coupled with previous work on enhancement of mechanical properties through collagen incorporation, suggest collagen-calcium phosphate bone cement composite may offer an alternative to calcium phosphate bone cements in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important.

  19. Nanocomposite containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles for caries inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hockin H. K.; Moreau, Jennifer L.; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The main challenges facing composite restorations are secondary caries and bulk fracture. The objectives of this study were to synthesize novel nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), develop NACP nanocomposite with calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) ion release to combat caries, and investigate the effects of NACP filler level and glass co-filler reinforcement on composite properties. Methods NACP (diameter = 116 nm) were synthesized via a spray-drying technique for the first time. Since the local plaque pH in the oral cavity can decrease to 5 or 4, photo-activated composites were tested with immersion in solutions of pH 7, 5.5, and 4. Composite mechanical properties as well as Ca and PO4 ion release were measured vs. pH and filler level. Results Increasing the NACP filler level increased the ion release. At 28 d and pH 4, the Ca release was (4.66 ± 0.05) mmol/L at 20% NACP, much higher than (0.33 ± 0.08) at 10% NACP (p < 0.05). Decreasing the pH increased the ion release. At 20% NACP, the PO4 release at 28 d was (1.84 ± 0.12) mmol/L at pH 4, higher than (0.59 ± 0.08) at pH 5.5, and (0.12 ± 0.01) at pH 7 (p < 0.05). However, pH had little effect on composite mechanical properties. Flexural strength at 15% NACP was (96 ± 13) MPa at pH 4, similar to (89 ± 13) MPa at pH 5.5, and (89 ± 19) MPa at pH 7 (p > 0.1). The new NACP nanocomposites had strengths that were 2-fold those of previous calcium phosphate composites and resin-modified glass ionomer control. Significance NACP composites were developed for the first time. Their strengths matched or exceeded a commercial composite with little ion release, and were 2-fold those of previous Ca-PO4 composites. The nanocomposite was “smart” as it greatly increased the ion release at a cariogenic pH 4, when these ions would be most needed to inhibit caries. Hence, the new NACP composite may be promising for stress-bearing and caries-inhibiting restorations. PMID:21514655

  20. A Hybrid Laser/Aerosol Method for the Synthesis of Porous Nanostructured Calcium Phosphate Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    carbon-based materials [4]. Nanostructured calcium phosphate bioceramics comprising mixtures of resorbable and nonresorbable calcium phosphate phases are...over the phase composition and microstructure of coatings of these mixtures, establishing them as suitable bioceramic substrates for bone tissue

  1. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Z.; Zhou, D. L.; Yin, G. F.; Li, G. D.

    2008-11-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)/poly L-lactide (PLLA) biocomposite is proven to be a promising bone graft material or scaffold for bone tissue engineering. To improve the interfacial compatibility of BCP bioceramic with biopolymer-PLLA, BCP powders were surface-modified in different condition to graft polymer groups onto the surface of the BCP powders. L-lactide and L-lactic acid (LA) oligomer were used to modify the BCP surface with stannous octanoate (Sn(Oct) 2) and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) as catalyst, respectively. Results show that the surface modification effect is obvious and the amount of grafted organic group is above 6.5 wt.%. Sn(Oct) 2 and SnCl 2 are the optimal catalysts for the surface grafting reaction of L-lactide and L-LA oligomer, respectively. The surface grafting slightly increase the particle size of BCP powders and reduce the tendency for their agglomeration.

  2. Novel dental adhesive containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary Anne S; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Hsia, Ru-Ching; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Xu, Hockin H K

    2013-05-01

    Secondary caries remains the main reason for dental restoration failure. Replacement of failed restorations accounts for 50%-70% of all restorations performed. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit biofilm acids at tooth-restoration margins, and calcium phosphate (CaP) ions could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into bonding agent; and (2) investigate their effects on dentin bonding and microcosm biofilms. An experimental primer was made with pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An adhesive was made with bisphenol-A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). NAg was incorporated into primer at 0.1 wt %. The adhesive contained 0.1% NAg and 10% QADM, and 0%-40% NACP. Incorporating NAg into primer and NAg-QADM-NACP into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength (p > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous resin tags, and transmission electron microscopy revealed NAg and NACP in dentinal tubules. Viability of human saliva microcosm biofilms on primer/adhesive/composite disks was substantially reduced via NAg and QADM. Metabolic activity, lactic acid, and colony-forming units of biofilms were much lower on the new bonding agents than control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, novel dental bonding agents containing NAg, QADM, and NACP were developed with the potential to kill residual bacteria in the tooth cavity and inhibit the invading bacteria along tooth-restoration margins, with NACP to remineralize tooth lesions. The novel method of combining antibacterial agents (NAg and QADM) with remineralizing agent (NACP) may have wide applicability to other adhesives for caries inhibition.

  3. Novel dental adhesive containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Hsia, Ru-ching; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary caries remains the main reason for dental restoration failure. Replacement of failed restorations accounts for 50-70% of all restorations performed. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit biofilm acids at tooth-restoration margins, and calcium phosphate (CaP) ions could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into bonding agent; and (2) investigate their effects on dentin bonding and microcosm biofilms. An experimental primer was made with pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An adhesive was made with bisphenol-A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). NAg was incorporated into primer at 0.1wt%. The adhesive contained 0.1% NAg and 10% QADM, and 0-40% NACP. Incorporating NAg into primer and NAg-QADM-NACP into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength (p>0.1). SEM showed numerous resin tags, and TEM revealed NAg and NACP in dentinal tubules. Viability of human saliva microcosm biofilms on primer/adhesive/composite disks was substantially reduced via NAg and QADM. Metabolic activity, lactic acid, and colony-forming units of biofilms were much lower on the new bonding agents than control (p<0.05). In conclusion, novel dental bonding agents containing NAg, QADM and NACP were developed with the potential to kill residual bacteria in the tooth cavity and inhibit the invading bacteria along tooth-restoration margins, with NACP to remineralize tooth lesions. The novel method of combining antibacterial agents (NAg and QADM) with remineralizing agent (NACP) may have wide applicability to other adhesives for caries inhibition. PMID:23281264

  4. Bone formation in algae-derived and synthetic calcium phosphates with or without poloxamer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aileen Jing-Jing; Clokie, Cameron Malcolm Lang; Peel, Sean Alexander Fitzgerald

    2013-03-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphates are used clinically to repair bone defects. These calcium phosphate ceramics can differ by composition, structure, and rate of degradation. This study compared 3 calcium phosphate ceramics, 2 of which have similar structure but different composition: 100% HA (algae derived) and HA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) 20/80 (algae derived), and 2 with different structure but similar composition: HA/β-TCP 20/80 (algae derived) and HA/β-TCP 15/85 (synthetic). Calcium phosphate ceramics can be difficult to handle and contour during the surgeries. To improve handling, Poloxamer 407 (P407) was added to the 3 ceramics, and its effect on bone healing was also assessed. Bilateral calvarial defects created in the parietal bones of New Zealand white rabbits were left unfilled or were filled with autograft or one of the ceramics, with and without P407. Six weeks after operation, healing was evaluated qualitatively by histology and quantitatively by micro-computed tomography analysis and histomorphometry. All 3 calcium phosphate ceramics demonstrated osteoconductivity and performed similarly in supporting new bone formation, suggesting that the differences in their composition, structure, or degradation did not significantly affect their ability to promote bone healing in this application. Incorporating P407 did not impede osteoconductivity as HA and biphasic calcium phosphate combined with P407 performed similarly as when used alone for craniofacial defect repair.

  5. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles functionalized with a dimethacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela Charantola; Hewer, Thiago Lewis Reis; Brito, Giancarlo Espósito de Souza; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero

    2014-12-01

    The synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoparticles may include modifying agents to tailor particle size, reduce agglomeration and add specific functionalities. This study describes the synthesis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) nanoparticles functionalized with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), added to one of the reacting solutions, with the purpose of reducing agglomeration and improving the compatibility with vinyl-based resin matrices. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and surface area (BET). As controls, proprietary DCPD nanoparticles and nanoparticles synthesized without the addition of TEGDMA ("bare") were subjected to the same analytical methods. XRD revealed a similar crystalline structure of the synthesized materials in comparison to the proprietary nanoparticles. The presence of a TEGDMA layer was confirmed by elemental analysis and TGA, corresponding to a mass fraction of 8.5%. FTIR analysis of the functionalized nanoparticles revealed the suppression of some absorbance bands found in the neat TEGDMA. A chemisorption mechanism between TEGDMA and the surface of primary particles by ion-dipole interaction involving TEGDMA oxyethylene, and also an interaction mechanism between the particle surface and terminal-CH3 groups are proposed. Functionalized nanoparticles showed 3 to 11 times higher surface area than the controls, in agreement with DLS data, indicating lower agglomeration.

  6. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated.

  7. Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rau, J. V.; Fosca, M.; Graziani, V.; Egorov, A. A.; Zobkov, Yu. V.; Fedotov, A. Yu.; Ortenzi, M.; Caminiti, R.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Komlev, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time monitoring of structural transformations and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = 0 wt %, 0.6 wt % and 1.0 wt %) was performed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phase into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) took place in all the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its metallic form was found, whereas for CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, CaAg(PO3)3 was detected and Ag (met.) was no longer present. The CPC-Ag 0 wt % cement exhibited a compressive strength of 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas for the doped cements (CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt %) the reduced values of the compressive strength 4.0 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively, were detected. Silver-ion release from CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, measured by the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the average values of 25 µg/L and 43 µg/L, respectively, rising a plateau after 15 days. The results of the antibacterial test proved the inhibitory effect towards pathogenic Escherichia coli for both CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, better performances being observed for the cement with a higher Ag-content. PMID:27096874

  8. Autophagy Induced by Calcium Phosphate Precipitates Targets Damaged Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Khambu, Bilon; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Wentao; Li, Min; Chen, Xiaoyun; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitates (CPPs) form complexes with DNA, which enter cells via endocytosis. Under this condition CPPs induce autophagy via the canonic autophagy machinery. Here we showed that CPP-induced autophagy was also dependent on endocytosis as the process was significantly inhibited by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and dynasore, which suppress clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Consistently, CPP treatment triggered the formation of filipin-positive intracellular vesicles whose membranes are rich in cholesterol. Unexpectedly, these vesicles were also positive for galectin 3, suggesting that they were damaged and the membrane glycans became accessible to galectins to bind. Endosome damage was caused by endocytosis of CPPs and was reversed by calcium chelators or by endocytosis inhibitors. Notably, CPP-induced LC3-positive autophagosomes were colocalized with galectin 3, ubiquitin, and p62/SQSTM1. Inhibition of galectin 3 reduced p62 puncta and autophagosome formation. Knockdown of p62 additionally inhibited the colocalization of autophagosomes with galectins. Furthermore, most of the galectin 3-positive vesicles were colocalized with Rab7 or LAMP1. Agents that affect endosome/lysosome maturation and function, such as bafilomycin A1, also significantly affected CPP-induced tubulovesicular autophagosome formation. These findings thus indicate that endocytosed CPPs caused endosome damage and recruitment of galectins, particularly at the later endosome stage, which led to the interaction of the autophagosomal membranes with the damaged endosome in the presence of p62. PMID:24619419

  9. On the effect of the injection of potassium phosphate in vivo inducing the precipitation of serum calcium with inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Alcimar B; Ticianeli, José G; Soares, Letícia B M; Amaro, George

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) resulted from the hydrolysis of ATP is strongly associated to the weakness of the contractile mechanism of muscles due to its attractiveness to calcium. The majority of the experiments to study such effect are conducted in vitro. This work investigates the effects of different concentrations of Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, in the precipitation with serum calcium and the generation of calcium phosphate composites. The experiments were also designed to find out the ideal amount of potassium phosphate to induce an effective reaction. Potassium phosphate was injected in Wistar rats, randomly separated and distributed into seven groups. Group I was injected with 0.5 ml of saline solution (control) and groups II through VII were injected with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of potassium phosphate, respectively. Blood collected from the inferior vena cava was submitted to biochemical analyses to measure the concentrations of calcium, Pi, urea and creatinine. The results showed that Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, causes precipitation with serum calcium, with statistically significant differences between the control and the treatment groups for doses up to 5.0 mg/kg. No statistically significant differences were found between the different doses and the concentration of urea and creatinine in the plasma. We conclude that potassium phosphate can be used to induce serum calcium precipitation in-vivo, with minor effects on other physiological variables, and the ideal dose to do so is 5.0 mg/kg. PMID:24379908

  10. Osteoregenerative capacities of dicalcium phosphate-rich calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Tien, Yin-Chun; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a widely used bone substitute. However, CPC application is limited by poor bioresorption, which is attributed to apatite, the stable product. This study aims to systematically survey the biological performance of dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich CPC. DCP-rich CPC exhibited a twofold, surface-modified DCP anhydrous (DCPA)-to-tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) molar ratio, whereas conventional CPC (c-CPC) showed a onefold, surface unmodified DCPA-to-TTCP molar ratio. Cell adhesion, morphology, viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the two CPCs were examined with bone cell progenitor D1 cultured in vitro. Microcomputed tomography and histological observation were conducted after CPC implantation in vivo to analyze the residual implant ratio and new bone formation rate. D1 cells cultured on DCP-rich CPC surfaces exhibited higher cell viability, ALP activity, and ALP quantity than c-CPC. Histological evaluation indicated that DCP-rich CPC showed lesser residual implant and higher new bone formation rate than c-CPC. Therefore, DCP-rich CPC can improve bioresorption. The newly developed DCP-rich CPC exhibited potential therapeutic applications for bone reconstruction.

  11. Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausher, Jennifer Lynn

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of drug-loaded CPP into a CPC is under consideration as a method of minimizing adverse interactions and extending drug release. This thesis represents the first investigation into the effects of CPP addition on the properties, setting and antibiotic release profile of a conventional apatitic calcium phosphate cement. As-made, gelled and vancomycin-loaded CPP particulate were added to the powder component of a conventional dicalcium phosphate/tetracalcium phosphate CPC. The setting behaviour, set properties and microstructure of the resulting CPP-CPCs were evaluated with setting time testing (Gilmore needle method), pH testing, mechanical testing, SEM imaging, XRD and FTIR analysis. In vitro degradation and elution behaviour were evaluated by monitoring calcium release (atomic absorbance spectroscopy), mechanical strength and vancomycin release (UV-visual spectrophotometry). CPP addition was found to increase the setting time, reduce the mechanical strength and inhibit the conversion of the CPC starting powders to the set apatitic phase. The most likely mechanism for the observed effect of CPP addition was the adsorption of polyphosphate chains on the particle surfaces, which would inhibit the dissolution of the starting powders and the conversion of apatite precursor phases to apatite, leading to reduced mechanical properties. The detrimental effects of CPP were reduced by limiting the CPP fraction to less than a few weight per cent and increasing the size of the CPP particulate. CPP

  12. Precipitation of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate under diffusion controlled mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigabu Gebrehiwet; James R. Henriksen; Luanjing Guo; Don T. Fox; Hai Huang; Lee Tu; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith; George Redden

    2014-07-01

    Multi-component mineral precipitation in porous, subsurface environments is challenging to simulate or engineer when in situ reactant mixing is controlled by diffusion. In contrast to well-mixed systems, the conditions that favor mineral precipitation in porous media are distributed along chemical gradients, which evolve spatially due to concurrent mineral precipitation and modification of solute transport in the media. The resulting physical and chemical characteristics of a mixing/precipitation zone are a consequence of coupling between transport and chemical processes, and the distinctive properties of individual chemical systems. We examined the spatial distribution of precipitates formed in “double diffusion” columns for two chemical systems, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. Polyacrylamide hydrogel was used as a low permeability, high porosity medium to maximize diffusive mixing and minimize pressure- and density-driven flow between reactant solutions. In the calcium phosphate system, multiple, visually dense and narrow bands of precipitates were observed that were reminiscent of previously reported Liesegang patterns. In the calcium carbonate system, wider precipitation zones characterized by more sparse distributions of precipitates and a more open channel structure were observed. In both cases, formation of precipitates inhibited, but did not necessarily eliminate, continued transport and mixing of the reactants. A reactive transport model with fully implicit coupling between diffusion, chemical speciation and precipitation kinetics, but where explicit details of nucleation processes were neglected, was able to qualitatively simulate properties of the precipitation zones. The results help to illustrate how changes in the physical properties of a precipitation zone depend on coupling between diffusion-controlled reactant mixing and chemistry-specific details of precipitation kinetics.

  13. Development of a degradable cement of calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate composite for bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Wei, J; Liu, C S

    2006-12-01

    A new type of composite bone cement was prepared and investigated by adding calcium sulfate (CS) to calcium phosphate cement (CPC). This composite cement can be handled as a paste and easily shaped into any contour, which can set within 5-20 min, the setting time largely depending on the liquid-solid (L/S) ratio; adding CS to CPC had little effect on the setting time of the composite cements. No obvious temperature increase and pH change were observed during setting and immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The compressive strength of the cement decreased with an increase in the content of CS. The degradation rate of the composite cements increased with time when the CS content was more than 20 wt%. Calcium deficient apatite could form on the surface of the composite cement because the release of calcium into SBF from the dissolution of CS and the apatite of the cement induced the new apatite formation; increasing the content of CS in the composite could improve the bioactivity of the composite cements. The results suggested that composite cement has a reasonable setting time, excellent degradability and suitable mechanical strength and bioactivity, which shows promising prospects for development as a clinical cement.

  14. The initial phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitated from solutions of high to medium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbona, F.; Madsen, H. E. Lundager; Boistelle, R.

    1986-04-01

    The precipitation of calcium and magnesium phosphates is performed at 25°C by mixing solutions of ammonium phosphate and solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides under the condition [ P] = [ Ca] + [ Mg] in large pH intervals. Before any nucleation the phosphate concentration ranges from 0.50M to 0.01M. The phases first precipitated are CaHPO 4·2H 2O (brushite), CaHPO 4 (monetite), Ca 3(PO 4) 2· xH 2O (amorphous calcium phosphate), MgNH 4PO 4·6H 2O (struvite), and MgHPO 4·3H 2O (newberyite). The precipitation fields of each phase are determined and discussed as a function of pH, composition and supersaturation. The solutions are even supersaturated with respect to several other calcium phosphates but they never occur first even if their supersaturation is the highest.

  15. Polymeric additives to enhance the functional properties of calcium phosphate cements

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of materials used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are based on calcium phosphates due to their similarity with the mineral phase of natural bone. Among them, calcium phosphate cements, which are composed of a powder and a liquid that are mixed to obtain a moldable paste, are widely used. These calcium phosphate cement pastes can be injected using minimally invasive surgery and adapt to the shape of the defect, resulting in an entangled network of calcium phosphate crystals. Adding an organic phase to the calcium phosphate cement formulation is a very powerful strategy to enhance some of the properties of these materials. Adding some water-soluble biocompatible polymers in the calcium phosphate cement liquid or powder phase improves physicochemical and mechanical properties, such as injectability, cohesion, and toughness. Moreover, adding specific polymers can enhance the biological response and the resorption rate of the material. The goal of this study is to overview the most relevant advances in this field, focusing on the different types of polymers that have been used to enhance specific calcium phosphate cement properties. PMID:22511991

  16. Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Tervahauta, Taina; van der Weijden, Renata D; Flemming, Roberta L; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor at lab- and demonstration-scale were analyzed for chemical composition and mineralogy by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Electron microprobe (EMP), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The granules had a diameter of 1-2 mm, organic content of 33 wt%, and phosphorus content of 11-13 wt%. Three calcium phosphate phases were identified in the granules: hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate hydrate and carbonated hydroxyapatite. Without any addition of chemicals, 7 gP/person/year can be recovered with the calcium phosphate granules, representing 2% of the incoming phosphorus in the UASB reactor. As the heavy metal content was lower compared to other phosphorus recovery products, phosphate rock and phosphorus fertilizer, the calcium phosphate granules could be considered as a new phosphorus product.

  17. Carbonated calcium phosphates are suitable pH-stabilising fillers for biodegradable polyesters.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Carsten; Epple, Matthias

    2003-05-01

    Carbonated amorphous calcium phosphates were prepared with different carbonate content. Their ability to neutralise acidity was probed by time-resolved titration experiments with lactic acid, the monomer that results from degradation of polylactide. The results show that although calcium phosphate as such can reduce acidity, their buffering range lies at a pH of about 4, i.e. outside the physiological range. This is not related to the rate of dissolution. Carbonated calcium phosphates as well as calcium carbonate (calcite) alone are able to keep the pH around 7.4. Consequently, carbonated calcium phosphates are suitable basic filler materials as they are able to compensate acidity, and to buffer within the physiological pH-range.

  18. Injectable and rapid-setting calcium phosphate bone cement with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena F; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D

    2006-04-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ with intimate adaptation to the contours of defect surfaces, and forms an implant having a structure and composition similar to hydroxyapatite, the putative mineral in teeth and bones. The objective of the present study was to develop an injectable CPC using dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) with a high solubility for rapid setting. Two agents were incorporated to impart injectability and fast-hardening to the cement: a hardening accelerator (sodium phosphate) and a gelling agent (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC). The cement with DCPD was designated as CPC(D), and the conventional cement was referred to as CPC(A). Using water without sodium phosphate, CPC(A) had a setting time of 82 +/- 6 min. In contrast, CPC(D) exhibited rapid setting with a time of 17 +/- 1 min. At 0.2 mol/L sodium phosphate, setting time for CPC(D) was 15 +/- 1 min, significantly faster than 40 +/- 2 min for CPC(A) (Tukey's at 0.95). Sodium phosphate decreased the paste injectability (measured as the paste mass extruded from the syringe divided by the original paste mass inside the syringe). However, the addition of HPMC dramatically increased the paste injectability. For CPC(D), the injectability was increased from 65% +/- 12% without HPMC to 98% +/- 1% with 1% HPMC. Injectability of CPC(A) was also doubled to 99% +/- 1%. The injectable and rapid-setting CPC(D) possessed flexural strength and elastic modulus values overlapping the reported values for sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone. In summary, the rapid setting and relatively high strength and elastic modulus of CPC(D) should help the graft to quickly attain strength and geometrical integrity within a short period of time postoperatively. Furthermore, the injectability of CPC(D) may have potential for procedures involving defects with limited accessibility or narrow cavities, when there is a need for precise placement of the paste, and when using minimally invasive

  19. Low temperature solution deposition of calcium phosphate coatings for orthopedic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.A.; Graff, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings were grown from aqueous solution onto a derivatized self-assmebled monolayer (SAM) which was covalently bound to a titanium metal substrate. The SAM molecules provided an idea connection between the metal surface and the calcium phosphate coating. The trichlorosilane terminus of the SAM molecule insured covalent attachment to the surface, while the functionalized ``tail`` induced heterogeneous nucleation of the calcium phosphate coating from supersaturated solutions. This low temperature process allowed for uniform coatings to be produced onto complex-shaped and/or microporous surfaces and provided better control of phase purity.

  20. Mechanical and fracture behavior of calcium phosphate cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jew, Victoria Chou

    Apatite-based calcium phosphate cements are currently employed to a limited extent in the biomedical and dental fields. They present significant potential for a much broader range of applications, particularly as a bone mineral substitute for fracture fixation. Specifically, hydroxyapatite (HA) is known for its biocompatibility and non-immunogenicity, attributed to its similarity to the mineral phase of natural bone. The advantages of a cement-based HA include injectability, greater resorbability and osteoconductivity compared to sintered HA, and an isothermal cement-forming reaction that avoids necrosis during cement setting. Although apatite cements demonstrate good compressive strength, tensile properties are very weak compared to natural bone. Applications involving normal weight-bearing require better structural integrity than apatite cements currently provide. A more thorough understanding of fracture behavior can elucidate failure mechanisms and is essential for the design of targeted strengthening methods. This study investigated a hydroxyapatite cement using a fracture mechanics approach, focusing on subcritical crack growth properties. Subcritical crack growth can lead to much lower load-bearing ability than critical strength values predict. Experiments show that HA cement is susceptible to crack growth under both cyclic fatigue-crack growth and stress corrosion cracking conditions, but only environmental, not mechanical, mechanisms contribute to crack extension. This appears to be the first evidence ever presented of stress corrosion crack growth behavior in calcium phosphate cements. Stress corrosion cracking was examined for a range of environmental conditions. Variations in pH have surprisingly little effect. Behavior in water at elevated temperature (50°C) is altered compared to water at ambient temperature (22°C), but only for crack-growth velocities below 10-7 m/s. However, fracture resistance of dried HA cement in air increases significantly

  1. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-containing orthodontic cement.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xian-Ju; Xing, Dan; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin Hk

    2016-11-04

    White spot lesions (WSLs), due to enamel demineralization, occur frequently in orthodontic treatment. We recently developed a novel rechargeable dental composite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) with long-term calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release and caries-inhibiting capability. The objectives of this study were to develop the first NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement and investigate the effects of recharge duration and frequency on the efficacy of ion re-release. The rechargeable cement consisted of pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA). NACP was mixed into the resin at 40% by mass. Specimens were tested for orthodontic bracket shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel, Ca and P ion initial release, recharge and re-release. The new orthodontic cement exhibited an SBS similar to commercial orthodontic cement without CaP release (P>0.1). Specimens after one recharge treatment (e.g., 1 min immersion in recharge solution repeating three times in one day, referred to as "1 min 3 times") exhibited a substantial and continuous re-release of Ca and P ions for 14 days without further recharge. The ion re-release did not decrease with increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles (P>0.1). The ion re-release concentrations at 14 days versus various recharge treatments were as follows: 1 min 3 times>3 min 2 times>1 min 2 times>6 min 1 time>3 min 1 time>1 min 1 time. In conclusion, although previous studies have shown that NACP nanocomposite remineralized tooth lesions and inhibited caries, the present study developed the first orthodontic cement with Ca and P ion recharge and long-term release capability. This NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement is a promising therapy to inhibit enamel demineralization and WSLs around orthodontic brackets.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication,4 November 2016; doi:10.1038/ijos.2016.40.

  2. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-03-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8-1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement-alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate-hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement-alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone.

  3. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  4. TEM studies of calcium phosphates for the understanding of biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Renlong

    Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) formation and bone minerals have been the focus of research for several decades because achievements in these areas could provide valuable insights into the understanding of biomineralization. In this thesis work, Ca-P formation, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) to hydroxyapatite (HA) transformation and bone minerals were systematically studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Ca-P formations on various bioceramics in simulated body fluid and in rabbit muscle sites were investigated. The bioceramics included sintered bioglass RTM, A-W glass-ceramics, HA, alpha-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), beta-TCP and HA-TCP. The comparative studies showed that OCP formation occurred on all types of bioceramic surfaces in vitro and in vivo, except on beta-TCP; however HA formation did not occur on every type of bioceramics; it less likely occurred on the surfaces of HA and alpha-TCP. These findings were contradicted to the common statements in literatures. OCP to HA transformations in vitro and in vivo were observed by high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). The in vitro transformation was induced by electron beam irradiations of in situ TEM on synthetic OCP crystals. The in vivo transformation was revealed on rod-like HA precipitates formed in dog muscle sites. Based on HRTEM examinations and image simulations, OCP/HA crystallographic orientations were determined to be OCP (010) // HA (01¯0) and OCP (001) // HA (001¯), which differed from a well known model proposed by Brown et al. The minerals of cortical bone were extracted from human tibiae and rat femurs using 10% neutral ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution. TEM examinations showed that the dominance of bone minerals was plate-like and a few were needle-like. The length of most plate-like minerals ranged from 50 to 150 nm but could be up to 200 nm. To the author's knowledge, OCP structure was for the first time, identified in a number of plate-like bone minerals by selected area

  5. Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

  6. Endoscopic delivery of calcium phosphate cement for secondary craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Francis, Cameron S; Wong, Ryan K; Cohen, Steven R

    2012-11-01

    Contour defects are common following primary craniofacial procedures including cranial vault remodeling, fronto-orbital and midface advancements, and complex posttraumatic reconstructions. When onlayed as fast-setting pastes, calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been used to effectively correct contour defects in open secondary reconstruction procedures. Here, we describe an endoscopic procedure using an injectable CPC and compare surgical outcomes with the open technique. A retrospective review was conducted for 36 consecutive patients aged 3.0-28.9 years (mean, 10.1 years) who underwent secondary craniofacial reconstruction over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified into endoscopic or open groups depending on the surgical approach utilized. Mean operative time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) for the endoscopic group (64 minutes) than for the open group (131 minutes). Similarly, hospital stay was significantly shorter (P = 0.005) in the endoscopic group than in the open group. There was also a significant difference with respect to cost (P < 0.001), with the endoscopic approach resulting in a per-patient cost savings of $2208.05. In conclusion, endoscopic delivery of CPC appears to be a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective method of performing secondary craniofacial reconstruction, with the additional benefits of decreased operative time and shorter postoperative hospital stay when compared with an open procedure.

  7. Introduction of gelatin microspheres into an injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Habraken, W J E M; de Jonge, L T; Wolke, J G C; Yubao, L; Mikos, A G; Jansen, J A

    2008-12-01

    For tissue engineered bone constructs, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has a high potential as scaffold material because of its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, in vivo resorption and tissue ingrowth is slow. To address these issues, microspheres can be incorporated into the cement, which will create macroporosity after in situ degradation. The goal of this study was to investigate the handling properties and degradation characteristics of CPC containing gelatin microspheres. Setting time and injectability were determined and an in vitro degradation study was performed. Samples were assayed on mass, compression strength, E-modulus, and morphology. A supplementary degradation test with gelatin microspheres was performed to investigate the influence of physical conditions inside the cement on microsphere stability. The gelatin microsphere CPCs were easy to inject and showed initial setting times of less than 3 min. After 12-weeks in vitro degradation no increase in macroporosity was observed, which was supported by the small mass loss and stabilizing mechanical strength. Even a clear densification of the composite was observed. Explanations for the lack of macroporosity were recrystallization of the cement onto or inside the gelatin spheres and a delayed degradation of gelatin microspheres inside the scaffold. The supplementary degradation test showed that the pH is a factor in the delayed gelatin microsphere degradation. Also differences in degradation rate between types of gelatin were observed. Overall, the introduction of gelatin microspheres into CPC renders composites with good handling properties, though the degradation characteristics should be further investigated to generate a macroporous scaffold.

  8. Control of surface topography in biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel O; Allo, Bedilu A; Klassen, Robert; Hutter, Jeffrey L; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2012-02-28

    The behavior of cells responsible for bone formation, osseointegration, and bone bonding in vivo are governed by both the surface chemistry and topography of scaffold matrices. Bone-like apatite coatings represent a promising method to improve the osteoconductivity and bonding of synthetic scaffold materials to mineralized tissues for regenerative procedures in orthopedics and dentistry. Polycaprolactone (PCL) films were coated with calcium phosphates (CaP) by incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). We investigated the effect of SBF ion concentration and soaking time on the surface properties of the resulting apatite coatings. CaP coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Young's modulus (E(s)) was determined by nanoindentation, and surface roughness was assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mechanical stylus profilometry. CaP such as carbonate-substituted apatite were deposited onto PCL films. SEM and AFM images of the apatite coatings revealed an increase in topographical complexity and surface roughness with increasing ion concentration of SBF solutions. Young's moduli (E(s)) of various CaP coatings were not significantly different, regardless of the CaP phase or surface roughness. Thus, SBF with high ion concentrations may be used to coat synthetic polymers with CaP layers of different surface topography and roughness to improve the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding ability of the scaffold.

  9. Antibacterial Property Expressed by a Novel Calcium Phosphate Glass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lela; Pushalkar, Smruti; Saxena, Deepak; LeGeros, Racquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a calcium phosphate glass (CPG) doped with Zn2+ or F− or combined Zn2+ and F− ions, which are naturally found in the human body and play a dual role in bone formation and antibacterial activity. Previously, we have demonstrated that this family of CPGs has superior osteoconductive and resorbable properties in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial property of CPGs incorporating Zn2+ and/or F−. We used Streptococcus mutans as a model organism because it is one of the major human oral pathogens and an early colonizer, and it has been associated with several oral infections, such as dental caries, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis. 0.01g and 0.05g of CPGs were incubated with Streptococcus mutans for 0, 2, 4, and 6 h. Serial dilutions were plated in triplicate and colony forming units were determined. The antimicrobial effect of CPG incorporating Zn2+ or F− was greater than CPG incorporating both these ions. CPG without doping produced a moderate antimicrobial effect. This family of CPGs, previously shown to promote new bone formation in vivo, is demonstrated to have superior bactericidal properties. PMID:24039127

  10. Natural rubber latex coated with calcium phosphate for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Borges, Felipe Azevedo; Filho, Edson de Almeida; Miranda, Matheus Carlos Romeiro; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Herculano, Rondinelli Donizetti; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a flexible biomembrane that possesses angiogenic properties and has recently been used for guided bone regeneration, enhancing healing without fibrous tissue, allergies or rejection. Calcium phosphate (Ca/P) ceramics have chemical, biological, and mechanical properties similar to mineral phase of bone, and ability to bond to the host tissue, although it can disperse from where it is applied. Therefore, to create a composite that could enhance the properties of both materials, NRL biomembranes were coated with Ca/P. NRL biomembranes were soaked in 1.5 times concentrated SBF solution for seven days, avoiding the use of high temperatures. SEM showed that Ca/P has been coated in NRL biomembrane, XRD showed low crystallinity and FTIR showed that is the carbonated type B. Furthermore, hemolysis of erythrocytes, quantified spectrophotometrically using materials (Ca/P, NRL, and NRL + Ca/P) showed no hemolytic effects up to 0.125 mg/mL (compounds and mixtures), indicating no detectable disturbance of the red blood cell membranes. The results show that the biomimetic is an appropriate method to coat NRL with Ca/P without using high temperatures, aiming a new biomembrane to improve guided bone regeneration.

  11. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  12. Genetic responses to nanostructured calcium-phosphate-coated implants.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, R; Xue, Y; Hayashi, M; Schwartz-Filho, H O; Andersson, M; Mustafa, K; Wennerberg, A

    2011-12-01

    Nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP) has been histologically and biomechanically proven to enhance osseointegration of implants; however, conventional techniques were not sufficiently sensitive to capture its biological effects fully. Here, we compared the conventional removal torque (RTQ) evaluation and gene expression in tissues around nanostructured CaP-coated implants, using real-time RT-PCR, with those of uncoated implants, in a rabbit model. At 2 wks, RTQ values were significantly higher, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was significantly higher, and runt-related transcription factor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α expressions were significantly lower in the coated than in the uncoated implants. This indicates that inflammatory responses were suppressed and osteoprogenitor activity increased around the CaP-coated surface. At 4 wks, although RTQ values did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly up-regulated in the coated group, indicating progressive mineralization of the bone around the implant. Moreover, an osteoclast marker, adenosine triphosphatase, which indicates acidification of the resorption lacunae, was significantly higher for the coated implants, suggesting gradual resorption of the CaP coating. This study reveals detailed genetic responses to nanostructured CaP-coated implants and provides evidence that the effect of nanotopography is significant during the osseointegration cascade.

  13. Remineralization of Demineralized Enamel via Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Weir, M.D.; Chow, L.C.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary caries remains the main problem limiting the longevity of composite restorations. The objective of this study was to investigate the remineralization of demineralized human enamel in vitro via a nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). NACP were synthesized by a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a dental resin. First, caries-like subsurface enamel lesions were created via an acidic solution. Then, NACP nanocomposite or a commercial fluoride-releasing control composite was placed on the demineralized enamel, along with control enamel without a composite. These specimens were then treated with a cyclic demineralization/remineralization regimen for 30 days. Quantitative microradiography showed typical enamel subsurface demineralization before cyclic demineralization/remineralization treatment, and significant remineralization in enamel under the NACP nanocomposite after the demineralization/remineralization treatment. The NACP nanocomposite had the highest enamel remineralization (mean ± SD; n = 6) of 21.8 ± 3.7%, significantly higher than the 5.7 ± 6.9% for fluoride-releasing composite (p < 0.05). The enamel group without composite had further demineralization of −26.1 ± 16.2%. In conclusion, a novel NACP nanocomposite was effective in remineralizing enamel lesions in vitro. Its enamel remineralization was 4-fold that of a fluoride-releasing composite control. Combined with the good mechanical and acid-neutralization properties reported earlier, the new NACP nanocomposite is promising for remineralization of demineralized tooth structures. PMID:22933607

  14. Bioactive calcium phosphate coating formed on micro-arc oxidized magnesium by chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. Y.; Hu, J.; Ding, Z. K.; Wang, C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of the micro-arc oxidized magnesium, a calcium phosphate coating was formed on the surface of micro-arc oxidized magnesium using a chemical method. The microstructures of the substrate and the calcium phosphate coating before and after the simulated body fluids (SBF) incubation were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the calcified coating was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). After SBF incubation, some new apatite formation on the calcified coating surface from SBF could be found. The corrosion behaviours of the samples in SBF were also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and immersion tests. The results showed that calcium phosphate coating increased the corrosion potential, and decreased the hydrogen gas release.

  15. Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, I.-H.; Lee, I.-S.; Song, J.-H.; Lee, M.-H.; Park, J.-C.; Lee, G.-H.; Sun, X.-D.; Chung, S.-M.

    2007-09-01

    A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO3 concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls.

  16. Effect of Reaction Pathway on the Extent and Mechanism of Uranium(VI) Immobilization with Calcium and Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vrajesh S.; Maillot, Fabien; Wang, Zheming; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Giammar, Daniel E.

    2016-03-15

    Phosphate addition to subsurface environments contaminated with uranium can be used as an in situ remediation approach. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the dependence of the extent and mechanism of uranium uptake on the pathway for reaction with calcium phosphates. At pH 4.0 and 6.0 uranium uptake occurred via autunite (Ca(UO2)(PO4)3) precipitation irrespective of the starting forms of calcium and phosphate. At pH 7.5, the uptake mechanism depended on the nature of the calcium and phosphate. When dissolved uranium, calcium, and phosphate were added simultaneously, uranium was structurally incorporated into a newly formed amorphous calcium phosphate solid. Adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for uranium contacted with pre-formed amorphous calcium phosphate solids,. When U(VI) was added to a suspension containing amorphous calcium phosphate solids as well as dissolved calcium and phosphate, then removal occurred through precipitation (57±4 %) of autunite and adsorption (43±4 %) onto calcium phosphate. The solid phase speciation of the uranium was determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Dissolved uranium, calcium, and phosphate concentrations with saturation index calculations helped identify removal mechanisms and determine thermodynamically favorable solid phases.

  17. Clinical management of disturbances of calcium and phosphate metabolism in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Helen; Heaf, James G

    2009-08-01

    Management of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder can be difficult in renal patients. This review aims to explain why the control of disturbed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolism is important in dialysis patients. The methods available to regulate these parameters include diet, phosphate binders, dialysate calcium, native vitamin D, active vitamin D derivatives and calcimimetics. An overview of current treatment guidelines will be discussed.

  18. High early strength calcium phosphate bone cement: effects of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and absorbable fibers.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena F; Xu, Hockin H K; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C

    2005-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ to form resorbable hydroxyapatite with chemical and crystallographic similarity to the apatite in human bones, hence it is highly promising for clinical applications. The objective of the present study was to develop a CPC that is fast setting and has high strength in the early stages of implantation. Two approaches were combined to impart high early strength to the cement: the use of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate with a high solubility (which formed the cement CPC(D)) instead of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (which formed the conventional cement CPC(A)), and the incorporation of absorbable fibers. A 2 x 8 design was tested with two materials (CPC(A) and CPC(D)) and eight levels of cement reaction time: 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h. An absorbable suture fiber was incorporated into cements at 25% volume fraction. The Gilmore needle method measured a hardening time of 15.8 min for CPC(D), five-fold faster than 81.5 min for CPC(A), at a powder:liquid ratio of 3:1. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of nanosized rod-like hydroxyapatite crystals and platelet crystals in the cements. At 30 min, the flexural strength (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 5) was 0 MPa for CPC(A) (the paste did not set), (4.2 +/- 0.3) MPa for CPC(D), and (10.7 +/- 2.4) MPa for CPC(D)-fiber specimens, significantly different from each other (Tukey's at 0.95). The work of fracture (toughness) was increased by two orders of magnitude for the CPC(D)-fiber cement. The high early strength matched the reported strength for cancellous bone and sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants. The composite strength S(c) was correlated to the matrix strength S(m): S(c) = 2.16S(m). In summary, substantial early strength was imparted to a moldable, self-hardening and resorbable hydroxyapatite via two synergistic approaches: dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and absorbable fibers. The new fast-setting and strong cement may help prevent

  19. RBS and XPS analyses of the composite calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2005-12-01

    The calcium phosphate coatings on metallic implants are widely used for biomedical applications. The calcium phosphate coatings require mechanical strength, strong adhesion to the metallic implants, chemical stability and low dissolution into the human body fluid for stable functioning in the corrosive environment of the human body. In this study, a novel approach for improving the calcium phosphate coatings is utilized by adding trace metallic element into the coatings. We focused on teeth enamel, which is the hardest calcium phosphate tissue in the human body. Zn concentration increases exponentially from the interior to the surface of the enamel. As the Zn concentration increases, so the local hardness increases. Our previous studies suggest that Zn has influence on the hardness and other properties of enamel, calcium phosphate tissue. Calcium phosphate coatings doped with Zn was fabricated and characterized. The atomic composition and chemical state were investigated by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. Scratch test was also carried out for measuring the adhesion of the coatings.

  20. Effects of calcium phosphate/chitosan composite on bone healing in rats: calcium phosphate induces osteon formation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Tulio; Olave, Gilberto; Valencia, Carlos H; Arce, Sandra; Quinn, Julian M W; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Vascularization of an artificial graft represents one of the most significant challenges facing the field of bone tissue engineering. Over the past decade, strategies to vascularize artificial scaffolds have been intensively evaluated using osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials in animal models. In this work, we observed that CaP-based biomaterials implanted into rat calvarial defects showed remarkably accelerated formation and mineralization of new woven bone in defects in the initial stages, at a rate of ∼60 μm/day (0.8 mg/day), which was considerably higher than normal bone growth rates (several μm/day, 0.1 mg/day) in implant-free controls of the same age. Surprisingly, we also observed histological evidence of primary osteon formation, indicated by blood vessels in early-region fibrous tissue, which was encapsulated by lamellar osteocyte structures. These were later fully replaced by compact bone, indicating complete regeneration of calvarial bone. Thus, the CaP biomaterial used here is not only osteoinductive, but vasculogenic, and it may have contributed to the bone regeneration, despite an absence of osteons in normal rat calvaria. Further investigation will involve how this strategy can regulate formation of vascularized cortical bone such as by control of degradation rate, and use of models of long, dense bones, to more closely approximate repair of human cortical bone.

  1. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide Based Intracanal Medicaments on the Apical Sealing Ability of Resin Based Sealer and Guttapercha Obturated Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Sumanthini, MV; Shenoy, Vanitha U; Bodhwani, Mohit A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Calcium Hydroxide (CH) is one of the most commonly used intracanal medicaments which can be used with various vehicles. Aim The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three CH based intracanal medicaments on the apical sealing ability of AH Plus – guttapercha obturation. Materials and Methods Crowns of 100 extracted single rooted human teeth were sectioned at the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to a standardized length. The root canals were instrumented upto ISO size 40 using step back technique and the specimens were randomly divided into two control and four experimental groups. The control groups were not medicated. Specimens in positive control group (Group I) were obturated with guttapercha without placing sealer and in negative control group (Group II) were obturated with guttapercha and AH Plus sealer. Among the experimental groups, specimens of Group III were not medicated while groups IV, V and VI were medicated with CH-saline, CH-2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Vitapex respectively for a period of 14 days. The medicaments were removed from the specimens and the teeth were obturated with AH Plus sealer and guttapercha using lateral compaction technique. The specimens were immersed in India ink dye, demineralized and diphanized. The extent of dye penetration was assessed using a 10X stereomicroscope. Data obtained was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p<0.05) followed by Post-hoc Tukey test. Results Amongst the three CH medicaments, CH-2% CHX when used as an intracanal medicament showed a significantly higher microleakage as compared to the other groups with p<0.001. The microleakage values between the remaining groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion Under the conditions of this study it was concluded that all groups with or without intracanal medicament showed apical leakage. The vehicle used to carry CH may significantly influence the apical sealing ability of guttapercha – AH Plus obturated canals. PMID

  2. Technology for recovery of phosphorus from animal wastewater through calcium phosphate precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wastewater treatment process was developed for removal of phosphorus from livestock wastewater. The phosphorus is recovered as calcium phosphate with addition of only small quantities of liquid lime. The process is based on the distinct chemical equilibrium between phosphorus and calcium ions when...

