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Sample records for resistant hypertension htn

  1. Catheter-based renal denervation for resistant hypertension: 12-month results of the EnligHTN I first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation system.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Costas P; Sinhal, Ajay; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2014-09-01

    Renal denervation has emerged as a novel approach for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant hypertension. To date, only limited data have been published using multielectrode radiofrequency ablation systems. In this article, we present the 12-month data of EnligHTN I, a first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation catheter. EnligHTN I enrolled 46 patients (average age, 60±10 years; on average 4.7±1.0 medications) with drug-resistant hypertension. Eligible patients were on ≥3 antihypertensive medications and had a systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥160 mm Hg (≥150 mm Hg for diabetics). Bilateral renal artery ablation was performed using a percutaneous femoral approach and standardized techniques. The average baseline office BP was 176/96 mm Hg, average 24-hour ambulatory BP was 150/83 mm Hg, and average home BP was 158/90 mm Hg. The average reductions (mm Hg) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were as follows: office: -28/-10, -27/-10, -26/-10, and -27/-11 mm Hg (P<0.001 for all); 24-hour ambulatory: -10/-5, -10/-5, -10/-6 (P<0.001 for all), and -7/-4 for 12 months (P<0.0094). Reductions in home measurements (based on 2-week average) were -9/-4, -8/-5,-10/-7, and -11/-6 mm Hg (P<0.001 at 12 months). At 12 months, there were no signals of worsening renal function and no new serious or life-threatening adverse events. One patient with baseline nonocclusive renal artery stenosis progressed to 75% diameter stenosis, requiring renal artery stenting. The 12-month data continue to demonstrate safety and efficacy of the EnligHTN ablation system in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Home BP measurements parallel measurements obtained with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring.

  2. Resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Armario, P; Oliveras, A; de la Sierra, A

    2013-11-01

    A 53 year old woman with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, with no history of cardiovascular disease, was referred to the Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit for management of hypertension resistant to 4 antihypertensive agents at full doses. The patient had obesity, with a body mass index of 36.3kg/m(2) and office blood pressure 162/102mm Hg. Physical examination showed no data of interest. glucose 120mg/dl, glycated Hb: 6.4%, albuminuria 68mg/g, kidney function and study of the renin angiotensin system and other biochemical parameters were normal. Echocardiography: left ventricular mass, 131g/m(2) (normal, <110g/m(2)). True resistant hypertension was confirmed by ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure during 24h (153/89mm Hg). Spironolactone treatment (25mg/day) was added and was well tolerated, with no change in renal function and kaliemia within normal (4.1mmol/l) following the treatment. After 8 weeks, blood pressure was well controlled: office blood pressure 132/86mm Hg and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure: 128/79mm Hg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Number of ablated spots in the course of renal sympathetic denervation in CKD patients with uncontrolled hypertension: EnligHTN vs. Standard irrigated cardiac ablation catheter.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, M G; Chen, S; Rodrigues Paz, L M; Pürerfellner, H

    2017-08-04

    Hypertension was both a mutual cause and the main concern of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Blood pressure control is more problematic in the company of CKD. This study compares the effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) and renal function in individuals with CKD and uncontrolled hypertension by unlike a number of ablated spots using the EnligHTN catheter and the standard irrigated cardiac ablation catheter (SICAC), Flexability. The 112 subjects were randomly divided into two groups according to the catheter that would be used in the procedure EnligHTN (n=56) or Flexability (n=56). Into each group, we created 5 subgroups according to the number of ablated spots: 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20. All of them were followed for exactly 6 months to assess all the parameters measured in this investigation. Comparing the Δ 24-h systolic ABPM according to the number of ablated spots 4 and 20 for EnligHTN vs. Flexability, respectively, the differences were: -3.6±0.9 vs. -6.3±1.4mmHg (P<0.0001), and -13.9±4.8 vs. -36.3±4.3mmHg (P<0.0001). The comparisons between Δ estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to the number of ablated spots 4 and 20 for EnligHTN vs. Flexability, respectively, were: +2.7±4.0 vs. +6.0±8.4mL/min/1.73m(2) (P=0.2287), and +11.9±6.0 vs. +21.4±8.7mL/min/1.73m(2) (P=0.0222). The RSD reduced the mean 24-h ABPM in subjects with CKD and uncontrolled hypertension and improved the renal function in both groups. These effects were more marked and important in subgroups underwent a great number of ablated spots using the SICAC. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension: Dead, alive or surviving?

    PubMed

    Al-Fakhouri, Ahmad; Efeovbokhan, Nephertiti; Nakhla, Rami; Khouzam, Rami N

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common chronic clinical problems encountered by physicians. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is estimated at 9% in the US. Patients with resistant hypertension have been shown to be at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular events, hence the need for greater efforts in improving the treatment of hypertension. The renal sympathetic nerves play an important role in the development of hypertension, mediated via sodium and water retention, increased renin release and alterations in renal blood flow. The proximity of the afferent and efferent renal sympathetic nerves to the adventitia of the renal arteries suggested the feasibility of an endovascular, selective, minimally invasive approach to renal denervation; a potential treatment option for resistant hypertension. While the RAPID, Reduce-HTN, EnligHTN, DENERHTN and Symplicity HTN-1 and -2 studies showed significant benefit of renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension, the results of Oslo RDN, Prague-15 and Symplicity HTN-3 were not so favorable. Future well-designed clinical trials are needed to ascertain the benefits or otherwise of renal denervation in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  5. The maize disease resistance gene Htn1 against northern corn leaf blight encodes a wall-associated receptor-like kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hurni, Severine; Scheuermann, Daniela; Krattinger, Simon G.; Kessel, Bettina; Wicker, Thomas; Herren, Gerhard; Fitze, Mirjam N.; Breen, James; Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Keller, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Exserohilum turcicum is an important foliar disease of maize that is mainly controlled by growing resistant maize cultivars. The Htn1 locus confers quantitative and partial NCLB resistance by delaying the onset of lesion formation. Htn1 represents an important source of genetic resistance that was originally introduced from a Mexican landrace into modern maize breeding lines in the 1970s. Using a high-resolution map-based cloning approach, we delimited Htn1 to a 131.7-kb physical interval on chromosome 8 that contained three candidate genes encoding two wall-associated receptor-like kinases (ZmWAK-RLK1 and ZmWAK-RLK2) and one wall-associated receptor-like protein (ZmWAK-RLP1). TILLING (targeting induced local lesions in genomes) mutants in ZmWAK-RLK1 were more susceptible to NCLB than wild-type plants, both in greenhouse experiments and in the field. ZmWAK-RLK1 contains a nonarginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase domain, typically found in plant innate immune receptors. Sequence comparison showed that the extracellular domain of ZmWAK-RLK1 is highly diverse between different maize genotypes. Furthermore, an alternative splice variant resulting in a truncated protein was present at higher frequency in the susceptible parents of the mapping populations compared with in the resistant parents. Hence, the quantitative Htn1 disease resistance in maize is encoded by an unusual innate immune receptor with an extracellular wall-associated kinase domain. These results further highlight the importance of this protein family in resistance to adapted pathogens. PMID:26124097

  6. Reduced blood pressure-lowering effect of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: data from SYMPLICITY HTN-3 and the Global SYMPLICITY Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bakris, George; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Esler, Murray; Ewen, Sebastian; Fahy, Martin; Kandzari, David; Kario, Kazuomi; Mancia, Giuseppe; Weber, Michael; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Aims Catheter-based renal artery denervation (RDN) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) (systolic BP [SBP] ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg), characterized by increased vascular stiffness, is the predominant hypertensive phenotype in elderly patients. This study compared baseline characteristics and SBP change at 6 months between patients with ISH and combined systolic–diastolic hypertension (CH). Methods and results This study pooled data from 1103 patients from SYMPLICITY HTN-3 and the Global SYMPLICITY Registry. A total of 429 patients had ISH, and 674 had CH. Patients with ISH were significantly older than those with CH (66 vs. 55 years), had more type 2 diabetes mellitus (52.9 vs. 34.6%), and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (71.8 vs. 78.6 mL/min/1.73 m2); all P < 0.001. At 6 months, the SBP drop for CH patients was −18.7 ± 23.7 mmHg compared with a reduction of −10.9 ± 21.7 mmHg for ISH patients −7.8 mmHg, 95% confidence interval, CI, −10.5, −5.1, P < 0.001). The change in 24-h SBP at 6 months was −8.8 ± 16.2 mmHg in patients with CH vs. −5.8 ± 15.4 mmHg in ISH (−3.0 mmHg, 95% CI −5.4, −0.6, P = 0.015). Presence of ISH at baseline but not age was associated with less pronounced BP changes following the procedure. The strongest predictor of office SBP reduction at 6 months was CH, followed by aldosterone antagonist use and non-use of vasodilators. Conclusion The reduction in BP among patients with ISH following RDN was less pronounced than the reduction in patients with CH. Clinical.Trials.gov identifiers NCT01534299 and NCT01418261. PMID:28158510

  7. Obesity and insulin resistance in resistant hypertension: implications for the kidney.

    PubMed

    Rao, Akhilesh; Pandya, Vishwam; Whaley-Connell, Adam

    2015-05-01

    There is recognition that the obesity epidemic contributes substantially to the increasing incidence of CKD and resistant hypertension (HTN). The mechanisms by which obesity promotes resistance are an area of active interest and intense investigation. It is thought that increases in visceral adiposity lead to a proinflammatory, pro-oxidative milieu that promote resistance to the metabolic actions of insulin. This resistance to insulin at the level of skeletal muscle tissue impairs glucose disposal/utilization through actions on the endothelium that include vascular rarefaction, reductions in vascular relaxation, and vascular remodeling. Insulin resistance derived from increased adipose tissue and obesity has system-wide implications for other tissue beds such as the kidney that affects blood pressure regulation. The additional autocrine and paracrine activities of adipose tissue contribute to inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system that promote kidney microvascular remodeling, stiffness, and sodium (Na(+)) retention that in turn promote HTN and in the CKD patient, resistance. In this review, we will summarize the important mechanisms that link obesity to CKD as they relate to resistant HTN. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistant hypertension and chronotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prkacin, Ingrid; Balenovic, Diana; Djermanovic-Dobrota, Vesna; Lukac, Iva; Drazic, Petra; Pranjic, Iva-Klara

    2015-04-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains above 140/90 mmHg in spite of the continuous use of three antihypertensive agents in optimal dose, including diuretic, and lifestyle changes. According to data from United States of America and Europe, the prevalence ranges from 10 up to 30% in patients with hypertension. Numerous biological and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of resistant hypertension: medications, volume overload, obesity, diabetes mellitus, older age, renal parenchymal and renovascular disease, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, pheochormocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, thyroid diseases, aortic coarctation. For diagnosing patient's history is important, assessing compliance, regular blood pressure measurement, physical examination, biochemical evaluation and noninvasive imaging. The evaluation including 24h ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure (ABPM) in the identification of "non-dipper" hypertension. Non-dipper has particular importance and the prevalence of abnormally high sleep blood pressure is very often in chronic kidney patients. Therapeutic restoration of normal physiologic blood pressure reduction during night-time sleep (circadial variation) is the most significant independent predictor of decreased risk and the basis for the chronotherapy. The resistant hypertension treatment is achieved with nonpharmacological and pharmacological approach, treating secondary hypertension causes and invasive procedures.

  9. Resistant Hypertension and Chronotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Prkacin, Ingrid; Balenovic, Diana; Djermanovic-Dobrota, Vesna; Lukac, Iva; Drazic, Petra; Pranjic, Iva-Klara

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains above 140/90 mmHg in spite of the continuous use of three antihypertensive agents in optimal dose, including diuretic, and lifestyle changes. According to data from United States of America and Europe, the prevalence ranges from 10 up to 30% in patients with hypertension. Numerous biological and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of resistant hypertension: medications, volume overload, obesity, diabetes mellitus, older age, renal parenchymal and renovascular disease, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, pheochormocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, thyroid diseases, aortic coarctation. For diagnosing patient’s history is important, assessing compliance, regular blood pressure measurement, physical examination, biochemical evaluation and noninvasive imaging. The evaluation including 24h ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure (ABPM) in the identification of “non-dipper” hypertension. Non-dipper has particular importance and the prevalence of abnormally high sleep blood pressure is very often in chronic kidney patients. Therapeutic restoration of normal physiologic blood pressure reduction during night-time sleep (circadial variation) is the most significant independent predictor of decreased risk and the basis for the chronotherapy. The resistant hypertension treatment is achieved with nonpharmacological and pharmacological approach, treating secondary hypertension causes and invasive procedures. PMID:26005390

  10. Resistant hypertension and the Birmingham Hypertension Square.

    PubMed

    Felmeden, D C; Lip, G Y

    2001-06-01

    Recent guidelines for the treatment of hypertension place great emphasis on tighter blood pressure control, especially in the presence of hypertensive target organ damage and diabetes. In order to achieve these treatment targets, more patients will require a combination of antihypertensive medications. However, resistant hypertension may have many possible underlying causes, and clinicians should appreciate how to detect and tackle these potential problems. Effective and synergistic combinations are therefore of vital importance, especially in patients with resistant hypertension. The choice of rational first- and second-line drugs that act in synergy could lead to better blood pressure management as well as significant financial savings for health care resources. The use of the Birmingham Hypertension Square for the optimum choice of add-in drugs for the treatment of resistant hypertension may aid management.

  11. Percutaneous renal denervation and the second generation EnligHTN System.

    PubMed

    Chokka, R G; Delacroix, S; Psaltis, P J; Anavekar, N S; Worthley, S G

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension remains a major public health burden despite the plethora of therapeutic agents available for this disorder, compelling innovation of alternate therapies including interventional approaches where necessary. The kidney is a major player in the pathophysiology of this disease with increased sympathetic activity being the key factor in the initiation and maintenance of drug resistant hypertension in many patients. Thus renal denervation targeted at decreasing sympathetic drive is becoming the apparent choice in carefully selected patients with resistant hypertension who have exhausted all medical options. The Symplicity and EnligHTN trials using first and second generation catheters respectively have demonstrated that renal sympathetic denervation results in significant blood pressure reduction. The initial renal denervation catheter used in the Symplicity trial was a single electrode system. Refinement of this process has led to the EnligHTN catheter's design. This is a multielectrode self-expanding nitinol basket that allows the positioning of the thermal injury pattern to be pre-specified and in theory lead to better positioning of the lesions. We present a review of the premise behind renal artery denervation, discuss the data and early technologies focusing on the characteristics and utility of the first multielectrode renal denervation device, the EnligHTN renal denervation catheter.

  12. Epidemiology of hypertension in CKD.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Bruce; Miskulin, Dana; Zager, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Both hypertension (HTN) and CKD are serious interrelated global public health problems. Nearly 30% and 15% of US adults have HTN and CKD, respectively. Because HTN may cause or result from CKD, HTN prevalence is higher and control more difficult with worse kidney function. Etiology of CKD, presence and degree of albuminuria, and genetic factors all influence HTN severity and prevalence. In addition, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors influence HTN prevalence and control. There are racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence, treatment, risks, and outcomes of HTN in patients with CKD. Control of blood pressure (BP) in Hispanic and African Americans with CKD is worse than it is whites. There are disparities in the patterns of treatment and rates of progression of CKD in patients with HTN. The presence and severity of CKD increase treatment resistance. HTN is also extremely prevalent in patients receiving hemodialysis, and optimal targets for BP control are being elucidated. Although the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN in CKD patients is improving, control of BP in patients at all stages of CKD remains suboptimal.

  13. Treatment of resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Czarina Acelajado, M; Calhoun, D A

    2009-12-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common clinical problem. Patients with RH have increased cardiovascular risk. These patients also have high risk for having reversible causes of hypertension and may potentially benefit from special diagnostic or therapeutic considerations. The purpose of this review was to discuss RH, its definition, recognition, evaluation and treatment. Authors define RH and the implications of this definition. They present latest data on its prevalence, prognostic implications, genetics, and patient characteristics. Elements of pseudoresistance and possible etiologies of treatment resistance are also identified. Lastly, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to RH are discussed, focusing on antihypertensive medication classes that have proven benefit in patients with RH, and also on novel therapeutic approaches in these patients. RH is a common clinical problem and carries an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as target organ damage. Patients with RH are aat high risk for reversible causes of hypertension and may benefit from special diagnostic or therapeutic considerations. Elements of pseudoresistance, intake of interfering substances and secondary causes of hypertension should be searched for and corrected, if possible. Therapeutic lifestyle modifications should be emphasized. Medical therapy includes optimizing diuretic use and considering the use of mineralocorticoid antagonists as add on antihypertensive agents. Novel approaches include surgical and transcatheter techniques, chronotherapy, and new classes of antihypertensive agents.

  14. Resistant hypertension: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pedrinelli, Roberto; Dell' Omo, Giulia; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Cameli, Matteo; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Coiro, Stefano; Emdin, Michele; Liga, Riccardo; Marcucci, Rossella; Morrone, Doralisa; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Padeletti, Luigi; Savino, Ketty

    2017-09-05

    Despite the availability of anti-hypertensive medications with proven efficacy and good tolerability, many hypertensive patients have blood pressure levels(BP) not at the goals set by international societies. Some of these patients are either non-adherent to the prescribed drugs or not optimally treated. However, a proportion, despite adequate treatment, has resistant hypertension(RH) defined as office BP above goal despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic). Diagnosis of RH based upon office measurements, however, needs confirmation through 24-h BP monitoring to exclude "white coat" RH since cardiovascular events and mortality rates follow mean ambulatory BPs. Although several studies have approached the issue of the prevalence of RH in the hypertensive population, its prevalence is by and large based upon reasonable but approximate estimates for reasons detailed in the text. Standardized combination therapy based upon angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, amlodipine or other dihydropiridine calcium channel blockers and a diuretic (thiazide and thiazide-like compounds as cholrthalidone or indapamide) has been advocated to treat RH with spironolactone as fourth add-on drug. Interventional procedures such as renal denervation have been devised to treat RH and implemented in some patients with RH not responding to medical treatment. However, the results of this interventional procedure have insofar not been positive. It is unclear whether RH constitutes a specific phenotype of EH or should rather be considered a more serious form of uncontrolled hypertension. Whatever the case, its presence associates with and increased cardio- and cerebrovascular risk and deserves, therefore, particular care.

  15. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Manuel de Sousa; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Oliveira, Eduardo Infante de; Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne de

    2015-02-01

    There is a marked contrast between the high prevalence of hypertension and the low rates of adequate control. A subset of patients with suboptimal blood pressure control have drug-resistant hypertension, in the pathophysiology of which chronic sympathetic hyperactivation is significantly involved. Sympathetic renal denervation has recently emerged as a device-based treatment for resistant hypertension. In this review, the pathophysiological mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous system and cardiovascular disease are reviewed, focusing on resistant hypertension and the role of sympathetic renal denervation. An update on experimental and clinical results is provided, along with potential future indications for this device-based technique in other cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Development and Validation of a Clinical and Computerised Decision Support System for Management of Hypertension (DSS-HTN) at a Primary Health Care (PHC) Setting

    PubMed Central

    Anchala, Raghupathy; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Franco, Oscar H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension remains the top global cause of disease burden. Decision support systems (DSS) could provide an adequate and cost-effective means to improve the management of hypertension at a primary health care (PHC) level in a developing country, nevertheless evidence on this regard is rather limited. Methods Development of DSS software was based on an algorithmic approach for (a) evaluation of a hypertensive patient, (b) risk stratification (c) drug management and (d) lifestyle interventions, based on Indian guidelines for hypertension II (2007). The beta testing of DSS software involved a feedback from the end users of the system on the contents of the user interface. Software validation and piloting was done in field, wherein the virtual recommendations and advice given by the DSS were compared with two independent experts (government doctors from the non-participating PHC centers). Results The overall percent agreement between the DSS and independent experts among 60 hypertensives on drug management was 85% (95% CI: 83.61 - 85.25). The kappa statistic for overall agreement for drug management was 0.659 (95% CI: 0.457 - 0.862) indicating a substantial degree of agreement beyond chance at an alpha fixed at 0.05 with 80% power. Receiver operator curve (ROC) showed a good accuracy for the DSS, wherein, the area under curve (AUC) was 0.848 (95% CI: 0.741 - 0.948). Sensitivity and specificity of the DSS were 83.33 and 85.71% respectively when compared with independent experts. Conclusion A point of care, pilot tested and validated DSS for management of hypertension has been developed in a resource constrained low and middle income setting and could contribute to improved management of hypertension at a primary health care level. PMID:24223984

  17. 'Decision support system (DSS) for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among hypertensive (HTN) patients in Andhra Pradesh, India'--a cluster randomised community intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Anchala, Raghupathy; Pant, Hira; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Franco, Oscar H

    2012-05-31

    Very few studies having decision support systems as an intervention report on patient outcomes for cardiovascular disease in the Western world. The potential role of decision support system for the management of blood pressure among Indian hypertensives remains unclear. We propose a cluster randomised trial that aims to test the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of DSS among Indian hypertensive patients. The trial design is a cluster randomised community intervention trial, in which the participants would be adult male and female hypertensive patients, in the age group of 35 to 64 years, reporting to the Primary Health Care centres of Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The objective of the study is to test the effectiveness and compare the cost effectiveness and cost utility among hypertensive subjects randomized to receive either decision support system or a chart based algorithmic support system in urban and rural areas of a district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India (baseline versus 12 months follow up). The primary outcome would be a comparison of the systolic blood pressure at 0 and 12 months among hypertensive patients randomized to receive the decision support system or the chart based algorithmic support system. Computer generated randomisation and an investigator and analyser blinded method would be followed. 1600 participants; 800 to each arm; each arm having eight clusters of hundred participants each have been recruited between 01 August 2011 - 01 March 2012. A twelve month follow up will be completed by March 2013 and results are expected by April 2013. This cluster randomized community intervention trial on DSS will enable policy makers to find out the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and cost utility of decision support system for management of blood pressure among hypertensive patients in India. Most of the previous studies on decision support system have focused on physician performance, adherence and on preventive care reminders

  18. [Position paper on the results of Symplicity HTN-3 trial. Grupo de estudio de la hipertensión arterial resistente].

    PubMed

    Azpiri-López, José Ramón; Assad-Morell, José Luis; Ponce de León-Martínez, Enrique; Monreal-Puente, Rogelio; Dávila-Bortoni, Adrián; Vázquez-Díaz, Luis Alberto; Treviño-Frutos, Ramón Javier; Barrera-Oranday, Félix; Del Angel-Soto, Juan Gustavo; Martínez, José Guadalupe; Arellano-Torres, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery denervation has shown to be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension. Symplicity HTN 1 and 2 trials showed in small and uncontrolled groups, significant systolic blood pressure reductions down to 30 mm Hg. Symplicity HTN-3, a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial shaded this initial enthusiasm. Surprisingly, their results showed that renal denervation has a similar effect to placebo. Pre-specified subgroup analysis showed that non-black race individuals, younger than 65 years and with normal renal function, had a statistically significant systolic blood pressure decrease. This manuscript critically appraises the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, proposing possible explanations for the results. Also declares our group position and future actions regarding renal denervation.

  19. Hypertension in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kurukulasuriya, L Romayne; Stas, Sameer; Lastra, Guido; Manrique, Camila; Sowers, James R

    2011-09-01

    Obesity and HTN are on the rise in the world. HTN seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem and visceral obesity seems to be the major culprit. Unfortunately, only 31% of hypertensives are treated to goal. This translates into an increased incidence of CVD and related morbidity and mortality. Several mechanisms have been postulated as the causes of obesity-related HTN. Activation of the RAAS, SNS, insulin resistance, leptin, adiponectin, dysfunctional fat, FFA, resistin, 11 Beta dehydrogenase, renal structural and hemodynamic changes, and OSA are some of the abnormalities in obesity-related HTN. Many of these factors are interrelated. Treatment of obesity should begin with weight loss via lifestyle modifications, medications, or bariatric surgery. According to the mechanisms of obesity-related HTN, it seems that drugs that blockade the RAAS and target the SNS should be ideal for treatment. There is not much evidence in the literature that one drug is better than another in controlling obesity-related HTN. There have only been a few studies specifically targeting the obese hypertensive patient, but recent trials that emphasize the importance of BP control have enrolled both overweight and obese subjects. Until we have further studies with more in-depth information about the mechanisms of obesity-related HTN and what the targeted treatment should be, the most important factor necessary to control the obesity-related HTN pandemic and its CVD and CKD consequences is to prevent and treat obesity and to treat HTN to goal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension: six-month results.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; de Sousa Almeida, Manuel; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro; Branco, Patrícia; Gaspar, Augusta; Sousa, Henrique; Canha Gomes, Angela; Andrade, Maria João; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Campante Teles, Rui; Raposo, Luís; Mesquita Gabriel, Henrique; Pereira Machado, Francisco; Mendes, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system plays a central role in the pathophysiology of hypertension (HTN). Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) was recently developed for the treatment of resistant HTN. To assess the safety and efficacy of RDN for blood pressure (BP) reduction at six months in patients with resistant HTN. In this prospective registry of patients with essential resistant HTN who underwent RDN between July 2011 and May 2013, the efficacy of RDN was defined as ≥ 10 mm Hg reduction in office systolic blood pressure (SBP) six months after the intervention. In a resistant HTN outpatient clinic, 177 consecutive patients were evaluated, of whom 34 underwent RDN (age 62.7 ± 7.6 years; 50.0% male). There were no vascular complications, either at the access site or in the renal arteries. Of the 22 patients with complete six-month follow-up, the response rate was 81.8% (n=18). The mean office SBP reduction was 22 mm Hg (174 ± 23 vs. 152 ± 22 mm Hg; p<0.001) and 9 mm Hg in diastolic BP (89 ± 16 vs. 80 ± 11 mm Hg; p=0.006). The number of antihypertensive drugs (5.5 ± 1.0 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1; p=0.010) and pharmacological classes (5.4 ± 0.7 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1; p=0.009) also decreased significantly. Of the 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and echocardiographic parameters analyzed, there were significant reductions in diastolic load (45 ± 29 vs. 27 ± 26%; p=0.049) and in left ventricular mass index (174 ± 56 vs. 158 ± 60 g/m(2); p=0.014). In this cohort of patients with resistant HTN, RDN was safe and effective, with a significant BP reduction at six-month follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. High-circulating leptin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in uncontrolled resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Haro Moraes, C; Figueiredo, V N; de Faria, A P C; Barbaro, N R; Sabbatini, A R; Quinaglia, T; Ferreira-Melo, S E; Martins, L C; Demacq, C; Júnior, H M

    2013-04-01

    Leptin and aldosterone have been associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension. However, despite studies showing the association of leptin with intima-media thickness, arterial distensibility and sympathetic nerve activation, the relationship between leptin and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension (RHTN) is unknown. We aimed to assess the correlation of plasma leptin and aldosterone levels with BP in uncontrolled controlled RHTN (UCRHTN) and CRHTN patients. Plasma leptin and aldosterone levels, office BP, ambulatory BP monitoring and heart rate were measured in 41 UCRHTN, 39 CRHTN and 31 well-controlled HTN patients. No differences were observed between the three groups regarding gender, body mass index and age. The UCRHTN group had increased leptin when compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (38.2±21.4, 19.6±8.7 and 20.94±13.9 ng ml(-1), respectively; P<0.05). Aldosterone levels values were also statistically different when comparing RHTN, CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (9.6±3.8, 8.1±5.0 and 8.0±4.7 ng dl(-1), respectively; P<0.05). As expected, UCRHTN patients had higher heart rate values compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (86.2±7.2, 83.5±6.7 and 83.4±8.5, respectively; P<0.05). Plasma leptin positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and aldosterone (r=0.43, 0.35 and 0.47, respectively; all P<0.05) in UCRHTN, but neither in the CRHTN nor in the HTN group. Simple linear regression showed that SBP, DBP and aldosterone may be predicted by leptin (r(2)=0.16, 0.15 and 0.19, respectively; all P<0.05) only in the UCRHTN subgroup. In conclusion, UCRHTN patients have higher circulating leptin levels associated with increased plasma aldosterone and BP levels when compared with CRHTN and HTN subjects.

  2. Patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Amar, Jacques

    2007-06-01

    Hypertension remains uncontrolled in the majority of treated patients, especially those with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This was demonstrated by a French study that showed that 70% of treated hypertensive patients are not controlled to the target level of 140/90 mmHg. This proportion reached 84% in hypertensive patients with diabetes (target level 130/85 mmHg). What are the reasons for this disappointing situation? Observational studies have shown that only a minority of patients with uncontrolled hypertension receive triple therapy including a diuretic. In this respect, self-measurement of blood pressure should improve the situation by allowing clinicians to base their decision to intensify hypertension treatment on more solid evidence than consultation blood pressure measurements alone. Patient-related factors may also contribute to this situation. Treated patients with uncontrolled hypertension often have multiple risk factors. This is associated with or is a source of poor treatment observance linked to patient psychological factors or a result of the increased consumption of medication. Finally, risk factors themselves may be responsible for problems with blood pressure control as a result of their detrimental effects on large arteries as well as the microvascular network. The early correction of such vascular anomalies is vital for medium and long-term blood pressure control.

  3. HW 03-1 RENAL SYMPATHETIC DENERVATION FOR RESISTANT HYPERTENSION UNDER OPTIMAL DRUG THERAPY.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong-Keuk

    2016-09-01

    Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has opened the new world in the treatment of resistant or refractory hypertension. However, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, 2:1 randomization, blinded and sham-controlled study did not show a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension 6 months after RDN as compared with a sham control. After that, substudy investigating the predictors of BP responses in SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial was reported; racial difference and optimal medical treatment were issued for the optimal denervation therapy. Recent data (GSR Korea data) showed RDN provided a significant reduction in 6- and 12-month office SBP among Asian patients, with a favorable safety profile. The 12-month systolic BP reduction was larger than that observed in Caucasian patients, suggesting there could be ethnic difference in the effects of RDN for resistant hypertension. The optimal medical therapy is still mainstay in the treatment of resistant hypertension. OSLO RDN trial suggest that adjusted drug treatment has superior BP lowering effects compared with RDN in patients with true resistant hypertension. In DENERHTN (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) trial demonstrated that RDN plus standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment decreased ambulatory BP more than the same medication alone at 6 months. For the successful RDN therapy causing BP decrease, the effective perfect denervation by complete catheter contact would be still most important. Related with this, we should pay attention to the upcoming new-generation multi-electrode system, one shot system. In conclusion, RDN therapy is not the end. However, we need a more concrete data and should await future studies.

  4. Hypertension: issues in control and resistance.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Marion R; Minor, Deborah S

    2009-10-01

    Hypertension remains uncontrolled in more than 50% of treated patients. Barriers to hypertension control include those that are patient-related, physician-related, and related to the health system. Identification of uncontrolled hypertension, pseudoresistant hyper-tension, and resistant hypertension require thoughtful attention to accurate blood pressure measurement, lifestyle factors, evaluation for secondary causes of hypertension, and proper treatment. Recent guidelines emphasize the importance of aggressive treatment and referral to hypertension specialists for patients with resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure that remains above goal despite the use of three appropriate anti-hypertensive agents.

  5. The future of interventional management of hypertension: threats and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Briasoulis, Alexandros; Bakris, George

    2014-01-01

    In about 48% hypertensive patients in the United States, blood pressure remains higher than accepted treatment targets despite broad availability of effective pharmaceutical agents. Of these 48%, recent estimates define about 10-11% have treatment-resistant hypertension (TR-HTN). Compensatory changes in sympathetic nervous system function are an important component of HTN. Recent technical advances targeting the sympathetic activity of the carotid sinuses (Baroreflex Activation Therapy-BAT) and the renal sympathetic nerves (Renal Denervation Therapy-RDT) have renewed interest in invasive therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Encouraging results from the recent Rheos Pivotal and Symplicity HTN-2 trials on the safety and efficacy of BAT and RDT respectively, indicate that invasive approaches can safely reduce blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. The main goal of this article is to review the results of preclinical and clinical studies on the electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the catheter-based renal denervation.

  6. Joint UK societies’ 2014 consensus statement on renal denervation for resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Melvin D; de Belder, Mark A; Cleveland, Trevor; Collier, David; Dasgupta, Indranil; Deanfield, John; Kapil, Vikas; Knight, Charles; Matson, Matthew; Moss, Jonathan; Paton, Julian F R; Poulter, Neil; Simpson, Iain; Williams, Bryan; Caulfield, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension continues to pose a major challenge to clinicians worldwide and has serious implications for patients who are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with this diagnosis. Pharmacological therapy for resistant hypertension follows guidelines-based regimens although there is surprisingly scant evidence for beneficial outcomes using additional drug treatment after three antihypertensives have failed to achieve target blood pressure. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of endoluminal renal denervation as an interventional technique to achieve renal nerve ablation and lower blood pressure. Although initial clinical trials of renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension demonstrated encouraging office blood pressure reduction, a large randomised control trial (Symplicity HTN-3) with a sham-control limb, failed to meet its primary efficacy end point. The trial however was subject to a number of flaws which must be taken into consideration in interpreting the final results. Moreover a substantial body of evidence from non-randomised smaller trials does suggest that renal denervation may have an important role in the management of hypertension and other disease states characterised by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. The Joint UK Societies does not recommend the use of renal denervation for treatment of resistant hypertension in routine clinical practice but remains committed to supporting research activity in this field. A number of research strategies are identified and much that can be improved upon to ensure better design and conduct of future randomised studies. PMID:25431461

  7. Efficacy and safety of renal denervation in elderly patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Bertog, Stefan; Kaltenbach, Benjamin; Id, Dani; Franke, Jennifer; Hofmann, Ilona; Vaskelyte, Laura; Sievert, Horst

    2015-08-01

    Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RD) causes significant blood pressure (BP) reductions in patients with resistant hypertension (rHTN). However, hypertensive elderly patients reportedly have a lower sympathetic tone than younger patients and a BP lowering effect of RD in this population has not yet been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of RD in elderly patients. We reviewed all consecutive patients aged ≥ 75 years (mean: 78 years) with rHTN treated with RD. Twenty-four patients were included in this prospective study. Office and ambulatory BPs were assessed at baseline and 6-months follow-up. Primary endpoint was the change in office systolic BP at 6 months. Baseline mean office BP was 173/86 ± 21/13 mm Hg. Baseline 24-hr mean ambulatory BP, available in 22 patients, was 158/80 ± 20/13 mm Hg. Baseline creatinine was 1.0 ± 0.18 mg/dl and mean number of antihypertensive agents at baseline 4.3 ± 1.4. No device- or procedure-related adverse events occurred. At 6-months follow-up, the mean office BP decreased by 19/11 ± 29/16 mm Hg (P < 0.01 compared to baseline). Mean systolic 24 hr ambulatory BP, available in 17 patients, decreased by 9/5 ± 13/13 mm Hg. Antihypertensive medications could be reduced in nine patients. Furthermore, renal function was not impaired. According to our findings, a similar magnitude of BP reduction as reported in previous trials can be expected in elderly patients. Elderly patients with rHTN should not be excluded from renal denervation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Epidemiology of HTN in dialysis].

    PubMed

    Simon, P

    2007-10-01

    Increased cardio-vascular morbidity-mortality in dialysed patients is particularly due to an insufficiency of blood pressure control. Previous epidemiological surveys show that prevalence of dialysis hypertension is high, from 55 to 85% according to period and mean age of the studied population, despite an improvement of dialysis strategies during the last decade. Control of hypertension is not better in peritoneal dialysis than in haemodialysis. Antihypertensive drugs are administered to 3/4 of dialysed patients. Dialysis strategies which increase the number of sessions per week or the duration of each session in conventional haemodialysis improve the volume control and consequently the blood pressure. Atherosclerosis, cause or consequence of hypertension in dialysed elderly patients, more and more old, lead to adapt treatment strategies in order to prevent hypotension, which is also, a major risk factor of morbidity-mortality in dialysed patients (reverse epidemiology).

  9. Characterization and Treatment of Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, Roberto; Ahmed, Mustafa I.; Calhoun, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common medical problem and carries a significantly increased risk of end organ damage and cardiovascular events as compared with more easily controlled hypertension. Resistant hypertension is most often related to isolated systolic hypertension and is characterized by aldosterone excess and increased intravascular volume. Its diagnosis requires the exclusion of pseudoresistance. The etiology of resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial and common reversible contributing factors need to be identified and addressed. Secondary causes of hypertension such as primary aldosteronism, parenchymal and vascular kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea require investigation and effective treatment if present. Therapy for resistant hypertension should be based on use of rational drug class combinations at optimal doses with particular attention to adequate diuretic use. The addition of an aldosterone antagonist may further improve blood pressure control. PMID:19863864

  10. Renal denervation for the management of resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hitesh C; Hayward, Carl; Vassiliou, Vassilis; Patel, Ketna; Howard, James P; Di Mario, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) as a therapy for patients with resistant hypertension has attracted great interest. The majority of studies in this field have demonstrated impressive reductions in blood pressure (BP). However, these trials were not randomized or sham-controlled and hence, the findings may have been overinflated due to trial biases. SYMPLICITY HTN-3 was the first randomized controlled trial to use a blinded sham-control and ambulatory BP monitoring. A surprise to many was that this study was neutral. Possible reasons for this neutrality include the fact that RSD may not be effective at lowering BP in man, RSD was not performed adequately due to limited operator experience, patients' adherence with their anti-hypertensive drugs may have changed during the trial period, and perhaps the intervention only works in certain subgroups that are yet to be identified. Future studies seeking to demonstrate efficacy of RSD should be designed as randomized blinded sham-controlled trials. The efficacy of RSD is in doubt, but many feel that its safety has been established through the thousands of patients in whom the procedure has been performed. Over 90% of these data, however, are for the Symplicity™ system and rarely extend beyond 12 months of follow-up. Long-term safety cannot be assumed with RSD and nor should it be assumed that if one catheter system is safe then all are. We hope that in the near future, with the benefit of well-designed clinical trials, the role of renal denervation in the management of hypertension will be established.

  11. Insulin resistance and hypertension: new insights.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher

    2015-03-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension. Nakamura et al. demonstrate in rodents and humans with insulin resistance that while the stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake in adipocytes, mediated via insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), was severely diminished, its effect on salt reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule, mediated via IRS2, was preserved. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in individuals with insulin resistance may enhance salt absorption in the proximal tubule, resulting in a state of salt overload and hypertension.

  12. Renal sympathetic denervation in therapy resistant hypertension - pathophysiological aspects and predictors for treatment success

    PubMed Central

    Fengler, Karl; Rommel, Karl Philipp; Okon, Thomas; Schuler, Gerhard; Lurz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Many forms of human hypertension are associated with an increased systemic sympathetic activity. Especially the renal sympathetic nervous system has been found to play a prominent role in this context. Therefore, catheter-interventional renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has been established as a treatment for patients suffering from therapy resistant hypertension in the past decade. The initial enthusiasm for this treatment was markedly dampened by the results of the Symplicity-HTN-3 trial, although the transferability of the results into clinical practice to date appears to be questionable. In contrast to the extensive use of RDN in treating hypertensive patients within or without clinical trial settings over the past years, its effects on the complex pathophysiological mechanisms underlying therapy resistant hypertension are only partly understood and are part of ongoing research. Effects of RDN have been described on many levels in human trials: From altered systemic sympathetic activity across cardiac and metabolic alterations down to changes in renal function. Most of these changes could sustainably change long-term morbidity and mortality of the treated patients, even if blood pressure remains unchanged. Furthermore, a number of promising predictors for a successful treatment with RDN have been identified recently and further trials are ongoing. This will certainly help to improve the preselection of potential candidates for RDN and thereby optimize treatment outcomes. This review summarizes important pathophysiologic effects of renal denervation and illustrates the currently known predictors for therapy success. PMID:27621771

  13. Resistant and Refractory Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Resistance vs Treatment Failure.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David A

    2016-05-01

    Resistant or difficult to treat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled with 3 or more different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Recent definitions also include controlled blood pressure with use of 4 or more medications as also being resistant to treatment. Recently, refractory hypertension, an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure has been defined as hypertension uncontrolled with use of 5 or more antihypertensive agents, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Patients with resistant vs refractory hypertension share similar characteristics and comorbidities, including obesity, African American race, female sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with refractory vs resistant hypertension tend to be younger and are more likely to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Refractory hypertension might also differ from resistant hypertension in terms of underlying cause. Preliminary evidence suggests that refractory hypertension is more likely to be neurogenic in etiology (ie, heightened sympathetic tone), vs a volume-dependent hypertension that is more characteristic of resistant hypertension in general. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Refractory and Resistant Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Failure versus Treatment Resistance.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A

    2016-09-01

    Resistant hypertension has for many decades been defined as difficult-to-treat hypertension in order to identify patients who may benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic considerations. Recently, the term "refractory hypertension" has been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure, that is, patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximal treatment. Early studies of this phenotype indicate that it is uncommon, affecting less than 5% of patients with resistant hypertension. Risk factors for refractory hypertension include obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and especially, being of African origin. Patients with refractory are at high cardiovascular risk based on increased rates of known heart disease, prior stroke, and prior episodes of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms of refractory hypertension need exploration, but early studies suggest a possible role of heightened sympathetic tone as evidenced by increased office and ambulatory heart rates and higher urinary excretion of norepinephrine compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. Important negative findings argue against refractory hypertension being fluid dependent as is typical of resistant hypertension, including aldosterone levels, dietary sodium intake, and brain natriuretic peptide levels being similar or even less than patients with resistant hypertension and the failure to control blood pressure with use of intensive diuretic therapy, including both a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Further studies, especially longitudinal assessments, are needed to better characterize this extreme phenotype in terms of risk factors and outcomes and hopefully to identify effective treatment strategies.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a dual threat.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşin; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Jahangir, Eiman

    2016-07-01

    The following is a review of the current concepts on the relationship between hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus with a focus on the epidemiology and cardiovascular prognostic implications of coexistent HTN and diabetes mellitus, shared mechanisms underlying both conditions and pathophysiology of increased risk of cardiovascular disease, treatment of HTN in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and effects of anti-diabetic medications on blood pressure (BP). Diabetes mellitus and HTN often coexist in the same individual. They share numerous risk factors and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, most important of which are insulin resistance and inappropriate activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently updated guidelines recommend a BP goal of 140/90 mmHg in most individuals with diabetes mellitus. A new class of anti-diabetic medications, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, has shown favorable effects on BP. HTN affects the majority of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Coexistence of diabetes mellitus and HTN, especially if BP is not well controlled, dramatically increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. BP control is an essential part of management of patients with diabetes mellitus, because it is one of the most effective ways to prevent vascular complications and death.

  16. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Judd, E; Calhoun, DA

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires ≥4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify ‘apparent’ lack of control on ≥3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600 000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  17. Catheter-based renal denervation in patients with uncontrolled hypertension in the absence of antihypertensive medications (SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED): a randomised, sham-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Mahfoud, Felix; Kandzari, David E; Kario, Kazuomi; Pocock, Stuart; Weber, Michael A; Ewen, Sebastian; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Sharp, Andrew S P; Watkinson, Anthony F; Schmieder, Roland E; Schmid, Axel; Choi, James W; East, Cara; Walton, Anthony; Hopper, Ingrid; Cohen, Debbie L; Wilensky, Robert; Lee, David P; Ma, Adrian; Devireddy, Chandan M; Lea, Janice P; Lurz, Philipp C; Fengler, Karl; Davies, Justin; Chapman, Neil; Cohen, Sidney A; DeBruin, Vanessa; Fahy, Martin; Jones, Denise E; Rothman, Martin; Böhm, Michael

    2017-08-25

    Previous randomised renal denervation studies did not show consistent efficacy in reducing blood pressure. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of renal denervation on blood pressure in the absence of antihypertensive medications. SPYRAL HTN-OFF MED was a multicentre, international, single-blind, randomised, sham-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. Patients were enrolled at 21 centres in the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia. Eligible patients were drug-naive or discontinued their antihypertensive medications. Patients with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 150 mm Hg or greater and less than 180 mm Hg, office diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater, and a mean 24-h ambulatory SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater and less than 170 mm Hg at second screening underwent renal angiography and were randomly assigned to renal denervation or sham control. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing blood pressure were blinded to randomisation assignments. The primary endpoint, change in 24-h blood pressure at 3 months, was compared between groups. Drug surveillance was done to ensure patient compliance with absence of antihypertensive medication. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety events were assessed at 3 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02439749. Between June 25, 2015, and Jan 30, 2017, 353 patients were screened. 80 patients were randomly assigned to renal denervation (n=38) or sham control (n=42) and followed up for 3 months. Office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline to 3 months in the renal denervation group: 24-h SBP -5·5 mm Hg (95% CI -9·1 to -2·0; p=0·0031), 24-h DBP -4·8 mm Hg (-7·0 to -2·6; p<0·0001), office SBP -10·0 mm Hg (-15·1 to -4·9; p=0·0004), and office DBP -5·3 mm Hg (-7·8 to -2·7; p=0·0002). No significant changes were seen in the sham-control group: 24-h SBP -0·5 mm Hg (95% CI -3·9 to 2·9; p=0

  18. Vascular Disease in Young Indians (20-40 years): Role of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Kamal Kumar; Kerkar, Prafulla Gopinath; Ray, Saumitra; Guha, Santanu; Hiremath, Murugesh Shantaveeraya

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) being one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant health concern, especially in India. With age, prevalence of HTN, especially systolic HTN increases. Special attention needs to be directed to HTN in young ages (20-40 years) due to lower awareness, need for early treatment and better control of HTN. HTN in the age group of 20-40 years needs critical reappraisal. Given the high prevalence of HTN in the general population in India, in this review we attempt to provide current evidence and expert opinion on epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis and treatment of HTN in young (20-40 years) Indians. PMID:27656492

  19. Renal sympathetic denervation in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mário; Carvalho, Henrique

    2013-04-26

    Resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem despite the available multidrug therapy. Over the next decades, its incidence will likely increase given that it is strongly associated with older age and obesity. Resistant hypertension patients have an increased cardiovascular risk, thus effective antihypertensive treatment will provide substantial health benefits. The crosstalk between sympathetic nervous system and kidneys plays a crucial role in hypertension. It influences several pathophysiological mechanisms such as the central sympathetic tone, the sodium balance and the systemic neurohumoral activation. In fact, studies using several animal models demonstrated that the renal denervation prevented and attenuated hypertension in multiple species. Large reductions in blood pressure were also observed in malignant hypertension patients submitted to sympathectomy surgeries. However, these approaches had an unacceptably high rates of periprocedural complications and disabling adverse events. Recently, an innovative non-pharmacological therapy that modulates sympathetic activation has been successfully developed. Renal sympathetic percutaneous denervation is an endovascular procedure that uses radiofrequency energy to destroy the autonomic renal nerves running inside the adventitia of renal arteries. This method represents a promising new approach to the strategy of inhibiting the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this review is to examine the background knowledge that resulted in the development of this hypertension treatment and to critically appraise the available clinical evidence.

  20. Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities based on hypertension severity and blood pressure levels: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hemal; Gamboa, Christopher M; Safford, Monika M; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Glasser, Stephen P

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of major and minor electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities based on blood pressure (BP) control and hypertension (HTN) treatment resistance. We analyzed data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study of 20,932 participants who were divided into presence of major (n = 3782), only minor (n = 8944), or no (n = 8206) ECG abnormalities. The cohort was stratified into normotension (n = 3373), pre-HTN (n = 4142), controlled HTN (n = 8619), uncontrolled HTN (n = 3544), controlled apparent treatment-resistant HTN (aTRH, n = 400), and uncontrolled aTRH (n = 854) groups, and the prevalence ratios (PRs) of major and minor ECG abnormalities were assessed separately for each BP group. The full multivariable adjustment included demographics, risk factors, and HTN duration. Compared with normotension, the PRs of major ECG abnormalities for pre-HTN, controlled HTN, uncontrolled HTN, controlled aTRH, and uncontrolled aTRH groups were 1.01 (0.90-1.14), 1.30 (1.16-1.45), 1.37 (1.23-1.54), 1.42 (1.22-1.64), and 1.44 (1.26-1.65), respectively (P < .001), whereas the PRs of minor ECG abnormalities among each of the above BP groups were similar. Detection of major ECG abnormalities among hypertensive persons with poor control and treatment resistance may help improve their cardiovascular risk stratification and early intervention.

  1. MCP-1 Levels are Associated with Cardiac Remodeling but not with Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Faria, Ana Paula Cabral de; Sabbatini, Andrea; Corrêa, Nathalia Batista; Brunelli, Veridiana; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is a chronic, low-grade inflammation process associated with the release of cytokines and development of target organ damage. Deregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels have been associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms involved are complex and not fully understood. This study aimed to compare the levels of MCP-1 in patients with resistant (RH) versus mild-to-moderate (HTN) hypertension and their association with the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in all hypertensive subjects. We enrolled 256 hypertensive subjects: 120 RH and 136 HTN, investigating the relationship between circulating MCP-1 levels and blood pressure, biochemical data, hematologic profile, and cardiac damage within the RH and HTN groups. Plasma MCP-1 levels were measured by ELISA and LVH was assessed by echocardiography. We found no difference in MCP-1 levels between RH and HTN subjects. On the other hand, we encountered lower MCP-1 levels in patients with LVH (105 pg/mL [100 - 260 pg/mL] versus 136 pg/mL (100 - 200 pg/mL), p = 0.005, respectively] compared with those without LVH. A logistic regression model adjusted for body mass index (BMI), age, race, aldosterone levels, and presence of diabetes and RH demonstrated that median levels of MCP-1 (2.55 pg/mL [1.22 - 5.2 pg/mL], p = 0.01) were independently associated with LVH in the entire hypertensive population. Since MCP-1 levels were similar in both RH and HTN subjects and decreased in hypertensive patients with existing LVH, our study suggests a possible downregulation in MCP-1 levels in hypertensive individuals with LVH, regardless of hypertension strata. A hipertensão arterial é um processo crônico de baixo grau inflamatório, associado com liberação de citocinas e desenvolvimento de lesão em órgãos-alvo. A desregulação dos níveis de proteína quimiotática de monócitos-1 (MCP-1) tem sido associada com elevação da press

  2. Predictors of blood pressure response in the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Kandzari, David E.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brar, Sandeep; Devireddy, Chandan M.; Esler, Murray; Fahy, Martin; Flack, John M.; Katzen, Barry T.; Lea, Janice; Lee, David P.; Leon, Martin B.; Ma, Adrian; Massaro, Joseph; Mauri, Laura; Oparil, Suzanne; O'Neill, William W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Sobotka, Paul A.; Svetkey, Laura; Townsend, Raymond R.; Bakris, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial confirmed the safety of renal denervation (RDN), but did not meet its primary efficacy endpoint. Prior RDN studies have demonstrated significant and durable reductions in blood pressure. This analysis investigated factors that may help explain these disparate results. Methods and results Patients with resistant hypertension were randomized 2 : 1 to RDN (n = 364) or sham (n = 171). The primary endpoint was the difference in office systolic blood pressure (SBP) change at 6 months. A multivariable analysis identified predictors of SBP change. Additional analyses examined the influence of medication changes, results in selected subgroups and procedural factors. Between randomization and the 6-month endpoint, 39% of patients underwent medication changes. Predictors of office SBP reduction at 6 months were baseline office SBP ≥180 mmHg, aldosterone antagonist use, and non-use of vasodilators; number of ablations was a predictor in the RDN group. Non-African-American patients receiving RDN had a significantly greater change in office SBP than those receiving sham; –15.2 ± 23.5 vs. –8.6 ± 24.8 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.012). Greater reductions in office and ambulatory SBP, and heart rate were observed with a higher number of ablations and energy delivery in a four-quadrant pattern. Conclusions Post hoc analyses, although derived from limited patient cohorts, reveal several potential confounding factors that may partially explain the unexpected blood pressure responses in both the sham control and RDN groups. These hypothesis-generating data further inform the design of subsequent research to evaluate the potential role of RDN in the treatment of resistant hypertension. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier NCT01418261. PMID:25400162

  3. Poor sleep quality and resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Virdis, Agostino; Di Giulio, Alessia; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Riemann, Dieter; Taddei, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between sleep quality and treatment-resistant hypertension (RH). In our cross-sectional cohort study, 270 consecutive essential hypertensive patients were recruited at the Outpatient Hypertension Unit, University of Pisa, Italy. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2) were administered to all subjects. RH was defined as office blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg with three or more antihypertensive drugs or controlled BP with four or more drugs. Poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI >5, depressive symptoms as BDI >10, and trait anxiety as STAI-Y2 >40. Patients with other sleep disorders were excluded. Complete data were available for 222 patients (50.9% men; mean age, 56.6±12.5 y; RH, 14.9%). Poor sleep quality had a prevalence of 38.2% in the overall population. RH was associated with poor sleep quality, increased sleep latency and reduced sleep efficiency. No significant relationship was found between RH and short sleep duration or depressive symptoms and trait anxiety. Poor sleep quality was more prevalent in resistant vs nonresistant hypertensive women (70.6% vs 40.2%; P=.02) but not in resistant vs nonresistant men (43.8% vs 29.2%; P=.24). In women poor sleep quality was an independent predictor of RH, even after adjustment for cardiovascular and psychiatric comorbidities (odds ratio [OR], 5.3 [confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-27.6), explaining 4.7% of its variance. In men age, diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity were the only variables associated with RH. Poor sleep quality is significantly associated with resistance to treatment in hypertensive women, independent of cardiovascular and psychiatric confounders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapy of Acute Hypertension in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Tennille N.; Shatat, Ibrahim F.

    2014-01-01

    Acute hypertension (HTN) in hospitalized children and adolescents occurs relatively frequently and in some cases, if not recognized and treated promptly, it can lead to hypertensive crisis with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, where acute HTN is most likely due to uncontrolled primary HTN, children and adolescents with acute HTN are more likely to have secondary HTN. This review will briefly cover evaluation of acute HTN and various age specific etiologies of secondary HTN and provide more in-depth discussion on treatment target, potential risks of acute HTN therapy, available pediatric data on intravenous and oral antihypertensive agents, and propose treatment schema including unique therapy of specific secondary HTN scenarios. PMID:24522943

  5. Therapy of acute hypertension in hospitalized children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Webb, Tennille N; Shatat, Ibrahim F; Miyashita, Yosuke

    2014-04-01

    Acute hypertension (HTN) in hospitalized children and adolescents occurs relatively frequently, and in some cases, if not recognized and treated promptly, it can lead to hypertensive crisis with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, where acute HTN is most likely due to uncontrolled primary HTN, children and adolescents with acute HTN are more likely to have secondary HTN. This review will briefly cover evaluation of acute HTN and various age-specific etiologies of secondary HTN and provide more in-depth discussion on treatment targets, potential risks of acute HTN therapy, and available pediatric data on intravenous and oral antihypertensive agents, and it proposes treatment schema including unique therapy of specific secondary HTN scenarios.

  6. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos; Souza, Michel Kendy; Passos, Clévia Santos; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Simoes, Herbert Gustavo; Prestes, Jonato; Boim, Mirian Aparecida; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Franco, Maria do Carmo Pinho; Moraes, Milton Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH). Objective This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing), performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC), on blood pressure (BP) and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with SH. Methods Fifteen male SHR [206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP)] and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY) and SHR (SED-SHR); RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC); and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC). Systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05), whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in HR only for the RT1 group (p < 0.05). There was a higher increase in strength in the RT2 (140%; p < 0.05) group as compared with RT1 (11%; p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength. PMID:26840054

  7. Resistant Hypertension in Nondialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stanzione, Giovanna; Conte, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above the target of less than 140/90 mmHg in the general population and 130/80 mmHg in people with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in spite of the use of at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic or as BP that reaches the target by means of four or more drugs. In CKD, RH is a common condition due to a combination of factors including sodium retention, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, and enhanced activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Before defining the hypertensive patient as resistant it is mandatory to exclude the so-called “pseudoresistance.” This condition, which refers to the apparent failure to reach BP target in spite of an appropriate antihypertensive treatment, is mainly caused by white coat hypertension that is prevalent (30%) in CKD patients. Recently we have demonstrated that “true” RH represents an independent risk factor for renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients. PMID:23710342

  8. Resistant hypertension and target organ damage.

    PubMed

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Paini, Anna; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Aggiusti, Carlo; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) complications such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and renal failure are related to both the degree and the duration of blood pressure (BP) increase. Resistant hypertension (RH) is associated with a higher risk of CV complications and a higher prevalence of target organ damage (TOD). The relationship between CV disease and TOD can be bidirectional. Elevated BP in RH may cause CV structural and functional alterations, and the development or persistence of left ventricular hypertrophy, aortic stiffness, atherosclerotic plaques, microvascular disease and renal dysfunction, may render hypertension more difficult to control. Specifically, RH is related to several conditions, including obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hyperaldosteronism, characterized by an overexpression of humoral and hormonal factors that are involved in the development and maintenance of TOD. Optimal therapeutic strategies, including pharmacological treatment and innovative invasive methodologies, have been shown to achieve adequate BP control and induce the regression of TOD, thereby potentially improving patient prognosis.

  9. Comparative epidemiology of resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease and the general hypertensive population.

    PubMed

    Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Zebekakis, Pantelis E

    2014-01-01

    Until a few years ago, information regarding the epidemiology of resistant hypertension was obtained from indirect sources, such as cross-sectional studies on hypertension control in large cohorts from tertiary hypertension centers and outcome trials in hypertension. During the past 3 years, however, large population-based studies have provided direct epidemiologic data on resistant hypertension and estimated its prevalence at 8% to 12% of adult patients with hypertension. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), in particular, has been long considered a frequent underlying cause of resistant hypertension, however, recently, direct epidemiologic data for this entity in patients with CKD were brought to light again, suggesting an even higher prevalence of resistant hypertension (approximately 20%-35%) among such individuals. Furthermore, recent prospective cohort studies have suggested incident resistant hypertension to be associated with increased cardiovascular and renal risk in both the general hypertensive population and patients with CKD. This article discusses currently available data on epidemiology of resistant hypertension, providing a comparative overview of its prevalence, incidence, and prognosis in these two populations.

  10. The relationships of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ping; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Lin, Jen-Jyn; Chou, Che-Yi; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Ko, Po-Yen; Chang, Chiz-Tzung

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension, blood pressure variation, and resistant hypertension have close relations to sleep apnea, which lead to target organ damage, including the kidney. The complex relationships between sleep apnea and blood pressure cause their interactions with chronic kidney disease ambiguous. The aim of the study was to elucidate the separate and joint effects of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease. A cross-sectional study was done to see the associations of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension with chronic kidney disease in 998 subjects underwent overnight polysomnography without device-therapy or surgery for their sleep-disordered breathing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the severity of SA, hypertension stage, resistant hypertension, and their joint effects on CKD. The multivariable relative odds (95% CI) of chronic kidney disease for the aged (age ≥65 years), severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension were 3.96 (2.57-6.09) (P < 0.001), 2.28 (1.13-4.58) (P < 0.05), 3.55 (1.70-7.42) (P < 0.001), and 9.42 (4.22-21.02) (P < 0.001), respectively. In subgroups analysis, the multivariable relative odds ratio of chronic kidney disease was highest in patients with both resistant hypertension and severe sleep apnea [13.42 (4.74-38.03)] (P < 0.001). Severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension are independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Patients with both severe sleep apnea and resistant hypertension have the highest risks.

  11. Update on diagnosis and treatment of resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2011-07-01

    Resistant hypertension is an increasingly common medical problem, and patients with this condition are at a high risk of cardiovascular events. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, but data from clinical trials suggest that 20% to 30% of hypertensive individuals may be resistant to antihypertensive treatment. The evaluation of these patients is focused on identifying true resistant hypertension and contributing and secondary causes of hypertension, including hyperaldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, renal artery stenosis, and pheochromocytoma. Treatment includes removal of contributing factors, appropriate management of secondary causes, and use of effective multidrug regimens. More established approaches, such as low dietary salt and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers, and new technologies, such as carotid stimulation and renal denervation, have been used in the management of patients with resistant hypertension.

  12. [Epidemiology and etiology of therapy-resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Schirpenbach, C; Reincke, M

    2009-01-01

    Uncontrolled arterial hypertension is a frequent clinical problem, affecting 1/10 of hypertensive subjects, and can lead to severe renal, cerebral and cardiovascular damage. Common causes of poorly controlled blood pressure include lack of compliance, inadequate antihypertensive medication and white-coat hypertension, all referred to as "false" therapy-resistant hypertension. 4-19% of patients with arterial hypertension suffer from "true" therapy-resistant hypertension: this is defined as failure to achieve target blood pressure values despite full-dose triple drug regimen including a diuretic. In most cases, its etiology is multifactorial. Frequent causes include interfering medication, volume overload, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea and secondary causes such as primary aldosteronism. Factors such as obesity, high salt intake and excessive alcohol ingestion contribute to poor blood pressure control. This article reviews the literature and describes epidemiology and etiology of therapy-resistant hypertension.

  13. Obesity-Associated Hypertension: the Upcoming Phenotype in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne

    2017-05-01

    The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.

  14. Cardiovascular dysfunctions and sympathovagal imbalance in hypertension and prehypertension: physiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Nanda, Nivedita; Amudharaj, Dharmalingam; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and prehypertension (pre-HTN) have been identified as independent risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. Recently, increased psychosocial stress and work stress have contributed to the increased prevalence of HTN and pre-HTN, in addition to the contribution of obesity, diabetes, poor food habits and physical inactivity. Irrespective of the etiology, sympathetic overactivity has been recognized as the main pathophysiologic mechanism in the genesis of HTN and pre-HTN. Sympathovagal imbalance owing to sympathetic overactivity and vagal withdrawal is reported to be the basis of many clinical disorders. However, the role played by vagal withdrawal has been under-reported. In this review, we have analyzed the pathophysiologic involvement of sympathovagal imbalance in the development of HTN and pre-HTN, and the link of sympathovagal imbalance to cardiovascular dysfunctions. We have emphasized that adaptation to a healthier lifestyle will help improve sympathovagal homeostasis and prevent the occurrence of HTN and pre-HTN.

  15. Characteristics of Resistant Hypertension in a Large Ethnically Diverse Hypertension Population of an Integrated Health System

    PubMed Central

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, p<0.001). Chronic kidney disease (1.84, 1.78–1.90), diabetes (1.58, 1.53–1.63), and cardiovascular disease (1.34, 1.30–1.39) were also associated with higher risk for resistant hypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679

  16. Neural modulation for hypertension and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Rossignol, P; Willis, S; Zannad, F; Mentz, R; Pocock, S; Bisognano, J; Nadim, Y; Geller, N; Ruble, S; Linde, C

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and heart failure (HF) have a significant global impact on health, and lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances in pharmacologic and device therapy for these conditions, there is a need for additional treatment modalities. Patients with sub-optimally treated HTN have increased risk for stroke, renal failure and heart failure. The outcome of HF patients remains poor despite modern pharmacological therapy and with established device therapies such as CRT and ICDs. Therefore, the potential role of neuromodulation via renal denervation, baro-reflex modulation and vagal stimulation for the treatment of resistant HTN and HF is being explored. In this manuscript, we review current evidence for neuromodulation in relation to established drug and device therapies and how these therapies may be synergistic in achieving therapy goals in patients with treatment resistant HTN and heart failure. We describe lessons learned from recent neuromodulation trials and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions between scientists, clinical trialists, and regulatory representatives at the 11th annual CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Forum in Washington, DC on December 5-7, 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proceedings from Duke resistant hypertension think tank.

    PubMed

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Ard, Jamy; Bakris, George L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Alan S; Cushman, William C; Ferdinand, Keith C; Flack, John M; Fleg, Jerome L; Katzen, Barry T; Kostis, John B; Oparil, Suzanne; Patel, Chet B; Pepine, Carl J; Piña, Ileana L; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Townsend, Raymond R; Peterson, Eric D; Califf, Robert M; Patel, Manesh R

    2014-06-01

    To identify patients at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes, apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as having a blood pressure (BP) above goal despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive therapies of different classes at maximally tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic. In light of growing scientific interest in the treatment of this group, a multistakeholder think tank was convened to discuss the current state of knowledge, improve the care of these patients, and identify appropriate study populations for future observational and randomized trials in the field. Although recent epidemiologic studies in selected populations estimate that the prevalence of aTRH is 10% to 15% of hypertensive patients, further large-scale observational studies will be needed to better elucidate risk factors. To spur the development of therapies for aTRH, the development of an "aTRH" label for pharmacologic and device therapies with a developmental pathway including treatment added to the use of existing therapies is favored. Although demonstration of adequate BP lowering should be sufficient to gain Food and Drug Administration approval for therapies targeting aTRH, assessment of improvement in quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes is also desirable and considered in Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services coverage decisions. Device trials under the aTRH label will need uniform and consistent processes for defining appropriate patient populations as well as postapproval registries assessing both long-term safety and duration of responses. Finally, patients with aTRH are likely to benefit from evaluation by a hypertension team to assure proper patient identification, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic management before consideration of advanced or novel therapies to lower BP.

  18. Patients with resistant hypertension have more peripheral arterial disease than other uncontrolled hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, P E; Kautiainen, H; Kantola, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistant hypertension differs from uncontrolled and controlled hypertension in terms of target organ damage. Hypertensive subjects with antihypertensive medication (n=385) were identified in a population survey conducted in southwestern Finland. None of the study subjects had previously diagnosed cardiovascular or renal disease or diabetes. Ankle-brachial index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, electrocardiogram-determined left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease among subjects with resistant, uncontrolled and controlled hypertension was 6/37 (16%), 22/275 (8%) and 0/73 (0%), respectively (P=0.006). There were no differences in the prevalence of renal insufficiency, left ventricular hypertrophy or metabolic parameters between the groups. Resistant hypertension affects vasculature more than uncontrolled hypertension, and thus it can be regarded as a marker of more severe disease.

  19. Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: a Dangerous Liaison.

    PubMed

    Wolley, Martin J; Stowasser, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-resistant hypertension is an increasingly recognised problem and is markedly over-represented in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence has clarified the heightened risk for both adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes associated with resistant hypertension, even when blood pressure control is attained. The diagnosis of resistant hypertension in CKD is reliant on accurate blood pressure measurement, and out of office measurements are important due to the high prevalence of masked hypertension in these patients. Treatment strategies include careful dietary measures to restrict sodium intake, and a focus on improving adherence to antihypertensive medications. Medication choices should focus on a sensible foundation and then diuretic titration to combat the salt and volume retention inherent in CKD. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis and consequences of resistant hypertension in CKD, and then review the optimal diagnostic and management strategies.

  20. JS ISH-ESH-3 RESISTANT HYPERTENSION - A GROWING CHALLENGE.

    PubMed

    Dechend, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined by a blood pressure of at least 140/90 mmHg despite treatment with full doses or maximum tolerated doses of at least three antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Data, especially controlled trials on the prevalence of resistant hypertension are rare. Patients with resistant hypertension exhibit more end-organ target damage and have a substantial higher long-term cardiovascular risk than patients whose blood pressure is controlled. The development of heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, and renal failure are related to the degree of the elevation in blood pressure. In the lecture I will talk about pathophysiological aspects as well as treatment strategies.

  1. [Resistant arterial hypertension and coarctation of the aorta].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rossique-Delmas, Pilar; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta accounts for around 5 percent of all congenital heart defects. Many of these patients develop arterial hypertension, and occasionally resistant arterial hypertension, despite adequate correction. This may lead to potentially fatal complications such as heart failure, aortic dissection, cerebrovascular events, or myocardial infarction. Therefore, a correct diagnosis must be made and an appropriate treatment started to reduce arterial hypertension, arteriosclerotic vascular disease, as well as the increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Resistant hypertension in office practice: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi; Brietzke, Stephen A; Sowers, James R

    2010-11-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure uncontrolled to guideline levels despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medications. When evaluating patients with resistant hypertension, it is important to consider issues such as blood pressure measurement technique, lifestyle, other comorbid conditions and medications, and the white coat effect. To this point, potential contributing factors include obstructive sleep apnea, excess alcohol intake, and use of blood pressure-elevating medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sympathomimetics, certain anorexic agents, and oral contraceptives. Secondary causes of hypertension are common in patients with resistant hypertension and appropriate screening tests should be performed as suggested by signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities. In this regard, there is increasing evidence that hyperaldosteronism is common in the resistant hypertensive patient group. Pharmacologic therapy in patients with resistant hypertension is centered on drug combinations that have different mechanisms of action, including diuretics, which are essential in maximizing antihypertensive effects. The role of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists is expanding, especially in patients with the metabolic syndrome, where aldosterone excess is increasingly recognized as an etiology of resistant hypertension. Finally, when appropriate, specialist referral may be necessary to appropriately assess and treat these patients.

  3. Role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Bombelli, Michele; Seravalle, Gino; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Dell'oro, Raffaella; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has gained growing popularity in the diagnosis and treatment of essential hypertension for several reasons, such as the lack of the so-called white-coat effect, the greater reproducibility as compared with clinic blood pressure, the ability to provide information on blood pressure phenomena of prognostic value and the closer relationship with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. All the above-mentioned main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are also true for resistant hypertension. In addition, however, in resistant hypertension, blood pressure monitoring allows one to precisely define the diagnosis of this clinical condition, by excluding the presence of white-coat hypertension, which is responsible for a consistent number of "false" resistant hypertensive cases. The approach also allows one to define the patterns of blood pressure variability in this clinical condition, as well as its relationships with target organ damage. Finally, it allows one to assess the effects of therapeutic interventions, such as renal nerves ablation, aimed at improving blood pressure control in this hypertensive state. The present paper will critically review the main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension, with particular emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk hypertensive state.

  4. [Resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease: epidemiology and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Seidowsky, Alexandre; Massy, Ziad A; Metzger, Marie; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of new effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of resistant hypertension such as renal sympathetic denervation technique has lead to a renewed interest in the screening and assessment of prognosis of this specific entity which constitutes a subset of uncontrolled hypertension. Its prevalence is unknown, but estimated between 12 and 15% among hypertensive subjects from the general population. Several factors have been associated with the development of resistant hypertension, four of which are essential: age, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and vascular structural alteration. Excessive salt intake is also a risk factor for poorly controlled hypertension in patients with salt-dependent hypertension, and may participate to the genesis of resistant hypertension. Because of population ageing and increasing prevalence of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is expected to rise. A better understanding of its determinants and associated risks (such as chronic kidney disease) would identify high-risk groups that may benefit from extensive diagnosis work up and more specific treatments.

  5. Renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension: review and clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Iliescu, Radu; Lohmeier, Thomas E.; Tudorancea, Ionut; Laffin, Luke

    2015-01-01

    When introduced clinically 6 years ago, renal denervation was thought to be the solution for all patients whose blood pressure could not be controlled by medication. The initial two studies, SYMPLICITY HTN-1 and HTN-2, demonstrated great magnitudes of blood pressure reduction within 6 mo of the procedure and were based on a number of assumptions that may not have been true, including strict adherence to medication and absence of white-coat hypertension. The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial controlled for all possible factors believed to influence the outcome, including the addition of a sham arm, and ultimately proved the demise of the initial overly optimistic expectations. This trial yielded a much lower blood pressure reduction compared with the previous SYMPLICITY trials. Since its publication in 2014, there have been many analyses to try and understand what accounted for the differences. Of all the variables examined that could influence blood pressure outcomes, the extent of the denervation procedure was determined to be inadequate. Beyond this, the physiological mechanisms that account for the heterogeneous fall in arterial pressure following renal denervation remain unclear, and experimental studies indicate dependence on more than simply reduced renal sympathetic activity. These and other related issues are discussed in this paper. Our perspective is that renal denervation works if done properly and used in the appropriate patient population. New studies with new approaches and catheters and appropriate controls will be starting later this year to reassess the efficacy and safety of renal denervation in humans. PMID:26224718

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea: the most common secondary cause of hypertension associated with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Drager, Luciano F; Gonzaga, Carolina C; Sousa, Marcio G; de Paula, Lílian K G; Amaro, Aline C S; Amodeo, Celso; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Krieger, Eduardo M; Bradley, T Douglas; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2011-11-01

    Recognition and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension among patients with resistant hypertension may help to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, there are no studies systematically evaluating secondary causes of hypertension according to the Seventh Joint National Committee. Consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were investigated for known causes of hypertension irrespective of symptoms and signs, including aortic coarctation, Cushing syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, drugs, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, renal parenchymal disease, renovascular hypertension, and thyroid disorders. Among 125 patients (age: 52±1 years, 43% males, systolic and diastolic blood pressure: 176±31 and 107±19 mm Hg, respectively), obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index: >15 events per hour) was the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension (64.0%), followed by primary aldosteronism (5.6%), renal artery stenosis (2.4%), renal parenchymal disease (1.6%), oral contraceptives (1.6%), and thyroid disorders (0.8%). In 34.4%, no secondary cause of hypertension was identified (primary hypertension). Two concomitant secondary causes of hypertension were found in 6.4% of patients. Age >50 years (odds ratio: 5.2 [95% CI: 1.9-14.2]; P<0.01), neck circumference ≥41 cm for women and ≥43 cm for men (odds ratio: 4.7 [95% CI: 1.3-16.9]; P=0.02), and presence of snoring (odds ratio: 3.7 [95% CI: 1.3-11]; P=0.02) were predictors of obstructive sleep apnea. In conclusion, obstructive sleep apnea appears to be the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension. Age >50 years, large neck circumference measurement, and snoring are good predictors of obstructive sleep apnea in this population.

  7. Drug Development for Hypertension: Do We Need Another Antihypertensive Agent for Resistant Hypertension?

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Calhoun, David A

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of resistant hypertension is seemingly much lower than had been reported in early studies. Recent analyses suggest that <5 % of treated hypertensive patients remain uncontrolled if fully adherent to an optimized antihypertensive treatment. However, these patients do have increased cardiovascular risk and need effective therapeutic approaches. Drug development is a high-risk, complex, lengthy, and very expensive process. In this article, we discuss the factors that should be considered in the process of developing a new agent for treatment of resistant hypertension.

  8. The double challenge of resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Patrick; Massy, Ziad A; Azizi, Michel; Bakris, George; Ritz, Eberhard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Heine, Gunnar H; Jager, Kitty J; Kanbay, Mehmet; Mallamaci, Francesca; Ortiz, Alberto; Vanholder, Raymond; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; London, Gérard Michel; Stengel, Bénédicte; Fouque, Denis

    2015-10-17

    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease is the most frequent of several patient factors or comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease, while chronic kidney disease is associated with an impaired prognosis in patients with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. New therapeutic innovations for resistant hypertension, such as renal denervation and carotid barostimulation, are under investigation especially in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We discuss resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 (ie, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) and not on dialysis), in terms of worldwide epidemiology, outcomes, causes and pathophysiology, evidence-based treatment, and a call for action.

  9. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  10. Resistant hypertension and the neglected antihypertensive: sodium restriction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above goal (such as 140/90 mmHg or more) in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive agents of different classes. Ideally, one of the three agents should be a diuretic and all agents should be prescribed at optimal dose amounts. Prevalent among 15% of the treated hypertensives, the risk factors for resistant hypertension include older age, chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity and diabetes mellitus. Causes of resistant hypertension can be classified into four groups: poor adherence, biological-behavioral factors, CKD and secondary causes, and drugs or exogenous substances. However, before labeling the diagnosis of resistant hypertension, it is important to exclude pseudo-resistant hypertension using home BP monitoring in most patients and ambulatory BP monitoring in a few. Before thinking about the next antihypertensive drug, it is important to restrict dietary sodium. Educating the patient on how to interpret the food label and providing feedback by assessing sodium intake with 24 h urine collection are effective sodium restriction strategies. Sodium restriction can lower BP and among patients with proteinuria can even enhance the anti-proteinuric effects of drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system. Sodium restriction is therefore a valuable but a neglected antihypertensive.

  11. CaMeL: Learning Method Preconditions for HTN Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    CaMeL : Learning Method Preconditions for HTN Planning Okhtay Ilghami and Dana S. Nau Department of Computer Science University of Maryland College...algorithm, named CaMeL , based on this formalism. We present theo- retical results about CaMeL’s soundness, completeness, and convergence properties...We also report experimental results about its speed of convergence under different conditions. The experimental results suggest that CaMeL has the

  12. Interplay of overweight and insulin resistance on hypertension development.

    PubMed

    Lytsy, Per; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Arnlöv, Johan; Sundström, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Obesity and hypertension are associated, possibly through causal pathways involving insulin resistance and metabolic derangements. We aimed to investigate in a whites sample if overweight or obese persons without insulin resistance are at risk of developing hypertension or blood pressure progression. In a meta-analysis, using multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated the risks of hypertension development and blood pressure progression by combinations of relative weight classes and presence or absence of insulin resistance (defined as highest vs. lower three quartiles using the homeostatic model assessment method) in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 2322) and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors studies (n = 1066). These two samples, consisting mainly of middle-aged and elderly men, provided 1846 observations for the development of hypertension in normotensive individuals and 4223 observations for progressing to a higher blood pressure stage. During a median of 10 years of follow-up, 884 (47.9%) developed hypertension and 1639 (38.8%) progressed to a higher blood pressure stage. Overweight or obese persons without insulin resistance had an increased risk of hypertension development [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.88] and blood pressure progression (OR 1.32, 1.10-1.59) compared with normal-weight persons without insulin resistance. According to this study, being overweight or obese without insulin resistance increases the risk of hypertension and blood pressure progression. This adds to the evidence that overweight and obesity may be harmful per se, and that overweight and obesity without glucometabolic derangements are not benign conditions.

  13. [Renal denervation: new treatment for refractory hypertension?].

    PubMed

    Argacha, J F; Van de Borne, P

    2012-09-01

    Sympathetic renal hyperactivity is involved hypertension and in its progression towards organ damages. Using femoral access, a dedicated ablation catheter can be inserted into the renal vessels to deliver high frequency energy in the arterial wall. This therapy leads to a focal heating, which ablates the renal nerve fibers running in the adventitia. First clinical results (Simplicity HTN 1 and HTN 2 trials) have demonstrated a significant and sustained decrease in office blood pressure. The response rate to this therapy was about 85 to 90%. This procedure did not cause serious adverse event and seems to have also positive impact on glucose metabolism and exercise capacity. Based on these first results, renal denervation appears as a new interesting therapy, which requires further studies to better define its place in the antihypertensive therapeutic arsenal. Actually, it should not be considered as an alternative to pharmacological therapy and renal denervation should be only proposed to patients with resistant hypertension. Prior to renal denervation, an upstream work has to be done to ensure an adequate patient selection. The mandatory point is to ensure that patient scheduled for this therapy respond to the definition of arterial resistant hypertension. Because of the narrowed limit between the very common situation of "uncontrolled" hypertension and the "true resistant" group, we proposed a 3 steps algorithm that can help for patient selection.

  14. Pathophysiology of resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Campese, Vito M

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension associated with chronic kidney diseases often is resistant to drug treatment. This review deals with two main aspects of the management of CKD patients with hypertension: the role of sodium/volume and the need for dietary salt restriction, as well as appropriate use of diuretics and what currently is called sequential nephron blockade; the second aspect that is addressed extensively in this review is the role of the sympathetic nervous system and the possible clinical use of renal denervation.

  15. Initial Experience with Renal Denervation for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension - The Utility of Novel Anesthetics and Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scintigraphy (MIBG)

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios; Petroglou, Dimitrios; Moralidis, Efstratios; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Doumas, Mihalis; Argiriadou, Elena; Savopoulos, Christos; Hadjimiltiades, Stavros; Stiliadis, Ioannis; Kouparanis, Antonios; Katranas, Sotirios; Lillis, Leonidas; Koutsakis, Athanasios; Karvounis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Symplicity-HTN 3 trial failed to show significant difference in blood pressure (BP) lowering between patients undergoing catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) and the sham-procedure arm of the study. However, there is still optimism about the role of RDN in the treatment of resistant hypertension, because identification of patients with increased sympathetic activity thus being good RDN responders, improvements in the RDN procedure and new technology RDN catheters are all expected to lead to better RDN results. We present our initial experience with RDN for the treatment of resistant hypertension, and the utility of novel anesthetics and cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy (123I-MIBG). Methods and Results: Seven patients with resistant hypertension underwent RDN and were followed up for 6 months. MIBG was performed before RDN, in order to estimate sympathetic activity and predict the response to RDN. All patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and remifentanil during RDN. All patients tolerated the procedure well, were hemodynamically stable and their peri-procedural pain was effectively controlled. A median of 7.6 ± 2.1 and 6 ± 1.4 ablations were delivered in the right and left renal artery respectively, making an average of 6.8 burns per artery. No peri-procedural or late complications - adverse events (local or systematic) occurred. At 6 months, mean reduction in office BP was -26.0/-16.3 mmHg (p=0.004/p=0.02), while mean reduction in ambulatory BP was -12.3/-9.2 mmHg (p=0.118/p=0.045). One patient (14.3%) was a non-responder. None of the cardiac 123I-MIBG imaging indexes(early and late heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) count density ratio, washout rate (WR) of the tracer from the myocardium) were different between responders and non-responders. Conclusion: Patients with resistant hypertension who underwent RDN in our department had a significant reduction in BP 6 months after the intervention. 123I-MIBG was not useful in predicting

  16. Salt sensitivity is associated with insulin resistance in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, N; Moreira, E; Cubeddu, L X

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between salt sensitivity and insulin resistance was investigated in nondiabetic, nonobese (body mass index < or = 28) untreated patients with uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Alterations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal were assessed by means of the insulin suppression test. Subjects were classified as salt sensitive and salt resistant according to their blood pressure response to low and high salt intake. Fasting serum glucose levels were within normal limits and did not differ between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives, irrespectively of the level of salt intake. Fasting serum insulin levels increased in salt sensitive patients when on a high intake of salt. The insulin suppression test revealed the existence of marked differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives. Much higher steady-state glucose values (nanomoles of glucose/ liter) were obtained during the insulin suppression test in salt sensitive than in salt-resistant hypertensives (7.4+/-1.6 v 3.5+/-0.1 under low salt; and 12.5+/-1.1 v 4.3+/-0.1 under high salt intake). The product of glucose times insulin obtained at steady state during low and high salt intakes were 2.5 and 5 times greater, respectively, in salt sensitive than in salt resistant hypertensives. Therefore, the impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal observed in salt sensitive hypertensives was present both under low salt (60 to 70 mEq/day) and high salt intake (300 mEq/day). However, it was exacerbated under high salt intake. These results suggest that untreated salt sensitive hypertensives have a considerable impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal because of a state of insulin resistance. High salt intake increased BP, induced hyperinsulinemia, and worsened insulin-mediated glucose disposal only in salt sensitive patients. We propose that salt sensitivity contributes, separately from hypertension, to insulin

  17. Structural abnormalities of small resistance arteries in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the increase in blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. In essential hypertension, the small arteries smooth muscle cells are restructured around a smaller lumen, and there is no net growth of the vascular wall, while in some secondary forms of hypertension, a hypertrophic remodeling may be detected. Also, in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a hypertrophic remodeling of subcutaneous small arteries is present. The results from our own group have suggested that indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the tunica media to internal lumen ratio, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the regression of vascular alterations is an appealing goal of antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs seem to have different effect on vascular structure, both in human and in animal models of genetic and experimental hypertension. A complete normalization of small resistance artery structure is demonstrated in hypertensive patients, after long-term and effective therapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium antagonists. Few data are available in diabetic hypertensive patients; however, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system seems to be effective in this regard. In conclusion, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that small resistance artery structure may be considered an intermediate endpoint in the evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive therapy; however, there are presently no data available about the prognostic impact of the regression of vascular structural alterations in hypertension and diabetes.

  18. Treatment of sunitinib-induced hypertension in solid tumor by nitric oxide donors☆

    PubMed Central

    León-Mateos, L.; Mosquera, J.; Antón Aparicio, L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) are overexpressed in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. This characteristic has supported the rationale of targeting VEGF-driven tumour vascularization, especially in clear cell RCC. VEGF-inhibiting strategies include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and sorafenib) and neutralizing antibodies such as bevacizumab. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. HTN observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of HTN. Although the exact mechanism by tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce HTN has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction) occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition. NO donors could be successfully used not only for the treatment of developed angiogenesis-inhibitor-induced hypertension but also for preventive effects. PMID:26386874

  19. The "resistant hypertension team": focus on a multidisciplinary approach to hypertension.

    PubMed

    Potthoff, Sebastian A; Rump, Lars C; Vonend, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) as a catheter-based procedure was introduced in 2009. As a reinvention of an old concept this approach in treating resistant hypertension has been gathering an unprecedented momentum in the world of hypertension. The incredible success in introducing this technique, followed by its quick and wide distribution, introduced new challenges and requirements for hypertension centres in offering optimal patient care. The challenges of these new parameters and requirements have to be met not only by a multidisciplinary team of doctors who can provide excellent evaluation, treatment and follow-up of these patients, but also by the hypertension centres themselves, who wish to provide this treatment option to their patients.

  20. Hypertension in children: new trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Ahmed, Maheen

    2010-05-14

    Childhood HTN (hypertension) has become a widely investigated topic within the last decade due to its increasing prevalence. In the present review, we examine new developments and trends that have significantly contributed to aetiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of childhood HTN. Many recent reports document an increasing prevalence of HTN, mainly essential HTN, in children worldwide. This is probably related to the increase of childhood obesity, although obesity is not the only factor. Evidence has been accumulating to suggest a rather complex interplay between obesity, uric acid level, dietary sodium intake, inflammation, inheritance and other factors, which lead to increased risk of developing HTN in childhood and adulthood. The detection and monitoring of HTN has significantly improved with the use of ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), which allows not only for a more accurate classification and staging of HTN, but also for the calculation of more sophisticated parameters such as the AASI (ambulatory arterial stiffness index). Measurement of arterial stiffness enables assessment of arterial dysfunction, which may precede structural vascular changes evaluated by carotid intima media thickness. Sustained HTN eventually leads to end-organ damage [LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy), central nervous system], which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. New developments in childhood HTN, as outlined in the present review, will hopefully contribute to better screening and management of HTN in children.

  1. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M.; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Cleves, Mario A.; Price, Elvin T.; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN), and African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years). Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group. PMID:27148469

  2. Hypertension and insulin resistance: implications of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter; Ritchie, Bob; Ferder, León

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary generators of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS); their pathophysiological roles in hypertension and insulin resistance are but imperfectly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the etiologies of many complex diseases, but many other factors, including the upregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vitamin D deficiency, have also been implicated in hypertension pathogenesis. Hypertension resulting from the disruption of the RAS contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Likewise, experimental and clinical evidence indicate that RAS stimulation and low vitamin D levels are inversely related and represent risk factors associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Furthermore, RAS activation induces insulin resistance, resulting in increases in ROS levels. High levels of ROS are harmful to cells, having the potential to trigger both mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and the degradation of the mitochondrial DNA. Diabetes risk is also associated with high levels of oxidative stress; taking vitamin D, however, may reduce that risk. The finding that mitochondria possess both a functional RAS and vitamin D receptors is the starting point for improving our understanding of the interaction of mitochondria and chronic disease states, which understanding should lead to decreases in the chronic disease burden attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or both.

  3. Pathophysiology and Potential Non-Pharmacologic Treatments of Obesity or Kidney Disease Associated Refractory Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Richardson, William; Samson, Rohan; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Oparil, Suzanne

    2017-02-01

    The review assesses the role of non-pharmacologic therapy for obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated refractory hypertension (rf HTN). Hypertensive patients with markedly heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are prone to develop refractory hypertension (rfHTN). Patients with obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated HTN have particularly heightened SNS activity and are at high risk of rfHTN. The role of bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized in treatment of obesity. Current evidence advocates for a greater role of bariatric surgery in the management of obesity-associated HTN. In contrast, renal denervation does not appear have a role in the management of obesity or CKD-associated HTN. The role of baroreflex activation as adjunctive anti-hypertensive therapy remains to be defined.

  4. Blood pressure control in resistant hypertension: new therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Quarti-Trevano, Fosca; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Seravalle, Gino

    2010-11-01

    Resistant hypertension, namely the hypertensive state characterized by the inability of multiple antihypertensive drug interventions to lower blood pressure to goal levels, represents a condition frequently detected in clinical practice. Its main features are represented by its heterogeneous etiology as well as its very high cardiovascular risk. This latter peculiarity has implemented the research for new approaches to the treatment of the disease. This article will focus on two of them, namely carotid baroreceptor electric stimulation and the renal denervation procedure. Clinical studies and large-scale clinical trials are presently ongoing with the aim of defining the long-term efficacy and safety profile of the two interventions.

  5. The future of renal denervation in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Sandeep; Bakris, George L

    2014-12-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as inadequate blood pressure control despite three or more antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses, is strongly linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Increased renal afferent and efferent sympathetic activity carried by nerves which arborize the adventitia of the renal arteries, appears to be central to the pathobiology of resistant hypertension. Historical experience indicates that surgical denervation and/or sympathectomy often dramatically reduced blood pressure in patients with malignant hypertension. Catheter-based radio-frequency renal denervation was developed in the past decade as a percutaneous adaptation of surgical denervation. Percutaneous renal denervation using a variety of systems has demonstrated to date, in non-randomized and unblinded studies, dramatic reductions in office-based blood pressure, but more modest impact on ambulatory blood pressure. The only single, appropriately powered, blinded, sham-controlled study of renal denervation conducted to date, however, failed to meet its primary endpoint, casting doubt on the value of the therapy. Ancillary benefits of renal denervation have been described in such conditions as diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and sleep apnea but require further study. While renal denervation is already widely available outside of the USA for commercial use, its utility in resistant hypertension must be vetted by further rigorous investigation before its use can be routinely recommended.

  6. Pure Androgen-Secreting Adrenal Adenoma Associated with Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Bautista-Medina, Mario Arturo; Teniente-Sanchez, Ana Eugenia; Zapata-Rivera, Maria Azucena; Montes-Villarreal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed. PMID:23819074

  7. Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma associated with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Bautista-Medina, Mario Arturo; Teniente-Sanchez, Ana Eugenia; Zapata-Rivera, Maria Azucena; Montes-Villarreal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed.

  8. Elevated vertebrobasilar artery resistance in neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cates, Matthew J; Steed, Peter W; Abdala, Ana P L; Langton, Philip D; Paton, Julian F R

    2011-07-01

    There is a strong correlation between increased vertebral artery resistance and arterial blood pressure in humans. The reasons for this increased resistance at high systemic pressure remain unknown, but may include raised sympathetic activity. With the recent finding that prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (PHSH) rats, which have raised sympathetic nerve activity, but a blood pressure comparable to normotensive rat strains, we hypothesized that its vertebrobasilar vascular resistance would already be raised and, as a consequence, would exhibit a more responsive Cushing response (e.g., brain ischemia evoked sympathoexcitation and a pressor response). We report that PHSH rats exhibited a remodeling of the basilar artery (i.e., increased wall thickness and lower lumen-to-wall thickness ratio) that occurred before the onset of hypertension. In a novel in vitro vascularly isolated, arterially perfused brain stem preparation of PHSH rats of 4-5 wk of age, brain stem vascular resistance was raised by ∼35% relative to age- and sex-matched normotensive rats (P < 0.05). In the in situ arterial perfused working heart-brain stem preparation, occlusion of both vertebral arteries in the PHSH rat resulted in a significantly greater increase in sympathetic activity (57 vs. 20%, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) that triggered a greater increase in arterial perfusion pressure (8 vs. 3 mmHg, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) compared with normotensive rats. These data indicate raised vertebrobasilar artery resistance before the onset of hypertension in the PHSH rat. With the raised responsiveness of the Cushing response in the PHSH rat, we discuss the possibility of brain stem perfusion as a central nervous system determinant of the set point of vasomotor sympathetic tone in the hypertensive condition.

  9. Elevated vertebrobasilar artery resistance in neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Matthew J.; Steed, Peter W.; Abdala, Ana P. L.; Langton, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between increased vertebral artery resistance and arterial blood pressure in humans. The reasons for this increased resistance at high systemic pressure remain unknown, but may include raised sympathetic activity. With the recent finding that prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (PHSH) rats, which have raised sympathetic nerve activity, but a blood pressure comparable to normotensive rat strains, we hypothesized that its vertebrobasilar vascular resistance would already be raised and, as a consequence, would exhibit a more responsive Cushing response (e.g., brain ischemia evoked sympathoexcitation and a pressor response). We report that PHSH rats exhibited a remodeling of the basilar artery (i.e., increased wall thickness and lower lumen-to-wall thickness ratio) that occurred before the onset of hypertension. In a novel in vitro vascularly isolated, arterially perfused brain stem preparation of PHSH rats of 4–5 wk of age, brain stem vascular resistance was raised by ∼35% relative to age- and sex-matched normotensive rats (P < 0.05). In the in situ arterial perfused working heart-brain stem preparation, occlusion of both vertebral arteries in the PHSH rat resulted in a significantly greater increase in sympathetic activity (57 vs. 20%, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) that triggered a greater increase in arterial perfusion pressure (8 vs. 3 mmHg, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) compared with normotensive rats. These data indicate raised vertebrobasilar artery resistance before the onset of hypertension in the PHSH rat. With the raised responsiveness of the Cushing response in the PHSH rat, we discuss the possibility of brain stem perfusion as a central nervous system determinant of the set point of vasomotor sympathetic tone in the hypertensive condition. PMID:21493719

  10. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Rates Between Systolic and Diastolic Hypertension in Young Adults: A Multidisciplinary Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather M; Bartels, Christie M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Schumacher, Jessica R; Pandhi, Nancy; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    Differential rates of diagnosis and treatment by hypertension (HTN) type may contribute to poor HTN control in young adults. The objective of this study was to compare rates of receiving a hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive agent among young adults with (1) isolated systolic, (2) isolated diastolic, and (3) combined systolic/diastolic HTN. A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients aged 18 to 39 years (n=3003) with incident HTN. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Only 56% with isolated systolic HTN received a diagnosis compared with 63% (systolic/diastolic); 32% with isolated systolic HTN received an initial antihypertensive compared with 52% (systolic/diastolic). Compared with patients with systolic/diastolic HTN, those with isolated systolic HTN had a 50% slower diagnosis rate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.60) and those with isolated diastolic HTN had a 26% slower rate (HR, 0.74; CI, 0.60-0.92). Patients with isolated systolic HTN had 58% slower medication initiation (HR, 0.42; CI, 0.34-0.51) and those with isolated diastolic HTN had 31% slower rates (HR, 0.69; CI, 0.55-0.86). Young adults with isolated systolic HTN have lower diagnosis and treatment rates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Low rate of resistant hypertension in Chinese patients with hypertension: an analysis of the HOT-CHINA study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The rate of resistant hypertension in China is unknown. This is an analysis of resistant hypertension based on Hypertension Optimal Treatment Study in China. Methods: The study was conducted in 148 cities in mainland China from April 2001 to February 2002, which included 54 590 hypertensive patients (≥18 years of age), and used a five-step treatment programme. Patients not achieving blood pressure (BP) target (<140/90 mmHg) within 2 weeks received preplanned additional drugs. Resistant hypertension was defined in the participants with uncontrolled hypertension after 2 weeks of treatment on Step 5. Results: The rate of resistant hypertension was 1.9%. Patients with resistant hypertension were characterized by following features: higher male percentage (65.6 vs. 60.2%); younger age (59.51 ± 13.02 vs. 61.76 ± 12.27 years); higher BMI (24.8 ± 3.5 vs. 24.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2); longer disease course; higher fasting blood glucose (6.60 ± 2.69 vs. 5.99 ± 2.12 mmol/l); higher total cholesterol (5.67 ± 1.63 vs. 5.32 ± 1.24 mmol/l); higher triglycerides (2.15 ± 1.32 vs. 1.96 ± 1.09 mmol/l); and higher percentage of grade 3 hypertension (71.1 vs. 27.2%) (all P < 0.001). Patients with resistant hypertension also had a higher rate of metabolic syndrome (45.9 vs. 35.4%), diabetes mellitus (25.5 vs. 14.7%) and history of myocardial infarction (4.7 vs. 3.3%) or stroke (17.0 vs. 11.6%) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed an association of resistant hypertension with younger age, higher BP, BMI, longer disease course, higher fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Resistant hypertension in Chinese patients is associated with overweight/obesity, higher BP and metabolic syndrome. The rate of resistant hypertension in China, however, is much lower than previously reported. Another intriguing characteristic is the association of resistant hypertension with younger age. PMID

  12. [Renal denervation in refractory hypertension: joint statement of the German hypertension league DHL eV and the German societies of cardiology, angiology, nephrology and radiology].

    PubMed

    Vonend, Oliver; Böhm, Michael; Eckert, Siegfried; Hausberg, Martin; Rittger, Harald; Rump, Lars-Christian; Schmieder, Roland; Schulte, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Uder, Michael; Veelken, Roland; Vorwerk, Dierk; Weil, Joachim; Wenzel, Ulrich; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and remains insufficiently controlled in Germany. The sham controlled Symplicity HTN-3 trial did meet its primary safety endpoint but failed to meet its primary efficacy endpoint. Renal denervation can not replace established, well-proven therapies. It can only be used in selected truly resistant hypertensive patients as an additive approach and should be performed by specialized centers only. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further evaluate renal denervation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Hypertension genes are genetic markers for insulin sensitivity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuqing; Cheng, Suzanne; Taylor, Kent D; Cui, Jinrui; Hughes, Randall; Quiñones, Manuel J; Bulnes-Enriquez, Isabel; De la Rosa, Roxana; Aurea, George; Yang, Huiying; Hsueh, Willa; Rotter, Jerome I

    2005-04-01

    Insulin resistance is a determinant of blood pressure variation and risk factor for hypertension. Because insulin resistance and blood pressure cosegregate in Mexican American families, we thus investigated the association between variations in 9 previously reported hypertension genes (ACE, AGT, AGTRI, ADDI, NPPA, ADDRB2, SCNN1A, GNB3, and NOS3) and insulin resistance. Families were ascertained via a coronary artery disease proband in the Mexican American Coronary Artery Disease Project. Individuals from 100 Mexican American families (n=656) were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in the 9 genes and all adult offspring and offspring spouses were phenotyped for insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n=449). AGT M235T and NOS3 A(-922)G and E298D polymorphisms were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (P=0.018, 0.036, 0.039) but were not significant after adjusting for body mass index. ADD1 G460W was associated with insulin sensitivity only after adjusting for body mass index. The NPPA T2238C and SCNN1A A663T were associated with decreased fasting insulin levels after adjusting for body mass index (P=0.015 and 0.028). In conclusion, AGT, NOS3, NPPA, ADRB2, ADD1, and SCNN1A may well be genetic markers for insulin resistance, and adiposity was a potential modifier for only some gene/trait combinations. Our data support the hypothesis that genes in the blood pressure pathway may play a role in insulin resistance in Mexican Americans.

  14. COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

  15. COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

  16. Misdiagnosis of resistant hypertension: Real frequency of true resistant hypertension in patients with suspected resistance to treatment.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Mónica; Sastre, Enric; Camafort, Miguel; Sierra, Cristina; Coca, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Resistant hypertension(RH) has been defined as failure to control office blood pressure (BP) despite the use of≥3 different antihypertensive agents at optimal doses, including, ideally, a diuretic. Apparent RH, defines patients with an incorrect diagnosis of RH due to different causes. The objective was to determine whether most patients with RH in fact have apparent but not true RH. Observational study involving 93 patients with suspected RH, being 60 patients finally included. Screening for secondary causes of hypertension was perfomed. True RH was defined as office BP>140/90mmHg despite full doses of 3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. Mean age 63.7±9.8years, 68.3%were male. Office BP 154.3±14.4/84.4±13.7mmHg. Of the 60 patients, 23.3% had white coat effect, 3.3% didn't have a diuretic and 8.3% were non-adherent-to-treatment. Accordingly, 58.3% were classified as true RH. Spironolactone was added in 62.5% of patients of whom 78.4% achieved ambulatory BP control. Almost half of the patients with suspected RH were not really true RH. We provide more evidence of excess of fluid retention as an underlying cause of lack of BP control in patients with RH, reinforce the relevant paper of spironolactone for the management in those patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide study of resistant hypertension identified from electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Denny, Joshua C.; El Rouby, Nihal M.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Bradford, Yuki; Ramirez, Andrea H.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Basford, Melissa A.; Chai, High Seng; Peissig, Peggy; Carrell, David; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Wang, Xiaoming; Pacheco, Jennifer A.; Kho, Abel N.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Matsumoto, Martha; Smith, Maureen E.; Li, Rongling; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Chute, Christopher G.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Larson, Eric B.; Carey, David; McCarty, Catherine A.; Williams, Marc S.; Roden, Dan M.; Bottinger, Erwin; Johnson, Julie A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Crawford, Dana C.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains above treatment goals in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive agents from different classes. Despite the important health consequences of resistant hypertension, few studies of resistant hypertension have been conducted. To perform a genome-wide association study for resistant hypertension, we defined and identified cases of resistant hypertension and hypertensives with treated, controlled hypertension among >47,500 adults residing in the US linked to electronic health records (EHRs) and genotyped as part of the electronic MEdical Records & GEnomics (eMERGE) Network. Electronic selection logic using billing codes, laboratory values, text queries, and medication records was used to identify resistant hypertension cases and controls at each site, and a total of 3,006 cases of resistant hypertension and 876 controlled hypertensives were identified among eMERGE Phase I and II sites. After imputation and quality control, a total of 2,530,150 SNPs were tested for an association among 2,830 multi-ethnic cases of resistant hypertension and 876 controlled hypertensives. No test of association was genome-wide significant in the full dataset or in the dataset limited to European American cases (n = 1,719) and controls (n = 708). The most significant finding was CLNK rs13144136 at p = 1.00x10-6 (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.58–0.80) in the full dataset with similar results in the European American only dataset. We also examined whether SNPs known to influence blood pressure or hypertension also influenced resistant hypertension. None was significant after correction for multiple testing. These data highlight both the difficulties and the potential utility of EHR-linked genomic data to study clinically-relevant traits such as resistant hypertension. PMID:28222112

  18. Genome-wide study of resistant hypertension identified from electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Denny, Joshua C; El Rouby, Nihal M; McDonough, Caitrin W; Bradford, Yuki; Ramirez, Andrea H; Bielinski, Suzette J; Basford, Melissa A; Chai, High Seng; Peissig, Peggy; Carrell, David; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke V; Wang, Xiaoming; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Kho, Abel N; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Matsumoto, Martha; Smith, Maureen E; Li, Rongling; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Chute, Christopher G; Chisholm, Rex L; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; Carey, David; McCarty, Catherine A; Williams, Marc S; Roden, Dan M; Bottinger, Erwin; Johnson, Julie A; de Andrade, Mariza; Crawford, Dana C

    2017-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains above treatment goals in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive agents from different classes. Despite the important health consequences of resistant hypertension, few studies of resistant hypertension have been conducted. To perform a genome-wide association study for resistant hypertension, we defined and identified cases of resistant hypertension and hypertensives with treated, controlled hypertension among >47,500 adults residing in the US linked to electronic health records (EHRs) and genotyped as part of the electronic MEdical Records & GEnomics (eMERGE) Network. Electronic selection logic using billing codes, laboratory values, text queries, and medication records was used to identify resistant hypertension cases and controls at each site, and a total of 3,006 cases of resistant hypertension and 876 controlled hypertensives were identified among eMERGE Phase I and II sites. After imputation and quality control, a total of 2,530,150 SNPs were tested for an association among 2,830 multi-ethnic cases of resistant hypertension and 876 controlled hypertensives. No test of association was genome-wide significant in the full dataset or in the dataset limited to European American cases (n = 1,719) and controls (n = 708). The most significant finding was CLNK rs13144136 at p = 1.00x10-6 (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.58-0.80) in the full dataset with similar results in the European American only dataset. We also examined whether SNPs known to influence blood pressure or hypertension also influenced resistant hypertension. None was significant after correction for multiple testing. These data highlight both the difficulties and the potential utility of EHR-linked genomic data to study clinically-relevant traits such as resistant hypertension.