  3. Low temperature method for the production of calcium phosphate fillers

    PubMed Central

    Calafiori, Anna Rita; Marotta, Marcello; Nastro, Alfonso; Martino, Guglielmo

    2004-01-01

    Background Calcium phosphate manufactured samples, prepared with hydroxyapatite, are used as either spacers or fillers in orthopedic surgery, but these implants have never been used under conditions of mechanical stress. Similar conditions also apply with cements. Many authors have postulated that cements are a useful substitute material when implanted in vivo. The aim of this research is to develop a low cristalline material similar to bone in porosity and cristallinity. Methods Commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and monetite (M) powders are mixed with water and compacted to produce cylindrical samples. The material is processed at a temperature of 37–120 degrees C in saturated steam to obtain samples that are osteoconductive. The samples are studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness test (HV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and porosity evaluation. Results The X-ray diffractions of powders from the samples show patterns typical of HAp and M powders. After thermal treatment, no new crystal phase is formed and no increase of the relative intensity of the peaks is obtained. Vicker hardness data do not show any relationship with treatment temperature. The total porosity decreases by 50–60% according to the specific thermal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces of the samples with either HAp 80%-M 20% (c) or Hap 50%-M 50% (f), show cohesion of the powder grains. Conclusions The dissolution-reprecipitation process is more intesive in manufactured samples (c) and (f), according to Vickers hardness data. The process occurs in a steam saturated environment between 37 degrees and 120 degrees C. (c) (f) manufactured samples show pore dimension distributions useful to cellular repopulation in living tissues. PMID:15035671

  4. Calcium phosphate cements with strontium halides as radiopacifiers.

    PubMed

    López, Alejandro; Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Engqvist, Håkan; Ott, Marjam Karlsson; Persson, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    High radiopacity is required to monitor the delivery and positioning of injectable implants. Inorganic nonsoluble radiopacifiers are typically used in nondegradable bone cements; however, their usefulness in resorbable cements is limited due to their low solubility. Strontium halides, except strontium fluoride, are ionic water-soluble compounds that possess potential as radiopacifiers. In this study, we compare the radiopacity, mechanical properties, composition, and cytotoxicity of radiopaque brushite cements prepared with strontium fluoride (SrF2 ), strontium chloride (SrCl2 ·6H2 O), strontium bromide (SrBr2 ), or strontium iodide (SrI2 ). Brushite cements containing 10 wt % SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , or SrI2 exhibited equal to or higher radiopacity than commercial radiopaque cements. Furthermore, the brushite crystal lattice in cements that contained the ionic radiopacifiers was larger than in unmodified cements and in cements that contained SrF2 , indicating strontium substitution. Despite the fact that the strontium halides increased the solubility of the cements and affected their mechanical properties, calcium phosphate cements containing SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 showed no significant differences in Saos-2 cell viability and proliferation with respect to the control. Strontium halides: SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 may be potential candidates as radiopacifiers in resorbable biomaterials although their in vivo biocompatibility, when incorporated into injectable implants, is yet to be assessed.

  5. Stem Cells and Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, W.; Liu, X.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. This article reviews recent developments in stem cell delivery via CPC for bone regeneration. This includes: (1) biofunctionalization of the CPC scaffold, (2) co-culturing of osteoblasts/endothelial cells and prevascularization of CPC, (3) seeding of CPC with different stem cell species, (4) human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) and bone marrow MSC (hBMSC) seeding on CPC for bone regeneration, and (5) human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) seeding with CPC for bone regeneration. Cells exhibited good attachment/proliferation in CPC scaffolds. Stem-cell-CPC constructs generated more new bone and blood vessels in vivo than did the CPC control without cells. hUCMSCs, hESC-MSCs, and hiPSC-MSCs in CPC generated new bone and blood vessels similar to those of hBMSCs; hence, they were viable cell sources for bone engineering. CPC with hESC-MSCs and hiPSC-MSCs generated new bone two- to three-fold that of the CPC control. Therefore, this article demonstrates that: (1) CPC scaffolds are suitable for delivering cells; (2) hUCMSCs, hESCs, and hiPSCs are promising alternatives to hBMSCs, which require invasive procedures to harvest with limited cell quantity; and (3) stem-cell-CPC constructs are highly promising for bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. PMID:24799422

  6. The effect of porcine calcitonin on intestinal calcium and phosphate fluxes in the young piglet.

    PubMed

    McKercher, H G; Radde, I C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of a physiological (3.8 ng.mL-1) and a pharmacological (120 ng.mL-1) concentration of porcine calcitonin (CT) on transmucosal calcium and phosphate flux rates were determined in intestinal mucosa from young piglets (4--40 days) mounted in Ussing flux chambers. The physiological concentration of the hormone inhibited net absorptive calcium flux rates in the proximal jejunum and distal ileum but not in the duodenum. No effect of either concentration of CT on phosphate flux rates was observed. The inhibitory effect of the physiological concentration may indicate a role for CT in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis in the young suckling mammal.

  7. Biomimetic chitosan-calcium phosphate composites with potential applications as bone substitutes: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Constantin E; Popa, Marcel I; Verestiuc, Liliana

    2012-04-01

    A novel biomimetic technique for obtaining chitosan-calcium phosphates (Cs-CP) scaffolds are presented: calcium phosphates are precipitated from its precursors, CaCl(2) and NaH(2) PO(4) on the Cs matrix, under physiological conditions (human body temperature and body fluid pH; 37°C and pH = 7.2, respectively). Materials composition and structure have been confirmed by various techniques: elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR and SEM data have shown the arrangement of the calcium phosphates-hydroxyapatite (CP-Hap) onto Cs matrix. In this case the polymer is acting as glue, bonding the calcium phosphates crystals. Behavior in biological simulated fluids (phosphate buffer solution-PBS and PBS-albumin) revealed an important contribution of the chelation between -NH3(+) and Ca(2+) on the scaffold interaction with aqueous mediums; increased quantities of chitosan in composites permit the interaction with human albumin and improve the retention of fluid. The composites are slightly degraded by the lysozyme which facilitates an in vivo degradation control of bone substitutes. Modulus of elasticity is strongly dependent of the ratio chitosan/calcium phosphates and recommends the obtained biomimetic composites as promising materials for a prospective bone application.

  8. Formation of phosphate-containing calcium fluoride at the expense of enamel, hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, J; Christoffersen, M R; Arends, J; Leonardsen, E S

    1995-01-01

    During the caries process complex reactions involving calcium, phosphate, hydrogen and fluoride ions as main species take place. In this study the precipitation and dissolution reactions occurring in suspensions of enamel, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and fluorapatite (FAP) on addition of fluoride were investigated under well-defined conditions. pH and pF were monitored; calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured at selected times; the solid phases were examined by infra-red, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Precipitation of phosphate-containing calcium fluoride crystals, CaF2(P), can cause severe reduction in the calcium ion concentration and release of hydrogen ions from the precipitated phosphate. These reactions result in considerable dissolution of enamel, HAP and even of FAP. More of the added mineral dissolves with 50 mmol/l fluoride than with 10 mmol/l fluoride, mainly due to the greater reduction in calcium ion concentration. This work shows that phosphate-containing calcium fluoride is most likely an important compound to be considered in the caries process.

  9. Discrimination between biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases by surface-analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Rohnke, Marcus; Henss, Anja; Peppler, Klaus; Sann, Joachim; Janek, Juergen

    2014-08-01

    The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.

  10. Chemical transformation of some biologically relevant calcium phosphates in aqueous media during a steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, S V; Schmitt, M; Bouler, J M; Daculsi, G

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of steam sterilization on some biologically relevant calcium phosphates: CaHPO4 . 2H2O (DCPD), calcium deficient apatite (CDA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Suspensions of 0.2 g of each calcium phosphate compound with 5.0 ml of deionized water were prepared and steam sterilized in an autoclave (20 min at 121 degrees C). After sterilization the suspensions were filtered and the dried solids characterized with scanning electron microscopy, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The pH and calcium concentrations of the filtrates were determined with ion selective electrodes. Similar measurements were made with the same samples which were not sterilized. The sterilization procedure was found to result in the dehydration of DCPD and hydration of calcium oxide incorporated into the BCP. Solution pH was observed to change from 7.3 to 5.5 for the solutions in equilibrium with DCPD and from 8.5 to 10.6 for those in equilibrium with BCP. Minor changes both with the solid and liquid phases were found to occur during the steam sterilization of CDA. These results indicate that steam sterilization may have different effects on different calcium phosphate suspensions: it can result in dehydration of DCPD, fast hydration for CaO in BCP, but no significant effect on CDA.

  11. Formation of apatitic calcium phosphates in a Na-K-phosphate solution of pH 7.4.

    PubMed

    Tas, A C; Aldinger, F

    2005-02-01

    Poorly crystalline, apatitic calcium phosphate powders have been synthesized by slowly adding a Na- and K-containing reference phosphate solution with a pH value of 7.4 to an aqueous calcium nitrate solution at 37 degrees C. Nano-particulated apatitic powders obtained were shown to contain small amounts of Na and K, which render them more similar in chemical composition to that of the bone mineral. Precipitated and dried powders were found to exhibit self-hardening cement properties when kneaded in a mortar with a sodium citrate- and sodium phosphate-containing starter solution. The same phosphate solution used in powder synthesis was found to be able to partially convert natural, white and translucent marble pieces of calcite (CaCO3) into calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite upon aging the samples in that solution for 3 days at 60 degrees C. Sample characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis.

  12. Premixed calcium phosphate cements: Synthesis, physical properties, and cell cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hockin H.K.; Carey, Lisa E.; Simon, Carl G.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a promising material for dental, periodontal, and craniofacial repairs. However, its use requires on-site powder–liquid mixing that increases the surgical placement time and raises concerns of insufficient and inhomogeneous mixing. The objective of this study was to determine a formulation of premixed CPC (PCPC) with rapid setting, high strength, and good in vitro cell viability. Methods PCPCs were formulated from CPC powder + non-aqueous liquid + gelling agent + hardening accelerator. Five PCPCs were thus developed: PCPC-Tartaric, PCPC-Malonic, PCPC-Citric, PCPC-Glycolic, and PCPC-Malic. Formulations and controls were compared for setting time, diametral tensile strength, and osteoblast cell compatibility. Results Setting time (mean ± S.D.; n = 4) for PCPC-Tartaric was 8.2 ± 0.8 min, significantly less than the 61.7 ± 1.5 min for the Premixed Control developed previously (p < 0.001). On 7th day immersion, the diametral tensile strength of PCPC-Tartaric reached 6.5 ± 0.8 MPa, higher than 4.5 ± 0.8 MPa of Premixed Control (p = 0.036). Osteoblast cells displayed a polygonal morphology and attached to the nano-hydroxyapatite crystals in the PCPCs. All cements had similar live cell density values (p = 0.126), indicating that the new PCPCs were as cell compatible as a non-premixed CPC control known to be biocompatible. Each of the new PCPCs had a cell viability that was not significantly different (p > 0.1) from that of the non-premixed CPC control. Significance PCPCs will eliminate the powder–liquid mixing during surgery and may also improve the cement performance. The new PCPCs supported cell attachment and yielded a high cell density and viability. Their mechanical strengths approached the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone. These nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite cements may be useful in dental, periodontal, and craniofacial repairs. PMID:16678895

  13. Biomimetic synthesis of poly(propylene-fumarate)-calcium phosphate composites for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi Mehr, Dorna

    A novel in-situ co-precipitation process for the synthesis of poly(propylene-fumarate)-calcium phosphate composites was developed. In this process the calcium phosphate phase nucleates and grows in the presence of poly(propylene-fumarate) (PPF), in a novel two-solvent system including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water. It was found that the presence of the organic solvent (THF) does not affect the phase evolution of the calcium phosphate. Both in the presence and absence of THF crystalline dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite) and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) form, and transform to crystalline HAp after 24 hours of synthesis time. Contrary to the organic solvent, PPF has a significant influence on the calcium phosphate phase that forms in its presence. It is found that PPF provides a template for the formation of the calcium phosphate phase through a coordination bond between the calcium ion and the carbonyl group of the polymer. As a result of this templating, hydroxyapatite can form in a significantly shorter period of time (˜1 hr) compared to the system where PPF is not present (24 hrs). The nature of the calcium phosphate phase that forms in the presence of PPF depends on the molecular weight and concentration of PPF. High concentration of PPF in the composite (e.g. 80%) stabilizes an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase and hinders its transformation to crystalline apatite, while low concentration of PPF (e.g. 5%) promotes the formation of crystalline apatite. Higher molecular weight PPF (Mw = 4500) is found to be more efficient in stabilizing the amorphous phase compared to lower molecular weight PPF (Mw = 1800). While high molecular weight PPF stabilizes ACP, low molecular weight PPF promotes its conversion to crystalline apatite. TEM observations revealed that flake-like hydroxyapatite crystals form in the absence of PPF while spherical ACP particles form in a composite containing 80% PPF. The ACP nano-particles (50-100 nm in diameter

  14. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin over time was determined using a diffusion cell. Skin distribution of the nanoparticles and albumin over time was determined by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles acted as enhancers for skin permeation of albumin. Cumulative permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles after 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h, were 0±0, 11.7±3.3, 21.1±3.5, 40.2±3.6 and 40.2±3.6 mg, respectively and in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles were 0±0, 20.9±7.4, 33.8±5.5, 33.8±3.7 and 33.8±3.7 mg, respectively. After 0.5 h, little amount of albumin was permeated in presence of every kind of the nanoparticles. After 0.5 or 1 h, the permeated albumin in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was more than that in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles and after 1.5 h the permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was more than that in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Images of skin distribution of the two nanoparticles over time, were somewhat different and distribution of albumin correlated with the distribution of the nanoparticles alone. The profiles of albumin permeation (in presence of each of the nanoparticles) versus time was delayed and linear for both nanoparticles while the slope for calcium phosphate nanoparticles was higher than zinc oxide nanoparticles. The enhancer effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles was stronger while the enhancer effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was

  15. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H A

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin over time was determined using a diffusion cell. Skin distribution of the nanoparticles and albumin over time was determined by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles acted as enhancers for skin permeation of albumin. Cumulative permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles after 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h, were 0±0, 11.7±3.3, 21.1±3.5, 40.2±3.6 and 40.2±3.6 mg, respectively and in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles were 0±0, 20.9±7.4, 33.8±5.5, 33.8±3.7 and 33.8±3.7 mg, respectively. After 0.5 h, little amount of albumin was permeated in presence of every kind of the nanoparticles. After 0.5 or 1 h, the permeated albumin in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was more than that in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles and after 1.5 h the permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was more than that in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Images of skin distribution of the two nanoparticles over time, were somewhat different and distribution of albumin correlated with the distribution of the nanoparticles alone. The profiles of albumin permeation (in presence of each of the nanoparticles) versus time was delayed and linear for both nanoparticles while the slope for calcium phosphate nanoparticles was higher than zinc oxide nanoparticles. The enhancer effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles was stronger while the enhancer effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was

  16. New developments in polymer-controlled, bioinspired calcium phosphate mineralization from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bleek, Katrin; Taubert, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The polymer-controlled and bioinspired precipitation of inorganic minerals from aqueous solution at near-ambient or physiological conditions avoiding high temperatures or organic solvents is a key research area in materials science. Polymer-controlled mineralization has been studied as a model for biomineralization and for the synthesis of (bioinspired and biocompatible) hybrid materials for a virtually unlimited number of applications. Calcium phosphate mineralization is of particular interest for bone and dental repair. Numerous studies have therefore addressed the mineralization of calcium phosphate using a wide variety of low- and high-molecular-weight additives. In spite of the growing interest and increasing number of experimental and theoretical data, the mechanisms of polymer-controlled calcium phosphate mineralization are not entirely clear to date, although the field has made significant progress in the last years. A set of elegant experiments and calculations has shed light on some details of mineral formation, but it is currently not possible to preprogram a mineralization reaction to yield a desired product for a specific application. The current article therefore summarizes and discusses the influence of (macro)molecular entities such as polymers, peptides, proteins and gels on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization from aqueous solution. It focuses on strategies to tune the kinetics, morphologies, final dimensions and crystal phases of calcium phosphate, as well as on mechanistic considerations.

  17. Brushite-based calcium phosphate cement with multichannel hydroxyapatite granule loading for improved bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byung Yeol; Padalhin, Andrew Reyas; Sarker, Avik; Carpena, Nathaniel; Kim, Boram; Paul, Kallyanshish; Choi, Hwan Jun; Bae, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byong Taek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report brushite-based calcium phosphate cement (CPC) system to enhance the in vivo biodegradation and tissue in-growth by incorporation of micro-channeled hydroxyapatite (HAp) granule and silicon and sodium addition in calcium phosphate precursor powder. Sodium- and silicon-rich calcium phosphate powder with predominantly tri calcium phosphate (TCP) phase was synthesized by an inexpensive wet chemical route to react with mono calcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) for making the CPC. TCP nanopowder also served as a packing filler and moderator of the reaction kinetics of the setting mechanism. Strong sintered cylindrical HAp granules were prepared by fibrous monolithic (FM) process, which is 800 µm in diameter and have seven micro-channels. Acid sodium pyrophosphate and sodium citrate solution was used as the liquid component which acted as a homogenizer and setting time retarder. The granules accelerated the degradation of the brushite cement matrix as well as improved the bone tissue in-growth by permitting an easy access to the interior of the CPC through the micro-channels. The addition of micro-channeled granule in the CPC introduced porosity without sacrificing much of its compressive strength. In vivo investigation by creating a critical size defect in the femur head of a rabbit model for 1 and 2 months showed excellent bone in-growth through the micro-channels. The granules enhanced the implant degradation behavior and bone regeneration in the implanted area was significantly improved after two months of implantation.

  18. Effect of calcium phosphate glass on bone formation in calvarial defects of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Kee-Deog; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone regenerative effect of calcium phosphate glass in vivo. We prepared two different sizes of calcium phosphate glass powder using the system CaO-CaF2-P2O5-MgO-ZnO; the particle size of the powders were 400 microm and 40 microm. 8 mm calvarial critical-sized defects were created in 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 20 animals each. Each defect was filled with a constant weight of 0.5 g calcium phosphate glass powder mixed with saline. As controls, the defect was left empty. The rats were sacrificed 2 or 8 weeks after postsurgery, and the results were evaluated using radiodensitometric and histological studies; they were also examined histomorphometrically. When the bigger powders with 400 microm particle were grafted, the defects were nearly completely filled with new-formed bone in a clean healing condition after 8 week. When smaller powders with 40 microm particle were transplanted, new bone formation was even lower than the control group due to a lot of inflammatory cell infiltration. It was concluded that the prepared calcium phosphate glass enhanced the new bone formation in the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rats and it is expected to be a good potential materials for hard tissue regeneration. The particle size of the calcium phosphate was crucial; 400 microm particles promoted new bone formation, while 40 microm particles inhibited it because of severe inflammation.

  19. Bone formation in calvarial defects of Sprague-Dawley rats by transplantation of calcium phosphate glass.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Kee-Deog; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bone-regenerative effect of calcium phosphate glass in vivo. We prepared amorphous calcium phosphate glass powder having a mean particle size of 400 microm in the system CaO-CaF2-P2O5-MgO-ZnO. Calvarial critical-sized defects (8 mm) were created in 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into an experimental group and control group of 30 animals each. Each defect was filled with a constant weight of 0.5 g calcium phosphate glass powder mixed with saline. As a control, the defect was left empty. The rats were sacrificed 2, 4, or 8 weeks postsurgery, and the results evaluated using radiodensitometric and histological studies; they were also examined histomorphometrically. When the calcium phosphate glass powders with 400-microm particles were grafted, the defects were nearly completely filled with new-formed bone in a clean healing condition after 8 weeks. It was observed that the prepared calcium phosphate glass enhanced new bone formation in the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rats and could be expected to have potential for use as a hard tissue regeneration material.

  20. Antibody-conjugated soybean oil-filled calcium phosphate nanoshells for targetted delivery of hydrophobic molecules.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H T; Kroczynski, M; Maddox, J; Chen, Y; Josephs, R; Ostafin, A E

    2006-11-01

    Hollow calcium phosphate nanoparticles capable of encapsulating poorly water-soluble molecules were produced by self-assembly. Previously reported were solid calcium phosphate nanoparticles and water-filled calcium phosphate nanocapsules suited for encapsulating mostly hydrophilic, but not hydrophobic compounds. Here, calcium phosphate was deposited around 100 nm diameter, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate stabilized soybean oil nanoemulsions using either calcium chloride or NaOH titrations to achieve shell thickness between 20-70 nm. The surface was functionalized with carboxylic acid via the addition of carboxyethylphosphonic acid to attach Molecular Probes AB-594C antibody using sulpho-n-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride with an efficiency of approximately 70%, while retaining near complete antibody function. Hydrophobic pyrene was encapsulated with an efficiency of 95%, at concentrations much higher than its water solubility limit, and exhibited spectral features characteristic of a hydrophobic environment. These materials can be used in the targeted delivery of many useful, yet poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds.

  1. Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, A; Fathi, M H; Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, H

    2010-09-01

    Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles with improved gene delivery related properties. Strontium substituted calcium phosphate was prepared using a simple sol gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, zeta potential measurement and ion release evaluation were used to characterize the samples. This characterization showed strontium and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate which resulted in nano size particles with low crystallinity, high specific surface area, positive surface charge, and a high dissolution rate. These improved properties could increase the DNA concentration on the vector as well as the endosomal escape of the complex that leads to higher transfection efficiency of this novel gene delivery vector.

  2. Sorption behavior of Zn(II) ions on synthetic apatitic calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebei, Haroun; Pham Minh, Doan; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis, characterization and the reactivity of apatitic calcium phosphates (Ca-HA, chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is reported. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH2PO4) were selected as economical starting materials for the synthesis of Ca-HA under atmospheric conditions. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and octacalcium phosphate pentahydrate (OCP) were identified as the main intermediates of the synthesis reaction. The product obtained after 48 h of reaction contains mainly low-crystalline Ca-HA and small amounts of other calcium phosphates such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP), B-type carbonate apatite (CAP), as well as unreacted calcium carbonate. This Ca-HA was found to be active for the removal of Zn2+ from an aqueous solution. Its sorption capacity reached up to 120 mg of Zn2+ per g of Ca-HA powder after 24 h of reaction. The monitoring of soluble Zn, Ca and P during the sorption experiment allowed characterizing the mechanism of Zn uptake. Dissolution-precipitation, ionic exchange and surface complexation are the three main mechanisms involved in the sorption processes. The contribution of these mechanisms is discussed in detail.

  3. The phase evolution, crystallography and thin films of silicon stabilized calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Joel Wellington

    The crystallography and phase evolution of silicon substituted and pure calcium phosphate materials suitable for bone replacement have been studied using x-ray diffraction. Thin films of these materials have been applied to Ti6Al4V implant grade alloys. Calcium hydroxyapatite sintered in the presence of silica over 800°C forms a multiphase mixture with a phase composition which depends on the silica content, sintering temperature and sintering time. The phase evolution is explained in terms of a two step process starting with the silicon mediated dehydration and transformation of hydroxyapatite to a silicon substituted dehydrated apatite and alpha tricalcium phosphate. The alpha tricalcium phosphate subsequently transforms to a saturated silicon stabilized tricalcium phosphate phase with the same space group as alpha tricalcium phosphate in the presence of sufficient silicon, or to beta tricalcium phosphate if there is insufficient silicon. To better understand the observed silicon mediated dehydration of hydroxyapatite, pure calcium hydroxyapatite was sintered under vacuum or high humidity. Three apatite structural models were studied using Rietveld analysis. The dehydrated oxy-hydroxyapatite lost up to half of its hydroxide ion content and underwent a triclinic distortion to the space group P1¯, with characteristic lattice parameters shifted from fully hydrated hydroxyapatite. Biologically effective calcium phosphate thin films on implant grade titanium alloys required deposition of a silica intermediate layer using a custom built chemical vapour deposition system. The silica layer acted as both diffusion barrier layer and a reaction layer to nucleate the silicon stabilized tricalcium phosphate phase. The silicon stabilized tricalcium phosphate films were adherent and capable of cell mediated resorption by osteoclasts.

  4. Setting time and formability of calcium phosphate cements prepared using modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous powders.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Takenori; Mizutani, Yoichiro; Okuyama, Masahiko; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using Ca4(PO4)2O (TeCP) and modified CaHPO4 (DCPA) to evaluate the effects of the powder properties for DCPA particles on the setting time and formability of the resulting CPCs. Two types of modified DCPA were prepared by milling commercially available DCPA with ethanol (to produce E-DCPA) or distilled water (to produce W-DCPA). The E-DCPA samples consisted of well-dispersed, fine primary particles, while the W-DCPA samples contained agglomerated particles, and had a smaller specific surface area. The mean particle size decreased with increased milling time in both cases. The raw CPC powders prepared using W-DCPA had a higher packing density than those prepared using E-DCPA, regardless of the mean particle size. The setting time of the CPC paste after mixing with distilled water decreased with decreases in the mean particle size and specific surface area, for both types of DCPA. The CPCs prepared using W-DCPA showed larger plasticity values compared with those prepared using E-DCPA, which contributed to the superior formability of the W-DCPA samples. The CPCs prepared using W-DCPA showed a short setting time and large plasticity values, despite the fact that only a small amount of liquid was used for the mixing of the raw CPC powders (a liquid-to-powder ratio of 0.25 g g(-1) was used). It is likely that the higher packing density of the raw CPC powders prepared using W-DCPA was responsible for the higher performance of the resulting CPCs.

  5. Molecular mechanism of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    SciTech Connect

    Giocondi, J L; El-Dasher, B S; Nancollas, G H; Orme, C A

    2009-05-31

    changes from 'What types of molecules will inhibit brushite growth' to 'What type of molecule will interact with the [10-1]{sub Cc} step?' Similarly, to increase resorption rate, it would be most efficacious to target the slow moving [-100] step, perhaps by targeting the hydroxyl group which seem to stabilize this step compared to its otherwise similar mirror, [100]. In short, there are a number of opportunities where molecular scale imaging can provide new information that has the prospect to aid in optimizing calcium phosphate cements.

  6. Computational modelling of local calcium ions release from calcium phosphate-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Manhas, Varun; Guyot, Yann; Kerckhofs, Greet; Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet

    2017-04-01

    A variety of natural or synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based scaffolds are currently produced for dental and orthopaedic applications. These scaffolds have been shown to stimulate bone formation due to their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. The release of the [Formula: see text] ions from these scaffolds is of great interest in light of the aforementioned properties. It can depend on a number of biophysicochemical phenomena such as dissolution, diffusion and degradation, which in turn depend on specific scaffold characteristics such as composition and morphology. Achieving an optimal release profile can be challenging when relying on traditional experimental work alone. Mathematical modelling can complement experimentation. In this study, the in vitro dissolution behaviour of four CaP-based scaffold types was investigated experimentally. Subsequently, a mechanistic finite element method model based on biophysicochemical phenomena and specific scaffold characteristics was developed to predict the experimentally observed behaviour. Before the model could be used for local [Formula: see text] ions release predictions, certain parameters such as dissolution constant ([Formula: see text]) and degradation constant ([Formula: see text]) for each type of scaffold were determined by calibrating the model to the in vitro dissolution data. The resulting model showed to yield release characteristics in satisfactory agreement with those observed experimentally. This suggests that the mathematical model can be used to investigate the local [Formula: see text] ions release from CaP-based scaffolds.

  7. A comparative study of calcium phosphate formation on bioceramics in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xin, Renlong; Leng, Yang; Chen, Jiyong; Zhang, Qiyi

    2005-11-01

    Formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) on various bioceramic surfaces in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in rabbit muscle sites was investigated. The bioceramics were sintered porous solids, including bioglass, glass-ceramics, hydroxyapatite, alpha-tricalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate. The ability of inducing Ca-P formation was compared among the bioceramics. The Ca-P crystal structures were identified using single-crystal diffraction patterns in transmission electron microscopy. The examination results show that ability of inducing Ca-P formation in SBF was similar among bioceramics, but considerably varied among bioceramics in vivo. Sintered beta-tricalcium phosphate exhibited a poor ability of inducing Ca-P formation both in vitro and in vivo. Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) formed on the surfaces of bioglass, A-W, hydroxyapatite and alpha-tricalcium phosphate in vitro and in vivo. Apatite formation in physiological environments cannot be confirmed as a common feature of bioceramics.

  8. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of dimethylnitrosamine in mammalian cells (CHO/HGPRT system): enhancement by calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, J.P.; Machanoff, R.; Sebastian, J.R.S.; Hsie, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) was determined in the CHO/HGPRT system. Metabolic activation of the promutagen was achieved by use of a liver homogenate supernatant (S9) prepared from Aroclor 1254-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of DMN were enhanced by the inclusion of calcium chloride in the incubation mix, and this enhancement was dependent on the presence of sodium phosphate. Under conditions that yielded maximal activity (10 mM calcium chloride, 10 mM magnesium chloride, 50 mM sodium phosphate), an apparent calcium phosphate precipitate was observed. DMN activity increased with increasing amounts of S9 protein over the range 0.3-3.0 mg/ml in the S9 mix and appeared to plateau at higher concentrations. The mutagencity of DMN can be described as 110 mutants/10/sup 6/ cells per mM DMN per mg/ml S9 protein per hour.

  9. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Peetsch, Alexander; Greulich, Christina; Braun, Dieter; Stroetges, Christian; Rehage, Heinz; Siebers, Bettina; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Spherical silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized in a co-precipitation route from calcium nitrate/silver nitrate and ammonium phosphate in a continuous process and colloidally stabilized by carboxymethyl cellulose. Nanoparticles with 0.39 wt% silver content and a diameter of about 50-60 nm were obtained. The toxic effects toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells were determined by viability tests and determination of the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Three mammalian cells lines, i.e. human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and blood peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocytes and T-lymphocytes), and two prokaryotic strains, i.e. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were used. Silver-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles and silver acetate showed similar effect toward mammalian and prokaryotic cells with toxic silver concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg mL(-1).

  10. Dental Composites with Calcium / Strontium Phosphates and Polylysine

    PubMed Central

    Panpisut, Piyaphong; Liaqat, Saad; Zacharaki, Eleni; Xia, Wendy; Petridis, Haralampos; Young, Anne Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), tristrontium phosphate (TSrP) and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS). The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine. Materials and Methods Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2.5 wt%) and/or reactive phosphate fillers (15 wt% TSrP and 10 wt% MCPM). The commercial composite, Z250, was used as a control. Monomer conversion and calculated polymerization shrinkage were assessed using FTIR. Subsequent mass or volume changes in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF) were quantified using gravimetric studies. These were used, along with Raman and SEM, to assess apatite precipitation on the composite surface. PLS release was determined using UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, biaxial flexural strengths after 24 hours of SBF immersion were obtained. Results Monomer conversion of the composites decreased upon the addition of phosphate fillers (from 76 to 64%) but was always higher than that of Z250 (54%). Phosphate addition increased water sorption induced expansion from 2 to 4% helping to balance the calculated polymerization shrinkage of ~ 3.4%. Phosphate addition promoted apatite precipitation from SBF. Polylysine increased the apatite layer thickness from ~ 10 to 20 μm after 4 weeks. The novel composites showed a burst release of PLS (3.7%) followed by diffusion-controlled release irrespective of phosphate addition. PLS and phosphates decreased strength from 154 MPa on average by 17% and 18%, respectively. All formulations, however, had greater strength than the ISO 4049 requirement of > 80 MPa. Conclusion The addition of MCPM with TSrP promoted hygroscopic expansion, and apatite formation. These properties are expected to help

  11. Reduced CSF leak in complete calvarial reconstructions of microvascular decompression craniectomies using calcium phosphate cement

    PubMed Central

    Eseonu, Chikezie I.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Zhou, Xin; Theodros, Debebe; Bender, Matthew T.; Mathios, Dimitrios; Bettegowda, Chetan; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Calcium phosphate cement provides a biomaterial that can be used for calvarial reconstruction in a retrosigmoid craniectomy for microvascular decompression (MVD). This study evaluates the outcomes of postoperative CSF leak and wound infection for patients undergoing a complete cranioplasty using calcium phosphate cement versus incomplete cranioplasty using polyethylene titanium mesh following a retrosigmoid craniectomy for MVD. METHODS The authors evaluated 211 cases involving patients who underwent first-time retrosigmoid craniectomies performed by a single attending surgeon for trigeminal neuralgia from October 2008 to June 2014. From this patient population, 111 patients underwent calvarial reconstruction after retrosigmoid craniectomy using polyethylene titanium mesh, and 100 patients had reconstructions using calcium phosphate cement. A Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare postoperative complications of CSF leak and wound infection in these 2 types of cranioplasties. RESULTS The polyethylene titanium mesh group included 5 patients (4.5%) with postoperative CSF leak or pseudomeningocele and 3 patients (2.7%) with wound infections. In the calcium phosphate cement group, no patients had a CSF leak, and 2 patients (2%) had wound infections. This represented a statistically significant reduction of postoperative CSF leak in patients who underwent calcium phosphate reconstructions of their calvarial defect compared with those who underwent polyethylene titanium mesh reconstructions (p = 0.03). No significant difference was seen between the 2 groups in the number of patients with postoperative wound infections. CONCLUSIONS Calcium phosphate cement provides a viable alternative biomaterial for calvarial reconstruction of retrosigmoid craniectomy defects in patients who have an MVD. The application of this material provides a biocompatible barrier that reduces the incidence of postoperative CSF leaks. http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2015.1.JNS142102

  12. Synthesis, characterization and osteoblastic activity of polycaprolactone nanofibers coated with biomimetic calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mavis, Bora; Demirtaş, Tolga T; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Gündüz, Güngör; Colak, Uner

    2009-10-01

    Immersion of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mats in calcium phosphate solutions similar to simulated body fluid resulted in deposition of biomimetic calcium phosphate layer on the nanofibers and thus a highly bioactive novel scaffold has been developed for bone tissue engineering. Coatings with adequate integrity, favorable chemistry and morphology were achieved in less than 6h of immersion. In the coating solutions, use of lower concentrations of phosphate sources with respect to the literature values (i.e., 3.62 vs. 10 mM) was substantiated by a thermodynamic modeling approach. Recipe concentration combinations that were away from the calculated dicalcium phosphate phase stability region resulted in micron-sized calcium phosphates with native nanostructures. While the nano/microstructure formed by the deposited calcium phosphate layer is controlled by increasing the solution pH to above 6.5 and increasing the duration of immersion experimentally, the nanostructure imposed by the dimensions of the fibers was controlled by the polymer concentration (12% w/v), applied voltage (25 kV) and capillary tip to collector distance (35 cm). The deposited coating increased quantitatively by extending the soak up to 6h. On the other hand, the porosity values attained in the scaffolds were around 87% and the biomimetic coatings did not alter the nanofiber mat porosities negatively since the deposition continued along the fibers after the first 2h. Upon confirming the non-toxic nature of the electrospun PCL nanofiber mats, the effects of different nano/microstructures formed were evaluated by the osteoblastic activity. The levels of both alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin were found to be higher in the coated PCL nanofibers than in the uncoated PCL nanofibers, indicating that biomimetic calcium phosphate on PCL nanofibers supports osteoblastic differentiation.

  13. Biomimetic Nanocomposites of Calcium Phosphate and Self-Assembling Triblock and Pentablock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Enlow, Drew Lenzen

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to mimic the growth of natural bone, self-assembling, micelle and gel-forming copolymers were used as a template for calcium phosphate precipitation. Because of the cationic characteristics imparted by PDEAEM end group additions to commercially available Pluronic{reg_sign} Fl27, a direct ionic attraction mechanism was utilized and a polymer-brushite nanocomposite spheres were produced. Brushite coated spherical micelles with diameters of ~40 nm, and agglomerates of these particles (on the order of 0.5 μm) were obtained. Thickness and durability of the calcium phosphate coating, and the extent of agglomeration were studied. The coating has been shown to be robust enough to retain its integrity even below polymer critical micelle concentration and/or temperature. Calcium phosphate-polymer gel nanocomposites were also prepared. Gel samples appeared as a single phase network of agglomerated spherical micelles, and had a final calcium phosphate concentration of up to 15 wt%. Analysis with x-ray diffraction and NMR indicated a disordered brushite phase with the phosphate groups linking inorganic phase to the polymer.

  14. Determination of the active center in calcium-nickel phosphate dehydrogenation catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Attali, S.; Vigouroux, B.; Lenzi, M.; Pescia, J.

    1980-06-01

    Determination of the active center in calcium-nickel phosphate dehydrogenation catalyst, used industrially in the dehydrogenation of butenes to butadiene, showed that a stable trivalent nickel ion is involved. Apparently, electrons generated in the first (oxidation) step of the reaction are eliminated by reducing the trivalent to divalent nickel which is reoxidized by protons. The results were obtained by propanol dehydration-dehydrogenation on calcium-nickel phosphate (Ca/sub 8/Ni(PO/sub 4//sub )/6) calcined at 400/sup 0/-900/sup 0/C and by ESR spectroscopy.

  15. Correlation between calcium and phosphate levels to calculus accumulation on coronary heart disease patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahaya, Cindy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a disease that happened because of blood flow being blocked by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a process of hardening of the arteries which characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the intimal layer of vascular wall, by lipid deposit. Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease caused by microorganism and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus leading to tooth loss. Many studies use saliva as a valuable source for clinically information, as an asset for early diagnosis, prognostic and reviewer for pascatherapy status. Dental calculus had happened as a consequence of saliva supersaturation by calcium and phosphate. Salivary flow rate and its composition influence the formation of calculus. Increasing salivary calcium levels is characteristic of periodontitis patients. An important hipotesis in Cardiology is chronic infections contribute in atherosclerosis. Objective: To analyse the correlation between calcium and phosphate levels in saliva to calculus accumulation on CHD patients. Result: Correlation analysis between salivary calcium levels with calculus accumulation in patients with CHD and non-CHD showed no significant p value, p=0.59 and p=0.518. Correlation analysis between salivary phosphate levels and calculus accumulation showed no significant p value, p=0.836 for CHD patients and p=0.484 for non-CHD patients. Conclusion: There are no correlation between calcium levels and phosphate levels with calculus accumulation in CHD patients. Further research need to be done.

  16. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts.

  17. Histological analysis of calcium phosphate bone grafts for surgically created periodontal bone defects in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Akiyoshi; Fujikawa, Kenji; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-11-01

    A calcium phosphate cement (CPC-1), prepared by mixing an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with water, has been shown to be highly biocompatible and osteoconductive. A new type of calcium phosphate cement (CPC-2), prepared by mixing a mixture of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and calcium carbonate with pH 7.4 sodium phosphate solution, was also reported to be highly biocompatible. The objective of the present study was to compare the osteoconductivities of CPC-1 and CPC-2 when implanted in surgically created defects in the jaw bones of dogs. At 1 month after surgery, implanted CPC-1 was partially replaced by new bone and converted to bone within 6 months. In comparison, at 1 month after surgery, the defect filled with CPC-2 was mostly replaced by new bone. Therefore, bone formation in CPC-2-filled pocket was more rapid than in CPC-1-filled pocket. These findings supported the hypothesis that CPC-2 converted to bone more rapidly than CPC-1.

  18. Chemical immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd by phosphate materials and calcium carbonate in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Su, Xiaojuan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Zhu, Yifei; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination with toxic metals has increasingly become a global concern over the past few decades. Phosphate and carbonate compounds are good passivation materials for Pb immobilization, while the effect of phosphate and carbonate on the immobilization of multiple heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cd) in contaminated soils was seldom investigated. In this study, bone meal (BM), phosphate rock (PR), oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), super phosphate (SP), and calcium carbonate (CC) were added to the contaminated soils to evaluate the effect of phosphate materials and calcium carbonate on the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd. The results showed that the pH of the treated soils increased 1.3-2.7, except SP which decreased 0.5 at most. Compared to the control treatment, all phosphates and calcium carbonate added to the polluted soils increased the fraction of residual metals, and the application of APR, PR, BM, and CC significantly reduced exchangeable and carbonate-bound fraction metals. PR and APR were the most effective for the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd in the soils among these materials. Moreover, the concentrations of all metals in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate decreased with increasing amounts of amendments, and the concentrations of Pb in the TCLP leachate for soils treated with PR and APR were below the nonhazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) (US Environmental Protection Agency). Based on our results, phosphate rock and oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock are effective in the immobilization of multiple metals by reducing their mobility in the co-contaminated soils.

  19. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with (29)Si and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca(2+) concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca(2+) and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation.

  20. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with 29Si and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca2+ concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca2+ and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation.

  1. The determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks by flame photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Henry

    1956-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of calcium in phosphate, carbonate, and silicate rocks using the Beckman flame photometer, with photomultiplier attachement. The sample is dissolved in hydrofluoric, nitric, and perchloric acids, the hydrofluoric and nitric acids are expelled, a radiation buffer consisting of aluminum, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid is added, and the solution is atomized in an oxy-hydrogen flame with an instrument setting of 554 mµ. Measurements are made by comparison against calcium standards, prepared in the same manner, in the 0 to 50 ppm range. The suppression of calcium emission by aluminum and phosphate was overcome by the addition of a large excess of magnesium. This addition almost completely restores the standard curve obtained from a solution of calcium nitrate. Interference was noted when the iron concentration in the aspirated solution (including the iron from the buffer) exceeded 100 ppm iron. Other common rock-forming elements did not interfere. The results obtained by this procedure are within ± 2 percent of the calcium oxide values obtained by other methods in the range 1 to 95 percent calcium oxide. In the 0 to 1 percent calcium oxide range the method compares favorably with standard methods.

  2. The effect of amorphous calcium phosphate on protein protection against thermal denaturation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuling; Wang, Guangchuan; Zhu, Genxing; Xu, Xurong; Pan, Haihua; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-05-21

    The hybrid nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-catalase (CAT) developed by in situ biomineralization can create a stable semi-aqueous nanoscale environment for entrapped proteins against thermal denaturation. This finding indicates the importance of an amorphous mineral phase in the preservation of organic macromolecules.

  3. Enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation with casein phosphopeptide stabilised solutions of calcium, phosphate and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Cai, F; Cross, K J; Reynolds, E C

    2008-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) solutions have been shown to remineralise enamel subsurface lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ion composition of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP solutions on enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation in vitro. CPP-bound and free calcium, phosphate and fluoride ion concentrations in the solutions were determined after ultrafiltration. The ion activities of the free ion species present were calculated using an iterative computational program. The mineral deposited in the subsurface lesions was analysed using transverse microradiography and electron microprobe. CPP was found to stabilise high concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions at all pH values (7.0-4.5). Remineralisation of the subsurface lesions was observed at all pH values tested with a maximum at pH 5.5. The CPP-ACFP solutions produced greater remineralisation than the CPP-ACP solutions at pH 5.5 and below. The mineral formed in the subsurface lesions was consistent with hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite for remineralisation with CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, respectively. The activity gradient of the neutral ion pair CaHPO(4)(0) into the lesion was significantly correlated with remineralisation and together with HF(0) were identified as important species for diffusion.

  4. Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate to Crystalline Dahllite in the Radular Teeth of Chitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstam, H. A.; Weiner, S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of infrared spectra from individual teeth along the radula of a chiton (Polyplacophora, Mollusca) shows that the first-formed calcium phosphate mineral is amorphous. Over a period of weeks the mineral transforms to dahllite. The c axes of the dahllite crystals are aligned approximately perpendicular to the tooth surface.

  5. Lead Retention in a Calcareous Soil Influenced by Calcium and Phosphate Amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphate amendments in calcareous lead (Pb)-contaminated soils to immobilize Pb may be hindered due to competition of Pb with calcium (Ca) that may inhibit the retention of Pb as a precipitation mechanism. This study explored the retention of Pb in a calcareous soil spiked and ...

  6. Fabrication of gelatin-strontium substituted calcium phosphate scaffolds with unidirectional pores for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Lin, Wei-Yu; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2015-03-01

    This study fabricated homogeneous gelatin-strontium substituted calcium phosphate composites via coprecipitation in a gelatin solution. Unidirectional porous scaffolds with an oriented microtubular structure were then manufactured using freeze-drying technology. The resulting structure and pore alignment were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The pore size were in the range of 200-400 μm, which is considered ideal for the engineering of bone tissue. The scaffolds were further characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Hydroxyapatite was the main calcium phosphate compound in the scaffolds, with strontium incorporated into the crystal structure. The porosity of the scaffolds decreased with increasing concentration of calcium-phosphate. The compressive strength in the longitudinal direction was two to threefold higher than that observed in the transverse direction. Our results demonstrate that the composite scaffolds degraded by approximately 20 % after 5 weeks. Additionally, in vitro results reveal that the addition of strontium significantly increased human osteoblastic cells proliferation. Scaffolds containing strontium with a Sr-CaP/(gelatin + Sr-CaP) ratio of 50 % provided the most suitable environment for cell proliferation, particularly under dynamic culture conditions. This study demonstrates the considerable potential of composite scaffolds composed of gelatin-strontium-substituted calcium phosphate for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Cost containment using cysteine HCl acidification to increase calcium/phosphate solubility in hyperalimentation solutions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G L; Baumgartner, T G; Fischlschweiger, W; Sitren, H S; Thakker, K M; Cerda, J J

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) the calcium/phosphate insoluble product was inversely related to pH [when cysteine HC1 (CH) was added as neonatal supplementation at 0.5 mM/kg/day to hyperalimentation (HAL) solutions] and (2) the potential cost savings to the hospital. The pH of the HAL solutions was adjusted by adding various amounts of CH to the HAL solution. HAL solutions containing 27 mEq of calcium/liter and 30 mEq (15 mM) of phosphate/liter were compounded. Ten-milliliter aliquots were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hr. All samples (n = 56) were filtered (0.22 mu), viewed with 7-10,000 X magnification scanning electron microscopy, and qualitatively analyzed with a Philips Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis System equipped with a SW9100 Microprocessor. Calcium/phosphate insoluble product was present in the 0-, 12-, 24-, and 48-hr samples from the CH-free solutions. The solutions containing 759 mg (4.17 mM)/liter of CH however, remained free of precipitant. This investigation demonstrated that addition of CH to HAL can foster significant cost containment (projected $82,000/yr tangible hospital savings) by the elimination of current calcium/phosphate separation procedures for neonates on parenteral nutrition.