  19. Atrial Fibrillation and Hypertension: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic, and Treatment Parallels.

    PubMed

    Ogunsua, Adedotun A; Shaikh, Amir Y; Ahmed, Mohamed; McManus, David D

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly prevalent condition and the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in ambulatory and hospital practice. Several clinical risk factors for AF include age, sex, valvular heart disease, obesity, sleep apnea, heart failure, and hypertension (HTN). Of all the risk factors, HTN is the most commonly encountered condition in patients with incident AF. Hypertension is associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of developing new-onset AF and a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of progression to permanent AF. Hypertension predisposes to cardiac structural changes that influence the development of AF such as atrial remodeling. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system has been demonstrated to be a common mechanistic link in the pathogenesis of HTN and AF. Importantly, HTN is one of the few modifiable AF risk factors, and guideline-directed management of HTN may reduce the incidence of AF.

  20. Baroreflex stimulation: A novel treatment option for resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Lohmeier, Thomas E.; Bisognano, John D

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Despite the increasing awareness of hypertension and its implications among patients and the treating physicians, the prevalence of resistant hypertension remains high and expected to increase. Many patients fail to reach their target blood pressure despite the wide availability of several antihypertensive agents and the continued recommendation of dietary and lifestyle modifications. Stimulation of the carotid sinus results in lowering of blood pressure by initiating the baroreflex and, in so doing, reducing sympathetic tone and increasing renal excretory function, in part, by exerting inhibitory effects on renin secretion. . Recent evidence from experimental studies suggests that the baroreflex may be more important in the setting of chronic hypertension than originally believed. In early phase clinical trials that did not include control arms, implantation of a baroreflex stimulator yielded a sustained decrease in blood pressure. An ongoing larger clinical trial with appropriate control arms is further exploring the safety and efficacy of the device. This article describes the history and potential mechanisms of action of this device including its extensive pre-clinical development and movement to human clinical trials. PMID:20409946

  1. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Aldosterone and Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Eric K.; Calhoun, David A.; Warnock, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resistant hypertension is a clinically distinct subgroup of hypertension defined by the failure to achieve blood pressure control on optimal dosing of at least 3 antihypertensive medications of different classes, including a diuretic. The pathophysiology of hypertension can be attributed to aldosterone excess in more than 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. Existing dogma attributes the increase in blood pressure seen with increases in aldosterone to its antinatriuretic effects in the distal nephron. However, emerging research, which has identified and has begun to define the function of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels and mineralocorticoid receptors in the systemic vasculature, challenges impaired natriuresis as the sole cause of aldosterone-mediated resistant hypertension. This review integrates these findings to better define the role of the vasculature and aldosterone in the pathophysiology of resistant hypertension. In addition, a brief guide to the treatment of resistant hypertension is presented. PMID:25416662

  2. Pathophysiology and treatment of resistant hypertension: the role of aldosterone and amiloride-sensitive sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Judd, Eric K; Calhoun, David A; Warnock, David G

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a clinically distinct subgroup of hypertension defined by the failure to achieve blood pressure control on optimal dosing of at least 3 antihypertensive medications of different classes, including a diuretic. The pathophysiology of hypertension can be attributed to aldosterone excess in more than 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. Existing dogma attributes the increase in blood pressure seen with increases in aldosterone to its antinatriuretic effects in the distal nephron. However, emerging research, which has identified and has begun to define the function of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels and mineralocorticoid receptors in the systemic vasculature, challenges impaired natriuresis as the sole cause of aldosterone-mediated resistant hypertension. This review integrates these findings to better define the role of the vasculature and aldosterone in the pathophysiology of resistant hypertension. In addition, a brief guide to the treatment of resistant hypertension is presented.

  3. South African hypertension practice guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Seedat, YK; Rayner, BL; Veriava, Yosuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Outcomes Extensive data from many randomised, controlled trials have shown the benefit of treating hypertension (HTN). The target blood pressure (BP) for antihypertensive management is systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg, with minimal or no drug side effects. Lower targets are no longer recommended. The reduction of BP in the elderly should be achieved gradually over one month. Co-existent cardiovascular (CV) risk factors should also be controlled. Benefits Reduction in risk of stroke, cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Recommendations Correct BP measurement procedure is described. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors and recommendations for antihypertensive therapy are stipulated. Lifestyle modification and patient education are cornerstones of management. The major indications, precautions and contra-indications are listed for each antihypertensive drug recommended. Drug therapy for the patient with uncomplicated HTN is either mono- or combination therapy with a low-dose diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Combination therapy should be considered ab initio if the BP is ≥ 160/100 mmHg. In black patients, either a diuretic and/or a CCB is recommended initially because the response rate is better compared to an ACEI. In resistant hypertension, add an alpha-blocker, spironolactone, vasodilator or β-blocker. Validity The guideline was developed by the Southern African Hypertension Society 2014©. PMID:25629715

  4. Genetic, physiological and comparative genomic studies of hypertension and insulin resistance in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Oliver; Garcia Diaz, Ana; Barrier, Marjorie; Alfazema, Neza; Norsworthy, Penny J.; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; Hübner, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously mapped hypertension-related insulin resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to rat chromosomes 4, 12 and 16 using adipocytes from F2 crosses between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and subsequently identified Cd36 as the gene underlying the chromosome 4 locus. The identity of the chromosome 12 and 16 genes remains unknown. To identify whole-body phenotypes associated with the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions, we generated and characterised new congenic strains, with WKY donor segments introgressed onto an SHR genetic background, for the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions. We found a >50% increase in insulin sensitivity in both the chromosome 12 and 16 strains. Blood pressure and left ventricular mass were reduced in the two congenic strains consistent with the congenic segments harbouring SHR genes for insulin resistance, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Integrated genomic analysis, using physiological and whole-genome sequence data across 42 rat strains, identified variants within the congenic regions in Upk3bl, RGD1565131 and AABR06087018.1 that were associated with blood pressure, cardiac mass and insulin sensitivity. Quantitative trait transcript analysis across 29 recombinant inbred strains showed correlation between expression of Hspb1, Zkscan5 and Pdgfrl with adipocyte volume, systolic blood pressure and cardiac mass, respectively. Comparative genome analysis showed a marked enrichment of orthologues for human GWAS-associated genes for insulin resistance within the syntenic regions of both the chromosome 12 and 16 congenic intervals. Our study defines whole-body phenotypes associated with the SHR chromosome 12 and 16 insulin-resistance QTLs, identifies candidate genes for these SHR QTLs and finds human orthologues of rat genes in these regions that associate with related human traits. Further study of these genes in the congenic strains will lead to robust identification of the underlying

  5. Salt reduction and hypertension in China: a concise state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Li, Huiyan; Hong, Siting

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and its cardiovascular complications such as stroke and heart failure are a serious public health problem around the world. A growing number of studies confirm that salt plays an important role in the development of HTN. Increasing intake of salt leads to abnormal transport of sodium ions at the cellular level with activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Studies have shown that salt restriction can reduce blood pressure (BP) in patients with HTN, especially salt-sensitive HTN. Public health interventions to reduce salt intake, with the goal of decreasing adverse outcomes have been launched in numerous countries. In this review we will summarize the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors, the relationship between salt and HTN, the effect of salt restriction on HTN and the current situation of prevention and treatment of HTN by salt reduction in China. PMID:26090330

  6. Treatment of hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Susan; Flynn, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is increasingly recognized as a common feature of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that HTN is both underdiagnosed and undertreated in this population. The consequences of untreated HTN include adverse effects on CKD progression, markers of cardiovascular morbidity, and neurocognitive functioning. Consensus guidelines issued over the past decade have incorporated recent research on the consequences of HTN in recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of HTN in pediatric CKD and include lower BP targets. Agents which target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) should be considered first-line therapy in CKD-associated HTN in children, though multiple medications may be required to achieve sufficient BP control.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, Annette; Kolaitis, Nicholas A; Bettencourt, Ricki; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kruse-Jarres, R; Quon, Doris V; Wassel, Christina; Li, Ming C; Waalen, Jill; Elias, Darlene J; Mosnier, Laurent O; Allison, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, treatment, and control of HTN in adult patients with hemophilia (PWH). PWH≥18 years (n=458) from 3 geographically different cohorts in the United States were evaluated retrospectively for HTN and risk factors. Results were compared with the nationally representative sample provided by the contemporary National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PWH had a significantly higher prevalence of HTN compared with NHANES. Overall, the prevalence of HTN was 49.1% in PWH compared with 31.7% in NHANES. At ages 18 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 74, and ≥75 years, the prevalence of HTN for PWH was 31.8%, 72.6%, 89.7%, and 100.0% compared with 12.5%, 41.2%, 64.1%, and 71.7% in NHANES, respectively. Of treated hypertensive PWH, only 27.1% were controlled, compared with 47.7% in NHANES (all P<0.05). Age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and renal function were independently associated with HTN. Among patients with moderate or severe hemophilia there was a trend (≈1.5-fold) for higher odds of having HTN compared with patients with mild hemophilia. On the basis of these results, new care models for adult PWH and further studies for the causes of HTN in hemophilia are recommended.

  8. Catheter-Based Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension: Will It Ever Be Ready for "Prime Time"?

    PubMed

    Laffin, Luke J; Bakris, George L

    2016-11-12

    The year 2014 was a turning point for the field of renal denervation (RDN) and its potential use to treat resistant hypertension. Tremendous enthusiasm shifted to sober reflection on the efficacy of a technology once touted as the cure to resistant hypertension. The following review highlights 2 major questions: First, does catheter-based RDN lower blood pressure and, second, will RDN using catheter-directed therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension ever become more than an investigational technology.

  9. Autonomic nervous system dysregulation in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Ruzicka, Marcel; Geier, Pavel; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2014-05-01

    Historically, primary hypertension (HTN) has been prevalent typically in adults. Recent data however, suggests an increasing number of children diagnosed with primary HTN, mainly in the setting of obesity. One of the factors considered in the etiology of HTN is the autonomous nervous system, namely its dysregulation. In the past, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) was regarded as a system engaged mostly in buffering major acute changes in blood pressure (BP), in response to physical and emotional stressors. Recent evidence suggests that the SNS plays a much broader role in the regulation of BP, including the development and maintenance of sustained HTN by a chronically elevated central sympathetic tone in adults and children with central/visceral obesity. Consequently, attempts have been made to reduce the SNS hyperactivity, in order to intervene early in the course of the disease and prevent HTN-related complications later in life.

  10. Vascular narrowing in pulmonary arterial hypertension is heterogeneous: rethinking resistance.

    PubMed

    Rol, Nina; Timmer, Esther M; Faes, Theo J C; Noordegraaf, Anton Vonk; Grünberg, Katrien; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; Westerhof, Nico

    2017-03-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance is associated with structural narrowing of small (resistance) vessels and increased vascular tone. Current information on pulmonary vascular remodeling is mostly limited to averaged increases in wall thickness, but information on number of vessels affected and internal diameter decreases for vessels of different sizes is limited. Our aim was to quantify numbers of affected vessels and their internal diameter decrease for differently sized vessels in PAH in comparison with non-PAH patients. Internal and external diameters of transversally cut vessels were measured in five control subjects and six PAH patients. Resistance vessels were classified in Strahler orders, internal diameters 13 μm (order 1) to 500 μm (order 8). The number fraction, that is, percentage of affected vessels, and the internal diameter fraction, that is, percentage diameter of normal diameter, were calculated. In PAH, not all resistance vessels are affected. The number fraction is about 30%, that is, 70% of vessels have diameters not different from vessels of control subjects. Within each order, the decrease in diameter of affected vessels is variable with an averaged diameter fraction of 50-70%. Narrowing of resistance vessels is heterogeneous: not all vessels are narrowed, and the decrease in internal diameters, even within a single order, vary largely. This heterogeneous narrowing alone cannot explain the large resistance increase in PAH We suggest that rarefaction could be an important contributor to the hemodynamic changes.

  11. Racism and hypertension: a review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Love, Erica E; Pencille, Melissa; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-05-01

    Despite improved hypertension (HTN) awareness and treatment, racial disparities in HTN prevalence persist. An understanding of the biopsychosocial determinants of HTN is necessary to address racial disparities in the prevalence of HTN. This review examines the evidence directly and indirectly linking multiple levels of racism to HTN. Published empirical research in EBSCO databases investigating the relationships of three levels of racism (individual/interpersonal, internalized, and institutional racism) to HTN was reviewed. Direct evidence linking individual/interpersonal racism to HTN diagnosis is weak. However, the relationship of individual/interpersonal racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is more consistent, with all published studies reporting a positive relationship of interpersonal racism to ABP. There is no direct evidence linking internalized racism to BP. Population-based studies provide some evidence linking institutional racism, in the forms of residential racial segregation (RRS) and incarceration, to HTN incidence. Racism shows associations to stress exposure and reactivity as well as associations to established HTN-related risk factors including obesity, low levels of physical activity and alcohol use. The effects vary by level of racism. Overall the findings suggest that racism may increase risk for HTN; these effects emerge more clearly for institutional racism than for individual level racism. All levels of racism may influence the prevalence of HTN via stress exposure and reactivity and by fostering conditions that undermine health behaviors, raising the barriers to lifestyle change.

  12. Cardiac autonomic responses after resistance exercise in treated hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Trevizani, Gabriela A.; Peçanha, Tiago; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Vianna, Jeferson M.; Silva, Lilian P.; Nadal, Jurandir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and to compare heart rate variability (HRV) after resistance exercise (RE) in treated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nine hypertensive men [HT: 58.0 ± 7.7 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 133.6 ± 6.5 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 87.3 ± 8.1 mmHg; under antihypertensive treatment] and 11 normotensive men (NT: 57.1 ± 6.0 years, SBP = 127 ± 8.5 mmHg, DBP = 82.7 ± 5.5 mmHg) performed a single session of RE (2 sets of 15–20 repetitions, 50% of 1 RM, 120 s interval between sets/exercise) for the following exercises: leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion, seated arm curl. HRV was assessed at resting and during 10 min of recovery period by calculating time (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LF, HF, LF/HF) indices. Mean values of HRV indices were reduced in the post-exercise period compared to the resting period (HT: lnHF: 4.7 ± 1.4 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2 ms2; NT: lnHF: 4.8 ± 1.5 vs. 2.2 ± 1.1 ms2, p < 0.01). However, there was no group vs. time interaction in this response (p = 0.8). The results indicate that HRV is equally suppressed after RE in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that a single session of RE does not bring additional cardiac autonomic stress to treated hypertensive subjects. PMID:26441677

  13. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%-5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period.

  14. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%–5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period. PMID:27147865

  15. Insulin resistance in young, lean male subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Belan, V; Blazicek, P; Imrich, R; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M; Selko, D; Koska, J; Radikova, Z

    2011-06-01

    Impaired insulin action, frequently found in essential hypertension (HT), is modified by other factors, such as higher age, accumulation of body fat, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, antihypertensive and insulin-sensitizing medication itself may significantly affect cardiovascular and metabolic milieu. The aim of this study was to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, lipidaemic status and the adipokines' concentrations with regard to abdominal fat distribution in young, lean male subjects with treatment-naïve essential HT and in matched healthy normotensive (NT) subjects. We studied 27 HT patients (age: 19.9±0.6 years; body mass index (BMI): 22.9±0.5 kg m(-2)) and 15 NT controls (age: 22.3±1.0 years; BMI: 23.7±0.6 kg m(-2)). The subjects underwent an oral and an intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT, IVGTT) on separate days in random order. Higher fasting insulin (P<0.001), non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05) and plasminogen activator inhibitor factor 1 concentrations (P<0.05) were found in HT patients when compared with NT patients. Despite comparable anthropometric parameters and body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in both groups, newly diagnosed untreated young hypertensive male subjects showed decreased insulin sensitivity, augmented insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose load (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) and 'higher still normal' 2-h plasma glucose levels during OGTT. Untreated, young, lean hypertensive male subjects, with distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and lipid profile comparable with their healthy NT matched counterparts, showed considerable signs of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. We hypothesize that insulin resistance is the initial feature, which is influenced by several environmental factors, and HT is one of their common consequences.

  16. [Obstructive sleep apnea and drugs as causes of treatment-resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Waeber, B; Feihl, F

    2012-01-11

    Treatment-resistant hypertension is still common despite the availability of several types of antihypertensive agents acting by different mechanisms. The existence of refractory hypertension should lead to rule out "white-coat hypertension", poor adherence to prescribed drugs as well as classical causes of secondary hypertension such as renal artery stenosis, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and renal disease. It is also important to consider the possible existence of obstructive sleep apnea or the regular intake of vasopressive drugs or substances.

  17. High levels of inflammation and insulin resistance in obstructive sleep apnea patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoshun; Yin, Tong; Li, Tianzhi; Kang, Chunyan; Guo, Ruibiao; Sun, Baojun; Liu, Changting

    2012-08-01

    Hypertension induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be multifactorial in origin, and systemic inflammation is one of the major factors. However, OSA patients do not always have the identical probability with hypertension even in patients with the same history and degree of OSA. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of inflammation and insulin resistance in two groups of patients who had the same degree as well as the same long history of OSA, but with/without hypertension. OSA patients (Apnea Hyponea Index, AHI ≥ 40/h, n = 70) were examined by polysomnography and blood analysis for the measurements of fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin (FINS), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), peptide C,TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. Patients with hypertension (n = 40) had higher level of LDL-C and lower HDL-C levels than patients without hypertension. Almost half (16/40) of OSA patients with hypertension had family history of hypertension. Moreover in OSA patients with hypertension, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP were higher, but IL-10 was lower than those without hypertension. FINS, peptide C, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-islet were also higher in OSA patients with hypertension. OSA patients with hypertension have higher level of inflammation and insulin resistance. Systemic inflammation and insulin resistance are both important factors for the development of hypertension in OSA patients.

  18. Are We on the Path to Solve the Enigma of Resistant Hypertension: Renal Sympathetic Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Gerc, Vjekoslav; Buksa, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) opens new perspectives and possibilities not only in the treatment of resistant hypertension but also of other cardiometabolic diseases. In patients with hypertension, it has been demonstrated that activity of the sympathetic nervous system correlates with grade of hypertension. Decreasing sympathetic activity using RSD significantly reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension. It is too early to say a definite opinion about appropriateness of this method in the treatment of resistant hypertension, because there are not great studies with huge number of the patients. After we get and evaluate these results through a longer span of time, only than we shall know what is the role of RSD in the treatment of resistant hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions related to increased function of the sympathetic nervous system, such as heart failure, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, renal disease with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. PMID:25568521

  19. Are we on the path to solve the enigma of resistant hypertension: renal sympathetic denervation.

    PubMed

    Gerc, Vjekoslav; Buksa, Marko

    2013-12-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) opens new perspectives and possibilities not only in the treatment of resistant hypertension but also of other cardiometabolic diseases. In patients with hypertension, it has been demonstrated that activity of the sympathetic nervous system correlates with grade of hypertension. Decreasing sympathetic activity using RSD significantly reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension. It is too early to say a definite opinion about appropriateness of this method in the treatment of resistant hypertension, because there are not great studies with huge number of the patients. After we get and evaluate these results through a longer span of time, only than we shall know what is the role of RSD in the treatment of resistant hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions related to increased function of the sympathetic nervous system, such as heart failure, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, renal disease with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria.

  20. Role of adiponectin in insulin-resistant hypertension and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Furuhashi, Masato; Higashiura, Katsuhiro; Miura, Tetsuji; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2003-09-01

    Insulin resistance is one of the major risk factors associated with development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may be involved in insulin resistance and development of atherosclerosis in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to examine adiponectin levels in patients with essential hypertension to determine the relationships between adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity and to examine the relationship of adiponectin with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a general population based on the results of an epidemiological survey in Japan. In a clinical study, 20 normotensives (NT) and 30 non-treated essential hypertensives (EHT) were hospitalized, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (GC) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity defined as M value. EHT were divided into insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-R) and insulin-nonresistant EHT (EHT-N) according to the mean -1 SD of the M value of NT as a cut-off point. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and adiponectin concentrations were measured. There were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) or FPG among the NT, EHT-N, and EHT-R groups. The M value and adiponectin concentration in EHT-R were significantly lower than those in the NT or EHT-N. The IRI level in the EHT-R was significantly higher than those in the other groups. A positive correlation between adiponectin concentration and M value was found in all subjects, and adiponectin concentration and M value were found to be significant determinants of each other in multiple regression analysis. In an epidemiological study, we studied 391 male inhabitants of rural communities in Hokkaido, Japan. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), BMI, FPG, IRI, and adiponectin were measured in all subjects early in the morning. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values were calculated as an index of insulin sensitivity, and PWV was used as an index of

  1. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Management of Resistant Hypertension: Still a Matter of our Resistance?

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Antonios A; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Ruilope, Luis M

    2015-10-01

    Resistant hypertension, commonly described as the failure to achieve goal blood pressure (BP) despite an appropriate regimen of three antihypertensive drugs at the maximal tolerated doses, one of which is diuretic, is increasingly recognized as an important problem of public health. Large population studies with office measurements suggest that the prevalence of resistance hypertension is approximately at 6-12 % of the general hypertensive population and 8-28 % of treated hypertensives. However, these estimations do not take into account factors of pseudo-resistance, most importantly, the white-coat effect that can be effectively ruled out with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Recent studies have clearly shown that when ABPM is used, at least 30-35 % of patients labeled as "resistant hypertensives" turn out to have well-controlled BP on ambulatory basis, a finding changing entirely the estimates of prevalence of resistance hypertension and actual patient handling. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that ABPM is a much more accurate predictor of cardiovascular events in resistant hypertension compared to office BP and thus can offer a better risk stratification for these high-risk individuals. Finally, ABPM offers the potential of a better evaluation of the effect of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapeutic interventions. This review attempts to summarize recent evidence on the advantages of ABPM in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of resistant hypertension.

  2. Relationship between overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea in drug-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Oded; Bradley, T Douglas; Chan, Christopher T; Parkes, Robert; Logan, Alexander G

    2010-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea occurs frequently in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The factors accounting for this observation, however, are unclear. Both conditions demonstrate clinical features suggestive of extracellular fluid volume overload. The aims of this study were to examine whether the spontaneous overnight fluid shift from the legs to the upper body is associated with obstructive sleep apnea in hypertensive subjects and whether its magnitude is greater in drug-resistant hypertension. Leg fluid volume and the circumference of the calf and neck were measured before and after sleep in drug-resistant hypertensive (n = 25) and controlled hypertensive (n=15) subjects undergoing overnight polysomnography. The severity of obstructive sleep apnea was greater in the drug-resistant hypertensive group than in the controlled hypertensive group (apnea-hypopnea index: 43.0 ± 5.4 versus 18.1 ± 4.2 events per hour of sleep; P = 0.02, case-mix adjusted). In both groups, the apnea-hypopnea index strongly related to the amount of leg fluid volume displaced (R² = 0.56; P < 0.0001), although the magnitude of change was greater in the drug-resistant hypertensive group (346.7 ± 24.1 versus 175.8 ± 31.3 mL; P = 0.01, propensity-score adjusted). The overnight reduction in calf circumference and increase in neck circumference were also greater in drug-resistant hypertension (both P ≤ 0.02). In hypertensive subjects, rostral fluid displacement strongly relates to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea with its magnitude being greater in drug-resistant hypertension. Our findings support the concept that fluid redistribution centrally during sleep accounts for the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in drug-resistant hypertension.

  3. Definition, identification and treatment of resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Yelena R; Bomback, Andrew S

    2014-07-01

    Resistant hypertension, the inability to achieve goal blood pressure despite the use of three or more appropriately dosed antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic), remains a common clinical problem, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While the exact prevalence and prognosis of resistant hypertension in CKD patients remain unknown, resistant hypertension likely contributes significantly to increased cardiovascular risk and progression of kidney disease in this population. We review the identification and evaluation of patients with resistant hypertension, including the importance of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the identification of 'white-coat', 'masked' and 'non-dipper' hypertension, the latter of which has particular clinical and therapeutic importance in patients with resistant hypertension and CKD. We then discuss treatment strategies for resistant hypertension that target the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying resistance to treatment, including persistent volume excess, incomplete renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and inadequate nocturnal blood pressure control. Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for evaluation and treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with CKD.

  4. Hypertension Due to Toxic White Crystals in the Diet: Should We Blame Salt or Sugar?

    PubMed

    DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    The "Salt Hypothesis" is the notion that an increase in salt intake will increase blood pressure and thus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD),which has been a point of contention for decades. Despite this, numerous health organizations, dietary guidelines, and government policies advocate population-wide salt restriction. However, there is no conclusive proof that restricting salt intake reduces the risk of hypertension (HTN) and/or CVD events; sodium restriction in fact may paradoxically lead to adverse health outcomes. Importantly, another white crystal, sucrose (or table sugar) but also high-fructose corn syrup are much more detrimental food additives. Indeed, added sugars have the ability to induce hypertension via the promotion of inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and obesity. Considering that there is no physiologic requirement for dietary carbohydrate, there is little reason to suspect adverse health consequences from cutting back on sugar. This paper reviews the evidence relating to salt and sugar on HTN and CVD. Based on our review of the scientific literature, guidelines should focus more on reducing sugar rather than salt for the prevention and treatment of HTN and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Panic disorder, anxiety and depression in resistant hypertension--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J; Ghahramani, P; Jackson, P R; Hippisley-Cox, J; Yeo, W W; Ramsay, L E

    1997-10-01

    It has been suggested that panic disorder can cause or contribute to hypertension or resistance to antihypertensive drugs. To compare the prevalences of panic disorder, panic attacks, anxiety and depression between patients with resistant hypertension and age- and sex-matched patients with non-resistant hypertension. A case-control study of patients attending the Sheffield Hypertension Clinic, using self-completed postal questionnaires to assess panic disorder, anxiety and depression. PATIENTS CASES: With resistant hypertension were defined as patients who presently or previously had systolic blood pressure above 160 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg despite the use of three or more antihypertensive agents at full dose. For each of 136 cases, one control with non-resistant hypertension, defined as controlled to < or = 160/90 mmHg by one or two antihypertensive agents, was identified by a bias-free method. Cases and controls were matched for age and sex. Lifetime and current prevalence of panic attacks, the prevalences of panic disorder, anxiety and depression by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, and the severity and frequency of panic attacks. Of the resistant hypertensive patients, 33% had experienced a panic attack compared with 39% of the control non-resistant hypertensives (resistant-non-resistant -6%, 95% confidence interval -19 to +7%). Twelve per cent of the resistant patients and 14% of controls fulfilled the criteria for a current or previous diagnosis of panic disorder (resistant-non-resistant -2%, 95% confidence interval -11% to +7%). There were also no significant differences between the groups in the prevalences of current panic attacks, panic attacks rated as moderate or worse, spontaneous panic attacks and in the frequency of panic attacks. There remained no significant difference between the groups for panic attacks and panic disorder when the analysis was limited to those patients who had idiopathic hypertension. The two

  6. Vascular lesions induced by renal nerve ablation as assessed by optical coherence tomography: pre- and post-procedural comparison with the Simplicity catheter system and the EnligHTN multi-electrode renal denervation catheter.

    PubMed

    Templin, Christian; Jaguszewski, Milosz; Ghadri, Jelena R; Sudano, Isabella; Gaehwiler, Roman; Hellermann, Jens P; Schoenenberger-Berzins, Renate; Landmesser, Ulf; Erne, Paul; Noll, Georg; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2013-07-01

    Catheter-based renal nerve ablation (RNA) using radiofrequency energy is a novel treatment for drug-resistant essential hypertension. However, the local endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA has not been characterized, although this importantly determines the long-term safety of the procedure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables in vivo visualization of morphologic features with a high resolution of 10-15 µm. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological features of the endothelial and vascular injury induced by RNA using OCT. In a prospective observational study, 32 renal arteries of patients with treatment-resistant hypertension underwent OCT before and after RNA. All pre- and post-procedural OCT pullbacks were evaluated regarding vascular changes such as vasospasm, oedema (notches), dissection, and thrombus formation. Thirty-two renal arteries were evaluated, in which automatic pullbacks were obtained before and after RNA. Vasospasm was observed more often after RNA then before the procedure (0 vs. 42%, P < 0.001). A significant decrease in mean renal artery diameter after RNA was documented both with the EnligHTN (4.69 ± 0.73 vs. 4.21 ± 0.87 mm; P < 0.001) and with the Simplicity catheter (5.04 ± 0.66 vs. 4.57 ± 0.88 mm; P < 0.001). Endothelial-intimal oedema was noted in 96% of cases after RNA. The presence of thrombus formations was significantly higher after the RNA then before ablation (67 vs. 18%, P < 0.001). There was one evidence of arterial dissection after RNA with the Simplicity catheter, while endothelial and intimal disruptions were noted in two patients with the EnligHTN catheter. Here we show that diffuse renal artery constriction and local tissue damage at the ablation site with oedema and thrombus formation occur after RNA and that OCT visualizes vascular lesions not apparent on angiography. This suggests that dual antiplatelet therapy may be required during RNA.

  7. [Catheter-based treatment of drug-resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    De Benedetti, Edoardo

    2011-11-16

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the control of blood pressure and the occurrence of hypertension has been established both in animal models and in clinical practice. Patients resistant to treatment are common in clinical practice and require a new approach to optimize blood pressure control. The development of a catheter-based technique to denervate the kidneys for the treatment of high blood pressure was introduced recently. The concept was based on old data of surgical renal denervation which was effective but associated with important morbidity. Recent data shows that catheter-based renal denervation is feasible and safe in humans and preliminary clinical studies are very promising. These data need confirmation in larger randomised controlled trials with longer-term follow-up.

  8. Genetics of resistant hypertension: a novel pharmacogenomics phenotype.

    PubMed

    El Rouby, Nihal; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M

    2015-09-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined as an uncontrolled blood pressure despite the use of multiple antihypertensive medications, is an increasing clinical problem associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, including stroke and target organ damage. Genetic variability in blood pressure (BP)-regulating genes and pathways may, in part, account for the variability in BP response to antihypertensive agents, when taken alone or in combination, and may contribute to the RHTN phenotype. Pharmacogenomics focuses on the identification of genetic factors responsible for inter-individual variability in drug response. Expanding pharmacogenomics research to include patients with RHTN taking multiple BP-lowering medications may identify genetic markers associated with RHTN. To date, the available evidence surrounding pharmacogenomics in RHTN is limited and primarily focused on candidate genes. In this review, we summarize the most current data in RHTN pharmacogenomics and offer some recommendations on how to advance the field.

  9. Lifestyle Modification for Resistant Hypertension: The TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Smith, Patrick J.; Mabe, Stephanie; Watkins, Lana; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Craighead, Linda W.; Babyak, Michael; Tyson, Crystal; Young, Kenlyn; Ashworth, Megan; Kraus, William; Liao, Lawrence; Hinderliter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistant hypertension (RH) is a growing health burden in this country affecting as many as one in five adults being treated for hypertension. RH is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. Strategies to reduce blood pressure in this high risk population are a national priority. Methods TRIUMPH is a single site, prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of a center-based lifestyle intervention consisting of exercise training, reduced sodium and calorie DASH eating plan, and weight management compared to standardized education and physician advice in treating patients with RH. Patients (N=150) will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either a 4-month supervised lifestyle intervention delivered in the setting of a cardiac rehabilitation center or to a standardized behavioral counseling session to simulate real-world medical practice. The primary end point is clinic blood pressure; secondary endpoints include ambulatory blood pressure and an array of CVD biomarkers including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, insulin resistance, lipids, sympathetic nervous system activity, and inflammatory markers. Lifestyle habits, blood pressure and CVD risk factors also will be measured at one year follow-up. Conclusions The TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02342808) is designed to test the efficacy of an intensive, center-based lifestyle intervention compared to a standardized education and physician advice counseling session on blood presssure and CVD biomarkers in patients with RH after 4 months of treatment, and will determine whether lifestyle changes can be maintained for a year. PMID:26542509

  10. Combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension associated with cortical thinning and impaired cerebrovascular reactivity relative to hypertension alone in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; Anderson, Nicole D.; Greenwood, Carol E.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by metabolic dysregulation in the form of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and can have a profound impact on brain structure and vasculature. The primary aim of this study was to identify brain regions where the combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension on brain health exceed those of hypertension alone. A secondary objective was to test whether vascular impairment and structural brain measures in this population are associated with cognitive function. Research design and methods We enrolled 18 diabetic participants with hypertension (HTN + T2DM, 7 women, 71.8 ± 5.6 years) and 22 participants with hypertension only (HTN, 12 women, 73.4 ± 6.2 years). Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was assessed using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI during successive breath holds. Gray matter structure was evaluated using cortical thickness (CThk) measures estimated from T1-weighted images. Analyses of cognitive and blood data were also performed. Results Compared to HTN, HTN + T2DM had decreased CVR and CThk in a spatially overlapping region of the right occipital lobe (P < 0.025); CVR group differences were more expansive and included bilateral occipito-parietal areas (P < 0.025). Whereas CVR showed no significant associations with measures of cognitive function (P > 0.05), CThk in the right lingual gyrus ROI and regions resulting from a vertex-wise analysis (including posterior cingulate, precuneus, superior and middle frontal, and middle and inferior temporal regions (P < 0.025) were associated with executive function. Conclusions Individuals with T2DM and HTN showed decreased CVR and CThk compared to age-matched HTN controls. This study identifies brain regions that are impacted by the combined effects of comorbid T2DM and HTN conditions, with new evidence that the corresponding cortical thinning may contribute to cognitive decline. PMID:24967157

  11. Marked sympathetic activation and baroreflex dysfunction in true resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Seravalle, Gino; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Pini, Claudio; Alimento, Marina; Facchetti, Rita; Spaziani, Domenico; Cuspidi, Cesare; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-12-20

    An increase in sympathetic drive to the heart and the peripheral circulation characterizes mild and severe essential hypertension. However, it remains unsettled whether sympathetic cardiovascular influences are potentiated in true resistant hypertension (RHT). In 32 RHT patients treated with 4.6 ± 0.3 drugs (mean ± SEM) and aged 58.6 ± 2.1 years, 35 non-resistant treated hypertensives (HT) and 19 normotensive controls (NT), all age-matched with RHT, we measured clinic, 24-hour ambulatory and beat-to-beat blood pressures (BP), heart rate (HR, EKG), muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA, microneurography) and spontaneous baroreflex MSNA-sensitivity. BP values were markedly greater in RHT patients than in NT and HT (172.2 ± 1.7/100.7 ± 1.2 vs 132.1 ± 1.3/82.1 ± 0.9 and 135.5 ± 1.2/83.6 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.01). This was paralleled by a significant and marked increase in MSNA (87.8 ± 2.0 vs 46.8 ± 2.6 and 59.3 ± 1.7 and bursts/100 heartbeats, P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis the MSNA increase observed in RHT was significantly related to hemodynamic, hormonal and metabolic variables. It was also significantly related to plasma aldosterone values as well as spontaneous baroreflex MSNA-sensitivity, which were the variables that at the multivariate analysis were more closely related to the adrenergic activation of RHT after adjustment for confounders, including antihypertensive treatment (r(2)partial=0.04405 and r(2)partial=0.00878, P<0.05 for both). These data represent the first evidence that RHT is a state of marked adrenergic overdrive, greater for magnitude than that detectable in HT. They also suggest that impaired baroreflex mechanisms, along with hemodynamic and neurohumoral factors, may be responsible for the phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of sodium restriction and diuretic therapy for "resistant" hypertension in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sinnakirouchenan, Ramapriya; Kotchen, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease, an impaired capacity of the kidney to excrete sodium is a major contributor to hypertension. We discuss the role of sodium restriction and diuretic therapy for resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease. Independent of increasing blood pressure, a sustained high sodium intake also may affect the progression of renal disease adversely. Consequently, dietary sodium restriction and appropriate diuretic therapy are the foundation for the treatment of resistant hypertension. Thiazide-like diuretics have decreasing effectiveness in patients with advancing renal disease; however, they may augment the effectiveness of the more potent loop diuretics. Increasing evidence suggests that spironolactone is an effective adjunct for the treatment of resistant hypertension. Inclusion of other classes of antihypertensive agents to the treatment regimen generally is necessary to counterbalance other mechanisms contributing to resistant hypertension. The effectiveness of these agents is enhanced by dietary sodium restriction and diuretic therapy.

  13. Hypertension and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amanda; Parto, Parham; Krim, Selim R

    2016-07-01

    Despite its continued increase in prevalence in minorities, data regarding hypertension (HTN) control among such ethnic groups remains limited. This review highlights the most recent literature on the epidemiology, prevalence, and treatment strategies of HTN among four racial groups (non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians). Overall awareness and treatment of HTN were found to be higher in blacks when compared with NHWs. Access to health insurance is associated with successful HTN control, particularly among the Hispanic populations. Recent data from SBP Intervention Trial suggests the blood pressure control and adherence rates in blacks were highest among men, with a higher number of comorbidities, and on diuretic therapy. Additionally, the initiation of thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blocker was superior to β-adrenergic blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers in blood pressure lowering among blacks. However, no specific treatment recommendations exist for Hispanics or Asians. Finally, recent guidelines from the Joint National Commission recommend initial treatment with a thiazide-type diuretic regardless of race. Despite recent progress, racial disparities in awareness and treatment of HTN continue to exist. To reduce this important gap, future research should focus on epidemiologic, genetic, and sociologic factors as well as specific therapies to achieve maximum medical benefit in these subgroups.

  14. The price of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea: hypertension and other ill effects.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Oded; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-05-01

    This review addresses the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic consequences that accompany obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) in conjunction with the mechanistic pathways implicated in mediating these effects. Particular emphasis is placed on the association with hypertension (HTN). Varying levels of evidence support a role of OSAH in perpetuating sustained HTN, nocturnal HTN, and difficult to control HTN as well as in contributing to the occurrences of nondipping of blood pressure (BP) and increased BP variability. In this context, the emergence of matched designs, adjusted analyses, meta-analyses as well as longitudinal and interventional studies strengthens causal inferences drawn from older observational studies, which suffered from such limitations as confounding.

  15. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  16. Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance relationship in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chemla, Denis; Lau, Edmund M T; Papelier, Yves; Attal, Pierre; Hervé, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary arterial load is a key determinant of outcomes in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total arterial compliance (C) quantify resistive and elastic properties of pulmonary arteries that modulate the steady and pulsatile components of pulmonary arterial load, respectively. PVR is commonly calculated as transpulmonary pressure gradient over pulmonary flow and total arterial compliance as stroke volume over pulmonary arterial pulse pressure (SV/PApp). Assuming that there is an inverse, hyperbolic relationship between PVR and C, recent studies have popularised the concept that their product (RC-time of the pulmonary circulation, in seconds) is "constant" in health and diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that this concept should be challenged, with shortened RC-times documented in post-capillary PH and normotensive subjects. Furthermore, reported RC-times in the literature have consistently demonstrated significant scatter around the mean. In precapillary PH, the true PVR can be overestimated if one uses the standard PVR equation because the zero-flow pressure may be significantly higher than pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Furthermore, SV/PApp may also overestimate true C. Further studies are needed to clarify some of the inconsistencies of pulmonary RC-time, as this has major implications for our understanding of the arterial load in diseases of the pulmonary circulation.

  17. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pescatello, Linda S; Franklin, Barry A; Fagard, Robert; Farquhar, William B; Kelley, George A; Ray, Chester A

    2004-03-01

    Hypertension (HTN), one of the most common medical disorders, is associated with an increased incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Lifestyle modifications are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HTN, with exercise being an integral component. Exercise programs that primarily involve endurance activities prevent the development of HTN and lower blood pressure (BP) in adults with normal BP and those with HTN. The BP lowering effects of exercise are most pronounced in people with HTN who engage in endurance exercise with BP decreasing approximately 5-7 mm HG after an isolated exercise session (acute) or following exercise training (chronic). Moreover, BP is reduced for up to 22 h after an endurance exercise bout (e.g.postexercise hypotension), with greatest decreases among those with highest baseline BP. The proposed mechanisms for the BP lowering effects of exercise include neurohumoral, vascular, and structural adaptations. Decreases in catecholamines and total peripheral resistance, improved insulin sensitivity, and alterations in vasodilators and vasoconstrictors are some of the postulated explanations for the antihypertensive effects of exercise. Emerging data suggest genetic links to the BP reductions associated with acute and chronic exercise. Nonetheless, definitive conclusions regarding the mechanisms for the BP reductions following endurance exercise cannot be made at this time. Individuals with controlled HTN and no CVD or renal complications may participated in an exercise program or competitive athletics, but should be evaluated, treated and monitored closely. Preliminary peak or symptom-limited exercise testing may be warranted, especially for men over 45 and women over 55 yr planning a vigorous exercise program (i.e. > or = 60% VO2R, oxygen uptake reserve). In the interim, while formal evaluation and management are taking place, it is reasonable for the majority of patients to begin moderate intensity

  18. Treatment of sunitinib-induced hypertension in solid tumor by nitric oxide donors.

    PubMed

    León-Mateos, L; Mosquera, J; Antón Aparicio, L

    2015-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) are overexpressed in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. This characteristic has supported the rationale of targeting VEGF-driven tumour vascularization, especially in clear cell RCC. VEGF-inhibiting strategies include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and sorafenib) and neutralizing antibodies such as bevacizumab. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. HTN observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of HTN. Although the exact mechanism by tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce HTN has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction) occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition. NO donors could be successfully used not only for the treatment of developed angiogenesis-inhibitor-induced hypertension but also for preventive effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-treatment considerations in childhood hypertension due to chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Olowu, Wasiu Adekunle

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) develops very early in childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is linked with rapid progression of kidney disease, increased morbidity and mortality hence the imperative to start anti-hypertensive medication when blood pressure (BP) is persistently > 90th percentile for age, gender, and height in non-dialyzing hypertensive children with CKD. HTN pathomechanism in CKD is multifactorial and complexly interwoven. The patient with CKD-associated HTN needs to be carefully evaluated for co-morbidities that frequently alter the course of the disease as successful treatment of HTN in CKD goes beyond life style modification and anti-hypertensive therapy alone. Chronic anaemia, volume overload, endothelial dysfunction, arterial media calcification, and metabolic derangements like secondary hyperparathyroidism, hyperphosphataemia, and calcitriol deficiency are a few co-morbidities that may cause or worsen HTN in CKD. It is important to know if the HTN is caused or made worse by the toxic effects of medications like erythropoietin, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Poor treatment response may be due to any of these co-morbidities and medications. A satisfactory hypertensive CKD outcome, therefore, depends very much on identifying and managing these co-morbid conditions and HTN promoting medications promptly and appropriately. This review attempts to point attention to factors that may affect successful treatment of the hypertensive CKD child and how to attain the desired therapeutic BP target. PMID:26558187

  20. Renal artery bilateral arteriosclerosis cause of resistant hypertension in hemodialysed patients.

    PubMed

    Niculae, Andrei; Peride, Ileana; Marinescu-Paninopol, Adriana; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Ginghină, Octav; Jecan, Cristian Radu; Bratu, Ovidiu Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 57-year-old hemodialysed male patient known with severe hypertension resistant to six classes of hypotensive medication, in maximal doses, correlated with increased ultrafiltration during the hemodialysis session. In this case, bilateral nephrectomy was performed as final treatment option for malignant hypertension, and histopathological examination of both kidneys emphasized arteriosclerosis lesions. The results consisted in better hypertension management, with a reduction in both the number and doses of antihypertensive drugs.

  1. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia in obesity and insulin resistance: pathophysiology, impact on atherosclerotic disease and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M John; Sposito, Andrei C

    2008-03-01

    Hypertension, a prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, frequently occurs in conjunction with metabolic disturbances and in particular with dyslipidaemia; such comorbidity presents in more than one-third of hypertensive patients. Moreover, hypertension and dyslipidaemia often manifest concomitantly in the clinical context of obesity and insulin resistance. In this setting, distinct metabolic anomalies may account for the development of both conditions, and may equally act to exacerbate their effects on vascular dysfunction. Significantly, hypertension and dyslipidaemia are linked mechanistically and may act in synergy at the arterial wall to enhance atherosclerosis. In this review, we identify potential mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological interaction between hypertension and dyslipidaemia at the cellular and molecular levels, and which may underlie elevated cardiovascular risk in obesity and insulin resistance. Finally, the clinical evidence supporting the beneficial effects of an integrated pharmacotherapeutic strategy to the reduction of cardiovascular risk in patients with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is critically discussed.

  2. How will the growing threat of resistant hypertension impact the future treatment of high blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2013-11-01

    Hypertension treatment and control efforts represent a major component of primary care with dedicated clinical guidelines and recommendations. However, high blood pressure (BP) control rates are complicated with the difficult to treat and resistant hypertensive patients. This category of patient, therefore, affects the development and implementation of the clinical guidelines. The recommendations of specific algorithms for resistant hypertension and difficult-to-treat patients with elevated BPs have been developed in consideration of new therapies and combination drug treatment. Hypertension treatment guidelines include and will continue to grade evidence from randomized clinical trials with detailed strategies on the management of these high-risk patients. Although resistant hypertension affects high BP control rates, the inclusion of refined pharmaceutical and device treatment strategies in evidence-based guidelines will be expected to have a significant impact on the clinical management of this high-risk patient population.

  3. Hypertension Severity Is Associated With Impaired Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Muela, Henrique C S; Costa-Hong, Valeria A; Yassuda, Mônica S; Moraes, Natália C; Memória, Claudia M; Machado, Michel F; Macedo, Thiago A; Shu, Edson B S; Massaro, Ayrton R; Nitrini, Ricardo; Mansur, Alfredo J; Bortolotto, Luiz A

    2017-01-11

    Most evidence of target-organ damage in hypertension (HTN) is related to the kidneys and heart. Cerebrovascular and cognitive impairment are less well studied. Therefore, this study analyzed changes in cognitive function in patients with different stages of hypertension compared to nonhypertensive controls. In a cross-sectional study, 221 (71 normotensive and 150 hypertensive) patients were compared. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages according to blood pressure (BP) levels or medication use (HTN-1: BP, 140-159/90-99 or use of 1 or 2 antihypertensive drugs; HTN-2: BP, ≥160/100 or use of ≥3 drugs). Three groups were comparatively analyzed: normotension, HTN stage 1, and HTN stage 2. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a validated comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests that assessed 6 main cognitive domains were used to determine cognitive function. Compared to the normotension and HTN stage-1, the severe HTN group had worse cognitive performance based on Mini-Mental State Examination (26.8±2.1 vs 27.4±2.1 vs 28.0±2.0; P=0.004) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (23.4±3.7 vs 24.9±2.8 vs 25.5±3.2; P<0.001). On the neuropsychological tests, patients with hypertension had worse performance in language, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, and memory. Age, hypertension stage, and educational level were the best predictors of cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension in different cognitive domains. Cognitive impairment was more frequent in patients with hypertension, and this was related to hypertension severity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. The association between medication adherence and treatment intensification with blood pressure control in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Stacie L; Powers, J David; Magid, David J; Masoudi, Frederick A; Margolis, Karen L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Ho, P Michael

    2012-08-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension are at risk for poor outcomes. Medication adherence and intensification improve blood pressure (BP) control; however, little is known about these processes or their association with outcomes in resistant hypertension. This retrospective study included patients from 2002 to 2006 with incident hypertension from 2 health systems who developed resistant hypertension or uncontrolled BP despite adherence to ≥3 antihypertensive medications. Patterns of hypertension treatment, medication adherence (percentage of days covered), and treatment intensification (increase in medication class or dose) were described in the year after resistant hypertension identification. Then, the association between medication adherence and intensification with 1-year BP control was assessed controlling for patient characteristics. Of the 3550 patients with resistant hypertension, 49% were male, and mean age was 60 years. One year after resistance hypertension determination, fewer patients were taking diuretics (77.7% versus 92.2%; P<0.01), β-blockers (71.2% versus 79.4%; P<0.01), and angiotensinogen-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (64.8% versus 70.1%; P<0.01) compared with baseline. Rates of BP control improved over 1 year (22% versus 55%; P<0.01). During this year, adherence was not associated with 1-year BP control (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18 [95% CI: 0.94-1.47]). Treatment was intensified in 21.6% of visits with elevated BP. Increasing treatment intensity was associated with 1-year BP control (adjusted odds ratio, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.58-1.71]). In this cohort of patients with resistant hypertension, treatment intensification but not medication adherence was significantly associated with 1-year BP control. These findings highlight the need to investigate why patients with uncontrolled BP do not receive treatment intensification.

  5. Hypertension management in the digital era.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Bober, Robert M; Milani, Alexander R

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease in the United States, and the standard model of office-based care delivery continues to yield suboptimal outcomes, with approximately 50% of affected patients not achieving blood pressure (BP) control. Poor population-level BP control has been primarily attributed to therapeutic inertia and low patient engagement resulting in significant and preventable morbidity and mortality. This review will highlight the rationale for a reengineered model of care delivery for populations with HTN. New technologies now enable patients to generate accurate home-based BP readings that are transmitted directly into the electronic medical record. Using more frequent BP measurements in conjunction with assessment of social health determinants, computerized algorithms can be generated that provide tailored interventions and communications that can transform HTN control. New capabilities enable healthcare providers the means to measure larger volumes of BP data directly from home and provide near real-time interventions that can dramatically improve HTN control.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension: a cross-sectional study among rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    de Ramirez, S Stewart; Enquobahrie, D A; Nyadzi, G; Mjungu, D; Magombo, F; Ramirez, M; Sachs, S Ehrlich; Willett, W

    2010-12-01

    Substantial evidence suggests an increasing burden of hypertension (HTN) in urban sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, data on HTN prevalence in rural SSA are sparse. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated magnitude and correlates of HTN in rural SSA. Study participants (N=1485), 18 years and above, were selected using a stratified random sampling technique from three villages (in Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania) that participated in the Millennium Villages Project. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors and blood pressure measures was collected using standardized protocols. Prevalence of HTN and pre-HTN were 22 and 44%, respectively. Older age (P<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (P=0.07), television ownership (P=0.01) and less work-related vigorous physical activity (P=0.02) were associated with higher prevalence of HTN and higher blood pressure measures (all P<0.05). Frequent meat and fat intake were associated with higher HTN prevalence (trend P=0.02 and 0.07, respectively). Frequent fruit and vegetable intake was significantly associated with lower blood pressure measures (all P<0.05). HTN and pre-HTN are common in rural SSA. Modifiable risk factors (such as BMI, dietary intake and physical activity) are associated with HTN prevalence in this population, indicating potential opportunities for prevention measures.