  8. A study about some phosphate derivatives as inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grases, F.; March, P.

    1989-08-01

    The kinetic of crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate seed crystals were investigated potentiometrically in the presence of several phosphate derivatives, D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate, pyrophosphate, methylene diphosphonate and phytate, and it was found that in some cases they strongly inhibited crystal growth. The inhibitory action of the different substances assayed was comparatively evaluated.

  9. Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...

  10. Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

  11. Strontium substituted calcium phosphate biphasic ceramics obtained by a powder precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae-Won; Koh, Young-Hag; Kong, Young-Min; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2004-10-01

    Strontium (Sr) substituted calcium phosphate ceramics were fabricated using a powder precipitation method. The Sr ions were added up to 8 mol % to replace the Ca ions during the powder preparation. Composition analysis showed that the added Sr was not fully incorporated within the as-precipitated apatite structure, presumably being washed out during the powder preparation. After calcination, the Sr containing powders were crystallized into apatite and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), that is, biphasic calcium phosphates were formed. The amount of TCP increased with increasing the Sr addition. The lattice parameters of the calcined powders increased gradually with Sr substitution in both the a- and c-axis. However, the obtained values deviated slightly from the calculated ones at higher Sr additions (>4%) due to the partial substitution of Sr ions. The microstructure of the sintered bodies changed with the Sr addition due to the formation of TCP. The Vickers hardness increased slightly from 5.2 to 5.5 MPa with increasing Sr addition, which was driven by the HA+TCP biphasic formation. The osteoblast-like cells cultured on the Sr-substituted biphasic sample spread and grew actively. The proliferation rate of the cells was higher in the samples containing more Sr. The alkaline phosphate activity of the cells was expressed to a higher degree with increasing Sr addition. These observations confirmed the enhanced cell viability and differentiation of the Sr-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics.

  12. Gas phase laser synthesis and processing of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.

    Biochemical processes make pervasive use of calcium and phosphate ions. Calcium phosphate salts that are naturally nontoxic and bioactive have been used for several medical applications in form of coatings and micropowders. Nanoparticle-based calcium phosphates have been shown to be internalized by living cells and be effective in DNA transfection, drug delivery, and transport of fluorophores for imaging of intracellular processes. They are also expected to interact strongly with cell adhesive proteins and are therefore promising elements in approaches to mimic the complex environment of the extra cellular matrix of bone. Harnessing this biomedical potential requires the ability to control the numerous characteristics of nanophase calcium phosphates that affect biological response, including nanoparticle chemical composition, crystal phase, crystallinity, crystallographic orientation of exposed faces, size, shape, surface area, number concentration, and degree of aggregation. This dissertation focuses on the use of laser-induced gas-phase synthesis for creation of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, and corresponding nanoparticle-based substrates that could offer new opportunities for guiding biological responses through well-controlled biochemical and topological cues. Gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles has several characteristics that could enhance control over particle morphology, crystallinity, and surface area, compared to liquid-phase techniques. Synthesis from gas-phase precursors can be carried out at high temperatures and in high-purity inert or reactive gas backgrounds, enabling good control of chemistry, crystal structure, and purity. Moreover, the particle mean free path and number concentration can be controlled independently. This allows regulation of interparticle collision rates, which can be adjusted to limit aggregation. High-temperature synthesis of well-separated particles is therefore possible. In this work high power lasers are employed to

  13. Effect of calcium carbonate on hardening, physicochemical properties, and in vitro degradation of injectable calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Sariibrahimoglu, Kemal; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Wolke, Joop G C; Yubao, Li; Jansen, John A

    2012-03-01

    The main disadvantage of apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is their slow degradation rate, which limits complete bone regeneration. Carbonate (CO₃²⁻) is the common constituent of bone and it can be used to improve the degradability of the apatitic calcium phosphate ceramics. This study aimed to examine the effect of calcite (CaCO₃) incorporation into CPCs. To this end, the CaCO₃ amount (0-4-8-12 wt %) and its particle size (12.0-μm-coarse or 2.5-μm-fine) were systematically investigated. In comparison to calcite-free CPC, the setting time of the bone substitute was delayed with increasing CaCO₃ incorporation. Reduction of the CaCO₃ particle size in the initial powder increased the injectability time of the paste. During hardening of the cements, the increase in calcium release was inversely proportional to the extent of CO₃²⁻ incorporation into apatites. The morphology of the carbonate-free product consisted of large needle-like crystals, whereas small plate-like crystals were observed for carbonated apatites. Compressive strength decreased with increasing CaCO₃ content. In vitro accelerated degradation tests demonstrated that calcium release and dissolution rate from the set cements increased with increasing the incorporation of CO₃²⁻, whereas differences in CaCO₃ particle size did not affect the in vitro degradation rate under accelerated conditions.

  14. The role of intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblast-mediated bone apatite formation

    PubMed Central

    Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Gentleman, Eileen; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Evans, Nicholas D.; McComb, David W.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralization is a ubiquitous process in the animal kingdom and is fundamental to human development and health. Dysfunctional or aberrant mineralization leads to a variety of medical problems, and so an understanding of these processes is essential to their mitigation. Osteoblasts create the nano-composite structure of bone by secreting a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) on which apatite crystals subsequently form. However, despite their requisite function in building bone and decades of observations describing intracellular calcium phosphate, the precise role osteoblasts play in mediating bone apatite formation remains largely unknown. To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, we combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and ECM with nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. We identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles that transported material to the ECM. Moreover, we observed calcium-containing vesicles conjoining mitochondria, which also contained calcium, suggesting a storage and transport mechanism. Our observations further highlight the important relationship between intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblasts and their role in mineralizing the ECM. These observations may have important implications in deciphering both how normal bone forms and in understanding pathological mineralization. PMID:22879397

  15. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells combined with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Livingston, T L; Gordon, S; Archambault, M; Kadiyala, S; McIntosh, K; Smith, A; Peter, S J

    2003-03-01

    The reconstruction and repair of large bone defects, resulting from trauma, cancer or metabolic disorders, is a major clinical challenge in orthopaedics. Clinically available biological and synthetic grafts have clear limitations that necessitate the development of new graft materials and/or strategies. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), obtained from the adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into various mesenchymal tissues. Of particular interest is the ability of these cells to differentiate into osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells. At Osiris, we have extensively characterized MSCs and have demonstrated MSCs can induce bone repair when implanted in vivo in combination with a biphasic calcium phosphate, specifically hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate. This article reviews previous and current studies utilizing mesenchymal stem cells and biphasic calcium phosphates in bone repair.

  17. Dissolution deceleration of calcium phosphate crystals at constant undersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingwu; Nancollas, G. H.

    1992-09-01

    The dissolution of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO 4·2H 2O) and octacalcium phosphate (Ca 8H 2(PO 4) 6·5H 2O) has been followed as a function of time at constant undersaturations. The rate, after correction for changes in crystal surface area, decreases with time in spite of the sustained driving force, suggesting a decrease in the density of active sites on the crystal surface. This deceleration becomes more pronounced as the undersaturation decreases, leading to an increase in the effective dissolution order. The results of experiments in both Ultrapure and Reagent grade electrolyte solutions suggest that gradual contamination of the crystal surface is unlikely to account for the rate deceleration which may be interpreted by a decrease in the dislocation density during dissolution.

  18. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of dimethylnitrosamine in mammalian cells (CHO/HGPRT system): enhancement by calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, J.P.; Machanoff, R.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Hsie, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) was determined in the CHO/HGPRT system. Metabolic activation of the promutagen was achieved by use of a liver homogenate supernatant (S9) prepared from Aroclor 1254-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of DMN were enhanced by the inclusion of calcium chloride in the incubation mix, and this enhancement was dependent on the presence of sodium phosphate. Under conditions that yielded maximal activity (10 mM calcium chloride, 10 mM magnesium chloride, 50 mM sodium phosphate), an apparent calcium phospate precipitate was observed. DMN activity increased with increasing amounts of S9 protein over the range 0.3-3.0 mg/ml in the S9 mix and appeared to plateau at higher concentrations. The mutagenicity of DMN can be described as 110 mutants/10/sup 6/ cells per mM DMN per mg/ml S9 protein per hour.

  19. Microbial phytase-induced calcium-phosphate precipitation--a potential soil stabilization method.

    PubMed

    Roeselers, G; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-11-01

    Two hypotheses were tested: (1) microbial dephosphorylation of phytate in the presence of Ca²+ ions will result in the precipitation of hydroxyapatite-like crystals and (2) precipitation of calcium-phosphate crystals on and between sand-like particles can cause cementation. A growing culture of the dimorphic phytase-active yeast Arxula adeninivorans was introduced into a column filled with quartz particles and subsequently a liquid growth medium amended with calcium phytate was pumped through the column resulting in increased strength and stiffness of the quartz particle matrix. Environmental scanning electron microscope analysis combined with energy-dispersive X-ray measurement revealed cementation of the quartz particles by calcium-phosphate crystals. This microbial mineralization process could provide a novel approach to improving the mechanical properties like strength and stiffness of sandy soils.

  20. Modelling biological and chemically induced precipitation of calcium phosphate in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-06-01

    The biologically induced precipitation processes can be important in wastewater treatment, in particular treating raw wastewater with high calcium concentration combined with Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal. Currently, there is little information and experience in modelling jointly biological and chemical processes. This paper presents a calcium phosphate precipitation model and its inclusion in the Activated Sludge Model No 2d (ASM2d). The proposed precipitation model considers that aqueous phase reactions quickly achieve the chemical equilibrium and that aqueous-solid change is kinetically governed. The model was calibrated using data from four experiments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR and finally validated with two experiments. The precipitation model proposed was able to reproduce the dynamics of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formation and later crystallization to hydroxyapatite (HAP) under different scenarios. The model successfully characterised the EBPR performance of the SBR, including the biological, physical and chemical processes.

  1. Extrusion-based, three-dimensional printing of calcium-phosphate scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Lukasz

    Small or large bone defects, can occur due to a variety of reasons: congenital disorders, infections, tumors, or traumas which can lead to significant disabilities. There is an assortment of bone grafting procedures, each having their own respective advantages and disadvantages and exhibiting certain essential characteristics. Among the available grafts, autogenous (autograft), allograft, xenograft, and alloplasts, all exhibit a minimum of two-thirds of the essential characteristics and have been proven useful in fully or partially repairing skeletal defects. However, different host-to-grafting material responses have been reported and should be taken into consideration when determining treatment options. A large range of physical and chemical properties can be achieved with calcium phosphate based materials, which possess two of the ideal characteristics for grafting procedures: osteoconduction and osseointegration. Calcium phosphate based scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tri-calcium phosphate (beta-TCP), or a combination of both (HA/beta-TCP) were investigated as materials for three-dimensional printing process to create layer-by-layer structures for use as bone regeneration scaffolds. Different calcium-phosphate phases will result in different degrees of in vivo dissolution and/or cell-mediated resorption. There has been a growing interest in BCP because it has been shown that this material improves the formation of new bone inside the implanted scaffold. The literature indicates that the faster dissolution rate of ?-TCP would be greatly responsible of this enhancement. However, in vitro tests indicate that fast dissolution can decrease the mechanical strength of BCP scaffolds. Furthermore, studies reported that HA has higher mechanical strength and lower degradation rate than beta-TCP. Therefore, the HA/beta-TCP ratio is a key parameter controlling the performance of the scaffold for bone repair applications, since it determines degradation rate

  2. Manufacturing and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laasri, S.; Taha, M.; Hlil, E. K.; Laghzizil, A.; Hajjaji, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the influence of powder manufacturing and sintering temperature on densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of dense β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioceramic has been studied. Densification results show that the β-TCP can be sintered at 1160 °C for 3 hours to have good density and high performance mechanic properties (Vickers hardness, toughness and Young's modulus). X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy are used to check the microstructure changes during the sintering temperature. The used processing of β-TCP ceramic improved its densification, microstructure homogeneity and mechanical properties.

  3. Calcium phosphate crystal growth under controlled environment through urea hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiong; Wang, Ying-bo; Wang, Jian-xin; Qu, Shu-xin; Weng, Jie; Xin, Ren-long; Leng, Yang

    2006-12-01

    In this study, octacalcium phosphate (OCP, Ca 8 (HPO 4) 2(PO 4) 4 5H 2O) micro-fibers were successfully synthesized and isolated purely from the aqueous solution in the environment controlled by urea hydrolysis. During the process, the OCP micro-fibers were suspended in the middle of the reaction solution and weaved a thin film after isolation from the solution. The as-synthesized OCP fibers had the length larger than ˜200 μm, the width equal to ˜2 μm and the aspect ratio as high as 100. Various characterizations proved that the OCP fibers were well crystallized and contained no other impurities that were critical for the materials used in biomedical applications. This study revealed that using urea hydrolysis to control the reaction ambient was an effective way to produce pure OCP without any impurities. This study also demonstrated that dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO 4) pre-precipitation was the necessary step for OCP fiber growth, yet itself was another useful bioceramics. OCP fibers could be potentially used as the woven porous bioceramics or form fiber-reinforced composite biomaterials.

  4. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N.; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ► Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ► These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ► Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup −1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near −2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  6. ATR-FTIR measurements of albumin and fibrinogen adsorption: Inert versus calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Boix, Marcel; Eslava, Salvador; Costa Machado, Gil; Gosselin, Emmanuel; Ni, Na; Saiz, Eduardo; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Arthritis, bone fracture, bone tumors and other musculoskeletal diseases affect millions of people across the world. Nowadays, inert and bioactive ceramics are used as bone substitutes or for bone regeneration. Their bioactivity is very much dictated by the way proteins adsorb on their surface. In this work, we compared the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen on inert and calcium phosphates ceramics (CaPs) using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to follow in situ protein adsorption on these materials. To this effect, we developed a sol-gel technique to control the surface chemistry of an ATR-FTIR detector. Hydroxyapatite adsorbed more albumin and β-tricalcium phosphate adsorbed more fibrinogen. Biphasic calcium phosphate presented the lowest adsorption among CaP for both proteins, illustrating the effect of surface heterogeneities. Inert ceramics adsorbed a lower amount of both proteins compared with bioactive ceramics. A significant change was observed in the conformation of the adsorbed protein versus the surface chemistry. Hydroxyapatite produced a larger loss of α-helix structure on albumin and biphasic calcium phosphate reduced β-sheet percentage on fibrinogen. Inert ceramics produced large α-helix loss on albumin and presented weak interaction with fibrinogen. Zirconia did not adsorb albumin and titanium dioxide promoted huge denaturalization of fibrinogen.

  7. Structural characterization of anion-calcium-humate complexes in phosphate-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baigorri, Roberto; Urrutia, Oscar; Erro, Javier; Mandado, Marcos; Pérez-Juste, Ignacio; Garcia-Mina, José María

    2013-07-01

    Fertilizers based on phosphate-metal-humate complexes are a new family of compounds that represents a more sustainable and bioavailable phosphorus source. The characterization of this type of complex by using solid (31)P NMR in several fertilizers, based on single superphosphate (SSP) and triple superphosphate (TSP) matrices, yielded surprising and unexpected trends in the intensity and fine structure of the (31)P NMR peaks. Computational chemistry methods allowed the characterization of phosphate-calcium-humate complexes in both SSP and TSP matrices, but also predicted the formation of a stable sulfate-calcium-humate complex in the SSP fertilizers, which has not been described previously. The stability of this complex has been confirmed by using ultrafiltration techniques. Preference towards the humic substance for the sulfate-metal phase in SSP allowed the explanation of the opposing trends that were observed in the experimental (31)P NMR spectra of SSP and TSP samples. Additionally, computational chemistry has provided an assignment of the (31)P NMR signals to different phosphate ligands as well as valuable information about the relative strength of the phosphate-calcium interactions within the crystals.

  8. FGF23 and Klotho: the new cornerstones of phosphate/calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Cochat, Pierre; Salusky, Isidro B

    2014-01-01

    Since its first description as a phosphaturic agent in the early 2000’s, the Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) has rapidly become the third key player of phosphate/calcium metabolism with the two ‘old’ PTH and vitamin D. FGF23 is a protein synthesized by osteocytes that acts mainly as a phosphaturic factor and a suppressor of 1α hydroxylase activity in the kidney. It inhibits the expression of type IIa and IIc sodium-phosphate cotransporters on the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells, thus leading to an inhibition of phosphate reabsorption. Moreover, it also inhibits the 1α hydroxylase activity. These two renal pathways account together for the hypophosphatemic effect of FGF23, but FGF23 has also been recently described as an inhibiting factor for PTH synthesis. Its exact role in bone remains to be defined. A transmembrane protein, Klotho, is an essential cofactor for FGF23 biological activity, but it can also act by itself for calcium and PTH regulation. This paper gives an overview of these recent data of phosphate/calcium physiology, as well as a description of clinical conditions associated with FGF23 deregulation (genetic diseases and chronic kidney disease). As a conclusion, future therapeutic consequences of the FGF23/Klotho axis are discussed. PMID:21497493

  9. Ectopic Osteoid and Bone Formation by Three Calcium-Phosphate Ceramics in Rats, Rabbits and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liao; Zhang, Bi; Bao, Chongyun; Habibovic, Pamela; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA) sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (β-Tricalcium phosphate), sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model. PMID:25229501

  10. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohiruimaki, T.

    2011-10-01

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 μm were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 μm were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 μm had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 μm2 suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  11. Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells.

    PubMed

    Tămăşan, M; Ozyegin, L S; Oktar, F N; Simon, V

    2013-07-01

    The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H3PO4. Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin - Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals - β-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg)3 (PO4)2] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made.

  12. In vivo study of osteogenerating properties of calcium-phosphate coating on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Gnedenkov, Sergey V; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L; Puz, Artyom V; Egorkin, Vladimir S; Kostiv, Roman E

    2016-01-01

    The method of formation of bioactive calcium-phosphate coating on medical titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (3.5-5.3% V; 5.3-6.8% Al; balance -Ti) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has been developed. Evaluation of osteogenerating properties of the coating at fractures of the shaft of the femur on Wistar line laboratory rats has been performed. It has been established that the calcium-phosphate PEO coating accelerates osteogenesis and promotes the formation of a pronounced periosteal callus in the fracture area. The presence of calcium phosphates in the PEO coating surface layer significantly accelerates the growth of bone tissue on the titanium surface.

  13. Ceramide-1-Phosphate in Phagocytosis and Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Shayman, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well established sources of important signaling molecules. For example, ceramide (Cer) has been described as a potent inhibitor of cell growth and inducer of apoptosis. In contrast, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) has been reported to have mitogenic properties and to inhibit apoptosis. Our understanding of the distinct biological roles of C1P in the regulation of DNA synthesis, inflammation, membrane fusion, and intracellular Ca2+ increase has rapidly expanded. C1P is a bioactive sphingolipid formed by the phosphorylation of ceramide catalyzed by ceramide kinase (CERK). This chapter specifically focuses on the role of C1P in phagocytosis and Ca2+ homeostasis. Studies of the metabolism of C1P during phagocytosis, may lead to a better understanding of its role in signaling. Potentially, the inhibition of CERK and C1P formation may be a therapeutic target for inflammation. PMID:20919651

  14. Effect of retrograde aminophylline administration on calcium and phosphate solubility in neonatal total parenteral nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A E; Holcombe, B J; Sawyer, W T

    1989-12-01

    The effect of retrograde administration of aminophylline injection on calcium and phosphate solubility in neonatal total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solutions was studied. Neonatal TPN solutions containing two amino acids solutions in three concentrations (Travasol 1% and 2% and TrophAmine 2%) were formulated. Calcium and phosphate salts were added to achieve calcium concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, or 40 meq/L and phosphorus concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, or 40 mmol/L. Samples were inspected visually after 18-24 hours; solutions free of precipitation were then infused through two parallel syringe-pump systems designed to simulate clinical conditions for TPN solution administration to a 1-kg neonate. To one system, a 7.5-mg aminophylline dose was added as a manual retrograde injection; sterile water for injection was added as a manual retrograde injection to the other system. The solutions were inspected throughout a one-hour infusion period for precipitate formation in the i.v. apparatus, and the pH of the effluents was determined. Concurrent aminophylline administration resulted in visible precipitate in all but a few of the solutions tested. The solution containing Travasol 2%, calcium 10 meq/L, and phosphorus 10 mmol/L remained clear, as did the solutions containing TrophAmine 2% and the following concentrations of calcium and phosphorus: calcium 10 meq/L and phosphorus 10, 15, or 20 mmol/L; calcium 15 meq/L and phosphorus 10 or 15 mmol/L; and calcium 20 meq/L and phosphorus 10 or 15 mmol/L. An average increase in pH of 0.63 unit was noted in all solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Nonenzymatic Transformation of Amorphous CaCO3 into Calcium Phosphate Mineral after Exposure to Sodium Phosphate in Vitro: Implications for in Vivo Hydroxyapatite Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Neufurth, Meik; Huang, Jian; Wang, Kui; Feng, Qingling; Schröder, Heinz C; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-15

    Studies indicate that mammalian bone formation is initiated at calcium carbonate bioseeds, a process that is driven enzymatically by carbonic anhydrase (CA). We show that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and bicarbonate (HCO3 (-) ) cause induction of expression of the CA in human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells. The mineral deposits formed on the surface of the cells are rich in C, Ca and P. FTIR analysis revealed that ACC, vaterite, and aragonite, after exposure to phosphate, undergo transformation into calcium phosphate. This exchange was not seen for calcite. The changes to ACC, vaterite, and aragonite depended on the concentration of phosphate. The rate of incorporation of phosphate into ACC, vaterite, and aragonite, is significantly accelerated in the presence of a peptide rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. We propose that the initial CaCO3 bioseed formation is driven by CA, and that the subsequent conversion to calcium phosphate/calcium hydroxyapatite (exchange of carbonate by phosphate) is a non-enzymatic exchange process.

  16. Calcium thorium phosphate (Whitlockite-type mineral). Synthesis and structure refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, A. I.; Khainakov, S. A.; Loginova, E. E.; Oleneva, T. A.; Garcia Granda, S.; Kurazhkovskaya, V. S.

    2009-07-15

    The crystal structure of a new calcium thorium phosphate has been refined by the full-profile Rietveld method using X-ray powder diffraction data. The sample has been synthesized by the sol-gel technique. The phosphate has been identified by X-ray powder diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The refined composition is represented by the formula Ca{sub 10.26}Th{sub 0.12}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7}. The CaO{sub n} and PO{sub 4} polyhedra are distorted compared to the corresponding polyhedra in the basic compound {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.

  17. Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2007-12-01

    Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1-0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and both calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate were tested for their effects on pink cooked color in whole breast muscle. The combination of calcium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, not calcium chloride alone, was necessary for a reduction in pink cooked color induced by nicotinamide. Subsequently, in the presence of phosphate, both calcium chloride and sodium citrate reduced pink cooked color and were most effective in combination. Tricalcium phosphate also was capable of reducing pink cooked color in ground turkey, however substituting tricalcium phosphate for sodium tripolyphosphate resulted in lower pH and cooking yields. Neither calcium chloride nor tricalcium phosphate was capable of reducing pink cooked color in whole turkey breast. Currently, a combination of sodium tripolyphosphate, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate represents the most suitable means for reducing or preventing the pink color defect in uncured ground turkey.

  18. Crystallized nano-sized alpha-tricalcium phosphate from amorphous calcium phosphate: microstructure, cementation and cell response.

    PubMed

    Vecbiskena, Linda; Gross, Karlis Agris; Riekstina, Una; Yang, Thomas Chung-Kuang

    2015-04-17

    New insight on the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to nano-sized alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) provides a faster pathway to calcium phosphate bone cements. In this work, synthesized ACP powders were treated with either water or ethanol, dried, crystallized between 700 and 800 °C, and then cooled at different cooling rates. Particle size was measured in a scanning electron microscope, but crystallite size calculated by Rietveld analysis. Phase composition and bonding in the crystallized powder was assessed by x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that 50 nm sized α-TCP formed after crystallization of lyophilized powders. Water treated ACP retained an unstable state that may allow ordering to nanoapatite, and further transition to β-TCP after crystallization and subsequent decomposition. Powders treated with ethanol, favoured the formation of pure α-TCP. Faster cooling limited the growth of β-TCP. Both the initial contact with water and the cooling rate after crystallization dictated β-TCP formation. Nano-sized α-TCP reacted faster with water to an apatite bone cement than conventionally prepared α-TCP. Water treated and freeze-dried powders showed faster apatite cement formation compared to ethanol treated powders. Good biocompatibility was found in pure α-TCP nanoparticles made from ethanol treatment and with a larger crystallite size. This is the first report of pure α-TCP nanoparticles with a reactivity that has not required additional milling to cause cementation.

  19. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-08-15

    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 · 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 μg/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 μg/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties.

  20. Bioactive behavior of silicon substituted calcium phosphate based bioceramics for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ather Farooq; Saleem, Muhammad; Afzal, Adeel; Ali, Asghar; Khan, Afsar; Khan, Abdur Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely used for bone regeneration and repair in defect sites resulting from aging, disease, trauma, or accident. With invariably increasing clinical demands, there is an urgent need to produce artificial materials, which are readily available and are capable of fast and guided skeletal repair. Calcium phosphate based bioactive ceramics are extensively utilized in bone regeneration and repair applications. Silicon is often utilized as a substituent or a dopant in these bioceramics, since it significantly enhances the ultimate properties of conventional biomaterials such as surface chemical structure, mechanical strength, bioactivity, biocompatibility, etc. This article presents an overview of the silicon substituted bioceramics, which have emerged as efficient bone replacement and bone regeneration materials. Thus, the role of silicon in enhancing the biological performance and bone forming capabilities of conventional calcium phosphate based bioceramics is identified and reviewed.

  1. Methylene blue intercalated into calcium phosphate - Electrochemical properties and an ascorbic acid oxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarin, Angélica M.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2008-09-01

    Methylene blue (MB) was intercalated inside the cavity of a layered calcium phosphate host. The dye is strongly retained and not easily leached from the matrix. The intercalated dye material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and by means of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, its electrochemical properties were investigated. In various electrolyte solutions, on changing the pH between 3 and 9, the midpoint potential remained practically constant at -0.15 V. This is not the usual behavior for MB, since it is known that in the solution phase the midpoint potential changes considerably with pH, indicating that, in the present case, methylene blue is a guest molecule intercalated inside the lamellar structure of the calcium phosphate. An electrode made with this material was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid and then applied to commercial samples, with excellent agreement within the 95% confidence level.

  2. Effect of nanostructure on osteoinduction of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Liao, Xiaoling; Zheng, Li; Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Zhe; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2012-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of the nanostructure of calcium phosphate ceramics on osteoinductive potential, porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with a nano- or submicron structure were prepared via microwave sintering and compared to conventional BCP ceramics. The selective protein adsorption of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme (LSZ) and the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro was investigated. Porous BCP nanoceramics showed higher ability to adsorb proteins, especially low molecular weight protein of LSZ, than conventional BCP ceramics, and the BCP nanoceramics promoted bone sialoprotein expression more than conventional BCP did. Further in vivo study to investigate ectopic bone formation and bone repair efficiency proved the highly osteoinductive potential of nanostructured BCP ceramics. The results suggest that nanostructured BCP ceramics have the potential to become a new generation of bioceramics for bone tissue engineering grafts.

  3. Preparation, physical-chemical characterization, and cytocompatibility of polymeric calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Khashaba, Rania M; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R; Missimer, David M; Rutherford, Ronny L; Chutkan, Norman B; Borke, James L

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5-12 min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications.

  4. Arrangement techniques of proteins and cells using amorphous calcium phosphate nanofiber scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Takatoshi; Higuchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Kenji; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Kamada, Mari; Sato, Kimiyasu; Kato, Katsuya

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate arrangement techniques of proteins and cells using an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanofiber scaffold. It is well known that protein andosteoblastic cell are preferably adsorbed onto ACP surface. The ACP nanofiber scaffold was prepared by calcium phosphate mineralization on a polypeptide monolayer-coated mica substrate, and ACP nanofibers were oriented unidirectionaly. In a protein system, the ACP nanofiber scaffold was soaked in a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated immunoglobulin G (IgG-FITC) aqueous solution. From fluorescence microscopic measurement, the adsorbed IgG-FITC was highly confined and arranged on the ACP nanofiber. In a cell system, a mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1) behavior on the ACP nanofiber scaffold was observed. The cell was elongated unidirectionaly, and its cytoskeletal shape showed high aspect ratio. These results are clearly different from an ACP bulk template or bare mica substrate, and the arrangement technique enable to fabricate a fine-tuned biomaterial template.

  5. The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng; Lu, Hong; Li, Wei; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2012-03-01

    Since calcium phosphates (CaPs) were first proposed, a wide variety of formulations have been developed and continuously optimized, some of which (e.g. calcium phosphate cements, CPCs) have been successfully commercialized for clinical applications. These CaP-based biomaterials have been shown to be very attractive bone substitutes and efficient drug delivery vehicles across diverse biomedical applications. In this article, CaP biomaterials, principally CPCs, are addressed as alternatives/complements to autogenous bone for grafting in implant dentistry and as coating materials for enhancing the osteoinductivity of titanium implants, highlighting their performance benefits simultaneously as carriers for growth factors and as scaffolds for cell proliferation, differentiation and penetration. Different strategies for employing CaP biomaterials in dental implantology aim to ultimately reach the same goal, namely to enhance the osseointegration process for dental implants in the context of immediate loading and to augment the formation of surrounding bone to guarantee long-term success.

  6. A brief review of calcium phosphate conversion coating on magnesium and its alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaludin, Mohd Amin Farhan; Jamal, Zul Azhar Zahid; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Derman, Mohd Nazree

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments have shown that magnesium is a promising candidate to be used as a biomaterial. Owing to its light weight, biocompatibility and compressive strength comparable with natural bones makes magnesium as an excellent choice for biomaterial. However, high reactivity and low corrosion resistance properties have restricted the application of magnesium as biomaterials. At the moment, several strategies have been developed to solve this problem. Surface modification of magnesium is one of the popular solutions to solve the problem. Among many techniques developed in the surface modification, conversion coating method is one of the simple and effective techniques. From various types of conversion coating, calcium phosphate-based conversion coating is the most suitable for biomedical fields. This paper reviews some studies on calcium phosphate coating on Mg and its alloys via chemical conversion method and discusses some factors determining the coating performance.

  7. Vertebral body recollapse without trauma after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, Andrea; De Giorgi, Giuseppe; Solarino, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Traditionally, immobilization and external bracing has been recommended for patients with type A traumatic and non-osteoporotic fractures that do not present neurological deficits or significant instability. Nevertheless, several authors have recently suggested the possibility to treat thoraco-lumbar and lumbar vertebral compression post-traumatic fractures using standalone balloon kyphoplasty with osteoconductive filler materials, such as calcium phosphate (CPC). Maestretti and Huang have demonstrated the advantages of this technique showing an almost immediate return to daily activities without the inconvenience of wearing a brace, pain reduction, minimal operative risks and maintenance of stability, therefore proposing this as a first-choice technique in young patient needing rapid spine stability. The authors present a case of vertebral body recollapse after kyphoplasty with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in a 47-year-old man with an A1.2 post-traumatic L1 compression fracture.

  8. Biomimetic versus Sintered Calcium Phosphates: The in vitro Behavior of Osteoblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Joanna Maria; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Montufar, Edgar B; Espanol, Montserrat; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2017-01-20

    The fabrication of calcium phosphates using biomimetic routes, namely, precipitation processes at body temperature, results in distinct features compared to conventional sintered calcium phosphate ceramics, such as a high specific surface area and micro or nanometric crystal size. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of these parameters on cell response, focusing on two bone cell types: rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and human osteoblastic cells (SaOS-2). Biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) was obtained by a low temperature setting reaction, and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and β- tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were subsequently obtained by sintering CDHA either at 1400 °C or 1100 °C. Sintered stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) was also prepared using ceramic routes. The materials were characterized in terms of specific surface area, skeletal density, porosity and pore size distribution. SaOS-2 cells and rMSCs were seeded either directly on the surfaces of the materials or on glass coverslips subsequently placed on top of the materials to expose the cells to the CaP-induced ionic changes in the culture medium while avoiding any topography-related effects. CDHA produced higher ionic fluctuations in both cell culture media than sintered ceramics, with a strong decrease of calcium and a release of phosphate. Indirect contact cell cultures revealed that both cell types were sensitive to these ionic modifications, resulting in a decrease in proliferation rate, more marked for CDHA, this effect being more pronounced for rMSCs. In direct contact cultures, good cell adhesion was found on all materials, but whereas cells were able to proliferate on the sintered calcium phosphates, cell number was significantly reduced with time on biomimetic CDHA, which was associated to a higher percentage of apoptotic cells. Direct contact of the cells with biomimetic CDHA resulted also in higher ALP activity for both cell types as compared to sintered

  9. Polyfunctional bioceramics based on calcium phosphate and M-type hexagonal ferrite for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Ol'khovik, L. P.; Kamzin, A. S.; Keshri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic biologically active ceramics based on calcium phosphate with a content of M-type hexagonal ferrite (HF) particles varying from 10 to 50 wt % has been synthesized and characterized. It has been found that the ceramics synthesized consists of a biocompatible carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) with the matrix containing M-type HF particles, leading to the magnetic characteristics of the ceramics synthesized being significantly higher than those of iron-oxide-modified bioglass ceramics used in medicine.

  10. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  11. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  12. Data on granulometric composition of calcium phosphate obtained by dispersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Malyshev, A. V.; Mylnikova, T. S.

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics of calcium phosphate crystallization from model solutions of saliva and liquid phase of dental plaque has been studied by the dispersion method. It was found that the composition of the saliva model system is favorable for the growth of larger crystals. The size of the particles in crystallization varies nonlinearly. As supersaturation grows, the amount of formed particles increases, however, the average rate of crystallite growth decreases.

  13. Chiral Calcium Phosphate Catalyzed Asymmetric Alkenylation Reaction of Arylglyoxals with 3-Vinylindoles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Yuan, Wen-Qiang; Tang, Sheng; Huang, Yi-Wei; Xue, Jia-Hui; Fu, Li Na; Guo, Qi-Xiang

    2017-03-03

    A highly efficient alkenylation reaction of arylglyoxals with 3-vinylindoles catalyzed by chiral calcium phosphate is described. Structurally diverse allylic alcohols bearing indole and carbonyl units are prepared in excellent yields, good diastereoselectivities, and high to excellent enantioselectivities. These products are good building blocks for the synthesis of polysubstituted chiral tetrahydrocarbozol-2-ones. The mechanism study indicates that the most likely role of the catalyst is to activate the hydrate of arylglyoxal and control the stereoselectivity via desymmetric coordination.

  14. Calcium phosphate-bearing matrices induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells through adenosine signaling.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Ru V; Hwang, YongSung; Phadke, Ameya; Kang, Heemin; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Caro, Eduardo J; Nguyen, Steven; Siu, Michael; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Vecchio, Kenneth S; Chien, Shu; Lee, Oscar K; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-21

    Synthetic matrices emulating the physicochemical properties of tissue-specific ECMs are being developed at a rapid pace to regulate stem cell fate. Biomaterials containing calcium phosphate (CaP) moieties have been shown to support osteogenic differentiation of stem and progenitor cells and bone tissue formation. By using a mineralized synthetic matrix mimicking a CaP-rich bone microenvironment, we examine a molecular mechanism through which CaP minerals induce osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells with an emphasis on phosphate metabolism. Our studies show that extracellular phosphate uptake through solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 (SLC20a1) supports osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells via adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule through A2b adenosine receptor. Perturbation of SLC20a1 abrogates osteogenic differentiation by decreasing intramitochondrial phosphate and ATP synthesis. Collectively, this study offers the demonstration of a previously unknown mechanism for the beneficial role of CaP biomaterials in bone repair and the role of phosphate ions in bone physiology and regeneration. These findings also begin to shed light on the role of ATP metabolism in bone homeostasis, which may be exploited to treat bone metabolic diseases.

  15. Study of a hydraulic dicalcium phosphate dihydrate/calcium oxide-based cement for dental applications.

    PubMed

    el-Briak, Hasna; Durand, Denis; Nurit, Josiane; Munier, Sylvie; Pauvert, Bernard; Boudeville, Phillipe

    2002-01-01

    By mixing CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O (DCPD) and CaO with water or sodium phosphate buffers as liquid phase, a calcium phosphate cement was obtained. Its physical and mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, initial and final setting times, cohesion time, dough time, swelling time, dimensional and thermal behavior, and injectability were investigated by varying different parameters such as liquid to powder (L/P) ratio (0.35-0.7 ml g(-1)), molar calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) ratio (1.67-2.5) and the pH (4, 7, and 9) and the concentration (0-1 M) of the sodium phosphate buffer. The best results were obtained with the pH 7 sodium phosphate buffer at the concentration of 0.75 M. With this liquid phase, physical and mechanical properties depended on the Ca/P and L/P ratios, varying from 3 to 11 MPa (compressive strength), 6 to 10 min (initial setting time), 11 to 15 min (final setting time), 15 to 30 min (swelling time), 7 to 20 min (time of 100% injectability). The dough or working time was over 16 min. This cement expanded during its setting (1.2-5 % according to Ca/P and L/P ratios); this would allow a tight filling. Given the mechanical and rheological properties of this new DCPD/CaO-based cement, its use as root canal sealing material can be considered as classical calcium hydroxide or ZnO/eugenol-based pastes, without or with a gutta-percha point.

  16. External bone remodeling after injectable calcium-phosphate cement in benign bone tumor: two cases in the hand.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, S; Vaiss, L; Acciaro, A L; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2015-12-01

    Bone remodeling commonly occurred after fracture and curettage benign bone tumor. A lot of previous articles reported "internal" trabecular bone remodeling. There were no previous clinical reports about "external" cortical bone remodeling. We present here 2 clinical cases of "external" bone remodeling after injectable calcium-phosphate in benign bone tumor in the hand. In two cases of benign bone tumor, we performed complete removal of the tumor and immediate filling of the metacarpal bone with injectable calcium-phosphate cement Arexbone(®) from the mechanical viewpoint. With respect to the shape of the calcium-phosphate, by using an injection-type, calcium-phosphate is adhered uniformly to the bone cortex by injecting, remodeling has been promoted. After 5 and 8years, both cases were no recurrences, and the shape of the metacarpal looked close to the contralateral side. These findings supposed to be concerned with potential self-healing and self-protection mechanism in human body.

  17. Kinetics of phosphate absorption in lactating dairy cows after enteral administration of sodium phosphate or calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Walter; Dobbelaar, Paul; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-09-28

    Hypophosphataemia is frequently encountered in dairy cows during early lactation. Although supplementation of P is generally recommended, controversy exists over the suitability of oral P supplementation in animals with decreased or absent rumen motility. Since the effects of transruminal P absorption and the reticular groove reflex on the absorption kinetics of P are not well understood, it is unclear in how far treatment efficacy of oral P supplementation is affected by decreased rumen motility. Phosphate absorption was studied in six phosphate-depleted dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas and treated with test solutions containing either NaH2PO4 or CaHPO4 with acetaminophen. Each animal was treated orally, intraruminally and intra-abomasally in randomised order. Absorption kinetics of P were studied and compared with the absorption kinetics of acetaminophen, a marker substance only absorbed from the small intestine. Intra-abomasal treatment with NaH2PO4 resulted in the most rapid and highest peaks in plasma inorganic P (Pi) concentration. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentration from 4 to 7 h in both groups. Treatment with NaH2PO4 caused more pronounced peaks in plasma Pi concentration compared with CaHPO4. Neither transruminal P absorption nor the reticular groove reflex affected P absorption kinetics as determined by comparing plasma concentration–time curves of P and acetaminophen after administration of 1M-phosphate salt solutions. It is concluded that oral treatment with NaH2PO4 but not CaHPO4 is effective in supplementing P in hypophosphataemic cows with adequate rumen motility. Decreased rumen motility is likely to hamper the efficacy of oral phosphate treatment.

  18. Designing calcium phosphate-based bifunctional nanocapsules with bone-targeting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khung, Yit-Lung; Bastari, Kelsen; Cho, Xing Ling; Yee, Wu Aik; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Using sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles as template, hollow-cored calcium phosphate nanocapsules were produced. The surfaces of the nanocapsule were subsequently silanised by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based silane with an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester end groups which permits for further attachment with bisphosphonates (BP). Characterisations of these nanocapsules were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. To further validate the bone-targeting potential, dentine discs were incubated with these functionalised nanocapsules. FESEM analysis showed that these surface-modified nanocapsules would bind strongly to dentine surfaces compared to non-functionalised nanocapsules. We envisage that respective components would give this construct a bifunctional attribute, whereby (1) the shell of the calcium phosphate nanocapsule would serve as biocompatible coating aiding in gradual osteoconduction, while (2) surface BP moieties, acting as targeting ligands, would provide the bone-targeting potential of these calcium phosphate nanocapsules.

  19. Calcium phosphate precipitation in a SBR operated for EBPR: interactions with the biological process.

    PubMed

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Borras, L; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the precipitation process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and the possible effects of this phosphorus precipitation in the biological process. Four experiments were carried out under different influent calcium concentration. The experimental results and the equilibrium study, based on the Saturation Index calculation, confirm that the process controlling the calcium behaviour in a SBR operated for EBPR is the calcium phosphate precipitation. This precipitation takes place at two stages initially precipitation of the ACP and later crystallization of HAP. Also the accumulation of phosphorus precipitated was observed when the influent Ca concentration was increased. In all the experiments the influent wastewater ratio P/COD was kept constant. It has been observed that at high Ca concentration the amount of poly-P granules decrease, decreasing the ratio between phosphate release and acetate uptake (P(rel)/Ac(uptake)). Changes on PAO and GAO populations during the experimental period were ruled out by means of methilene blue stains for poly-P detection. These results confirmed the phosphate precipitation as a process that can affect to the PAO metabolism and the EBPR performance.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rukmani; Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P

    2009-01-01

    The inconvenience of subcutaneous insulin delivery leads to low patient compliance with the dosage regimens. The most desirable form of administration seems to be through the oral route. This work investigates the utility of PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles as oral carriers for insulin. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP) with an average particle size of 47.9 nm (D50) were synthesized and surface modified by conjugating it with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). These modified nanoparticles were having a near zero zeta potential. Protection of insulin from the gastric environment has been achieved by coating the nanoparticles with a pH sensitive polymer that will dissolve in the mildly alkaline pH environment of the intestine. The release profiles of coated nanoparticles exhibited negligible release in acidic (gastric) pH, i.e., only 2% for CaP and 6.5% for PEGylated CaP. However, a sustained release of insulin was observed at neutral (intestinal) pH for over 8 h. The conformation of the released insulin, studied using circular dichroism, was unaltered when compared with native insulin. The released insulin was also stable as it was studied using dynamic light scattering. Radioimmunoassay was performed and the immunoreactivity of the released insulin was found to be intact. These results suggest PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an excellent carrier system for insulin toward the development of an oral insulin delivery system.

  1. Orbital floor reconstruction using calcium phosphate cement paste: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Tañag, Marvin A; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2004-12-01

    Orbital floor defects were created in 10 New Zealand white rabbits and were reconstructed using an injectable calcium phosphate paste. These animals were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 months after implantation and were examined for biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Grossly, implants were found to be adherent to the floor and covered with fibrous tissues. There was no sign of infection, extrusion, or migration of implant within the orbit and maxilla. The orbital floor was completely restored. Histological examination showed active new bone formation that encroached within the implant and gradually increased in density with time. Maxillary mucosa and glands were likewise reconstituted. Thin fibrovascular tissues were seen on top of and within the surface of the implant, and few to slight inflammatory cells were seen. Microradiography showed direct apposition between the new bone and the implant. These findings compare favorably with previously published reports on the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of calcium phosphate cement. The authors believe that, together with ease of use and structural integrity, calcium phosphate paste can be useful in orbital floor reconstruction.

  2. A novel biodegradable nicotinic acid/calcium phosphate composite coating on Mg-3Zn alloy.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingwei; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

    2013-01-01

    A novel biodegradable composite coating is prepared to reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn alloy. The Mg-3Zn substrate is first immersed into 0.02 mol L(-1) nicotinic acid (NA) solution, named as vitamin B3, to obtain a pretreatment film, and then the electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coating with ultrasonic agitation is carried out on the NA pretreatment film to obtain a NA/calcium phosphate composite coating. Surface morphology is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDX. Protection property of the coatings is evaluated by electrochemical tests. The biodegradable behavior is investigated by immersion tests. The results indicate that a thin but compact bottom layer can be obtained by NA pretreatment. The electrodeposition calcium phosphate coating consists of many flake particles and ultrasonic agitation can greatly improve the compactness of the coating. The composite coating is biodegradable and can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys in stimulated body fluid (SBF) for twenty times. The biodegradation process of the composite coating can be attributed to the gradual dissolution of the flake particles into chippings.

  3. 3D printing of composite calcium phosphate and collagen scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Inzana, Jason A; Olvera, Diana; Fuller, Seth M; Kelly, James P; Graeve, Olivia A; Schwarz, Edward M; Kates, Stephen L; Awad, Hani A

    2014-04-01

    Low temperature 3D printing of calcium phosphate scaffolds holds great promise for fabricating synthetic bone graft substitutes with enhanced performance over traditional techniques. Many design parameters, such as the binder solution properties, have yet to be optimized to ensure maximal biocompatibility and osteoconductivity with sufficient mechanical properties. This study tailored the phosphoric acid-based binder solution concentration to 8.75 wt% to maximize cytocompatibility and mechanical strength, with a supplementation of Tween 80 to improve printing. To further enhance the formulation, collagen was dissolved into the binder solution to fabricate collagen-calcium phosphate composites. Reducing the viscosity and surface tension through a physiologic heat treatment and Tween 80, respectively, enabled reliable thermal inkjet printing of the collagen solutions. Supplementing the binder solution with 1-2 wt% collagen significantly improved maximum flexural strength and cell viability. To assess the bone healing performance, we implanted 3D printed scaffolds into a critically sized murine femoral defect for 9 weeks. The implants were confirmed to be osteoconductive, with new bone growth incorporating the degrading scaffold materials. In conclusion, this study demonstrates optimization of material parameters for 3D printed calcium phosphate scaffolds and enhancement of material properties by volumetric collagen incorporation via inkjet printing.

  4. 3D Printing of Composite Calcium Phosphate and Collagen Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, Jason A.; Olvera, Diana; Fuller, Seth M.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Kates, Stephen L.; Awad, Hani A.

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature 3D printing of calcium phosphate scaffolds holds great promise for fabricating synthetic bone graft substitutes with enhanced performance over traditional techniques. Many design parameters, such as the binder solution properties, have yet to be optimized to ensure maximal biocompatibility and osteoconductivity with sufficient mechanical properties. This study tailored the phosphoric acid-based binder solution concentration to 8.75 wt% to maximize cytocompatibility and mechanical strength, with a supplementation of Tween 80 to improve printing. To further enhance the formulation, collagen was dissolved into the binder solution to fabricate collagen-calcium phosphate composites. Reducing the viscosity and surface tension through a physiologic heat treatment and Tween 80, respectively, enabled reliable thermal inkjet printing of the collagen solutions. Supplementing the binder solution with 1–2 wt% collagen significantly improved maximum flexural strength and cell viability. To assess the bone healing performance, we implanted 3D printed scaffolds into a critically sized murine femoral defect for 9 weeks. The implants were confirmed to be osteoconductive, with new bone growth incorporating the degrading scaffold materials. In conclusion, this study demonstrates optimization of material parameters for 3D printed calcium phosphate scaffolds and enhancement of material properties by volumetric collagen incorporation via inkjet printing. PMID:24529628

  5. The effect of porosity on drug release kinetics from vancomycin microsphere/calcium phosphate cement composites.

    PubMed

    Schnieders, Julia; Gbureck, Uwe; Vorndran, Elke; Schossig, Michael; Kissel, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The influence of porosity on release profiles of antibiotics from calcium phosphate composites was investigated to optimize the duration of treatment. We hypothesized, that by the encapsulation of vancomycin-HCl into biodegradable microspheres prior admixing to calcium phosphate bone cement, the influence of porosity of the cement matrix on vancomycin release could be reduced. Encapsulation of vancomycin into a biodegradable poly(lactic co-glycolic acid) copolymer (PLGA) was performed by spray drying; drug-loaded microparticles were added to calcium phosphate cement (CPC) at different powder to liquid ratios (P/L), resulting in different porosities of the cement composites. The effect of differences in P/L ratio on drug release kinetics was compared for both the direct addition of vancomycin-HCl to the cement liquid and for cement composites modified with vancomycin-HCl-loaded microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize surface and cross section morphology of the different composites. Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller-plots (BET) was used to determine the specific surface area and pore size distribution of these matrices. It could be clearly shown, that variations in P/L ratio influenced both the porosity of cement and vancomycin release profiles. Antibiotic activity during release study was successfully measured using an agar diffusion assay. However, vancomycin-HCl encapsulation into PLGA polymer microspheres decreased porosity influence of cement on drug release while maintaining antibiotic activity of the embedded substance.

  6. Osteoconductive effects of calcium phosphate glass cement grafts in rabbit calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Sohn, Joo-Yeon; Park, Jung-Chul; Um, Yoo-Jung; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2010-10-01

    Calcium phosphate glass (CPG) is well-documented alloplastic bone graft material. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteoconductive effect of newly developed calcium phosphate glass cement (CPGC) in rabbit calvarial defects. Three circular defects (8 mm diameter) were created on the rabbit calvarium. One defect was filled with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP group) and one defect was filled with CPGC (CPGC group). The remaining defect was not filled as the control. Histologic and histometric analysis were performed at four and eight weeks following the implantation of materials. One-way ANOVA method was used to evaluated the significance between three groups (p < 0.05). The CPGC group did not show a statistical difference in new bone area compared with the control at all healing periods, but the bone formation rate of CPGC seemed to increase between four and eight weeks. This suggests the bone formation rate of CPGC is initially slow, but increases at a specific time, showing the possibility of greater bone formation with time. The resorption rate of CPGC was greater than BCP. Within the limits of this study, CPGC demonstrated good space maintaining capacity and had an osteoconductive effect, suggesting it could be successfully used to improve bone formation capacity.

  7. Influence of polymeric additives on the cohesion and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    An, Jie; Wolke, Joop G C; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2016-03-01

    To expand the clinical applicability of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) to load-bearing anatomical sites, the mechanical and setting properties of CPCs need to be improved. Specifically, organic additives need to be developed that can overcome the disintegration and brittleness of CPCs. Hence, we compared two conventional polymeric additives (i.e. carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronan (HA)) with a novel organic additive that was designed to bind to calcium phosphate, i.e. hyaluronan-bisphosphonate (HABP). The unmodified cement used in this study consisted of a powder phase of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and liquid phase of 4% NaH2PO4·2H2O, while the modified cements were fabricated by adding 0.75 or 1.5 wt% of the polymeric additive to the cement. The cohesion of α-TCP was improved considerably by the addition of CMC and HABP. None of the additives improved the compression and bending strength of the cements, but the addition of 0.75% HABP resulted into a significantly increased cement toughness as compared to the other experimental groups. The stimulatory effects of HABP on the cohesion and toughness of the cements is hypothesized to derive from the strong affinity between the polymer-grafted bisphosphonate ligands and the calcium ions in the cement matrix.

  8. Phase diagram for controlled crystallization of calcium phosphate under acidic organic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, F. Z.; Zhou, L. F.; Cui, H.; Ma, C. L.; Lu, H. B.; Li, H. D.

    1996-12-01

    The effect of ionic concentration and pH on matrix-regulated crystallization may be important in biomineralization processes and biomimetic synthesis of materials. This effect in the system of calcium phosphate solution under stearic acid monolayers was investigated. In experiments, the solution conditions ranged in concentration of Ca ion of 0.1-20mM and in pH of 5.3-7.0. It was found that at the initial stage of the controlled crystallization, the (0001)-oriented hydroxyapatite (HAp) precipitations under the acidic monolayers always occur. At solution conditions near the solubility isotherms of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) in the solubility phase diagram, precipitations of OCP and DCPD phases can form together with HAp precipitation, respectively. Orientations of DCPD or OCP phase precipitations were irregular.

  9. Biomimetic synthesis of modified calcium phosphate fine powders and their in vitro studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gergulova, R. Tepavitcharova, S. Rabadjieva, D. Sezanova, K. Ilieva, R.; Alexandrova, R.; Andonova-Lilova, B.

    2013-12-16

    Biomimetic approach and subsequent high-temperature treatment were used to synthesize ion modified calcium phosphate fine powders. Thus, using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) as an ion modifier, a bi-phase mixture of ion modified β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (β-TCP + HA) was prepared. The use of SBF electrolyte solution enriched with Mg{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+} yielded monophase β-tricalcium phosphate additionally modified with Mg{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+} (Mg-β-TCP or Zn-β-TCP). The in vitro behavior of the prepared powders on cell viability and proliferation of murine BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and of human Lep 3 cells was studied by MTT test assays and Mosmann method after 72 h incubation. The relative cell viability was calculated.

  10. Parameters influencing ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole retention by natural and converted calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, H; El Hanbali, I; El Karbane, M; Rami, A; Saoiabi, A; Saoiabi, S; Masse, S; Coradin, T; Laghzizil, A

    2015-06-30

    The retention of four antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole by a natural phosphate rock (francolite) was studied and compared with a converted hydroxyapatite powder. The maximum sorption capacities were found to correlate with the molecular weight of the molecules. The mechanisms of sorption depended mostly on the charge of the antibiotic whereas the kinetics of the process was sensitive to their hydrophobic/hydrophilic character. The two materials showed slightly distinct affinities for the various antibiotics but exhibited similar maximum sorption capacities despite different specific surface areas. This was mainly attributed to the more pronounced hydrophobic character of the francolite phase constituting the natural phosphate. These data enlighten that the retention properties of these mineral phases depend on a complex interplay between the inter-molecular and molecule-solid interactions. These findings are relevant to understand better the contribution of calcium phosphates in the fate and retention of antibiotics in soils.

  11. Biomimetic synthesis of modified calcium phosphate fine powders and their in vitro studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergulova, R.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Sezanova, K.; Ilieva, R.; Alexandrova, R.; Andonova-Lilova, B.

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetic approach and subsequent high-temperature treatment were used to synthesize ion modified calcium phosphate fine powders. Thus, using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) as an ion modifier, a bi-phase mixture of ion modified β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (β-TCP + HA) was prepared. The use of SBF electrolyte solution enriched with Mg2+ or Zn2+ yielded monophase β-tricalcium phosphate additionally modified with Mg2+ or Zn2+ (Mg-β-TCP or Zn-β-TCP). The in vitro behavior of the prepared powders on cell viability and proliferation of murine BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and of human Lep 3 cells was studied by MTT test assays and Mosmann method after 72 h incubation. The relative cell viability was calculated.

  12. Effect of calcium phosphate and vitamin D3 supplementation on bone remodelling and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D3 on bone and mineral metabolism. Methods Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D3 (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D3. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. Results After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D3 supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D3 supplementations (vitamin D3, CaP + vitamin D3), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Conclusions Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D3 significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D3 have no beneficial effect on bone

  13. [Production of timolol containing calcium-phosphate nanoparticles and evaluation of their effect on intraocular pressure in experiment].

    PubMed

    Shimanovskaia, E V; Beznos, O V; Kliachko, N L; Kost, O A; Nikol'skaia, I I; Pavlenko, T A; Chesnokova, N B; Kabanov, A V

    2012-01-01

    Methodology for production of calcium-phosphate nanoparticles is developed and its efficacy as a drug carrier system is estimated by example of timolol. Conditions for production of particles with optimal size and resistance are determined, methodology of loading of particles with timolol is developed. Physical parameters of particles (form, size, relief), kinetics of saturation with drug and its release are studied. Packaging of timolol into calcium phosphate nanoparticles was showed to enhance and prolong its hypotensive effect in experiment on healthy rabbits.

  14. Effect of polydopamine on the biomimetic mineralization of mussel-inspired calcium phosphate cement in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongguang; Qu, Shuxin; Zheng, Xiaotong; Xiong, Xiong; Fu, Rong; Tang, Kuangyun; Zhong, Zhendong; Weng, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the excellent adhesive property of mussel adhesive protein, we added polydopamine (PDA) to calcium phosphate cement (PDA-CPC) to enhance its compressive strength previously. The mineralization and mechanism on PDA-CPC were investigated by soaking it in simulated body fluid in this study. The results indicated that PDA promoted the conversion of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and α-tricalcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite (HA) in the early stage but inhibited this conversion subsequently. PDA promoted the rapid mineralization on PDA-CPC to form a layer of nanoscale calcium phosphate (CaP) whereas there was no CaP formation on the control-CPC after 1d of soaking. This layer of nanoscale CaP was similar to that of natural bone, which was always observed during soaking. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the peak of CO of PDA existed in the newly formed CaP on PDA-CPC, indicating the co-precipitation of CaP with PDA. Furthermore, the newly formed CaP on PDA-CPC was HA confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which the newly formed HA was in association with PDA. Therefore, PDA increased the capacity of mineralization of CPC and induced the formation of nanoscale bone-like apatite on PDA-CPC. Thus, this provides the feasible route for surface modification on CPC.

  15. Pulsed electrodeposition for the synthesis of strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings with improved dissolution properties.

    PubMed

    Drevet, Richard; Benhayoune, Hicham

    2013-10-01

    Strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Experimental conditions of the process are optimized in order to obtain a coating with a 5% atomic substitution of calcium by strontium which corresponds to the best observations on the osteoblast cells activity and on the osteoclast cells proliferation. The physical and chemical characterizations of the obtained coating are carried out by scanning electron microscopy associated to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) for X-ray microanalysis and the structural characterization of the coating is carried out by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro dissolution/precipitation properties of the coated substrates are investigated by immersion into Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) from 1h to 14 days. The calcium, phosphorus and strontium concentrations variations in the biological liquid are assessed by Induced Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for each immersion time. The results show that under specific experimental conditions, the electrodeposition process is suitable to synthesize strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into the electrolytic solution used in the process allows us to observe a control of the strontium release during the immersion of the prosthetic materials into DMEM.

  16. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C.

  17. Comparative study on in vivo response of porous calcium carbonate composite ceramic and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic.

    PubMed

    He, Fupo; Ren, Weiwei; Tian, Xiumei; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) were prepared by using phosphate-based glass (PG) as an additive, which showed good cell response. In the present study the in vivo response of porous CC/PG was compared to that of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP), using a rabbit femoral critical-size grafting model. The materials degradation and bone formation processes were evaluated by general observation, X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histological examination. The results demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and progressive degradation of CC/PG and BCP. Although the in vitro degradation rate of CC/PG was distinctly faster than that of BCP, at 4week post-implantation, the bone generation and material degradation of CC/PG were less than those of BCP. Nevertheless, at postoperative week 8, the increment of bone formation and material degradation of CC/PG was pronouncedly larger than that of BCP. These results show that CC/PG is a potential resorbable bone graft aside from the traditional synthetic ones.

  18. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Chavda, Mehul A.; Bernal, Susan A.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2015-04-15

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A {sup 31}P/{sup 27}Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system.

  19. Calcium phosphate cement - gelatin powder composite testing in canine models: Clinical implications for treatment of bone defects.

    PubMed

    Yomoda, Mitsuhiro; Sobajima, Satoshi; Kasuya, Akihiro; Neo, Masashi

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported the excellent biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cement. However, calcium phosphate cement needs further improvement in order for it to promote bone replacement and eventual bone substitution, as it exhibits slow biodegradability and thus remains in the body over an extended period of time. In this study, we mixed calcium phosphate cement with gelatin powder in order to create a composite containing macropores with interconnectivity, and we then implanted it into canine femurs from the diaphysis to the distal metaphysis. Eight dogs were divided into the sham group, the control (C0) group with 100 wt% calcium phosphate cement, the C10 group with 90 wt% calcium phosphate cement and 10 wt% gelatin powder, and the C15 group with 85 wt% calcium phosphate cement and 15 wt% gelatin powder. Bone replaceability in C10 and C15 at 3 and 6 months was evaluated by radiography, micro-CT, histomorphometry, and mineral apposition rate. New bone formation was seen in C10 and C15 although that was not seen in C0 at six months. The mineral apposition rate was significantly higher in C15 than in C10 in both the diaphysis and metaphysis, and the composite was found to have excellent biodegradability and bone replaceability in canine subjects. As the composite is easily and rapidly prepared, it is likely to become a new bone substitute for use in clinical settings.

  20. Effect of poly(aspartic acid) on calcium phosphate removal from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, Felicia

    Calcium phosphate deposition causes cleaning problems in a number of situations including water treatment, dairy processing, and dental applications. This problem is exacerbated by the limited choices of cleaning chemicals that meet environmental regulations. To promote the development of biodegradable, non-toxic alternatives, this research examines the removal of calcium phosphate deposits consisting of brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate; DCPD) and a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and DCPD from stainless steel in the presence of poly(aspartic acid) and its sodium salt (PASP). The effects of solvent pH, PASP concentration, and flow rate on the calcium phosphate removal rates are measured from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions using a solid scintillation detection technique. A mechanistic evaluation of the cleaning data in the absence of PASP indicates that DCPD removal is dominated by shear while HAP/DCPD deposit removal is limited by a combination of mass transfer and interfacial processes. Although the removal mechanisms differ, the results conclusively show that PASP promotes calcium phosphate removal under conditions that favor calcium sequestration in both cases. An in-depth study of DCPD removal in the presence of PASP reveals that this additive is most effective under conditions where calcium sequestration and phosphate protonation occur simultaneously.

  1. Development of a 3D polymer reinforced calcium phosphate cement scaffold for cranial bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alge, Daniel L.

    The repair of critical-sized cranial bone defects represents an important clinical challenge. The limitations of autografts and alloplastic materials make a bone tissue engineering strategy desirable, but success depends on the development of an appropriate scaffold. Key scaffold properties include biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, sufficient strength to maintain its structure, and resorbability. Furthermore, amenability to rapid prototyping fabrication methods is desirable, as these approaches offer precise control over scaffold architecture and have the potential for customization. While calcium phosphate cements meet many of these criteria due to their composition and their injectability, which can be leveraged for scaffold fabrication via indirect casting, their mechanical properties are a major limitation. Thus, the overall goal of this work was to develop a 3D polymer reinforced calcium phosphate cement scaffold for use in cranial bone tissue engineering. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) setting cements are of particular interest because of their excellent resorbability. We demonstrated for the first time that DCPD cement can be prepared from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) mixtures. However, subsequent characterization revealed that MCPM/HA cements rapidly convert to HA during degradation, which is undesirable and led us to choose a more conventional formulation for scaffold fabrication. In addition, we developed a novel method for calcium phosphate cement reinforcement that is based on infiltrating a pre-set cement structure with a polymer, and then crosslinking the polymer in situ. Unlike prior methods of cement reinforcement, this method can be applied to the reinforcement of 3D scaffolds fabricated by indirect casting. Using our novel method, composites of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) reinforced DCPD were prepared and demonstrated as excellent candidate scaffold materials, as they had increased strength and ductility

  2. The effect of high calcium milk and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel erosion caused by cholinated water.

    PubMed

    Vongsawan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high calcium milk and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on enamel erosion caused by chlorinated water. Thirty-six bovine enamel samples without wear or caries 3x4 mm in size were placed in acrylic blocks. All specimens were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n=12/group): CPP-ACP in the form of paste, Anlene concentrated milk and a control (no treatment). All specimens were soaked in chlorinated water (pH =5.0) at room temperature for 72 hours following by soaking in artificial saliva for 30 minutes. Then, microhardness was determined using a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test. The microhardness value change in the control group was significantly higher than the other groups. No significant differences were seen between the 2 study groups. High calcium milk and CPP-ACP enhanced remineralization of enamel erosion caused by chlorinated water.

  3. Phase composition, mechanical performance and in vitro biocompatibility of hydraulic setting calcium magnesium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Klammert, Uwe; Reuther, Tobias; Blank, Melanie; Reske, Isabelle; Barralet, Jake E; Grover, Liam M; Kübler, Alexander C; Gbureck, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    Brushite (CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O)-forming calcium phosphate cements are of great interest as bone replacement materials because they are resorbable in physiological conditions. However, their short setting times and low mechanical strengths limit broad clinical application. In this study, we showed that a significant improvement of these properties of brushite cement could be achieved by the use of magnesium-substituted beta-tricalcium phosphate with the general formula Mg(x)Ca((3-x))((PO(4))(2) with 0 < x < 3 as cement reactants. The incorporation of magnesium ions increased the setting times of cements from 2 min for a magnesium-free matrix to 8-11 min for Mg(2.25)Ca(0.75)(PO(4))(2) as reactant. At the same time, the compressive strength of set cements was doubled from 19 MPa to more than 40 MPa after 24h wet storage. Magnesium ions were not only retarding the setting reaction to brushite but were also forming newberyite (MgHPO(4) x 3H(2)O) as a second setting product. The biocompatibility of the material was investigated in vitro using the osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. A considerable increase of cell proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase, indicating an osteoblastic differentiation, could be noticed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed an obvious cell growth on the surface of the scaffolds. Analysis of the culture medium showed minor alterations of pH value within the physiological range. The concentrations of free calcium, magnesium and phosphate ions were altered markedly due to the chemical solubility of the scaffolds. We conclude that the calcium magnesium phosphate (newberyite) cements have a promising potential for their use as bone replacement material since they provide a suitable biocompatibility, an extended workability and improved mechanical performance compared with brushite cements.

  4. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO3) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO3, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca2P2O7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO3) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H3PO4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  5. Textured and hierarchically structured calcium phosphate ceramic blocks through hydrothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Galea, Laetitia; Alexeev, Dmitriy; Bohner, Marc; Doebelin, Nicola; Studart, André R; Aneziris, Christos G; Graule, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes are widely recognized for their biocompatibility and resorption characteristics in the treatment of large bone defects. However, due to their inherent brittleness, applications in load-bearing situations always require reinforcement by additional metallic implants. Improved mechanical stability would eliminate the need for non-resorbable metallic implants. In this context a new approach to obtain calcium phosphate scaffolds with improved mechanical stability by texturing the material in specific crystal orientations was evaluated. Texture and reduction of crystal size was achieved by recrystallizing α-TCP blocks into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) under hydrothermal conditions. SEM and XRD analysis revealed the formation of fine CDHA needles (diameter ≈ 0.1-0.5 μm), aligned over several hundreds of micrometers. The obtained microstructures were remarkably similar to the microstructures of the prismatic layer of mollusk shells or enamel, also showing organization at 5 hierarchical structure levels. Brazilian disc tests were used to determine the diametral tensile strength, σdts, and the work-of-fracture, WOF, of the textured materials. Hydrothermal incubation significantly increased σdts and WOF of the ceramic blocks as compared to sintered blocks. These improvements were attributed to the fine and entangled crystal structure obtained after incubation, which reduces the size of strength-determining critical defects and also leads to tortuous crack propagation. Rupture surfaces revealed intergranular tortuous crack paths, which dissipate much more energy than transgranular cracks as observed in the sintered samples. Hence, the refined and textured microstructure achieved through the proposed processing route is an effective way to improve the strength and particularly the toughness of calcium phosphate-based ceramics.

  6. Injectability of calcium phosphate pastes: Effects of particle size and state of aggregation of β-tricalcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    Torres, P M C; Gouveia, S; Olhero, S; Kaushal, A; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-07-01

    The present study discloses a systematic study about the influence of some relevant experimental variables on injectability of calcium phosphate cements. Non-reactive and reactive pastes were prepared, based on tricalcium phosphate doped with 5 mol% (Sr-TCP) that was synthesised by co-precipitation. The varied experimental parameters included: (i) the heat treatment temperature within the range of 800-1100°C; (ii) different milling extents of calcined powders; (iii) the liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR); (iv) the use of powder blends with different particle sizes (PS) and particle size distributions (PSD); (v) the partial replacement of fine powders by large spherical dense granules prepared via freeze granulation method to simulate coarse individual particles. The aim was contributing to better understanding of the effects of PS, PSD, morphology and state of aggregation of the starting powders on injectability of pastes produced thereof. Powders heat treated at 800 and 1000°C with different morphologies but with similar apparent PSD curves obtained by milling/blending originated completely injectable reactive cement pastes at low LPR. This contrasted with non-reactive systems prepared thereof under the same conditions. Hypotheses were put forward to explain why the injectability results collected upon extruding non-reactive pastes cannot be directly transposed to reactive systems. The results obtained underline the interdependent roles of the different powder features and ionic strength in the liquid media on determining the flow and injectability behaviours.

  7. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mellau, LSB; Jørgensen, RJ; Enemark, JMD

    2001-01-01

    The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies. PMID:11503370

  8. Calcium and phosphate adsorption as initial steps of apatite nucleation on sol-gel-prepared titania surface.

    PubMed

    Coreño, Juan; Martínez, Antonia; Coreño, Oscar; Bolarín, Ana; Sánchez, Félix

    2003-01-01

    Titania powders have been prepared by the sol-gel route from Ti (IV) ethoxide under acidic conditions. Adsorption experiments of calcium and phosphate ions on gel-derived titania suspensions were performed to suggest a likely initial step of apatite growth on its surface. Experiments were performed as a function of time and pH at 37 degrees C with and without NaCl present in the suspensions. Also, zeta (zeta) potential experiments were performed to determine the kind of calcium adsorption. Results suggest that, apparently, calcium and phosphate adsorption can act as two different initial steps for apatite growth.

  9. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  10. Cytocompatibility evaluation of microwave sintered biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds synthesized using pH control.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darcy E; Jones, Andrew D; Zhou, Huan; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-04-01

    Compounds belonging to the calcium phosphate (CaP) system are known to be major constituents of bone and are bioactive to different extents in vitro and in vivo. Their chemical similarity makes them prime candidates for implants and bone tissue engineering scaffolds. CaP nanoparticles of amorphous hydroxyapatite (aHA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) were synthesized using chemical precipitation. Uniaxially pressed aHA and DCPD powders were subjected to microwave radiation to promote solid state phase transformations resulting in crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic compositions: HA/TCP and TCP/calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) and their subsequent densification. Phase composition of microwave sintered compacts was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Solution pH during crystal growth was found to have a profound effect on particle morphology and post-sintered phases, despite constant sintering temperature. Cytocompatibility assessment using 7F2 cells, corresponding to adult mouse osteoblasts, on microwave and conventional, furnace sintered samples demonstrated that manufacturing method does not impact cellular viability after 24 h or proliferation over 7 days. New CaP deposition and extracellular matrix components were observed in vitro via scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Influences of the steam sterilization on the properties of calcium phosphate porous bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangfeng; Guo, Bo; Xiao, Yumei; Yuan, Tun; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    The influences of steam sterilization on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) porous bioceramics, including β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) are investigated. After being steam sterilized in an autoclave (121 °C for 40 min), the porous bioceramics are dried and characterized. The steam sterilization has no obvious effects on the phase composition, thermal stability, pH value and dissolubility of β-TCP porous bioceramic, but changes its morphology and mechanical strength. Meanwhile, the steam sterilization leads to the significant changes of the morphology, phase composition, pH value and dissolubility of BCP porous bioceramic. The increase of dissolubility and mechanical strength, the decrease of pH value of the immersed solution and partial oriented growth of crystals are also observed in HA porous bioceramic after steam sterilization. These results indicate that the steam sterilization can result in different influences on the physicochemical properties of β-TCP, BCP and HA porous bioceramics, thus the application of the steam sterilization on the three kinds of Ca-P porous bioceramics should be considered carefully based on the above changed properties.

  12. Biphasic calcium phosphates: influence of three synthesis parameters on the HA/beta-TCP ratio.

    PubMed

    Bouler, J M; LeGeros, R Z; Daculsi, G

    2000-09-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) contents measurements were conducted on eight biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) samples obtained by sintering calcium-deficient apatite formed previously by hydrolyzing a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) powder. We evaluated the influences and interactions of three synthesis factors: alkalinity, process duration, and concentration of the water suspension in DCPD. Those parameters were varied simultaneously between two limit levels. Experiments used a factorial design method (FDM) allowing optimization of the number of samples as well as statistical analysis of results. FDM showed that HA content, in a defined experimental area, can be described by a first-order polynomial equation in which the initial alcalinity and the DCPD/water ratio are the major influences. Experiment prove that pH measured at the end of the hydrolysis was predictive of the HA content in the final BCP. This study leads up to an isoresponse line diagram which will allow the synthesis of some BCP with fitted HA/beta-tricalcium phosphate ratios.

  13. Optimisation of the mechanical and handling properties of an injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, R M; Dunne, N J; Orr, J F; Buchanan, F J; Wilcox, R K; Barton, D C

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate cements have the potential to be successful in minimally invasive surgical techniques, like that of vertebroplasty, due to their ability to be injected into a specific bone cavity. These bone cements set to produce a material similar to that of the natural mineral component in bone. Due to the ceramic nature of these materials they are highly brittle and it has been found that they are difficult to inject. This study was carried out to determine the factors that have the greatest effect on the mechanical and handling properties of an apatitic calcium phosphate cement with the use of a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach. The properties of the cement were predominantly influenced by the liquid:powder ratio and weight percent of di-sodium hydrogen phosphate within the liquid phase. An optimum cement composition was hypothesised and tested. The mechanical properties of the optimised cement were within the clinical range for vertebroplasty, however, the handling properties still require improvement.

  14. Introduction of enzymatically degradable poly(trimethylene carbonate) microspheres into an injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Habraken, Wouter J E M; Zhang, Zheng; Wolke, Joop G C; Grijpma, Dirk W; Mikos, Antonios G; Feijen, Jan; Jansen, John A

    2008-06-01

    Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) is an enzymatically degradable polyester with rubber-like properties. Introduction of this polymer into an injectable calcium phosphate bone cement can therefore be used to introduce macroporosity into the cement for tissue engineering purposes as well as to improve mechanical properties. Aim of this study was to investigate calcium phosphate cements with incorporated PTMC microspheres (PTMC CPCs) on their physical/mechanical properties and in vitro degradation characteristics. Therefore, composites were tested on setting time and mechanical strength as well as subjected to phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and enzyme containing medium. PTMC CPCs (12.5 and 25 wt%) with molecular weights of 52.7 kg mol(-1) and 176.2 kg mol(-1) were prepared, which showed initial setting times similar to that of original CPC. Though compression strength decreased upon incorporation of PTMC microspheres, elastic properties were improved as strain-at-yield increased with increasing content of microspheres. Sustained degradation of the microspheres inside PTMC CPC occurred when incubated in the enzymatic environment, but not in PBS, which resulted in an interconnected macroporosity for the 25 wt% composites.

  15. Phosphoserine--a convenient compound for modification of calcium phosphate bone cement collagen composites.

    PubMed

    Reinstorf, A; Ruhnow, M; Gelinsky, M; Pompe, W; Hempel, U; Wenzel, K W; Simon, P

    2004-04-01

    Temporary bone replacement materials on the basis of calcium phosphates and hydroxyapatite (HAP) are used in surgery for filling bone defects. Components which are able to control the nucleation and crystal growth of HAP through their functional groups and which can additionally activate bone cells may be helpful in the development of materials with enhanced remodelling in vivo. In this study, the influence of O-phospho-L-serine (PS) on the materials properties of calcium phosphate bone cement composites was investigated. For up to an addition of 25 mg/g PS a strong increase in the stability of the cements under load was determined. The material was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A more dense microstructure and a plate-like morphology of the HAP-crystals were detected in the modified composites compared with the non-modified samples. By X-ray powder diffraction an inhibition of the dissolution of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and dicalciumphosphate anhydrous (DCPA) particles was found. alpha-TCP and DCPA are the main constituents of the cement precursor. The results of cell culture studies using rat calvaria osteoblasts demonstrate a good viability of the cells on the PS-modified material. Furthermore, the proliferation and differentiation were found to be enhanced on the PS-modified material.

  16. Bone growth on and resorption of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Clèries, L; Fernández-Pradas, J M; Morenza, J L

    2000-01-01

    Three different calcium phosphate coatings of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), alpha- and beta-tricalcium phosphate (alpha+beta-TCP), or amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) obtained by pulsed laser deposition on Ti-6Al-4V were incubated in a potentially osteogenic primary cell culture (rat bone marrow) in order to evaluate the amount and mode of mineralized bone matrix formation after 2 weeks with special emphasis on the type of interfacial structure that was created. Evaluation techniques included fluorescence labeling and scanning electron microscopy. The resistance to cellular resorption by osteoclasts was also studied. Bone matrix delaminated from the ACP coatings, while it remained on the HA and the alpha+beta-TCP coatings even after fracturing. A cementlike line was seen as the immediate contiguous interface with the nondegrading dense HA surface and with the surface of the remaining porous beta-TCP coating. Highly dense and crystalline HA coatings do not dissolve but are capable of establishing a strong bond with the bone matrix grown on top. Chemical and mechanical bonding were considered in this case. Cellular resorption was practically not observed on the HA coatings, but it was observed on the alpha+beta-TCP coatings. Resorption took place as dissolution that was due to the acidic microenvironment.

  17. Focus Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Characterization of Osteoclastic Resorption of Calcium Phosphate Substrates.

    PubMed

    Diez-Escudero, Anna; Espanol, Montserrat; Montufar, Edgar B; Di Pompo, Gemma; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Baldini, Nicola; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2017-02-01

    This article presents the application of dual focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) imaging for preclinical testing of calcium phosphates with osteoclast precursor cells and how this high-resolution imaging technique is able to reveal microstructural changes at a level of detail previously not possible. Calcium phosphate substrates, having similar compositions but different microstructures, were produced using low- and high-temperature processes (biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite [CDHA] and stoichiometric sintered hydroxyapatite, respectively). Human osteoclast precursor cells were cultured for 21 days before evaluating their resorptive potential on varying microstructural features. Alternative to classical morphological evaluation of osteoclasts (OC), FIB-SEM was used to observe the subjacent microstructure by transversally sectioning cells and observing both the cells and the substrates. Resorption pits, indicating OC activity, were visible on the smoother surface of high-temperature sintered hydroxyapatite. FIB-SEM analysis revealed signs of acidic degradation on the grain surface under the cells, as well as intergranular dissolution. No resorption pits were evident on the surface of the rough CDHA substrates. However, whereas no degradation was detected by FIB sections in the material underlying some of the cells, early stages of OC-mediated acidic degradation were observed under cells with more spread morphology. Collectively, these results highlight the potential of FIB to evaluate the resorptive activity of OC, even in rough, irregular, or coarse surfaces where degradation pits are otherwise difficult to visualize.

  18. Effect of intravenous calcium borogluconate and sodium phosphate in cows with parturient paresis.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Zulliger, P; Liesegang, A; Bleul, U; Hässig, M

    2009-03-07

    Thirty cows with parturient paresis were divided into three groups of 10. All the cows were given 500 ml of a 40 per cent calcium borogluconate solution intravenously over a period of 10 minutes, and 20 were also given 500 ml of a 10 per cent solution of sodium phosphate intravenously; in 10 of the cows this solution was administered over a period of 10 minutes immediately after the calcium borogluconate solution, and in the other 10 cows 200 ml of the solution was administered rapidly and the remaining 300 ml was added to 10 litres of sodium chloride and glucose solution and infused slowly over six hours. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the outcome of the treatments; six or seven of the cows in each group stood within eight hours of the treatment. There were no significant differences between the changes in serum calcium concentrations among the groups. The mean concentrations of inorganic phosphorus in the groups given sodium phosphate were increased above the normal range initially, but after eight hours there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the numbers of cows that were hypophosphataemic. There were no significant differences between the three groups with respect to changes after treatment in the serum concentrations of magnesium or parathyroid hormone.

  19. Effects of different crosslinking methods on the properties of collagen-calcium phosphate composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, J; Sionkowska, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of porous collagen/calcium phosphates (Col/CaP) composites. Collagen scaffolds with high porosity were prepared by freeze-drying technique. Col/CaP scaffold were created by new method--by deposition of calcium phosphate within collagen matrix in two steps using freeze-drying process before immersing samples in calcium solution. To find the optimal preparative method, we prepared diverse Col/CaP scaffolds using different collagen concentration and various crosslinking method: crosslinking with carbodiimide (EDC/NHS) and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT). This study explores the effect of the different crosslinking method on the properties of scaffolds, such as: microstructure (porosity and density), dissolution, water uptake, mechanical properties and collagenase degradation. The results obtained showed that crosslinking the scaffolds by either EDC/NHS or DHT have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their potential application in bone regeneration. The results demonstrated that properties of Col/CaP scaffolds changed significantly with different crosslinking method. However, while EDC/NHS increased the scaffolds' resistance to dissolution and degradation by collagenase, DHT decreased the swelling ratio and resistance to dissolution in PBS solution. Based on our study, 2% collagen concentration and EDC/NHS as crosslinking reagent are recommended to design the scaffold for use in bone engineering.

  20. The properties of biomimetically processed calcium phosphate on bioactive ceramics and their response on bone cells.

    PubMed

    Vaahtio, M; Peltola, T; Hentunen, T; Ylänen, H; Areva, S; Wolke, J; Salonen, J I

    2006-11-01

    This study looks for grounds to alter the chemical composition (phosphate, calcium, silica and carbonate), dissolution properties, structure and nanotopography of the biomimetically processed surfaces on bioactive ceramics to optimize their shown ability to influence bone cell behaviour and production of new bone. In the bone environment desirable characteristic of these materials is their ability to be remodeled by natural osteoclastic resorption. Different silica and carbonate containing calcium phosphate layers were prepared on bioactive glasses 9 (S53P4) and 1-98 (S53P2) and sol-gel processed pure silica SiO2 in C- and R-SBF (conventional and revised simulated body fluid) for varying periods of time. It was shown that in R-SBF the CaP layer formed faster compared to C-SBF. The CaP layer in the R-SBF contained more carbonate (CO3(2-)) compared to that formed with the same immersion time in C-SBF. The CaP so formed in R-SBF with faster precipitation is more amorphous than the bonelike HCA formed in C-SBF. The results indicate that the most suitable surface for both osteoblasts and osteoclasts was found to be an amorphous CaP having mesoporous nanotopography and proper dissolution rate of calcium and silica.

  1. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol and dietary calcium-phosphate on distribution of lead to tissues during growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cortina-Ramirez, G.E.; Cerbon-Solorzano, J.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2006-01-15

    The susceptibility to the toxic effects of lead (Pb) is mainly mediated by age and nutritional and hormonal status, and children are among the most vulnerable to them. During growth, an increase in calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in diet is recommended to enhance calcium and phosphate intestinal absorption and bone deposit. Calcium and phosphate reduce lead intestinal absorption, and 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) (active metabolite of vitamin D) increases both lead and calcium intestinal absorption. However, the effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on lead bone deposit and redistribution to soft tissues are not well known. In this study, we examined the effects of calcium-phosphate diet supplementation and the administration of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on Pb distribution to soft tissue and bone in growing rats exposed to Pb. Rats (21 days old) were exposed for 28 days to 100 ppm of Pb solution in drinking water. Calcium and phosphate in diet were increased from 1 to 2.5% and from 0.65 to 1.8%, respectively, and 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} was administrated by intraperitoneal injection of 7.2 ng/kg every 7 days. Between 21 and 49 days, the body weight increased about 5 times. The results showed that high calcium-phosphate diet led to lower Pb concentration in blood and in bone, but Pb liver and kidney concentrations increased, which indicates that absorption and bone deposit redistribution of Pb decreased. On the other hand, no effect of this diet rich in calcium-phosphate in Pb concentration was observed in brain. Blood and bone Pb concentrations increased even more when the high calcium-phosphate diet included 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. In the rats treated only with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, blood and bone Pb concentrations were lower. Higher concentrations of lead in the soft organs were observed also in rats treated under a high calcium-phosphate diet plus 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} administration. The above mentioned results suggested that 1,25(OH

  2. The protective effect of supplemental calcium on colonic permeability depends on a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Marloes A A; ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M; Schonewille, Arjan J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2012-04-01

    An increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diseases. Previously, we have shown that dietary Ca decreases colonic permeability in rats. This might be explained by a calcium-phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity, which protects against an acidic pH due to microbial fermentation. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary phosphate is a co-player in the effect of Ca on permeability. Rats were fed a humanised low-Ca diet, or a similar diet supplemented with Ca and containing either high, medium or low phosphate concentrations. Chromium-EDTA was added as an inert dietary intestinal permeability marker. After dietary adaptation, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) were added to all diets to stimulate fermentation, acidify the colonic contents and induce an increase in permeability. Dietary Ca prevented the scFOS-induced increase in intestinal permeability in rats fed medium- and high-phosphate diets but not in those fed the low-phosphate diet. This was associated with higher faecal water cytotoxicity and higher caecal lactate levels in the latter group. Moreover, food intake and body weight during scFOS supplementation were adversely affected by the low-phosphate diet. Importantly, luminal buffering capacity was higher in rats fed the medium- and high-phosphate diets compared with those fed the low-phosphate diet. The protective effect of dietary Ca on intestinal permeability is impaired if dietary phosphate is low. This is associated with a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity. Dragging phosphate into the colon and thereby increasing the colonic phosphate concentration is at least part of the mechanism behind the protective effect of Ca on intestinal permeability.

  3. Effect of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium orthophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassi, Mohammad Daoud; Zhao, Wei; Tan, Wen Feng

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route. The synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate and hydroxylapatite (HAp), respectively. Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are effective on the reduction of carbonate activity during the crystallization of HAp. - Highlights: • Formation of different complexes from CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Ca{sup 2+} solutions at 60 °C. • Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2} cause changes in phase and size of synthesized products. • Addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3} inhibited the activity of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} during bound with Ca{sup 2+}. • The phase transformation was completed, when CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappeared in FTIR. • PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and Ca{sup 2+} distributed heterogeneously on the surface of precipitation. - Abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been synthesized by a designed hydrothermal method. Effects of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium-orthophosphates were investigated. With X-ray diffraction measurement the synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate at pH 9.0, and hydroxylapatite (HAp) at pH 8.0, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of product at the high ratio (1.8) of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} shows that the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappear, and the strong peaks at 1412 and 1460 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the vibrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in HAp. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of products at the low (0.15–0.6) to the high (1.2–1.8) ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are obtained at 2.9 and 2.7 ppm, respectively. Molar ratios of PO

  4. Characterization of cytolytic neutrophil activation in vitro by amorphous hydrated calcium phosphate as a model of biomaterial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Felicity C; Taheri, Amir; Dann, Sophie C; Dye, Julian F

    2011-03-01

    Calcium ions are utilized in biomolecular biomaterial design for osteomimetic scaffolds and as divalent cross-linking agents, typically for gelation of alginates, stabilisation of protein structure (e.g., fibrinogen) and enzyme activation (e.g., thrombin). Biological interactions with defined calcium phosphates (e.g., hydroxyapatite) are exploited for osteogenesis, although crystalline calcium phosphates (e.g., calcium pyrophosphate) stimulate inflammation. We found that the calcium concentration used in the manufacture of prototype dermal scaffolds made from fibrin/alginate composite was related to the inflammatory infiltration during in vivo integration. In investigating a cause for this inflammatory response, we have identified and characterized a cytolytic inflammatory effect of amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP) formed in physiological solutions, relevant to biomaterial biocompatibility. Isolated human neutrophils (Nφ) were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline with CaCl(2) ranging 2.5-20 mM total calcium. Nφ activation was assessed by morphology and integrin-β2 (CD18a) expression. Mediator release (Nφ-elastase, IL-8, and TNFα) was measured from both Nφ and whole blood cultures plus CaCl(2). CaP exposure increased CD18a expression over 1 h (maximal at 10 mM calcium/ phosphate) with concurrent phagocytosis, cytolysis, and Nφ-elastase release. CaCl(2) induced expression of IL-8 and TNFα in whole blood cultures. These results suggest that CaP formed from the resorption of calcium-containing biomaterials could induce inflammation and accelerate biomaterial degradation, driving further CaP release. This demonstrates a novel mechanism for biomaterial-induced inflammation. The in vitro system described could aid preclinical evaluation of novel biomaterial inflammatory potential.

  5. Effects of phosphates on shellfish and on calcium carbonate crystallization in vitro. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, K.M.

    1986-07-17

    It has been known that inorganic phosphate inhibits the precipitation of calcium carbonate in artificial sea water. This work addresses the question of whether phosphate also affects the deposition of CaCO/sub 3/ in the exoskeletons of invertebrates. Tetrasodiumpyrophosphate and pentasodiumtripolyphosphate in concentrations of 15 ppM caused abnormality, mortality, and inhibition of shell deposition in trochophore larvae of the oyster Crassostrea. Inhibition of shell growth resulting from pollution at 15 ppM could be expected in Rangia with orthophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodiumtripolyphosphate, in Helisoma with tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and pentasodium tripolyphosphate, and in larvae of Crassostea the relative inhibitory action of shell growth was tetrasodiumpyrophosphate > sodiumtripolyphosphate > sodium orthophosphate greater than or equal to sodium hexametaphosphate. 4 refs.

  6. Mechanisms for the removal of calcium phosphate deposits in turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, F.; Grant, C.S.; Saez, A.E.

    2000-04-01

    This work investigates the mechanisms for the removal of calcium phosphate deposits from stainless steel tubing in turbulent flows. Two types of deposits were analyzed: brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) and a mixture of DCPD/hydroxyapatite (HAP). Cleaning studies were carried out at pHs ranging from 2.85 to 10. The data were analyzed by means of a mathematical model that incorporates the effects of interfacial dissolution and mass transfer. The results show that the HAP/DCPD cleaning rate is influenced both by the kinetics of the interfacial dissolution and by mass transfer. Within the same range of experimental conditions, the rate-limiting mechanism for DCPD removal was the abrasion of the solid by shear stresses. In this case, the interfacial dissolution process plays the role of decreasing the structural integrity of the deposit. These findings show that the removal mechanism of the HAP/DCPD mixture differs significantly from the behavior of individual components.