  7. A cross-sectional study to evaluate the associations between hypertension and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Keqin; Shi, Haiming; Tang, Zihui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This relationship between hypertension (HTN) and osteoporosis (OP) is not well documented among the population in China. The study sought to study the relationship between HTN and OP in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1878 Chinese postmenopausal women with an average age of 62.38 years. OP was diagnosed by standardized quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus and HTN was defined by blood pressure data and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. The relationship for OP and HTN were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: The prevalence of OP was 28.17% in the postmenopausal women, and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of OP between the two groups according to HTN (P value = 0.003). Univariate analysis demonstrates a positive correlation between HTN and OP. After adjustment for relevant potential confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses detected significant associations between HTN and OP (P value = 0.096). In participants with HTN, the OR for OP was 1.209 (95% CI: 0.967-1.513). Conclusion: The prevalence of OP was more frequent in Chinese postmenopausal women with HTN, and HTN was independently and significantly associated with OP. PMID:26885054

  8. Vascular reactivity of rabbit isolated renal and femoral resistance arteries in renal wrap hypertension.

    PubMed

    Khammy, Makhala M; Angus, James A; Wright, Christine E

    2016-02-15

    In rabbits with cellophane renal wrap hypertension, hindquarter and total vascular resistance changes to pressor and depressor agents are amplified compared to those of normotensive rabbits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro pharmacodynamics of hypertensive and normotensive rabbit small artery segments isolated from the renal and hindquarter vascular beds. Using wire myography, the full range (Emax) and sensitivity (EC50) to a range of agonists of segments of renal interlobar (≈ 600 µm i.d.), renal arcuate (≈ 250 µm i.d.) and deep femoral branch (≈ 250 µm i.d.) arteries were assessed under normalised conditions of passive tension. Interlobar arteries from hypertensive rabbits were more sensitive (EC50) than those from normotensive rabbits to noradrenaline (6-fold), methoxamine (3-fold) and angiotensin II (3-fold). Arcuate artery reactivity was largely unaffected by hypertension. Deep femoral arteries from hypertensive rabbits had enhanced sensitivity only to noradrenaline (2-fold) and methoxamine (4-fold). Sensitivity to relaxation by acetylcholine was unaffected by hypertension in all arteries. Deep femoral arteries from hypertensive rabbits were more sensitive to sodium nitroprusside than normotensive counterparts. Adenosine caused little relaxation in renal arteries, but full relaxation in deep femoral arteries, unaltered by hypertension. This study found substantial heterogeneity in the pharmacodynamic profile of vessels isolated from different vascular beds and between arterial segments within the kidney. These profiles were differentially affected by hypertension suggesting that hypertension per se is not a resultant of general vascular dysfunction.

  9. [Physician knowledge and attitudes on the clinical evaluation and treatment of resistant hypertension: The RESIST study].

    PubMed

    Coca, A

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and renal complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Primary Care physicians, general medicine doctors, and clinical cardiologists on the management of this condition. A multicentre, descriptive, observational study based on an ad hoc questionnaire distributed to Primary Care physicians (n=1017) and general medicine physicians/clinical cardiologists (n=457). To establish the diagnosis of resistant hypertension, 69.1% of physicians confirm that systolic/diastolic blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg, despite treatment. Furthermore, 64.9% only consider this diagnosis if the patient is treated with at least 3 medications, and 50.3% also requires that one of them is a thiazide diuretic (56.7% among specialists, P=.0004). To establish a definite diagnosis of true RH, 89.6% perform 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (93.3% of specialists, P=.0017), looking specifically for «white-coat» effect in 70.2% of cases. In addition, 79.3% verify that adherence to treatment is adequate. Between 87 and 95% of physicians indicate examinations to exclude causes of secondary hypertension. Up to 54.3% of physicians (71.3% specialists, P<.0001) consider adding a fourth drug and insisting on lifestyle interventions as a priority therapeutic measure. These data show that physician knowledge regarding the management of patients with RH is good. Interestingly, this knowledge is somewhat higher among specialists than among Primary Care physicians. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of renal transplant patients with true resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Arias-Rodríguez, Manuel; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Campistol, Josep M; Marín, Rafael; Franco, Antonio; Gómez, Ernesto; Cabello, Virginia; Díaz, Joan Manuel; Osorio, José Manuel; Gallego, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a prevalent complication that occurs in 75-90% of kidney-transplant recipients. Data about resistant arterial hypertension are scarce. The aim of this multicenter, cross-sectional, and observational study was to assess the prevalence and the clinical features of true resistant hypertension among renal-transplant patients. Eligible patients included hypertensive cadaveric kidney-transplant recipients aged below 70 years, with functioning kidney for at least 1 year, and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate at least 30 ml/min per 1.73 m and serum creatinine below 2.5 mg/dl. Recorded data included demographic characteristics, office blood pressure, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and laboratory investigations. A total of 868 patients (mean age 53.2 ± 11.6 years) were included. Mean systolic and diastolic office blood pressure was 140.2 ± 18 and 80.4 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP was 131.5 ± 14 and 77.4 ± 8.7 mmHg and the prevalence of true resistant hypertension was 18.9%. Those with resistant hypertension were older and men, with a worse cardiovascular risk profile and history of cardiovascular disease. Apart from this, these patients had worse graft function and treatment with steroids. The present study provides evidence about the prevalence of true resistant hypertension in renal-transplant patients. It also shows the very high cardiovascular risk of true resistant hypertension and the elevated association of this condition with renal failure, organ damage, and history of cardiovascular events.

  11. First report on simplified diagnostic criteria for pre-hypertension and hypertension in a national sample of adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa: the CASPIAN-III study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Qorbani, Mostafa; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Poursafa, Parinaz; Keramatian, Kasra; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to simplify the diagnostic criteria of pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) and hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric age group, and to determine the accuracy of these simple indexes in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. The diagnostic accuracy of the indexes of systolic blood pressure-to-height ratio (SBPHR) and diastolic BPHR (DBPHR) to define pre-HTN and HTN was determined by the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curves. The study population consisted of 5,738 Iranian students (2,875 females) with mean (SD) age of 14.7 (2.4) years. The prevalences of pre-HTN and HTN were 6.9% and 5.6%. The optimal thresholds for defining pre-HTN were 0.73 in males and 0.71 in females for SBPHR, and 0.47 in males and 0.45 in females for DBPHR, respectively. The corresponding figures for HTN were 0.73, 0.71, 0.48, and 0.46, respectively. In both genders, the accuracies of SBPHR and DBPHR in diagnosing pre-HTN and HTN were approximately 80%. BPHR is a valid, simple, inexpensive, and accurate tool to diagnose pre-HTN and HTN in adolescents. The optimal thresholds of SBPHR and DBPHR were consistent with the corresponding figures in other populations of children and adolescents with different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Thus, it is suggested that the use of these indexes can be generalized in programs aiming to screen elevated blood pressure in the pediatric age group. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypertension as a predictive biomarker in bevacizumab treatment for colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tahover, Esther; Uziely, Beatrice; Salah, Azzam; Temper, Mark; Peretz, Tamar; Hubert, Ayala

    2013-03-01

    Bevacizumab treatment is associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HTN), a potential marker for effectiveness. We aimed to assess whether grades 2-3 HTN during bevacizumab treatment was associated with increased overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred and eighty-one patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), who were treated in our Department from January 2009-February 2011 were included. Bevacizumab was administered jointly with standard first- or second-line chemotherapy protocols. Blood pressure was measured before each treatment. HTN was graded using common toxicity criteria. There were 181 CRC patients. Grades 2-3 HTN developed in 81 patients (44.75 %) but not in 100 patients (55.25 %); no patient developed grades 4-5 HTN. Median follow-up was 15.2 months. HTN was associated with better OS in HTN-positive versus HTN-negative patients (median not reached vs. 36.8 months, p = 0.029) and better PFS (29.9 vs. 17.2 months, p = 0.024, respectively). Bevacizumab-related HTN may represent a biomarker for clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

  13. Sugar and artificially sweetened soda consumption linked to hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Edmonds, Peter J; Srivali, Narat; Ungprasert, Patompong; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Erickson, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The risk of hypertension (HTN) in patients who regularly drink soda is controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the associations between consumption of sugar and artificially sweetened soda and HTN. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through January 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of HTN in patients consuming a significant amount of either sugar or artificially sweetened soda versus those who did not consume soda were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Eight studies were included in our analysis to assess the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened soda and HTN. The pooled RR of HTN in patients consuming sugar-sweetened soda was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.23). Four studies were selected to assess the association between consumption of artificially sweetened soda and HTN. The pooled RR of HTN in patients consuming artificially sweetened soda was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11-1.19). Our study demonstrates statistically significant associations between both sugar and artificially sweetened soda consumption and HTN. This finding may impact clinical management and primary prevention of HTN.

  14. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypertension aggregates in families of kidney stone patients with high urinary excretion of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Tisler, A; Pierratos, A; Honey, J D; Bull, S B; Logan, A G

    1999-12-01

    To determine whether kidney stone disease (KSD) and hypertension (HTN) share a common familial component that is determined by a specific urinary biochemical abnormality. Familial aggregation study. Two hundred and twelve KSD patients, aged 18-50 years, collected a 24-h urine sample to measure the urinary excretion of uric acid, calcium, oxalate, magnesium and citrate, and were interviewed about the occurrence of HTN among first-degree relatives. Positive family history (FHx) of HTN defined as two or more relatives with HTN, and HTN occurring in the fathers, mothers and siblings. Positive FHx of HTN was significantly associated with increasing urinary excretion of uric acid (P = 0.03) but not with the excretion of the other substances. When the patients were divided into those with and without hyperuricosuria, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for positive FHx of HTN in a hyperuricosuric KSD patient was 3.8 (95% CI, 1.22-11.66). Separate analysis on the occurrence of HTN in the fathers, mothers and siblings of the probands indicated that hyperuricosuria is positively related to HTN occurring in the siblings of the patients (P < 0.001) but not in the fathers or in the mothers. The adjusted OR for HTN occurring in siblings of hyperuricosuric patients compared with siblings of non-hyperuricosuric patients was 3.8 (2.12-6.67). Siblings of KSD patients with hyperuricosuria had a significantly increased prevalence of HTN that could not be accounted for by age, family size, body-mass index and personal history of HTN of the probands. Additional studies need to be undertaken to determine whether this familial clustering has a genetic or environmental origin.

  16. Monocyte chemoattractant proteins mediate myocardial microvascular dysfunction in swine renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Zhu, Xiangyang; Chade, Alejandro R; Jordan, Kyra L; Lavi, Ronit; Daghini, Elena; Gibson, Matthew E; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O

    2009-11-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) play an important role in mediating inflammatory processes. Hypertension (HTN) is associated with inflammation as well as impaired cardiac microcirculatory function and structure, but the contribution of MCPs to these alterations remained unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that MCPs regulate cardiac microvascular function and structure in experimental HTN. Pigs (n=6 per group) were studied after 10 weeks of normal, renovascular HTN, or renovascular HTN+ bindarit (MCPs inhibitor, 50 mg/kg/d PO). Left ventricular (LV) function, myocardial microvascular permeability, and fractional vascular volume were assessed by fast computed tomography before and after adenosine infusion (400 microg/kg/min). Myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and microvascular remodeling were determined ex vivo. Hypertension was not altered by bindarit, but LV hypertrophy and diastolic function were improved. In response to adenosine, myocardial microvascular permeability increased in HTN (from 0.0083+/-0.0009 to 0.0103+/-0.0011 AU, P=0.038 versus baseline) and fractional vascular volume decreased, whereas both remained unchanged in normal and HTN+bindarit pigs. HTN upregulated endothelin-1 expression, myocardial inflammation, and microvascular wall thickening, which were inhibited by bindarit. MCPs partly mediate myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, vascular remodeling, and impaired vascular integrity induced by hypertension. Inhibition of MCPs could potentially be a therapeutic target in hypertensive cardiomyopathy.

  17. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Results Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats. PMID:26107814

  18. Resistant Hypertension: An Incurable Disease or Just a Challenge For Our Medical Skill?

    PubMed

    Di Pilla, Marina; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Taddei, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Resistant hypertension is classically defined as a clinical condition in which target blood pressure values of 140/90 mmHg are not achieved despite an optimal pharmacological therapy of at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. The aim of this review is to give an outline of the nosography of this disorder, highlighting the differences between true and apparent resistant hypertension. Since the proportions of patients who can be defined as resistant to antihypertensive treatment is elevated, this distinction is mandatory in order to identify only those who need special clinical attention and, possibly, newer non-traditional techniques. While at first glance resistant hypertension may appear as an insuperable problem, an accurate clinical work-up of these patients, aimed at excluding reversible causes and optimizing pharmacological treatment, represents an effective solution in most cases.

  19. Resistant hypertension: demography and clinical characteristics in 6,292 patients in a primary health care setting.

    PubMed

    Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Banegas, José R

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of resistant hypertension has recently been reported, but there are no studies on its demography. This study aimed to examine the demography and clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension in a large sample of primary care patients. A cross-sectional study was performed of all computerized medical records of hypertensive patients in Health Area 6 of Madrid (Spain). Of 63 167 hypertensive patients, we selected 48 744 with prescription of antihypertensive medication; of these, we selected those who met the American Heart Association criteria for resistant hypertension. A total of 6292 patients had resistant hypertension, representing 9.9% of all hypertensive patients and 12.9% of those treated. A total of 5.5% were < 50 years (8.5% men and 3.2% women) and 24.7% were > 80 years (15.8% men and 31.4% women) (P < .001). In patients < 50 years, resistant hypertension was associated with male sex (odds ratio female/male = 0.006; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.042; P < .001), systolic blood pressure, obesity, stroke, and chronic kidney disease (P < .001). In those > 80 years, resistant hypertension was associated with female sex (odds ratio female/male = 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1,10; P = .004), systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation (P < .001). More than 50% of patients > 80 years with resistant hypertension had cardiovascular disease. One in 4 patients with resistant hypertension is > 80 years. Resistant hypertension is associated with cardiovascular disease, age < 50 years in men and age > 80 years in women. There is a high proportion of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with resistant hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. [Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is well known to one of the risk factors to reduce cognitive function, however, it is still unclear whether anti-hypertensive therapy is effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies suggested antihypertensive therapy from the middle-age could reduce risk of dementia. The meta-analysis including HYVET also suggested blood pressure lowering from the elderly might be also effective to prevent development of dementia. The network meta-analysis and the cohort study using mega-data bank suggested ARB might be effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease compared to administration with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Although the further major clinical investigation is required, anti-hypertensive treatment might be useful to manage hypertensive patients with dementia.

  1. Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes in treatment-resistant hypertension in patients with coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Laskey, Rachel; Demicco, David A; Deedwania, Prakash; Kostis, John B; Messerli, Franz H

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension has been recognized. However, much of the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes are largely unknown, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. We evaluated 10,001 patients with coronary artery disease who were enrolled in the Treating to New Targets trial. Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg despite 3 antihypertensive agents or <140 mm Hg with ≥ 4 antihypertensive agents. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular events (composite of fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and stroke). Among the 10,001 patients in the trial, 1112 (11.1%) had apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. In a multivariable model adjusting for baseline differences, the treatment-resistant hypertension group had a 64% increase in primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.94; P < .001), driven by a 69% increase in coronary heart disease death (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.22, 2.34; P = .001) and 73% increase in nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.39-2.16, P < .0001) when compared with the no apparent treatment-resistant hypertension group. In addition, patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension had a 71% increase in major coronary event (P < .0001), 45% increase in death (P = .001), 33% increase in heart failure (P = .05), 53% increase in any cardiovascular event (P < .0001), 60% increase in any coronary event (P < .0001), 68% increase in angina (P < .0001), and 51% increase in coronary revascularization (P < .0001) when compared with the no apparent treatment-resistant hypertension group. Results were largely similar whether the definition of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was based on a blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg despite 3 agents or a blood pressure <140 mm Hg with ≥ 4 agents. In patients with coronary artery disease, apparent treatment-resistant

  2. Regression of small resistance artery structural alterations in hypertension by appropriate antihypertensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2010-04-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the rise of blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. Indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the ratio of tunica media to internal lumen, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Hence, the regression of vascular alterations seems to be an appealing goal for antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs may have different effects on vascular structure. Complete normalization of small resistance artery structure was demonstrated in hypertensive patients after long-term and effective antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and calcium antagonists. Little or no improvement was observed with beta-blockers or diuretics. Evidence from several studies suggests that some antihypertensive drugs are more effective than others in reversing microvascular structural alterations in hypertension.

  3. Insulin resistance-induced hypertension and a role of perivascular CGRPergic nerves.

    PubMed

    Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2013-06-01

    Insulin resistance is defined as a preliminary step of type 2 diabetes mellitus with decreased insulin action evoked by continuous postprandial hyperglycemia, which is provoked by high fat and calories dieting, a lack of physical activity and obesity. In the early phase of type 2 diabetes mellitus, patients have a hyperinsulinemia to compensate deficient insulin action by increased secretion from the pancreas to maintain euglycemia. Then, pancreatic β cells progressively decrease secretion function, resulting in the development of diabetes mellitus with decreased serum insulin levels. Accumulating evidences show that insulin resistance is associated with hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying hypertension associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus have still unknown. Therefore, to elucidate the mechanisms of insulin resistance-induced hypertension, we investigated that the effects of hyperinsulinemia or hyperglycemia on vascular responses mediated by perivascular nerves including sympathetic adrenergic nerves and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves (CGRPergic nerves). In this article, we show evidence that insulin resistance-induced hypertension could be resulted from increased density and function of sympathetic nerve, and decreased density and function of CGRPergic nerves. Furthermore, our findings provide a new insight into the research of therapeutic drugs for insulin resistance-induced hypertension.

  4. [Benefits of spironolactone as the optimal treatment for drug resistant hypertension. Pathway-2 trial review].

    PubMed

    Prado, J C; Ruilope, L M; Segura, J

    Pathway-2 is the first randomised, double-blind and crossover trial that compares spironolactone as a fourth drug with alfa-blocker, beta-blocker and placebo. This study shows that spironolactone is the drug with more possibilities of success for the management of patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension in patients with a combination of three drugs and poor control. The results validate the widespread treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in resistant hypertension.

  5. Temporal Relationship Between Hyperuricemia and Insulin Resistance and Its Impact on Future Risk of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Han, Tianshu; Lan, Li; Qu, Rongge; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Ruyue; Na, Lixin; Sun, Changhao

    2017-10-01

    Although hyperuricemia and insulin resistance significantly correlated, their temporal sequence and how the sequence influence on future risk of hypertension are largely unknown. This study assessed temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on future risk of hypertension by examining a longitudinal cohort including 8543 subjects aged 20 to 74 years from China, with an average follow-up of 5.3 years. Measurements of fasting uric acid, as well as fasting and 2-hour serum glucose and insulin, were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Indicators of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance were calculated. Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis were used to examine the temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on follow-up hypertension. After adjusting for covariates, the cross-lagged path coefficients (β1 values) from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices were significantly greater than path coefficients (β2 values) from baseline insulin resistance indices to follow-up uric acid (β1=0.110 versus β2=0.017; P<0.001, for hepatic insulin resistance; β1=-0.208 versus β2=-0.021; P<0.001, for peripheral insulin resistance). The path coefficients from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices in the hypertensive group were significantly greater than that in the normotensive group (P<0.001 for the difference of β1 values in the 2 groups). Insulin resistance partially mediated the effect of uric acid on subsequent hypertension, and the mediation effect of peripheral insulin resistance was significantly greater than that of hepatic insulin resistance (31.3% versus 13.2%; P<0.001, for the difference of mediation effects). These findings provide evidence that higher uric acid levels probably precede insulin resistance, and peripheral insulin resistance likely plays a more important role in the development of hypertension than hepatic insulin resistance does.

  6. Arterial Resistance in Late First Trimester as a Predictor of Subsequent Pregnancy-Related Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kushtagi, Pralhad; Emani, Anoosha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between indicators of arterial resistance occurring late in the first trimester and the subsequent development of pregnancy-related hypertension. Methods This study took place between May 2014 and August 2015 and included 329 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies attending the antenatal clinics of a medical college in Karnataka, India, during this period. Pulse pressure (PP) and uterine artery Doppler parameters were recorded between 11–14 gestational weeks. Consequently, women were followed-up until after delivery for subsequent hypertension. Results Hypertension occurred more frequently if PP was high (17.6% versus 14.4% of pregnancies without high PP; P = 0.713), if a diastolic notch (DN) was present (15.1% versus 12.8% of pregnancies with an absent DN; P = 0.612) and if the resistive index (RI) was raised (22.2% versus 14.3% of pregnancies without raised RI; P = 0.366). A raised pulsatility index (PI) was significantly associated with hypertension (P = 0.013). The risk of hypertension was approximately seven-fold higher if two or more arterial resistance indicators were used, except with a present DN plus a raised RI or a present DN plus high PP. All arterial resistance indicators showed negative predictability (>85.6%) and good specificity (≥95.0%), except for the presence of a DN. A population-specific cut-off PI value of 1.72 had high negative predictability (92.8%) and good sensitivity (70.8%) and specificity (65.1%). Conclusion Raised PI in the late first trimester was a significant predictor of hypertension later in pregnancy. A combination of arterial resistance indicators may enhance prediction of subsequent hypertension. PMID:28003891

  7. Prevalence of pseudoresistant hypertension due to inaccurate blood pressure measurement

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Hemal; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Judd, Eric; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of pseudoresistant hypertension (HTN) due to inaccurate BP measurement remains unknown. Methods Triage BP measurements and measurements obtained at the same clinic visit by trained physicians were compared in consecutive adult patients referred for uncontrolled resistant HTN (RHTN). Triage BP measurements were taken by the clinic staff during normal intake procedures. BP measurements were obtained by trained physicians using the BpTRU device. The prevalence of uncontrolled RHTN and differences in BP measurements were compared. Results Of 130 patients with uncontrolled RHTN, 33.1% (n=43) were falsely identified as having uncontrolled RHTN based on triage BP measurements. The median (IQR) of differences in systolic BP between pseudoresistant and true resistant groups were 23 (17 – 33) mm Hg and 13 (6 – 21) mm Hg, respectively (P=0.0001). The median (IQR) of differences in diastolic BP between the two groups were 12 (7 – 18) mm Hg and 8 (4 – 11) mm Hg, respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion Triage BP technique overestimated the prevalence of uncontrolled RHTN in approximately 33% of the patients emphasizing the importance of obtaining accurate BP measurements. PMID:27129931

  8. Plasma Renin Activity Predicts the Improvement in Resistant Hypertension after Percutaneous Transluminal Renal Artery Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Daidoji, Hyuma; Tamada, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Saya; Watanabe, Ken; Shikama, Taku; Kikuchi, Yoku; Kato, Shigehiko; Takahashi, Katsuaki; Fukui, Akio; Matsui, Motoyuki; Yahagi, Tomoyasu; Goto, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty (PTRA) has been recommended for the treatment of renovascular resistant hypertension. However, large randomized trials have reported that PTRA did not improve the outcomes compared with optimal medical therapy in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS). It is important to identify patients with renovascular hypertension who are likely to respond to PTRA. We herein examined whether or not the plasma renin activity (PRA) could predict the improvement in resistant hypertension after PTRA for RAS. Methods and Results A total of 40 patients (mean age: 63±15 years) with unilateral RAS who received PTRA for resistant hypertension were enrolled in this study. Twenty-two (55%) patients experienced a significant reduction in their blood pressure while using few antihypertensive agents at the 3-month follow up. The median PRA was significantly higher in patients using few antihypertensive agents than in those using more [4.2 ng/mL/hr, interquartile range (IQR) 2.6-8.0 vs. 0.8 ng/mL/hr, IQR 0.4-1.7, p<0.001]. To predict the improvement in hypertension after PTRA, a receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the optimal cut-off value of PRA to be 2.4 ng/mL/hr. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher PRA (>2.4 ng/mL/hr) was an independent predictor of the improvement in hypertension after PTRA (odds ratio: 22.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.17 to 65.6, p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that the evaluation of preoperative PRA may be a useful tool for predicting the improvement in resistant hypertension after PTRA for patients with RAS. PMID:27904103

  9. Insulin Resistance Is an Important Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Patients with Primary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Feng, Ming; Qian, Yuying; Yang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Han, Rui; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Insulin resistance plays a role in the development of dementia and hypertension. We investigated a possible relationship between cognitive impairment and insulin resistance in elderly Chinese patients with primary hypertension. Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty-two hypertensive elderly patients (>60 years) were enrolled in this study, and assigned into either the cognitive impairment group (n=61) or the normal cognitive group (n=71). Gender, age, education, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking history, atherosclerosis and the proportion of uncontrolled hypertension were compared between the two groups. Multi-factorial logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant differences were found in gender, age, TC, CRP, HDL-C, LDL-C, Cr, BP, smoking history, atherosclerosis and the proportion of uncontrolled hypertension between the two groups. The cognitive impairment group had lower education levels, and higher BMI, WHR, TG, FPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR levels than the control group. Logistic regression analysis revealed the levels of education, BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR as independent factors that predict cognitive impairment in patients. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that poor education and increased BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR are independent risk factors for cognitive impairment in elderly patients with hypertension. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of cognitive impairment in primary elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:25510751

  10. Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Smeeth, Liam; Williamson, Elizabeth; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-09-22

    Objective To estimate the incidence and prevalence of resistant hypertension among a UK population treated for hypertension from 1995 to 2015.Design Cohort study.Setting Electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink in primary care.Participants 1 317 290 users of antihypertensive drugs with a diagnosis of hypertension.Main outcome measures Resistant hypertension was defined as concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic, uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen, or concurrent use of four antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen. To determine incidence, the numerator was new cases of resistant hypertension and the denominator was person years of those with treated hypertension and at risk of developing resistant hypertension. To determine prevalence, the numerator was total number of cases with resistant hypertension and the denominator was those with treated hypertension. Prevalence and incidence were age standardised to the 2015 hypertensive population.Results The age standardised incidence of resistant hypertension increased from 0.93 cases per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.00) in 1996 to a peak level of 2.07 cases per 100 person years (2.03 to 2.12) in 2004. Incidence then decreased to 0.42 cases per 100 person years (0.40 to 0.44) in 2015. Age standardised prevalence increased from 1.75% (95% confidence interval 1.66% to 1.83%) in 1995 to a peak of 7.76% (7.70% to 7.83%) in 2007. Prevalence then plateaued and subsequently declined to 6.46% (6.38% to 6.54%) in 2015. Compared with patients aged 65-69 years, those aged 80 or more years were more likely to have prevalent resistant hypertension throughout the study period.Conclusions Prevalent resistant hypertension has plateaued and decreased in recent years, consistent with a decrease in incidence from 2004 onwards. Despite this

  11. Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015

    PubMed Central

    Smeeth, Liam; Williamson, Elizabeth; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence and prevalence of resistant hypertension among a UK population treated for hypertension from 1995 to 2015. Design Cohort study. Setting Electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink in primary care. Participants 1 317 290 users of antihypertensive drugs with a diagnosis of hypertension. Main outcome measures Resistant hypertension was defined as concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic, uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen, or concurrent use of four antihypertensive drugs inclusive of a diuretic and adherence to the prescribed drug regimen. To determine incidence, the numerator was new cases of resistant hypertension and the denominator was person years of those with treated hypertension and at risk of developing resistant hypertension. To determine prevalence, the numerator was total number of cases with resistant hypertension and the denominator was those with treated hypertension. Prevalence and incidence were age standardised to the 2015 hypertensive population. Results The age standardised incidence of resistant hypertension increased from 0.93 cases per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.00) in 1996 to a peak level of 2.07 cases per 100 person years (2.03 to 2.12) in 2004. Incidence then decreased to 0.42 cases per 100 person years (0.40 to 0.44) in 2015. Age standardised prevalence increased from 1.75% (95% confidence interval 1.66% to 1.83%) in 1995 to a peak of 7.76% (7.70% to 7.83%) in 2007. Prevalence then plateaued and subsequently declined to 6.46% (6.38% to 6.54%) in 2015. Compared with patients aged 65-69 years, those aged 80 or more years were more likely to have prevalent resistant hypertension throughout the study period. Conclusions Prevalent resistant hypertension has plateaued and decreased in recent years, consistent with a decrease in incidence from 2004 onwards. Despite

  12. Revision on Renal Sympathetic Ablation in the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Ana Filipa

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, with about 1 billion people affected and a possible increase to 1.5 billion by 2025. Despite advances in treatment, a proportion of patients remain resistant to conventional treatment and uncontrolled, and this can adversely affect future cardiovascular events and mortality. This alarming growth is already reflected in an important public health problem and one of the largest economic burdens of health, requiring new approaches and development of different strategies to fight this problem. This review will focus on the definition of resistant hypertension and its etiology, as well as in contemporary evidence supporting the usefulness of renal sympathetic denervation while addressing current and emerging devices, potential treatment indications in the future and unresolved issues that need to be addressed before renal sympathetic denervation can be adopted not only as a last resort exclusively for resistant hypertension. Finally an evaluation algorithm for patients with resistant hypertension which should be implemented before the execution of this technique will be proposed. Renal sympathetic denervation is a technique that possibly could have future implications in the population with hypertension, especially those with true resistant hypertension. This technique aims to reduce the renal sympathetic activation (a component in the pathophysiology of hypertension) through the destruction of the renal sympathetic nerves located in the adventitia of the renal arteries. There are several catheters that can be used; each with its specifications and therefore their selection should be made individually depending on the profile of the patient. However, a detailed pre-procedure evaluation is extremely important to exclude the large percentage of individuals with uncontrolled hypertension due to several factors that make it impossible to control blood pressure, but are likely to be corrected and as such should

  13. Readability and Suitability of Spanish Language Hypertension and Diabetes Patient Education Materials.

    PubMed

    Howe, Carol J; Barnes, Donelle M; Estrada, Griselle B; Godinez, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Hispanics who speak Spanish are at risk for low health literacy. We evaluated Spanish language hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) patient education materials from U.S. federal agency public sector sources using the Suitability of Assessment (SAM) instrument. Mean readability for HTN materials was grade 7.9 and for DM materials was grade 6.6. Mean SAM score for HTN materials was 43.9 and for DM materials was 63.2. SAM scores were significantly better for DM than for HTN materials in overall score, content, graphics, layout, stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness (p < .05). Clinicians should evaluate suitability of Spanish language HTN and DM materials that they use in patient teaching.

  14. Untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a population of a hypertensive center

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Spyros; Chouzouri, Vasiliki I; Manios, Efstathios D; Grapsa, Eirini; Antoniou, Zoi; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Dimopoulos, Athanasios-Meletios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have demonstrated that hypertension (HTN) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in treated hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between newly diagnosed essential HTN and NAFLD in untreated hypertensive patients. Patients and methods A consecutive series of 240 subjects (143 hypertensives and 97 normotensives), aged 30–80 years, without diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. Subjects with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP values ≥80 mmHg were defined as hypertensives. NAFLD was defined as the presence of liver hyperechogenicity on ultrasound. Results Body mass index (P=0.002) and essential HTN (P=0.016) were independently associated with NAFLD in the multivariate logistic regression model. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that morning SBP (P=0.044) was independently associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Untreated, newly diagnosed essential HTN is independently associated with NAFLD. Ambulatory BP monitoring could be used for the diagnosis of essential HTN in patients with NAFLD. PMID:26834493

  15. Dynamic resistant hypertension patterns as predictors of cardiovascular morbidity: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tsioufis, Costas; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Kordalis, Athanasios; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Thomopoulos, Costas; Tsiachris, Dimitrios; Vasileiou, Panagiotis; Doumas, Michalis; Makris, Thomas; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Bakris, George; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-02-01

    Little is known regarding the clinical course and prognosis of resistant hypertension (RHT). We evaluated predictors of persistent RHT and the associated cardiovascular risk. We studied 1911 treated hypertensive patients (aged 59±11 years, 49% men) for a mean period of 3.9 years. At baseline, clinical data were collected and patients underwent echocardiographic measurements, routine blood testing and additional workup for exclusion of secondary causes of RHT (office-based uncontrolled hypertension under at least three drugs including a diuretic or controlled hypertension under four or more drugs). Endpoint of interest was the composite of coronary artery disease and stroke. Four groups were identified depending on presence or absence of RHT at baseline and follow-up: 1153 patients (60%) never having RHT, 189 (10%) with resolved RHT, 204 (11%) with incident RHT and 365 (19%) with persistent RHT. Two-thirds of the patients with RHT at baseline remained resistant at the end of the study. Independent variables associated with both incident and persistent RHT were diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension duration, SBP, left ventricular hypertrophy and glomerular filtration rate. Persistent RHT compared with never-having RHT was associated with a 2.2-fold increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity (95% CI: 1.21-4.05, P = 0.01) after adjustment for risk factors. In treated hypertensive patients, among prospective RHT dynamic patterns, persistent RHT is frequent and independently associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis.

  16. ED 07-2 TO LIFT, WALK OR RUN: WHAT IS THE OPTIMAL MODE OF EXERCISE TO REDUCE HYPERTENSION AND PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE?

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2016-09-01

    A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity. In our studies, the CRF-HTN association was inverse and graded. The relative risk for developing HTN was 72% higher for low-fit compared to fit individuals. We also found an independent, inverse and graded association between CRF and the risk for developing congestive heart failure (CHF). For every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the risk for CHF was 16% lower (HR = 0.84; CI: 0.83-0.86) in 8,725 US veterans. Compared to the Least-Fit category, the risk was progressively lower, ranging from 32% for moderate fit to 70% for those in the highest fitness category. CRF and mortality risk association was also inverse and graded in hypertensive patients, independent of age, body weight, medications and additional risk factors.Available evidence supports that dynamic resistance exercise is less effective in lowering BP than aerobic exercise. Due to a considerable degree of inconsistency in the findings of such studies, and the risk for an exaggerated BP response, resistance training exercise prescription for hypertensive patients is premature. Hypertensive patients interested in resistance training should be advised to avoid high-resistance training and prefer low-resistance, high repetitions (15-20) exercises. To avoid an exaggerated BP response, patients should

  17. Diagnosis of Insulin Resistance in Hypertensive Patients by the Metabolic Syndrome: AHA vs. IDF Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Hwu, Chii-Min; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lee, Wen-Jane; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Grove, John; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Curb, J David

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Subjects with the metabolic syndrome are accompanied by insulin resistance (IR). However, it is not clear how well the newly-defined metabolic syndrome identifying IR specifically in hypertensive subjects. Aims The purpose of the study is to evaluate the performance of the metabolic syndrome, defined by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions, in identifying IR in hypertension. Methods The analysis is a cross-sectional study. Totally, 228 hypertensive patients and 92 non-diabetic normotensive controls who received insulin suppressive tests to directly evaluate their insulin sensitivity were included from the Stanford Asia and Pacific Program for Hypertension and IR. McNemar’s tests were used to compare sensitivity and specificity of the AHA-defined with the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome in diagnosis of IR. Results The sensitivity of the metabolic syndrome for IR in hypertension was 89.7 % and the specificity 45.9 % by the AHA definition. Using the IDF definition, the sensitivity was 77.6 %, and the specificity increased to 63.5 %. The diagnostic power of individual components of the syndrome was also modest. The predictive discrimination of wider waist circumference was similar to that of the AHA-defined metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Use of the metabolic syndrome by the AHA definition provided good sensitivity but low specificity to diagnose IR in hypertension. The IDF definition improved in false positive rate, but it was still not specific enough to identify IR in hypertension. PMID:18564200

  18. Description of antihypertensive use in patients with resistant hypertension prescribed four or more agents.

    PubMed

    Hanselin, Michele R; Saseen, Joseph J; Allen, Richard R; Marrs, Joel C; Nair, Kavita V

    2011-12-01

    Data describing the use of recommended antihypertensive agents in the resistant hypertension population are limited. Treatment recommendations for resistant hypertension include maximizing diuretic therapy by using chlorthalidone and/or adding an aldosterone antagonist. Additional recommendations include combining antihypertensive agents from different drug classes. This retrospective cohort study describes antihypertensive use in patients with resistant hypertension defined as the concurrent use of ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Claims data from the Medstat MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounter database were used to identify patients with resistant hypertension based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes and National Drug Codes between May 1, 2008 and June 30, 2009. Of the 5 442 410 patients with hypertension in the database, 140 126 met study criteria. The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive classes were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (96.2%), diuretics (93.2%), calcium channel blockers (83.6%), and β-blockers (80.0%). Only 3.0% and 5.9% of patients were on chlorthalidone or an aldosterone antagonist, respectively. A total of 15.6% of patients were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor plus angiotensin receptor blocker. Our findings demonstrate that frequently prescribed antihypertensive agents for the treatment of resistant hypertension included guideline-recommended first-line agents. However, evidence-based and recommended agents, such as chlorthalidone and aldosterone antagonists, were underused. Moreover, minimally efficacious combinations, such as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with an angiotensin receptor blocker, were prescribed at higher rates than evidence-based and recommended agents.

  19. Home versus ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the diagnosis of clinic resistant and true resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nasothimiou, E G; Tzamouranis, D; Roussias, L G; Stergiou, G S

    2012-12-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring is recommended as a standard method for the evaluation of resistant hypertension (RH). This study assessed the diagnostic value of home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring in RH. Subjects on stable treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs were included. Clinic RH (CRH) was defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and true RH (TRH) as elevated ABP. The diagnosis of CRH was verified by ABP and HBP monitoring. The diagnostic value of HBP was assessed by taking ABP as reference method. Threshold for hypertension diagnosis was ≥135/85 mm Hg (systolic and/or diastolic) for HBP and awake ABP and ≥140/90 mm Hg for clinic blood pressure. Among 73 subjects on ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, 44 (60%) had CRH and 40 (55%) TRH. There was agreement between ABP and HBP in diagnosing CRH in 82% of the cases (26 subjects (59%) with CRH and 10 (23%) without CRH; kappa 0.59). Regarding the diagnosis of TRH, there was agreement between ABP and HBP in 74% of the cases (36 subjects (49%) with TRH and 18 (25%) without TRH; kappa 0.46). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of HBP in detecting CRH were 93%, 63%, and 81% and 83%, respectively, and TRH were 90%, 55%, and 71%, and 82%, respectively (ABP taken as reference method). These data suggest that HBP is a reliable alternative to ABP in the evaluation of RH. These methods are necessary in both uncontrolled and controlled subjects on triple therapy to detect the white coat phenomenon and also masked RH.

  20. Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Lepine, Todd

    2012-05-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death.(1) Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension.(2,3) In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system.(4) The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of people 60 to 69 years of age and at least three-fourths of those 70 years of age and older are affected.(5) Most individuals with hypertension do not have it adequately controlled.(1,6) Medication noncompliance due to avoidance of side effects is suggested to be a primary factor.(6) The epidemic incidence of hypertension and its significant cost to society indicate that a well-tolerated, cost-effective approach to treatment is urgently needed.

  1. Clinical features of 8295 patients with resistant hypertension classified on the basis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Ruilope, Luis M

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension through both office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a large cohort of treated hypertensive patients from the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry. In addition, we also compared clinical features of patients with true or white-coat-resistant hypertension. In December 2009, we identified 68 045 treated patients with complete information for this analysis. Among them, 8295 (12.2% of the database) had resistant hypertension (office blood pressure ≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg while being treated with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, 1 of them being a diuretic). After ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 62.5% of patients were classified as true resistant hypertensives, the remaining 37.5% having white-coat resistance. The former group was younger, more frequently men, with a longer duration of hypertension and a worse cardiovascular risk profile. The group included larger proportions of smokers, diabetics, target organ damage (including left ventricular hypertrophy, impaired renal function, and microalbuminuria), and documented cardiovascular disease. Moreover, true resistant hypertensives exhibited in a greater proportion a riser pattern (22% versus 18%; P<0.001). In conclusion, this study first reports the prevalence of resistant hypertension in a large cohort of patients in usual daily practice. Resistant hypertension is present in 12% of the treated hypertensive population, but among them more than one third have normal ambulatory blood pressure. A worse risk profile is associated with true resistant hypertension, but this association is weak, thus making it necessary to assess ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for a correct diagnosis and management.

  2. Cytokines profile in hypertensive patients with left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Haddad, Francois; Knez, Judita; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Sung, Janine; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Thijs, Lutgarde; Karakikes, Ioannis; Maecker, Holden; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Wu, Joseph C; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-12-01

    There is strong evidence that inflammatory mediators play a key role in the progression to heart failure in patients with systemic hypertension (HTN). The present study aimed to identify a set of cytokines that are associated with early left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction as captured by echocardiography in patients with HTN in a cross-sectional case-control study nested within the FLEMish study on ENvironment, Genes and Health Outcome. We identified three groups of participants from the cohort: normotensive subjects (normotension; n = 30), HTN with normal LV structure and function (HTN [LV-]; n = 30), and HTN with evidence of adverse LV remodeling (HTN [LV+]; n = 50). We measured cytokines using a 63-plex Luminex platform. Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, we constructed three latent variables from the measured cytokines that explained 35%-45% of the variance between groups. We identified five common cytokines (interleukin 18, monokine induced by gamma interferon, hepatocyte growth factor, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78, and vascular endothelial growth factor D) with a stable signal which had a major impact on the construction of the latent variables. Among these cytokines, after adjustment for confounders, interleukin 18 remained significantly different between HTN participants with and without LV involvement (P = .02). Moreover, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and leptin showed a consistent upward trend in all HTN patients compared with normotensive subjects. In conclusion, in HTN patients with LV remodeling or/and dysfunction, we identified a set of cytokines strongly associated with LV maladaptation. We also found a distinct profile of inflammatory biomarkers that characterize HTN. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Matar, Dany; Frangieh, Antonio H; Abouassi, Samah; Bteich, Fernand; Saleh, Aline; Salame, Elie; Kassab, Roland; Azar, Rabih R

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and factors related to hypertension (HTN) treatment and control are well investigated in the Western world but remain poorly understood in the Middle East and in middle-income countries such as Lebanon. In order to measure the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of HTN in Lebanon, the authors measured blood pressure (BP) in 1697 adults. The prevalence of optimal BP (<120/80 mm Hg) was 33% and that of pre-HTN (BP ≥120/80 mm Hg but <140/90 mm Hg) was 30%. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control (among treated hypertensive) rates of HTN were 36.9%, 53%, 48.9%, and 54.2%, respectively. Overall, only 27% of patients with HTN had their BP under control. Awareness was the most important predictor of treatment. No predictor of control could be identified. The authors concluded that HTN is prevalent in Lebanon and its overall control is low. Improving awareness is the most important target for intervention. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Verdalles, Úrsula; Goicoechea, Marian; Garcia de Vinuesa, Soledad; Quiroga, Borja; Galan, Isabel; Verde, Eduardo; Perez de Jose, Ana; Luño, José

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased albuminuria are associated with RH; however, there are few published studies about the prevalence of this entity in patients with CKD.

  5. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  6. Renal denervation therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension: a position statement by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia A; Herman, Robert J; Quinn, Robert R; Rabkin, Simon W; Ravani, Pietro; Tobe, Sheldon W; Feldman, Ross D; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Padwal, Raj S

    2014-01-01

    Renal denervation is a novel catheter-based, percutaneous procedure using radiofrequency energy to ablate nerves within the renal arteries. This procedure might help to significantly lower blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension, defined as BP > 140/90 mm Hg (> 130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes) despite use of ≥ 3 optimally dosed antihypertensive agents, ideally including 1 diuretic agent. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendations Task Force reviewed the current evidence on safety and efficacy of this procedure. Eleven studies on renal denervation were examined and most of the evidence evaluating renal denervation was derived from the Symplicity studies. In patients with systolic BP ≥ 160 mm Hg (≥ 150 mm Hg for patients with type 2 diabetes) despite use of ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents, bilateral renal denervation was associated with significantly lower BP (-22/11 to -34/13 mm Hg) at 6 months with a low periprocedural complication rate. Few patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and ambulatory BP monitoring showed more modest BP lowering (0 to -11/7 mm Hg). Although early results on short-term safety and blood pressure-lowering are encouraging, there are no long-term efficacy and safety data, or hard cardiovascular end point data. The discrepancy between office BP reductions and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor reductions needs to be further investigated. Until more data are available, renal sympathetic denervation should be considered as a treatment option of last resort for patients with resistant hypertension who have exhausted all other available medical management options.

  7. Novel Index of Maladaptive Myocardial Remodeling in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Goh, Vera J; Le, Thu-Thao; Bryant, Jennifer; Wong, Jia Ing; Su, Boyang; Lee, Chi-Hang; Pua, Chee Jian; Sim, Chloe P Y; Ang, Briana; Aw, Tar Choon; Cook, Stuart A; Chin, Calvin W L

    2017-09-01

    Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (HTN-LVH) is a leading cause of heart failure. Conventional patterns of cardiac geometry do not adequately risk-stratify patients with HTN-LVH. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance, we developed a novel Remodeling Index (RI) that was designed to detect an exaggerated hypertrophic response to hypertension and tested its potential to risk-stratify hypertensive patients. The RI was derived using LaPlace's Law (), and normal RI ranges were established in 180 healthy volunteers. The utility of the RI was examined in 256 asymptomatic hypertensive patients and 10 patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hypertensive patients underwent multimodal cardiac assessment: contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance, echocardiograms, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, and cardiac biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponins, NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide], and galectin-3). Blood pressure accounted for only 20% of the variance observed in LV mass. Although there was no association between blood pressure and myocardial fibrosis, LV mass was independently associated with fibrosis. Compared with hypertensive patients without LVH (n=191; 74.6%) and those with HTN-LVH and normal RI (n=50; 19.5%), patients with HTN-LVH and low RI (HTN-LVH/low RI; n=15, 5.9%) had an amplified myocardial response: elevated indexed LV masses (83±24 g/m(2)), more fibrosis (73%), and higher biomarkers of myocardial injury and dysfunction (P<0.05 for all). RI was similar in HTN-LVH/low RI and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (4.1 [3.4-4.5] versus 3.7 [3.4-4.0], respectively; P=0.15). We suggest that RI provides an approach for stratifying hypertensive patients and is suitable for testing in other disease cohorts to assess its clinical utility. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02670031. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Muscular strength and incident hypertension in normotensive and prehypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andréa L; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Participants were 4147 men (age = 20-82 yr) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a one-repetition maximal leg and a one-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. During a mean follow-up of 19 yr, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in normotensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (P = 0.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (P = 0.26). The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF.

  9. Strong independent association between obesity and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M R; Lee, J Z; Lim, W Y; Hashemzadeh, M; Hashemzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and hypertension (HTN) are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Association between obesity and HTN has not been studied in a large populations following adjustment for comorbidities. The goal of this study was to evaluate any association between obesity and HTN after adjusting for baseline characteristics. We used ICD-9 codes for obesity and HTN from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Two randomly selected years, 1992 and 2002, were chosen from the databases as two independent samples. We used uni- and multivariable analysis to study any correlation between obesity and HTN. The 1992 database contained a total of 6,195,744 patients. HTN was present in 37.2 % of patients with obesity versus 12% of the control group (OR: 4.36, CI 4.30-4.42, P < 0.001). The 2002 database contained a total of 7,153,982 patients. HTN was present in 50.7% of patients with obesity versus 25.6% of the control group (OR: 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P < 0.001). Using multivariable analysis adjusting for gender, hyperlipidaemia, age, smoking, type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure, obesity remained correlated with HTN in both years (1992: OR 2.69, CI 2.67-2.72, P < 0.001; 2002: OR 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P < 0.001). The presence of obesity was found to be strongly and independently associated with HTN. The cause of this correlation is not known warranting further investigation.

  10. Association of aldosterone excess and apnea-hypopnea index in patients with resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Xiao; Guo, Wenyu; Peng, Hu; Hu, Chengheng; Zhang, Henghong; Peng, Changnong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the association of aldosterone excess and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in patients with resistant hypertension. Patients with resistant hypertension were enrolled and baseline characteristics including plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and 24 h-urine aldosterone levels were collected and compared between groups with different degrees of AHI as assessed by polysomnography. Association of key variables and AHI was then evaluated by univariate and multiple linear regression analysis. A total of 534 patients with resistant hypertension were enrolled and mean age was 57 ± 11 years. Overall, mean number of AHI was 21.7 ± 9.6 and nearly 92.3% of resistant hypertensive patients had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mean PAC and 24 h-urine aldosterone level was 12.4 ± 6.3 ng/dL and 13.1 ± 6.8 ug, respectively. Compared with other groups, participants in the severe OSA group (AHI ≥ 30) had significantly higher PAC and 24 h-urine aldosterone level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that PAC and 24 h-urine aldosterone levels were positively associated with AHI, while spironolactone was negatively associated with AHI, independent of age, gender, body mass index, smoking, plasma renin activity and diuretics. OSA is highly prevalent in patients with resistant hypertension and both PAC and 24 h-urine aldosterone level are significantly associated with AHI. PMID:28327653

  11. Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Aldosterone Status in Subjects with Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Carolina C.; Gaddam, Krishna K.; Ahmed, Mustafa I.; Pimenta, Eduardo; Thomas, S. Justin; Harding, Susan M.; Oparil, Suzanne; Cofield, Stacey S.; Calhoun, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We previously described a significant correlation between plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with resistant hypertension. This investigation examines the relationship between aldosterone status and OSA in patients with resistant hypertensive—with and without hyperaldosteronism. Methods and Results: One hundred and nine consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were prospectively evaluated with plasma renin activity (PRA), PAC, 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (UAldo), and polysomnography. Hyperaldosteronism (PRA < 1 ng·mL-1·h-1 and UAldo ≥ 12 μg/24-h) prevalence was 28% and OSA prevalence was 77%. In patients with hyperaldosteronism, OSA prevalence was 84%, compared with 74% in hypertensive patients with normal aldosterone levels. There were no significant differences in body mass index or neck circumference between aldosterone groups. PAC and UAldo were both significantly correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the high-aldosterone group (ρ = 0.568, p = 0.0009; ρ = 0.533, p = 0.002, respectively). UAldo correlated weakly with apnea-hypopnea index in the normal-aldosterone group, but there was no significant correlation between PAC and AHI in the normal-aldosterone group (ρ = 0.224, p = 0.049; ρ = 0.015, p = 0.898, respectively). Conclusions: Our analysis of patients with resistant hypertension confirms a markedly high prevalence of OSA in this group. Furthermore, severity of OSA was greater in those patients with hyperaldosteronism and related to the degree of aldosterone excess. The correlation between OSA severity and aldosterone supports the hypothesis that aldosterone excess contributes to greater severity of OSA. Citation: Gonzaga CC; Gaddam KK; Ahmed MI; Pimenta E; Thomas SJ; Harding SM; Oparil S; Cofield SS; Calhoun DA. Severity of obstructive sleep apnea is related to aldosterone status in subjects with resistant hypertension. J Clin Sleep Med 2010

  12. Hypertension and peripheral insulin resistance. Possible mediating role of intracellular free magnesium.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L M; Gupta, R K; Gruenspan, H; Alderman, M H; Laragh, J H

    1990-05-01

    To investigate the association of hypertension and insulin resistance, we utilized 31P-NMR spectroscopy to noninvasively assess intracellular free magnesium levels (Mgif) in erythrocytes of normotensive (n = 20) and essential hypertensive (n = 20) subjects given an oral 100 g glucose load. In hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects, fasting glucose and insulin levels were similar, but the integrated insulinemic responses to glucose were 45% greater (312 +/- 13.4 v 215 +/- 7.5 microU/mL, P less than .001). In hypertension, Mgif levels were significantly reduced (183 +/- 9 v 251 +/- 9 mumol/L, P less than .001), and for all subjects were closely and inversely related to systolic (r = -0.77, P less than .001) and diastolic (r = -0.81, P less than .001) blood pressures, and to the integrated insulin response (r = -0.72, P less than .001). Furthermore, while insulin responses were also related to the underlying systolic (r = 0.69, P less than .001) and diastolic (r = .73, P less than .001) pressures, these relations were no longer significant when adjusted for Mgif levels. We hypothesize that hypertension and peripheral insulin resistance may be different clinical expressions of a common abnormal intracellular ionic environment, characterized at least in part by suppressed levels of intracellular free magnesium.

  13. Protective effect of telmisartan on neurovascular unit and inflammasome in stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wentao; Yamashita, Toru; Kurata, Tomoko; Kono, Syoichiro; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Deguchi, Kentaro; Zhai, Yun; Abe, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a crucial risk factor for both stroke and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We inspected the effect of telmisartan on the neurovascular unit (NVU) and related inflammatory responses in spontaneously hypertensive rat stroke resistant (SHR-SR) by observing the components of NVU such as N-acetyl glucosamine oligomer (NAGO), collagen IV, astrocytes, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), as well as inflammasome NOD-like receptors family protein 3 (NLRP3). In the present study, we examined the effect of a highly selective angiotensin type 1 (AT-1) antagonist of angiotensin 2 receptor with high lipid solubility, telmisartan, on NVU and related inflammatory responses in SHR-SR with a low dose (0.3 mg/kg/day) only for improving metabolic syndrome, and a high dose (3 mg/kg/day) for improving both metabolic syndrome and SHR-SR hypertension. Compared to normotensive Wistar rats, long-lasting hypertension in SHR-SR disrupted NVU by changing immunohistological components such as NAGO, collagen IV, astrocytes, and MMP-9. SHR-SR also strongly induced AD-related inflammasome NLRP3 in neuronal cells with age. However, such NVU disruption and inflammasome activation were greatly improved with dose-dependent telmisartan treatments. These results suggest that telmisartan comprehensively protected the NVU components by reducing inflammatory reactions relative to AD in hypertensive rats, which could also preclude the risk of AD under hypertension.