  7. Microwave assisted synthesis & properties of nano HA-TCP biphasic calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghomash Pasand, E.; Nemati, A.; Solati-Hashjin, M.; Arzani, K.; Farzadi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) nanopowders were synthesized by using microwave and non-microwave irradiation assisted processes. The synthesized powders were pressed under a pressure of 90 MPa, and then were sintered at 1000-1200°C for 1 h. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated. The formed phases and microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the synthesis time was shorter, along with a more homogeneous microstructure, when the microwave irradiation assisted method was applied. The compression strength and the Young's modulus of the samples synthesized with microwave irradiation were about 60 MPa and 3 GPa, but those of the samples synthesized without microwave irradiation were about 30 MPa and 2 GPa, respectively. XRD patterns of the microwave irradiation assisted and non-microwave irradiation assisted nanopowders showed the coexistence of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phases in the system.

  8. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    PubMed

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts.

  9. Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Gelatin-PEG and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Thuy Duong; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Nguyen, Dai Hai; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Phuong Thi

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have recently attracted much attention for tissue regeneration because of their biocompatibility. In this study, we introduce poly-ethylene glycol (PEG)—grafted gelatin containing tyramine moieties which have been utilized for in situ enzyme-mediated hydrogel preparation. The hydrogel can be used to load nanoparticles of biphasic calcium phosphate, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, and forming injectable bio-composites. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra indicated that tyramine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-nitrophenyl carbonate ester was conjugated to the gelatin. The hydrogel composite was rapidly formed in situ (within a few seconds) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. In vitro experiments with bio-mineralization on the hydrogel composite surfaces was well-observed after 2 weeks soaking in simulated body fluid solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be a potential injectable material for bone regeneration.

  10. The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    PubMed Central

    Hung, I-Ming; Shih, Wei-Jen; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA) still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4) as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO4)2, α-TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO4)2O, TTCP), when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV) of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D.)) and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively. PMID:23202968

  11. Calcium phosphate/microgel composites for 3D powderbed printing of ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Mandy-Nicole; Agrawal, Garima; Bergmann, Christian; Schröder, Ricarda; Lechner, Sebastian J; Pich, Andrij; Fischer, Horst

    2016-06-01

    Composites of microgels and calcium phosphates are promising as drug delivery systems and basic components for bone substitute implants. In this study, we synthesized novel composite materials consisting of pure β-tricalcium phosphate and stimuli-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate-co-vinylimidazole) microgels. The chemical composition, thermal properties and morphology for obtained composites were extensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, IGAsorp moisture sorption analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, granulometric analysis, ESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and TEM. Mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by ball-on-three-balls test to determine the biaxial strength. Furthermore, initial 3D powderbed-based printing tests were conducted with spray-dried composites and diluted 2-propanol as a binder to evaluate a new binding concept for β-tricalcium phosphate-based granulates. The printed ceramic bodies were characterized before and after a sintering step by ESEM. The hypothesis that the microgels act as polymer adhesive agents by efficient chemical interactions with the β-tricalcium phosphate particles was confirmed. The obtained composites can be used for the development of new scaffolds.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Ag-containing calcium phosphates with various Ca/P ratios.

    PubMed

    Gokcekaya, Ozkan; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Ergun, Celaletdin

    2015-08-01

    Ag-containing calcium phosphate (CaP) powders were synthesized by a precipitation method using aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate, silver nitrate, and ammonium phosphate. The powders were sintered at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1473 K. The charged atomic ratios of (Ca+Ag)/P and Ag/(Ca+Ag) in solution were varied from 1.33 to 1.67 and from 0 to 0.30, respectively. The Ag content in the as-precipitated CaP powders increased with the charged Ag/(Ca+Ag) atomic ratio in solution and was lower than the charged Ag/(Ca+Ag) value. The as-precipitated CaP powders consisted of hydroxyapatite (HA) as the main phase. Ag nanoparticles were observed on the as-precipitated HA particles under all conditions of Ag addition. After the sintering, HA, β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), α-TCP, and β-CPP (calcium pyrophosphate) were mainly detected as CaPs on the basis of the Ca/P atomic ratio of the as-precipitated powders. The addition of Ag stabilized the β-TCP phase, and the distribution of Ag in β-TCP was homogeneous. A metallic Ag phase coexisted with HA. The solubility of Ag in HA was estimated to be 0.0019-0.0061 (Ag/(Ca+Ag)) atomic ratio, which was lower than that in β-TCP (higher than 0.0536) and higher than that of β-CPP (below the detection limit of analyses).

  13. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Miguel; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Pires, Inês; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-03-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials.

  14. Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Calcium and phosphate ion-releasing resin composites are promising for remineralization. However, there has been no report on incorporating antibacterial agents to these composites. The objective of this study was to develop antibacterial and mechanically-strong nanocomposites incorporating a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). Methods The QADM, bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (ionic dimethacrylate-1), was synthesized from 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate. Ng was synthesized by dissolving Ag 2-ethylhexanoate salt in 2-(tertbutylamino)ethyl methacrylate. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure with bars of 2×2×25 mm (n = 6). Composite disks (diameter = 9 mm, thickness = 2 mm) were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured (n = 6). Two commercial composites were used as controls. Results Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP+QADM, NACP+NAg, and NACP+QADM+NAg matched those of commercial composites with no antibacterial property (p > 0.1). The NACP+QADM+NAg composite decreased the titer counts of adherent S. mutans biofilms by an order of magnitude, compared to the commercial composites (p < 0.05). The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM+NAg composite were much less than those on commercial composites (p < 0.05). Combining QADM and NAg rendered the nanocomposite more strongly antibacterial than either agent alone (p < 0.05). Significance QADM and NAg were incorporated into calcium phosphate composite for the first time. NACP+QADM+NAg was strongly-antibacterial and greatly reduced the titer counts, metabolic activity, and acid production of S. mutans biofilms, while possessing mechanical properties similar to commercial composites. These nanocomposites are promising to have

  15. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid.

  16. Effect of amorphous calcium phosphate and silver nanocomposites on dental plaque microcosm biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Xu, Sarah M.; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    A dental composite containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP) was developed that released calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) ions and possessed acid-neutralization capability. There has been little study on incorporation of antibacterial agents into calcium phosphate composites. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticle (NAg) mass fraction in NACP nanocomposite on mechanical properties and dental plaque microcosm biofilm for the first time. NACP nanoparticles of 116 nm were synthesized via a spray-drying technique. NAg nanoparticles were synthesized using Ag 2-ethylhexanoate and 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate, yielding NAg of particle size of 2.7 nm that were well-dispersed in the resin. Five NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with NAg mass fractions of 0, 0.028, 0.042, 0.088, and 0.175%, respectively. Mechanical properties of NACP nanocomposites containing 0–0.042% of NAg matched those of a commercial composite without antibacterial activity. Live/dead assay of dental plaque microcosm biofilms showed complete coverage with live bacteria on commercial composite. However, there were increasingly more dead bacteria with higher NAg content in the NACP nanocomposite. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts for total microorganisms, total Streptococci, and mutans Streptococci for NACP nanocomposite with 0.042% NAg were about 1/4 those of commercial composite. Lactic acid production on NACP nanocomposite with 0.042% NAg was 1/3 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel NACP–NAg nanocomposites were developed which possessed good mechanical properties and potent antibacterial properties, with substantially reduced biofilm viability and lactic acid production. Hence, the NACP–NAg nanocomposites are promising for dental restorations with remineralizing and antibacterial capabilities. PMID:22566464

  17. Biologic Potential of Calcium Phosphate Biopowders Produced via Decomposition Combustion Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, N; King, K B; Ayers, R

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the biologic potential of calcium phosphate (CaP) biopowders produced with a novel reaction synthesis system. Decomposition combustion synthesis (DCS) is a modified combustion synthesis method capable of producing CaP powders for use in bone tissue engineering applications. During DCS, the stoichiometric ratio of reactant salt to fuel was adjusted to alter product chemistry and morphology. In vitro testing methods were utilized to determine the effects of controlling product composition on cytotoxicity, proliferation, biocompatibility and biomineralization. In vitro, human fetal osteoblasts (ATCC, CRL-11372) cultured with CaP powder displayed a flattened morphology, and uniformly encompassed the CaP particulates. Matrix vesicles containing calcium and phosphorous budded from the osteoblast cells. CaP powders produced via DCS are a source of biologically active, synthetic, bone graft substitute materials.

  18. Porcine gelatin microsphere/calcium phosphate cement composites: an in vitro degradation study.

    PubMed

    Habraken, Wouter J E M; Wolke, Joop G C; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A

    2009-11-01

    Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering preferably should be mechanically stable, osteoconductive, biodegradable and porous. To comply with these characteristics, calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) with porcine (type A) gelatin microspheres were formulated. In this experiment, in vitro degradation of 10 wt % gelatin type A microsphere CPCs (GELA CPCs) was followed for 12 weeks in proteolytic medium. Results showed a gradual decrease in mass, compression strength and E-modulus. Morphology investigation showed that degradation of the spheres started at the surface of the composite and gradually proceeded to the inner part. Overall, porcine gelatin microspheres can be used to generate in situ macroporosity into an injectable CPC.

  19. Hydroxyapatite forming ability of electrostatic spray pyrolysis derived calcium phosphate nano powder.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Seog; Jeon, Kyung-Ok; Jeon, Young-Sun; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2007-04-01

    A novel fabrication technique, i.e., electrostatic spray pyrolysis (ESP), has been used in this study to prepare calcium phosphate nano powders. Final annealing was done at 400 degrees C for 30 min in air. The hydroxyapatite-forming ability of the annealed powder has been investigated in Eagle's minimum essential medium solution. X-ray diffracton, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope were employed to characterize the annealed powders after immersion. The powder with an amorphous structure induced hydroxyapatite formation on their surfaces after immersion for 15 days.

  20. Microstructure of yttric calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings synthesized by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Diangang; Chen, Chuanzhong; Ma, Jie; Lei, Tingquan

    2007-02-01

    The yttric calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were in situ prepared on pure titanium substrate by laser cladding. The morphologies and phases constitution of CaP coatings were studied by electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and so on. The bonding state between the coating and the substrate is fine metallurgical combination, and the addition of yttria can fine the structure and increase the tensile strength of the coatings. The X-ray result shows that the coating is composed of the phases of HA, α-Ca 2P 2O 7, β-Ca 2P 2O 7 and CaTiO 3.

  1. Formation and properties of biocoatings based on wollastonite and calcium phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Sedelnikova, M. B. Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Komarova, E. G. Tolkacheva, T. V.

    2015-10-27

    Wollastonite-calcium phosphate coatings were produced on titanium substrates by micro-arc oxidation method. There presented the study of influence of oxidation voltage, process duration and pulse duration on properties of the coatings such as thickness, surface morphology and surface roughness. The morphology and phase composition of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. It was found that biocoatings with large amount of wollastonite particles were deposited under minimum oxidation voltage of 130–150 V. The structural elements with a spherical or plate-like shape were formed on the coating surface depending on micro-arc oxidation parameters.

  2. Development of a novel fluorapatite-forming calcium phosphate cement with calcium silicate: in vitro and in vivo characteristics.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Hayashi, Makoto; Yasukawa, Takuya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Makino, Kosuke; Hirano, Yoriyuki; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to develop a novel fluorapatite-forming calcium phosphate cement (FA-CPC) with tricalcium silicate (TCS) for endodontic applications and to examine its in vitro and in vivo characteristics. The FA-CPC powder consisted of 62.8% CaHPO4, 30.8% CaCO3, and 6.4% NaF. One part of TCS was combined with 9 parts of FA-CPC powder (FA-CPC with TCS). A 1.5 M phosphate solution was used as cement liquid. Setting time (ST), diametral tensile strength (DTS), phase composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and cement alkalinity were analyzed. Cement biocompatibility was assessed using rat subcutaneous model. Cement ST was 10.3±0.6 min and DTS was 3.89±0.76 MPa. XRD patterns showed that highly crystalline apatitic material was the only significant phase present and pH value was approximate 11.0. FA-CPC with TCS demonstrated similar biocompatibility as that of mineral trioxide aggregate control. These results suggest that FA-CPC with TCS may be useful for endodontic applications.

  3. Calcium Phosphate Crystals from Uremic Serum Promote Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaorong; Zhang, Lin; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi; Fang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Recent study demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals isolated from high phosphate medium were a key contributor to arterial calcification. The present study further investigated the effects of CaP crystals induced by uremic serum on calcification of human aortic smooth muscle cells. This may provide a new insight for the development of uremic cardiovascular calcification. We tested the effects of uremic serum or normal serum on cell calcification. Calcification was visualized by staining and calcium deposition quantified. Expression of various bone-calcifying genes was detected by real-time PCR, and protein levels were quantified by western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Pyrophosphate was used to investigate the effects of CaP crystals' inhibition. Finally, CaP crystals were separated from uremic serum to determine its specific pro-calcification effects. Uremic serum incubation resulted in progressively increased calcification staining and increased calcium deposition in HASMCs after 4, 8 and 12 days (P vs 0 day <0.001 for all). Compared to cells incubated in control serum, uremic serum significantly induced the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic factor-2, osteopontin and RUNX2, and increased their protein levels as well (P < 0.05 for all). Inhibition of CaP crystals with pyrophosphate incubation prevented calcium deposition and bone-calcifying gene over-expression increased by uremic serum. CaP crystals, rather than the rest of uremic serum, were responsible for these effects. Uremic serum accelerates arterial calcification by mediating osteogenic differentiation. This effect might be mainly attributed to the CaP crystal content.

  4. Purification and characterization of a rabbit salivary protein, a potent inhibitor of crystal growth of calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Bernstein, A; Hay, D I; Blum, M; Bennick, A

    1991-01-01

    Human saliva is supersaturated with respect to basic calcium phosphate salts but is stabilized by specific macromolecules that inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation. One of the families of inhibitory proteins in human and monkey saliva is the acidic proline-rich proteins. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize inhibitors of calcium phosphate precipitation from rabbit parotid saliva. Saliva was fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Individual fractions were assayed for their ability to inhibit calcium phosphate crystal growth and the fraction associated with the inhibition was purified by repeated anion exchange chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis and electroelution. A major (APRP) and two minor proteins (AM1, AM2) that were inhibitory were purified. APRP is an acidic proline-rich phospho-glycoprotein and a very potent inhibitor of secondary crystal growth of calcium phosphate as it was active at a concentration of 2 x 10(-8) M in a standard assay. The N-terminal sequence of one APRP was EYENLDGSLAATQNDDD?Q and a clostripain fragment of APRP had the following N-terminal sequence PQHRPPRPGGH-????SPPP?GN???PPP. Although the N-terminal segment of APRP does not resemble that of proline-rich proteins, alignment of the clostripain fragment with the repeat region of such proteins from rat, mouse, monkey and man revealed a high degree of similarity, indicating a structural relationship with the proline-rich protein family.

  5. BS-SEM evaluation of the tissular interactions between cortical bone and calcium-phosphate covered titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, M C; Franch, J; Carvalho, P; Belmonte, A M; Tusell, J; Franch, B; Fernandez, J M; Clèries, L; Morenza, J L

    2001-01-01

    The improvement of the reliability of the contact between the osseous tissues and the implant materials has been tested by recovering the metallic implants with ceramic materials, usually calcium phosphates. In our study, the calcium phosphate recovering layers were deposited by means of a pulsed-laser deposition technique. Our aim was to to evaluate the tissue interactions established between cortical bone and titanium implants covered by five different layers, ranging from amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite, obtained by altering the parameters of the laser ablation process. The surgical protocol of the study consisted in the simultaneous implantation of the five types of implants in both the tibial dyaphisis of three Beagle dogs, sacrificed respectively one, two and three months after the last surgical procedures. After the sacrifice, the samples were submitted to a scheduled procedure of embedding in plastic polymers without prior decalcification, in order to perform the ultrastructural studies: scanning microscopy with secondary and backscattered electrons (BS-SEM). Our observations show that both in terms of the calcified tissues appearing as a response to the presence of the different coatings and of time of recovering, the implants coated with crystalline calcium phosphate layers by laser ablation present a better result than the amorphous-calcium-phosphate-coated implants. Moreover, the constant presence of chondroid tissue, related with the mechanical induction by forces applied on the recovering area, strongly suggests that the mechanisms implied in osteointegration are related to endomembranous, rather than endochondral ossification processes.

  6. VS-501: a novel, nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, highly effective phosphate binder derived from natural plant polymer

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-wu; Gaffin, Robert; Hall, Andy; Wong, Jonathan T; Xiong, Joseph; Wessale, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate control of serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease can lead to pathologies of clinical importance. Effectiveness of on-market phosphate binders is limited by safety concerns and low compliance due to high pill size/burden and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. VS-501 is a nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, chemically modified, plant-derived polymer. In vitro studies show that VS-501 has a high density and a low swell volume when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (vs. sevelamer). When male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats on normal diet were treated with VS-501 or sevelamer, serum phosphate was not significantly altered, but urinary phosphate levels decreased by >90%. VS-501 had no effect on serum calcium (Ca) or urinary Ca, while 3% sevelamer significantly increased serum and urine Ca. In 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) uremic SD rats on high-phosphate diet, increasing dietary phosphate led to an increase in serum and urine phosphate, which was prevented in rats treated with VS-501 or sevelamer (0.2–5% in food). High-phosphate diet also increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and parathyroid hormone in 5/6 NX rats that was prevented by VS-501 or sevelamer. VS-501 or sevelamer increased fecal phosphate in a dose-dependent manner. More aortic calcification was observed in 5/6 NX rats treated with 5% sevelamer, while VS-501 and sevelamer did not show significant effects on cardiac parameters, fibrosis, intestine histology, and intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter gene expression. These results suggest that VS-501 is effective in binding phosphate with no effects on calcium homeostasis, and may have improved pill burden and GI side effects. PMID:25197556

  7. Elucidating the individual effects of calcium and phosphate ions on hMSCs by using composite materials.

    PubMed

    Danoux, Charlène B S S; Bassett, David C; Othman, Ziryan; Rodrigues, Ana I; Reis, Rui L; Barralet, Jake E; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    The biological performance of bone graft substitutes based on calcium phosphate bioceramics is dependent on a number of properties including chemical composition, porosity and surface micro- and nanoscale structure. However, in contemporary bioceramics these properties are interlinked, therefore making it difficult to investigate the individual effects of each property on cell behavior. In this study we have attempted to investigate the effects of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions independent from one another by preparing composite materials with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymeric matrix and calcium carbonate or sodium phosphate salts as fillers. Clinically relevant bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on these composites and proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization were investigated with time and were compared to plain PLA control particles. In parallel, cells were also cultured on conventional cell culture plates in media supplemented with calcium or inorganic phosphate to study the effect of these ions independent of the 3D environment created by the particles. Calcium was shown to increase proliferation of cells, whereas both calcium and phosphate positively affected alkaline phosphatase enzyme production. QPCR analysis revealed positive effects of calcium and of inorganic phosphate on the expression of osteogenic markers, in particular bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin. Higher levels of mineralization were also observed upon exposure to either ion. Effects were similar for cells cultured on composite materials and those cultured in supplemented media, although ion concentrations in the composite cultures were lower. The approach presented here may be a valuable tool for studying the individual effects of a variety of soluble compounds, including bioinorganics, without interference from other material properties.

  8. Effects of phosphates on microstructure and bioactivity of micro-arc oxidized calcium phosphate coatings on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Zhao, T G

    2013-09-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were prepared on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate (CH3COO)2Ca·H2O) and different phosphates (i.e. disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·H2O) and sodium hexametaphosphate((NaPO3)6)). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the microstructure, elemental distribution and phase composition of the CaP coatings. Simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test was used to evaluate the coating bioactivity and degradability. Systemic toxicity test was used to evaluate the coating biocompatibility. Fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure F(-) ions concentration during 30 days SBF immersion. The CaP coatings effectively reduced the corrosion rate and the surfaces of CaP coatings were covered by a new layer formed of numerous needle-like and scale-like apatites. The formation of these calcium phosphate apatites indicates that the coatings have excellent bioactivity. The coatings formed in (NaPO3)6-containging electrolyte exhibit thicker thickness, higher adhesive strength, slower degradation rate, better apatite-inducing ability and biocompatibility.

  9. Structural, morphological and surface characteristics of two types of octacalcium phosphate-derived fluoride-containing apatitic calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, Y; Anada, T; Yamazaki, H; Honda, Y; Morimoto, S; Sasaki, K; Suzuki, O

    2012-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been reported to stimulate bone regeneration during hydrolysis into hydroxyapatite (HA). The present study was designed to characterize structural, morphological and surface properties of fluoride-containing apatitic calcium phosphates (CaP) obtained through OCP hydrolysis or direct precipitation of OCP in the presence of 12-230ppm of fluoride (F). The products were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as measurements of surface area, solubility, osteoblastic activities and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption. XRD analysis re-confirmed that both preparations yielded more apatitic CaP with a higher concentration of F. However, the co-precipitated products (CF-CaP) maintained the properties of OCP, in particular the solubility, whereas the hydrolysis products (HF-CaP) had the characteristics of fluoridated apatite. The crystals of plate-like OCP were changed to the crystals of rod-like CF-CaP and small irregular HF-CaP with the advance of the hydrolysis. The SAED analysis detected both OCP and apatite crystals even in the most hydrolyzed CF-CaP. Mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells grew better on CF-CaP compared with HF-CaP. BSA adsorption was inhibited on HF-CaP more than on CF-CaP. These results show that OCP produces physicochemically distinct apatitic fluoridated CaP during hydrolysis, regarding the structure, the crystal morphology and the protein adsorption, depending on the fluoride introduction route, which provides biologically interesting material.

  10. Bioactive calcium sulfate/magnesium phosphate cement for bone substitute applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangyong; Liu, Jianli; Li, Fan; Pan, Zongyou; Ni, Xiao; Shen, Yue; Xu, Huazi; Huang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    A novel calcium sulfate/magnesium phosphate cement (CSMPC) composite was prepared and studied in the present work. The physical properties including the phases, the microstructures, the setting properties and the compressive strengths of the CSMPCs were studied. The bio-performances of the CSMPCs were comprehensively evaluated using in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) method and in vitro cell culture. The dependence of the physical and chemical properties of the CSMPC on its composition and microstructure was studied in detail. It is found that the CSMPC composites exhibited mediate setting times (6-12 min) compared to the calcium sulfate (CS) and the magnesium phosphate cement (MPC). They showed an encapsulation structure in which the unconverted hexagonal prism CSH particles were embedded in the xerogel-like MPC matrix. The phase compositions and the mechanical properties of the CSMPCs were closely related to the content of MPC and the hardening process. The CSMPCs exhibited excellent bioactivity and good biocompatibility to support the cells to attach and proliferate on the surface. The CSMPC composite has the potential to serve as bone grafts for the bone regeneration.

  11. Chapter 9: Model Systems for Formation and Dissolution of Calcium Phosphate Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, C A; Giocondi, J L

    2006-07-29

    Calcium phosphates are the mineral component of bones and teeth. As such there is great interest in understanding the physical mechanisms that underlie their growth, dissolution, and phase stability. Control is often achieved at the cellular level by the manipulation of solution states and the use of crystal growth modulators such as peptides or other organic molecules. This chapter begins with a discussion of solution speciation in body fluids and relates this to important crystal growth parameters such as the supersaturation, pH, ionic strength and the ratio of calcium to phosphate activities. We then discuss the use of scanning probe microscopy as a tool to measure surface kinetics of mineral surfaces evolving in simplified solutions. The two primary themes that we will touch on are the use of microenvironments that temporally evolve the solution state to control growth and dissolution; and the use of various growth modifiers that interact with the solution species or with mineral surfaces to shift growth away from the lowest energy facetted forms. The study of synthetic minerals in simplified solution lays the foundation for understand mineralization process in more complex environments found in the body.

  12. Cytocompatibility of porous biphasic calcium phosphate granules with human mesenchymal cells by a multiparametric assay.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Fabio; Alves, Gutemberg; Fernandes, Gustavo; König, Bruno; Rossi, Alexandre J R; Granjeiro, Jose

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the cytocompatibility of injectable and moldable restorative biomaterials based on granules of dense or porous biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) with human primary mesenchymal cells, in order to validate them as tools for stem cell-induced bone regeneration. Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA/beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (60:40) granules were obtained by the addition of wax spheres and pressing at 20 MPa, while dense materials were compacted by pressing at 100 MPa, followed by thermal treatment (1100°C), grinding, and sieving. Extracts were prepared by 24-h incubation of granules on culture media, with subsequent exposition of human primary mesenchymal cells. Three different cell viability parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the granules revealed distinct dense and porous surfaces. After cell exposition to extracts, no significant differences on mitochondrial activity (2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenly)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide) or cell density (Crystal Violet Dye Elution) were observed among groups. However, Neutral Red assay revealed that dense materials extracts induced lower levels of total viable cells to porous HA/β-TCP (P < 0.01). Calcium ion content was also significantly lower on the extracts of dense samples. Porogenic treatments on BCP composites do not affect cytocompatibility, as measured by three different parameters, indicating that these ceramics are well suited for further studies on future bioengineering applications.

  13. Reduction in dentin permeability using a slurry containing dicalcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Aishuan Maria; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence

    2006-08-01

    Treatments that obdurate dentin tubules have been used for reducing dentin hypersensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a treatment with a slurry of micron sized calcium phosphate on the hydraulic conductance (L(p)) of etched dentin discs in vitro. The treatment slurry was prepared by mixing a powder mixture of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and calcium hydroxide with a solution that contained sodium fluoride and carboxymethyl cellulose. The mean baseline L(p) (in mL cm(-2) s(-1) H(2)O cm(-1)) was 2.07 +/- 1.45 (mean +/- SD; n = 13)). After one treatment and 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation in a protein-free saliva-like solution (SLS), the mean relative L(p), presented as % of baseline, were 65 +/- 16, 42 +/- 27, 36 +/- 26, and 33 +/- 27 (n = 13), respectively. The L(p) values of the baseline and treatment after incubation in the SLS were significantly (p < 0.05) different. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed partial obturation of dentin tubules in the treated dentin. X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses indicated the major product formed from the slurry was a fluoride-containing hydroxyapatite. Treatment appeared effective in further reducing L(p) of dentin discs after incubation in the SLS.

  14. Rechargeable calcium phosphate orthodontic cement with sustained ion release and re-release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-11-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) due to enamel demineralization are major complications for orthodontic treatments. Calcium phosphate (CaP) dental resins with Ca and P ion releases are promising for remineralization. However, previous Ca and P releases lasted for only weeks. Experimental orthodontic cements were developed using pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at mass ratio of 1:1 (PE); and PE plus 10% of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 5% of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) (PEHB). Particles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were incorporated into PE and PEHB at 40% filler level. Specimens were tested for bracket-enamel shear bond strength, water sorption, CaP release, and ion recharge and re-release. PEHB+40ACP had higher bracket-enamel bond strength and ion release and rechargeability than PE+40ACP. ACP incorporation into the novel orthodontic cement did not adversely affect the bracket-enamel bond strength. Ion release and re-release from the novel ACP orthodontic cement indicated favorable release and re-release patterns. The recharged orthodontic cement could release CaP ions continuously for four weeks without further recharge. Novel rechargeable orthodontic cement containing ACP was developed with a high bracket-enamel bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly recharged to maintain long-term high levels of CaP ion releases.

  15. Rechargeable calcium phosphate orthodontic cement with sustained ion release and re-release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) due to enamel demineralization are major complications for orthodontic treatments. Calcium phosphate (CaP) dental resins with Ca and P ion releases are promising for remineralization. However, previous Ca and P releases lasted for only weeks. Experimental orthodontic cements were developed using pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at mass ratio of 1:1 (PE); and PE plus 10% of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 5% of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) (PEHB). Particles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were incorporated into PE and PEHB at 40% filler level. Specimens were tested for bracket-enamel shear bond strength, water sorption, CaP release, and ion recharge and re-release. PEHB+40ACP had higher bracket-enamel bond strength and ion release and rechargeability than PE+40ACP. ACP incorporation into the novel orthodontic cement did not adversely affect the bracket-enamel bond strength. Ion release and re-release from the novel ACP orthodontic cement indicated favorable release and re-release patterns. The recharged orthodontic cement could release CaP ions continuously for four weeks without further recharge. Novel rechargeable orthodontic cement containing ACP was developed with a high bracket-enamel bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly recharged to maintain long-term high levels of CaP ion releases. PMID:27808251

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein Smads signaling in mesenchymal stem cells affected by osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhurong; Wang, Zhe; Qing, Fangzhu; Ni, Yilu; Fan, Yujiang; Tan, Yanfei; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control (culture plate) for up to 14 days to detect the signal molecules which might be affected by the CaP ceramics. Without adding osteogenic factors, MSCs cultured on HA and BCP both expressed higher Runx2, Osterix, collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin at various stages compared with control, thus confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. Later study demonstrated the messenger RNA level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 were also significantly enhanced by HA and BCP. Furthermore, Smad1, 4, 5, and Dlx5, the main molecules in the BMP/Smads signaling pathway, were upregulated by HA and BCP. Moreover, the higher expression of Smads and BMP2, 4 in BCP over HA, corresponded to the better performance of BCP in stimulating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. This was in accordance with the better osteoinductivity of BCP over HA in vivo. Altogether, these results implied that the CaP ceramics may initiate the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by influencing the expression of molecules in BMP/Smads pathway.

  17. Preparation, Physical-Chemical Characterization, and Cytocompatibility of Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Cements

    PubMed Central

    Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R.; Missimer, David M.; Rutherford, Ronny L.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5–12 min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications. PMID:21941551

  18. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Rapid Synthesis of Calcium Phosphates: Structural Control and Application in Protein Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhu-Yun; Peng, Fan; Zi, Yun-Peng; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5), while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7) and weak alkali (pH 9) condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.

  19. Biomaterial Co-Cr-Mo Alloys Nano Coating Calcium Phosphate Orthopedic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, N.; Inwati, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Man

    2014-08-01

    The modem study a thermal martensitic transformation of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys and ultimately offers large elongation to failure while maintaining high strength. In the future study, structural evolution and dislocation slip as an elementary process in the martensitic transformation in Co-Cr-Mo alloys were investigated to reveal the origin of their enhanced phase stability due to nitrogen addition and coating of calcium phosphate specimens with and without nitrogen addition were prepared. The N-doped alloys had a single-phase matrix, whereas the N-free alloys had a duplex microstructure. Irrespective of the nitrogen content, dislocations frequently dissociated into Shockley partial dislocations with stacking faults. The Nano range coating of calcium phosphate function as obstacles to the glide of partial dislocations and consequently significantly affect the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. As a result, the formation of marten site plays a crucial role in plastic deformation and wear behavior, the developed nanostructures modification associated with nitrogen addition must be a promising strategy for highly durable orthopedic implants.

  20. Calcium phosphate glasses: silanation process and effect on the bioactivity behavior of glass-PMMA composites.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Lizette Morejón; García-Menocal, José Ángel Delgado; Aymerich, Mariona Tarragó; Guichard, Julio Ándrés Álvarez; García-Vallés, Maite; Manent, Salvador Martínez; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2014-02-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the efficiency of silanation process of calcium phosphate glasses particles and its effect on the bioactivity behavior of glass- poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites. Two different calcium phosphate glasses: 44.5CaO-44.5P2 O5 -11Na2 O (BV11) and 44.5CaO-44.5P2 O5 -6Na2 O-5TiO2 (G5) were synthesized and treated with silane coupling agent. The glasses obtained were characterized by Microprobe and BET while the efficiency of silanation process was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal Analysis (DTA and TG) techniques. The content of coupling agent chemically tightly bond to the silanated glasses ascended to 1.69 ± 0.02 wt % for BV11sil glass and 0.93 ± 0.01 wt % for G5sil glass. The in vitro bioactivity test carried out in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) revealed certain bioactive performance with the use of both silanated glasses in a 30% (by weight) as filler of the PMMA composites because of a superficial deposition of an apatite-like layer with low content of CO3 (2-) and HPO4 (2-) in its structure after soaking for 30 days occurred.

  1. Analgesic properties of calcium phosphate apatite loaded with bupivacaine on postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Verron, Elise; Gauthier, Olivier; Janvier, Pascal; Le Guen, Herve; Holopherne, Delphine; Cavagna, Remi; Bouler, Jean-Michel

    2010-07-01

    Synthetic calcium-deficient apatites (CDA) are structurally similar to biological apatites and are well known as chemical precursors of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP). BCP are mixtures of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate and are widely used as bone substitutes in human surgery. Bupivacaine, a local anesthetic, has been loaded onto CDA using isostatic compaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of such a local release on pain after having previously defined the in vitro release profile of bupivacaine. CDA was loaded with 1%, 4%, and 16% of bupivacaine using an isostatic compaction process. In vitro release profile assays performed indicated the complete release of bupivacaine after 24 h. Wistar male rats received 50 mg implants of CDA associated, respectively, with 0, 1%, 4%, and 16% of bupivacaine into the distal femur. Analgesia was measured using the electronic version of the Von Frey monofilament test, assessing the inflammatory response and a neurological score. During the first postoperative days, a dose-dependent analgesic effect was observed with the bupivacaine adsorbed on the resorbable implant. This combined device system thus appears to release local anesthetic in a manner that prevents or limits postoperative pain following bone surgery. This innovative approach could be integrated into a global pain management program, for example, in the context of bone harvesting where bone reconstruction is required.

  2. Biomimetic nanoparticles with polynucleotide and PEG mixed-monolayers enhance calcium phosphate mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Kayla B.; McHugh, Sean M.; Dapsis, Katherine J.; Petty, Alexander R.; Gerdon, Aren E.

    2013-09-01

    Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is of significant importance in biomedical applications such as bone and dental repair, and biomimetic control of mineral formation may lead to more effective restorative procedures. Gold nanoparticles are functional scaffolds on which to assemble multi-component monolayers capable of mimicking protein activity in the templated synthesis of calcium phosphate. The goal of this research was to explore nanoparticle templates with mixed-monolayers of uncharged polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules and highly charged polynucleotide and amino acid molecules in their ability to influence mineralization rates and mineral particle size and morphology. This research demonstrates through time-resolved optical density and dynamic light scattering measurements that the combination of tiopronin, PEG, and DNA presented on a nanoparticle surface decreases nanoparticle aggregation from 59 to 21 nm solvated radius, increases mineralization kinetics from 1.5 × 10-3 to 3.1 × 10-3 OD/min, and decreases mineral particle size from 685 to 442 nm average radius. FT-IR and TEM data demonstrate that mineralized material, while initially amorphous, transforms to a semi-crystalline material when guided by template interactions. This demonstrates that surface-tailored monolayer protected cluster scaffolds are successful and controllable mineralization templates with further potential for biomedical applications involving calcium phosphate and other biomaterials.

  3. Controlling the strontium-doping in calcium phosphate microcapsules through yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miaojun; Li, Tianjie; Pan, Ting; Zhao, Naru; Yao, Yongchang; Zhai, Zhichen; Zhou, Jiaan; Du, Chang; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-10-01

    Yeast cells have controllable biosorption on metallic ions during metabolism. However, few studies were dedicated to using yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization process to control the strontium-doped positions in calcium phosphate microcapsules. In this study, the yeast cells were allowed to pre-adsorb strontium ions metabolically and then served as sacrificing template for the precipitation and calcination of mineral shell. The pre-adsorption enabled the microorganism to enrich of strontium ions into the inner part of the microcapsules, which ensured a slow-release profile of the trace element from the microcapsule. The co-culture with human marrow stromal cells showed that gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase and Collagen-I were promoted. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed in the 3D culture of cell-material complexes. The strategy using living microorganism as 'smart doping apparatus' to control incorporation of trace element into calcium phosphate paved a pathway to new functional materials for hard tissue regeneration.

  4. Investigation of duty cycle effect on corrosion properties of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Azem, Funda Ak; Delice, Tulay Koc; Ungan, Guler; Cakir, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    The bioceramic calcium phosphate (CaP) is frequently used for improving bone fixation in titanium medical implants and thus increasing lifetime of the implant. It is known that the application of CaP coatings on metallic implant devices offers the possibility of combining the strength of the metals and the bioactivity of the ceramic materials. Many different techniques are available for producing CaP coatings. Electrochemical deposition method is widely used because of its ease of operation parameters, low temperature requirement, reproducibility and suitability for coating complex structures. This technique allows obtaining CaP coatings which promote bone in growth during the first healing period leading to permanent fixation. Electrochemical pulse technique is an alternative to calcium phosphate deposition techniques usually employed to cover orthopedic or dental titanium implant surfaces. Additionally, pulse electrodeposition technique can produce more uniform and denser CaP coatings on metallic implants. In this study, CaP based coatings were produced by electrochemical pulse technique on Ti6Al4V substrates. The resulting CaP deposits were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion properties of the CaP coatings were also investigated. The results showed that various duty cycle ranges have remarkably effect on morphology, crystallinity and corrosion properties of the produced CaP coatings.

  5. Morphological modifications of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings under amino acids effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevet, R.; Lemelle, A.; Untereiner, V.; Manfait, M.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Benhayoune, H.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by pulsed electrodeposition. This work aims to observe the morphological modifications of the coating when an amino acid is added to the electrolytic solution used in the process. The effects of two amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) are studied at a low and a high concentration. The coating morphology is observed at a nanometer scale by field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The structural characterization of the coating is performed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, corrosion measurements of the prosthetic surfaces are carried out by potentiodynamic polarization experiments in a physiological solution named Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). The results show that the addition of an amino acid to the electrolytic solution leads to the decrease of the size of the crystallites which compose the prosthetic calcium phosphate coating that becomes denser and less porous than the coatings obtained without amino acid. Consequently, the corrosion behavior of the prosthetic material immersed in DMEM is improved.

  6. Mesoporous calcium phosphate bionanomaterials with controlled morphology by an energy‐efficient microwave method

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Philip James Thomas; Huang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcium phosphate nanomaterials with controllable morphology and mesostructure were synthesized via a rapid and energy efficient microwave method. An increase in aspect ratio from nanoplates to nanorods was achieved by increasing the solvent chain length, accompanied by a subsequent about 23% increase in surface area and porosity. Control of mesoporosity was also achieved by varying the synthesis time and quantity of H2O in the reaction solvent. Comparative studies were carried out using conventional heating (CON) and room temperature co‐precipitation (RT) methods. It was found that microwave synthesis produces nanomaterials with about 50% higher yields, 7.5/1.7 times higher surface area and 3/5 times higher pore volume than RT/CON materials respectively, as well as having a lower distribution of particle size/shape (lower standard deviation values of their dimensions). Furthermore, in vitro protein loading tests of microwave synthesized mesoporous calcium phosphate materials showed an enhanced loading efficiency of bovine serum albumin (3–7 times), as compared with non‐mesostructured products from room temperature precipitation, in accordance with their larger surface area and porosity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3781–3789, 2015. PMID:26014443

  7. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications.

  8. Clinical efficacy evaluation of calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate on surface-enamel smoothness and gloss.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Carlos A; Stephens, Joni A; Proskin, Howard M; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2004-09-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effectiveness of a fluoride dentifrice containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate for improving surface-enamel smoothness and gloss relative to a commercially available fluoride and silica-containing dentifrice. Balancing for baseline surface-enamel roughness and gloss, 113 healthy adult volunteers who met the inclusion criterion for daily acidic drink consumption were randomized to receive 1 of the 2 products. Subjects brushed their teeth using the assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for 1 minute twice daily for 3 months. Surface-enamel roughness and gloss were evaluated at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of brushing twice daily. Within-treatment comparisons showed longitudinal improvement by the test dentifrice in tooth-surface roughness and gloss at the 1-month and 3-month examinations. After 3 months of use, the test dentifrice exhibited a highly significant improvement in gloss (23.4%, P < .0001) and surface roughness (13.7%, P < .0001) over baseline. The control dentifrice showed no significant improvement longitudinally in either parameter. Between-group comparisons adjusted for baseline demonstrated a significantly (P < .0001) greater improvement in tooth-surface roughness and gloss for the test dentifrice. The results indicate that the fluoride dentifrice containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate is effective in improving tooth-surface smoothness and gloss with regular use.

  9. Inflammatory cytokine response to titanium chemical composition and nanoscale calcium phosphate surface modification.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Stephen; Ivanovski, Saso

    2011-05-01

    Nanoscale surface modification of titanium dental implants with calcium phosphate (CaP) has been shown to achieve superior bone wound healing and osseointegration compared with smooth or microrough titanium surfaces alone. As bone healing has been shown to be influenced by the action of cytokines, this study examined whether changes in cytokine gene expression from RAW 264.7 cells cultured on commercially pure and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) microrough or nanoscale crystalline CaP-modified surfaces, may influence downstream events in bone wound healing and osseointegration. Whilst no significant difference in the attachment or proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells was observed, the nanoscale CaP-modified surface elicited a gene expression profile with marked down-regulation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression was further influenced by chemical composition, with lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers noted following exposure of the macrophage-like cells to titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) compared with the commercially pure titanium surface. Down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (confirmed at the protein level for TNFα and CCL5), may thus facilitate the enhanced bone wound healing and osseointegration observed clinically with nanoscale calcium phosphate-modified implant surfaces.

  10. Effects of Calcium Phosphate Nanocrystals on Osseointegration of Titanium Implant in Irradiated Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun Yuan; Pow, Edmond Ho Nang; Kwong, Dora Lai Wan; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy may compromise the integration of implant and cause implant loss. Implant surface modifications have the possibility of promoting cell attachment, cell growth, and bone formation which ultimately enhance the osseointegration process. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of calcium phosphate nanocrystals on implant osseointegration in irradiated bone. Sixteen rabbits were randomly assigned into control and nano-CaP groups, receiving implants with dual acid-etched surface or dual acid-etched surface discretely deposited of nanoscale calcium-phosphate crystals, respectively. The left leg of all the rabbits received 15 Gy radiation, followed by implants placement one week after. Four animals in each group were sacrificed after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Implant stability quotient (ISQ), ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV), bone growth rate, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) were evaluated. The nano-CaP group showed significantly higher ISQ (week 12, P = 0.031) and bone growth rate (week 6, P = 0.021; week 9, P = 0.001) than that in control group. No significant differences in BV/TV and BIC were found between two groups. Titanium implant surface modified with CaP nanocrystals provides a potential alternative to improve bone healing around implant in irradiated bone. PMID:25685809

  11. Unusual effect of water vapor pressure on dehydration of dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Aditya M; Vangala, Venu R; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2011-04-01

    Dibasic calcium phosphate occurs as an anhydrate (DCPA; CaHPO₄) and as a dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO₄•2H₂O). Our objective was to investigate the unusual behavior of these phases. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate was dehydrated in a (i) differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in different pan configurations; (ii) variable-temperature X-ray diffractometer (XRD) at atmospheric and under reduced pressure, and in sealed capillaries; and (iii) water vapor sorption analyzer at varying temperature and humidity conditions. Dehydration was complete by 210°C in an open DSC pan and under atmospheric pressure in the XRD. Unlike "conventional" hydrates, the dehydration of DCPD was facilitated in the presence of water vapor. Variable-temperature XRD in a sealed capillary and DSC in a hermetic pan with pinhole caused complete dehydration by 100°C and 140°C, respectively. Under reduced pressure, conversion to the anhydrate was incomplete even at 300°C. The increase in dehydration rate with increase in water vapor pressure has been explained by the Smith-Topley effect. Under "dry" conditions, a coating of poorly crystalline product is believed to form on the surface of particles and act as a barrier to further dehydration. However, in the presence of water vapor, recrystallization occurs, creating cracks and channels and facilitating continued dehydration.

  12. An ultrasonic through-transmission technique for monitoring the setting of injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Rajzer, Izabella; Piekarczyk, Wojciech; Castaño, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    An ultrasound through-transmission method to monitor the setting process of injectable calcium phosphate bone cements in body fluids is presented. This method can be used to determine the acoustic properties of the bone cement as it sets, which are linked to its material properties and provide some information about changes occurring within the cement. The development of the methodology of ultrasonic testing and execution of velocity measurements of the longitudinal and transverse waves using the through-transmission method made it possible to determine the material constants of samples during the setting and hardening process of an injectable cement paste in physiological fluids (i.e. the Young's modulus (E), the Poisson ratio (ν) and the shear modulus (G)), and to determine the degree of anisotropy of wave velocity in the samples. A strong advantage of the proposed method is that it is non-destructive, and the same sample can be used to monitor the whole process of the cement setting. The testing was performed on premixed and injectable calcium phosphate (CPC)/chitosan blend, where glycerol was used as a liquid phase. Comparisons between ultrasonic velocity and empirical tests such as compressive strength, porosity measurement, FTIR, SEM and XRD analysis at different days of immersion in Ringer's solutions showed that the ultrasonic velocity can be very useful to provide in situ information about changes occurring within the cement.