  14. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 improves endothelial function and prevents hypertension in insulin-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagareddy, PR; Rajput, PS; Vasudevan, H; McClure, B; Kumar, U; MacLeod, KM; McNeill, JH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Insulin resistance is often found to be associated with high blood pressure. We propose that in insulin-resistant hypertension, endothelial dysfunction is the consequence of increased activity of vascular MMP-2. As MMP-2 proteolytically cleaves a number of extracellular matrix proteins, we hypothesized that MMP-2 impairs endothelial function by proteolytic degradation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) or its cofactor, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested our hypothesis in bovine coronary artery endothelial cells and fructose-fed hypertensive rats (FHR), a model of acquired systolic hypertension and insulin resistance. KEY RESULTS Treatment of FHRs with the MMP inhibitor doxycycline, preserved endothelial function as well as prevented the development of hypertension, suggesting that MMPs impair endothelial function. Furthermore, incubating endothelial cells in vitro with a recombinant MMP-2 decreased NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Using substrate cleavage assays and immunofluorescence microscopy studies, we found that MMP-2 not only cleaves and degrades HSP90, an eNOS cofactor but also co-localizes with both eNOS and HSP90 in endothelial cells, suggesting that MMPs functionally interact with the eNOS system. Treatment of FHRs with doxycycline attenuated the decrease in eNOS and HSP90 expression but did not improve insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data suggest that increased activity of MMP-2 in FHRs impairs endothelial function and promotes hypertension. Inhibition of MMP-2 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of hypertension. PMID:21740410

  15. Hypercholesterolemia blunts the oxidative stress elicited by hypertension in venules through angiotensin II type-2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Alper; Senchenkova, Elena; Granger, D. Neil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia elicit inflammatory and thrombogenic responses in the microvasculature. However, little is known about whether and how risk factor combinations alter microvascular function. We examined how the actions of HTN+HCh on the microvasculature differ from the responses elicited by either risk factor alone. METHODS Intravital microscopy was used to monitor the adhesion and emigration of leukocytes and dihydrorhodamine oxidation in cremaster muscle venules of wild type mice that were infused with angiotensin II for 2 wks (HTN), placed on a high cholesterol diet (HCD), or both. RESULTS Either HTN or HCh alone enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species and promoted the recruitment of leukocytes in venules. However, the combination of HTN and HCh produced changes in ROS production and leukocyte recruitment that were greatly attenuated compared to HTN alone. The inhibitory effects of HCh on the AngII mediated responses were also observed in genetically-induced HCh (ApoE-deficient mice). Treating HCh + HTN mice with an antagonist to AT2r reversed the HCh-dependent protection against oxidative stress and inflammation during HTN. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that HCh blunts the oxidative stress and inflammatory cell recruitment elicited by hypertension in venules through a mechanism that involves AT2 receptor activation. PMID:26775070

  16. Blood pressure effects of CPAP in nonresistant and resistant hypertension associated with OSA: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a rather common chronic disorder, associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. The pathophysiological mechanisms for hypertension in OSA are at least in part linked to intermittent hypoxia developed during nightly hypopneas and apneas. Hypoxemia stimulates sympathetic overactivity, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. However, it appears that intermittent hypoxemia is not the only factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. Supplemental oxygen therapy that improved oxyhemoglobin saturation to similar levels to those achieved with CPAP treatment did not reduce BP. In this scenario, it could be proposed that hypoxemia acts as a trigger of sympathetic overdrive, which when set is the main factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. This review appraises evidence provided by randomized controlled trials on the BP-lowering effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA patients with nonresistant and resistant hypertension. It suggests that CPAP treatment is more effective in treating resistant hypertension than nonresistant hypertension. A possible explanation is that sympathetic overactivity and altered vascular reactivity in OSA could be more severe in resistant hypertension than in nonresistant hypertension. An intricate interaction among compliance, adherence, and their interaction with demographic characteristics, genetic factors, and comorbidities of the population included might explain the differences found between trials on their influence over the antihypertensive effectiveness of CPAP. Further long-term trials are needed in hypertensive OSA patients to assess whether CPAP treatment in OSA patients consistently restores physiological nocturnal BP fall and adjusts resting and circadian heart rate.

  17. Post-resistance exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses: Comparison between normotensive and hypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A C C; Sousa, J C S; Cavalli, A A P; Silva, N D; Costa, L A R; Tobaldini, E; Montano, N; Silva, G V; Ortega, K; Mion, D; Tinucci, T; Forjaz, C L M

    2015-08-01

    To compare post-resistance exercise hypotension (PREH) and its mechanisms in normotensive and hypertensive individuals, 14 normotensives and 12 hypertensives underwent two experimental sessions: control (rest) and exercise (seven exercises, three sets, 50% of one repetition maximum). Hemodynamic and autonomic clinic measurements were taken before (Pre) and at two moments post-interventions (Post 1: between 30 and 60 min; Post 2: after 7 h). Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was monitored for 24 h. At Post 1, exercise decreased systolic BP similarly in normotensives and hypertensives (-8 ± 2 vs -13 ± 2 mmHg, P > 0.05), whereas diastolic BP decreased more in hypertensives (-4 ± 1 vs -9 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance did not change in normotensives and hypertensives (0.0 ± 0.3 vs 0.0 ± 0.3 L/min; -1 ± 1 vs -2 ± 2 U, P > 0.05). After exercise, heart rate (+13 ± 3 vs +13 ± 2 bpm) and its variability (low- to high-frequency components ratio, 1.9 ± 0.4 vs +1.4 ± 0.3) increased whereas stroke volume (-14 ± 5 vs -11 ± 5 mL) decreased similarly in normotensives and hypertensives (all, P > 0.05). At Post 2, all variables returned to pre-intervention, and ambulatory data were similar between sessions. Thus, a session of resistance exercise promoted PREH in normotensives and hypertensives. Although this PREH was greater in hypertensives, it did not last during the ambulatory period, which limits its clinical relevance. In addition, the mechanisms of PREH were similar in hypertensives and normotensives. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation and management of the patient with difficult-to-control or resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Hinderliter, Alan L

    2009-05-15

    High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure that is apparently difficult to control begins with an assessment of the patient's adherence to the management plan, including lifestyle modifications and medications. White-coat hypertension may need to be ruled out. Suboptimal therapy is the most common reason for failure to reach the blood pressure goal. Once-daily fixed-dose combination pills may improve control through the synergism of antihypertensive agents from different classes and improved adherence. Truly drug-resistant hypertension is commonly caused by chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, or hyperaldosteronism, all of which can lead to fluid retention. Higher doses of diuretics (or a change to a loop diuretic) are usually needed. Other strategies include adding an alpha blocker, alpha-beta blocker, clonidine, or an aldosterone antagonist (e.g., spironolactone). Particularly in patients with diabetes or renal disease, combining a long-acting nondihydropyridine with a dihydropyridine calcium channel . blocker can also be considered. Obesity, heavy alcohol intake, high levels of dietary sodium, and interfering substances (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) contribute to hypertension that is resistant or difficult to control.

  19. Defective hepatic nitric oxide action results in HISS-dependent insulin resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; Ribeiro, Rogério Tavares; Macedo, Maria Paula

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral insulin sensitivity is dependent on the action of Hepatic Insulin Sensitizing Substance (HISS), in which hepatic NO (HNO) plays an important role. Insulin resistance has been associated with hypertension. NO action is known to be impaired in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) hypertension models. We tested the hypothesis that the HNO pathway is compromised in SHR, resulting in HISS-dependent insulin resistance. Wistar rats (Wis) were the normotensive controls. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated through the Rapid Insulin Sensitivity Test (RIST), a modified euglycemic clamp. A clamp was performed in basal state (control RIST), followed by ipv administration of the NO synthase (NOS) competitive antagonist L-NMMA (0.73 mg/kg) and a RIST post L-NMMA. HISS-dependent insulin sensitivity was assessed by subtracting the RIST post-L-NMMA from the control RIST and is represented as the resultant insulin sensitivity inhibition. In SHR ipv L-NMMA induced 26+/-5% insulin sensitivity inhibition (187.5+/-15.3 mg glucose/kg, n=6; P<0.05), whereas in Wis, ipv L-NMMA induced 53.8+/-5.9% insulin sensitivity inhibition (138.2+/-14.7 mg glucose/kg, n=6, P<0.05), significantly higher than in SHR (P<0.01). Our results suggest that functional HNO is essential to achieve maximal insulin sensitivity and that HNO action is compromised in hypertension, resulting in HISS-dependent insulin resistance.

  20. Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factors of Small Resistance Arteries in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), including nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), play pivotal roles in regulating vascular tone. Reduced EDRFs cause impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, or endothelial dysfunction. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) is consistently observed in conduit vessels in human patients and experimental animal models of hypertension. Because small resistance arteries are known to produce more than one type of EDRF, the mechanism(s) mediating endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries may be different from that observed in conduit vessels under hypertensive conditions, where vasorelaxation is mainly dependent on NO. EDHF has been described as one of the principal mediators of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries in normotensive animals. Furthermore, EDHF appears to become the predominant endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation pathway when the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3)/NO pathway is absent, as in NOS3-knockout mice, whereas some studies have shown that the EDHF pathway is dysfunctional in experimental models of hypertension. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding EDRFs in small arteries under normotensive and hypertensive conditions. PMID:25343007

  1. An atrial pheochromocytoma-induced hypertensive crisis resistant to nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Anton, A H; Sherman, B W; Lina, A A; Acheson, L S

    1993-02-01

    A malignant pheochromocytoma with several unique features was studied. Initially, its histological and catecholamine secretory properties and physiological effects were terminated by an infarct prior to its excision in 1973. However, in 1985 a metastasis was resected from the right atrium. Hypertensive crisis during surgery was controlled by the administration of phentolamine but not by nitroprusside. Within 2 months, it was again detected at this same site. Biochemical studies confirmed its recurrence. The tumor did not respond to chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine, but there has been physiological and biochemical improvement from inhibiting catecholamine biosynthesis with metyrosine. We recommend that both phentolamine and sodium nitroprusside be readily available during resection of a pheochromocytoma.

  2. Microvascular dysfunction as a link between obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Ü; Schram, M T; Houben, A J H M; Muris, D M J; Stehouwer, C D A

    2014-03-01

    Impaired microvascular dilatation from any cause and impaired insulin-mediated capillary recruitment in particular result in suboptimal delivery of glucose and insulin to skeletal muscle, and subsequently impairment of glucose disposal (insulin resistance). In addition, microvascular dysfunction, through functional and/or structural arteriolar and capillary drop-out, and arteriolar constriction, increases peripheral resistance and thus blood pressure. Microvascular dysfunction may thus constitute a pathway that links insulin resistance and hypertension. Overweight and obesity may be an important cause of microvascular dysfunction. Mechanisms linking overweight and obesity to microvascular dysfunction include changes in the secretion of adipokines leading to increased levels of free fatty acids and inflammatory mediators, and decreased levels of adiponectin all of which may impair endothelial insulin signaling. Microvascular dysfunction may thus constitute a new treatment target in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microvascular resistance in essential hypertension and flowmetry as a diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

    2001-08-01

    New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillar and postcapillar resistance. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. Patients of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry (540 nm). Precapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency (10-16 per/min) and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with low frequency (4-8 per/min) and high amplitude, paradoxical hyperemia in arterial compression, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select patogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

  4. Body Mass Index Predicts 24-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Levels in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Ghazi, Lama; Liu, Mingchun; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies indicate that hyperaldosteronism is found in 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. A small number of observational studies in normotensive and hypertensive patients suggest a correlation between aldosterone levels and obesity while others could not confirm these findings. The correlation between aldosterone levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with resistant hypertension has not been previously investigated. Our objective was to determine whether BMI is positively correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone in black and white patients. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a large diverse cohort (n=2170) with resistant hypertension. The relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, 24-hour urinary aldosterone, and BMI was investigated for the entire cohort, by sex and race (65.3% white, 40.3% men). We demonstrate that plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone:renin ratio were significantly correlated to BMI (P<0.0001) across the first 3 quartiles, but not from the 3rd to 4th quartile of BMI. Plasma renin activity was not correlated with BMI. Twenty-four-hour urinary aldosterone was positively correlated across all quartiles of BMI for the cohort (P<0.0001) and when analyzed by sex (men P<0.0001; women P=0.0013) and race (P<0.05), and stronger for men compared with women (r=0.19, P<0.001 versus r=0.05, P=0.431, P=0.028) regardless of race. In both black and white patients, aldosterone levels were positively correlated to increasing BMI, with the correlation being more pronounced in black and white men. These findings suggest that obesity, particularly the abdominal obesity typical of men, contributes to excess aldosterone in patients with resistant hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. 2016 European Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Dominiczak, Anna; Erdine, Serap; Hirth, Asle; Invitti, Cecilia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pall, Denes; Rascher, Wolfgang; Redon, Josep; Schaefer, Franz; Seeman, Tomas; Sinha, Manish; Stabouli, Stella; Webb, Nicholas J; Wühl, Elke; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Increasing prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents has become a significant public health issue driving a considerable amount of research. Aspects discussed in this document include advances in the definition of HTN in 16 year or older, clinical significance of isolated systolic HTN in youth, the importance of out of office and central blood pressure measurement, new risk factors for HTN, methods to assess vascular phenotypes, clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment strategies among others. The recommendations of the present document synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent the best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. In addition, as they call attention to the burden of HTN in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease, these guidelines should encourage public policy makers to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents.

  6. Association of angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphism with resistant essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Szombathy, T; Szalai, C; Katalin, B; Palicz, T; Romics, L; Császár, A

    1998-01-12

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) mediates the vasoconstrictive and growth-promoting effect of angiotensin II in humans. It has been reported that a polymorphism of the AT1 gene (an A/C transversion at position 1166: A-C1166) occurs more frequently in resistant hypertensives taking two or more antihypertensive drugs. On the contrary, a recent study of the influence of the A-C1166 polymorphism on aortic stiffness demonstrated that the distribution of the genotypes did not differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In addition, a recent population-based survey of Caucasian hypertensives reported lower blood pressure values in CC homozygotes than in heterozygotes and AA homozygotes. Because of these controversial results and the lack of a sufficient amount of data the present study was designed to assess the contribution of the AT, gene A-C1166 polymorphism to resistant essential hypertension. Forty-eight subjects with resistant essential hypertension (HT) and 48 normotensive (NT), age and sex-adjusted controls (from a population of 300 healthy blood donors) were selected. All subjects were genotyped for the A-C1166 polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of the AT1 gene using PCR-based techniques. The influence of genotype on blood pressure (BP) was investigated using ANOVA Randomized Complete Block (ANOVA RCB) design according to sex, age and BMI. There were no significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies between HT and NT subjects (X2 = 0.61; P = NS). In HT subjects higher values of systolic blood pressure were associated with the C allele of the AT1 gene only in older and overweight patients (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Also in HT patients an association between the presence of the C allele of the AT1 gene and higher values of diastolic blood pressure was present in overweight patients (P = 0.001). These results suggest that in resistant hypertensive subjects the AT1 A-C1166 polymorphism is potentially involved in the regulation of blood

  7. Burden and predictors of hypertension in India: results of SEEK (Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to investigate the burden and predictors of HTN in India. Methods 6120 subjects participated in the Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney disease (SEEK), a community-based screening program in 53 camps in 13 representative geographic locations in India. Of these, 5929 had recorded blood pressure (BP) measurements. Potential predictors of HTN were collected using a structured questionnaire for SEEK study. Results HTN was observed in 43.5% of our cohort. After adjusting for center variation (p < 0.0001), predictors of a higher prevalence of HTN were older age ≥40 years (p < 0.0001), BMI of ≥ 23 Kg/M2 (p < 0.0004), larger waist circumference (p < 0.0001), working in sedentary occupation (p < 0.0001), having diabetes mellitus (p < 0.0001), having proteinuria (p < 0.0016), and increased serum creatinine (p < 0.0001). High school/some college education (p = 0.0016), versus less than 9th grade education, was related with lower prevalence of HTN. Of note, proteinuria and CKD were observed in 19% and 23.5% of HTN subjects. About half (54%) of the hypertensive subjects were aware of their hypertension status. Conclusions HTN was common in this cohort from India. Older age, BMI ≥ 23 Kg/M2, waist circumference, sedentary occupation, education less, diabetes mellitus, presence of proteinuria, and raised serum creatinine were significant predictors of hypertension. Our data suggest that HTN is a major public health problem in India with low awareness, and requires aggressive community-based screening and education to improve health. PMID:24602391

  8. Renal Denervation for Treating Resistant Hypertension: Current Evidence and Future Insights from a Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Castro Torres, Y.; Katholi, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate blood pressure control represents an important goal for all physicians due to the complications of hypertension which reduce patients' quality of life. A new interventional strategy to reduce blood pressure has been developed for patients with resistant hypertension. Catheter-based renal denervation has demonstrated excellent results in recent investigations associated with few side effects. With the growing diffusion of this technique worldwide, some medical societies have published consensus statements to guide physicians how to best apply this procedure. Questions remain to be answered such as the long-term durability of renal denervation, the efficacy in patients with other sympathetically mediated diseases, and whether renal denervation would benefit patients with stage 1 hypertension. PMID:24369496

  9. Resistin Induces Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Mice via a TLR4-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun; Lu, Linfang; Hu, Youtao; Li, Qiang; An, Chaoqiang; Yu, Xiaolan; Shu, Le; Chen, Ao; Niu, Congcong; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Zaiqing

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, an adipokine involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, has recently been reported to play a role in cardiovascular events. However, its effect on blood pressure (BP) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that resistin induces hypertension and IR in wild type (WT) mice, but not in tlr4−/− mice. Resistin upregulated angiotensinogen (Agt) expression in WT mice, whereas it had no effect on tlr4−/− mice, or in mice treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril. Real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation further confirmed that resistin activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) via the TLR4/P65/Agt pathway. This finding suggested an essential role of resistin in linking IR and hypertension, which may offer a novel target in clinic on the study of the association between diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26917360

  10. Resistin Induces Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Mice via a TLR4-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Lu, Linfang; Hu, Youtao; Li, Qiang; An, Chaoqiang; Yu, Xiaolan; Shu, Le; Chen, Ao; Niu, Congcong; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Zaiqing

    2016-02-26

    Resistin, an adipokine involved in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, has recently been reported to play a role in cardiovascular events. However, its effect on blood pressure (BP) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that resistin induces hypertension and IR in wild type (WT) mice, but not in tlr4(-/-) mice. Resistin upregulated angiotensinogen (Agt) expression in WT mice, whereas it had no effect on tlr4(-/-) mice, or in mice treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril. Real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation further confirmed that resistin activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) via the TLR4/P65/Agt pathway. This finding suggested an essential role of resistin in linking IR and hypertension, which may offer a novel target in clinic on the study of the association between diabetes and hypertension.

  11. Multi-drug-resistant hypertension caused by severe aortic coarctation presenting in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Meller, Stephanie M; Fahey, John T; Setaro, John F; Forrest, John K

    2015-04-01

    Aortic coarctation, a congenital narrowing in the region of the ligamentum arteriosium, is a rare etiology for multi-drug-resistant hypertension in adulthood; however, advances in stenting modalities may offer long-term improvements in morbidity and possibly even cure. We report on a female patient in her late 50s presenting with refractory hypertension and severely elevated renin levels, ultimately diagnosed with aortic coarctation and treated with percutaneous stent implantation, which resulted in successful blood pressure control with verapamil monotherapy. This case highlights the efficacy of endovascular stent implantation for the treatment of coarctation and the need for clinicians to consider this disease entity in the differential diagnosis of refractory hypertension even in late adulthood.

  12. Comparative risk of renal, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes in controlled, uncontrolled resistant, and non-resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; Reynolds, Kristi; Calhoun, David A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to compare the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), ischemic heart event (IHE), congestive heart failure (CHF), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and all-cause mortality among 470,386 individuals with resistant and nonresistant hypertension (non-RH). Resistant hypertension (60,327 individuals) was sub-categorized into 2 groups; 23,104 patients with cRH (controlled on 4 or more medicines) and 37,223 patients with uRH (uncontrolled on 3 or more medicines) in a 5 year retrospective cohort study. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and co-morbidities. Resistant hypertension (cRH and uRH) compared to non-RH, had multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.32 (1.27–1.37), 1.24 (1.20–1.28), 1.46 (1.40–1.52), 1.14 (1.10–1.19), and 1.06 (1.03–1.08) for ESRD, IHE, CHF, CVA, and mortality, respectively. Comparison of uRH to cRH had hazard ratios of 1.25 (1.18–1.33), 1.04 (0.99–1.10), 0.94 (0.89–1.01), 1.23 (1.14–1.31), and 1.01 (0.97–1.05) for ESRD, IHE, CHF, CVA, and mortality, respectively. Males and Hispanics had greater risk for ESRD within all 3 cohorts. Resistant hypertension had greater risk for ESRD, IHE, CHF, CVA, and mortality. The risk of ESRD and CVA and were 25% and 23% greater, respectively, in uRH compared to cRH supporting the linkage between blood pressure and both outcomes. PMID:25945406

  13. Independent association of drug-resistant hypertension to reduced sleep duration and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Oded; Bradley, T Douglas; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon; Logan, Alexander G

    2010-02-01

    Experimentally induced sleep deprivation can raise blood pressure (BP) and worsen hypertension. We recently reported a significantly higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time in drug-resistant hypertensives compared to controlled hypertensives. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that short sleep duration is associated with resistant hypertension (RH) independently of OSA, which can itself disrupt and shorten sleep. In a case-control study, overnight polysomnographic results of subjects with OSA and RH (n = 62) were compared to those with OSA of equal severity and either controlled hypertension (CH) (n = 49) or normotension (n = 40). Subjects with RH slept 33.8 min (P = 0.02) and 37.2 min (P = 0.02) less than those with CH and normotension, respectively. Consequently, sleep efficiency was reduced by 7.9% (P = 0.007) and 10.2% (P = 0.002), respectively. They also spent 9.7 min (P = 0.06) and 11.6 min (P = 0.04) less time in REM sleep compared to those with CH and normotension, respectively. Older age, greater body mass index (BMI) and greater apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were also associated with shorter sleep time (P = 0.02, P = 0.001, and P = 0.03, respectively) and reduced sleep efficiency (P = 0.0003, P = 0.03, and P = 0.01, respectively). Our study demonstrates that, compared to subjects with CH or normotension, those with RH have shorter total and REM sleep times and lower sleep efficiency independently of OSA. These data suggest that reduced sleep time may contribute to the severity of hypertension.

  14. PTPRD gene associated with blood pressure response to atenolol and resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yan; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Rouby, Nihal El; Hiltunen, Timo P.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Hall, Karen; Schmidt, Siegfried O.F.; Curry, Robert W.; Gums, John G.; Donner, Kati M.; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Bailey, Kent R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Chapman, Arlene B.; Turner, Stephen T.; Pepine, Carl J.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing blood pressure (BP) response to the β-blocker atenolol. Methods Genome-wide association analysis of BP response to atenolol monotherapy was performed in 233 white participants with uncomplicated hypertension in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses study. Forty-two polymorphisms with P less than 10−5 for association with either diastolic or systolic response to atenolol monotherapy were validated in four independent groups of hypertensive individuals (total n = 2114). Results In whites, two polymorphisms near the gene PTPRD (rs12346562 and rs1104514) were associated with DBP response to atenolol (P = 3.2 × 10−6 and P = 5.9 × 10−6, respectively) with directionally opposite association for response to hydrochlorothiazide in another group of 228 whites (P = 0.0018 and P = 0.00012). A different polymorphism (rs10739150) near PTPRD was associated with response to atenolol in 150 black hypertensive individuals (P = 8.25 ×10−6). rs12346562 had a similar trend in association with response to bisoprolol (a different β-blocker) in 207 Finnish men in the genetics of drug responsiveness in essential hypertension study. In addition, an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4742610) in the PTPRD gene was associated with resistant hypertension in whites and Hispanics in the international verapamil SR trandolapril study (meta-analysis P = 3.2 × 10−5). Conclusion PTPRD was identified as a novel locus potentially associated with BP response to atenolol and resistant hypertension in multiple ethnic groups. PMID:26425837

  15. Blood pressure variability, prehypertension, and hypertension in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Batisky, Donald L

    2012-01-01

    Medical conditions diagnosed during adolescence may have long term impacts on the health of an individual. As a result, identifying cardiovascular risk factors earlier in life such as prehypertension (pre-HTN) and hypertension (HTN) can have significant benefits across an individual’s lifespan. Diagnosing elevated blood pressure (BP) during adolescence can be difficult, partially due to the natural variability that occurs during this period of life. Levels of BP that define adolescent prehypertension/hypertension are provided as well as an abridged review of BP variability across research groups. Strategies for BP management of adolescents are considered, with the primary focus on nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:24600286

  16. Impact of Adiposity on Incident Hypertension Is Modified by Insulin Resistance in Adults: Longitudinal Observation From the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Shengxu; Li, Ying; Liu, Yaozhong; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity and insulin resistance are closely associated with hypertension. This study aims to investigate whether the association between adiposity and hypertension is modified by insulin resistance. The cohort consisted of 1624 middle-aged normotensive black and white adults aged 18 to 43 years at baseline who followed for 16 years on average. Overweight/obesity at baseline was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25, and insulin resistance was measured using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Prevalence of incident hypertension was compared between the insulin-sensitive adiposity and insulin-resistant adiposity groups. The prevalence of incident hypertension was higher in the insulin-resistant adiposity than in the insulin-sensitive adiposity group (32.1% versus 22.1%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic analyses, adjusted for baseline age, race, sex, follow-up years, and smoking, baseline insulin-resistant obesity was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio, 1.9; P=0.008). Odds ratios did not differ between blacks and whites (P=0.238). Of note, the odds ratios of BMI associated with hypertension significantly increased with increasing quartiles of baseline homeostasis model assessment (odds ratio, 1.3, 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 in quartiles I, II, III, and IV, respectively; P=0.006 for trend). Slopes of increasing follow-up blood pressure with baseline BMI, measured as regression coefficients (β), were significantly greater in insulin-resistant than in insulin-sensitive individuals (β=0.74 versus β=0.35 for systolic blood pressure, P=0.004 for difference; β=0.51 versus β=0.23 for diastolic blood pressure, P=0.001 for difference). These findings suggest that insulin resistance has a synergistic effect on the obesity-hypertension association in young adults, indicating that the role of adiposity in the development of hypertension is modified by insulin resistance.

  17. [Relationship between vasosympathetic activity and insulin resistance in normotensive and mildly hypertensive obese patients].

    PubMed

    Valensi, P; Dabire, H; Brahimi, M; Paries, J; Platon, P; Attali, J R

    2001-08-01

    Several studies have well demonstrated that obesity is associated with changes in cardiovascular vagosympathetic activity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate this activity in normotensive and in mildly hypertensive obese patients, and to correlate this activity with clinical and biological indexes of insulin resistance. Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (sBP) were examined by spectral analysis in 70 normotensive obese patients (group 1), 32 mildly hypertensive obese patients (group 2), and 21 controls. The high frequency peak of HR variations at a controlled breathing rate (vagal activity) was significantly reduced in both groups (p < 0.001). The mid frequency peak of sBP in the standing position (sympathetic activity) was similar in both groups and in the control group. In groups 1 and 2, the high frequency peak correlated negatively with age (p = 0.005 and 0.034 respectively). In group 1, the mid frequency peak correlated positively with fat mass, fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride levels, and insulin resistance index (p < or = 0.03). In group 2, the mid frequency peak correlated positively with fasting insulin and insulin resistance index (p = 0.006 and 0.007 respectively). This study shows that, in obese patients: 1. cardiac vagal activity is reduced in normotensive and mildly hypertensive subjects; 2. vascular sympathetic activity is unchanged in means but may be increased as a consequence of adiposity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, and this increase is likely to be involved in the increase of blood pressure.

  18. Oxidative Stress: A Potential Recipe For Anxiety, Hypertension and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Samina; Asghar, Mohammad; Chugh, Gaurav; Taneja, Manish; Xia, Zhilian; Saha, Kaustav

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported involvement of oxidative stress in anxiety-like behavior of rats. Others in separate studies have demonstrated a link between oxidative stress and hypertension as well as with type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance. In the present study, we have tested a putative role of oxidative stress in anxiety-like behavior, hypertension and insulin resistance using a rat model of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in rats was produced by xanthine (0.1%; drinking water) and xanthine oxidase (5U/kg; i.p.). X+XO-treated rats had increased plasma and urinary 8-isoprostane levels (a marker of oxidative stress) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus and amygdala as compared to control rats. Serum corticosterone (a systemic marker of stress and anxiety) levels also increased with X+XO treatment. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior measured via open-field and light-dark exploration behavior tests significantly increased in X+XO-treated rats. Mean arterial blood pressure measured in anesthetized rats increased in X+XO-treated compared to control rats. Furthermore, plasma insulin but not glucose levels together with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), an index of insulin resistance, were higher in X+XO-treated rats. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress is a common factor that link anxiety-like behavior, hypertension and insulin resistance in rats. PMID:20816762

  19. Previous hypertensive disease of pregnancy is associated with alterations of markers of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Girouard, Joël; Giguère, Yves; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Forest, Jean-Claude

    2007-05-01

    Insulin resistance syndrome has been observed in women with hypertensive disease of pregnancy, but few studies evaluated the presence of the syndrome a few years after delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of insulin resistance and its metabolic alterations in these women compared with those who had a normal pregnancy. We performed an observational study in 168 women with previous hypertensive disease of pregnancy and 168 control subjects with normal pregnancy contacted, on average, 7.8 years after their first delivery (mean age: 34.8 years). Complete blood lipid profile, insulin, glucose, homocysteine, adipokins, and markers of inflammation were measured. Also, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 146 case and 135 control subjects. Case subjects were more overweight compared with control subjects. We found significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin levels and higher apolipoprotein (apo) apoB/apoA1 ratio, homocysteine, leptin, and insulin levels among case subjects compared with control subjects (Presistant in the basal state estimated by homeostasis assessment model 2, as well as in the nonbasal state as estimated by insulin sensitivity indices calculated from the oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, in a multivariate regression model, leptin, apoB/apoA1 ratio, waist circumference, adiponectin, and free fatty acids explained 40% of homeostasis assessment model 2 variance. Young women with previous hypertensive disease of pregnancy show signs of insulin resistance within the first decade after delivery. These findings suggest that insulin resistance may be the link between hypertensive disease of pregnancy and increased cardiovascular risk later in life.

  20. [Prevalence of target organ damage and metabolic abnormalities in resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Armario, Pedro; Oliveras, Anna; Hernández Del Rey, Raquel; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; De La Sierra, Alejandro

    2011-10-15

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are relatively frequently visited in specialized units of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of target organ damage, central obesity and metabolic syndrome in a cohort of patients with RH consecutively included in the Register of Resistant Hypertension of the Spanish Society of Hypertension (SHE-LELHA). Cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiologic study in usual clinical practice conditions. Patients with clinical diagnosis of resistant hypertension, that is, office systolic and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or ≥ 90 mm Hg, respectively, despite a prescribed therapeutic schedule with an appropriate combination of three or more full-dose antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, were consecutively recruited from specialized hypertension units spread through Spain. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors and associated conditions were recorded, and all the subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Left ventricular hypertrophy was considered as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 125 g/m(2) in males and ≥ 110 g/m(2) in females. Left atrial enlargement was defined as an indexed left atrium diameter ≥ 26 mm/m(2). Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 22 mg/g in males and ≥ 31 mg/g in females. 513 patients were included, aged 64±11 years old, 47% women. Central obesity was present in 65.7% (CI 95% 61.6-69.9), 38.6% (CI 95% 34.4-42.8) had diabetes and 63.7% (CI 95% 59.4-67.9) had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial enlargement, determined by echocardiography was 57.1% (CI 95% 50.8-63.5) and 10.0% (CI 95% 6.3-13.7) respectively. Microalbuminuria was found in 46.6% (CI 95% 41.4-51.8) of the subjects. Patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly older (65.4±11 and 62.5±12 years; P=.0052), presented a higher prevalence of diabetes

  1. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P<0.0001), higher rates of obesity (53.4% versus 26.9%; P<0.0001), and significantly higher levels of plasma aldosterone (11.3±9.8 versus 8.9±7.4 ng/dL; P=0.005), plasma renin activity (4.9±10.2 versus 2.5±5.0 ng/mL per hour; P=0.001), 24-hour urinary aldosterone (13.4±10.0 versus 8.2±6.2 µg/24 h; P<0.0001), and sodium excretion (195.9±92.0 versus 146.8±67.1 mEq/24 h; P<0.0001). Among patients with resistant hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. A new approach to assessing the structural total peripheral resistance amplifier in renal (Page) hypertension in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed

    Korner, Paul I; Wright, Christine E; Angus, James A

    2010-09-01

    Structural changes in the large resistance vessels in hypertension amplify resistance responses in vitro, but their role in vivo has been controversial. To resolve this matter, we re-examined earlier data in Page hypertension. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) and total peripheral conductance (TPC) responsiveness were compared in hypertensive and normotensive rabbits, 5 weeks after bilateral renal cellophane wrapping or sham operation. The rabbits were studied with effectors intact; during ganglionic blockade; during neurohumoral blockade (NHB). For each condition extended scaled dose (ScD)-TPC and TPR curves were derived from individual dose-response curves to two constrictors and two dilators. The ScD-response curves had two major nonlinearities: at high constrictor doses, due to functional (reversible) rarefaction (reduction in microcirculatory density); at high dilator doses, due to impaired autoregulation. The amplifier is best assessed during NHB over the intervening ScD range, by determining the TPR and TPC ratios from hypertensive and normotensive rabbits. Over this range the hypertensive: normotensive (H: N) ratio averaged 1.88 +/- 0.03 TPR units and was the same for constrictor and dilator responses, suggesting a structural basis; the resting H: N TPR ratio was also closely similar. At higher ScDs functional rarefaction developed initially at a greater rate in normotensive than in hypertensive rabbits. We conjecture that this was because some permanent rarefaction had already developed in hypertensive rabbits since the onset of hypertension. The systemic structural TPR amplifier is haemodynamically important in vivo and contributes to hypertension.

  3. Incidence and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Hypertensive Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update from Tertiary Care Center of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit R.; Shekhawat, Seema D.; Lande, Neha H.; Kawle, Anuja P.; Kabra, Dinesh P.; Chandak, Nitin H.; Badar, Shweta R.; Raje, Dhananjay V.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Singh, Lokendra R.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the incidence and clinical outcome of patients with hypertensive acute ischemic stroke (AIS) admitted to a tertiary care center in Central India. In addition, we examined the status of stroke biomarkers namely neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial specific protein (S-100ββ), and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4(ITIH4) in the serum of patients suffering from AIS with hypertension (HTN) and without HTN. Methods: A total of 104 patients with AIS were enrolled for the study. Clinical outcome and stroke biomarker levels were evaluated in them at the time of hospital discharge and then followed at 12 months and 18 months after hospital discharge. Results: HTN is a major risk factor associated with 67%(70.104) of patients with AIS. Multivariate analysis suggests higher odds of 4.088(95%Cl, 0.721–23.179) and 2.437(95%Cl, 0.721–23.179) for 12 and 18 months outcome in patients with AIS and HTN, respectively. Serum NSE and S-100ββ decreased at the time of discharge as compared to admission level in improved patients suffering from AIS with or without HTN, whereas levels of ITIH4 peptides 2 and 7 increased at the time of discharge (compared to its admission level) only in improved patients with AIS regardless of HTN or non-HTN condition. Conclusion: HTN is one of the major risk factors associated with higher risk of AIS as well as long-term unfavourable outcome after AIS in Central India region. NSE, S-100ββ, and ITIH4 were found to be independent predictors of outcome in patients with AIS irrespective of HTN and non-HTN condition. PMID:27872696

  4. Exaggerated sympathetic and pressor responses to handgrip exercise in older hypertensive humans: role of the muscle metaboreflex.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Erin P; Greaney, Jody L; Edwards, David G; Rose, William C; Fadel, Paul J; Farquhar, William B

    2010-11-01

    Recent animal studies have reported that exercise pressor reflex (EPR)-mediated increases in blood pressure are exaggerated in hypertensive (HTN) rodents. Whether these findings can be extended to human hypertension remains unclear. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and venous metabolites were measured in normotensive (NTN; n = 23; 60 ± 1 yr) and HTN (n = 15; 63 ± 1 yr) subjects at baseline, and during static handgrip at 30 and 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by a period of postexercise ischemia (PEI) to isolate the metabolic component of the EPR. Changes in MAP from baseline were augmented in HTN subjects during both 30 and 40% MVC handgrip (P < 0.05 for both), and these group differences were maintained during PEI (30% PEI trial: Δ15 ± 2 NTN vs. Δ19 ± 2 HTN mmHg; 40% PEI trial: Δ16 ± 1 NTN vs. Δ23 ± 2 HTN mmHg; P < 0.05 for both). Similarly, in HTN subjects, MSNA burst frequency was greater during 30 and 40% MVC handgrip (P < 0.05 for both), and these differences were maintained during PEI [30% PEI trial: 35 ± 2 (NTN) vs. 44 ± 2 (HTN) bursts/min; 40% PEI trial: 36 ± 2 (NTN) vs. 48 ± 2 (HTN) bursts/min; P < 0.05 for both]. No group differences in metabolites were observed. MAP and MSNA responses to a cold pressor test were not different between groups, suggesting no group differences in generalized sympathetic responsiveness. In summary, compared with NTN subjects, HTN adults exhibit exaggerated sympathetic and pressor responses to handgrip exercise that are maintained during PEI, indicating that activation of the metabolic component of the EPR is augmented in older HTN humans.

  5. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia: a hospital-based survey.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter; Parkinson, Shelagh; Christensen, Dirk L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2013-09-01

    To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Muscular Strength and Incident Hypertension in Normotensive and Prehypertensive Men

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. Purpose This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Methods Participants were 4147 men (20–82 years) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a 1-repetition maximal leg and a 1-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. Results During a mean follow-up of 19 years, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in normotensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (p=.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (p=.26). Conclusions The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF. PMID:19927030

  7. [Resistant arterial hypertension in Primary Care patients in Spain. PRESCAP Study 2010].

    PubMed

    Cinza-Sanjurjo, S; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Prieto-Díaz, M Á; Divisón-Garrote, J A; Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Llisterri-Caro, J L

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Primary Care patients with resistant hypertension (RHT) in Spain. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted on hypertensive patients aged 18 or over and seen in a Primary Care clinic. RHT was considered as the presence of uncontrolled blood pressure in patients treated with at least 3 drugs, one of which is a diuretic. Of the 12,961 hypertensive patients in the PRESCAP 2010 study, 962 (7.4%) fulfilled criteria for RHT, of whom 51% were women, and with a mean age (SD) 68.8 [11.4] years. Patients with RHT were older (68.80 [10.69] years vs. 66.06 [11.44] years, P<.001), had a higher prevalence of obesity (55.2 vs. 38.6%, P<.001), a higher waist circumference (103.90 [13.89] vs. 99.32 [13.69] cm, P<.001), and a higher prevalence of DM (48.3 vs. 29.5%, P<.001). The prevalence of target organ damage (73.0 vs. 61.4%, P<.001) and cardiovascular disease (46.7 vs. 26.8%, P<.001) were higher in patients with resistant hypertension. The multivariate analysis showed that the variables associated with resistant hypertension were the presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, sedentary life style, microalbuminuria, body mass index, duration of AHT, and triglycerides. The prevalence of RHT in Primary Care patients is related to inappropriate lifestyles, the presence of target organ damage, and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with resistant hypertension in a large health maintenance organization in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Dahlia; Chodick, Gabriel; Shalev, Varda; Grossman, Chagai; Grossman, Ehud

    2014-09-01

    Previous assessments of the prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) in uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) have ranged from 3% to 30%. Using real-world data, our aim was to estimate the prevalence of RH in patients belonging to the Maccabi Healthcare Services, a 2-million-member health organization in Israel. From 2010 to 2011, all hypertensive patients with ≥2 recorded BP measurements during a minimum period of 6 months were identified. Patients were considered uncontrolled if their most recent BP during the study period and their mean systolic BP or diastolic BP during a preceding period of ≥6months were systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg in chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. Uncontrolled patients taking diuretics and ≥2 antihypertensive therapy classes at their maximal recommended dose were regarded as resistant hypertensives. A total of 172 432 patients were eligible for the study. Uncontrolled BP was found in 35.9% (n=65 710). Overall, 2.2% of the uncontrolled patients (n=1487) were resistant hypertensives. Patients with RH were characterized by a significantly (P<0.01) older age, higher body mass index, and multicomorbidity (including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and impaired renal function) compared with patients with controlled hypertension receiving equivalent treatment. The results of this large population-based study indicate a substantially lower prevalence of RH than previously reported. Most patients with uncontrolled BP took less than the maximal recommended antihypertensive treatment.

  9. Treatment-time regimen of hypertension medications significantly affects ambulatory blood pressure and clinical characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ríos, María T; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Domínguez-Sardiña, Manuel; Otero, Alfonso; Sánchez, Juan J; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Ayala, Diana E

    2013-03-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are at greater risk for stroke, renal insufficiency, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events than are those for whom blood pressure (BP) is responsive to and well controlled by therapeutic interventions. Although all chronotherapy trials have compared the effects on BP regulation of full daily doses of medications when ingested in the morning versus at bedtime, prescription of the same medications in divided doses twice daily (BID) is frequent. Here, we investigated the influence of hypertension treatment-time regimen on the circadian BP pattern, degree of BP control, and relevant clinical and laboratory medicine parameters of RH patients evaluated by 48-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). This cross-sectional study evaluated 2899 such patients (1701 men/1198 women), 64.2 ± 11.8 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project. Among the participants, 1084 were ingesting all hypertension medications upon awakening (upon-awakening regimen), 1436 patients were ingesting the full daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime (bedtime regimen), and 379 were ingesting split doses of ≥1 medications BID upon awakening and at bedtime (BID regimen). Patients of the bedtime regimen compared with the other two treatment-time regimens had lower likelihood of microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease; significantly lower albumin/creatinine ratio, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; plus higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The bedtime regimen was also significantly associated with lower asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means than the upon-awakening and BID regimens. The sleep-time relative SBP and DBP decline was significantly attenuated by the upon-awakening and BID regimens (p < .001), resulting in significantly higher prevalence of non-dipping in these two treatment-time regimen groups (80.5% and 77.3%, respectively

  10. Eplerenone-Resistant Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Nedd4-2 C2 KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Kino, Tabito; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Murata, Tsumugi; Doi, Hiroshi; Nakashima-Sasaki, Rie; Chen, Lin; Sugiyama, Michiko; Azushima, Kengo; Wakui, Hiromichi; Minegishi, Shintaro; Tamura, Kouichi

    2017-06-11

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays critical roles in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and is located in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). We previously found that Nedd4-2 C2 knockout (KO) mice showed salt-sensitive hypertension with paradoxically enhanced ENaC gene expression in ASDN under high oral salt intake. Eplerenone (EPL), a selective aldosterone blocker, is a promising therapeutic option for resistant or/and salt-sensitive hypertension. We examined the effect of EPL on Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice with respect to blood pressure, metabolic parameters, and molecular level changes in ASDN under high oral salt intake. We found that EPL failed to reduce blood pressure in KO mice with high oral salt intake and upregulated ENaC expression in ASDN. Thus, salt-sensitive hypertension in Nedd4-2 C2 KO was EPL-resistant. Gene expression analyses of laser-captured specimens in ASDN suggested the presence of non-aldosterone-dependent activation of ENaC transcription in ASDN of Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice, which was abolished by amiloride treatment. Our results from Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice suggest that enhanced ENaC gene expression is critically involved in salt-sensitive hypertension under certain conditions of specific enzyme isoforms for their ubiquitination.

  11. Transpulmonary pressure gradient verifies pulmonary hypertension is initiated by increased arterial resistance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, A G; Anthony, N B; Wideman, R F

    2008-01-01

    Previous hemodynamic evaluations demonstrated that pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is higher in broilers that are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) than in broilers that are resistant to PHS. We compared key pulmonary hemodynamic parameters in broilers from PHS-susceptible and PHS-resistant lines (selected for 12 generations under hypobaric hypoxia) and in broilers from a relaxed (control) line. In experiment 1 the PAP was measured in male broilers in which a flow probe positioned on one pulmonary artery permitted the determination of cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The PAP and relative PVR were higher in susceptible broilers than in relaxed and resistant broilers, whereas absolute and relative cardiac output did not differ between lines. In experiment 2 male and female broilers from the 3 lines were catheterized to measure pressures in the wing vein, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary veins (WP, wedge pressure). The transpulmonary pressure gradient (TPG) was calculated as (PAP-WP), with PAP quantifying precapillary pressure and WP approximating postcapillary pulmonary venous pressure. When compared with resistant and relaxed broilers, PAP values in susceptible broilers were > or =10 mmHg higher, TPG values were > or =8 mmHg higher, and WP values were < or =2 mmHg higher, regardless of sex. The combined hemodynamic criteria (elevated PAP and PVR combined with a proportionally elevated TPG) demonstrate that susceptibility to PHS can be attributed primarily to pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with increased precapillary (arteriole) resistance rather than to pulmonary venous hypertension caused by elevated postcapillary (venous and left atrial) resistance.

  12. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  13. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about the perceptions of African Americans (AAs) of family history and genetic testing. This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. The US Surgeon General's My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30-60 min in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, standard deviation (SD) 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three-generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  14. Hypertension in Korea: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Jones, D W; Kim, S J; Hong, Y P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors, we performed a population-based national cross-sectional blood pressure (BP) survey in Korea in 1990. Through cluster sampling, we selected for study individuals older than 30 years of age in 190 of 154,082 districts. Among 25,567 eligible individuals, 21,242 subjects had measurements of BP and body mass index (BMI) and underwent a standard interview. BP was recorded as the mean of two measurements on a standard mercury manometer. The prevalence of HTN varied widely by area of residence. Overall prevalence was 19.8% for HTN defined as BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or subject on medication, and 12.4% for BP > or = 160/95 mm Hg or subject on medication. Correlates for HTN identified by logistic regression analysis included positive family history of HTN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2,), age (10 years); OR = 1.9), alcohol intake (500 cc; OR = 1.4), urban location (versus rural; OR = 1.3), and BMI (1 BMI unit; OR = 1.2). [Am J Prev Med 1994;10:200-4

  15. Sustained sympathetic and blood pressure reduction 1 year after renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Krum, Henry; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Lambert, Gavin W; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

    2014-07-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension. Although a persistent BP-lowering effect has been demonstrated, the long-term effect on MSNA remains elusive. We investigated whether RDN influences MSNA over time. Office BP and MSNA were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after RDN in 35 patients with resistant hypertension. Office BP averaged 166±22/88±19 mm Hg, despite the use of an average of 4.8±2.1 antihypertensive drugs. Baseline MSNA was 51±11 bursts/min ≈2- to 3-fold higher than the level observed in healthy controls. Mean office systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by -12.6±18.3/-6.5±9.2, -16.1±25.6/-8.6±12.9, and -21.2±29.1/-11.1±12.9 mm Hg (P<0.001 for both systolic BP and diastolic BP) with RDN at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively. MSNA was reduced by -8±12, -6±12, and -6±11 bursts/min (P<0.01) at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The reduction in MSNA was maintained, despite a progressive fall in BP over time. No such changes were observed in 7 control subjects at 6-month follow-up. These findings confirm previous reports on the favorable effects of RDN on elevated BP and demonstrate sustained reduction of central sympathetic outflow ≤1-year follow-up in patients with resistant hypertension and high baseline MSNA. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis of a substantial contribution of afferent renal nerve signaling to increased BP in resistant hypertension and argue against a relevant reinnervation at 1 year after procedure.

  16. Improvement of resistant hypertension by nocturnal hemodialysis in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.

  17. Effects of telmisartan and losartan on insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Ozgur; Uzunlulu, Mehmet; Oguz, Aytekin; Bahadir, Muzeyyen A

    2007-01-01

    Partial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists are known to decrease insulin resistance. Experimental studies have shown that the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan has a PPAR-gamma-activating property, but there does not appear to be a class effect. To test telmisartan's clinical importance, we here investigated its effect on insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in comparison with another ARB, losartan. A total of 42 hypertensive MetS patients (29 female, 13 male) were included (mean age: 50+/-9, range: 20-70 years). NCEP-ATP III criteria were used for the diagnosis of MetS. Patients were randomized to receive either telmisartan 80 mg/day (n=21) or losartan 50 mg/day (n=21) for 8 weeks. Biochemical assessments were made at baseline and at the end of the 8 weeks. Insulin resistance was evaluated by using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Both groups had similar reductions in systolic and diastolic pressures (p>0.05). HOMA-IR did not change significantly in either group throughout the study. In the telmisartan group, the mean HOMA-IR at baseline and at the end of the study were 1.9+/-07 and 1.9+/-0.5, respectively. The figures for the losartan group were 1.8+/-0.6 and 1.8+/-0.6, corresponding. In conclusion, in contrast with the reports that telmisartan may decrease insulin resistance by an effect associated with its molecular structure, 8 weeks of telmisartan treatment in the present study had a neutral effect on insulin resistance in hypertensive MetS patients, and similar results were obtained for losartan.

  18. Management of hypertension in CKD: beyond the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Judd, Eric; Calhoun, David A

    2015-03-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and CKD are closely associated with an intermingled cause and effect relationship. Blood pressure (BP) typically rises with declines in kidney function, and sustained elevations in BP hasten progression of kidney disease. This review addresses current management issues in HTN in patients with CKD including altered circadian rhythm of BP, timing of antihypertensive medication dosing, BP targets, diagnostic challenges in evaluating secondary forms of HTN, and the role of salt restriction in CKD. HTN in patients with CKD is often accompanied by a decrease in the kidney's ability to remove salt. Addressing this salt sensitivity is critical for the management of HTN in CKD. In addition to the well-established use of an ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker, dietary salt restriction and appropriate diuretic therapy make up the mainstay of HTN treatment in patients with CKD. Bedtime dosing of antihypertensive medications can restore nocturnal dips in BP, and future clinical practice guidelines may recommend bedtime dosing of 1 or more antihypertensive medications in patients with CKD.

  19. Alcohol-induced hypertension: an important healthcare target in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Collart, F; de Timary, P; Dom, G; Dor, B D; Duprez, D; Lengelé, J-P; Matthys, F; Peuskens, H; Rehm, J; Stärkel, P

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol intake is one of the leading causes of premature death in Europe and particularly in Belgium. Belgian people are consuming more alcohol per year than the European average. It is well established that excessive alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of the development of hypertension (HTN). Two million adults in Belgium suffer from HTN and this number will increase to three million by 2025. Less than 50% of Belgian people treated for HTN are well-controlled. Alcohol reduction in patients with HTN can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After reviewing the epidemiology of HTN and alcohol disorders in Belgium, this paper will focus on the rationale for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. It will also describe the barriers to alcohol screening, and what could be the benefits of alcohol screening for our healthcare system. The authors believe that early identification through alcohol screening and brief intervention in general practice can help to improve the management of patients with HTN, to reach the targets of the WHO Global Action Plan, i.e., a 25% relative reduction in the risk of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases. They are also convinced that this would allow achieving major healthcare savings.

  20. The potential role of nursing students in the implementation of community-based hypertension screening programs in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelsatir, Suhair; Al-Sofi, Aisha; Elamin, Sarra; Abu-Aisha, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are important health problems worldwide, and it is possible to reduce their burden through effective HTN screening and treatment programs. It may be feasible to incorporate such programs in the community outreach activities of nursing and medical schools in Sudan. Village inhabitants in the Northern state of Sudan were invited to attend a free clinic for screening of hypertension as well as for follow up and treatment of persons with previously diagnosed hypertension. Fourth year nursing students from the National Ribat University were asked to record demographic data and blood pressure measurements for the attendants of the clinic. A total of 389 adults were screened, their mean age was 41±15 years and 83.8% of them were females. Family history of HTN, DM and CKD was reported by 52.7%, 40.4% and 12.9% respectively. Personal history of HTN, DM and CKD was reported by 28.5%, 17% and 6.4% respectively. The overall prevalence of HTN was 39.6%. Among persons previously diagnosed as hypertensive, 80.2% were on antihypertensive medication but only 48.6% had blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. Among the 278 persons with no personal history of HTN, 19.1% had blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Variables significantly and independently associated with the presence of HTN were family history of HTN (OR: 6.4, P: 0.005), less than 10 years of formal education (OR: 3.5, P: 0.000) and age ≥ 40 years (OR: 2.4, P: 0.005). With proper coordination, nursing and medical students can effectively contribute to the implementation of hypertension screening programs.

  1. Relationships between retinal arteriole anatomy and aortic geometry and function and peripheral resistance in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Koch, Edouard; Paques, Michel; Cluzel, Philippe; Redheuil, Alban; Girerd, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Microvascular remodeling and large artery stiffness are key determinants of cardiovascular hemodynamics and can now be studied with new non-invasive methods. Our objective was to study the relationships between retinal arteriole anatomy and aortic geometry and function and peripheral resistance (total peripheral resistance (TPR)) in hypertensives. In 80 subjects (age 52±13 years; 53% males; including 23 normotensives and 57 hypertensives, among which 29 were uncontrolled hypertensives), we used: (1) the new non-invasive RTX1 adaptive optics (AO) camera (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France) to measure the wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) on retinal microvasculature; (2) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess aortic stiffness, geometry and cardiac output; and (3) the validated SphymoCor Xcel device to measure central blood pressure (BP) and carotido-femoral pulse wave velocity (Cf-PWV). TPR was calculated as the central mean BP/cardiac output ratio. WLR and TPR were significantly higher and aortic distensibility was significantly lower in hypertensives. Aortic dilation and arch elongation were found in uncontrolled hypertensives. In the univariate analysis, WLR was positively correlated with central BP (P<0.001), TPR (P<0.001) and Cf-PWV (P<0.05), and it was negatively correlated with aortic distensibility (P=0.003); however, it was not correlated with age or cardiovascular risk factors. The multivariate analysis indicated that WLR was associated with TPR (P=0.002) independent of age, BMI, gender, antihypertensive treatments, aortic diameter and central SBP. As expected, age was the major correlate of ascending aorta distensibility and Cf-PWV. New non-invasive vascular imaging methods are complementary for the detection of the deleterious effects of aging or high BP on large and small arteries. AO examination could represent a useful tool for the study and follow-up of microvasculature anatomical changes.

  2. Apparent treatment resistant hypertension and risk for stroke, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Marguerite R.; Booth, John N.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Oparil, Suzanne; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul; Calhoun, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥ 4 antihypertensive medication classes. We evaluated the association of aTRH with incident stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality. Methods Participants from the population-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study treated for hypertension with aTRH (n=2,043) and without aTRH (n=12,479) were included. aTRH was further categorized as controlled aTRH (≥ 4 medication classes and controlled hypertension) and uncontrolled aTRH (≥ 3 medication classes and uncontrolled hypertension). Results Over a median of 5.9, 4.4, and 6.0 years of follow-up the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for stroke, CHD, and all-cause mortality associated with aTRH versus no aTRH was 1.25 (0.94 – 1.65), 1.69 (1.27 – 2.24), and 1.29 (1.14 – 1.46), respectively. Compared to controlled aTRH, uncontrolled aTRH was associated with CHD (HR=2.33; 95% CI 1.21 – 4.48), but not stroke or mortality. Comparing controlled aTRH to no aTRH, risk of stroke, CHD and all-cause mortality was not elevated. Conclusion aTRH was associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. PMID:24952653

  3. Long-term effects of aldosterone blockade in resistant hypertension associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, R; Acelajado, M C; Cartmill, F R; Dudenbostel, T; Dell'Italia, L J; Cofield, S S; Oparil, S; Calhoun, D A

    2012-08-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are effective in the management of resistant hypertension but are not widely used in CKD because of the risk of hyperkalemia. We retrospectively evaluated the long-term effects and safety of MRAs added to a pre-existing antihypertensive regimen in subjects with resistant hypertension associated with stage 3 CKD. In all, 32 patients were treated with spironolactone and 4 with eplerenone for a median follow-up of 312 days. MRAs induced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 162±22 to 138±14 mm Hg (P<0.0001) and in diastolic blood pressure from 87±17 to 74±12 mm Hg (P<0.0001). Serum potassium increased from 4.0±0.5 to 4.4±0.5 mEq l(-1) (P=0.0001), with the highest value being 5.8 mEq l(-1). The serum creatinine increased from 1.5±0.3 to 1.8±0.5 mg dl(-1) (P=0.0004) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased from 48.6±8.7 to 41.2±11.5 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) (P=0.0002). One case of acute renal failure and three cases of significant hyperkalemia occurred. MRAs significantly reduced blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension associated with stage 3 CKD, although close biochemical monitoring is recommended because of an increased risk of hyperkalemia and worsening of renal function.

  4. High prevalence of unrecognized sleep apnoea in drug-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Logan, A G; Perlikowski, S M; Mente, A; Tisler, A; Tkacova, R; Niroumand, M; Leung, R S; Bradley, T D

    2001-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in adult patients with drug-resistant hypertension, a common problem in a tertiary care facility. Cross-sectional study. University hypertension clinic. Adults with drug-resistant hypertension, defined as a clinic blood pressure of > or = 140/90 mmHg, while taking a sensible combination of three or more antihypertensive drugs, titrated to maximally recommended doses. Each of the 41 participants completed an overnight polysomnographic study and all but two had a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Prevalence of OSA, defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index of > or = 10 obstructive events per hour of sleep, was 83% in the 24 men and 17 women studied. Patients were generally late middle-aged (57.2 +/- 1.6 years, mean +/- SE), predominantly white (85%), obese (body mass index, 34.0 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) and taking a mean of 3.6 +/- 0.1 different antihypertensive medications daily. OSA was more prevalent in men than in women (96 versus 65%, P = 0.014) and more severe (mean apnoea-hypopnoea index of 32.2 +/- 4.5 versus 14.0 +/- 3.1 events/h, P = 0.004). There was no gender difference in body mass index or age. Women with OSA were significantly older and had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower diastolic blood pressure, wider pulse pressure and slower heart rate than women without OSA. The extraordinarily high prevalence of OSA in these patients supports its potential role in the pathogenesis of drug-resistant hypertension, and justifies the undertaking of a randomized controlled trial to corroborate this hypothesis.

  5. Pulmonary vascular efflux of norepinephrine in Dahl rats susceptible or resistant to salt-induced hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Metting, P.J.; Duggan, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine whether the accumulation of norepinephrine by the pulmonary circulation is altered in the Dahl model of genetic hypertension. Pulmonary norepinephrine accumulation was evaluated by performing a compartmental analysis of the efflux of L-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine from perfused lungs after inhibition of the norepinephrine-metabolizing enzymes. The lungs were isolated from Dahl salt-hypertension-susceptible (S) and salt-hypertension-resistant (R) rats that had been on a high sodium diet for 3 weeks. In both S and R rats, norepinephrine was accumulated into a single compartment with an efflux half-time of approximately 23 min, in addition to its distribution in the extracellular space. The size of the extracellular space was significantly increased in the S rats, but there was no difference in the size of the compartment of L-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine efflux between S (6.4 +/- 1.2 ml/g) and R (3.7 +/- 0.7 ml/g) rats. These data indicate that impaired accumulation and efflux of norepinephrine by the lungs does not contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in Dahl S rats.

  6. Abnormal cation exchange in insulin-resistant patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D R; Wing, J R; Sonnekus, M I; Toman, M; Milne, F J

    2008-01-01

    To identify important factors that may contribute to abnormal glucose tolerance in elderly patients with treated hypertension with primary reference to changes in the following parameters: calculated insulin resistance, endogenous insulin processing and secretion; platelet cation concentration and membrane ATPase activity. Thirty-nine patients receiving antihypertensive therapy (including low-dose thiazide treatment) were compared to 13 normotensive, normoglycaemic control subjects. Total platelet cation concentration and membrane ATPase activity were measured and, following a 75-g oral glucose test, serum insulin, proinsulin and 31-32 des-proinsulin responses were measured in prospectively defined hypertensive patients with normal glucose tolerance (NG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Of the total patient cohort, seven patients manifested newly diagnosed DM, 18 had IGT and 14 NG. Among the three groups, no difference in duration of drug use (thiazides and beta-blockers) was noted; BMI and waist-to-hip ratio increased progressively from NG to IGT to overt DM. Compared to NG patients, serum insulin responses were significantly greater in the IGT (all time points) and DM (two-hour measurements) subjects. Proinsulin and 31-32 des-proinsulin serum responses were likewise significantly higher in the IGT and DM groups. The derived measure of insulin resistance in the hypertensive patients showed a significant increase in the progression from NG to IGT and DM. Mean total platelet potassium concentration was reduced in the DM compared to the IGT and the control groups, while platelet sodium, calcium and magnesium concentrations showed no significant differences. Platelet membrane magnesium ATPase activity was significantly higher in the normotensive control versus the hypertensive group. Sodium, potassium and calcium ATPase activity showed no significant differences among the subgroups. Our findings support the strong link between essential

  7. Influence of lower body positive pressure on upper airway cross-sectional area in drug-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Oded; Bradley, T Douglas; Logan, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that in hypertensive patients the amount of fluid displaced from the legs overnight is directly related to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and that the rostral fluid shift was greater in drug-resistant hypertensive patients. The findings suggested that this fluid redistribution increases upper airway collapsibility, yet more direct evidence is lacking. The present study examines the effects of graded lower body positive pressure on leg fluid volume, upper airway cross-sectional area, and neck circumference in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (n=25) and controlled hypertension (n=15). In both groups, the reduction in mean upper airway cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal junction area, assessed by acoustic pharyngometry, and the increase in neck circumference, determined by mercury strain gauge plethysmography, were related to the amount of fluid displaced from the legs (R(2)=0.41, P<0.0001; R(2)=0.42, P<0.0001; and R(2)=0.47, P<0.0001, respectively). Displacement of leg fluid volume was significantly greater in patients with drug-resistant hypertension than in controlled hypertension (P<0.0001), and as a consequence, the former experienced greater reductions in mean upper airway cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal junction area (P=0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). The findings support the concept that in hypertensive subjects, rostral fluid displacement may participate in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea by narrowing the upper airway and making it more susceptible to collapse during sleep. The exaggerated fluid volume displacement from the legs and upper airway response to lower body positive pressure in patients with drug-resistant hypertension provide additional evidence of an important link between drug-resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea.

  8. Catheter-Based Radiorefrequency Renal Denervation Lowers Blood Pressure in Obese Hypertensive Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Henegar, Jeffrey R.; Zhang, Yongxing; Rama, Rita De; Hata, Cary; Hall, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity-induced hypertension appears to be due, in part, to increased renal sympathetic activity. Catheter-based renal denervation (RD) has been reported to lower arterial blood pressure (BP) in humans with resistant hypertension, many of whom are obese. This study was performed to assess the impact of radiofrequency–induced RD on renal function, BP, renal norepinephrine (NE), and histology of nerves along the renal artery in obese, hypertensive dogs, an experimental model that closely mimics cardiorenal and metabolic changes in obese hypertensive humans. METHODS After control measurements of cardiovascular and renal function were obtained in obese dogs fed a high-fat diet, bilateral RD was performed using the St. Jude Medical EnligHTN RD system. After RD, BP was measured continuously for 8 weeks, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured biweekly for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, renal arteries were collected for histological analysis, and kidneys were obtained for NE measurement. RESULTS Eight weeks after RD, systolic BP fell from 157±5mm Hg pre-RD to 133±3mm Hg (P < 0.01), and mean arterial pressure decreased by 9mm Hg compared with pre-RD (P < 0.01). There were no significant changes in GFR. Renal nerve injury was most prevalent 0.28–3.5mm from the renal artery lumen. RD caused injury in 46% of the renal nerves observed and reduced renal tissue NE by 42% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Catheter-based RD with the St. Jude Medical EnligHTN system lowers BP in obese dogs without significantly compromising renal function. PMID:24709437

  9. Increased dietary sodium is related to severity of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with resistant hypertension and hyperaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Stowasser, Michael; Gordon, Richard D; Harding, Susan M; Batlouni, Michel; Zhang, Bin; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2013-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a strong and independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, particularly resistant hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with resistant hypertension have a high prevalence of OSA in association with elevated aldosterone levels, high salt intake, and salt-sensitive BP. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary salt and aldosterone are associated with severity of OSA in patients with resistant hypertension. Ninety-seven patients with resistant hypertension were prospectively evaluated by overnight polysomnography and 24-h urinary sodium and aldosterone levels while maintaining their usual diet. Hyperaldosteronism was defined as a plasma renin activity of < 1 ng/mL/h and urinary aldosterone level of ≥ 12 μg/24 h. Overall, patients' mean clinic BP was 156.3 ± 22.4/88.9 ± 13.3 mm Hg while taking an average of 4.3 ± 1.1 antihypertensive medications. Prevalence of OSA was 77.3%. Twenty-eight (28.9%) patients had hyperaldosteronism. Urinary sodium level was an independent predictor of severity of OSA only in patients with hyperaldosteronism. The findings suggest that dietary salt is related to the severity of OSA in patients with resistant hypertension and hyperaldosteronism. The results support dietary salt restriction as a treatment strategy for reduction of OSA severity in these patients.

  10. Minoxidil for Treatment of Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease--A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Heiko M; Matenaer, Matthias; Lammert, Alexander; Göttmann, Uwe; Krämer, Bernhard K; Birck, Rainer; Benck, Urs

    2016-11-01

    Resistant hypertension is still a challenge and reserve antihypertensive agents are often necessary to achieve blood pressure control. One reserve antihypertensive is minoxidil, a direct vasodilator that is known for its strong blood pressure-lowering effect, but contemporary studies are sparse. The authors retrospectively analyzed 54 inpatients with uncontrolled hypertension despite the combined use of current antihypertensive agents. To investigate the effect of minoxidil when added to other antihypertensive agents, blood pressure was evaluated at the time minoxidil treatment was initiated and at discharge. Minoxidil treatment was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure from 162.4±15.1/83.2±12.7 mm Hg to 135.8±12.2/72.8±6.9 mm Hg (P<.0001). This effect was sustained across all analyzed subgroups. Although the well-known adverse events of minoxidil limit its widespread use, these data show that minoxidil as a reserve antihypertensive agent still has a niche indication in the particular subgroup of patients with treatment-resistant or uncontrolled hypertension. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Treatment-related Hypertension as a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker for the Efficacy of Bevacizumab in Advanced Pancreas Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 4 Prospective Trials of Gemcitabine-based Therapy With Bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shubham; Martin, Ludmila K; Geyer, Susan; Wei, Lai; Van Loon, Katherine; Sommovilla, Nili; Zalupski, Mark; Iyer, Renuka; Fogelman, David; Ko, Andrew H; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios

    2016-12-01

    Phase III studies of bevacizumab in advanced pancreas cancer (APCA) demonstrated no improvement in outcome. No validated biomarkers for bevacizumab efficacy exist. We evaluated bevacizumab-related hypertension (B-HTN) as a biomarker in APCA patients in a pooled analysis from 4 prospective clinical trials of gemcitabine-based therapy combined with bevacizumab. Data were collected from individual databases from 4 prospective, single-arm phase II trials. Patients were grouped according to B-HTN or no hypertension (HTN), and patients with HTN were further grouped according to highest Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade of HTN: grade 1-2 or grade 3-4. Clinical outcomes of overall survival, time to progression, overall response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (ORR+SD>16 wk) were compared. A total of 163 patients with stage IV APCA and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-1 were included. Median age was 59 years (range, 33 to 85 y). Thirty-four patients had B-HTN, and 129 patients had no HTN. Prognostic factors were balanced between groups. Patients with any grade B-HTN had a significantly improved median overall survival (13.1 vs. 8.1 mo, P=0.0006), median time to tumor progression (7.6 vs. 5.5 mo, P=0.0074), ORR (47% vs. 16%, P=0.0001), and disease control rate (85% vs. 59%, P=0.004). There were no differences in outcomes according to HTN grade (1-2 [N=16] vs. 3-4 [N=18]). APCA patients who develop any grade of B-HTN appear to derive benefit from bevacizumab. Additional investigation is needed to identify subgroups of patients who develop B-HTN and are more likely to benefit from bevacizumab.

  12. Endovascular baroreflex amplification for resistant hypertension: a safety and proof-of-principle clinical study.

    PubMed

    Spiering, Wilko; Williams, Bryan; Van der Heyden, Jan; van Kleef, Monique; Lo, Rob; Versmissen, Jorie; Moelker, Adriaan; Kroon, Abraham; Reuter, Hannes; Ansel, Gary; Stone, Gregg W; Bates, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Carotid baroreflex activation lowers blood pressure and might have potential application for the treatment of resistant hypertension. We did a proof-of-principle trial with a novel endovascular baroreceptor amplification device, MobiusHD (Vascular Dynamics, Mountain View, CA, USA), in patients with resistant hypertension. CALM-FIM_EUR was a prospective, first-in-human, open-label study done at six European centres. Eligible patients were adults with resistant hypertension (office systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg despite taking at least three antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic). MobiusHD devices were implanted unilaterally in the internal carotid artery. The primary endpoint was the incidence of serious adverse events at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included changes in office and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01911897. Between December, 2013, and February, 2016, 30 patients were enrolled and underwent successful implantation. Mean age was 52 years (SD 12), 15 patients (50%) were men, and mean antihypertensive use was 4·4 drugs (1·4). Mean office blood pressure was 184/109 mm Hg (18/14) at baseline and was reduced by 24/12 mm Hg (13-34/6-18) at 6 months (p=0·0003 for systolic and p=0·0001 diastolic blood pressure). Mean baseline 24 h ambulatory blood pressure was 166/100 mm Hg (17/14) at baseline and was reduced by 21/12 mm Hg (14-29/7-16) at 6 months (p<0·0001 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Five serious adverse events had occurred in four patients (13%) at 6 months: hypotension (n=2), worsening hypertension (n=1), intermittent claudication (n=1) and wound infection (n=1). In patients with resistant hypertension, endovascular baroreceptor amplification with the MobiusHD device substantially lowered blood pressure with an acceptable safety profile. Randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled trials are warranted to investigate the use of this treatment further. Vascular

  13. Alterations in structure and mechanics of resistance arteries from ouabain-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Briones, Ana M; Xavier, Fabiano E; Arribas, Silvia M; González, M Carmen; Rossoni, Luciana V; Alonso, María J; Salaices, Mercedes

    2006-07-01

    We have previously described that chronic administration of ouabain induces hypertension and functional alterations in mesenteric resistance arteries. The aim of this study was to analyze whether ouabain treatment also alters the structural and mechanical properties of mesenteric resistance arteries. Wistar rats were treated for 5 wk with ouabain (8.0 microg/day sc). The vascular structure and mechanics of the third-order branches of the mesenteric artery were assessed with pressure myography and confocal microscopy. Total collagen content was determined by picrosirius red staining, collagen I/III was analyzed by Western blot, and elastin was studied by confocal microscopy. Vascular reactivity was analyzed by wire myography. Internal and external diameters and cross-sectional area were diminished, whereas the wall-to-lumen ratio was increased in arteries from ouabain-treated rats compared with controls. In addition, arteries from ouabain-treated rats were stiffer. Ouabain treatment decreased smooth muscle cell number and increased total and I/III collagens in the vascular wall. However, this treatment did not modify adventitia and media thickness, nuclei morphology, elastin structure, and vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and acetylcholine. The present work shows hypotrophic inward remodeling of mesenteric resistance arteries from ouabain-treated rats that seems to be the consequence of a combination of decreased cell number and impaired distension of the artery, possibly due to a higher stiffness associated with collagen deposition. The narrowing of resistance arteries could play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in this model.

  14. Peripheral and Cerebral Resistance Arteries in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Rat: Effects of Stilbenoid Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Danielle I; Acosta, Crystal; Anderson, Christopher M; Anderson, Hope D

    2017-02-28

    Hypertension is associated with aberrant structure and mechanical properties of resistance arteries. We determined the effects of resveratrol, a non-flavonoid polyphenol found in foods such as red grapes, and structurally-similar analogues (pterostilbene and gnetol) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resistance arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rat. SBP was elevated in 17-week-old SHHF vs. Sprague-Dawley rats (normotensive control; 194 ± 3 vs. 142 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.01) and was unaffected by resveratrol, pterostilbene, or gnetol (2.5 mg/kg/d). Geometry and mechanical properties of pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries and middle cerebral arteries were calculated from media and lumen dimensions measured at incremental intraluminal pressures. SHHF arteries exhibited remodeling which consisted of augmented media-to-lumen ratios, and this was attenuated by stilbenoid treatment. Compliance was significantly reduced in SHHF middle cerebral arteries but not mesenteric arteries vis-à-vis increased wall component stiffness; stilbenoid treatment failed to normalize compliance and wall component stiffness. Our data suggest that neither AMPK nor ERK mediate stilbenoid effects. In conclusion, we observed arterial bed-specific abnormalities, where mesenteric resistance arteries exhibited remodeling and cerebral arteries exhibited remodeling and stiffening. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and gnetol exhibited similar abilities to attenuate vascular alterations.

  15. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kimberly; Nian, Hui; Yu, Chang; Luther, James M.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists reduce blood pressure in rodents, but clinical trials provide conflicting data regarding their effects in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure depends on salt sensitivity. Methods Thirty-one hypertensive volunteers (17 salt-resistant, 14 salt-sensitive) completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind protocol with three dietary phases: low salt diet (10 mmol/day) followed by two consecutive high salt diets (200 mmol/day), each for 6 days. During high salt, volunteers were randomized to fenofibrate 160 mg/day or placebo. Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were measured on the last morning of each treatment arm. Results Fenofibrate reduced triglycerides similarly in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant volunteers. Fenofibrate did not affect blood pressure in salt-resistant volunteers. In salt-sensitive volunteers, fenofibrate significantly decreased diastolic (P =0.02 versus placebo) and mean arterial (P = 0.04 versus placebo) blood pressure during high salt. In all volunteers, the decrease in systolic pressure during fenofibrate correlated inversely with the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure as a continuous variable. Fenofibrate significantly decreased heart rate, plasma renin activity, and renal vascular resistance during high salt in salt-sensitive volunteers, but not salt-resistant volunteers. Fenofibrate did not affect sodium excretion or weight gain during high salt. The effect of salt intake and fenofibrate on plasma and urine epoxyeicosatrienoic acid concentrations differed in salt-resistant and salt-sensitive volunteers. Conclusion Fenofibrate reduces blood pressure, heart rate and renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive volunteers, but not in salt-resistant volunteers. These findings have implications for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in hypertensive individuals. PMID:23385647

  16. Selective endothelin receptor blockade in resistant hypertension: results of the DORADO trial.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Effective treatment of resistant hypertension still remains an unmet goal of antihypertensive drug treatment. The DORADO trial recently evaluated the efficacy and safety profile of the selective endothelin receptor blocker darusentan in almost 400 hypertensive patients treated with more than four antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic) but without effective blood pressure control. The trial results show that > 50% of patients treated with the drug exhibit clinical blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg and well-controlled ambulatory blood pressure values. Darusentan, however, was associated with a high incidence of peripheral edema and fluid retention, a side effect that may reduce the safety profile of the drug and its tolerability. Although these data are promising, the drug requires further evaluation, with particularly regard to the long term.

  17. Serum Concentrations of Endothelin-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinases-2, -9 in Pre-Hypertensive and Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kostov, Krasimir; Blazhev, Alexander; Atanasova, Milena; Dimitrova, Anelia

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors known to date. While its plasma or serum concentrations are elevated in some forms of experimental and human hypertension, this is not a consistent finding in all forms of hypertension. Matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), which degrade collagen type IV of the vascular basement membrane, are responsible for vascular remodeling, inflammation, and atherosclerotic complications, including in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In our study, we compared concentrations of ET-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in pre-hypertensive (PHTN) and hypertensive (HTN) T2D patients with those of healthy normotensive controls (N). ET-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. Concentrations of ET-1 in PHTN and N were very similar, while those in HTN were significantly higher. Concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PHTN and HTN were also significantly higher compared to N. An interesting result in our study is that concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HTN were lower compared to PHTN. In conclusion, we showed that increased production of ET-1 in patients with T2D can lead to long-lasting increases in blood pressure (BP) and clinical manifestation of hypertension. We also demonstrated that increased levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients with T2D mainly reflect the early vascular changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. PMID:27490532

  18. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ETAR during insulin resistance, ETAR expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ETAR expression, but not ETBR, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ETAR pathway suppressed insulin-induced AKT

  19. High Frequency of Variants of Candidate Genes in Black Africans with Low Renin-Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jones, Erika S; Spence, J D; Mcintyre, Adam D; Nondi, Justus; Gogo, Kennedy; Akintunde, Adeseye; Hackam, Daniel G; Rayner, Brian L

    2017-05-01

    Black subjects tend to retain salt and water, be more sensitive to aldosterone, and have suppression of plasma renin activity. Variants of the renal sodium channel (ENaC, SCNN1B) account for approximately 6% of resistant hypertension (RHT) in Blacks; other candidate genes may be important. Six candidate genes associated with low renin-resistant hypertension were sequenced in Black Africans from clinics in Kenya and South Africa. CYP11B2 was sequenced if the aldosterone level was high (primary aldosteronism phenotype); SCNN1B, NEDD4L, GRK4, UMOD, and NPPA genes were sequenced if the aldosterone level was low (Liddle phenotype). There were 14 nonsynonymous variants (NSVs) of CYP11B2: 3 previously described and associated with alterations in aldosterone synthase production (R87G, V386A, and G435S). Out of 14, 9 variants were found in all 9 patients sequenced. There were 4 NSV of GRK4 (R65L, A116T, A142V, V486A): at least one was found in all 9 patients; 3 were previously described and associated with hypertension. There were 3 NSV of SCNN1B (R206Q, G442V, and R563Q); 2 previously described and 1 associated with hypertension. NPPA was found to have 1 NSV (V32M), not previously described and NEDD4L did not have any variants. UMOD had 3 NSV: D25G, L180V, and T585I. A phenotypic approach to investigating the genetic architecture of RHT uncovered a surprisingly high yield of variants in candidate genes. These preliminary findings suggest that this novel approach may assist in understanding the genetic architecture of RHT in Blacks and explain their two fold risk of stroke.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition reduces hypertension through the preservation of resistance blood vessel structure and function.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Rachel E; Werner, Kaitlyn E; Yum, Victoria; Lu, Chao; Tat, Victor; Memon, Muzammil; No, Yejin; Ask, Kjetil; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension by correcting vascular dysfunction. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was used as a model of human essential hypertension with its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat. Animals were subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; 1 g/kg per day, orally) for 5 weeks from 12 weeks of age. BP was measured weekly noninvasively and at endpoint with carotid arterial cannulation. Small mesenteric arteries were removed for vascular studies. Function was assessed with a Mulvany-Halpern style myograph, and structure was assessed by measurement of medial-to-lumen ratio in perfusion fixed vessels as well as three-dimensional confocal reconstruction of vessel wall components. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was assessed by quantitative real time-PCR and western blotting; oxidative stress was assessed by 3-nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining. 4-PBA significantly lowered BP in SHR (vehicle 206.1 ± 4.3 vs. 4-PBA 178.9 ± 3.1, systolic) but not Wistar Kyoto. 4-PBA diminished contractility and augmented endothelial-dependent vasodilation in SHR small mesenteric arteries, as well as reducing media-to-lumen ratio. 4-PBA significantly reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress in SHR resistance vessels. Normotensive resistance vessels, treated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agent, tunicamycin, show decreased endothelial-dependent vasodilation; this was improved with 4-PBA treatment. 3-Nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining indicated that endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to reactive oxygen species generation resolvable by 4-PBA treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused endothelial-mediated vascular dysfunction contributing to elevated BP in the SHR model of human essential hypertension.

  1. Lack of prognostic role of endothelial dysfunction in subcutaneous small resistance arteries of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Zani, Francesca; Miclini, Marco; Paiardi, Silvia; Tiberio, Guido A M; Giulini, Stefano M; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Castellano, Maurizio; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2006-05-01

    The presence of endothelial dysfunction in the coronary circulation or in the brachial artery has been found to be associated with a greater incidence of cardiovascular events. However, no data are presently available about the prognostic role of endothelial dysfunction in human small resistance arteries. Ninety subjects were included in the present study. They were: 10 normotensive subjects, 36 patients with essential hypertension, 10 patients with phaeochromocytoma, 11 patients with primary aldosteronism, 10 patients with renovascular hypertension, and 13 normotensive patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). All subjects were submitted to a biopsy of subcutaneous fat from the gluteal or the anterior abdominal region. Small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on an isometric myograph, and the concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (from 10 to 10 mol/l) (endothelium-dependent vasodilatation) and sodium nitroprusside (from 10 to 10 mol/l) (endothelium-independent vasodilatation) after precontraction of the vessels with norepinephrine were evaluated. The subjects were re-evaluated (by clinical visits or telephone interviews) after an average follow-up time of 5.5 years. Twenty-nine subjects had a documented fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event (5.87%/year). The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the subcutaneous small arteries was similar in subjects with or without cardiovascular events. Also, endothelium-independent vasodilatation to sodium nitroprusside was similar in the two groups. Similar results were obtained by subdividing patients in the different subgroups (essential hypertension, secondary hypertension, etc.). Our results indicate that endothelial dysfunction in the microcirculation does not predict cardiovascular events. It is possible that a prognostic role of endothelial dysfunction may be observed when other vascular districts prone to atherosclerosis are evaluated, or it might be detected only in

  2. Long-Term Supplementation of Microencapsulated ursodeoxycholic Acid Prevents Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Al-Salami, H; Mamo, J C; Mooranian, A; Negrulj, R; Lam, V; Elahy, M; Takechi, R

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a significant comorbidity associated with insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Limited evidence show that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has some anti-hypertensive effects. However, the potential effect of UDCA on hypertension induced by type-2 diabetic insulin resistance has not been reported. In C57Bl6 wild-type mice, insulin resistance was induced by the chronic ingestion of diet enriched in fat and fructose (HFF). HFF mice were randomized to treatment with UDCA or candersartan incorporated into the diet to achieve an ingested dose of approximately 70 mg/kg/day of UDCA or 3 mg/kg/day respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured with tail-cuff method. At 4 weeks of dietary treatment systolic and diastolic blood pressure were comparable in HFF and low-fat (LF) control mice. Co-administration of candesartan at 4 weeks significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, UDCA showed no anti-hypertensive effect at 4 weeks. At 24 weeks of dietary intervention, HFF fed mice had substantially elevated systolic blood pressure compared to LF controls. The provision of UDCA substantially attenuated the dietary HFF induced increase in systolic blood pressure concomitant with significantly lower plasma angiotensin II. The anti-hypertensive effect of UDCA in HFF mice was comparable to candesartan. The data suggests that long term supplementation of UDCA effectively lowers hypertension in a dietary induced model of type-2 diabetic insulin resistance.

  3. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly.

    PubMed

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m(2)) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, -26.5±4.2 mmHg versus -17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, -13.8±4.9 mmHg versus -7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance.

  4. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control for outpatients in northern California 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Beinan; Jose, Powell O; Pu, Jia; Chung, Sukyung; Ancheta, Irma B; Fortmann, Stephen P; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a known major cardiovascular disease risk factor, but prevalence, treatment, and control of HTN among rapidly growing minority groups such as Asian Americans and Hispanics are unknown largely due to either underrepresentation in epidemiologic studies or aggregation of Asian American subgroups. A three-year cross-section (2010-2012) of patients from a large ambulatory care setting in northern California was examined in the following subgroups: Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mexicans, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). We defined HTN as two separate nonemergent office visit blood pressure measurements ≥140/90 mm Hg, physician diagnosis of HTN, or use of antihypertensive medications. A total of 208,985 patients were included in the study. Age-adjusted HTN prevalence ranged from 30.0% in Chinese women to 59.9% in Filipino men. Most minority subgroups had lower or similar odds of having HTN compared with NHWs, except for Filipinos and NHBs whose odds were significantly higher after adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Asian Americans and NHBs were more likely to be treated for HTN compared with NHWs. Achievement of blood pressure control was lower among Filipino women (odds ratio = 0.82, 99% confidence interval 0.70-0.96) and NHB men (odds ratio = 0.73, 99% confidence interval 0.58-0.91), compared with NHW women and men. Substantial racial/ethnic variation in HTN prevalence, treatment, and control was found in our study population. Filipino and NHB women and men are at especially high risk for HTN and may have more difficulty in achieving adequate blood pressure control. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Screening for Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Methodology and Current Practice Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michaela N.; Shatat, Ibrahim F.; Phillips, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) requires urgent, uniform, and consistent attention across all frontiers of pediatric health care not only because of established links between the onset of HTN during one’s youth and its sustenance throughout adulthood but also because of the sequelae associated with the disease’s trajectory, such as cardiovascular disease, end organ damage, and decreased quality of life. Although national guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pediatric HTN have been available for nearly 40 years, knowledge and recognition of the problem by clinicians remain poor due to a host of influencing factors. The purpose of this article is to explicate key issues contributing to the inaccurate measurement of blood pressure and misclassification of HTN among children and to present strategies to address these issues. PMID:28361048

  7. Factors associated with a vicious cycle involving a low nephron number, hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Go; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Haruhara, Kotaro; Koike, Kentaro; Ogura, Makoto; Shimizu, Akira; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that there is substantial variation in the nephron number between individuals. Previous studies using autopsy kidneys have demonstrated that a low nephron number, in relation to a low birth weight, may result in hypertension (HTN) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, recent studies have revealed that the association between a low nephron number and HTN is not a universal finding. This observation indicates that a low nephron number is unlikely to be the sole factor contributing to an elevated blood pressure. In addition to the nephron number, various genetic and congenital factors may contribute to increased susceptibility to HTN and/or CKD in a complex manner. Acquired factors, including aging, obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, and various causes of renal injury, may additionally promote further nephron loss. Such a vicious cycle may induce HTN and/or CKD via the common mechanisms of renal hemodynamic maladaptation.

  8. Influence of endurance and resistance exercise order on the postexercise hemodynamic responses in hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Menêses, Annelise Lins; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; de Lima, Paulo Fernando Marinho; Batista, Rafael Marinho Falcão; Monteiro, Maria de Fátima; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-03-01

    The study aims to evaluate the effects of the order of endurance and resistance exercises on postexercise blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamics in hypertensive women. Nineteen hypertensive women underwent 3 sessions: control (50 minutes rest), endurance (50-60% of heart rate reserve) followed by resistance exercise (50% of 1 repetition maximum) (E + R), and resistance followed by endurance exercise (R + E). Before and 30 minutes after each session, BP, peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate were measured. Postexercise increases in systolic (E + R: +1 ± 3 mm Hg and R + E: +3 ± 3 mm Hg), diastolic (E + R: +3 ± 1 mm Hg and R + E: +3 ± 2 mm Hg), and mean BP (E + R: +3 ± 1 mm Hg and R + E: +3 ± 2 mm Hg) were significantly lower after the exercise sessions compared with the control session (p ≤ 0.05). The exercise sessions abolished the increases in peripheral vascular resistance (E + R: +0.00 ± 0.04 mm Hg·min·L and R + E: +0.05 ± 0.05 mm Hg·min·L) and the decreases in cardiac output (E + R: +0.04 ± 0.28 L·min and R + E: -0.26 ± 0.28 L·min) observed after the control session (p ≤ 0.05). After the exercise sessions, stroke volume decreased (E + R: -14 ± 3 ml and R + E: -9 ± 4 ml) and heart rate increased (E + R: +5 ± 1 b·min and R + E: +4 ± 1 b·min) in comparison with the control session (p ≤ 0.05). For all the variables, there were no significant differences between the exercise sessions. Regardless of the order of endurance and resistance exercises, combined exercise sessions abolished increases in BP observed in a control condition due to a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and increases in cardiac output. Thus, combined exercises should be prescribed to individuals with hypertension to control their BP, regardless of the order they are accomplished.

  9. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Jones, Daniel; Textor, Stephen; Goff, David C; Murphy, Timothy P; Toto, Robert D; White, Anthony; Cushman, William C; White, William; Sica, Domenic; Ferdinand, Keith; Giles, Thomas D; Falkner, Bonita; Carey, Robert M

    2008-06-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem faced by both primary care clinicians and specialists. While the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, clinical trials suggest that it is not rare, involving perhaps 20% to 30% of study participants. As older age and obesity are 2 of the strongest risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension, the incidence of resistant hypertension will likely increase as the population becomes more elderly and heavier. The prognosis of resistant hypertension is unknown, but cardiovascular risk is undoubtedly increased as patients often have a history of long-standing, severe hypertension complicated by multiple other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The diagnosis of resistant hypertension requires use of good blood pressure technique to confirm persistently elevated blood pressure levels. Pseudoresistance, including lack of blood pressure control secondary to poor medication adherence or white coat hypertension, must be excluded. Resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial in etiology. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of lifestyle factors contributing to treatment resistance; diagnosis and appropriate treatment of secondary causes of hypertension; and use of effective multidrug regimens. As a subgroup, patients with resistant hypertension have not been widely studied. Observational assessments have allowed for identification of demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with resistant hypertension, and the role of secondary causes of hypertension in promoting treatment resistance is well documented; however, identification of broader mechanisms of treatment resistance is lacking. In particular, attempts to elucidate potential genetic causes of resistant hypertension have been limited. Recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of resistant hypertension remain largely empiric due to the lack of

  10. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Jones, Daniel; Textor, Stephen; Goff, David C; Murphy, Timothy P; Toto, Robert D; White, Anthony; Cushman, William C; White, William; Sica, Domenic; Ferdinand, Keith; Giles, Thomas D; Falkner, Bonita; Carey, Robert M

    2008-06-24

    Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem faced by both primary care clinicians and specialists. While the exact prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown, clinical trials suggest that it is not rare, involving perhaps 20% to 30% of study participants. As older age and obesity are 2 of the strongest risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension, the incidence of resistant hypertension will likely increase as the population becomes more elderly and heavier. The prognosis of resistant hypertension is unknown, but cardiovascular risk is undoubtedly increased as patients often have a history of long-standing, severe hypertension complicated by multiple other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The diagnosis of resistant hypertension requires use of good blood pressure technique to confirm persistently elevated blood pressure levels. Pseudoresistance, including lack of blood pressure control secondary to poor medication adherence or white coat hypertension, must be excluded. Resistant hypertension is almost always multifactorial in etiology. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of lifestyle factors contributing to treatment resistance; diagnosis and appropriate treatment of secondary causes of hypertension; and use of effective multidrug regimens. As a subgroup, patients with resistant hypertension have not been widely studied. Observational assessments have allowed for identification of demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with resistant hypertension, and the role of secondary causes of hypertension in promoting treatment resistance is well documented; however, identification of broader mechanisms of treatment resistance is lacking. In particular, attempts to elucidate potential genetic causes of resistant hypertension have been limited. Recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of resistant hypertension remain largely empiric due to the lack of

  11. Longitudinal relationship of parental hypertension with body mass index, blood pressure, and cardiovascular reactivity in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongling; Alpert, Bruce S; Walker, Sammie S; Somes, Grant W

    2007-05-01

    To investigate whether parental hypertension (HTN) affects children's body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) over time. A longitudinal study of 315 students (black: 23 females, 19 males; white: 142 females, 131 males) was conducted in the public schools of Obion County, Tennessee, between 1987 and 1992. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated. The CVR task was a series of video games (taking approximately 10 minutes to play) given to the same students in their third-, fourth-, fifth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade years. CVR was defined as the change in blood pressure (delta_BP) or heart rate (delta_HR) between before playing and while playing the video game. Positive parental history of HTN (27.6%) was defined as at least 1 parent with HTN. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of parental HTN on children's BMI and CVR over time. Children with parental HTN had significant higher BMI, BMI z score, and R_BP than did children without parental HTN (BMI: 21.6 vs 19.9, P = .001; BMI z score: 1.6 vs 1.1, P = .003; R_SBP: 112.6 vs 110.4 mm Hg, P = .01; R_DBP 62.7 vs 60.6 mm Hg, P = .003) after adjustment for covariates. Increased CVR was observed in children with parental HTN compared with children without parental HTN but was statistically significant only for SBP (delta_SBP: 17.2 vs 14.9 mm Hg; P = .01) after adjustment for covariates. Parental HTN independently predicted children's BMI, BMI z score, resting BP, and BP reactivity.

  12. Effects of Baroreflex Activation Therapy on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wallbach, Manuel; Lehnig, Luca-Yves; Schroer, Charlotte; Lüders, Stephan; Böhning, Enrico; Müller, Gerhard A; Wachter, Rolf; Koziolek, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) has been demonstrated to decrease office blood pressure (BP) in the randomized, double-blind Rheos trial. There are limited data on 24-hour BP changes measured by ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) using the first generation rheos BAT system suggesting a significant reduction but there are no information about the effect of the currently used, unilateral BAT neo device on ABPM. Patients treated with the BAT neo device for uncontrolled resistant hypertension were prospectively included into this study. ABPM was performed before BAT implantation and 6 months after initiation of BAT. A total of 51 patients were included into this study, 7 dropped out from analysis because of missing or insufficient follow-up. After 6 months, 24-hour ambulatory systolic (from 148 ± 17 mm Hg to 140 ± 23 mm Hg, P<0.01), diastolic (from 82 ± 13 mm Hg to 77 ± 15 mm Hg, P<0.01), day- and night-time systolic and diastolic BP (all P ≤ 0.01) significantly decreased while the number of prescribed antihypertensive classes could be reduced from 6.5 ± 1.5 to 6.0 ± 1.8 (P=0.03). Heart rate and pulse pressure remained unchanged. BAT was equally effective in reducing ambulatory BP in all subgroups of patients. This is the first study demonstrating a significant BP reduction in ABPM in patients undergoing chronically stimulation of the carotid sinus using the BAT neo device. About that BAT-reduced office BP and improved relevant aspects of ABPM, BAT might be considered as a new therapeutic option to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with resistant hypertension. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate BAT effects on ABPM in patients with resistant hypertension accurately. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Acute Response to Unilateral Unipolar Electrical Carotid Sinus Stimulation in Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Brinkmann, Julia; Menne, Jan; Kaufeld, Jessica; Linnenweber-Held, Silvia; Beige, Joachim; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Diedrich, André; Haller, Hermann; Jordan, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral bipolar electric carotid sinus stimulation acutely reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant arterial hypertension but is no longer available. The second-generation device uses a smaller unilateral unipolar disk electrode to reduce invasiveness while saving battery life. We hypothesized that the second-generation device acutely lowers BP and MSNA in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Eighteen treatment-resistant hypertensive patients (9 women/9 men; 53±11 years; 33±5 kg/m(2)) on stable medications have been included in the study. We monitored finger and brachial BP, heart rate, and MSNA. Without stimulation, BP was 165±31/91±18 mm Hg, heart rate was 75±17 bpm, and MSNA was 48±14 bursts per minute. Acute stimulation with intensities producing side effects that were tolerable in the short term elicited interindividually variable changes in systolic BP (-16.9±15.0 mm Hg; range, 0.0 to -40.8 mm Hg; P=0.002), heart rate (-3.6±3.6 bpm; P=0.004), and MSNA (-2.0±5.8 bursts per minute; P=0.375). Stimulation intensities had to be lowered in 12 patients to avoid side effects at the expense of efficacy (systolic BP, -6.3±7.0 mm Hg; range, 2.8 to -14.5 mm Hg; P=0.028 and heart rate, -1.5±2.3 bpm; P=0.078; comparison against responses with side effects). Reductions in diastolic BP and MSNA (total activity) were correlated (r(2)=0.329; P=0.025). In our patient cohort, unilateral unipolar electric baroreflex stimulation acutely lowered BP. However, side effects may limit efficacy. The approach should be tested in a controlled comparative study.

  14. Renal sympathetic denervation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension after witnessed intake of medication before qualifying ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula Mohamed; Hoffmann, Pavel; Fossum, Eigil; Brekke, Magne; Gjønnæss, Eyvind; Hjørnholm, Ulla; Kjær, Vibeke N; Rostrup, Morten; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Os, Ingrid; Stenehjem, Aud-E; Høieggen, Aud

    2013-09-01

    It is unknown whether the decline in blood pressure (BP) after renal denervation (RDN) is caused by denervation itself or concomitantly improved drug adherence. We aimed to investigate the BP lowering effect of RDN in true treatment-resistant hypertension by excluding patients with poor drug adherence. Patients with resistant hypertension (n=18) were referred for a thorough clinical and laboratory work-up. Treatment-resistant hypertension was defined as office systolic BP>140 mm Hg, despite maximally tolerated doses of ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. In addition, ambulatory daytime systolic BP>135 mm Hg was required after witnessed intake of antihypertensive drugs to qualify. RDN (n=6) was performed with Symplicity Catheter System. The mean office and ambulatory BPs remained unchanged at 1, 3, and 6 months in the 6 patients, whereas there was no known change in antihypertensive medication. Two patients, however, had a fall in both office and ambulatory BPs. Our findings question whether BP falls in response to RDN in patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension. Additional research must aim to verify potential BP lowering effect and identify a priori responders to RDN before this invasive method can routinely be applied to patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01673516.

  15. Cumulative Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Short Sleep Duration with the Risk for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Paris, Audrey; Pigeanne, Thierry; Nguyen, Xuan-Lan; Alizon, Claire; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurene; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN). The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3%) previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST) <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ≥6 h) without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35–4.68) in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18–8.78) in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend). The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ≥30) (OR, 4.29 [2.03–9.07]). In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA. PMID:25531468

  16. Neurovascular mechanisms underlying augmented cold-induced reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2017-03-01

    In hypertensive adults (HTN), cardiovascular risk increases disproportionately during environmental cold exposure. Despite ample evidence of dysregulated sympathetic control of the peripheral vasculature in hypertension, no studies have examined integrated neurovascular function during cold stress in HTN. The findings of the present study show that whole-body cold stress elicits greater increases in sympathetic outflow directed to the cutaneous vasculature and, correspondingly, greater reductions in skin blood flow in HTN. We further demonstrate an important role for non-adrenergic sympathetic co-transmitters in mediating the vasoconstrictor response to cold stress in hypertension. In the context of thermoregulation and the maintenance of core temperature, sympathetically-mediated control of the cutaneous vasculature is not only preserved, but also exaggerated in hypertension. Given the increasing prevalence of hypertension, clarifying the mechanistic underpinnings of hypertension-induced alterations in neurovascular function during cold exposure is clinically relevant. Despite ample evidence of dysregulated sympathetic control of the peripheral vasculature in hypertension, no studies have examined integrated neurovascular function during cold stress in hypertensive adults (HTN). We hypothesized that (i) whole-body cooling would elicit greater cutaneous vasoconstriction and greater increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) in HTN (n = 14; 56 ± 2 years) compared to age-matched normotensive adults (NTN; n = 14; 55 ± 2 years) and (ii) augmented reflex vasoconstriction in HTN would be mediated by an increase in cutaneous vascular adrenergic sensitivity and a greater contribution of non-adrenergic sympathetic co-transmitters. SSNA (peroneal microneurography) and red cell flux (laser Doppler flowmetry; dorsum of foot) were measured during whole-body cooling (water-perfused suit). Sympathetic adrenergic- and non

  17. Resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Evitom Corrêa; Abrahin, Odilon; Ferreira, Ana Lorena Lima; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training alone on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Our meta-analysis, followed the guidelines of PRISMA. The search for articles was realized by November 2016 using the following electronic databases: BIREME, PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS and SciELO and a search strategy that included the combination of titles of medical affairs and terms of free text to the key concepts: 'hypertension' 'hypertensive', 'prehypertensive', 'resistance training', 'strength training', and 'weight-lifting'. These terms were combined with a search strategy to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and identified a total of 1608 articles: 644 articles BIREME, 53 SciELO, 722 PubMed, 122 Cochrane Library and 67 LILACS. Of these, five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and provided data on 201 individuals. The results showed significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (-8.2 mm Hg CI -10.9 to -5.5;I(2): 22.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.271 and effect size=-0.97) and diastolic blood pressure (-4.1 mm Hg CI -6.3 to -1.9; I(2): 46.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.113 and effect size=-0.60) when compared to group control. In conclusion, resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The RCTs studies that investigated the effects of resistance training alone in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients support the recommendation of resistance training as a tool for management of systemic hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 3 August 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.69.

  18. New drug therapies interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Monge, Matthieu; Lorthioir, Aurélien; Bobrie, Guillaume; Azizi, Michel

    2013-12-01

    There is a persistent need for the development of new antihypertensive drugs, because the control of blood pressure is still not achievable in a significant proportion of hypertensive patients. Since the approval in 2007 of aliskiren, no other new antihypertensive based on new mechanism(s) of action have been approved. In fact, the development of promising novel drugs has been stopped for safety, efficacy or marketing reasons. Despite these difficulties, the pipeline is not dry and different new antihypertensive strategies targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway, are in clinical development stage. The dual angiotensin II receptor-neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696, a single molecule synthetized by cocrystallisation of valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug AHU377 is in development for resistant hypertension and for heart failure. Daglutril is a dual neprylisin-endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor which was shown to decrease BP in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Aldosterone synthase inhibitors and the third and fourth generation non-steroidal dihydropyridine based mineralocorticoid receptors blockers are new ways to target the multiple noxious effects of aldosterone in the kidney, vessels and heart. Centrally acting aminopeptidase A inhibitors block brain angiotensin III formation, one of the main effector peptides of the brain renin angiotensin system. However, a long time will be still necessary to evaluate extensively the efficacy and safety of these new approaches. In the mean time, using appropriate and personalized daily doses of available drugs, decreasing physician inertia, improving treatment adherence, improving access to healthcare and reducing treatment costs remain major objectives to reduce the incidence of resistant hypertension.

  19. Clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kansui, Yasuo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kida, Haruko; Sakata, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Ibaraki, Ai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Strict control of blood pressure is important to prevent cardiovascular disease, although it is sometimes difficult to decrease blood pressure to target levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred in-hospital patients, whose 24-hour average blood pressure was higher than 130/80 mmHg even after treatment with more than three antihypertensive drugs, were included in the present analysis. Circadian variation of blood pressure was evaluated by nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure. Average blood pressures of all patients were high in both daytime and nighttime, 150.0/82.9 and 143.8/78.2 mmHg, respectively. Twenty patients had been treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In 63 patients out of the other 80 patients (79%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also decreased (<60 mL/min/1.73 m²). The patients classified into dipper, non-dipper, riser and extreme-dipper were 20%, 43%, 34% and 3%, respectively. In addition, in 17 patients whose eGFR was preserved, 12 patients showed a non-dipper or riser pattern, suggesting that it was difficult to account for this altered circadian blood pressure variation only by renal dysfunction. These results show that a large number of the patients with resistant hypertension suffered from renal dysfunction, although it was difficult to explain altered circadian blood pressure variation based on renal dysfunction alone.