  13. O-phospho-L-serine: a modulator of bone healing in calcium-phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lux, Romy; Proff, Peter; Lauer, Günter; Pradel, Winnie; Leonhardt, Henry; Reinstorf, Antje; Gelinsky, Michael; Jung, Roland; Eckelt, Uwe; Gedrange, Tomasz; Stadlinger, Bernd

    2008-10-01

    Bone substitution materials are seen as an alternative to autogenous bone transplants in the reconstruction of human bone structures. The aim of the present animal study was to evaluate the clinical handling and the conditions of bone healing after the application of a phosphoserine and collagen-I-modified calcium-phosphate cement (Biozement D). The application of phosphoserine is supposed to influence the texture of the extracellular matrix. Standardised bone defects were created in the lower jaw of 10 adult minipigs. These defects were reconstructed with a pasty calcium-phosphate cement mixture. After a healing time of 4 months, the animals were sacrificed. The mandibles of all animals were resected and non-decalcified histological sections of the areas of interest were prepared. The experiment was evaluated by means of qualitative histology and histomorphometry. The hydroxyapatite cement entirely hardened intraoperatively. Modelling and handling of the cement was facile and the margin fit to the host bone was excellent. Histology showed that resorption started in the periphery and proceeded exceptionally fast. The bony substitution, especially in phosphoserine-endowed cements, was very promising. After a healing period of 4 months, phosphoserine cements showed a bone regeneration of nearly two-thirds of the defect sizes. In the applied animal experiment, the newly developed hydroxyapatite collagen-I cement is well suited for bone substitution due to its easy handling, its excellent integration and good resorption characteristics. The addition of phosphoserine is very promising in terms of influencing resorption features and bone regeneration.

  14. Design and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Liisa T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our goal is to review design strategies for the fabrication of calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds (CPS), in light of their transient role in bone tissue engineering and associated requirements for effective bone regeneration. Methods We examine the various design options available to meet mechanical and biological requirements of CPS and later focus on the importance of proper characterization of CPS in terms of architecture, mechanical properties and time-sensitive properties such as biodegradability. Finally, relationships between in vitro vs. in vivo testing are addressed, with an attempt to highlight reliable performance predictors. Results A combinatory design strategy should be used with CPS taking into consideration 3D architecture, adequate surface chemistry and topography, all of which are needed to promote bone formation. CPS represent the media of choice for delivery of osteogenic factors and anti-infectives. Non-osteoblast mediated mineral deposition can confound in vitro osteogenesis testing of CPS and therefore the expression of a variety of proteins or genes including collagen type I, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin should be confirmed in addition to increased mineral content. Conclusions CPS are a superior scaffold material for bone regeneration because they actively promote osteogenesis. Biodegradability of CPS via calcium and phosphate release represents a unique asset. Structural control of CPS at the macro, micro and nanoscale and their combination with cells and polymeric materials is likely to lead to significant developments in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26423007

  15. Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Based Bioactive Polymeric Composites for Mineralized Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Skrtic, D.; Antonucci, J. M.; Eanes, E. D.

    2003-01-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), a postulated precursor in the formation of biological hydroxyapatite, has been evaluated as a filler phase in bioactive polymeric composites that utilize dental monomers to form the matrix phase on polymerization. In addition to excellent biocompatibility, these composites provided sustained release of calcium and phosphate ions into simulated saliva milieus. In an effort to enhance the physicochemical and mechanical properties and extend the utility of remineralizing ACP composites to a greater variety of dental applications, we have focused on: a) hybridizing ACP by introducing silica and/or zirconia, b) assessing the efficacy of potential coupling agents, c) investigating the effects of chemical structure and compositional variation of the resin matrices on the mechanical strength and ion-releasing properties of the composites, and d) improving the intrinsic adhesiveness of composites by using bifunctional monomers with an affinity for tooth structure in resin formulations. Si- and Zr-modified ACPs along with several monomer systems are found useful in formulating composites with improved mechanical and remineralizing properties. Structure-property studies have proven helpful in advancing our understanding of the remineralizing behavior of these bioactive composites. It is expected that this knowledge base will direct future research and lead to clinically valuable products, especially therapeutic materials appropriate for the healing or even regeneration of defective teeth and bone structures. PMID:27413603

  16. Amorphous calcium phosphate/urethane methacrylate resin composites. I. Physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Regnault, William F; Icenogle, Tonya B; Antonucci, Joseph M; Skrtic, Drago

    2008-02-01

    Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), an oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) extended UDMA (PEG-U) and a blend of UDMA/PEG-U were chosen as model systems for introducing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments and a range of compliances in their derived polymers. Experimental composites based on these three resins with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as the filler phase were polymerized and evaluated for mechanical strength and ion release profiles in different aqueous media. Strength of all composites decreased upon immersion in saline (pH = 7.4). Both polymer matrix composition and the pH of the liquid environment strongly affected the ion release kinetics. In saline, the UDMA/PEG-U composite showed a sustained release for at least 350 h. The initially high ion release of the PEG-U composites decreased after 72 h, seemingly due to the mineral re-deposition at the composite surface. Internal conversion from ACP to poorly crystallized apatite could be observed by X-ray diffraction. In various lactic acid (LA) environments (initial pH = 5.1) ion release kinetics was much more complex. In LA medium without thymol and/or carboxymethylcellulose, as a result of unfavorable changes in the internal calcium/phosphate ion stoichiometry, the ion release rate greatly increased but without observable conversion of ACP to apatite.

  17. Biomimetic calcium phosphate crystal mineralization on electrospun cellulose-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Katia; Renneckar, Scott; Gatenholm, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Novel cellulose based-scaffolds were studied for their ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate crystals for future bone healing applications. Cellulose-based scaffolds were produced by electrospinning cellulose acetate (CA) dissolved in a mixture of acetone/dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The resulting nonwoven CA mats containing fibrils with diameters in the range of 200 nm to 1.5 μm were saponified by NaOH/ethanol for varying times to produce regenerated cellulose scaffolds. Biomimetic crystal growth nucleated from the fiber surface was studied as a function of surface chemistry. Regenerated cellulose scaffolds of varying treatments were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Scaffolds that were treated with CaCl(2), a mixture of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and CaCl(2), and NaOH and CaCl(2), were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy to understand the growth of bioactive calcium phosphate (Ca-P) crystals as a function of surface treatment. The crystal structure of the nucleated Ca-P crystals had a diffraction pattern similar to that of hydroxyapatite, the mineralized component of bone. The study shows that the scaffold surface chemistry can be manipulated, providing numerous routes to engineer cellulosic substrates for the requirements of scaffolding.

  18. Juvenile osteopetrosis: effects on blood and bone of prednisone and a low calcium, high phosphate diet.

    PubMed Central

    Dorantes, L M; Mejia, A M; Dorantes, S

    1986-01-01

    Four children with juvenile osteopetrosis are described who were treated with a combination of prednisone and a low calcium, high phosphate diet. One of the children, treated as a neonate, achieved complete clinical and radiological remission from the disease after nine months, at which point treatment was stopped. There have been no signs of recurrence for two years. Two who did not start treatment until over 24 months of age have shown a good clinical and radiological response but have remained on treatment for six years. The fourth child started treatment at 6 months and showed a good clinical response, but x ray films showed no change nine months later. He was then lost to follow up, stopped treatment, and died two years later of a septicaemia. These patients provide further evidence for the efficacy of steroids in juvenile osteopetrosis, and the combination with the low calcium, high phosphate diet described offers a potentially effective alternative treatment to marrow transplantation, both for the haematological and skeletal complications of the disorder. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3740906

  19. Compressive fatigue properties of an acidic calcium phosphate cement-effect of phase composition.

    PubMed

    Ajaxon, Ingrid; Öhman Mägi, Caroline; Persson, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are synthetic bone grafting materials that can be used in fracture stabilization and to fill bone voids after, e.g., bone tumour excision. Currently there are several calcium phosphate-based formulations available, but their use is partly limited by a lack of knowledge of their mechanical properties, in particular their resistance to mechanical loading over longer periods of time. Furthermore, depending on, e.g., setting conditions, the end product of acidic CPCs may be mainly brushite or monetite, which have been found to behave differently under quasi-static loading. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the compressive fatigue properties of acidic CPCs, as well as the effect of phase composition on these properties. Hence, brushite cements stored for different lengths of time and with different amounts of monetite were investigated under quasi-static and dynamic compression. Both storage and brushite-to-monetite phase transformation was found to have a pronounced effect both on quasi-static compressive strength and fatigue performance of the cements, whereby a substantial phase transformation gave rise to a lower mechanical resistance. The brushite cements investigated in this study had the potential to survive 5 million cycles at a maximum compressive stress of 13 MPa. Given the limited amount of published data on fatigue properties of CPCs, this study provides an important insight into the compressive fatigue behaviour of such materials.

  20. Multiscale osteointegration as a new paradigm for the design of calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lan Levengood, Sheeny K; Polak, Samantha J; Wheeler, Matthew B; Maki, Aaron J; Clark, Sherrie G; Jamison, Russell D; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2010-05-01

    The role of macropore size (>100 microm) and geometry in synthetic scaffolds for bone regeneration has been studied extensively, but successful translation to the clinic has been slow. Significantly less attention has been given to porosity at the microscale (0.5-10 microm). While some have shown that microporosity in calcium phosphate (CaP)-based scaffolds can improve rate and extent of bone formation in macropores, none has explored microporosity as an additional and important space for bone ingrowth. Here we show osteointegration of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds at both the macro and micro length scales. Bone, osteoid, and osteogenic cells fill micropores in scaffold rods and osteocytes are embedded in mineralized matrix in micropores, without the addition of growth factors. This work further highlights the importance of considering design parameters at the microscale and demonstrates the possibility for a bone-scaffold composite with no "dead space." Embedded osteocytes distributed throughout microporous rods may form a mechanosensory network, which would not be possible in scaffolds without microporosity. Multiscale osteointegration has the potential to greatly improve overall performance of these scaffolds through an improvement of mechanical properties, load transfer, and stability in the long and short term, and represents a new paradigm for scaffold design.

  1. Uptake of the proteins HTRA1 and HTRA2 by cells mediated by calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rotan, Olga; Severin, Katharina N; Pöpsel, Simon; Peetsch, Alexander; Merdanovic, Melisa; Ehrmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The efficient intracellular delivery of (bio)molecules into living cells remains a challenge in biomedicine. Many biomolecules and synthetic drugs are not able to cross the cell membrane, which is a problem if an intracellular mode of action is desired, for example, with a nuclear receptor. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles can serve as carriers for small and large biomolecules as well as for synthetic compounds. The nanoparticles were prepared and colloidally stabilized with either polyethyleneimine (PEI; cationic nanoparticles) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; anionic nanoparticles) and loaded with defined amounts of the fluorescently labelled proteins HTRA1, HTRA2, and BSA. The nanoparticles were purified by ultracentrifugation and characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Various cell types (HeLa, MG-63, THP-1, and hMSC) were incubated with fluorescently labelled proteins alone or with protein-loaded cationic and anionic nanoparticles. The cellular uptake was followed by light and fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and flow cytometry. All proteins were readily transported into the cells by cationic calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Notably, only HTRA1 was able to penetrate the cell membrane of MG-63 cells in dissolved form. However, the application of endocytosis inhibitors revealed that the uptake pathway was different for dissolved HTRA1 and HTRA1-loaded nanoparticles. PMID:28326227

  2. Controlling the strontium-doping in calcium phosphate microcapsules through yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Miaojun; Li, Tianjie; Pan, Ting; Zhao, Naru; Yao, Yongchang; Zhai, Zhichen; Zhou, Jiaan; Du, Chang; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells have controllable biosorption on metallic ions during metabolism. However, few studies were dedicated to using yeast-regulated biomimetic mineralization process to control the strontium-doped positions in calcium phosphate microcapsules. In this study, the yeast cells were allowed to pre-adsorb strontium ions metabolically and then served as sacrificing template for the precipitation and calcination of mineral shell. The pre-adsorption enabled the microorganism to enrich of strontium ions into the inner part of the microcapsules, which ensured a slow-release profile of the trace element from the microcapsule. The co-culture with human marrow stromal cells showed that gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase and Collagen-I were promoted. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed in the 3D culture of cell-material complexes. The strategy using living microorganism as ‘smart doping apparatus’ to control incorporation of trace element into calcium phosphate paved a pathway to new functional materials for hard tissue regeneration. PMID:27699057

  3. Effect of substrate temperature on mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Travis L; Bai, Xiao; Narayan, Roger; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2008-04-01

    The effect of substrate temperature and processing parameters on mechanical properties of nanoscale calcium phosphate coatings are being studied in order to refine the processing technique for Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite (FGHA) coatings. Coatings were deposited on titanium substrates with a set substrate temperature of 450, 550, 650, or 750 degrees C in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system using a sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) target. Mechanical properties of the coatings deposited with a set substrate temperature such as, bonding/adhesion strength to the substrate, nanohardness, and Young's Modulus as well as coating thickness were evaluated and compared with commercial plasma spray HA coatings. It is concluded that depositing FGHA coatings would better be started at 550-650 degrees C to maintain superior properties of the film at the interface. It can also be concluded that the residual stresses caused by different Coefficient of Thermal Expansions (CTEs) between the substrate and coatings are not the only factor controlling the bonding strength and mechanical properties of these samples. Other parameters such as the nature of the interface layers and their bonding to each other as well as the density and grain structure of the coatings must be taken into consideration for an appropriate evaluation of mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings deposited on heated substrate.

  4. Dry mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatites from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium oxide: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    El Briak-BenAbdeslam, Hassane; Mochales, Carolina; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Nurit, Josiane; Planell, Josep A; Boudeville, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have been used successfully as synthetic bone substitutes in orthopedics, dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery. One way of preparing these ceramics is the sintering of a calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), which can be obtained in different ways. Mechanochemistry is one possible means of synthesizing CDHA, with an expected molar calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) ratio +/- 0.005. The grinding can be carried out under dry or wet conditions. To optimize the experimental conditions of CDHA preparation by dry mechanosynthesis and for a better understanding of the DCPD/CaO mechanochemical reaction, we performed a kinetic study in which some of the experimental parameters were varied. Carried out with two different vertical rotating ball mills, this kinetic study showed that (1) experiments are reproducible and give as a final product a hydroxyapatite powder, formed of nano-sized crystals of around 20 nm, with a controlled Ca/P ratio; (2) the time for complete disappearance of DCPD and the time for complete reaction are in direct proportion to the mass of the ground powder; but (3) the time for complete disappearance of DCPD is independent of the Ca/P ratio while the time for complete reaction increases exponentially with the Ca/P ratio; and (4) the time for complete disappearance of DCPD corresponds to the time for complete reaction solely for Ca/P = 1.5. These observations suggest a reaction mechanism in two well differentiated stages: (First stage) CaO reacts with DCPD to give first an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with a low Ca/P ratio that transforms into CDHA when its Ca/P ratio reaches 1.5. At the same time, CaO is hydrated into Ca(OH)(2) by the water produced by the reaction. (Second stage) If the Ca/P > 1.5 in the initial mixture, the excess Ca(OH)(2) is added to CDHA 1.5 by reacting with the HPO(4) group of CDHA until its Ca/P ratio reaches the expected value. The slower the reaction, the higher the Ca/P in the initial mixture.

  5. Hierarchically microporous/macroporous scaffold of magnesium-calcium phosphate for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Jia, Junfeng; Wu, Fan; Wei, Shicheng; Zhou, Huanjun; Zhang, Hongbo; Shin, Jung-Woog; Liu, Changsheng

    2010-02-01

    Hierarchically 3D microporous/macroporous magnesium-calcium phosphate (micro/ma-MCP) scaffolds containing magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate [NH(4)MgPO(4).6H(2)O] and hydroxyapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)] were fabricated from cement utilizing leaching method in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) particles and NaCl saturated water solution. NaCl particles produced macroporosity, and NaCl solution acted as both cement liquid and porogens, inducing the formation of microporosity. The micro/ma-MCP scaffolds with porosities varied from 52 to 78% showed well interconnected and open macropores with the sizes of 400-500 microm, and degradation of the scaffolds was significantly enhanced in Tris-HCl solution compared with macroporous MCP (ma-MCP) and corresponding calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds. Cell attachment and proliferation of MG(63) on micro/ma-MCP were significantly better than ma-MCP and CPC scaffolds because of the presence of microporosity, which enhanced the surface area of the scaffolds. Moreover, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the MG(63) cells on micro/ma-MCP was significantly higher than ma-MCP and CPC scaffolds at 7 days, and the MG(63) cells with normal phenotype spread well and formed confluent layers across the macroporous walls of the micro/ma-MCP scaffolds. Histological evaluation confirmed that the micro/ma-MCP scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration, and exhibited excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and faster and more effective osteogenesis in vivo.

  6. The size of surface microstructures as an osteogenic factor in calcium phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Luo, Xiaoman; Barbieri, Davide; Barradas, Ana M C; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Yuan, Huipin

    2014-07-01

    The microporosity of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics has been shown to have an essential role in osteoinduction by CaP ceramics after ectopic implantation. Here we show that it is not the microporosity but the size of surface microstructural features that is the most likely osteogenic factor. Two tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics, namely TCP-S and TCP-B, were fabricated with equivalent chemistry and similar microporosity but different sizes of surface microstructural features. TCP-S has a grain size of 0.99 ± 0.20 μm and a micropore size of 0.65 ± 0.25 μm, while TCP-B displays a grain size of 3.08 ± 0.52 μm and a micropore size of 1.58 ± 0.65 μm. In vitro, both cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were significantly enhanced when human bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on TCP-S without any osteogenic growth factors, compared to TCP-B ceramic granules. The possible involvement of direct contact between cells and the TCP ceramic surface in osteogenic differentiation is also shown with a trans-well culture model. When the ceramic granules were implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks, abundant bone was formed in TCP-S (21 ± 10% bone in the available space), whereas no bone was formed in any of the TCP-B implants. The current in vitro and in vivo data reveal that the readily controllable cue, i.e. the size of the surface microstructure, could be sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, ultimately leading to ectopic bone formation in calcium phosphate ceramics.

  7. Effect of adding sodium hexametaphosphate liquefier on basic properties of calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S; Zamanian, A; Moztarzadeh, F

    2009-02-01

    Sodium hexametaphosphate (Na-HMP) is a common liquefying agent widely used in the ceramics industry for modifying the rheological behavior of ceramic slurries. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Na-HMP on several properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). Various types of CPCs were prepared by mixing the same powder, namely, a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrate, with various liquids, namely, distilled water, Na(2)HPO(4) solutions, and Na-HMP solutions. The setting time, mechanical strength, rheological properties, and injectability of the cement pastes were examined in this work. Also, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed for phase analysis and morphological evaluations, respectively. The results showed that, compared to CPCs made with water and Na(2)HPO(4) solutions, the CPC pastes made with Na-HMP solutions had improved stability and injectability but prolonged setting times. The XRD and SEM studies showed that Na-HMP inhibited the growth of apatite crystals during soaking of the cements in Ringer's solution. Thus, the CPC made with Na-HMP solution had lower compressive strength than those made with water or Na(2)HPO(4) solutions. Although Na-HMP could improve the injectability and stability of the CPC paste, it impaired other basic properties of the cement. Thus, it is not an appropriate liquefier additive.

  8. In situ synthesis of magnesium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Hyeong-Shin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Mg–BCP were successfully prepared through in situ aqueous co-precipitation method. ► The amount of β-TCP phase was changed with the magnesium substitution level. ► The substitution of magnesium led to a decrease in the unit cell volume. ► Mg–BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface faster than BCP. -- Abstract: In situ preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca + Mg)/P ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized magnesium substituted BCP powders. The results have shown that substitution of magnesium in the calcium deficient apatites revealed the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/β-TCP ratios after heating at 1000 °C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. After immersing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 1 wt% magnesium substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution.

  9. In vitro evaluation of dentinal hydraulic conductance and tubule sealing by a novel calcium-phosphate desensitizer.

    PubMed

    Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji

    2013-02-01

    In the current trend of materials used for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, calcium-phosphate-containing desensitizers are expected to have advantages in oral environment. A newly formulated desensitizer containing tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CPD-100) was evaluated in comparison to oxalate containing desensitizer (SS) regarding permeability reduction (PR%) by measuring hydraulic conductance on the etched dentin discs in vitro. CPD-100 exhibited mean PR% of 91%, which significantly increased to 98% after immersion in artificial saliva (AS) for 4 weeks (p < 0.001), while SS showed a significant decrease from 99% to 93% (p < 0.01). SEM observation showed newly formed crystallites on CPD-100 treated dentin, which did not exist in SS treated dentin after AS immersion, suggesting that calcium oxalate inhibited formation of new calcium-phosphate minerals. Five-minute acid challenge did not significantly affect PR% of dentin treated by any of the desensitizers. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicated that the formed layer of CPD-100 were minerals with similar Ca/P ratio to hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the newly developed calcium-phosphate desensitizer has the potential to exhibit long-term stability in the oral environment, owing to its chemical properties that promote the crystal growth in salivary fluid.

  10. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group. PMID:26681848

  11. Vincristine-sulphate-loaded liposome-templated calcium phosphate nanoshell as potential tumor-targeting delivery system.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Hetal Paresh; Baser, Amit Kumar; Parmar, Mayur Prakashbhai; Patel, Ketul Harshadbhai; Ramachandra Murthy, Rayasa

    2012-06-01

    Vincristine-sulfate-loaded liposomes were prepared with an aim to improve stability, reduce drug leakage during systemic circulation, and increase intracellular uptake. Liposomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method, followed by coating with calcium phosphate, using the sequential addition approach. Prepared formulations were characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-entrapment efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug-release profile, and in vitro cell cytotoxicity study. Effect of formulation variables, such as drug:lipid ratio as well as nature and volume of hydration media, were found to affect drug entrapment, and the concentration of calcium chloride in coating was found to affect size and coating efficiency. Size, zeta potential, and TEM images confirmed that the liposomes were effectively coated with calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate nanoshell exhibited pH-dependent drug release, showing significantly lower release at pH 7.4, compared to the release at pH 4.5, which is the pH of the tumor interstitium. The in vitro cytotoxicity study done on the lung cancer cell line indicated that coated liposomes are more cytotoxic than plain liposomes and drug solution, indicating their potential for intracellular drug delivery. The cell-uptake study done on the lung cancer cell line indicated that calcium-phosphate-coated liposomes show higher cell uptake than uncoated liposomes.

  12. Safety of osteoporosis treatment with sodium fluoride, calcium phosphate and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Hasling, C; Nielsen, H E; Melsen, F; Mosekilde, L

    1987-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 163 consecutive patients with spinal crush fracture osteoporosis started a 5-year treatment with a combination of sodium fluoride (60 mg/day), calcium phosphate (45 mmol/day) and vitamin D2 (18,000 IU/day), and were followed in the outpatient clinic every 3 months. Fourty-three patients completed the 5-year treatment. Mean observation time was 2.8 years, totalling 460 patient-years. Fifty-one percent of the patients experienced joint-related (37%) or gastrointestinal (25%) side effects at one time or another. All side effects subsided after a median 6-week withdrawal of fluoride. Six percent of the patients withdrew from treatment due to side effects. Mean serum calcium values slightly decreased during treatment and no hypercalcemic episodes were seen. Urinary excretion of calcium did not change during treatment. No changes in renal, bone marrow or thyroid functions could be detected. The liver function might be slightly affected as indicated by minute increases in serum bilirubin and decreases in serum coagulation factors and albumin, but no other changes in liver function were observed.

  13. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Aqif A; Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-09-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO₃-HA) with ≈5 wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO₃-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO₃-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO₄-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ∼1.1 wt% exists for synthesis of SiO₄-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Indices of intact serum parathyroid hormone and renal excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, N J; Wheeldon, J; Brocklebank, J T

    1990-01-01

    Up to date reference ranges were established for fasting renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium on 101 healthy children aged 2-15 years. A normal range for intact parathyroid hormone was also measured. The indices of calcium and magnesium excretion showed no correlation with age or sex so that a common range for all children could be established. The 97th centile values for urinary calcium:creatinine and magnesium:creatinine ratios were 0.69 mmol:mmol and 1.05 mmol:mmol respectively. The calculated tubular maximum for phosphate/litre of glomerular filtrate (TmPO4/GFR) showed no correlation with age with a geometric mean value of 1.67 mmol/l. The normal range for intact serum parathyroid hormone for the age group was 11-35 ng/l, which is lower than the adult normal range using the same assay. There was an inverse correlation between TmPO4/GFR and intact parathyroid hormone in this group of normal children. PMID:2248530

  15. Rechargeable dental adhesive with calcium phosphate nanoparticles for long-term ion release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Hack, Gary; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The tooth-resin bond is the weak link of restoration, with secondary caries as a main reason for failure. Calcium phosphate-containing resins are promising for remineralization; however, calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases last only a couple of months. The objectives of this study were to develop the first rechargeable CaP bonding agent and investigate the key factors that determine CaP ion recharge and re-release. Methods Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) were synthesized. Pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM), ethoxylated bisphenol-A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) were used to synthesize three adhesives (denoted PE, PEH and PEHB). NACP were mixed into adhesive at 0–30% by mass. Dentin shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive specimens were tested for Ca and P initial ion release. Then the ion-exhausted specimens were immersed in Ca and P solution to recharge the specimens, and the recharged specimens were then used to measure ion re-release for 7 days as one cycle. Then these specimens were again recharged and the re-release was measured for 7 days as the second cycle. Three recharge/re-release cycles were tested. Results PEHB had the highest dentin bond strength (p<0.05). Increasing NACP content from 0 to 30% did not affect dentin bond strength (p>0.1), but increased CaP release and re-release (p<0.05). PEHB-NACP had the greatest recharge/re-release, and PE-NACP had the least (p<0.05). Ion release remained high and did not decrease with increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles (p>0.1). After the third cycle, specimens without further recharge had continuous CaP ion release for 2–3 weeks. Significance Rechargeable CaP bonding agents were developed for the first time to provide long-term Ca and P ions to promote remineralization and reduce caries. Incorporation of NACP into adhesive had no negative effect on dentin bond

  16. Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on calcium phosphate nanocomposite with quaternary ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Eric; Xu, Sarah M.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Half of dental restorations fail in 10 years, with secondary caries as the main reason. Calcium phosphate composites could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Impart antibacterial activity to a composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); and (2) investigate the effect of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) on mechanical and dental plaque microcosm biofilm properties for the first time. Methods The NACP and glass particles were filled into a dental resin that contained bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, the QADM. NACP nanocomposites containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 17.5% of QADM by mass, respectively, were photo-cured. A commercial composite with no antibacterial activity was used as control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Live/dead assay, metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production of biofilms on the composites were measured. Results Increasing QADM mass fraction monotonically reduced the biofilm viability, CFU and lactic acid. Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite with 17.5% QADM had metabolic activity that was 30% that on a commercial composite control (p<0.05). Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci CFU counts (mean±sd; n=6) on composite control was 6-fold those on NACP+17.5% QADM nanocomposite. Composite control had long strings of cells with normal short-rod shapes, while some cells on NACP-QADM nanocomposites disintegrated into pieces. Adding QADM to NACP did not decrease the strength and elastic modulus, which matched (p>0.1) those of a commercial composite without Ca-PO4 or antibacterial activity. Significance A dental plaque microcosm model was used to evaluate the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite. The nanocomposite greatly reduced the biofilm viability, metabolic activity and lactic acid, while its mechanical

  17. Gelation and biocompatibility of injectable alginate-calcium phosphate gels for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, D Alves; van den Beucken, J J J P; Both, L L H; Bender, J; Jansen, J A; Leeuwenburgh, S C G

    2014-03-01

    An emerging approach toward development of injectable, self-setting, and fully biodegradable bone substitutes involves the combination of injectable hydrogel matrices with a dispersed phase consisting of nanosized calcium phosphate particles. Here, novel injectable composites for bone regeneration have been developed based on the combination of ultrapure alginate as the matrix phase, crystalline CaP [monetite and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA)] powders as both a dispersed mineral phase and a source of calcium for cross-linking alginate, glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) as acidifier and glycerol as both plasticizer and temporary sequestrant. The composites were maximized with respect to CaP content to obtain the highest amount of osteoconductive filler. The viscoelastic and physicochemical properties of the precursor compounds and composites were analyzed using rheometry, elemental analysis (for calcium release and uptake), acidity [by measuring pH in simulated body fluid (SBF)], general biocompatibility (subcutaneous implantation in rabbits), and osteocompatibility (implantation in femoral condyle bone defect of rabbits). The gelation of the resulting composites could be controlled from seconds to tens of minutes by varying the solubility of the CaP phase (HA vs. monetite) or amount of GDL. All composites mineralized extensively in SBF for up to 11 days. In vivo, the composites also disintegrated upon implantation in subcutaneous or bone tissue, leaving behind less degradable but osteoconductive CaP particles. Although the composites need to be optimized with respect to the available amount of calcium for cross-linking of alginate, the beneficial bone response as observed in the in vivo studies render these gels promising for minimally invasive applications as bone-filling material.

  18. The calcium phosphate coating of soy lecithin nanoemulsion with performance in stability and as an oxygen carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kyu B.

    This work studied the relationship between surfactant, oil, and water, by building ternary phase diagrams, the goal of which was to identify the oil-in-water phase composition. The resulting nano-sized emulsion was coated with dicalcium phosphate by utilizing the ionic affinity between calcium ions and the emulsion surface. Since the desired function of the particle is as an oxygen carrier, the particle stability, oxygen capacity, and oxygen release rate were investigated. The first step in the process was to construct ternary phase diagrams with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) and soy derived lecithin. The results showed that the lecithin surfactant formed an oil-in-water phase region that was 36 times greater than that of DOPA. With the desired phase composition set, the lecithin emulsion was extruded, resulting in a well-dispersed nanosized particle. A pH titration study of the emulsion found an optimized calcium phosphate coating condition at pH 8.8, at which, the calcium ion had a greater affinity for the emulsion surface than phosphate. A Hill plot was used to show calcium cooperativeness on the emulsion surface which suggested one calcium ion binds to one lecithin molecule. The lecithin emulsion particles were then coated with calcium phosphate using a layering technique that allowed for careful control of the coating thickness. The overall particle hydrodynamic radius was consistent with the growth of the calcium phosphate coating, from 8 nm to 28 nm. This observation was further supported with cryo-TEM measurements. The stability of the coated emulsion was tested in conditions that simulate practical thermal, physical, and time-dependent conditions. Throughout the tests, the coated emulsion exhibited a constant mono-dispersed particle size, while the uncoated emulsion size fluctuated greatly and exhibited increased polydispersion. The fast mixing method with the stopped-flow apparatus was employed to test the product as an oxygen carrier, and it

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized calcium phosphates by flame spray pyrolysis, and their effect on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataol, Sibel; Tezcaner, Ayşen; Duygulu, Ozgur; Keskin, Dilek; Machin, Nesrin E.

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluates the synthesis of biocompatible osteoconductive and osteoinductive nano calcium phosphate (CaP) particles by industrially applied, aerosol-derived flame spray pyrolysis method for biomedical field. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles were produced in a range of calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, (1.20-2.19) in order to analyze the morphology and crystallinity changes, and to test the bioactivity of particles. The characterization results confirmed that nanometer-sized, spherical calcium phosphate particles were produced. The average primary particle size was determined as 23 nm by counting more than 500 particles in TEM pictures. XRD patterns, HRTEM, SAED, and SEM analyses revealed the amorphous nature of the as-prepared nano calcium phosphate particles at low Ca/P ratios. Increases in the specific surface area and crystallinity were observed with the increasing Ca/P ratio. TGA-DTA analysis showed that the thermally stable crystal phases formed after 700 °C. Cell culture studies were conducted with urine-derived stem cells that possess the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Synthesized amorphous nanoparticles did not have cytotoxic effect at 5-50 μg/ml concentration range. Cells treated with the as-prepared nanoparticles had higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity than control cells, indicating osteogenic differentiation of cells. A slight decrease in ALP activity of cells treated with two highest Ca:P ratios at 50 μg/ml concentration was observed at day 7. The findings suggest that calcium phosphate nanoparticles produced in this work have a potential to be used as biomaterials in biomedical applications.

  20. Mapping calcium phosphate activated gene networks as a strategy for targeted osteoinduction of human progenitors in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eyckmans, J.; Roberts, S.J.; Bolander, J.; Schrooten, J.; Chen, C.S.; Luyten, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although calcium phosphate-containing biomaterials are promising scaffolds for bone regenerative strategies, the osteoinductive capacity of such materials is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous mechanisms of in vivo calcium phosphate-driven, ectopic bone formation could be identified and used to induce enhanced differentiation in vitro of the same progenitor population. To accomplish this, human periosteum derived cells (hPDCs) were seeded on hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds (calcium phosphate rich matrix or CPRM), or on decalcified scaffolds (calcium phosphate depleted matrix or CPDM), followed by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice to trigger ectopic bone formation. In this system, osteoblast differentiation occurred in CPRM scaffolds, but not in CPDM scaffolds. Gene expression was assessed by human full-genome microarray at 20 hours after seeding, and 2, 8 and 18 days after implantation. In both matrices, implantation of the cell constructs triggered a similar gene expression cascade, however, gene expression dynamics progressed faster in CPRM scaffolds than in CPDM scaffolds. The difference in gene expression dynamics was associated with differential activation of hub genes and molecular signaling pathways related to calcium signaling (CREB), inflammation (TNFα, NFkB, and IL6) and bone development (TGFβ, β-catenin, BMP, EGF, and ERK signaling). Starting from this set of pathways, a growth factor cocktail was developed that robustly enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that through the identification and subsequent stimulation of genes, proteins and signaling pathways associated with calcium phosphate mediated osteoinduction, a focused approach to develop targeted differentiation protocols in adult progenitor cells can be achieved. PMID:23537666

  1. Preparation and characterization of calcium phosphate ceramics and composites as bone substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing

    Marine CaCO3 skeletons have tailored architectures created by nature, which give them structural support and other functions. For example, seashells have dense lamellar structures, while coral, cuttlebone and sea urchin spines have interconnected porous structures. In our experiments, seashells, coral and cuttlebone were hydrothermally converted to hydroxyapatite (HAP), and sea urchin spines were converted to Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCMP), while maintaining their original structures. Partially converted shell samples have mechanical strength, which is close to that of compact human bone. After implantation of converted shell and spine samples in rat femoral defects for 6 weeks, there was newly formed bone growth up to and around the implants. Some new bone was found to migrate through the pores of converted spine samples and grow inward. These results show good bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the implants, indicating the converted shell and spine samples can be used as bone defect fillers. Calcium phosphate powders were prepared through different synthesis methods. Micro-size HAP rods were synthesized by hydrothermal method through a nucleation-growth mechanism. On the other hand, HAP particles, which have good crystallinity, were prepared by wet precipitation with further hydrothermal treatment. beta-TCP or beta-TCMP powders were prepared by a two-step process: wet precipitation of apatitic tricalcium phosphate ('precursor') and calcination of the precursor at 800°C for 3 hours. beta-TCMP or beta-TCP powders were also prepared by solid-state reactions from CaHPO4 and CaCO 3 with/without MgO. Biphasic calcium phosphate, which is mixture of HAP and beta-TCP, can be prepared though mechanical mixing of HAP and beta-TCP powders synthesized as above. Dense beta-TCP and beta-TCMP ceramics can be produced by pressing green bodies at 100MPa and further sintering above 1100°C for 2 hours. beta-TCMP ceramics ˜99.4% relative dense were prepared by

  2. Osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts induced by calcium silicate and calcium silicate/β-tricalcium phosphate composite bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Fei, Lisha; Wang, Chen; Xue, Yang; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang; Sun, Jiao

    2012-07-01

    In this study, calcium silicate (CS) and CS/β-tricalcium phosphate (CS/β-TCP) composites were investigated on their mechanism of osteogenic proliferation and differentiation through regulating osteogenic-related gene and proteins. Osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the extracts of these CS-based bioceramics and pure β-TCP, respectively. The main ionic content in extracts was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The cell viability, mineralization, and differentiation were evaluated by MTT assay, Alizarin Red-S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. The expressions of BMP-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin (OCN) at both gene and protein level were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot. The result showed that the extracts of CS-based bioceramics promoted cells proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization when compared with pure β-TCP. Accordingly, pure CS and CS/β-TCP composites stimulated osteoblast-like cells to express BMP-2/TGF-β gene and proteins, and further regulate the expression of Runx2 gene and protein, and ultimately affect the ALP activity and OCN deposition. This study suggested that the CS-based bioceramics could not only promote the expression of osteogenic-related genes but also enhance the genes to encode the corresponding proteins, which could finally control osteoblast-like cells proliferation and differentiation.

  3. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles-based systems for siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaochun; Li, Zehao; Zhao, Xueqin; Keen, Lawrence; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of siRNA as a treatment strategy, the delivery is still a problem due to unfavorable biodistribution profiles and poor intracellular bioavailability. Calcium phosphate (CaP) co-precipitate has been used for nearly 40 years for in vitro transfection due to its non-toxic nature and simplicity of preparation. The surface charge of CaP will be tuned into positive by surface modification, which is important for siRNA loading and crossing cell membrane without enzymatic degradation. The new siRNA carrier system will also promote the siRNA escape from lysosome to achieve siRNA sustained delivery and high-efficiency silence. In this review, we focus on the current research activity in the development of CaP nanoparticles for siRNA delivery. These nanoparticles are mainly classified into lipid coated, polymer coated and various other types for discussion. PMID:27252888

  4. The effect of reaction conditions on formation of wet precipitated calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen; Cao, Peng

    2015-03-01

    The precipitation process discussed in the present study involves the addition of alkaline solutions to an acidic calcium phosphate suspension. Several parameters (pH, pH buffer reagent, ageing and stirring) were investigated. The synthesized powders were calcined at 1000°C for 1 h in air, in order to study the thermal stability and crystalline phase compositions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ESEM analysis were used for sample characterization. It is found that all these processing parameters affect the crystalline phases evolved and resultant microstructures. Phase evolution occurred at an elevated pH level. The pH buffer reagent would affect both the phase composition and microstructure. Ageing was essential for the phase maturation. Stirring accelerated the reaction process by providing a homogeneous medium for precipitation.

  5. Self-setting properties of a beta-dicalcium silicate reinforced calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupeng; Ye, Jiandong; Wang, Yingjun; Chen, Ling

    2007-07-01

    Beta-dicalcium silicate was used to reinforce the injectable calcium phosphate cement (iCPC) for the first time in this study. The influence of the content of beta-dicalcium silicate on the mechanical properties, setting time, rheological properties, injectability, phase evolution, microstructure, and biodegradability of iCPC was systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of 8 wt % beta-dicalcium silicate obviously enhanced the compressive strength of the CPC from 26.5 to 47.5 MPa, and did not significantly influence the biodegradability, setting time, injectability, phase evolution, and microstructure of the CPC. The beta-dicalcium silicate-reinforced iCPC with relatively high mechanical property should have potential prospects for the wider applications in surgery such as orthopedics, oral, and maxillofacial surgery.

  6. Self-healing hybrid nanocomposites consisting of bisphosphonated hyaluronan and calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nejadnik, M Reza; Yang, Xia; Bongio, Matilde; Alghamdi, Hamdan S; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Huysmans, Marie C; Jansen, John A; Hilborn, Jöns; Ossipov, Dmitri; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2014-08-01

    Non-covalent interactions are often regarded as insufficient to construct macroscopic materials of substantial integrity and cohesion. However, the low binding energy of such reversible interactions can be compensated by increasing their number to work in concert to create strong materials. Here we present the successful development of an injectable, cohesive nanocomposite hydrogel based on reversible bonds between calcium phosphate nanoparticles and bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid. These nanocomposites display a capacity for self-healing as well as adhesiveness to mineral surfaces such as enamel and hydroxyapatite. Most importantly, these non-covalently cross-linked composites are surprisingly robust yet biodegradable upon extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and show bone interactive capacity evidenced by bone ingrowth into material remnants. The herein presented method provides a new methodology for constructing nanoscale composites for biomedical applications, which owe their integrity to reversible bonds.

  7. Effect of power and type of substrate on calcium-phosphate coating morphology and microhardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyashova, Ksenia; Sharkeev, Yurii; Glushko, Yurii; Sainova, Aizhan

    2015-10-01

    As known, the influence of the different sputtering process parameters and type of substrate on structure of the deposited coating is important to identify, because these parameters are significantly affected on structure of coating. The studies of the morphology and microhardness of calcium-phosphate (CaP) coatings formed and obtained on the surface of titanium, zirconium, titanium and niobium alloy for different values of the power of radio frequency discharge are presented. The increase in the radio frequency (rf) magnetron discharge leads to the formation of a larger grain structure of the coating. The critical depths of indentation for coatings determining the value of their microhardness have been estimated. Mechanical properties of the composite material on the basis of the bioinert substrate metal and CaP coatings are superior to the properties of the separate components that make up this composite material.

  8. Current and Future Theranostic Applications of the Lipid-Calcium-Phosphate Nanoparticle Platform

    PubMed Central

    Satterlee, Andrew B.; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Lipid-Calcium-Phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle platform has shown success in a wide range of treatment strategies, recently including theranostics. The high specific drug loading of radiometals into LCP, coupled with its ability to efficiently encapsulate many types of cytotoxic agents, allows a broad range of theranostic applications, many of which are yet unexplored. In addition to providing an overview of current medical imaging modalities, this review highlights the current theranostic applications for LCP using SPECT and PET, and discusses potential future uses of the platform by comparing it with both systemically and locally delivered clinical radiotherapy options as well as introducing its applications as an MRI contrast agent. Strengths and weaknesses of LCP and of nanoparticles in general are discussed, as well as caveats regarding the use of fluorescence to determine the accumulation or biodistribution of a probe. PMID:27217828

  9. Femtosecond laser induced fixation of calcium alkali phosphate ceramics on titanium alloy bone implant material.

    PubMed

    Symietz, Christian; Lehmann, Erhard; Gildenhaar, Renate; Krüger, Jörg; Berger, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Femtosecond lasers provide a novel method of attaching bioceramic material to a titanium alloy, thereby improving the quality of bone implants. The ultrashort 30 fs laser pulses (790 nm wavelength) penetrate a thin dip-coated layer of fine ceramic powder, while simultaneously melting a surface layer of the underlying metal. The specific adjustment of the laser parameters (pulse energy and number of pulses per spot) avoids unnecessary melting of the bioactive calcium phosphate, and permits a defined thin surface melting of the metal, which in turn is not heated throughout, and therefore maintains its mechanical stability. It is essential to choose laser energy densities that correspond to the interval between the ablation fluences of both materials involved: about 0.1-0.4 Jcm(-2). In this work, we present the first results of this unusual technique, including laser ablation studies, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscope images, combined with EDX data.

  10. 3D printing of mineral-polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the "ink"). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  11. Trace element doping in calcium phosphate ceramics to Understand osteogenesis and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Fielding, Gary; Tarafder, Solaiman; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The general trends in synthetic bone grafting materials are shifting towards approaches that can illicit osteoinductive properties. Pharmacologics and biologics have been used in combination with calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics, however, recently have become the target of scrutiny over the safety. The importance of trace elements in natural bone health is well documented. Ions, e.g. lithium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, silicon, strontium etc. have shown to increase osteogenesis and neovascularization. Incorporation of dopants into CaPs can provide a platform for safe and efficient delivery in clinical applications where increased bone healing is favorable. This review highlights use of trace elements in CaP biomaterials, and offers an insight into the mechanisms of how metal ions can enhance both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:24012308

  12. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    PubMed

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions.

  13. 3D printing of mineral–polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the “ink”). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions. PMID:28144529

  14. The final phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitated from solutions of high to medium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbona, Francesco; Lundager Madsen, Hans Erik; Boistelle, Roland

    1988-07-01

    The phases of calcium and magnesium phosphates, which are obtained by evolution at 25°C of the first precipitates in their mother solutions, are described in terms of pH and composition of solutions. The initial conditions were: 0.050M ≤ [P] ≤ 0.500M; [P] = [Ca] + [Mg]; 0 ≤ [Mg]/[Ca] ≤ 1. The most abundant final phases are brushite, CaHPO 4·2H 2O; monetite, CaHPO 4; newberyite, MgHPO 4·3H 2O and struvite, MgNH 4PO 4·6H 2O. At low concentration whitlockite, Ca 9MgH(PO 4) 7, occurs with the amorphous phase previously precipitated, Ca 3(PO 4) 2·nH 2O. The conditions for stability are discussed and the changes observed are interpreted.

  15. Basic calcium phosphate crystal-induced Egr-1 expression stimulates mitogenesis in human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xiao R.; Sun Yubo; Wenger, Leonor; Cheung, Herman S. . E-mail: hcheung@med.miami.edu

    2005-05-13

    Previously, we have reported that basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals stimulate mitogenesis and synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human foreskin and synovial fibroblasts. However, the detailed mechanisms involved are still unclear. In the present study, using RT-PCR and Egr-1 promoter analysis we showed that BCP crystals could stimulate early growth response gene Egr-1 transcription through a PKC{alpha}-dependent p44/p42 MAPK pathway. Using a retrovirus gene expression system (Clontech) to overexpress Egr-1 in human fibroblast BJ-1 cells resulted in promotion of mitogenesis measured either by MTT cell proliferation analysis or by direct cell counting. The results demonstrate that Egr-1 may play a key role in mediating BCP crystal-induced synovial fibroblast mitogenesis.

  16. Laser pulse dependent micro textured calcium phosphate coatings for improved wettability and cell compatibility.

    PubMed

    Paital, Sameer R; He, Wei; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2010-07-01

    Surface wettability of an implant material is an important criterion in biological response as it controls the adsorption of proteins followed by attachment of cells to its surface. Hence, micro-textured calcium phosphate coatings with four length scales were synthesized on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by a laser cladding technique and their effects on wettability and cell adhesion were systematically evaluated. Microstructure and morphological evolutions of the coatings were studied using scanning electron and light optical microscopes respectively. The surface texture of coating defined in terms of a texture parameter was correlated to its wetting behavior. The contact angle of simulated body fluid measured by a static sessile drop technique, demonstrated an increased hydrophilicity with decreasing value of texture parameter. The influence of such textures on the in vitro bioactivity and in vitro biocompatibility were studied by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid and mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell culture respectively.