  20. Caffeine intake improves fructose-induced hypertension and insulin resistance by enhancing central insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tung-Chen; Liu, Chun-Peng; Cheng, Wen-Han; Chen, Bo-Rong; Lu, Pei-Jung; Cheng, Pei-Wen; Ho, Wen-Yu; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Liou, Jau-Cheng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2014-03-01

    Recent clinical studies found that fructose intake leads to insulin resistance and hypertension. Fructose consumption promotes protein fructosylation and formation of superoxide. In a previous study, we revealed that inhibition of superoxide production in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) reduces blood pressure. Caffeine displays significant antioxidant ability in protecting membranes against oxidative damage and can lower the risk of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism through which caffeine improves fructose-induced insulin resistance is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine consumption can abolish superoxide generation to enhance insulin signaling in the NTS, thereby reducing blood pressure in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Treatment with caffeine for 4 weeks decreased blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and triglyceride levels and increased the serum direct high-density lipoprotein level in fructose-fed rats but not in control rats. Caffeine treatment resulted in the recovery of fructose-induced decrease in nitric oxide production in the NTS. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses further showed that caffeine reduced the fructose-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1(S307)) and reversed Akt(S473) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Similarly, caffeine was able to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease insulin levels in the NTS evoked by fructose. Caffeine intake also reduced the production of superoxide and expression of receptor of advanced glycation end product in the NTS. These results suggest that caffeine may enhance insulin receptor substrate 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling to decrease blood pressure by abolishing superoxide production in the NTS.

  1. Change in Weight Status and Development of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sinaiko, Alan R.; Kharbanda, Elyse O.; Margolis, Karen L.; Daley, Matt F.; Trower, Nicole K.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Lo, Joan C.; Magid, David J.; O’Connor, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of BMI percentile and change in BMI percentile to change in blood pressure (BP) percentile and development of hypertension (HTN). METHODS: This retrospective cohort included 101 606 subjects age 3 to 17 years from 3 health systems across the United States. Height, weight, and BPs were extracted from electronic health records, and BMI and BP percentiles were computed with the appropriate age, gender, and height charts. Mixed linear regression estimated change in BP percentile, and proportional hazards regression was used to estimate risk of incident HTN associated with BMI percentile and change in BMI percentile. RESULTS: The largest increases in BP percentile were observed among children and adolescents who became obese or maintained obesity. Over a median 3.1 years of follow-up, 0.3% of subjects developed HTN. Obese children ages 3 to 11 had twofold increased risk of developing HTN compared with healthy weight children. Obese children and adolescents had a twofold increased risk of developing HTN, and severely obese children had a more than fourfold increased risk. Compared with those who maintained a healthy weight, children and adolescents who became obese or maintained obesity had a more than threefold increased risk of incident HTN. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a strong, statistically significant association between increasing BMI percentile and increases in BP percentile, with risk of incident HTN associated primarily with obesity. The adverse impact of weight gain and obesity in this cohort over a short period underscores the early need for effective strategies for prevention of overweight and obesity. PMID:26908707

  2. Healthy Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: The Regards Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Booth, John N.; Calhoun, David A.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist regarding whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with better prognosis among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, a high-risk phenotype of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of healthy lifestyle factors with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. We studied participants (n=2,043) from the population-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg despite use of 3 antihypertensive medication classes or use of ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication regardless of blood pressure control). Six healthy lifestyle factors adapted from guidelines for the management of hypertension (normal waist circumference, physical activity ≥4 times/week, non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, high Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score, and low sodium-to-potassium intake ratio) were examined. A greater number of healthy lifestyle factors was associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events (n=360) over a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios [HR (95% CI)] for cardiovascular events comparing individuals with 2, 3, and 4-6 versus 0-1 healthy lifestyle factors were 0.91 (0.68-1.21), 0.80 (0.57-1.14), and 0.63 (0.41-0.95), respectively (P-trend=0.020). Physical activity and non-smoking were individual healthy lifestyle factors significantly associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events. Similar associations were observed between healthy lifestyle factors and risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle factors, particularly physical activity and non-smoking, are associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. PMID

  3. Doppler laser flowmetry test of the functional condition of precapillar and postcapillar resistance in essential hypertensive patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

    2000-04-01

    243 patient of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillary and postcapillar resistance. Precapillary resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar amplitude, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select pathogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

  4. Does Vitamin D Deficiency Lead to Hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shivika

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is one of the most chronic and deadliest disorders in the world. There are many risk factors responsible for HTN which include age, race, using tobacco, high salt intake, etc. One of the risk factors we would like to highlight is low vitamin D levels. While there is strong evidence that Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining bone and muscle health, there has been recent debate regarding its role in hypertension. However, there are many studies that have shown an indirect relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level and blood pressure. However, we suggest that more studies, especially randomised trials, should be conducted. PMID:28357170

  5. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET{sub A}R during insulin resistance, ET{sub A}R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET{sub A}R expression, but not ET{sub B}R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET{sub A}R pathway

  6. Effectiveness of a Barber-Based Intervention for Improving Hypertension Control in Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Ronald G.; Ravenell, Joseph E.; Freeman, Anne; Leonard, David; Bhat, Deepa G.; Shafiq, Moiz; Knowles, Patricia; Storm, Joy S.; Adhikari, Emily; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Coxson, Pamela G.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Hannan, Peter; Haley, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Context Barbershop-based hypertension (HTN) outreach programs for black men are becoming increasingly common, but whether they are an effective approach for improving HTN control remains uncertain. Objective To evaluate whether a continuous high blood pressure (BP) monitoring and referral program conducted by barbers will motivate male patrons with elevated BP to pursue physician follow-up, leading to improved HTN control. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized trial (Barber-Assisted Reduction in Blood Pressure in Ethnic Residents [BARBER-1]) of HTN control among black male patrons of 17 black-owned barbershops in Dallas County, Texas (March 2006-December 2008). Intervention Black male patrons of participating barbershops underwent 10-week baseline BP screening. Study sites were then randomized to a comparison group (8 shops, 77 hypertensives/shop) that received standard BP pamphlets or an intervention group (9 shops, 75 hypertensives/shop) in which barbers continually offered BP checks with haircuts and promoted physician follow-up with gender-specific peer-based health messaging. After 10 months, follow-up data were obtained. Primary Outcome Measure Change in HTN control rate for each barbershop. Results The HTN control rate increased more in intervention-arm barbershops than in comparison-arm barbershops (absolute group difference, 8.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 16.9%; P=0.036); the intervention effect persisted after adjustment for covariates (P=0.031). A marginal intervention effect was found for systolic BP change (absolute group difference: −2.5 mmHg; 95% CI, −5.3 to 0.3 mmHg; P=0.08). Conclusion The effect of BP screening on HTN control among black male barbershop patrons was improved when barbers were enabled to become health educators, monitor BP, and promote physician referral. Further research is warranted. Trial registration clinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00325533 PMID:20975012

  7. Combined aerobic and resistance training: are there additional benefits for older hypertensive adults?

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José T M; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of aerobic and resistance training to those of isolated aerobic training on blood pressure, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive older adults. Forty-four patients were randomly assigned to the aerobic group, resistance and aerobic group, and control group. Before and after 10 weeks, the following data were obtained: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure data, abdominal circumference, waist circumference, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. The study was conducted with 3 training sessions per week. Comparison revealed significant reductions in the body mass index, abdominal and waist circumferences, and ambulatory blood pressure (24-hour, wakefulness and sleep systolic/diastolic blood pressures) in both the aerobic group and the resistance and aerobic (combined) group. The fat mass only changed in the combined group. There was no difference in the insulin sensitivity in any group. The combined treatment and aerobic treatment alone were equally effective in reducing the blood pressure, body mass index, and abdominal and waist circumferences, although the addition of the resistance component also helped reduce the fat mass.

  8. Combined aerobic and resistance training: are there additional benefits for older hypertensive adults?

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leandra G.; Bonardi, José T.M.; Campos, Giulliard O.; Bertani, Rodrigo F.; Scher, Luria M.L.; Moriguti, Júlio C.; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K.C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of aerobic and resistance training to those of isolated aerobic training on blood pressure, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive older adults. METHOD: Forty-four patients were randomly assigned to the aerobic group, resistance and aerobic group, and control group. Before and after 10 weeks, the following data were obtained: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure data, abdominal circumference, waist circumference, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. The study was conducted with 3 training sessions per week. RESULTS: Comparison revealed significant reductions in the body mass index, abdominal and waist circumferences, and ambulatory blood pressure (24-hour, wakefulness and sleep systolic/diastolic blood pressures) in both the aerobic group and the resistance and aerobic (combined) group. The fat mass only changed in the combined group. There was no difference in the insulin sensitivity in any group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined treatment and aerobic treatment alone were equally effective in reducing the blood pressure, body mass index, and abdominal and waist circumferences, although the addition of the resistance component also helped reduce the fat mass. PMID:28658436

  9. Intra-abdominal Hypertension: An Important Consideration for Diuretic Resistance in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Q; Gadiraju, Taraka V; Patel, Hiren; Park, Minnsun; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Jaiswal, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Fluid accumulation is the hallmark of heart failure decompensation. Fluid overload and congestion are associated with recurrent hospitalizations, poor quality of life, and increased mortality in heart failure. Despite the use of high-dose intravenous loop diuretic therapy, acutely decompensated heart failure patients may develop diuretic resistance. Diuretic refractoriness can be a result of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in acutely decompensated heart failure. Increased renal venous and interstitial pressures in patients with elevated IAP may lead to renal impairment and diuretic resistance. Routine approaches such as sequential nephron blockade with a combination of loop and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics, continuous diuretic infusion, and ultrafiltration may not be sufficient. Presented here is a case illustrating the importance of recognizing intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with diuretic resistance. Lowering IAP improves renal perfusion, renal filtration, and diuresis. When elevated, IAP is an easily reversible cause of diuretic resistance. Additionally, abdominal perfusion pressure can be used to guide therapy to reverse end-organ damage and avoid permanent renal replacement therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New Concepts in Hypertension Management: A Population-Based Perspective.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J; Wilt, Jonathan K; Bober, Robert M; Ventura, Hector O

    Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease in the U.S., and the standard model of office-based care delivery has yielded suboptimal outcomes, with approximately 50% of affected patients not achieving blood pressure (BP) control. Poor population-level BP control has been primarily attributed to therapeutic inertia and low patient engagement. New models of care delivery utilizing patient-generated health data, comprehensive assessment of social health determinants, computerized algorithms generating tailored interventions, frequent communication and reporting, and non-physician providers organized as an integrated practice unit, have the potential to transform population-based HTN control. This review will highlight the importance of these elements and construct the rationale for a reengineered model of care delivery for populations with HTN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure in resistant hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, L S; Santos, A C; Lucena, Jms; Silva, Lgo; Almeida, Aem; Brasileiro-Santos, M S

    2017-06-02

    Resistant hypertension is a specific condition that affects approximately 10% of subjects with hypertension, and is characterized by persistently high blood pressure levels even using therapy of three or more antihypertensive agents or with blood pressure control using therapy with four or more antihypertensive agents. Changes in lifestyle, such as physical exercise, are indicated for controlling blood pressure. However, investigating studies about this therapy in individuals with resistant hypertension are few. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight patients with resistant hypertension will be submitted to perform four short-term interventions: aerobic exercise sessions (mild-, moderate- and high-intensity) and control session, in random order and on separate days. After the short-term sessions, the patients will be randomly allocated into four groups for 8 weeks of follow-up: mild-, moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise, and a control group. The primary outcome is the occurrence of blood pressure reduction (office and ambulatory analysis, and acute and chronic effects). Secondary outcomes are autonomic and hemodynamic mechanisms: cardiac and vasomotor autonomic modulation, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, forearm blood flow and vascular resistance. The importance of exercise for hypertension has been known for decades, but little is known about the effects on patients with resistant hypertension. This study will help to understand whether different aerobic exercise intensities can induce different responses, as well as by what mechanisms adjustments in blood pressure levels may occur. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02670681 . Registered on 28 January 2016 (first version); Brazilian Registry Platform Clinical Trials: protocol RBR-5q24zh . Registered on 24 June 2015.

  12. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers in Hypertension: Alive and Well.

    PubMed

    Frishman, William H

    2016-10-27

    βeta-Adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) are an appropriate treatment for patients having systemic hypertension (HTN) who have concomitant ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure, obstructive cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection or certain cardiac arrhythmias. β-blockers can be used in combination with other antiHTN drugs to achieve maximal blood pressure control. Labetalol can be used in HTN emergencies and urgencies. β-blockers may be useful in HTN patients having a hyperkinetic circulation (palpitations, tachycardia, HTN, and anxiety), migraine headache, and essential tremor. β-blockers are highly heterogeneous with respect to various pharmacologic properties: degree of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity , membrane stabilizing activity , β1 selectivity, α1-adrenergic blocking effects, tissue solubility, routes of systemic elimination, potencies and duration of action, and specific properties may be important in the selection of a drug for clinical use. β-blocker usage to reduce perioperative myocardial ischemia and cardiovascular (CV) complications may not benefit as many patients as was once hoped, and may actually cause harm in some individuals. Currently the best evidence supports perioperative β-blocker use in two patient groups: patients undergoing vascular surgery with known IHD or multiple risk factors for it, and for those patients already receiving β-blockers for known CV conditions.

  13. JS ISH-ISN-2 ROLE OF THE KIDNEY IN RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: WHY SO RESISTANT TO BP CONTROL IN CKD PATIENTS?

    PubMed

    Bakris, George

    2016-09-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Vascular changes appear in the early stages of CKD, although they are most pronounced in advanced stages. Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in patients with CKD, and raised systolic BP is independently associated with risk of progression to chronic kidney disease. Rigid arterial walls attenuate baroreceptor control of efferent sympathetic activity and vagal activation. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity maintains high sympathetic activity directed to the heart, blood vessels, and kidney, which contributes to high BP. Patients with CKD also have an inadequate vasoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, this contributes to frequent orthostatic hypotension and circulatory instability. Moreover, hypoxemia of renal tissue due to kidney damage activates the CNS via afferent nerves, which also contributes to high sympathetic activity. New therapeutic innovations for resistant hypertension, such as renal denervation and carotid barostimulation are under investigation especially in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. One of the most common reasons for blood pressure resistance in CKD is volume overload with increased sympathetic activity also being a major contributor. We will focus on the epidemiology as well as pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches to managing resistant hypertension in CKD stages 3

  14. Assessing the risk of incident hypertension and chronic kidney disease after exposure to shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Denburg, Michelle R.; Jemielita, Thomas; Tasian, Gregory; Haynes, Kevin; Mucksavage, Phillip; Shults, Justine; Copelovitch, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine if among individuals with urolithiasis, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopy are associated with a higher risk of incident arterial hypertension (HTN) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). This was measured in a population-based retrospective study of 11,570 participants with incident urolithiasis and 127,464 without urolithiasis in The Health Improvement Network. Patients with pre-existing HTN and CKD were excluded. The study included 1319 and 919 urolithiasis patients with at least one SWL or URS procedure, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio for incident CKD stage 3–5 and HTN in separate analyses. Over a median of 3.7 and 4.1 years, 1423 and 595 of urolithiasis participants developed HTN and CKD, respectively. Urolithiasis was associated with a significant hazard ratio each for HTN of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.51) and for CKD of 1.82 (1.67, 1.98). SWL was associated with a significant increased risk of HTN 1.34 (1.15, 1.57), while ureteroscopy was not. When further stratified as SWL to the kidney or ureter, only SWL to the kidney was significantly and independently associated with HTN 1.40 (1.19, 1.66). Neither SWL nor ureteroscopy was associated with incident CKD. Since urolithiasis itself was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.42 for HTN, an individual who undergoes SWL to the kidney can be expected to have a significantly increased hazard ratio for HTN of 1.96 (1.67, 2.29) compared to an individual without urolithiasis. PMID:26509587

  15. The effect of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension in relation to baseline blood pressure and secondary causes of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Jan; Sedlak, Richard; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Kocianova, Eva; Taborsky, Milos

    2013-03-01

    There are currently limited data about whether the effect of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension depends on baseline blood pressure and the presence of a secondary cause of hypertension. Patients with office systolic blood pressure (BP) >140 mmHg or diastolic BP >90 mmHg, despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, were randomly assigned to receive spironolactone or a placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (ASPIRANT). Analyses were done with 55 patients treated with spironolactone. The degree of BP reduction after 8 weeks of spironolactone treatment did not differ significantly between the three tertiles of baseline systolic BP and patients with and without a secondary cause of hypertension. The reduction of office systolic, office diastolic BP and office pulse pressure was significantly lower in the highest tertile with baseline diastolic BP > 97 mmHg. Spironolactone treatment is effective to a similar extent both in patients with and without a secondary cause of hypertension and regardless of the baseline value of systolic BP. Less effect of spironolactone was found in patients with the highest baseline diastolic BP.

  16. The highly neglected burden of resistant hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Mengnjo, Michel K; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Essouma, Mickael; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-01-01

    Objective The hypertension epidemic in Africa collectively with very low rates of blood pressure control may predict an incremented prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) across the continent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RH and associated risk factors in Africa. Data sources We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Africa Wide Information and Africa Index Medicus) completed by manual search of articles, regardless of language or publication date. Methods We included studies which have reported the prevalence and/or risk factors for RH in Africa from inception to 19 May 2016. Forest plots were drawn to visualise the combined prevalence of RH and extent of statistical heterogeneity between studies. Results Out of 259 retrieved studies, only 5 from Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Algeria with a total population of 4 068 patients were finally included in this review. There was no study from the Eastern part of Africa. Though the definition of RH was not similar across studies, its prevalence was respectively 11.7%, 4.9%, 14.6%, 14.3% and 19.0%, with an overall pooled prevalence of 12.1% (95% CI 8.0% to 17.7%). Potential risk factors were: non-compliance to treatment, ageing, male sex, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, previous cardiovascular events, physical inactivity and stress, but not excessive salt intake, alcohol and coffee ingestions. Moreover, diabetes, smoking, obesity and renal insufficiency yielded discrepant results. Conclusions There is a huge dearth of research on the epidemiology of RH in Africa. Thereby, an extensive study of RH prevalence and risk factors is still largely warranted to curtail the high and continuously increasing burden of hypertension across Africa. PMID:27650760

  17. The highly neglected burden of resistant hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Mengnjo, Michel K; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Essouma, Mickael; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-09-20

    The hypertension epidemic in Africa collectively with very low rates of blood pressure control may predict an incremented prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) across the continent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RH and associated risk factors in Africa. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Africa Wide Information and Africa Index Medicus) completed by manual search of articles, regardless of language or publication date. We included studies which have reported the prevalence and/or risk factors for RH in Africa from inception to 19 May 2016. Forest plots were drawn to visualise the combined prevalence of RH and extent of statistical heterogeneity between studies. Out of 259 retrieved studies, only 5 from Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Algeria with a total population of 4 068 patients were finally included in this review. There was no study from the Eastern part of Africa. Though the definition of RH was not similar across studies, its prevalence was respectively 11.7%, 4.9%, 14.6%, 14.3% and 19.0%, with an overall pooled prevalence of 12.1% (95% CI 8.0% to 17.7%). Potential risk factors were: non-compliance to treatment, ageing, male sex, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, previous cardiovascular events, physical inactivity and stress, but not excessive salt intake, alcohol and coffee ingestions. Moreover, diabetes, smoking, obesity and renal insufficiency yielded discrepant results. There is a huge dearth of research on the epidemiology of RH in Africa. Thereby, an extensive study of RH prevalence and risk factors is still largely warranted to curtail the high and continuously increasing burden of hypertension across Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Citric Acid Metabolism in Resistant Hypertension: Underlying Mechanisms and Metabolic Prediction of Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Martinez, Paula J; Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Prado, Jose Carlos; Segura, Julian; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Vivanco, Fernando; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2017-11-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) affects 9% to 12% of hypertensive adults. Prolonged exposure to suboptimal blood pressure control results in end-organ damage and cardiovascular risk. Spironolactone is the most effective drug for treatment, but not all patients respond and side effects are not negligible. Little is known on the mechanisms responsible for RH. We aimed to identify metabolic alterations in urine. In addition, a potential capacity of metabolites to predict response to spironolactone was investigated. Urine was collected from 29 patients with RH and from a group of 13 subjects with pseudo-RH. For patients, samples were collected before and after spironolactone administration and were classified in responders (n=19) and nonresponders (n=10). Nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to identify altered metabolites and pathways. Metabolites were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Citric acid cycle was the pathway most significantly altered (P<0.0001). Metabolic concentrations were quantified and ranged from ng/mL malate to μg/mL citrate. Citrate and oxaloacetate increased in RH versus pseudoresistant. Together with α-ketoglutarate and malate, they were able to discriminate between responders and nonresponders, being the 4 metabolites increased in nonresponders. Combined as a prediction panel, they showed receiver operating characteristiccurve with area under the curve of 0.96. We show that citric acid cycle and deregulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis control continue its activation after hypertension was developed. A metabolic panel showing alteration before spironolactone treatment and predicting future response of patients is shown. These molecular indicators will contribute optimizing the rate of control of RH patients with spironolactone. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Salt intake and blood pressure response to percutaneous renal denervation in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Beus, Esther; de Jager, Rosa L; Beeftink, Martine M; Sanders, Margreet F; Spiering, Wilko; Vonken, Evert-Jan; Voskuil, Michiel; Bots, Michiel L; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2017-09-19

    The effect of lowering sympathetic nerve activity by renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable. With the exception of office systolic blood pressure (BP), predictors of the BP-lowering effect have not been identified. Because dietary sodium intake influences sympathetic drive, and, conversely, sympathetic activity influences salt sensitivity in hypertension, we investigated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in participants of the SYMPATHY trial. SYMPATHY investigated RDN in patients with resistant hypertension. Both 24-hour ambulatory and office BP measurements were end points. No relationship was found for baseline sodium excretion and change in BP 6 months after RDN in multivariable-adjusted regression analysis. Change in the salt intake-measured BP relationships at 6 months vs baseline was used as a measure for salt sensitivity. BP was 8 mm Hg lower with similar salt intake after RDN, suggesting a decrease in salt sensitivity. However, the change was similar in the control group, and thus not attributable to RDN. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Importance of the Hispanic heritage regarding diagnosis and management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    López-Candales, Angel

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a very prevalent and growing clinical problem that is not always promptly diagnosed and ∼6% of U.S. adults remain undiagnosed. Though numerous risk factors have been linked to the development of HTN, ethnicity has traditionally been simply considered as a significant risk among non-Hispanic Blacks. However, emerging data seems to suggest that Hispanics, the largest and fastest-growing minority in the U.S.A., might have rates of uncontrolled HTN that significantly exceeds the rates observed for non-Hispanic whites. Unfortunately, paucity of a significant Hispanic representation in major clinical trials has raised significant healthcare concerns regarding our true understanding of the meaning of HTN and associated cardiovascular consequences among this ethnic group. Consequently, there is urgency not only in having a better understanding of HTN among Hispanics, but also to examine the potential factors that may play a role in regulating the expression of HTN and its associated cardiovascular manifestations in this ethnic group.

  1. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; P<0.0001 for all). There was no difference in homeostasis model assessment between salt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system altered in resistant hypertension in Sub-Saharan African diabetes patients without evidence of primary hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Edinga-Melenge, Bertille Elodie; Ama Moor, Vicky J; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Nguetse Djoumessi, Romance; Mengnjo, Michel K; Katte, Jean-Claude; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2017-01-01

    Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be altered in patients with resistant hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity and resistant hypertension in Cameroonian diabetes patients with resistant hypertension. Methods We carried out a case-control study including 19 diabetes patients with resistant hypertension and 19 diabetes patients with controlled hypertension matched to cases according to age, sex and duration of hypertension since diagnosis. After collection of data, fasting blood was collected for measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, active renin and plasma aldosterone of which the aldosterone-renin ratio was derived to assess the activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Then, each participant received 2000 ml infusion of saline solution after which plasma aldosterone was re-assayed. Results Potassium levels were lower among cases compared to controls (mean: (4.10 ± 0.63 mmol/l vs. 4.47 ± 0.58 mmol/l), though nonsignificant (p = 0.065). Active renin, plasma aldosterone both before and after the dynamic test and aldosterone-renin ratio were comparable between cases and controls (all p values > 0.05). Plasma aldosterone significantly decreased after the dynamic test in both groups (p < 0.001), but no participant exhibited a post-test value>280 pmol/l. We found a significant negative correlation between potassium ion and plasma aldosterone (ρ = −0.324; p = 0.047), the other correlations being weak and unsignificant. Conclusion Although this study failed to show an association between RH and primary hyperaldosteronism in our context, there was a hyperactivity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Moreover, this study confirms the importance of potassium dosage when screening the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. PMID:28321294

  3. Potential Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Diseases in Patients Receiving Treatment for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Joonhong; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Yong-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. Methods A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. Results All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. Conclusions The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them. PMID:26915609

  4. Overweight, air and noise pollution: Universal risk factors for pediatric pre-hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz; Keramatian, Kasra

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) has a complex multifactorial etiology. Although most cases are secondary to other disorders, a substantial number of children and adolescents have primary or essential HTN and pre-HTN. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions should be considered in this context. The strong relationship of pre-HTN with environmental factors such as air pollution, noise pollution and passive smoking and obesity suggest that its prevalence will be escalating. Exposure to ambient particulate matters may increase blood pressure (BP) within hours to days. The underlying biologic pathways include autonomic nervous system imbalance and arterial vascular dysfunction or vasoconstriction because of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, tobacco smoke exposure of pregnant mothers increases systolic BP of their offspring in early infancy. Parental smoking also independently affects systolic BP among healthy preschool children. Noise exposure, notably in night, is associated with catecholamine secretion, increased BP and a pre-HTN state even in pre-school age children. Excess weight is associated with dysfunction of the adipose tissue, consisting of enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and variations in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. These changes would result in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic response, and ultimately to pre-HTN from childhood. Prevention and control of the modifiable risk factors of pre-HTN from prenatal period can have long-term health impact on primordial and primary prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. This review presents a general view on the diagnosis, prevalence and etiology of pre-HTN along with practical measures for its prevention and control. PMID:22973395

  5. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Lippi, Cristina; Croce, Giuseppe; Valeri, Letizia; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Desideri, Giovambattista; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ferri, Claudio

    2005-08-01

    Consumption of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (DC) has been shown to decrease blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in healthy subjects, suggesting similar benefits in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Therefore, we tested the effect of DC on 24-hour ambulatory BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in patients with EH. After a 7-day chocolate-free run-in phase, 20 never-treated, grade I patients with EH (10 males; 43.7+/-7.8 years) were randomized to receive either 100 g per day DC (containing 88 mg flavanols) or 90 g per day flavanol-free white chocolate (WC) in an isocaloric manner for 15 days. After a second 7-day chocolate-free period, patients were crossed over to the other treatment. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory BP, FMD, OGTT, serum cholesterol, and markers of vascular inflammation were evaluated at the end of each treatment. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated from OGTT values. Ambulatory BP decreased after DC (24-hour systolic BP -11.9+/-7.7 mm Hg, P<0.0001; 24-hour diastolic BP -8.5+/-5.0 mm Hg, P<0.0001) but not WC. DC but not WC decreased HOMA-IR (P<0.0001), but it improved QUICKI, ISI, and FMD. DC also decreased serum LDL cholesterol (from 3.4+/-0.5 to 3.0+/-0.6 mmol/L; P<0.05). In summary, DC decreased BP and serum LDL cholesterol, improved FMD, and ameliorated insulin sensitivity in hypertensives. These results suggest that, while balancing total calorie intake, flavanols from cocoa products may provide some cardiovascular benefit if included as part of a healthy diet for patients with EH.

  6. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on heart rate and atrioventricular conduction in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix; Spies, Aline; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Böhm, Michael

    2013-09-10

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) reduces sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of RDN on HR and other electrocardiographic parameters. 136 patients aged 62.2 ± 0.8 years (58% male, BP 177 ± 2/93 ± 1 mmHg) with resistant hypertension underwent RDN. BP and a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded before, 3 months (n=127), and 6 months (n=88) after RDN. After 3 months (3M) and 6 months (6M), systolic BP was reduced by 25.5 ± 2.4 mmHg (p<0.0001) and 28.1 ± 3 mmHg (p<0.0001). HR at baseline was 66.1 ± 1 beats per minute (bpm) and was reduced by 2.6 ± 0.8 bpm after 3 months (p=0.001) and 2.1 ± 1.1 bpm after 6 months (p=0.046). Patients with HR at baseline between 60-71 bpm and ≥ 71 bpm had a reduction of 2.9 ± 7.6 bpm (p=0.008) and 9.0 ± 8.6 bpm (p<0.0001), respectively, whereas in patients with baseline HR<60 bpm HR slightly increased after 3 months (2.7 ± 8.4 bpm; p=0.035). Neither baseline HR nor change of HR correlated with the reduction of systolic BP. The PR interval was prolonged by 11.3 ± 2.5 ms (p<0.0001) and 10.3 ± 2.5 ms (p<0.0001) at 3 and 6 months after RDN, respectively. Renal sympathetic denervation reduced heart rate and the PR interval as indicators of cardiac autonomic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for resistant hypertension in elderly subjects from general population

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Alberto; Lenti, Salvatore; Schiavon, Laura; Del Monte, Alvise; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Ramazzina, Emilio; Rubello, Domenico; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    Objective In clinical practice, patient characteristics predicting resistant hypertension (RH) include higher blood pressure levels, left ventricular hypertrophy, older age, obesity, chronic kidney disease and diabetes. On the contrary little is known about the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a risk factor for RH in subjects from general population. Material and methods 580 elderly subjects aged ≥65 years were enrolled in the Risk Of Vascular complications Impact of Genetics in Old people (ROVIGO) study. RH was defined as the failure to maintain blood pressure values below 140 mmHg (systolic) and 90 mmHg (diastolic) despite therapeutic interventions that include appropriate lifestyle measures plus adherence to treatment with full doses of at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. RH was confirmed using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Hyperuricemic was defined as the subjects having SUA ≥6.8 mg/dl or taking uricosuric drugs. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) for RH was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of RH was 5.7% in the cohort and was higher in women (8.3%) than in men (3.0%, p < 0.05). Independent of chronic kidney disease (OR 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.49–10.1), hyperuricemia predicted resistant hypertension in women (odds ratio 3.11, 95% confidence intervals 1.06–9.1, p = 0.03) but not in men. Conclusions In elderly women from the general population, an SUA value of ≥6.8 mg/dl triples the risk of RH. SUA assessment should be recommended to better define the pattern of risk associated with RH. PMID:28027534

  8. Testosterone Plasma Concentration is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Male Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Schianca, Gian Piero Carnevale; Fra, Gian Paolo; Brustia, Fabio; Bellan, Mattia; Pirovano, Alice; Gualerzi, Alessandro; Gentile, Michela; Gibbin, Antonello; Menegatti, Mirta; Bartoli, Ettore; Pirisi, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Background: Low testosterone levels are a common finding among men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and are inversely related to insulin resistance. Whether this relationship holds true in patients with hypertension, but normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes, is unclear. Methods: We recruited 87 male outpatients with essential arterial hypertension, aged 35-70 years. Anthropometric data were collected, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) performed, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score calculated. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding-Globulin and free-testosterone were measured. The concentrations of sex hormones were compared between normoglucotolerant, prediabetic and diabetic patients. Non-parametric tests were applied as appropriate to verify differences among groups, while multiple linear regression was used to predict the variability of testosterone and free-testosterone. Results: Total serum testosterone concentration was significantly lower in T2DM in comparison to normoglucotolerant subjects (p<0.01) and was inversely related to body mass index (r=- 0.25, p<0.01), waist circumference (r=- 0.27, p<0.01), pre and post-OGTT plasma glucose (r=- 0.4, p<0.0001 and r=- 0.29, p<0.01, respectively), pre and post-OGTT plasma insulin (r=- 0.42, p<0.0001 and r=- 0.42, p<0.0001) and HOMA-IR (r=- 0.46, p<0.0001). Similar associations were observed for free testosterone; HOMA-IR was related to testosterone and free-testosterone even in patients with normal glucose tolerance (r=- 0.47, p<0.01 and r=- 0.34, p<0.05, respectively). At multivariate analysis HOMA-IR was the only variable associated to testosterone (p<0.001) and free-testosterone (p<0.05) plasma concentration. Conclusions: In males with hypertension, the link between insulin sensitivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is maintained along the entire spectrum of glucose tolerance.

  9. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Cornali, Claudio; Porteri, Enzo; Mardighian, Dikran; Pinardi, Chiara; Fontanella, Marco M; Rodella, Luigi F; Rezzani, Rita; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences.

  10. Role Of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in Resistance to Drug Therapy in Patients with Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Leandro; de Faria, Ana Paula; Fontana, Vanessa; Moreno, Heitor; Sandrim, Valéria

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the increased evidence of the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP‑2) in the pathophysiology of hypertension, the profile of these molecules in resistant hypertension (RHTN) remains unknown. Objectives To compare the plasma levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and of their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, respectively), as well as their MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios, between patients with controlled RHTN (CRHTN, n=41) and uncontrolled RHTN (UCRHTN, n=35). In addition, the association of those parameters with clinical characteristics, office blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness (determined by pulse wave velocity) was evaluate in those subgroups. Methods This study included 76 individuals diagnosed with RHTN and submitted to physical examination, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests to assess biochemical parameters. Results Similar values of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios were found in the UCRHTN and CRHTN subgroups (P>0.05). A significant correlation was found between diastolic BP (DBP) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (r=0.37; P=0.02) and DPB and MMP-2 (r=-0.40; P=0.02) in the UCRHTN subgroup. On the other hand, no correlation was observed in the CRHTN subgroup. Logistic regression models demonstrated that MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and their ratios were not associated with the lack of BP control. Conclusion These findings suggest that neither MMP-2 nor MMP-9 affect BP control in RHTN subjects. PMID:26039662

  11. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents.

    PubMed

    Portela, Natália; Amaral, Josária Ferraz; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-07-10

    A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years) and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years) a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®), forearm blood flow (Hokanson®), and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®). At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96), heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18), forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16), and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21), respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86), heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86), and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25), respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03). Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. O histórico familiar para hipertensão arterial está relacionado a anormalidades vasculares e autonômicas, bem como disfunções no comportamento neuro-hemodinâmico durante o exerc

  12. The rising burden of diabetes and hypertension in southeast asian and african regions: need for effective strategies for prevention and control in primary health care settings.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Seedat, Yackoob K; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To review the available literature on burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) and its coexistence in Southeast Asian (SEA) and the African (AFR) regions and to suggest strategies to improve DM and HTN prevention and control in primary health care (PHC) in the two regions. Methods. A systematic review of the papers published on DM, HTN, and prevention/control of chronic diseases in SEA and AFR regions between 1980 and December 2012 was included. Results. In the year 2011, SEA region had the second largest number of people with DM (71.4 million), while the AFR region had the smallest number (14.7 million). Screening studies identified high proportions (>50%) of individuals with previously undiagnosed HTN and DM in both of the SEA and AFR regions. Studies from both regions have shown that DM and HTN coexist in type 2 DM ranging from 20.6% in India to 78.4% in Thailand in the SEA region and ranging from 9.7% in Nigeria to 70.4% in Morocco in the AFR region. There is evidence that by lifestyle modification both DM and HTN can be prevented. Conclusion. To meet the twin challenge of DM and HTN in developing countries, PHCs will have to be strengthened with a concerted and multipronged effort to provide promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services.

  13. The Rising Burden of Diabetes and Hypertension in Southeast Asian and African Regions: Need for Effective Strategies for Prevention and Control in Primary Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Seedat, Yackoob K.; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To review the available literature on burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) and its coexistence in Southeast Asian (SEA) and the African (AFR) regions and to suggest strategies to improve DM and HTN prevention and control in primary health care (PHC) in the two regions. Methods. A systematic review of the papers published on DM, HTN, and prevention/control of chronic diseases in SEA and AFR regions between 1980 and December 2012 was included. Results. In the year 2011, SEA region had the second largest number of people with DM (71.4 million), while the AFR region had the smallest number (14.7 million). Screening studies identified high proportions (>50%) of individuals with previously undiagnosed HTN and DM in both of the SEA and AFR regions. Studies from both regions have shown that DM and HTN coexist in type 2 DM ranging from 20.6% in India to 78.4% in Thailand in the SEA region and ranging from 9.7% in Nigeria to 70.4% in Morocco in the AFR region. There is evidence that by lifestyle modification both DM and HTN can be prevented. Conclusion. To meet the twin challenge of DM and HTN in developing countries, PHCs will have to be strengthened with a concerted and multipronged effort to provide promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. PMID:23573413

  14. Altered reactivity of resistance vasculature contributes to hypertension in elastin insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Russell H.; Kozel, Beth A.; Dietrich, Hans H.; Blumer, Kendall J.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Elastin (Eln) insufficiency in mice and humans is associated with hypertension and altered structure and mechanical properties of large arteries. However, it is not known to what extent functional or structural changes in resistance arteries contribute to the elevated blood pressure that is characteristic of Eln insufficiency. Here, we investigated how Eln insufficiency affects the structure and function of the resistance vasculature. A functional profile of resistance vasculature in Eln+/− mice was generated by assessing small mesenteric artery (MA) contractile and vasodilatory responses to vasoactive agents. We found that Eln haploinsufficiency had a modest effect on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, whereas ANG II-evoked vasoconstriction was markedly increased. Blockade of ANG II type 2 receptors with PD-123319 or modulation of Rho kinase activity with the inhibitor Y-27632 attenuated the augmented vasoconstriction, whereas acute Y-27632 administration normalized blood pressure in Eln+/− mice. Sodium nitroprusside- and isoproterenol-induced vasodilatation were normal, whereas ACh-induced vasodilatation was severely impaired in Eln+/− MAs. Histologically, the number of smooth muscle layers did not change in Eln+/− MAs; however, an additional discontinuous layer of Eln appeared between the smooth muscle layers that was absent in wild-type arteries. We conclude that high blood pressure arising from Eln insufficiency is due partly to permanent changes in vascular tone as a result of increased sensitivity of the resistance vasculature to circulating ANG II and to impaired vasodilatory mechanisms arising from endothelial dysfunction characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Eln insufficiency causes augmented ANG II-induced vasoconstriction in part through a novel mechanism that facilitates contraction evoked by ANG II type 2 receptors and altered G protein signaling. PMID:24414067

  15. Predictors of hypertension in an urban HIV-infected population at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okpa, Henry Ohem; Bisong, Elvis Mbu; Enang, Ofem Egbe; Monjok, Emmanuel; Essien, Ekere James

    2017-01-01

    Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a 5-month period from February to July 2016. A total of 112 HIV-infected persons were consecutively recruited and their blood pressures were measured in two consecutive clinic visits. They were compared with the HIV-negative control group (n=309). Data collected were analyzed with SPSS 18, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results There was a female preponderance in both the HIV-infected individuals and HIV-negative control group (57.5% vs. 57.4%). The mean ages were 39.3 and 33.9 years in HIV-infected and HIV-negative subjects, respectively. The risk factors that were associated with HTN in both groups were older age (>40 years), increased weight and body mass index (BMI), and presence of obesity. Male sex and duration of exposure to HAART and CD4 count levels >200 cells/mm3 were associated with HTN in HIV-infected patients, whereas the absence of family history of HTN was significantly associated with HTN in both groups. However, in a multivariate logistic regression, the predictors of HTN in both groups are absence of family history of HTN and older age in HIV-infected patients and HIV-negative subjects, respectively. Conclusion Traditional risk factors such as older age, increased BMI, and obesity were linked to HTN in both HIV-infected and HIV-negative subjects, but higher CD4 count level and

  16. Undiagnosed hypertensive participants demonstrate the largest blood pressure improvements from a community based lifestyle intervention: implications for addressing the silent hypertension epidemic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: It is important to understand effective strategies to reach and treat individuals who lack awareness of or have uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). The objectives of this secondary analysis from a community-based participatory research initiative, HUB City Steps, were to quantify the pre...

  17. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demir, Nihat; Peker, Erdal; Ece, İbrahim; Kaba, Sultan; Ağengin, Kemal; Tuncer, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil.

  18. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  19. Prevention And Treatment of Hypertension With Algorithm-based therapy (PATHWAY) number 2: protocol for a randomised crossover trial to determine optimal treatment for drug-resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian; Brown, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Resistant hypertension is inadequately controlled blood pressure (BP) despite treatment with at least three BP-lowering drugs. A popular hypothesis is that resistant hypertension is due to excessive Na+-retention, and that ‘further diuretic therapy’ will be superior to alternative add-on drugs. Methods and analysis Placebo-controlled, random crossover study of fourth-line treatment when added to standard (A+C+D) triple drug therapy: ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin receptor blocker (A) +Calcium channel blocker (C)+Diuretic (D). Patients (aged 18–79 years) with clinical systolic BP≥140 mm Hg (135 mm Hg in diabetics) and Home BP Monitoring (HBPM) systolic BP average ≥130 mm Hg on treatment for at least 3 months with maximum tolerated doses of A+C+D are randomised to four consecutive randomly allocated 12-week treatment cycles with an α-blocker, β-blocker, spironolactone and placebo. The hierarchical coprimary end point is the difference in HBPM average systolic BP between (in order) spironolactone and placebo, spironolactone and the average of the other two active drugs, spironolactone and each of the other two drugs. A key secondary outcome is to determine whether plasma renin predicts the BP response to the different drugs. A sample size of 346 (allowing 15% dropouts) will confer 90% power to detect a 3 mm Hg HBPM average systolic BP difference between any two drugs. The study can also detect a 6 mm Hg difference in HBPM average systolic BP between each patient's best and second-best drug predicted by tertile of plasma renin. Ethics and dissemination The study was initiated in May 2009 and results are expected in 2015. These will provide RCT evidence to support future guideline recommendations for optimal drug treatment of resistant hypertension. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02369081, EUDract number: 2008-007149-30. PMID:26253568

  20. The role of renal nerve ablation for the management of resistant hypertension and other disease conditions: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Faselis, C; Doumas, M; Kokkinos, P; Tsioufis, C; Papademetriou, V

    2014-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is overactivated in resistant hypertension and several other disease conditions. A reciprocal association between the brain and the kidney has been described, in that sympathetic overactivity affects renal function while renal injury stimulates central sympathetic drive. Renal nerve ablation has been recently introduced as a potential alternative for the management of resistant hypertension, mainly due to current limitations in pharmacologic antihypertensive therapy. Data accumulated thus far point towards an efficacious and safe interventional method for the management of treatment resistance, with additional benefits on glucose metabolism and cardiac structure and function. Furthermore, beneficial effects have been observed in patients with chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovary syndrome, and sympathetically driven tachyarrhythmias. However, as with every novel technique, several questions need to be answered and concerns need to be addressed before the wide application of this interventional approach.

  1. Association Between Hypertension, Menopause, and Cognition in Women.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Judith M; Cerezo, Gustavo H; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vicario, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive state in women and its relation to menopause and hypertension (HTN). The authors included 1034 women aged 47.13±15.71 years. The prevalence of HTN was 47.1%, with 67.8% of patients treated and 48.6% controlled. Cognitive impairment was higher among hypertensive menopausal (mini-Boston Naming Test: 7.4±3.1 vs 8.5±2.4, P<.001; Clock-Drawing Test: 5.2±2 vs 5.6±1.6, P<.01). Using logistic regression adjusted by age and education level, statistical differences were found in the results from the mini-Boston Naming Test between menopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.07; P=.021), and no difference between nonmenopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.57; P=.697). The P interaction between both groups was significant (P=.038). The possibility of alteration in cortical functions in menopausal hypertensive woman showed a relative increment of 48% (P=.021). The association between HTN and menopause increases the possibility of compromising the semantic memory by 50%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 20-HETE modulates myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from hypertensive Dahl-SS rats.

    PubMed

    Frisbee, J C; Roman, R J; Krishna, U M; Falck, J R; Lombard, J H

    2001-03-01

    The present study determined the role of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [20-HETE; produced by omega-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid via cytochrome P-450 (CP450) 4A enzymes] in regulating myogenic activation of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Gracilis arteries (GA) were isolated from each rat and viewed via television microscopy, and changes in vessel diameter with altered transmural pressure were measured with a video micrometer. Under control conditions, GA from both groups exhibited strong, endothelium-independent myogenic activation. Treatment of GA with 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA; inhibitor of CP450 4A enzymes) did not alter myogenic activation in NT rats, but impaired this response in HT animals. Treatment of GA from HT rats with dibromo-dodecynyl-methylsulfimide (DDMS; inhibitor of 20-HETE production) impaired myogenic activation, as did application of 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid, an antagonist for 20-HETE receptors. Application of iberiotoxin, a Ca(2+)-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channel inhibitor, restored myogenic activation from HT rats treated with DDMS. These results suggest that myogenic activation of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from NT Dahl-SS rats does not depend on CP450, whereas myogenic activation of these vessels in HT Dahl-SS rats is partly a function of 20-HETE production, inhibiting K(Ca) channels through a receptor-mediated process.

  3. Cardiovascular Hypertensive Crisis: Recent Evidence and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Varounis, Christos; Katsi, Vasiliki; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Lekakis, John; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of hypertension (HTN), only a small proportion of the hypertensive patients will ultimately develop hypertensive crisis. In fact, some patients with hypertensive crisis do not report a history of HTN or previous use of antihypertensive medication. The majority of the patients with hypertensive crisis often report non-specific symptoms, whereas heart-related symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, arrhythmias, and syncope) are less common. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergencies or hypertensive urgencies according to the presence or absence of acute target organ damage, respectively. This differentiation is an extremely useful classification in clinical practice since a different management is needed, which in turn has a significant effect on the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Therefore, it is very crucial for the physician in the emergency department to identify the hypertensive emergencies and to manage them through blood pressure lowering medications in order to avoid further target organ damage or deterioration. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the recent evidence in an effort to improve the awareness, recognition, risk stratification, and treatment of hypertensive crisis in patients referred to the emergency department. PMID:28119918

  4. Hypertension management in the oldest old: Findings from a large long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Susan; McKay, Robin; Dinkel, Shirley; Mansfield, Bobbe; Da Cunha, Brooke Faria; Cummins, Savanna; Brunin, Krystal

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate hypertension (HTN) management in patients 80 years of age and older who reside in a large, long-term care (LTC) facility. A retrospective chart audit was conducted on 75 charts of patients 80 years of age and older and who had a diagnosis of HTN. Using the 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) Expert Consensus Document on Management of Hypertension in the Elderly as a guide, blood pressure readings, significant comorbidities, and antihypertensive medication utilization were analyzed. LTC residents in this sample were often not treated according to expert recommendations. Specifically, analysis revealed overtreatment of uncomplicated HTN and undertreatment of those with comorbid conditions. Additionally, those with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were infrequently prescribed ace inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, as recommended. Utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) guidelines affords the best avenue for providing safe and effective treatment of HTN. While expert recommendations are available, researchers seldom recruit frail elders in LTC facilities into treatment investigations. In the absence of population-specific EBP guidelines, nurse practitioners must rely on expert opinion and diagnostic reasoning to individualize HTN treatment to this unique and vulnerable population. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Hypertension in children with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Skrzypczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This review summarizes current data on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of hypertension (HTN) in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Worldwide prevalence of ESRD ranges from 5.0 to 84.4 per million age-related population. HTN is present in 27-79% of children with ESRD, depending on the modality of renal replacement therapy and the exact definition of hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring has been recommended for the detection of HTN and evaluation of treatment effectiveness. HTN in dialyzed patients is mostly related to hypervolemia, sodium overload, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system, impaired nitric oxide synthesis, reduced vitamin D levels, and effects of microRNA. In children undergoing chronic dialysis therapy, important factors include optimization of renal replacement therapy and preservation of residual renal function, allowing reduction of volume- and sodium-overload, along with appropriate drug treatment, particularly with calcium channel blockers, RAAS inhibitors, and loop diuretics.

  6. Trends in Antihypertensive Medication Use Among US Patients With Resistant Hypertension, 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Andrew Y; Dave, Chintan; Smith, Steven M

    2016-12-01

    Little is known of US trends in antihypertensive drug use for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). We analyzed antihypertensive use among patients with TRH (treated with ≥4 antihypertensive drugs concurrently) from July 2008 through December 2014 using Marketscan administrative data. We included adults aged 18 to 65 years, with ≥6 months of continuous enrollment, a hypertension diagnosis, and ≥1 episode of overlapping use of ≥4 antihypertensive drugs; patients with heart failure were excluded. We identified 411 652 unique TRH episodes from 261 652 patients with a mean age of 55.9 years. From 2008 to 2014, we observed an increased prevalence, among TRH episodes, of β-blockers (+6.8% [79% to 85.8%]) and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (+8.1% [69.1% to 77.2%]), and a decreased prevalence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (-12.5% [60.4% to 47.9%]) and nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists (-5.0% [15% to 10%]). The prevalence of most other classes changed by <5% from 2008 to 2014. Thiazide diuretic use was largely unchanged from 2008 to 2014, with hydrochlorothiazide being by far the most prevalent thiazide diuretic; chlorthalidone use increased only modestly (+2.6% [3.8% to 6.4%]). Aldosterone antagonist use increased only modestly (+2.9% [7.3% to 10.2%]). Use of optimal regimens increased steadily (+13.8% [50.8% to 64.6%]) during the study period, whereas combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use declined (-11.4% [17.7% to 6.3%]). Our results highlight the persistent infrequent use of recommended therapies in TRH, including spironolactone and chlorthalidone, and suggest a need for better efforts to increase the use of such approaches in light of recent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Missed Opportunities to Improve the Health of Postpartum Women: High Rates of Untreated Hypertension in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Larson, Elysia; Rabkin, Miriam; Mbaruku, Godfrey M; Mbatia, Redempta; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-03-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of high blood pressure amongst postpartum women in rural Tanzania, and to explore factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods 1849 women in Tanzania's Pwani Region who delivered a child in the prior year participated in the study. We measured blood pressure, administered a structured questionnaire and assessed factors associated with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension (HTN) using bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions. Findings 26.7% of women had high blood pressure and/or were taking antihypertensive medication. Women were on average 27.5 years old (range 15-54). Nearly all women (99.5%) reported contact with the health system during their pregnancy and delivery, with an average of 5.2 visits for their own care in the past year. Only 23.5% of those with HTN were aware of their diagnosis, 17.4% were taking medication, and only 10.5% had controlled blood pressure. In multivariable analysis, facility delivery, health insurance, and increased distance from a hospital were associated with increased likelihood of HTN awareness; facility delivery and hospital distance were associated with current hypertensive treatment; younger age and increased hospital distance were associated with control of HTN. Conclusion The prevalence of high blood pressure in this postpartum population was high, and despite frequent recent contacts with the health system, awareness, treatment and control of HTN were low. These findings highlight an important missed opportunity to improve women's health during antenatal and postnatal care.

  8. [Effects of Ghrelin on hypertension and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yin-tao; Shao, Li; Yang, Hai-bo; Li, Ling; Teng, Li-li

    2013-03-26

    To explore the effects and mechanisms of Ghrelin on hypertension and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into control (A) and fructose-fed groups (B). Rats in group B were fed with 10% fructose solution for 4 weeks. Then the rats in group A were randomized into intraperitoneal saline (group GA1) or intraperitoneal 50 nmol/kg Ghrelin (group GA2) and those in group B into intraperitoneal saline (group GB1) or intraperitoneal 50 nmol/kg Ghrelin (group GB2) twice daily for 6 weeks. Caudal arterial pressure was measured weekly. Plasma blood glucose, insulin concentration and lipid profile were measured. And insulin resistance (IR) was calculated by the method of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Plasma level of 15-F2t-isoprostane was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ghrelin caused a significant reduction of systolic pressure at Week 3 in group GB2 versus group GB1 (P < 0.05). Maximal effect appeared at Week 5 ((127 ± 5) vs (120 ± 6) mm Hg, P < 0.05, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), but blood pressure failed to reach normal value. Ghrelin also decreased plasma insulin concentration and HOMA-IR ((9.6 ± 2.6) vs (13.1 ± 3.6) µU/ml, P < 0.05;1.92 ± 0.12 vs 2.78 ± 0.14, P < 0.01). Plasma level of 15-F2t-isoprostane was lower in group GB2 than that in group GB1 ((75 ± 11) vs (102 ± 14) pg/ml, P < 0.01). Ghrelin may lower blood pressure, ameliorate insulin resistance and improve insulin sensitivity through inhibiting oxidative stress in fructose-induced rats.