  17. Effect of power and type of substrate on calcium-phosphate coating morphology and microhardness

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyashova, Ksenia Glushko, Yurii; Sharkeev, Yurii; Sainova, Aizhan

    2015-10-27

    As known, the influence of the different sputtering process parameters and type of substrate on structure of the deposited coating is important to identify, because these parameters are significantly affected on structure of coating. The studies of the morphology and microhardness of calcium-phosphate (CaP) coatings formed and obtained on the surface of titanium, zirconium, titanium and niobium alloy for different values of the power of radio frequency discharge are presented. The increase in the radio frequency (rf) magnetron discharge leads to the formation of a larger grain structure of the coating. The critical depths of indentation for coatings determining the value of their microhardness have been estimated. Mechanical properties of the composite material on the basis of the bioinert substrate metal and CaP coatings are superior to the properties of the separate components that make up this composite material.

  18. [Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with antibiotic-loaded calcium phosphate cement].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Wei; Huang, Hong-Bin; Zhao, Gang-Sheng; Ji, Xiang-Rong

    2008-01-01

    The antibiotic delayed release system which has the characteristics of high local antibiotic concentration,few adverse effects, slow release and long duration, has became one of important methods of treating chronic osteomyelitis. Because of its double action as drug carrier and bone repair material which can induce bone growth and degrade synchronously, drug impregnated calcium phosphate cement (diCPC) is an ideal and safe antibiotic slow release carrier. After clearing focus thoroughly, defect implant with diCPC is an effective method, which has the virtues of convenient operation, good effects and short staying time etc. This paper aims to summarize the biological properties, experimental study and clinical application of diCPC.

  19. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  20. Polymerization shrinkage and stress development in amorphous calcium phosphate/urethane dimethacrylate polymeric composites

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, J.M.; Regnault, W. F.; Skrtic, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how substituting a new high molecular mass oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) extended urethane dimethacrylate (PEG-U) for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in photo-activated urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) resins affects degree of vinyl conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), stress development (PSSD) and biaxial flexure strength (BFS) of their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites. The composites were prepared from four types of resins (UDMA, PEG-U, UDMA/HEMA and UDMA/PEG-U) and zirconia-hybridized ACP. Introducing PEG-U improved DC while not adversely affecting PS, PSSD and the BFS of composites. This improvement in DC is attributed to the long, more flexible structure between the vinyl groups of PEG-U and its higher molecular mass compared to poly(HEMA). The results imply that PEG-U has the potential to serve as an alternative to HEMA in dental and other biomedical applications. PMID:20169007

  1. ILLUMINATING THE ROLE OF AGGLOMERATES ON CRITICAL PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COMPOSITES

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Antonucci, J.M.; Skrtic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Water sorption (WS), mechanical strength, and ion release of polymeric composites formulated with 40 % as-made or milled amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) are compared after 1, 2 and 3 months of aqueous exposure. Ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methacryloxyethyl phthalate comprised the resin. The WS (mass %) peaked at 3 months. WS of as-made ACP composites was significantly higher than WS of milled ACP composites and copolymers. Both composite groups experienced decreases in biaxial flexural strength (BFS) with water aging, with milled ACP composites retaining a significantly higher BFS throughout immersion. Ion release was moderately reduced in milled ACP composites, though they remained superior to as-made ACP composites due to significantly lower WS and higher BFS after prolonged aqueous exposure. PMID:19774100

  2. Cytocompatibility and osteogenic activity of a novel calcium phosphate silicate bioceramic: Silicocarnotite.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Ning, Congqin; Tang, Tingting

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of a novel bioceramic, silicon-containing calcium phosphate ceramic (silicocarnotite, Ca5 (PO4 )2 SiO4 , CPS) on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC) has been investigated in comparison to hydroxyapatite (HA). The CPS showed a similar cell attachment behavior to HA, while the proliferation of rBMSC on CPS was significantly higher than that on HA, which indicated that CPS had a good cytocompatibility. Moreover, the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic-related genes, including Runx-2, osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC), demonstrated that CPS enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSC and accelerated the differentiation process. The results suggest that CPS ceramic exhibits a good cytocompatibility and osteogenic activity, which might be used as a potential candidate material for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Biocompatibility of Modified Osteoinductive Calcium-Phosphate Coatings of Metal Implants.

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Puz', A V; Sinebryukhov, S L; Gnedenkov, S V; Smolina, T P; Besednova, N N

    2017-01-01

    The cellular and molecular aspects of immunological compatibility of modified osteoinductive calcium-phosphate coatings formed on technically pure titanium VT1-0 by the plasma electrolytic oxidation technology are studied. The technique of coating modified the process of human peripheral blood leukocyte activation in vitro. The most pronounced functional changes were observed in neutrophil population during whole blood contact with titanium sample without coating and with coating formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation on titanium alloy. Sealing of the oxidation layer pores by ultradispersed polytetrafluoroethylene leads to reduction of cell activation. Composite coatings with ultradispersed polytetrafluoroethylene applied by the electrophoretic method are characterized by the best biocompatibility. The data demonstrate the possibility of modifying biomaterial surfaces for inflammatory response control.

  4. Fabrication of novel calcium phosphate/poly(lactic acid) fiber composites.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R; Shaw, Montgomery T; Olson, James R; Wei, Mei

    2008-01-01

    Composites using high-modulus polylactic acid (PLA) fibers coated with calcium phosphate (CaP) were prepared using a cyclic precipitation technique. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that small nuclei of CaP formed after the first soaking cycle, while large quantities of CaP particles were observed after the sixth cycle. The amount of CaP deposited on the PLA yarn increased with deposition time in Ca(2+) and PO(4) (3-) solutions and number of cycles, and decreased with stirring rate during washing cycles. It was observed that around 35 wt % of CaP was deposited on the yarn surface after six cycles of cyclic-soaking. Based on the results, a heterogeneous nucleation and growth mechanism was proposed for the CaP deposition on the surface of hydrolyzed polyester. Composites comprising the coated fibers in a poly(caprolactone) matrix exhibited flexural moduli within the range of that of the cortical bone.

  5. Antiresorption implant coatings based on calcium alendronate and octacalcium phosphate deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    PubMed

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Forte, Lucia; Pagani, Stefania; Mihailescu, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    The integration of an implant material with bone tissue depends on the chemistry and physics of the implant surface. In this study we applied matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) in order to synthesize calcium alendronate monohydrate (a bisphosphonate obtained by calcium sequestration from octacalcium phosphate by alendronate) and calcium alendronate monohydrate/octacalcium phosphate composite thin films on titanium substrates. Octacalcium phosphate coatings were prepared as reference material. The powders, which were synthesized in aqueous medium, were suspended in deionised water, frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and used as targets for MAPLE experiments. The transfer was conducted with a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) in mild conditions of temperature and pressure. XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses confirmed that the coatings contain the same crystalline phases as the as-prepared powder samples. Osteoblast derived from stem cells and osteoclast derived from monocytes of osteoporotic subjects were co-cultured on the coatings up to 14 days. Osteoclast displayed significantly reduced proliferation and differentiation in the presence of calcium alendronate monohydrate, pointing to a clear role of the coatings containing this bisphosphonate on inhibiting excessive bone resorption. At variance, osteoblast production of alkaline phosphatase and type I pro-collagen were promoted by the presence of bisphosphonate, which also decreased the production of interleukin 6. The positive influence towards osteoblast differentiation was even more enhanced in the composite coatings, thanks to the presence of octacalcium phosphate.

  6. Comparison of the adjuvant activity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response towards Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Hidekel; Herrera, María; Rojas, Leonardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Leiguez, Elbio; Teixeira, Catarina; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo; Montero, Mavis L

    2014-01-01

    The adjuvanticity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response in mice towards the venom of the snake Bothrops asper was studied. It was found that, in vitro, most of the venom proteins are similarly adsorbed by both mineral salts, with the exception of some basic phospholipases A2, which are better adsorbed by calcium phosphate. After injection, the adjuvants promoted a slow release of the venom, as judged by the lack of acute toxicity when lethal doses of venom were administered to mice. Leukocyte recruitment induced by the venom was enhanced when it was adsorbed on both mineral salts; however, venom adsorbed on calcium phosphate induced a higher antibody response towards all tested HPLC fractions of the venom. On the other hand, co-precipitation of venom with calcium phosphate was the best strategy for increasing: (1) the capacity of the salt to couple venom proteins in vitro; (2) the venom ability to induce leukocyte recruitment; (3) phagocytosis by macrophages; and (4) a host antibody response. These findings suggest that the chemical nature is not the only one determining factor of the adjuvant activity of mineral salts.

  7. Immobilization of calcium phosphate nano-clusters into alkoxy-derived porous TiO2 coatings.

    PubMed

    Shirkhanzadeh, M; Sims, S

    1997-10-01

    Alkoxy-derived porous coatings of titanium oxide were fabricated on commercially pure titanium substrates by an electrochemical method in methanolic electrolytes. Nano-clusters of brushite (CaHPO4. 2H2O) were immobilized into the pores of the oxide network by reacting these coatings in acidic calcium phosphate solutions at 50 degrees C. The acid-base reaction between calcium phosphate solutions and the hydroxyl groups of the oxide network resulted in the formation of nano-clusters of brushite crystals immobilized inside the oxide pores. This treatment resulted in the conversion of the porous oxide network into a coherent mass with improved physical integrity. Nano-clusters of brushite crystals immobilized in the oxide matrix were converted into amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite (HA) by further treatment of the oxide in alkaline solutions. The porous oxide coating also reacted strongly with concentrated phosphoric acid. The phosphate-modified oxide resulting from this reaction was further treated in calcium hydroxide solution to form nano-clusters of poorly crystallized HA within the oxide network.

  8. Light scattering study on the size and structure of calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite flocs formed in sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Judy; Rainey, Tom; Doherty, William O S

    2007-02-01

    The formation, flocculation and sedimentation of calcium phosphate particles are among the main physico-chemical reactions that occur during the clarification of cane sugar juice. The mechanisms through which processes occur in juice clarification are still poorly understood. This study (being part of a comprehensive investigation to unravel these mechanisms) reports on the size and structure of calcium phosphate particles and aggregates in water and sugar solutions at 20 degrees C using the small angle laser light scattering technique. The average size of the primary calcium phosphate particles was in the range 10.4+/-1.1 microm to 17.5+/-1.2 microm and the scattering exponents, which describe the structure of the calcium phosphate flocs, varied from 1.97 to 2.76. The flocs formed without flocculant are more compact in water than those formed in sugar solution. The compactness of the flocs was also affected by pH of the solution. This effect has been explained by considering the electrical double layer phenomenon.

  9. Monolithic calcium phosphate/poly(lactic acid) composite versus calcium phosphate-coated poly(lactic acid) for support of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs), extensively used synthetic bone graft substitutes, are often combined with other materials with the aim to overcome issues related to poor mechanical properties of most CaP ceramics. Thin ceramic coatings on metallic implants and polymer-ceramic composites are examples of such hybrid materials. Both the properties of the CaP used and the method of incorporation into a hybrid structure are determinant for the bioactivity of the final construct. In the present study, a monolithic composite comprising nano-sized CaP and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a CaP-coated PLA were comparatively investigated for their ability to support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Both, the PLA/CaP composite, produced using physical mixing and extrusion and CaP-coated PLA, resulting from a biomimetic coating process at near-physiological conditions, supported proliferation of hMSCs with highest rates at PLA/CaP composite. Enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteopontin and osteocalcin were higher on the composite and coated polymer as compared to the PLA control, while no significant differences were observed between the two methods of combining CaP and PLA. The results of this study confirmed the importance of CaP in osteogenic differentiation while the exact properties and the method of incorporation into the hybrid material played a less prominent role.

  10. Osteogenic activity of cyclodextrin-encapsulated doxycycline in a calcium phosphate PCL and PLGA composite.

    PubMed

    Trajano, V C C; Costa, K J R; Lanza, C R M; Sinisterra, R D; Cortés, M E

    2016-07-01

    Composites of biodegradable polymers and calcium phosphate are bioactive and flexible, and have been proposed for use in tissue engineering and bone regeneration. When associated with the broad-spectrum antibiotic doxycycline (DOX), they could favor antimicrobial action and enhance the action of osteogenic composites. Composites of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and a bioceramic of biphasic calcium phosphate Osteosynt® (BCP) were loaded with DOX encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and were evaluated for effects on osteoblastic cell cultures. The DOX/βCD composite was prepared with a double mixing method. Osteoblast viability was assessed with methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays after 1day, 7day, and 14days of composite exposure; alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and collagen production were evaluated after 7days and 14days, and mineral nodule formation after 14days. Composite structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts exposed to the composite containing 25μg/mL DOX/βCD had increased cell proliferation (p<0.05) compared to control osteoblast cultures at all experimental time points, reaching a maximum in the second week. AP activity and collagen secretion levels were also elevated in osteoblasts exposed to the DOX/βCD composite (p<0.05 vs. controls) and reached a maximum after 14days. These results were corroborated by Von Kossa test results, which showed strong formation of mineralization nodules during the same time period. SEM of the composite material revealed a surface topography with pore sizes suitable for growing osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that osteoblasts are viable, proliferative, and osteogenic in the presence of a DOX/βCD-containing BCP ceramic composite.

  11. Optimization of the time efficient calcium phosphate coating on electrospun poly(d,l-lactide).

    PubMed

    Luickx, Nathalie; Van Den Vreken, Natasja; Segaert, Jonas; Declercq, Heidi; Cornelissen, Maria; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    The coating of fibrous polyester constructs with a layer of bioactive calcium phosphate (CP) is efficient to improve the potential use as bone tissue engineering scaffold. In this study, a fast procedure for the coating of electrospun poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) fibers with a CP layer was optimized. The fiber surface was activated by immersion in demineralized water under ultrasonication. The resulting reactive groups served as nucleation points for CP precipitation, induced by alternate dipping of the samples in Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) rich solutions. Variations in the conditions of the alternate dipping procedure, in particular the number of cycles, concentration and immersion time of both solutions, not only affected the degree of surface mineralization but also the type of deposited CP. For the current experimental conditions, in about 30 minutes either a slightly carbonated calcium deficient apatite (CDAp; Ca10-x-y (PO4 )6-x-y (HPO4 )y (CO3 )x (OH)2-x-y ) or a combination of apatite and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO4 .2H2 O) was formed. The cell viability, adhesion, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on untreated samples were compared with samples coated with either an adequate amount of CDAp, an excess of CDAp or an excess of a combination of apatite and DCDP. After 7 days of culture the number of attached cells was significantly higher on all CP coated samples compared to the untreated PDLLA. In particular, the samples coated with an adequate amount of CDAp showed an exceedingly enhanced cell response with similar cell morphologies as the ones found on the positive control.

  12. In vitro testing of Nd:YAG laser processed calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    De Carlos, A; Lusquiños, F; Pou, J; León, B; Pérez-Amor, M; Driessens, F C M; Hing, K; Best, S; Bonfield, W

    2006-11-01

    Nd:YAG laser cladding is a new method for deposition of a calcium phosphate onto metallic surfaces of interest in implantology. The aim of this study was to compare the biologic response of MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells grown on Ti-6Al-4V substrates coated with a calcium phosphate layer applied using different methods: plasma spraying as reference material and Nd:YAG laser cladding as test material. Tissue culture polystyrene was used as negative control. The Nd:YAG laser clad material showed a behaviour similar to the reference material, plasma spray, respective to cell morphology (SEM observations), cell proliferation (AlamarBlue assay) and cytotoxicity of extracts (MTT assay). Proliferation, as measured by the AlamarBlue assay, showed little difference in the metabolic activity of the cells on the materials over an 18 day culture period. There were no significant differences in the cellular growth response on the test material when compared to the ones exhibited by the reference material. In the solvent extraction test all the extracts had some detrimental effect on cellular activity at 100% concentration, although cells incubated in the test material extract showed a proliferation rate similar to that of the reference material. To better understand the scope of these results it should be taken into account that the Nd:YAG clad coating has recently been developed. The fact that its in vitro performance is comparable to that produced by plasma spray, a material commercially available for more than ten years, indicates that this new laser based method could be of commercial interest in the near future.

  13. Novel dental adhesives containing nanoparticles of silver and amorphous calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Secondary caries is the main reason for restoration failure, and replacement of the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all restorations. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria along the margins. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release could remineralize the lesions. The objectives of this study were to incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into adhesive for the first time, and to investigate the effects on dentin bond strength and plaque microcosm biofilms. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive was used as control. NAg were added into primer and adhesive at 0.1% by mass. NACP were mixed into adhesive at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Microcosm biofilms were grown on disks with primer covering the adhesive on a composite. Biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU) and lactic acid were measured. Results Human dentin shear bond strengths (n=10) ranged from 26 to 34 MPa; adding NAg and NACP into adhesive did not decrease the bond strength (p > 0.1). SEM examination revealed resin tags from well-filled dentinal tubules. Numerous NACP infiltrated into the dentinal tubules. While NACP had little antibacterial effect, NAg in bonding agents greatly reduced the biofilm viability and metabolic activity, compared to the control (p < 0.05). CFU for total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci on bonding agents with NAg were an order of magnitude less than those of the control. Lactic acid production by biofilms for groups containing NAg was 1/4 of that of the control. Significance Dental plaque microcosm biofilm viability and acid production were greatly reduced on bonding agents containing NAg and NACP, without compromising dentin bond strength. The novel method of incorporating dual agents (remineralizing agent NACP and antibacterial agent NAg) may have wide applicability to other dental bonding systems. PMID

  14. Calcium phosphate-titanium composites for articulating surfaces of load-bearing implants.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Dittrick, Stanley; Gualtieri, Thomas; Wu, Jeffrey; Bose, Susmita

    2016-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)-titanium (Ti) composites were processed using a commercial laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) machine to increase wear resistance of articulating surfaces of load-bearing implants. Such composites could be used to cover the surface of titanium implants and potentially increase the lifetime of a joint replacement. It was hypothesized that adding calcium phosphate to commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti6Al4V alloy via laser processing would decrease the material loss when subjected to wear. This added protection would be due to the in situ formation of a CaP tribofilm. Different amounts of CaP were mixed by weight with pure Ti and Ti6Al4V powders. The mixed powders were then made into cylindrical samples using a commercial LENS™-750 system. Microstructures were observed and it was found the CaP had integrated into the titanium metal matrix. Compression test revealed that CaP significantly increased the 0.2% offset yield strength as well as the ultimate compressive strength of CP-Ti. It was found that the addition of CaP to pure titanium reduced the material loss and increased wear resistance. This was due to the formation of CaP tribofilm on the articulating surface. The in situ formed tribofilm also lowered the coefficient of friction and acted as a solid lubricant between the two interacting metal surfaces. Overall, CaP addition to Ti and its alloy Ti6Al4V show an effective way to minimize wear induced damage due to the formation of in situ tribofilm at the articulating surface, a strategy that can be utilized in various biomedical devices.

  15. Structure-Composition-Property Relationships in Polymeric Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Based Dental Composites†

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Justin N.R.; Schumacher, Gary E.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Skrtic, Drago

    2009-01-01

    Our studies of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based materials over the last decade have yielded bioactive polymeric composites capable of protecting teeth from demineralization or even regenerating lost tooth mineral. The anti-cariogenic/re-mineralizing potential of these ACP composites originates from their propensity, when exposed to the oral environment, to release in a sustained manner sufficient levels of mineral-forming calcium and phosphate ions to promote formation of stable apatitic tooth mineral. However, the less than optimal ACP filler/resin matrix cohesion, excessive polymerization shrinkage and water sorption of these experimental materials can adversely affect their physicochemical and mechanical properties, and, ultimately, limit their lifespan. This study demonstrates the effects of chemical structure and composition of the methacrylate monomers used to form the matrix phase of composites on degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) and water sorption of both copolymers and composites and the release of mineral ions from the composites. Modification of ACP surface via introducing cations and/or polymers ab initio during filler synthesis failed to yield mechanically improved composites. However, moderate improvement in composite’s mechanical stability without compromising its remineralization potential was achieved by silanization and/or milling of ACP filler. Using ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate as base monomers and adding moderate amounts of hydrophilic 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or its isomer ethyl-α-hydroxymethacrylate appears to be a promising route to maximize the remineralizing ability of the filler while maintaining high DVC. Exploration of the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP fillers and polymer matrices is complex but essential for achieving a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern dissolution/re-precipitation of bioactive ACP fillers, and, ultimately, the

  16. Effects of calcium phosphate composition in sputter coatings on in vitro and in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Urquia Edreira, Eva R; Wolke, Joop G C; Aldosari, Abdullah AlFarraj; Al-Johany, Sulieman S; Anil, Sukumaran; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic coatings have been used to enhance the biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of metallic implants. The chemical composition of these ceramic coatings is an important parameter, which can influence the final bone performance of the implant. In this study, the effect of phase composition of CaP-sputtered coatings was investigated on in vitro dissolution behavior and in vivo bone response. Coatings were prepared by a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique; three types of CaP target materials were used to obtain coatings with different stoichiometry and calcium to phosphate ratios (hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalciumphosphate (α-TCP), and tetracalciumphosphate (TTCP)) were compared with non-coated titanium controls. The applied ceramic coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The in vitro dissolution/precipitation of the CaP coatings was evaluated using immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). To mimic the in vivo situation, identical CaP coatings were also evaluated in a femoral condyle rabbit model. TCPH and TTCPH showed morphological changes during 4-week immersion in SBF. The results of bone implant contact (BIC) and peri-implant bone volume (BV) showed a similar response for all experimental coatings. An apparent increase in tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive staining was observed in the peri-implant region with decreasing coating stability. In conclusion, the experimental groups showed different coating properties when tested in vitro and an apparent increase in bone remodeling with increasing coating dissolution in vivo.

  17. The use of physiological solutions or media in calcium phosphate synthesis and processing.

    PubMed

    Tas, A Cuneyt

    2014-05-01

    This review examined the literature to spot uses, if any, of physiological solutions/media for the in situ synthesis of calcium phosphates (CaP) under processing conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, concentration of inorganic ions present in media) mimicking those prevalent in the human hard tissue environments. There happens to be a variety of aqueous solutions or media developed for different purposes; sometimes they have been named as physiological saline, isotonic solution, cell culture solution, metastable CaP solution, supersaturated calcification solution, simulated body fluid or even dialysate solution (for dialysis patients). Most of the time such solutions were not used as the aqueous medium to perform the biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphates, and their use was usually limited to the in vitro testing of synthetic biomaterials. This review illustrates that only a limited number of research studies used physiological solutions or media such as Earle's balanced salt solution, Bachra et al. solutions or Tris-buffered simulated body fluid solution containing 27mM HCO3(-) for synthesizing CaP, and these studies have consistently reported the formation of X-ray-amorphous CaP nanopowders instead of Ap-CaP or stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) at 37°C and pH 7.4. By relying on the published articles, this review highlights the significance of the use of aqueous solutions containing 0.8-1.5 mMMg(2+), 22-27mM HCO3(-), 142-145mM Na(+), 5-5.8mM K(+), 103-133mM Cl(-), 1.8-3.75mM Ca(2+), and 0.8-1.67mM HPO4(2-), which essentially mimic the composition and the overall ionic strength of the human extracellular fluid (ECF), in forming the nanospheres of X-ray-amorphous CaP.

  18. The transformation of single-crystal calcium phosphate ribbon-like fibres to hydroxyapatite spheres assembled from nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Lu, Jinjun

    2008-04-01

    Two precursors of ribbon-like anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCPA) and calcium phosphate fibres were successfully synthesized at 85 °C through a simple and mild pathway from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 upon the hydrolysis of urea. Different molar concentrations of urea resulted in different precursors, including precursor I (DCPA phase) and precursor II (calcium phosphate with DCPA, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase). By immersing the two precursors in ammonium hydroxide solution (pH = 12), the transformation from precursors to hydroxyapatite could be achieved. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that DCPA fibres (precursor I) were transformed to HAp nanorods in transformation I. In transformation II, dandelion-like spheres assembled by HAp nanorods were obtained from calcium phosphate (precursor II). The mechanisms of transformations I and II are also proposed and discussed based on the XRD and TEM results.

  19. Next-generation resorbable polymer scaffolds with surface-precipitated calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinku; Magno, Maria Hanshella R; Ortiz, Ophir; McBride, Sean; Darr, Aniq; Kohn, Joachim; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2015-03-01

    Next-generation synthetic bone graft therapies will most likely be composed of resorbable polymers in combination with bioactive components. In this article, we continue our exploration of E1001(1k), a tyrosine-derived polycarbonate, as an orthopedic implant material. Specifically, we use E1001(1k), which is degradable, nontoxic, and osteoconductive, to fabricate porous bone regeneration scaffolds that were enhanced by two different types of calcium phosphate (CP) coatings: in one case, pure dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was precipitated on the scaffold surface and throughout its porous structure (E1001(1k) + CP). In the other case, bone matrix minerals (BMM) such as zinc, manganese and fluoride were co-precipitated within the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating (E1001(1k) + BMM). These scaffold compositions were compared against each other and against ChronOS (Synthes USA, West Chester, PA, USA), a clinically used bone graft substitute (BGS), which served as the positive control in our experimental design. This BGS is composed of poly(lactide co-ε-caprolactone) and beta-tricalcium phosphate. We used the established rabbit calvaria critical-sized defect model to determine bone regeneration within the defect for each of the three scaffold compositions. New bone formation was determined after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks by micro-computerized tomography (μCT) and histology. The experimental tyrosine-derived polycarbonate, enhanced with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, E1001(1k) + CP, supported significant bone formation within the defects and was superior to the same scaffold containing a mix of BMM, E1001(1k) + BMM. The comparison with the commercially available BGS was complicated by the large variability in bone formation observed for the laboratory preparations of E1001(1k) scaffolds. At all time points, there was a trend for E1001(1k) + CP to be superior to the commercial BGS. However, only at the 6-week time point did this trend reach statistical significance

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Osteogenic Calcium Phosphate Silicate Cement: Material Characterization and In Vitro/In Vivo Testing.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tianxing; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Yixi; Zhang, Yubiao; Hou, Mingxiao; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Lejun; Ruse, N Dorin; Troczynski, Tom; Häfeli, Urs O

    2016-02-18

    Vertebral compression fractures can be successfully restored by injectable bone cements. Here the as-yet unexplored in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo biodegradation, and osteoconductivity of a new calcium phosphate silicate cements (CPSC) are studied, where monocalcium phosphate (MCP; 5, 10, and 15 wt%) is added to calcium silicate cement (CSC). Setting rate and compressive strength of CPSC decrease with the addition of MCP. The crystallinity, microstructure, and porosity of hardened CPSC are evaluated by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and microcomputed tomography (CT). It is found that MCP reacts with calcium hydroxide, one of CSC hydration products, to precipitate apatite. While the reaction accelerates the hydration of CSC, the formation of calcium silicate hydrate gel is disturbed and highly porous microstructures form, resulting in weaker compressive strength. In vitro studies demonstrate that CPSC is noncytotoxic to osteoblast cells and promotes their proliferation. In the rabbit tibia implantation model, clinical X-ray and CT scans demonstrate that CPSC biodegrades slower and osseointegrates better than clinically used calcium phosphate cement (CPC). Histological studies demonstrate that CPSC is osteoconductive and induces higher bone formation than CPC, a finding that might warrant future clinical studies.

  1. Effect of fluoride on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched human enamel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Sun, Z; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2-10 microm wide) were formed. With 1-10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20-30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro.

  2. Effect of Fluoride on the Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Crystals Grown on Acid-Etched Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.; Sun, Z.; Moradian-Oldak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2–10 μm wide) were formed. With 1–10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20–30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro. PMID:19321991

  3. In Vitro Investigation of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite or Synthetic Calcium Phosphates.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Nataliia; Parkhomey, Oleksandr; Sych, Olena

    2017-12-01

    This in vitro investigation of the behavior of two types of calcium phosphate glass ceramics on the basis of phosphates of biogenic or synthetic origin prepared from initial mixtures with different particle size has revealed that some different factors affect the behavior, namely the phase composition of composite, fraction of open porosity, and average diameter of pore channels. It was established that the solubility of the composites on the basis of synthetic calcium phosphates and glass after 2 and 7 days contact with saline composites is the highest among the materials under study. First of all, this fact is related to the peculiarities of their phase composition, high fraction of open porosity, and high permeability. As for biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass materials, their solubility is several times lower in spite of close total porosity. The particle size of initial mixture practically does not affect the material solubility; the latter is only slightly lower for smaller particles.

  4. In Vitro Investigation of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composites Based on Biogenic Hydroxyapatite or Synthetic Calcium Phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, Nataliia; Parkhomey, Oleksandr; Sych, Olena

    2017-02-01

    This in vitro investigation of the behavior of two types of calcium phosphate glass ceramics on the basis of phosphates of biogenic or synthetic origin prepared from initial mixtures with different particle size has revealed that some different factors affect the behavior, namely the phase composition of composite, fraction of open porosity, and average diameter of pore channels. It was established that the solubility of the composites on the basis of synthetic calcium phosphates and glass after 2 and 7 days contact with saline composites is the highest among the materials under study. First of all, this fact is related to the peculiarities of their phase composition, high fraction of open porosity, and high permeability. As for biogenic hydroxyapatite/glass materials, their solubility is several times lower in spite of close total porosity. The particle size of initial mixture practically does not affect the material solubility; the latter is only slightly lower for smaller particles.

  5. Calcium-phosphate coatings obtained biomimetically on magnesium substrates under low magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovska, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Stanislavov, A.; Danilchenko, S.; Sukhodub, L.

    2012-09-01

    A simple method of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating deposition on Mg substrates at 37 °C is proposed. It was established that variation of ionic composition of the initial solution leads to the deposition of coatings with various phase composition, i.e. DCPD, DCPD + HA, HA which decreased corrosion rate of Mg. The paper also discusses the crystallization of dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) and HA coatings on Mg substrates obtained by dipping method under the permanent magnetic field (0.3 T) in the neighborhood of the north and the south pole. A difference in particle morphology and crystal texture of precipitates in the north pole and the south pole proximity was observed. Lattice parameters of DCPD coatings obtained near opposite magnet poles were calculated using XRD results. It was found that the proximity to the south pole of magnet increases the crystallinity of calcium-phosphates. Increase of crystallite sizes in (0 2 0) and (0 4 0) plane was observed for DCPD in the presence of magnetic field.

  6. Early growth of nano-sized calcium phosphate on phosphorylated bacterial cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y Z; Gao, C; Luo, H L; He, F; Liang, H; Li, X L; Wang, Y L

    2009-11-01

    It is believed that studies on the early hydroxyapatite (HAp) deposition on nano-sized substrates may possibly allow us to understand the formation mechanisms of biominerals at the molecular level. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were phosphorylated and used as nano-sized templates for early mineralization of calcium phosphate (Ca-P). To initiate mineralization the BC nanofibers were immersed in 1.5 times simulated body fluids (1.5 SBF) at 37 degreees C for varying periods of time. The deposited minerals on the nanofiber surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM observations confirmed that early growth (at 4 h) of the Ca-P minerals was heterogeneous, which was followed by extensive spread of the minerals on the entire surfaces of the nanofibers. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was the precursor of HAp formed on BC nanofibers. Furthermore, HAp deposited on BC nanofibers elongated along the c axis. Nucleation and growth of the Ca-P minerals were analyzed in this paper.

  7. Calcium phosphate ceramic systems in growth factor and drug delivery for bone tissue engineering: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs) are the most widely used bone substitutes in bone tissue engineering due to their compositional similarities to bone mineral and excellent biocompatibility. In recent years, CaPs, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have attracted significant interest in simultaneous use as bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle, adding a new dimension to their application. CaPs are more biocompatible than many other ceramic and inorganic nanoparticles. Their biocompatibility and variable stoichiometry, thus surface charge density, functionality, and dissolution properties, make them suitable for both drug and growth factor delivery. CaP matrices and scaffolds have been reported to act as delivery vehicles for growth factors and drugs in bone tissue engineering. Local drug delivery in musculoskeletal disorder treatments can address some of the critical issues more effectively and efficiently than the systemic delivery. CaPs are used as coatings on metallic implants, CaP cements, and custom designed scaffolds to treat musculoskeletal disorders. This review highlights some of the current drug and growth factor delivery approaches and critical issues using CaP particles, coatings, cements, and scaffolds towards orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:22127225

  8. The influence of genetic factors on the osteoinductive potential of calcium phosphate ceramics in mice.

    PubMed

    Barradas, Ana M C; Yuan, Huipin; van der Stok, Johan; Le Quang, Bach; Fernandes, Hugo; Chaterjea, Anindita; Hogenes, Marieke C H; Shultz, Kathy; Donahue, Leah Rae; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in healing large bone defects is, in general, not as high as that of autologous bone grafting. Recently, we reported that CaP ceramics with osteoinductive properties were as efficient in healing an ilium defect of a sheep as autologous bone graft was, which makes this subclass of CaP ceramics a powerful alternative for bone regeneration. Although osteoinduction by CaP ceramics has been shown in several large animal models it is sporadically reported in mice. Because the lack of a robust mouse model has delayed understanding of the mechanism, we screened mice from 11 different inbred mouse strains for their responsiveness to subcutaneous implantation of osteoinductive tricalcium phosphate (TCP). In only two strains (FVB and 129S2) the ceramic induced bone formation, and in particularly, in FVB mice, bone was found in all the tested mice. We also demonstrated that other CaP ceramics induced bone formation at the same magnitude as that observed in other animal models. Furthermore, VEGF did not significantly increase TCP induced bone formation. The mouse model here described can accelerate research of osteoinductive mechanisms triggered by CaP ceramics and potentially the development of therapies for bone regeneration.

  9. Effects of polymer concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals formed in polyacrylamide hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Taishi; Kawashita, Masakazu; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2013-11-01

    Growing crystals in hydrogels is an attractive method to form inorganic solids with designed morphology under ambient conditions. Precipitation of the inorganic solids in a hydrogel matrix can be regarded as mimicking the process of biomineralization. In the construction of biominerals, an organic template composed of insoluble macromolecules is used to control the crystal growth of the inorganic compounds. The morphological control in biomineralization can be applied to artificial reaction systems. In this study, the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals formed in polymeric hydrogels of various polymer concentrations was investigated. Spherical octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precipitated in the polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. Fibrous crystals gradually covered the surface of the spherical crystals as the polymer concentration of the gel increased. The morphology of the OCP crystals changed from sea urchin shapes to wool-ball shapes with increasing PAAm concentration. The morphological change is generated by the template effect of the polymer wall, which is made up of stacked PAAm sheets, surrounding the spherical OCP crystals.

  10. Osteoblast precursor cell attachment on heat-treated calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Bumgardner, J D; Cavin, R; Carnes, D L; Ong, J L

    2003-06-01

    The influence of properties of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings on bone cell activity and bone-implant osseointegration is not well-established. This study investigated the effects of characterized CaP coatings of various heat treatments on osteoblast response. It was hypothesized that heat treatments of CaP coatings alter the initial osteoblast attachment. The 400 degrees C heat-treated coatings were observed to exhibit poor crystallinity and significantly greater phosphate or apatite species compared with as-sputtered and 600 degrees C heat-treated coatings. Similarly, human embryonic palatal mesenchyme (HEPM) cells, an osteoblast precursor cell line, seeded on 400 degrees C heat-treated coatings, exhibited significantly greater cell attachment compared with Ti surfaces, as-sputtered coatings, and 600 degrees C heat-treated coatings. The HEPM cells on Ti surfaces and heat-treated coatings were observed to attach through filopodia, and underwent cell division, whereas the cells on as-sputtered coatings displayed fewer filopodia extensions and cell damage. Analysis of the data suggested that heat treatment of CaP coatings affects cell attachment.

  11. Thermal spraying of functionally graded calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Khor, K. A.; Cheang, P.

    1998-03-01

    Biomedical requirements in a prosthesis are often complex and diverse in nature. Biomaterials for implants have to display a wide range of adaptability to suit the various stages of the bio-integration process of any foreign material into the human body. Often, a combination of materials is needed. The preparation of a functionally graded bioceramic coating composed of essentially calcium phosphate compounds is explored. The coating is graded in accordance to adhesive strength, bioactivity, and bioresorbability. The bond coat on the Ti-6Al-4V stub is deposited with a particle range of the hydroxyapatite (HA) that will provide a high adhesive strength and bioactivity but have poor bioresorption properties. The top coat, however, is composed of predominantly α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) that is highly bioresorbable. This arrangement has the propensity of allowing accelerated bio-integration of the coating by the body tissues as the top layer is rapidly resorbed, leaving the more bioactive intermediate layer to facilitate the much needed bioactive properties for proper osteoconduction. The processing steps and problems are highlighted, as well as the results of post-spray heat treatment.

  12. Calcium Phosphate Based Three-Dimensional Cold Plotted Bone Scaffolds for Critical Size Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Christian J. D.; Odekerken, Jim C. E.; Welting, Tim J. M.; Jungwirth, Franz; Devine, Declan; Bouré, Ludovic; Zeiter, Stephan; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Telle, Rainer; Fischer, Horst; Emans, Pieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitutes, like calcium phosphate, are implemented more frequently in orthopaedic surgery to reconstruct critical size defects, since autograft often results in donor site morbidity and allograft can transmit diseases. A novel bone cement, based on β-tricalcium phosphate, polyethylene glycol, and trisodium citrate, was developed to allow the rapid manufacturing of scaffolds, by extrusion freeform fabrication, at room temperature. The cement composition exhibits good resorption properties and serves as a basis for customised (e.g., drug or growth factor loaded) scaffolds for critical size bone defects. In vitro toxicity tests confirmed proliferation and differentiation of ATDC5 cells in scaffold-conditioned culture medium. Implantation of scaffolds in the iliac wing of sheep showed bone remodelling throughout the defects, outperforming the empty defects on both mineral volume and density present in the defect after 12 weeks. Both scaffolds outperformed the autograft filled defects on mineral density, while the mineral volume present in the scaffold treated defects was at least equal to the mineral volume present in the autograft treated defects. We conclude that the formulated bone cement composition is suitable for scaffold production at room temperature and that the established scaffold material can serve as a basis for future bone substitutes to enhance de novo bone formation in critical size defects. PMID:24719891

  13. The elution of colistimethate sodium from polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate cement beads.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Paige; Barber, Melissa; Weintrob, Amy C; VanBrakle, Regina; Howard, Robin; Kozar, Michael P; Andersen, Romney; Wortmann, Glenn

    2012-06-01

    Gram-negative bacilli resistance to all antibiotics, except for colistimethate sodium (CMS), is an emerging healthcare concern. Incorporating CMS into orthopedic cement to treat bone and soft-tissue infections due to these bacteria is attractive, but the data regarding the elution of CMS from cement are conflicting. The in vitro analysis of the elution of CMS from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and calcium phosphate (CP) cement beads is reported. PMMA and CP beads containing CMS were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline and the eluate sampled at sequential time points. The inhibition of the growth of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii complex by the eluate was measured by disk diffusion and microbroth dilution assays, and the presence of CMS in the eluate was measured by mass spectroscopy. Bacterial growth was inhibited by the eluate from both PMMA and CP beads. Mass spectroscopy demonstrated greater elution of CMS from CP beads than PMMA beads. The dose of CMS in PMMA beads was limited by failure of bead integrity. CMS elutes from both CP and PMMA beads in amounts sufficient to inhibit bacterial growth in vitro. The clinical implications of these findings require further study.

  14. Investigation of silicon complexes in Si-doped calcium phosphate bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, P.; Stott, M. J.; Sayer, M.; Wu, G.

    2007-03-01

    Silicon doped calcium phosphate materials have drawn great interest as bioceramics for bone repair due to their enhanced bioactivity. However, the low level of doping in these materials, generally ˜1 wt.%, makes it difficult to determine the effects the silicon has on the structure of these materials. In this study, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA), silicon stabilized alpha tricalcium phosphate (Si-TCP), and a multi-phase mixture consisting of approximately 75% Si-TCP with the remainder being mainly Si-HA have been synthesized using isotopically enriched silica containing ^29Si. ^29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR) has been used to examine the silicon complexes within these materials resulting from the substitution of SiO4^4- for PO4^3- and the required charge compensation mechanism needed to achieve this. Previous ab initio studies on these materials have investigated charge compensation mechanisms to suggest possible silicon complexes and these serve as a basis for interpreting the NMR results.

  15. Injectable calcium phosphate cement: effects of powder-to-liquid ratio and needle size.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena F; Xu, Hockin H K; Sun, Limin

    2008-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets in situ and forms apatite with excellent osteoconductivity and bone-replacement capability. The objectives of this study were to formulate an injectable tetracalcium phosphate-dicalcium phosphate cement (CPC(D)), and investigate the powder/liquid ratio and needle-size effects. The injection force (mean +/- SD; n = 4) to extrude the paste increased from (8 +/- 2) N using a 10-gauge needle to (144 +/- 17) N using a 21-gauge needle (p < 0.05). With the 10-gauge needle, the mass percentage of extruded paste was (95 +/- 4)% at a powder/liquid ratio of 3; it decreased to (70 +/- 12)% at powder/liquid = 3.5 (p < 0.05). A relationship was established between injection force, F, and needle lumen cross-sectional area, A: F = 5.0 + 38.7/A(0.8). Flexural strength, S, (mean +/- SD; n = 5) increased from (5.3 +/- 0.8) MPa at powder/liquid= 2 to (11.0 +/- 0.8) MPa at powder/liquid = 3.5 (p < 0.05). Pore volume fraction, P, ranged from 62.4% to 47.9%. A relationship was established: S = 47.7 x (1 - P)(2.3). The strength of the injectable CPC(D) matched/exceeded the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants that required machining. The novel injectable CPC(D) with a relatively high strength may be useful in filling defects with limited accessibility such as periodontal repair and tooth root-canal fillings, and in minimally-invasive techniques such as percutaneous vertebroplasty to fill the lesions and to strengthen the osteoporotic bone.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of the micro/nano structured biogenic silver doped calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; David, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Scale formation in PVC pipelines reduces the water flow efficiency and enhances microbial contamination. A bio-based composite material comprising of silver doped calcium phosphate (Cp-Ag) was synthesized using a simple technique (photo catalysis) and herein, we report for the first time on preparation and evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of silver doped calcite extracted from the scale in drinking water pipe lines. Five concentrations of silver doped calcite materials viz,5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were prepared using chemical ammonia mediated synthetic method. The material Cp-Ag was characterized by using the techniques UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and X-ray flouresence microscopy (XRF). Typical rhombohedral structure of the silver doped calcite was observed. XRF and XPS studies confirmed the presence of both calcium and silver in the composite material (Cp-Ag). The silver doped calcite material exhibited enhanced inhibition against Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus (Kirby-Bauer discs diffusion assay) which is also dependent on the concentration of the Cp-Ag material.

  17. Initial deposition of calcium phosphate ceramic on polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene by rf magnetron sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddes, B.; Wolke, J. G. C.; Jansen, J. A.; Vredenberg, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings can be applied to improve the biological performance of polymeric medical implants. A strong interfacial bond between ceramic and polymer is required for clinical applications. Because the chemical structure of an interface plays an important role in the adhesion of a coating, we studied the formation of the interface between CaP and polystyrene (PS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The coating was deposited in a radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering deposition system. Prior to the deposition, some samples received an oxygen plasma pretreatment. We found that the two substrates show a strongly different reactivity towards CaP. On PS a phosphorus and oxygen enrichment is present at the interface. This is understood from POx complexes that are able to bind to the PS. The effects of the plasma pretreatment are overruled by the deposition process itself. On PTFE, a calcium enrichment and an absence of phosphorus is found at the interface. The former is the result of CaF2-like material being formed at the interface. The latter may be the result of phosphorus reacting with escaping fluorine to a PF3 molecule, which than escapes from the material as a gas molecule. We found that the final structure of the interface is mostly controlled by the bombardment of energetic particles escaping either from the plasma or from the sputtering target. The work described here can be used to understand and improve the adhesion of CaP coatings deposited on medical substrates.

  18. In Vitro Properties of Orthodontic Adhesives with Fluoride or Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clara Ka Wai; Wu, Christine D.; Evans, Carla A.

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of orthodontic adhesives with fluoride or amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in reducing bacterial adhesion and enamel demineralization. Forty human premolars each sectioned buccolingually into three parts were bracketed with control resin (Transbond XT) or adhesives containing ACP (Aegis Ortho) or fluoride (QuickCure). Artificial lesions induced by pH cycling were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometry (XPS) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). After 28 days, Aegis Ortho demonstrated the lowest calcium and phosphorous content by XPS analysis. After 42 days, reductions in lesion depth areas were 23.6% for Quick Cure and 20.3% for Aegis Ortho (P < 0.05). In the presence of 1% sucrose, adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Aegis Ortho and Quick Cure was reduced by 41.8% and 37.7% (P < 0.05) as compared to Transbond XT. Composites containing ACP or fluoride reduced bacterial adherence and lesion formation as compared to a composite without ACP or fluoride. PMID:21912546

  19. P-recovery by secondary nucleation and growth of calcium phosphates on magnetite mineral.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Nuray; Hoffmann, Erhard; Hahn, Hermann H

    2006-03-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates from supersaturated solutions seeded with magnetite powder (magnetite mineral, Fe3O4) has been studied in lab scale in the pH range 6.9-7.7. While the initial concentration of phosphorus was 1.29 mmol/l, the initial molar ratio of Ca/P was taken one to three times of the stoichiometric calcium to phosphorus ratio of hydroxyapatite. To bring out the secondary nucleation, the precipitation system was allowed to relax and pH of the solution was maintained at the initially preset value. The period before base was added for the first time during relaxation was defined as lagtime and sodium hydroxide added during the relaxation was evaluated as the degree of growth. The lagtime was found to be dependent on the solution pH, therefore on the initial amount of precipitation. Coverage of seed surface by heterogeneous nucleation is essential. Since all precipitation by secondary nucleation took place on the seed material, precipitation during relaxation was due to growth of the solid phase on the seed surfaces. It was found that there was a pH range in which growth rate was directly proportional to pH. However, at lower residual concentrations of phosphorus, despite relatively higher pH, the growth rate was decreased.

  20. Calcium-Phosphate-Osteopontin Particles Reduce Biofilm Formation and pH Drops in in situ Grown Dental Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Ibsen, Casper J S; Birkedal, Henrik; Nyvad, Bente

    2017-01-01

    This 2-period crossover study investigated the effect of calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles on biofilm formation and pH in 48-h biofilms grown in situ. Bovine milk osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that has been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion to salivary-coated surfaces. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles have been shown to reduce biofilm formation and pH drops in a 5-species laboratory model of dental biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. Here, smooth surface biofilms from 10 individuals were treated ex vivo 6 times/day for 30 min with either calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles or sterile saline. After growth, the amount of biofilm formed was determined by confocal microscopy, and pH drops upon exposure to glucose were monitored using confocal-microscopy-based pH ratiometry. A total of 160 biofilms were analysed. No adverse effects of repeated ex vivo treatment with calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles were observed. Particle treatment resulted in a 32% lower amount of biofilm formed (p < 0.05), but large inter-individual differences could be observed. Biofilm pH was significantly higher upon particle treatment, both shortly after the addition of glucose and after 30 min of incubation with glucose (p < 0.05). Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may represent a new therapeutic approach to caries control and aim at directly targeting virulence factors involved in the caries process. Further studies are required to determine the effect of particle treatment on more acidogenic/aciduric biofilms as well as the remineralizing potential of the particles.

  1. Seminal Plasma pH, Inorganic Phosphate, Total and Ionized Calcium Concentrations In The Assessment of Human Spermatozoa Function

    PubMed Central

    Banjoko, S. Olatunbosun; Adeseolu, Fasiu O.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fertilization in humans is dependent on viability of the male spermatozoa among other factors and there have been conflicting reports on the role of pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in sperm function. This study therefore aimed to investigate seminal plasma pH, inorganic phosphate, total and ionized calcium concentrations relative to spermatozoa function. Material and Methods: Seminal plasma concentrations of pH, total calcium, ionized calcium (Ca++); inorganic phosphate, motility and spermatozoa count were determined in 80 males by standard methods. Results: Forty-nine of the subjects had normal spermatozoa motility (> 60%) and 31 had hypomotility (< 60%). The hypomotility group exhibited lower calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations; 0.19+0.01mmol/L compared with normal motility group; 0.24+0.01mmol/L (p<0.001) the latter also had significantly higher inorganic phosphate; 7.83+1.27 while the former had 5.64+1.62mmol/L (p= 0.004). The mean spermatozoa counts for hypomotility and normal motility group were 42.0 ± 13 x 106 , 72.35 + 20 x 106 respectively (p< 0.001). No significant differences were observed in pH, volume of ejaculate and total calcium concentration between the hypomotility and normal motility groups The mean concentrations of pH were 7.51 ± 0.02 and 7.54 ± 0.03 respectively (p= 0.21) and total calcium; 3.10 ± 0.12 and 3.36 ± 0.14mmol/L respectively (p= 0.16 ). There was a significant difference in percentage of abnormal forms in both groups with hypomotile group having 36% compared to mormal motility group with 5% (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Correlations were observed between seminal concentrations of calcium ions, inorganic phosphate, spermatozoa count and motility but not with total calcium concentrations and pH and therefore should be considered in understanding male infertility and preparation of media for sperm preservation for in vitro fertilization. PMID:24392378

  2. Calcium Carbonate Phosphate Binding Ion Exchange Filtration and Accelerated Denitrification Improve Public Health Standards and Combat Eutrophication in Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Yanamadala, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    Cultural eutrophication, the process by which a lake becomes rich in dissolved nutrients as a result of point and nonpoint pollutant sources, is a major cause of the loss of natural lake ecosystems throughout the world. The process occurs naturally in all lakes, but phosphate-rich nutrient runoff from sources such as storm drains and agricultural runoff is a major cause of excess phosphate-induced eutrophication. Especially in Madrona Marsh, one of the last remaining vernal marshes in the greater Los Angeles area, California, cultural eutrophication has become a major problem. In this study, calcium carbonate was found to be an excellent phosphate binder, reducing up to 70% of the phosphates in a given sample of water, and it posed relatively negligent ecological repercussions. This study involved the testing of this principle in both the laboratory and the real ecosystem. A calcium carbonate lacing procedure was first carried out to determine its efficacy in Madrona Marsh. Through this, ammonia was found to interfere with the solubility of calcium carbonate and therefore to be a hindrance to the reduction of phosphate. Therefore, various approaches for reduction of ammonia were tested, including aeration, use of fiber growth media, and plants, mainly Caulerpa verticellata, chosen for it hardiness, primarily in an attempt to increase population of Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas. All were successful in moderately reducing ammonia levels. In addition, soil sampling, sediment analysis, microscopic plant analysis, microorganism and macroinvertebrate identification, and rate law formulations were conducted. The effect of phosphate and ammonia reduction on the populations of enterobacteria was also an important focus of this experiment. Varying concentrations of phosphate, ammonia, and calcium carbonate in conjunction with phosphate were tested in Madrona Marsh to determine their effects on the populations of enteropathogens on nonspecific blood agar, MacConkey agar, and

  3. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-01-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3-HA) with ≈5 wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO3-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO3-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO4-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ∼1.1 wt% exists for synthesis of SiO4-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22983020

  4. Calcium phosphate granules in the hepatopancreas of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Becker, G L; Chen, C H; Greenawalt, J W; Lehninger, A L

    1974-05-01

    The hepatopancreas of the adult male blue crab Callinectes sapidus in intermolt was found to contain substantial amounts of calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus, averaging about 260, 20, and 250 microg-atoms per g wet tissue, respectively, accounting for over 10% of the tissue dry weight. Electron microscopy of the intact tissue showed three qualitatively different granular structures having electron densities suggestive of high mineral content. After fractionation of the tissue using centrifugal techniques, almost 95% of the total mineral was found to reside in a heavy, nonmitochondrial particulate fraction(s). The bulk of the low-speed pellet consisted of relatively dense, roughly spherical granules 1-5 microm in diameter, which could be considerably purified by repeated suspension in water and low-speed sedimentation. In the electron microscope the isolated granules appeared basically similar to one of the three characteristic types of electron-dense granules seen in the intact tissue. Although the freshly isolated granules lost approximately 50% of their wet weight when dried at 105 degrees C, only 10% more was lost upon dry ashing at 450 degrees C, suggesting a fairly low content of organic material. Chemical analysis revealed calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate at 5.7, 2.1, and 4.4 microg-atoms per mg dried granules, respectively, accounting for 69% of the dry weight of the fraction. By specific enzymatic assays, the freshly isolated granules were found to contain ATP, ADP, and AMP at levels of 0.13, 0.03, and 0.01 micromol/mg, or 8% of their total dry weight. The remainder of the total phosphorus contributed an additional 3%, whereas carbonate, citrate, oxalate, and protein each constituted no more than 1%. The mineral granules of the crab hepatopancreas appear to function as storage forms of calcium and phosphate during the intermolt period. This tissue appears promising as a model for study of the cellular events associated with biological

  5. Nano clay-enhanced calcium phosphate cements and hydrogels for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs improvements in preventing biofilm formation and better tissue integration. This research addressed the above mentioned research gaps by formulating novel biomaterial composites. Calcium phosphate cements are the alternative bone cements that are bioresorbable and promote tissue integration. These cements lack sufficient mechanical strengths to be used in load bearing sites. The addition of nanoparticles is hypothesized to improve the mechanical properties without inducing toxicity to the tissue. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating compression and flexural strengths in addition to cytocompatibility tests. Results indicate that addition of nano-clay particles (halloysites nanotubes) improved the compressive strength and osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate cements. To address the research need of preventing implant failure due to infection and aseptic loosening, novel coatings are needed. Hydrogels are well establish for their ability to mimic in vivo environment, promote cell viability and as drug delivery vehicles. Use of composites of hydrogels and drug-loaded nanoparticles to prevent infection was evaluated. Cytocompatibility results indicate good cell viability. Antibacterial results show sustained release

  6. Effects of Organic Additives on the Morphology of Various Calcium Phosphates Prepared via Solution and Emulsion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, I.; Wei, T.; Kikushima, Y.; Riman, R.; Akazawa, T.

    2011-10-01

    Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles were prepared through the reaction between calcium nitrate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate in a solution and a multiple emulsion. Organic compounds were added into the phosphate solution with the aim of modifying the morphology. Large parallelogrammic particles of DCPD were obtained with no additive. By adding 2-aminoethanol, the product was changed to rhombic in shape and reduced to one-twentieth in size, and the phase was DCPA. In the multiple emulsion, microspheres composed of DCPA were prepared. They were constructed by flaky, primary particles. The crystalline phase and morphology were affected by the concentrations of surfactants in the oil and outer aqueous phases.

  7. In-situ observation of the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammeier, Jessica; Hippler, Dorothee; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Sacher, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2*nH2O; ACP) is often a precursor phase of the mineral (hydroxy-) apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) that can be formed in natural settings during both authigenic and biogenic mineral formation. Particularly, in the biomineralization process of fish tissue, ACP has shown to be an important transient phase. In solution ACP rapidly transforms into the crystalline phase. The transformation rate highly depends on the physico-chemical conditions of the solution: Ca & P availability, pH and temperature. In natural settings Ca can be provided by different sources: from (1) seawater, (2) porewater, or (3) diagenetically-altered carbonates, whereas local supersaturation of P can be induced by microbial activity. In this study, we performed phosphate precipitation experiments in order to monitor the transformation process of the ACP to crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. During the experiments the temperature was kept constant at 20.0 ± 0.01 ° C and pH at 9 ± 0.1. 50 ml of 0.3 CaCl 2H2O was titrated at a rate of 5 ml/min to an equal volume of 0.2 M Na2HPO4. The pH was kept constant by titration of 1 M NaOH. During the experiment samples were taken from the solution and instantly filtered. The obtained solid samples were lyophilized and analyzed with XRD, ATR and SEM. The respective solution samples were analyzed using ion chromatography and ICP OES, coupling the spectroscopic data with detailed solution chemistry data. We observed transformation of ACP to HAP to occur within 14 hours, illustrated in a clear peak shift in Raman spectra from 950 cm-1 to 960 cm-1. The obtained results are discussed in the aspects of distribution of major elements during the formation of phosphates and/or the diagenetic alteration of carbonates to phosphates in geologic settings. Financial support by DFG-FG 736 and NAWI Graz is kindly acknowledged.

  8. Effect of Si and Fe doping on calcium phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone bone analogous composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M Shah; Ahmed, I; Muja, N; Almeida, S; Rudd, C D; Bureau, M N; Nazhat, S N

    2012-04-01

    Reinforcing biodegradable polymers with phosphate-based glass fibres (PGF) is of interest for bone repair and regeneration. In addition to increasing the mechanical properties, PGF can also release bioinorganics, as they are water soluble, a property that may be controllably translated into a fully degradable composite. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the solubility of calcium-containing phosphate-based glasses (PG) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x=0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. On replacing SiO(2) with Fe(2)O(3), there was an increase in the glass transition temperature and density of the PG, suggesting greater crosslinking of the phosphate chains. This significantly reduced the dissolution rates of degradation and ion release. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL). Initially, the flexural strength and modulus significantly increased with PGF incorporation. In deionized water, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) displayed a significantly greater weight loss and ion release compared with PCL-Fe10. In simulated body fluid, brushite was formed only on the surface of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5). Dynamic mechanical analysis in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C revealed that the PCL-Fe10 storage modulus (E') was unchanged up to day 7, whereas the onset of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5)E' decrease occurred at day 4. At longer-term ageing in PBS, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) flexural strength and modulus decreased significantly. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PCL-PGF grew up to day 7 in culture. PGF can be used to control the properties of biodegradable composites for potential application as bone fracture fixation devices.

  9. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  10. Kinetics of calcium phosphate nucleation and growth on calcite: implications for predicting the fate of dissolved phosphate species in alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Putnis, Christine V; Menneken, Martina; Putnis, Andrew

    2012-01-17

    Unraveling the kinetics of calcium orthophosphate (Ca-P) precipitation and dissolution is important for our understanding of the transformation and mobility of dissolved phosphate species in soils. Here we use an in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) coupled with a fluid reaction cell to study the interaction of phosphate-bearing solutions with calcite surfaces. We observe that the mineral surface-induced formation of Ca-P phases is initiated with the aggregation of clusters leading to the nucleation and subsequent growth of Ca-P phases on calcite, at various pH values and ionic strengths relevant to soil solution conditions. A significant decrease in the dissolved phosphate concentration occurs due to the promoted nucleation of Ca-P phases on calcite surfaces at elevated phosphate concentrations and more significantly at high salt concentrations. Also, kinetic data analyses show that low concentrations of citrate caused an increase in the nucleation rate of Ca-P phases. However, at higher concentrations of citrate, nucleation acceleration was reversed with much longer induction times to form Ca-P nuclei. These results demonstrate that the nucleation-modifying properties of small organic molecules may be scaled up to analyze Ca-P dissolution-precipitation processes that are mediated by a more complex soil environment. This in situ observation, albeit preliminary, may contribute to an improved understanding of the fate of dissolved phosphate species in diverse soil systems.

  11. Effect of hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate on the auto-flocculation of the microalgae in a high-rate algal pond.

    PubMed

    Baya, D T; Effebi, K R; Tangou, T T; Keffala, C; Vasel, J L

    2013-01-01

    Recovering microalgae is one of the main technological and economic concerns in a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) because of their small size and their low density. This paper emphasizes the characterization (identification and assessment of potential flocculation) of chemical compounds involved in microalgae auto-flocculation in a HRAP. First, thermodynamic simulations were performed, using two models (i.e. Visual Minteq and a simplified thermodynamic model) in order to determine the chemical compounds of interest. Experimental tests were then carried out with these compounds for assessing their flocculation ability. Both models revealed that precipitates of calcium phosphates and their substituted forms were the compounds involved in the auto-flocculation. Moreover, experimental tests showed that the stoichiometric neutralization of algal charges by calcium phosphates (i.e. hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), octacalcium phosphate (Ca4H(PO4)3) and amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2)), at a pH within the range 7-10 yields 70-82% recovered algal biomass. The optimum ratio required for algae auto-flocculation was 0.33 Ca5(PO4)3OH/g DM(algae) at pH 10, 0.11 Ca4H(PO4)3/g DM(algae) at pH 7 and 0.23 g Ca3(PO4)2/g DM(algae) at pH 9. Auto-flocculation appears as a simple, sustainable and promising method for efficient harvesting of microalgae in a HRAP.

  12. Beta-type calcium phosphates with and without magnesium: From hydrolysis of brushite powder to robocasting of periodic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Richard, Raquel C; Sader, Márcia S; Dai, Jisen; Thiré, Rossana M S M; Soares, Gloria D A

    2014-10-01

    Several approaches have attempted to replace extensive bone loss, but each of them has their limitation. Nowadays, additive manufacture techniques have shown great potential for bone engineering. The objective of this study was to synthesize beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), beta tricalcium phosphate substituted by magnesium (β-TCMP), and biphasic calcium phosphate substituted by magnesium (BCMP) via hydrolysis and produce scaffolds for bone regeneration using robocasting technology. Calcium deficient apatites, with and without magnesium were obtained by hydrolysis, calcined and physico-chemically characterized. Colorimetric cell viability assay, calcium nodule formation, and the expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor beta-1 and collagen were assessed using a mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1). Direct-write assembly of cylindrical periodic scaffolds was done via robotic deposition using β-TCP, β-TCMP, and BCMP colloidal inks. The sintered scaffolds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Archimede's method, and uniaxial compression test. According to the cell viability assay, the powders induced cell proliferation. Calcium nodule formation and bone markers activity suggested that the materials present potential value in bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds built by robocasting presented interconnected porous and exhibited mean compressive strength between 7.63 and 18.67 MPa, compatible with trabecular bone.

  13. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuechao; Walboomers, X Frank; van den Dolder, Juliette; Yang, Fang; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Mingwen; Jansen, John A

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and bioactivity of the transfection. We also intended to investigate the behavior of transfected cells when seeded on 3-dimensional titanium fiber mesh scaffolds. Nanoparticles of calcium phosphate encapsulating plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (plasmid enhanced green fluorescent protein-BMP2) were prepared. Then, STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells were transfected using these nanoparticles. Transfection and bioactivity of the secreted BMP2 were examined. Thereafter, the transfected cells were cultured on a fibrous titanium mesh. The cultures were investigated using scanning electron microscipy and evaluated for cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for odontogenesis-related gene expression. The results showed that the size of the DNA-loaded particles was approximately 100 nm in diameter. Nanoparticles could protect the DNA encapsulated inside from external DNase and release the loaded DNA in a low-acid environment (pH 3.0). In vitro, nanoparticle transfection was shown to be effective and to accelerate or promote the odontogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells when cultured in the 3-dimensional scaffolds. Based on our results, plasmid DNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles appear to be an effective non-viral vector for gene delivery and functioned well for odontogenic differentiation through Bmp2 transfection.

  14. The Calcium Phosphate Matrix of FGF-2-Apatite Composite Layers Contributes to Their Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Sakane, Masataka; Oyane, Ayako; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to fabricate fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-apatite composite layers on titanium (Ti) pins in one step at 25 °C using a supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution, and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and biological effects of the coated Ti pins compared with coated Ti pins fabricated at 37 °C. Ti pins were immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution containing 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 25 °C for 24 h (25F0.5, 25F1.0, and 25F2.0) or containing 4.0 µg/mL FGF-2 at 37 °C for 48 h (37F4.0). Except for the 25F0.5, the chemical compositions and the mitogenic activity levels of FGF-2 of the composite layers formed by these two methods were similar, except for the Ca/P molar ratio, which was markedly smaller at 25 °C (1.55–1.56 ± 0.01–0.02, p = 0.0008–0.0045) than at 37 °C (1.67 ± 0.11). Thus, either the apatite was less mature or the amount of amorphous calcium phosphate was higher in the composite layer formed at 25 °C. In vivo, the pin tract infection rate by visual inspection for 37F4.0 (45%) was lower than that for 25F1.0 (80%, p = 0.0213), and the rate of osteomyelitis for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0341). The extraction torque for 37F4.0 (0.276 ± 0.117 Nm) was higher than that for 25F0.5 (0.192 ± 0.117 Nm, p = 0.0142) and that for 25F1.0 (0.176 ± 0.133 Nm, p = 0.0079). The invasion rate of S. aureus for 37F4.0 (35%) was lower than that for 25F0.5 (75%, p = 0.0110). On the whole, the FGF-2-apatite composite layer formed at 25 °C tended to be less effective at improving fixation strength in the bone-pin interface and resisting pin tract infections. These results suggest that the chemistry of the calcium phosphate matrix that embeds FGF-2, in addition to FGF-2 content and activity, has a significant impact on composite infection resistance and fixation strength. PMID:24918287

  15. Influence of calcium chloride and aprotinin in the in vivo biological performance of a composite combining biphasic calcium phosphate granules and fibrin sealant.

    PubMed

    Le Guehennec, Laurent; Goyenvalle, Eric; Aguado, Eric; Pilet, Paul; Spaethe, Reiner; Daculsi, Guy

    2007-08-01

    Highly bioactive biomaterials have been developed to replace bone grafts in orthopedic revision and maxillofacial surgery for bone augmentation. A mouldable, self-hardening material can be obtained by combining TricOs Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Granules and Tissucol Fibrin Sealant. Two components, calcium chloride and antifibrinolytic agents (aprotinin), are essential for the stability of the fibrin clot. The ingrowth of cells in composites combining sealants without calcium chloride or with a low concentration of aprotinin was evaluated in vivo in an experiment on rabbits. Bone colonization was compared using TricOs alone or with the composite made from TricOs and the standard fibrin sealant. Without the addition of calcium chloride, the calcium ions released by the ceramic component interacted with the components of the sealant too late to stabilize the clot. With a low concentration of aprotinin, the degradation of the clot occurred more quickly, leading to the absence of a scaffold on which the bone cells could colonize the composite. Our results indicate that a stable fibrin scaffold is crucial for bone colonization. The low calcium chloride and low aprotinin groups have shown lower bone growth. Further studies will be necessary to determine the minimal amount of antifibrinolytic agent (aprotinin) necessary to allow the same level of osteogenic activity as the TricOs-fibrin glue composite.

  16. Increased red cell calcium, decreased calcium adenosine triphosphatase, and altered membrane proteins during fava bean hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (Mediterranean variant) individuals.

    PubMed

    Turrini, F; Naitana, A; Mannuzzu, L; Pescarmona, G; Arese, P

    1985-08-01

    RBCs from four glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient (Mediterranean variant) subjects were studied during fava bean hemolysis. In the density-fractionated RBC calcium level, Ca2+-ATPase activity, reduced glutathione level, and ghost protein pattern were studied. In the bottom fraction, containing most heavily damaged RBCs, calcium level ranged from 143 to 244 mumol/L RBCs (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 17 +/- 5 mumol/L RBCs). The Ca2+-ATPase activity ranged from 0.87 to 1.84 mumol ATP consumed/g Hb/min (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 2.27 +/- 0.4). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of ghosts showed: (1) the presence of high mol wt aggregates (in three cases they were reduced by dithioerythritol; in one case, only partial reduction was possible); (2) the presence of multiple, scattered new bands; and (3) the reduction of band 3. Oxidant-mediated damage to active calcium extrusion, hypothetically associated with increased calcium permeability, may explain the large increase in calcium levels. They, in turn, could activate calcium-dependent protease activity, giving rise to the profound changes in the ghost protein pattern.

  17. Sustained delivery of calcium and orthophosphate ions from amorphous calcium phosphate and poly(L-lactic acid)-based electrospinning nanofibrous scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xufeng; Liu, Zhongning; Tian, Feng; Chen, Siqian; Lei, Lei; Jiang, Ting; Feng, Qingling; Fan, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate electrospinning poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold with different contents of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which is suitable for using in bone regeneration through sustained release of calcium and orthophosphate ions. Three groups of nanofibrous scaffolds, ACP-free PLLA, ACP-5 wt%/PLLA and ACP-10 wt%/PLLA, are developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gel permeation chromatography. Calcium and phosphate colorimetric assay kits are used to test ions released from scaffold during hydrolytic degradation. The results show ACP-5 wt%/PLLA and ACP-10 wt%/PLLA scaffolds have relatively high degradation rates than ACP-free PLLA group. The bioactivity evaluation further reveals that ACP-5 wt%/PLLA scaffold presents more biocompatible feature with pre-osteoblast cells and significant osteogenesis ability of calvarial bone defect. Due to the facile preparation method, sustained calcium and orthophosphate release behavior, and excellent osteogenesis capacity, the presented ACP/PLLA nanofibrous scaffold has potential applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:28361908

  18. Response of stem cells from different origins to biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Sonja E; Glickman, Robert; da Silva, Wagner N; Arinzeh, Treena L; Kerkis, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics have been successfully applied in a broad variety of presentation forms and with different ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). BCPs have been loaded with stem cells from different origins for bone tissue engineering purposes, but evidence of stem cell behavior on different compositions (various HA/β-TCP ratios) and physical features of BCPs is limited. We compared the adhesion, proliferation, viability and osteogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on granular BCPs with equal HA/β-TCP ratio of diverse particle sizes and on porous blocks which had different chemical compositions. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was compared to adipose-derived (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC) stem cells, as well as to pre-osteoblasts on a particulate BCP. MSCs growing on granular BCPs demonstrated increased number as compared to MSCs growing on blocks. Cells proliferated to a greater extent on small granular BCPs, while large granular BCPs and blocks promoted cell differentiation. Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in osteogenesis was upregulated in MSCs on bioceramics in basal medium which indicates that BCPs may have osteoinductive potential. This was confirmed with the upregulation of osteochondrogenic markers, at different time points, when stem cells from various tissues were grown on the BCP. This study demonstrates that BCPs, depending on their physical features and chemical composition, modulate stem cell behavior, and that stem cells from different origins are inherently distinct in their gene expression profile and can be triggered toward osteochondrogenic fate by BCPs.

  19. Atomic scale modeling of iron-doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sandrine; Kaur, Amandeep; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Renaudin, Guillaume

    2017-03-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) are bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) and beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, Ca3(PO4)2). Because their chemical and mineral composition closely resembles that of the mineral component of bone, they are potentially interesting candidates for bone repair surgery, and doping can advantageously be used to improve their biological behavior. However, it is important to describe the doping mechanism of BCP thoroughly in order to be able to master its synthesis and then to fully appraise the benefit of the doping process. In the present paper we describe the ferric doping mechanism: the crystallographic description of our samples, sintered at between 500°C and 1100°C, was provided by Rietveld analyses on X-ray powder diffraction, and the results were confirmed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The mechanism is temperature-dependent, like the previously reported zinc doping mechanism. Doping was performed on the HAp phase, at high temperature only, by an insertion mechanism. The Fe(3+) interstitial site is located in the HAp hexagonal channel, shifted from its centre to form a triangular three-fold coordination. At lower temperatures, the Fe(3+) are located at the centre of the channel, forming linear two-fold coordinated O-Fe-O entities. The knowledge of the doping mechanism is a prerequisite for a correct synthesis of the targeted bioceramic with the adapted (Ca+Fe)/P ratio, and so to be able to correctly predict its potential iron release or magnetic properties.

  20. Osteogenic properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and fibrin glue based composites.

    PubMed

    Le Nihouannen, Damien; Saffarzadeh, Afchine; Aguado, Eric; Goyenvalle, Eric; Gauthier, Olivier; Moreau, Françoise; Pilet, Paul; Spaethe, Reiner; Daculsi, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics are currently used in various types of orthopaedic and maxillofacial applications because of their osteoconductive properties. Fibrin glue is also used in surgery due to its haemostatic, chemotactic and mitogenic properties and also as scaffolds for cell culture and transplantation. In order to adapt to surgical sites, bioceramics are shaped in blocks or granules and preferably in porous forms. Combining these bioceramics with fibrin glue provides a mouldable and self-hardening composite biomaterial. The aim of this work is to study the osteogenic properties of this composite material using two different animal models. The formation of newly formed bone (osteoinduction) and bone healing capacity (osteconduction) have been study in the paravertebral muscles of sheep and in critical sized defects in the femoral condyle of rabbits, respectively. The different implantations sites were filled with composite material associating Ca-P granules and fibrin glue. Ca-P granules of 1-2 mm were composed with 60% of hydroxyapatite and 40% of beta tricalcium phosphate in weight. The fibrin glue was composed of fibrinogen, thrombin and other biological factors. After both intramuscular or intraosseous implantations for 24 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks, samples were analyzed using histology and histomorphometry and mechanical test. In all cases, the newly formed bone was observed in close contact and around the ceramic granules. Depending on method of quantification, 6.7% (with BSEM) or 17% (with micro CT) of bone had formed in the sheep muscles and around 40% in the critical sized bone rabbit defect after 24 weeks. The Ca-P/fibrin material could be used for filling bone cavities in various clinical indications.

  1. EFFECT OF ACTIVE ACCUMULATION OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA.

    PubMed

    GREENAWALT, J W; ROSSI, C S; LEHNINGER, A L

    1964-10-01

    Rat liver mitochondria allowed to accumulate maximal amounts of Ca(++) and HPO(4) (=) ions from the suspending medium in vitro during respiration have a considerably higher specific gravity than normal mitochondria and may be easily separated from the latter by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of sucrose or cesium chloride. When the mitochondria are allowed to accumulate less than maximal amounts of Ca(++) and HPO(4) (=) from the medium, they have intermediate specific gravities which are roughly proportional to their content of calcium phosphate. Maximally "loaded" mitochondria are relatively homogeneous with respect to specific gravity. Correlated biochemical and electron microscopic studies show that Ca(++)-loaded mitochondria contain numerous dense granules, of which some 85 per cent are over 500 A in diameter. These granules are electron-opaque not only following fixation and staining with heavy metal reagents, but also following fixation with formaldehyde, demonstrating that the characteristic granules in Ca(++)-loaded mitochondria have intrinsic electron-opacity. The dense granules are almost always located within the inner compartment of the mitochondria and not in the space between the inner and outer membranes. They are frequently located at or near the cristae and they often show electron-transparent "cores." Such granules appear to be made up of clusters of smaller dense particles, but preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis and electron diffraction studies have revealed no evidence of crystallinity in the deposits. The electron-opaque granules decrease in number when the Ca(++)-loaded mitochondria are incubated with 2,4-dinitrophenol; simultaneously there is discharge of Ca(++) and phosphate from the mitochondria into the medium.

  2. In vitro surface reaction layer formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate cement-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changsheng; Chen, Chien-Wen; Ducheyne, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Composites of hydrated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and bioactive glass (BG) containing Si were immersed in vitro to study the effect of chemical composition on surface reaction layer formation and dissolution/precipitation behavior. The solutions used were 0.05 M tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane/HCl (tris buffer), tris buffer supplemented with plasma electrolyte (TE) with pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C, and this solution complemented with 10% newborn bovine serum (TES). The post-immersion solutions were analyzed for changes in Ca, PO(4) and Si concentrations. The reacted surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sample weight variations after immersion were also determined. The results showed that the composition of the bioactive composite CPCs greatly affected their behavior in solution and the formation of apatite bioactive surface reaction layers. After immersion in the TE solution, Ca ions were taken up by all samples during the entire immersion duration. Initially, the P ion concentration increased sharply, and then decreased. This reaction pattern reveals the formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate layer on the surface of these composite CPCs. FTIR revealed that the layer was, in fact, poorly crystallized Ca-deficient carbonate apatite. The thickness of the layer was 12-14 microm and it was composed of rod-like apatite with directional arrangement. For immersion in the TES solution, the Ca and Si ion concentrations showed a similar behavior to that in TE, but the release rate of Si ions was higher. FTIR revealed that after TES immersion, not only did the typical, poorly crystallized, Ca-deficient carbonated apatite form, as it did in TE, but also the serum proteins co-adsorbed on the surface and thereby affected the surface reaction layer formation. A thinner apatite layer was formed and was composed of a micro-porous layer comprising rounded particles in a glue

  3. Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Weir, Michael D.; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Nancy; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chow, Laurence C.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties. Methods Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and a quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) were synthesized. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) primer and adhesive served as control. DMADDM was incorporated into primer and adhesive at 5% by mass. NACP was incorporated into adhesive at filler mass fractions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to test the antibacterial bonding agents. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases from the cured adhesive samples were measured vs. filler level and solution pH of 7, 5.5 and 4. Results Adding 5% DMADDM and 10–40% NACP into bonding agent, and water-aging for 28 days, did not affect dentin bond strength, compared to SBMP control at 1 day (p > 0.1). Adding DMADDM into bonding agent substantially decreased the biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production. Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci were greatly reduced for bonding agents containing DMADDM. Increasing NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive increased the Ca and P ion release by an order of magnitude. Decreasing solution pH from 7 to 4 increased the ion release from adhesive by 6–10 folds. Significance Bonding agents containing antibacterial DMADDM and remineralizer NACP were formulated to have Ca and P ion release, which increased with NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive. NACP adhesive was “smart” and dramatically increased the ion release at cariogenic pH 4, when these ions would be most-needed to inhibit caries. Therefore, bonding agent

  4. White light emission of dysprosium doped lanthanum calcium phosphate oxide and oxyfluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luewarasirikul, N.; Kim, H. J.; Meejitpaisan, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lanthanum calcium phosphate oxide and oxyfluoride glasses doped with dysprosium oxide were prepared by melt-quenching technique with chemical composition 20La2O3:10CaO:69P2O5:1Dy2O3 and 20La2O3:10CaF2:69P2O5:1Dy2O3. The physical, optical and luminescence properties of the glass samples were studied to evaluate their potential to using as luminescence materials for solid-state lighting applications. The density, molar volume and refractive index of the glass samples were carried out. The optical and luminescence properties were studied by investigating absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of the glass samples. The absorption spectra were investigated in the UV-Vis-NIR region from 300 to 2000 nm. The excitation spectra observed under 574 nm emission wavelength showed the highest peak centered at 349 nm (6H15/2 → 6P7/2). The emission spectra, excited with 349 nm excitation wavelength showed two major peaks corresponding to 482 nm blue emission (4F9/2 → 6H15/2) and 574 nm yellow emission (4F9/2 → 6H13/2). The experimental lifetime were found to be 0.539 and 0.540 for oxide and oxyfluoride glass sample, respectively. The x,y color coordinates under 349 nm excitation wavelength were (0.38, 0.43) for both glass samples, that be plotted in white region of CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. The CCT values obtained from the glass samples are 4204 K for oxide glass and 4228 K for oxyfluoride glass corresponding to the commercial cool white light (3100-4500 K). Judd-Ofelt theory had also been employed to obtain the J-O parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), oscillator strength, radiative transition possibility, stimulated emission cross section and branching ratio. The Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6 trend of J-O parameters of both glass samples may indicate the good quality of a glass host for using as optical device application. Temperature dependence of emission spectra was studied from 300 K to 10 K and found that the intensity of the emission peak was found to be increased with

  5. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Farokh Gisovar, Elham; Hedayati, Nassim; Shadman, Niloofar; Shafiee, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel of primary teeth molars. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted on 180 extracted primary molars. They were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was divided into 2 subgroups (treated with CPP-ACP and untreated). In subgroups with CPP-ACP, enamel was treated with CPP-ACP paste 1 h/d for 5 days. Types of adhesives that were evaluated in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, AdheSE One F, single Bond 2, SE Bond, and Adper Prompt L-Pop. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine and mode of failure was evaluated under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by T test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Fisher exact test using SPSS18. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level. Results: Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to enamel of primary teeth treated and untreated with CPP-ACP showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mode of failure in all groups regardless of CPP-ACP administration was mainly adhesive type. Our results indicated that CPP-ACP did not affect shear bond strength of studied adhesives to primary teeth enamel. Conclusions: To have a successful and durable composite restoration, having a high strength bonding is essential. Considering the wide use of CPP-ACP in preventing tooth decay and the role of adhesive shear bond strength (SBS) in success of composite restoration, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the SBS of adhesives to primary teeth

  6. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  7. Novel calcium phosphate nanocomposite with caries-inhibition in a human in situ model

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary Anne S.; Weir, Michael D.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Secondary caries at the restoration margins remains the main reason for failure. Although calcium phosphate (CaP) composites are promising for caries inhibition, there has been no report of CaP composite to inhibit caries in situ. The objectives of this study were to investigate the caries-inhibition effect of nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) in a human in situ model for the first time, and to determine colony-forming units (CFU) and Ca and P ion concentrations of biofilms on the composite restorations. Methods NACP with a mean particle size of 116 nm were synthesized via a spray-drying technique. Two composites were fabricated: NACP nanocomposite, and control composite filled with glass particles. Twenty-five volunteers wore palatal devices containing bovine enamel slabs with cavities restored with NACP or control composite. After 14 days, the adherent biofilms were collected for analyses. Transverse microradiography determined the enamel mineral profiles at the margins, and the enamel mineral loss ! Z was measured. Results NACP nanocomposite released Ca and P ions and the release significantly increased at cariogenic low pH (p < 0.05). Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite contained higher Ca (p = 0.007) and P ions (p = 0.005) than those of control (n = 25). There was no significant difference in biofilm CFU between the two composites (p > 0.1). Microradiographs showed typical subsurface lesions in enamel next to control composite, but much less lesion around NACP nanocomposite. Enamel mineral loss ! Z (mean ± sd; n = 25) around NACP nanocomposite was 13.8 ± 9.3 μm, much less than 33.5 ± 19.0 μm of the control (p = 0.001). Significance Novel NACP nanocomposite substantially reduced caries formation in a human in situ model for the first time. Enamel mineral loss at the margins around NACP nanocomposite was less than half of the mineral loss around control composite. Therefore, the Ca and P ion-releasing NACP

  8. Association of collagen with calcium phosphate promoted osteogenic responses of osteoblast-like MG63 cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yoon Jung; Chun, Jae-Sig; Lee, Woo-Kul

    2011-04-01

    In this investigation, the effects of the association of the collagen (COLL) molecules with the calcium phosphate (CaP) film were examined with respect to both the physicochemical properties of the CaP films and the osteoblast responses, such as the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. The COLL pre-adsorbed CaP film (CaPA) exhibited significant changes in the surface morphology compared to the COLL incorporated CaP film (CaPC). The adhesions of the osteoblast-like MG63 cells were similar on the CaPC or CaPA films. However, the proliferation of the MG63 cells on CaPC was comparable to CaP but considerably different than CaPA. The differentiation of the MG63 cells was greatly improved on CaPC and CaPA compared to CaP and more pronounced on CaPA. The presence of COLL within or on the CaP films significantly modulated the expression of the phenotypic genes, including osteopontin (OPN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The expression patterns of these genes elucidated that COLL that was present within or on the CaP film supported the osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. These positive effects were stronger for CaPA than CaPC. The bone-like nodules formed on all of the specimens. However, the mineralization of CaPC and CaPA was significantly higher than CaP, indicating that the association of CaP with COLL promoted the mineral deposition. Therefore, the association of the COLL molecules with the CaP film induced positive effects on the biomineralization. Overall, the incorporation of COLL efficiently enhanced the osteoblast responses of CaP. This system can be utilized in a drug delivery system using calcium phosphate. Although the incorporation effects were slightly higher for the osteoblast responses of CaPA than CaPC, CaPC can be used when the longer drug release times are desirable.

  9. Performance of fuel cell using calcium phosphate hydrogel membrane prepared from waste incineration fly ash and chicken bone powder.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Naoki; Jikihara, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-09-15

    Waste incineration fly ash and bone powder could be successfully recycled to calcium phosphate hydrogel, a type of fast proton conductor. The electric conductivity of the crystallized hydrogel from them was compared with that from calcium carbonate reagent. It was found that the conductivity of the hydrogel from bone powder is almost equal to that from calcium carbonate reagent, which is higher than that from incineration fly ash. Because the crystallized hydrogel from incineration ash has a lower crystallinity than that from bone powder and calcium carbonate reagent. However, the difference of the conductivity among them can be hardly observed above 100 degrees C. The fuel cell with membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using the calcium phosphate hydrogel membrane prepared from incineration fly ash and bone powder was observed to generate electricity. The performance of fuel cells having the hydrogel membrane obtained from all raw materials increases with the cell temperature, and the fuel cell containing the hydrogel membrane from incineration fly ash has the highest dependence of the fuel cell performance. For this reason, the difference in the cell performance among them can be hardly observed above 120 degrees C. This tendency agrees with the change in the electric conductivity with the temperature. Further, the performance of all fuel cells with the hydrogel membrane is superior to that of the fuel cell with perfluorosulfonic polymer membrane at temperatures greater than approximately 85 degrees C.

  10. CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

  11. Theory of Crystal Growth, Kinetics of Dissolution and Transformation of Calcium Phosphates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingwu

    The kink density along a (01) step on the (001) face of a Kossel crystal is derived from a kinetic steady state approach by considering the elementary events at the step. When the kink formation energy, epsilon , is very high compared with the thermal energy kT, the kink density, rho, is found to be a function of the saturation ratio, S. For S > 1, rho = 2a-1S^ {1over 2}exp(-epsilon /kT) while for S < 1, rho = 2a^{-1}exp( -epsilon/kT)/(2-S)^ {1over 2}. This finding may provide a theoretical background for interpreting the observed growth kinetics of many sparingly soluble salts in aqueous solutions. The above approach is extended to analyze the configuration of a surface step of an AB crystal with NaCl type of lattice. It is found that the growth rate of an electrolyte crystal cannot be defined solely by the thermodynamic driving forces even when integration is the rate determining step. The rate also depends on the lattice ion activity ratio and relative frequencies of integration of A and B ions into kink sites on a step. At a given driving force, a maximum growth rate can be attained at a certain ratio of lattice ion activities. The dual constant composition (DCC) method is developed which enables the kinetics of phase transformation to be studied at constant driving forces. The applicability of this novel approach is verified in the investigation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP) transformation. In these studies, the concentrations of total calcium and phosphate are maintained constant to within 2% with the pH held to within +/-0.003 during the reaction. The dissolution kinetics of DCPD and OCP has been investigated using CC method at 37^circ C over a wide range of experimental conditions. Both processes can be generally described by a combined volume and surface diffusion mechanism with varying degrees of volume resistance at different pH's and solution hydrodynamics. The decrease in the dissolution rate with the extent of

  12. Mechanism of action of a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste delivering calcium and phosphate ingredients in the treatment of dental hypersensitivity. Part III: Prevention of dye penetration through dentin vs a calcium- and phosphate-free control.

    PubMed

    Winston, Anthony E; Charig, Andrew J; Thong, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the pain of dental hypersensitivity resulting from gum recession is from the movement of fluid within the exposed tubules of dentin, causing changes in pressure on the nerve within the pulpal cavity. One method of treating hypersensitivity is to occlude the tubules, preventing fluid movement. This article discusses the use of a dye penetration technique, which establishes this mechanism of action for a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste containing calcium and phosphate. Two groups of intact teeth were perfectly sealed with enamel paint. Windows 100-micro to 200-micro deep were opened on opposite sides of each tooth at the dentin-enamel junction and briefly etched using 20% polyacrylic acid. One batch of teeth was treated eight times for 30 mins each with a 1:3 slurry of the desensitizing toothpaste and another set with a similar slurry prepared from a calcium- and phosphate-free control. A 0.85% aqueous solution of acid red fuchsin dye was applied to each window and allowed to dry. After a brief rinse, the teeth were sectioned across the windows. Almost no dye penetration was seen in teeth treated with the desensitizing toothpaste; however, extensive penetration through the dentin was visible in the control-treated teeth. The differences in dye penetration for the two sets of teeth were significant by both subjective (P < .001) and objective (P < .01) measures. Tubule occlusion because of calcium and phosphate ions from the desensitizing toothpaste accounts for its tooth desensitizing efficacy.

  13. Next-generation resorbable polymer scaffolds with surface-precipitated calcium phosphate coatings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinku; Magno, Maria Hanshella R.; Ortiz, Ophir; McBride, Sean; Darr, Aniq; Kohn, Joachim; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation synthetic bone graft therapies will most likely be composed of resorbable polymers in combination with bioactive components. In this article, we continue our exploration of E1001(1k), a tyrosine-derived polycarbonate, as an orthopedic implant material. Specifically, we use E1001(1k), which is degradable, nontoxic, and osteoconductive, to fabricate porous bone regeneration scaffolds that were enhanced by two different types of calcium phosphate (CP) coatings: in one case, pure dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was precipitated on the scaffold surface and throughout its porous structure (E1001(1k) + CP). In the other case, bone matrix minerals (BMM) such as zinc, manganese and fluoride were co-precipitated within the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating (E1001(1k) + BMM). These scaffold compositions were compared against each other and against ChronOS (Synthes USA, West Chester, PA, USA), a clinically used bone graft substitute (BGS), which served as the positive control in our experimental design. This BGS is composed of poly(lactide co-ε-caprolactone) and beta-tricalcium phosphate. We used the established rabbit calvaria critical-sized defect model to determine bone regeneration within the defect for each of the three scaffold compositions. New bone formation was determined after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks by micro-computerized tomography (μCT) and histology. The experimental tyrosine-derived polycarbonate, enhanced with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, E1001(1k) + CP, supported significant bone formation within the defects and was superior to the same scaffold containing a mix of BMM, E1001(1k) + BMM. The comparison with the commercially available BGS was complicated by the large variability in bone formation observed for the laboratory preparations of E1001(1k) scaffolds. At all time points, there was a trend for E1001(1k) + CP to be superior to the commercial BGS. However, only at the 6-week time point did this trend reach statistical significance

  14. Restoration of parathyroid function after change of phosphate binder from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate in hemodialysis patients with suppressed serum parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Nagayama, Harumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Ishimura, Eiji; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Shigeichi

    2015-03-01

    Control of phosphate is the most critical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Because calcium-containing phosphate binder to CKD patients is known to induce adynamic bone disease with ectopic calcification by increasing calcium load, we examined the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a non-calcium containing phosphate binder, to restore bone turnover in 27 hemodialysis patients with suppressed parathyroid function (serum intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] ≦ 150 pg/mL). At the initiation of LaC administration, the dose of calcium-containing phosphate binder calcium carbonate (CaC) was withdrawn or reduced based on serum phosphate. After initiation of LaC administration, serum calcium and phosphate decreased significantly