  9. Chronic caffeine intake decreases circulating catecholamines and prevents diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Conde, Silvia V; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Gonzalez, Constancio; Mota Carmo, Miguel; Monteiro, Emilia C; Guarino, Maria P

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that long-term caffeine intake prevents the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in two pathological animal models: the high-fat (HF) and the high-sucrose (HSu) diet rat. We used six groups of animals: control; caffeine-treated (Caff; 1 g/l in drinking water during 15 d); HF; caffeine-treated HF (HFCaff); HSu; caffeine-treated HSu (HSuCaff). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the insulin tolerance test. Blood pressure, weight gain, visceral fat, hepatic glutathione, plasma caffeine, insulin and NO, and serum NEFA and catecholamines were measured. Caffeine reversed insulin resistance and hypertension induced by both the HF and HSu diets. In the HF-fed animals caffeine treatment restored fasting insulin levels to control values and reversed increased weight gain and visceral fat mass. In the HSu group, caffeine reversed fasting hyperglycaemia and restored NEFA to control values. There were no changes either in plasma NO or in hepatic glutathione levels. In contrast, caffeine totally prevented the increase in serum catecholamines induced by HF and HSu diets. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system prevents the development of diet-induced insulin resistance we administered carvedilol, an antagonist of β1, β2 and also α1 adrenoceptors, to HF and HSu rats. Carvedilol treatment fully prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension, mimicking the effect of caffeine. We concluded that long-term caffeine intake prevented the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in HF and HSu models and that this effect was related to a decrease in circulating catecholamines.

  10. EFFECTS OF DIETARY SODIUM REDUCTION ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN SUBJECTS WITH RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Gaddam, Krishna K.; Oparil, Suzanne; Aban, Inmaculada; Husain, Saima; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; Calhoun, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies indicate a significant relation between dietary sodium and level of blood pressure. However, the role of salt sensitivity in the development of resistant hypertension is unknown. The present study examined the effects of dietary salt restriction on office and 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Twelve subjects with resistant hypertension entered into a randomized, cross-over evaluation of low (50 mmol/24-hr × 7 days) and high sodium diets (250 mmol/24-hr × 7 days) separated by a 2-week washout period. Brain natriuretic peptide; plasma renin activity; 24-hr urinary aldosterone, sodium, and potassium; 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; aortic pulse wave velocity; and augmentation index were compared between dietary treatment periods. At baseline, subjects were on an average of 3.4±0.5 antihypertensive medications with a mean office BP of 145.8±10.8/83.9±11.2 mm Hg. Mean urinary sodium excretion was 46.1±26.8 vs. 252.2±64.6 mmol/24-hr during low- vs. high-salt intake. Low- compared to high-salt diet decreased office systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 22.7 and 9.1 mm Hg, respectively. Plasma renin activity increased while brain natriuretic peptide and creatinine clearance decreased during low-salt intake, indicative of intravascular volume reduction. These results indicate that excessive dietary sodium ingestion contributes importantly to resistance to antihypertensive treatment. Strategies to substantially reduce dietary salt intake should be part of the overall treatment of resistant hypertension. PMID:19620517

  11. Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Gaddam, Krishna K; Oparil, Suzanne; Aban, Inmaculada; Husain, Saima; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Calhoun, David A

    2009-09-01

    Observational studies indicate a significant relation between dietary sodium and level of blood pressure. However, the role of salt sensitivity in the development of resistant hypertension is unknown. The present study examined the effects of dietary salt restriction on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Twelve subjects with resistant hypertension entered into a randomized crossover evaluation of low (50 mmol/24 hours x 7 days) and high sodium diets (250 mmol/24 hours x 7 days) separated by a 2-week washout period. Brain natriuretic peptide; plasma renin activity; 24-hour urinary aldosterone, sodium, and potassium; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; aortic pulse wave velocity; and augmentation index were compared between dietary treatment periods. At baseline, subjects were on an average of 3.4+/-0.5 antihypertensive medications with a mean office BP of 145.8+/-10.8/83.9+/-11.2 mm Hg. Mean urinary sodium excretion was 46.1+/-26.8 versus 252.2+/-64.6 mmol/24 hours during low- versus high-salt intake. Low- compared to high-salt diet decreased office systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 22.7 and 9.1 mm Hg, respectively. Plasma renin activity increased whereas brain natriuretic peptide and creatinine clearance decreased during low-salt intake, indicative of intravascular volume reduction. These results indicate that excessive dietary sodium ingestion contributes importantly to resistance to antihypertensive treatment. Strategies to substantially reduce dietary salt intake should be part of the overall treatment of resistant hypertension.

  12. Structural determinants of vascular resistance properties in hypertension. Haemodynamic and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Korner, P I; Angus, J A

    1992-01-01

    The average internal radius (ri) of the resistance vessels of the hindquarter (HQ) bed was narrower in renovascular and genetic hypertension than in normotensive controls. The narrowing was approximately uniform over the full range of vasomotor tone, which accounted for the bed's property as an 'amplifier' of vascular resistance (R) (increased slope (S) of the dose-R response curve) and for the elevated R at maximum dilatation (Rmin). In the model we examined the effects on the dose-R curve parameters of altering wall/internal radius (w/ri) ratio, ri and wall 'stiffness' one at a time, whilst the others were held constant: only narrowing of ri led to increases in both S and Rmin; with hypertrophy alone, S increased but Rmin was reduced, whilst increased wall stiffness increased Rmin but lowered S. Thus, for hypertrophy to be associated with rises of both S and Rmin, it must be linked to lumen narrowing, to increased wall stiffness, or to both. Preferential deposition of new material towards the lumen will link hypertrophy to narrowing. It has been suggested that narrowing can occur without hypertrophy ('remodelling'). In the model an increase of only 1-2% WV was required to produce rises in w/ri of congruent to 30-50% when associated with congruent to 10-15% reduction in ri, which is close to the limit of detection. From the literature, the sites of greater narrowing in hypertension extend down to small arteries and large arterioles. The rise in BP upstream from those sites, due to the vascular amplifier, offsets the down-stream effects of vascular narrowing on blood flow and this negative feedback system helps to maintain elevation of BP at a stable level. We also examined developmental rise in R between 4 and 50 weeks, which affected SHR and WKY in the same proportion: structural factors (vascular length of larger arteries, 'rarefaction' of arterioles and capillaries) accounted for only about half the rise in R, and the remainder was probably due to developmental

  13. Spleno-renal artery transposition in a solitary functioning kidney for treatment-resistant hypertension and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Somalanka, Subash; Harris, Fiona E; Chemla, Eric; Suckling, Rebecca Jo; Swift, Pauline A

    2017-08-16

    Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS) is an important cause of treatment-resistant hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension with RAS can cause progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to end-stage kidney disease. Therapeutic revascularisation can be helpful in appropriate circumstances where pharmaceutical intervention has failed and significant renovascular disease contributes to resistant hypertension. We present an interesting case of a Caucasian male with peripheral vasculopathy, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), single functioning kidney and ostial RAS caused by stent struts from an endovascular AAA stent graft. He had escalating medications requirement, with repeated failed attempts at percutaneous radiological intervention that led to an episode of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), before undergoing successful surgical revascularisation by a splenic artery transposition graft to the left renal artery that was performed to improve kidney function and the blood pressure. This report highlights the challenges faced with regard to the management of severe hypertension and progressive CKD. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Mineralocorticoid hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 10 – 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta), aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism – Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3), non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia), and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy) to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy) for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers) and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics). Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy. PMID:22145132

  15. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Central Region of Togo.

    PubMed

    Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Djikpo Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon; Abdoul-Rahaman, Saliou; Anani, Kokou; Koudouvo, Koffi; Batawila, Komlan; Agbonon, Amegnona; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2011-12-01

    The Tem tribe in the Central Region of Togo is a population with an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants. However, little is known about their medical practices, principally the use of plants in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN). The present study documented the indigenous medicinal plant utilization for the management of DM and HTN in the Togo Central Region. From March to October 2010, 55 traditional healers were interviewed about their knowledge on the use of plants for DM and HTN treatment. The results revealed that 35/55 (63.64%) healers had treated at least one case of DM and/or HTN. They highlighted the use of 64 species belonging to 31 families in the treatment of DM and/or HTN. The most used plants against diabetes were Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (Rubiaceae), Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Phyllanthaceae), and Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. (Polygalacae), while Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) and Parkia biglobosa Benth. (Fabaceae), followed by Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Gardenia ternifolia Schumach. (Rubiaceae), and Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) were the most commonly cited as antihypertensive. The issue revealed that traditional healers of the above mentioned region have basic knowledge regarding herbal medicine for DM and HTN in comparison with previous published reports. Further pharmacological screening of the identified plants should be conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of these plants.

  16. The effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Jong-Won

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men. To achieve the goal of the study, a total of 23 subjects were selected. Among them, 14 subjects who exercised regularly were selected as the exercise group, while the remaining 9 subjects were selected as the control group. In terms of data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Regarding the verification of difference on the change of means between the groups, analysis of covariance was used for statistical process. As a result, significant differences were found in cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, flexibility, and triglyceride. These results indicate that the resistance exercise only had slight effect on hypertensive middle-aged men. PMID:28349040

  17. Exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction limits muscle metaboreflex-induced increases in ventricular performance in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spranger, Marty D; Kaur, Jasdeep; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Alvarez, Alberto; Machado, Tiago M; Augustyniak, Robert A; O'Leary, Donal S

    2017-01-01

    Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise likely occurs via the action of and interaction among activation of skeletal muscle afferents, central command, and resetting of the arterial baroreflex. As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction in canines during mild treadmill exercise with muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA; elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance. Experiments were repeated after α1-adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 75 µg/kg) and in the same animals following induction of HTN (modified Goldblatt 2K1C model). HTN increased mean arterial pressure from 97.1 ± 2.6 to 132.1 ± 5.6 mmHg at rest and MMA-induced increases in CBF, left ventricular dP/dtmax, and cardiac output were markedly reduced to only 32 ± 13, 26 ± 11, and 28 ± 12% of the changes observed in control. In HTN, α1-adrenergic blockade restored the coronary vasodilation and increased in ventricular function to the levels observed when normotensive. We conclude that exaggerated MMA-induced increases in SNA functionally vasoconstrict the coronary vasculature impairing increases in CBF, which limits oxygen delivery and ventricular performance in HTN. We found that metaboreflex-induced increases in coronary blood flow and ventricular contractility are attenuated in hypertension. α1-Adrenergic blockade restored these parameters toward normal levels. These findings indicate that the primary mechanism mediating impaired metaboreflex-induced increases in ventricular function in hypertension is accentuated coronary vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  18. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) handling overrides fatty acid potentiation of cardiac inotropy in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chun Li; Yin, Ming Zhe; Paeng, Jin Chul; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Jin, Peng; Jin, Chun Zi; Zhao, Zai Hao; Wang, Yue; Kang, Keon Wook; Leem, Chae Hun; Park, Jong-Wan; Kim, Sung Joon; Zhang, Yin Hua

    2017-05-22

    Cardiac neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important molecule that regulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and contractility of healthy and diseased hearts. Here, we examined the effects of nNOS on fatty acid (FA) regulation of left ventricular (LV) myocyte contraction in sham and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive (HTN) rats. Our results showed that palmitic acid (PA, 100 μM) increased the amplitudes of sarcomere shortening and intracellular ATP in sham but not in HTN despite oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was increased by PA in both groups. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor, etomoxir (ETO), reduced OCR and ATP with PA in sham and HTN but prevented PA potentiation of sarcomere shortening only in sham. PA increased nNOS-derived NO only in HTN. Inhibition of nNOS with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) prevented PA-induced OCR and restored PA potentiation of myocyte contraction in HTN. Mechanistically, PA increased intracellular Ca(2+) transient ([Ca(2+)]i) without changing Ca(2+) influx via L-type Ca(2+) channel (I-LTCC) and reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in sham. nNOS inhibition increased [Ca(2+)]i, I-LTCC and reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity prior to PA supplementation; as such, normalized PA increment of [Ca(2+)]i. In HTN, PA reduced I-LTCC without affecting [Ca(2+)]i or myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. However, PA increased I-LTCC, [Ca(2+)]i and reduced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity following nNOS inhibition. Myocardial FA oxidation ((18)F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid, (18)F-FTHA) was comparable between groups, but nNOS inhibition increased it only in HTN. Collectively, PA increases myocyte contraction through stimulating [Ca(2+)]i and mitochondrial activity in healthy hearts. PA-dependent cardiac inotropy was limited by nNOS in HTN, predominantly due to its modulatory effect on [Ca(2+)]i handling.

  19. History of Hypertension and the Effects of Eplerenone in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Bertram; Ahmed, Ali; Love, Thomas E.; Krum, Henry; Nicolau, Jose; Silva Cardoso, José; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Aschermann, Michael; Corbalán, Ramon; Solomon, Henry; Shi, Harry; Zannad, Faiez

    2013-01-01

    In the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (n=6632), eplerenone-associated reduction in all-cause mortality was significantly greater in those with a history of hypertension (Hx-HTN). There were 4007 patients with Hx-HTN (eplerenone: n=1983) and 2625 patients without Hx-HTN (eplerenone: n=1336). Propensity scores for eplerenone use, separately calculated for patients with and without Hx-HTN, were used to assemble matched cohorts of 1838 and 1176 pairs of patients. In patients with Hx-HTN, all-cause mortality occurred in 18% of patients treated with placebo (rate, 1430/10 000 person-years) and 14% of patients treated with eplerenone (rate, 1058/10 000 person-years) during 2350 and 2457 years of follow-up, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.85; P<0.0001). Composite end point of cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality occurred in 33% of placebo-treated patients (3029/10 000 person-years) and 28% of eplerenone-treated patients (2438/10 000 person-years) with Hx-HTN (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.94; P=0.003). In patients without Hx-HTN, eplerenone reduced heart failure hospitalization (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.97; P=0.028) but had no effect on mortality (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.15; P=0.435) or on the composite end point (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.10; P=0.331). Eplerenone should, therefore, be prescribed to all of the post–acute myocardial infarction patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and heart failure regardless of Hx-HTN. PMID:18559720

  20. Ketamine does not increase pulmonary vascular resistance in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Glyn D; Philip, Bridget M; Chu, Larry F; Boltz, M Gail; Kamra, Komal; Terwey, Heidi; Hammer, Gregory B; Perry, Stanton B; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2007-12-01

    The use of ketamine in children with increased pulmonary vascular resistance is controversial. In this prospective, open label study, we evaluated the hemodynamic responses to ketamine in children with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg). Children aged 3 mo to 18 yr with pulmonary hypertension, who were scheduled for cardiac catheterization with general anesthesia, were studied. Patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane (1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC]) in air while breathing spontaneously via a facemask. After baseline catheterization measurements, sevoflurane was reduced (0.5 MAC) and ketamine (2 mg/kg IV over 5 min) was administered, followed by a ketamine infusion (10 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Catheterization measurements were repeated at 5, 10, and 15 min after completion of ketamine load. Data at various time points were compared (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Fifteen patients (age 147, 108 mo; median, interquartile range) were studied. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (5), congenital heart disease (9), and diaphragmatic hernia (1). At baseline, median (interquartile range) baseline pulmonary vascular resistance index was 11.3 (8.2) Wood units; 33% of patients had suprasystemic mean pulmonary artery pressures. Heart rate (99, 94 bpm; P = 0.016) and Pao2 (95, 104 mm Hg; P = 007) changed after ketamine administration (baseline, 15 min after ketamine; P value). There were no significant differences in mean systemic arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, systemic or pulmonary vascular resistance index, cardiac index, arterial pH, or Paco2. In the presence of sevoflurane, ketamine did not increase pulmonary vascular resistance in spontaneously breathing children with severe pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration versus Usual Care for Treatment-Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven M.; Carris, Nicholas W.; Dietrich, Eric; Gums, John G.; Uribe, Liz; Coffey, Christopher S.; Gums, Tyler H.; Carter, Barry L.

    2016-01-01

    Team-based care has been recommended for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH), but its efficacy in this setting is unknown. We compared a physician-pharmacist collaborative model (PPCM) to usual care in patients with TRH participating in the Collaboration Among Pharmacists and physicians To Improve Outcomes Now (CAPTION) study. At baseline, 169 patients (27% of CAPTION patients) had TRH: 111 received the PPCM intervention and 58 received usual care. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms. After 9 months, adjusted mean systolic BP was reduced by 7 mmHg more with PPCM intervention than usual care (p=0.036). BP control was 34.2% with PPCM versus 25.9% with usual care (adjusted OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.33–11.2). These findings suggest that team-based care in the primary care setting may be effective for TRH. Additional research is needed regarding the long-term impact of these models and to identify patients most likely to benefit from team-based interventions. PMID:26852290

  2. Functional alterations of mesenteric small resistance arteries in Milan hypertensive and normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Castellano, Maurizio; Porteri, Enzo; Giacchè, Mara; Ferrari, Patrizia; Cusi, Daniele; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2009-07-01

    The Milan hypertensive rat strain (MHS) is a genetic strain in which cardiovascular phenotypes seem to be dependent, at least in part, on adducin gene polymorphisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate the structure, contractile responses and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mesenteric small resistance arteries in 12-week-old MHS, (n=7), age-matched Milan normotensive rats (MNS, n=7) and congenic strains in which the DNA segments carrying the alpha-adducin locus from the MHS have been introgressed into the MNS (MNA, n=7). Systolic blood pressure (tail cuff) and left ventricular weight to body weight were measured. Mesenteric small arteries were dissected and mounted on a micromyograph; the media:lumen ratio was then calculated. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine and to norepinephrine (NE) were created. Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in the MHS and MNA strains compared with the MNS. No significant difference in mesenteric small resistance artery structure was observed among the groups; however, a slightly more elevated media:lumen ratio was observed in MNA compared with the MNS. In contrast, left ventricular weight to body weight was significantly increased and ACH-induced dilatation was significantly impaired in the MHS and in MNA compared with MNS. The concentration-response curve to NE in the MHS showed significantly reduced sensitivity to NE; however, maximum contraction was increased in the MHS vs. the other groups. The MHS presents cardiac (but not vascular) remodeling, endothelial dysfunction and a peculiar contractile response to NE, compared with the other groups. The systolic blood pressure increase and trend to vascular remodeling in MNA support the pathogenic role of alpha-adducin.

  3. Brain Transforming Growth Factor-β Resists Hypertension Via Regulating Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Shen, Xiao Z; Li, Liang; Zhao, Tuantuan V; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Johnson, Alan K; Lyden, Patrick; Fang, Jianmin; Shi, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. Recent work unveiled that hypertension is associated with chronic neuroinflammation; microglia are the major players in neuroinflammation, and the activated microglia elevate sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. This study is to understand how brain homeostasis is kept from hypertensive disturbance and microglial activation at the onset of hypertension. Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous delivery of angiotensin II, and blood pressure was monitored in conscious animals. Microglial activity was analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Antibody, pharmacological chemical, and recombinant cytokine were administered to the brain through intracerebroventricular infusion. Microglial depletion was performed by intracerebroventricular delivering diphtheria toxin to CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor mice. Gene expression profile in sympathetic controlling nucleus was analyzed by customized qRT-PCR array. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is constitutively expressed in the brains of normotensive mice. Removal of TGF-β or blocking its signaling before hypertension induction accelerated hypertension progression, whereas supplementation of TGF-β1 substantially suppressed neuroinflammation, kidney norepinephrine level, and blood pressure. By means of microglial depletion and adoptive transfer, we showed that the effects of TGF-β on hypertension are mediated through microglia. In contrast to the activated microglia in established hypertension, the resting microglia are immunosuppressive and important in maintaining neural homeostasis at the onset of hypertension. Further, we profiled the signature molecules of neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity associated with hypertension and TGF-β by qRT-PCR array. Our results identify that TGF-β-modulated microglia are critical to keeping brain homeostasis responding to hypertensive disturbance. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. SSA 03-1 PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    : Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%. Of those aware that they have hypertension, about half are on treatment, following the global rule of halves in HTN. Control rates to BP levels below 140/90[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]mmHg remains dismally low.HTN is also a common comorbid condition with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the region, with HTN coexisting in 40%-60% of individuals with T2DM, and vice-versa. These dual problem likely accounts for the increased deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), which remains the leading cause of mortality.At least seven countries in the region have standard national guidelines for the management of hypertension, with some of these countries initiating efforts at reducing salt intake at the population level. These efforts need to be scaled up and adopted by the other countries in SEA.Considered an urgent public health problem, barriers to effective prevention and control remain a major challenge in the region. These barriers include cultural norms and practices that promote unhealthy behaviors and misconceptions about HTN, the lack of an enabling environment for healthy lifestyle practices, increased tobacco use, disparities in healthcare with inadequate access for early detection and treatment especially primary healthcare facilities, high out-of-pocket cost of treatment, and generally poor adherence to treatment.Majority of the countries in SEA have already strengthened their public education

  5. Direct in situ measurement of nitric oxide in mesenteric resistance arteries. Increased decomposition by superoxide in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tschudi, M R; Mesaros, S; Lüscher, T F; Malinski, T

    1996-01-01

    The endothelium plays a critical role in maintaining vascular tone by releasing vasoconstrictor and vasodilator substances. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is a vasodilator that can be rapidly inactivated by superoxide (reaction rate constant, K = 3.6 x 10(9) L/mol per second). The measurement of nitric oxide concentration in biological systems is a challenging analytic problem because nitric oxide is also rapidly inactivated by Fe(II), Fe(III), and O2, all of which are found in great abundance in biological systems. To date, no currently used instrumental technique has been suitable for direct in situ measurement of NO in isolated resistance arteries. We designed the present study to perform for the first time direct in situ measurements of NO in rat mesenteric resistance arteries and to delineate the effects of hypertension on the release of NO and/or its interaction with superoxide. We describe here an adaptation of the recently published design of a porphyrinic sensor for direct in vitro measurement of NO in a single cell. The most significant advantage of this modified porphyrinic microsensor is that its small size makes it ideal for NO measurement in resistance arteries with an internal diameter of 200 microns or less. Small segments of the third-order branch of the mesenteric artery were isolated from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and placed in an organ chamber filled with Hanks' balanced salt solution buffer (2 mL, 37 degrees C). The tip of the porphyrinic microsensor was inserted into the lumen of an isolated vascular ring, and NO release was monitored in situ after maximal stimulation of NO synthase with the receptor-independent agonist calcium ionophore A23187 (10 mumol/L). Maximal surface concentration of NO measured after A23187 administration was significantly smaller in 15-week-old hypertensive rats (0.28 +/- 0.03 mumol/L, n = 10) than in age-matched normotensive rats (0.38 +/- 0.03 mumol/L, n = 10

  6. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in salt-sensitive hypertension: role of angiotensin II activation of NFκB.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Sheng; Liu, Chang; Tian, Runxia; Nishiyama, Akira; Raij, Leopoldo

    2015-05-01

    We have previously shown that in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and to insulin is mechanistically linked to up-regulation of angiotensin (Ang) II actions and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor (NF)κB. Here we investigated whether Ang II activation of NFκB contributed to insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle of this animal model. DS rats were fed either a normal (NS, 0.5% NaCl) or high (HS, 4% NaCl) salt diet for 6 weeks. In addition, 3 separate groups of HS rats were given angiotensin receptor 1 blocker candesartan (ARB, 10 mg/kg/day in drinking water), antioxidant tempol (1 mmol/L in drinking water) or NFκB inhibitor PDTC (150 mg/kg in drinking water). DS rats manifested an increase in soleus muscle Ang II content, ROS production and phosopho-IκBα/IκBα ratio, ARB or tempol reduced ROS and phospho-IκBα/IκBα ratio. Hypertensive DS rats also manifested a reduction in glucose infusion rate, impaired insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and Glut-4 translocation in the soleus muscle, which were prevented with treatment of either ARB, tempol, or PDTC. Data from the rat diabetes signaling pathway PCR array showed that 8 genes among 84 target genes were altered in the muscle of hypertensive rats with the increase in gene expression of ACE1 and 5 proinflammatory genes, and decrease of 2 glucose metabolic genes. Incubation of the muscle with NFκB SN50 (a specific peptide inhibitor of NFκB) ex vivo reversed changes in hypertension-induced gene expression. The current findings strongly suggest that the activation of NFκB inflammatory pathway by Ang II play a critical role in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension and risk for stroke, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Marguerite R; Booth, John N; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T; Oparil, Suzanne; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul; Calhoun, David A

    2014-06-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of three or more antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with four or more antihypertensive medication classes. We evaluated the association of aTRH with incident stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality. Participants from the population-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study treated for hypertension with aTRH (n = 2043) and without aTRH (n = 12,479) were included. aTRH was further categorized as controlled aTRH (≥4 medication classes and controlled hypertension) and uncontrolled aTRH (≥3 medication classes and uncontrolled hypertension). Over a median of 5.9, 4.4, and 6.0 years of follow-up, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for stroke, CHD, and all-cause mortality associated with aTRH versus no aTRH was 1.25 (0.94-1.65), 1.69 (1.27-2.24), and 1.29 (1.14-1.46), respectively. Compared with controlled aTRH, uncontrolled aTRH was associated with CHD (hazard ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.48), but not stroke or mortality. Comparing controlled aTRH with no aTRH, risk of stroke, CHD, and all-cause mortality was not elevated. aTRH was associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality.

  8. Association of obstructive sleep apnea plus hypertension and prevalent cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Cai, Anping; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jiyan; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Current study sought to evaluate the associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus hypertension (HTN) and prevalent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This was a cross-sectional study and a total of 1889 subjects were enrolled. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by polysomnography and OSA degree was classified as mild (AHI 5–14.9) and moderate-severe (AHI ≥ 15), and AHI < 5 was considered no-OSA. Mean and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was detected by pulse oximetry. Between-group differences were assessed and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association of OSA plus HTN and prevalent CVD. Compared to normotensive subjects, hypertensive subjects were older and had higher body mass index (BMI), neck girth, waist–hip ratio, AHI, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Conversely, mean and lowest SaO2 levels were significantly lower. Logistic regression analysis showed that in an unadjusted model, compared to subjects with no-OSA and no-HTN (reference group), the association of HTN plus moderate-severe-OSA and prevalent CVD was the most prominent (odds ratio [OR]: 2.638 and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.942–3.583). In normotensive subjects, after adjusted for potential covariates, the associations of OSA (regardless of severity) and prevalent CVD were attenuated to nonsignificant. In hypertensive subjects, however, the associations remained significant but were reduced. Further adjusted for mean and lowest SaO2, the associations remained significant in HTN plus no-OSA (OR: 1.808, 95% CI: 1.207–2.707), HTN plus mild-OSA (OR: 2.003, 95% CI: 1.346–2.980), and HTN plus moderate-severe OSA (OR: 1.834, 95% CI: 1.214–2.770) groups. OSA plus HTN is associated with prevalent CVD, and OSA may potentiate the adverse cardiovascular effects on hypertensives patients but not normotensives. PMID:27684798

  9. A content analysis of smartphone-based applications for hypertension management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nilay; Khunger, Monica; Gupta, Arjun; Garg, Neetika

    2015-02-01

    Smartphone-based medical applications (apps) can facilitate self-management of hypertension (HTN). The content and consumer interaction metrics of HTN-related apps are unknown. In this cross-sectional study to ascertain the content of medical apps designed for HTN management, we queried Google Play and Apple iTunes using the search terms "hypertension" and "high blood pressure." The top 107 apps were analyzed. Major app functionalities including tracking (for blood pressure [BP], pulse, weight, body mass index), medical device (to measure pulse or BP), general information on HTN, and medication adherence tools were recorded along with consumer engagement parameters. Data were collected from May 28 to May 30, 2014. A total of 72% of the apps had tracking function, 22% had tools to enhance medication adherence, 37% contained general information on HTN, and 8% contained information on Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. These data showed that a majority of apps for HTN are designed primarily for health management functions. However, 14% of Google Android apps could transform the smartphone into a medical device to measure BP. None of these apps employed the use of a BP cuff or had any documentation of validation against a gold standard. Only 3% of the apps were developed by healthcare agencies such as universities or professional organizations. In regression models. the medical device function was highly predictive of greater number of downloads (odds ratio, 97.08; P < .001) and positive consumer reviews (Incidence rate ratios, 1204.39; P < .001). A large majority of medical apps designed for HTN serve health management functions such as tracking blood pressure, weight, or body mass index. Consumers have a strong tendency to download and favorably rate apps that are advertised to measure blood pressure and heart rate, despite a lack of validation for these apps. There is a need for greater oversight in medical app development for HTN, especially

  10. Association of Sasang Constitutional Types with Incident Hypertension: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chol

    2016-09-01

    Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) are four distinct classifications of people based on physiologic and physical characteristics. The different types have been reported to have different disease susceptibility, but there are no studies reporting the association of SCT and hypertension (HTN) over a long-term follow-up period. This study prospectively investigated the association between SCT and incidence of HTN. This was a prospective study in a population-based cohort study in Korea. Data from two independent population-based cohorts that are embedded within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were used. A total of 2083 subjects who were free of HTN at baseline were selected for the analysis. HTN was diagnosed as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, use of antihypertensive medication, or diagnosis by doctor. The SCTs were classified using an integrated diagnostic method that included facial features, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. The association between the SCT and the incidence of HTN was investigated by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and calculation of estimated survival functions. The Tae-eum (TE) type showed a significantly increased risk for HTN (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.10; p = 0.005), even after adjusting for all possible confounders. In a stratified analysis by body mass index (BMI) conducted only in the TE type, even those in the TE type with normal BMI had a significantly higher risk for HTN (HR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.03; p = 0.016). Furthermore, survival analysis showed that the TE type had a higher rate of developing HTN than the So-eum and So-yang types had, regardless of obesity status. These results show that the TE type is an independent risk factor for HTN. Thus, early prevention and treatment for HTN in this type are needed.

  11. Decaffeinated green tea extract improves hypertension and insulin resistance in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Sung-Won; Kim, Ok-Ran; Chang, Kiyuk; Oak, Min-Ho; Lee, Jung-Ok; Lim, Dong-Yoon; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are closely associated with hypertension and insulin resistance (IR) in metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is still controversial whether green tea extract (GTE) may have blood pressure (BP) lowering effect. Decaffeinated GTE might be presumed to have strong antioxidative effect and BP-lowering effect as compared with catechins. Thus we investigated whether decaffeinated-GTE could attenuate hypertension and IR by improving endothelial dysfunction and reducing oxidative stress in a rat model of MetS. 20 Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats at 13 weeks old, MetS rats, were randomized into a saline treated group (OLETF; n = 10) and a group treated with decaffeinated-GTE (25 mg/kg/day) (GTE-OLETF; n = 10). Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and BP measurements were performed at 13 and 25 weeks. Decaffeinated-GTE significantly reduced BP (OLETF vs. GTE-OLETF; 130 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.01), fasting/postprandial 2 h glucose (141 ± 18/159 ± 13 vs. 115 ± 7/132 ± 16 mg/dL, p = 0.009/0.002) and insulin levels (4.8 ± 2.3 vs. 2.4 ± 1.3 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Decaffeinated-GTE significantly reduced vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and NADPH oxidase activity, and improved endothelium dependent relaxation in the thoracic aorta of OLETF rats. Decaffeinated-GTE also suppressed the expression of p47 and p22phox (NADPH oxidase subunits) in the immunohistochemical staining, and stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt in the immunoblotting of aortas. Decaffeinated-GTE reduced the formation of ROS and NADPH oxidase activity and stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt in the aorta of a rat model of MetS, which resulted in improved endothelial dysfunction and IR, and eventually lowered BP. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Impact of renal denervation on tissue Na(+) content in treatment-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ott, Christian; Kopp, Christoph; Dahlmann, Anke; Schmid, Axel; Linz, Peter; Cavallaro, Alexander; Hammon, Matthias; Ditting, Tilmann; Veelken, Roland; Uder, Michael; Titze, Jens; Schmieder, Roland E

    2017-08-28

    Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na(+)) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na(+) homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na(+) content. In a study 41 patients with TRH (office BP ≥140/90 mmHg and diagnosis confirmed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring) underwent RDN. Tissue Na(+) content was assessed non-invasively with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging before and 6 months after RDN. In addition, 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion as an estimate of salt intake and spot urine Na(+)/K(+) excretion were assessed. The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (ID: NCT01687725). There was a significant fall in BP (office: -17 ± 20/-10 ± 12 mmHg; 24-h: -11 ± 13/-6 ± 9 mmHg, all p < 0.001) 6 months after RDN. In contrast, tissue Na(+) content of the muscle (20.1 ± 3.9 vs. 20.7 ± 4.0 mmol/L, p = 0.229) and skin (24.4 ± 6.5 vs. 24.8 ± 6.6 mmol/L, p = 0.695) did not change after RDN. Moreover, there was also no change in salt intake after RDN, whereas Na(+)/K(+) ratio only acutely increased. Although RDN resulted in a substantial reduction of BP, tissue Na(+) content of the muscle and skin was not mobilized and reduced. These data indicate that the BP reduction after RDN is unrelated to Na(+) homeostasis.

  13. Pulmonary artery acceleration time in identifying pulmonary hypertension patients with raised pulmonary vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Tossavainen, Erik; Söderberg, Stefan; Grönlund, Christer; Gonzalez, Manuel; Henein, Michael Y; Lindqvist, Per

    2013-09-01

    In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), ascertaining raised vascular resistance as a cause is a clinical objective, for which various Doppler-based measurements have been proposed, but with modest accuracy. We hypothesize that pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) and the ratio of PAcT/peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) reflect better the extent of the vascular resistance, compared with other available methods, and can differentiate accurately between pre- and post-capillary PH. We investigated 56 patients (mean age 61 ± 13 years, 23 males) in a simultaneous echocardiography and right heart catheterization (RHC) study. Based on the RHC, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), patients were divided into four groups: Group 1 = normal PVR [<3 WU (Wood units)] and PCWP (<12 mmHg), Group 2 = raised PVR but normal PCWP, Group 3 = raised PVR and PCWP; and Group 4 = normal PVR but raised PCWP. We used spectral Doppler to measure PAcT (corrected for heart rate) and to estimate PASP (peak tricuspid regurgitation pressure drop + estimated right atrial pressure of 7 mmHg). We also tested other available methods for assessing PVR. There were small age differences between patient groups but no age difference between Groups 2 and 4. PAcT and PAcT/PASP were both significantly (P = 0.008) reduced in Groups 2 and 3 compared with Groups 1 and 4. PAcT ≤90 had an 84% sensitivity and an 85% specificity in identifying patients with PVR ≥3 WU with a positive and a negative predictive value of 88% and 81%, respectively. The non-linear relationship between PVR and PAcT gave a quadratic r = 0.61, P < 0.001. ROC curve analysis showed PAcT having the best accuracy (83%) in detecting a PVR ≥3 WU. PAcT <90 ms can serve as a strong non-invasive predictor of PVR >3 WU, which could differentiate patients with pre- and post-capillary PH.

  14. Midlife Hypertension Risk and Cognition in the Non-Demented Oldest Old: Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Nishtala, Arvind; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa; Murabito, Joanne M; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Midlife cardiovascular risk, hypertension (HTN) in particular, has been related cross-sectionally to poorer neuropsychological (NP) performance in middle age and older adults. This study investigated whether a similar relationship persists between midlife HTN or systolic blood pressure (SBP) and NP performance approximately 30 years later. 378 Framingham stroke and dementia-free Original cohort participants, with HTN and SBP ascertained between 50-60 years of age (mean age 55 ± 1, 65% women), were administered a NP assessment at age ≥80 years. Tests included Logical Memory, Visual Reproduction, Paired Associate, Hooper Visual Organization Test, Trail Making A & B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Controlled Word Association Test (COWAT), and Similarities. Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for age, time interval between risk factor and NP testing, gender, and premorbid intelligence, assessed association between midlife HTN/SBP and NP outcomes. Midlife HTN was not significantly associated with NP outcome measures. Midlife SBP was associated with poorer Digit Span Forward and COWAT performance (p <  0.05). No significant interaction of age on HTN/SBP to NP associations was found. There was a significant interaction between ApoE4 status and SBP in their effects on COWAT (pinteraction = 0.074); SBP was negatively associated with COWAT only in those with the ApoE4 allele (p = 0.025). While midlife HTN is not associated with late life cognitive impairment, midlife SBP is related to late life attention and verbal fluency impairments, particularly among ApoE4+ individuals. These results offer insight into processes that are operative in the absence of overt cognitive impairment and dementia.

  15. Potential lifetime cost-effectiveness of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dorenkamp, Marc; Bonaventura, Klaus; Leber, Alexander W; Boldt, Julia; Sohns, Christian; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Frei, Ulrich; Roser, Mattias

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) for the treatment of resistant hypertension. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of this approach separately for men and women of different ages. A Markov state-transition model accounting for costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness was developed to compare RDN with best medical therapy (BMT) in patients with resistant hypertension. The model ran from age 30 to 100 years or death, with a cycle length of 1 year. The efficacy of RDN was modelled as a reduction in the risk of hypertension-related disease events and death. Analyses were conducted from a payer's perspective. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. When compared with BMT, RDN gained 0.98 QALYs in men and 0.88 QALYs in women 60 years of age at an additional cost of €2589 and €2044, respectively. As the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios increased with patient age, RDN consistently yielded more QALYs at lower costs in lower age groups. Considering a willingness-to-pay threshold of €35 000/QALY, there was a 95% probability that RDN would remain cost-effective up to an age of 78 and 76 years in men and women, respectively. Cost-effectiveness was influenced mostly by the magnitude of effect of RDN on systolic blood pressure, the rate of RDN non-responders, and the procedure costs of RDN. Renal sympathetic denervation is a cost-effective intervention for patients with resistant hypertension. Earlier treatment produces better cost-effectiveness ratios.

  16. 7D.03: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS IN SUBCUTANEOUS SMALL RESISTANCE ARTERIES IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, C; Rossini, C; Rosei, C Agabiti; Sarkar, A; Porteri, E; La Boria, E; Gavazzi, A; Petroboni, B; Pileri, P; Rosei, E Agabiti; Rizzoni, D

    2015-06-01

    It was proposed that early vascular ageing may be an important mechanism of vascular damage in large conductance arteries. However it is not known whether aging may also affect small resistance artery morphology. For this reason, we investigated 100 patients with essential hypertension. Secondary forms of hypertension were excluded according to standard clinical evaluations and biochemical or instrumental assessments. In all patients, an evaluation of small resistance arteries morphology was performed by a wire micromyographic approach (Mulvany's technique). A small amount of subcutaneous tissue was obtained by local biopsy or during election surgery and subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a myograph; the media to lumen ratio (M/L) was then measured. The age range of our population was 22-81 years, with a mean value of 57 ± 12 years; 14% of them were current smokers, 32% had alterations in lipid patterns, none of them had diabetes mellitus, 58 were males and average blood pressure values were 156/95 ± 19/12 mmHg.We found a significant correlation between M/L and age (r = 0.30, p = 0.002): the statistical significance of the correlation persisted after correction for counfounding variables (gender, serum cholesterol, smoking status, serum glucose, systolic or diastolic blood pressure values). A statistically significant inverse correlation was also observed between internal diameter and age (r = -0.20, p = 0.046), while the correlation between age and media thickness did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.09, p = 0.37). Our data suggest that aging may affect microvascular structure in hypertensive patients. It is also possible that hypertension may anticipate the effects of physiological aging, and this should be explored in a relatively large population of normotensive subjects.

  17. Role of genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor on insulin resistance and arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas Fernandez; Gemma, Carolina; Burgueño, Adriana L; Pirola, Carlos J

    2010-06-01

    To perform a two-stage study to explore the role of gene variants in the risk of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension. The selection of variants was performed by a first stage of in-silico analysis of the original genome-wide association data sets on genes involved in metabolic syndrome components, granted by the Diabetes Genetics Initiative and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium. We started by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a cutoff for association (P < 0.05) in both data sets after the application of a computational algorithm of gene prioritization. Among the more promising variants, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF1R (rs11247362, rs10902606, rs1317459, rs11854132, rs2684761, and rs2715416) were selected for further evaluation in our population. Altogether, 1094 men, aged 34.4 +/- 8.6 years, were included in a population-based study. Genotypes of rs2684761 showed significant association with insulin resistance (as a discrete trait, odds ratio per G allele 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.56, P = 0.026; and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance as a continuous trait, P = 0.01). A significant association of rs2684761 with arterial hypertension was also observed (odds ratio per G allele 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.64, P = 0.037) after adjusting for age and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Our study suggests for the first time a putative role of IGF1R variants in individual susceptibility to metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes, in particular on the risk of having insulin resistance and arterial hypertension.

  18. The Effect of Physical Resistance Training on Baroreflex Sensitivity of Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Moisés Felipe Pereira; Borges, Mariana Eiras; Rossi, Vitor de Almeida; Moura, Elizabeth de Orleans C de; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP); however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats SHR (n = 16) and Wistar (n = 16) at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8); trained control (CT, n = 8); sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8) and trained SHR (HT, n = 8). Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline) with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks). Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR) was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm). Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg) although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg). Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP. Os barorreceptores atuam como reguladores da pressão arterial (PA); no entanto, sua sensibilidade encontra-se prejudicada em pacientes hipertensos. Dentre as recomendações para a redução da PA, o treinamento f

  19. Are there differences in risk factor profiles and frequency of CT/MRI-based infarcts among African American stroke patients with and without hypertension? A report from the African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS).

    PubMed Central

    Whittley, Chandra Y.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Raman, Rema; Harris, Jeffrey; Richardson, DeJuran

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND; African Americans (AAs) have a high risk of stroke and a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Little is known about stroke risk profiles among non-hypertensive AAs. METHODS: African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS) enrollees with a history of hypertension (htn) were compared to those without htn for history of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and number and distribution of CT/MRI infarcts. Estimated odds ratios are presented describing the association between selected risk factors and htn status. The estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The database for this analysis included 1012 patients with htn and 74 patients without htn. When compared to those with htn, those without htn were more commonly men (59% vs. 46%; p = 0.030), current cigarette smokers (55% vs. 37%; p = 0.001), were younger (median age: 59 years vs. 62 years; p = 0.064), had higher education (11.7 +/- 2.9 vs. 11.1 +/- 3.1; p = 0.024), had a higher number of acute strokes of unknown cause (23% vs. 13%; p=0.060), and less commonly had a history of diabetes (25% vs. 41%; p = 0.007). Those without htn had a lower mean number of old infarcts on MRI (0.94 +/- 1.40 vs. 1.45 +/- 1.60; p = 0.045), and a higher number of mean recent infarcts on CT (1.30 +/- 1.15 vs. 0.93 +/- 1.01; p = 0.031). Multivariate analysis to predict those without htn showed that these patients were more likely to be current cigarette smokers (OR = 2.89; CI = 1.60,5.49) and have higher education (OR = 1.08, CI = 0.996,1.17), and were less likely to have old CT/MRI-based infarcts (OR = 0.46; CI = 0.26,0.76). CONCLUSIONS: AAs without htn may have a different cardiovascular risk factor profile and CT/MRI profile than AAs with htn. This baseline profile among AAs without htn may predict lower stroke recurrence rates in this ongoing trial. PMID:12856908

  20. Usefulness of the renal resistive index to predict an increase in urinary albumin excretion in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, K; Okura, T; Tanino, A; Kukida, M; Nagao, T; Higaki, J

    2017-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients. Patients who are expected to increase albuminuria need strict blood pressure control. In the present study, we assessed the association between the renal resistive index (RI) and future increases in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-six patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors, including renal RI, that were significant independent determinants of increased in urinary albumin excretion (UAE), defined as an increase of >50% in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio over 2 years. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis was used to select the optimal cut-off point that predicted an increase in UAE. RI was the only significant variable that predicted the increase in UAE, with the optimal cut-off value of renal RI that predicted this increase being 0.71 (sensitivity 52.4% and specificity 84.4%). Renal RI is associated with the future increase in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension.

  1. Effectiveness of a barber-based intervention for improving hypertension control in black men: the BARBER-1 study: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Victor, Ronald G; Ravenell, Joseph E; Freeman, Anne; Leonard, David; Bhat, Deepa G; Shafiq, Moiz; Knowles, Patricia; Storm, Joy S; Adhikari, Emily; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Coxson, Pamela G; Pletcher, Mark J; Hannan, Peter; Haley, Robert W

    2011-02-28

    Barbershop-based hypertension (HTN) outreach programs for black men are becoming increasingly common, but whether they are an effective approach for improving HTN control remains uncertain. To evaluate whether a continuous high blood pressure (BP) monitoring and referral program conducted by barbers motivates male patrons with elevated BP to pursue physician follow-up, leading to improved HTN control, a cluster randomized trial (BARBER-1) of HTN control was conducted among black male patrons of 17 black-owned barbershops in Dallas County, Texas (March 2006-December 2008). Participants underwent 10-week baseline BP screening, and then study sites were randomized to a comparison group that received standard BP pamphlets (8 shops, 77 hypertensive patrons per shop) or an intervention group in which barbers continually offered BP checks with haircuts and promoted physician follow-up with sex-specific peer-based health messaging (9 shops, 75 hypertensive patrons per shop). After 10 months, follow-up data were obtained. The primary outcome measure was change in HTN control rate for each barbershop. The HTN control rate increased more in intervention barbershops than in comparison barbershops (absolute group difference, 8.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8%-16.9%]) (P = .04); the intervention effect persisted after adjustment for covariates (P = .03). A marginal intervention effect was found for systolic BP change (absolute group difference, -2.5 mm Hg [95% CI, -5.3 to 0.3 mm Hg]) (P = .08). The effect of BP screening on HTN control among black male barbershop patrons was improved when barbers were enabled to become health educators, monitor BP, and promote physician follow-up. Further research is warranted. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00325533.

  2. Inflammatory biomarkers CRP, MCP-1, serum amyloid alpha and interleukin-18 in patients with HTN and dyslipidemia: impact of diabetes mellitus on metabolic syndrome and the effect of statin therapy.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Simon W; Langer, Anatoly; Ur, Ehud; Calciu, Cristina-Dana; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of HTN (HTN) and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), amyloid alpha (AA) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in persons with HTN, considering concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS). This was a multicenter twelve-week, single-step titration, open-label study of individuals with dyslipidemia, assigned according to their initial risk assessment, to atorvastatin starting doses of 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg. In subjects with HTN (N=677) versus no HTN (N=581), there were significantly (P<0.02) higher levels of CRP, IL-18, MCP-1 and AA but not for IL-18 when combined with DM or MS, and AA or CRP when combined with MS. Systolic blood pressure significantly (P<0.02) correlated with CRP, MCP-1 and AA but not IL-18. The greatest increase in CRP was with HTN plus DM. Statin therapy produced significant dose-dependent reductions in CRP but not with similar changes in other inflammatory markers. In summary, these data suggest a complex relationship between inflammation and HTN with dyslipidemia. Although HTN is associated with an increase in these inflammatory markers, the associated conditions DM or MS lead to different patterns of increases-MCP-1 being the most consistently increased with HTN, the greatest CRP increase was with HTN and DM, and no relationship was found with IL-18 and HTN in the presence of DM or MS. In addition, there are different responses to statins depending on the nature of the inflammatory marker.

  3. Crosstalk between obesity and MMP-9 in cardiac remodelling -a cross-sectional study in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; de Faria, Ana Paula; Barbaro, Natália; Sabbatini, Andréa Rodrigues; Corrêa, Nathália Batista; Brunelli, Veridiana; Amorim, Rivadavio; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-04-01

    The balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) plays a key role in the development of hypertension and obesity. We aimed to evaluate the levels of MMP-2 and 9 and TIMP-2 and -1 in obese and non-obese apparent treatment-resistant hypertensive subjects (aTRH) and its association with cardiac hypertrophy. This cross-sectional study enrolled 122 subjects and divided into obese aTRH (n = 67) and non-obese (n = 55) group. Clinical and biochemical data were compared between both groups, including office BP, ambulatory BP, plasma MMP-2 and 9, TIMP-2 and 1 and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). We found higher MMP-9 levels and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in obese aTRH subjects but no difference in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels. Obesity influenced MMP-9 levels [β = 20.8 SE =8.6, p = 0.02) independently of potential confounders. In addition, we found a positive correlation between MMP-9 and anthropomorphic parameters. Finally, obese aTRH subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) had greater MMP-9 levels compared with non-obese with LVH. Our study suggests that MMP-9 levels are influenced by obesity and may directly participate in the progressive LV remodelling process, suggesting a possible role for a higher cardiovascular risk in apparent resistant hypertensive subjects.

  4. Eligibility for Renal Denervation: Anatomical Classification and Results in Essential Resistant Hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya Pellerin, Olivier; Savard, Sébastien; Curis, Emmanuel; Monge, Matthieu; Frank, Michael; Bobrie, Guillaume; Yamaguchi, Masato; Sugimoto, Koji; Plouin, Pierre-François; Azizi, Michel; Sapoval, Marc

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo classify the renal artery (RA) anatomy based on specific requirements for endovascular renal artery denervation (RDN) in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (RH).Materials and MethodsThe RA anatomy of 122 consecutive RH patients was evaluated by computed tomography angiography and classified as two types: A (main RA ≥20 mm in length and ≥4.0 mm in diameter) or B (main RA <20 mm in length or main RA <4.0 mm in diameter). The A type included three subtypes: A1 (without accessory RAs), A2 (with accessory RAs <3.0 mm in diameter), and A3 (with accessory RAs ≥3.0 mm in diameter]. A1 and A2 types were eligible for RDN with the Simplicity Flex catheter. Type B included twi subtypes based on the main RA length and diameter. Patients were accordingly classified into three eligibility categories: complete (CE; both RAs were eligible), partial (PE; one eligible RA), and noneligibility (NE; no eligible RA).ResultsBilateral A1 type was the most prevalent and was observed in 48.4 % of the patients followed by the A1/A2 type (18 %). CE, PE, and NE were observed in 69.7, 22.9, and 7.4 % of patients, respectively. The prevalence of accessory RAs was 41 %.ConclusionsOf RH patients, 30.3 % were not eligible for bilateral RDN with the current Simplicity Flex catheter. This classification provides the basis for standardized reporting to allow for pooling of results of larger patient cohorts in the future.

  5. Voluntary running improves glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in female spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    LaPier, T L; Swislocki, A L; Clark, R J; Rodnick, K J

    2001-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of voluntary exercise training on glucose metabolism and measures of insulin sensitivity in female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as normotensive controls. Exercising SHR were housed in running wheels for 8 weeks (SHRx8) or 16 weeks (SHRx16). At 22 weeks of age, we measured systolic blood pressure, performed oral glucose tolerance tests, and determined hexokinase activity and glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 content in skeletal muscle to assess intracellular glucose metabolism. Blood pressure was lower in WKY (139+/-12 mm Hg) than untrained SHR (216+/-13 mm Hg). Exercise training caused a reduction in blood pressure (-18 mm Hg) for SHRx8. After a brief (5-h) fast, serum glucose was lower in SHR that exercised compared with sedentary SHR, whereas insulin concentrations were identical between all SHR and WKY. Corresponding free fatty acids (FFA) were twofold higher in SHR than in WKY. In response to glucose, SHR demonstrated higher glucose and FFA responses, with exercise decreasing the glucose values in a dose-dependent manner. Although the insulin response was comparable in all groups, the glucose-to-insulin ratio was higher in SHR, indicating a relative insulin resistance for both glucose disposal and suppression of free fatty acids. Hexokinase activity and GLUT4 content were elevated 1.4- and 2.8-fold, respectively, in plantaris muscle of SHRx16, suggesting an improvement in the capacity for glucose transport and phosphorylation with exercise. These results provide evidence that voluntary running in female SHR lowers blood pressure and selectively increases glucose uptake and insulin action, but not suppression of FFA.

  6. 4D magnetic resonance flow imaging for estimating pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Schafer, Michal; Podgorski, Chris A; Schroeder, Joyce D; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Buckner, J Kern; Hunter, Kendal S; Shandas, Robin; Fenster, Brett E

    2016-10-01

    To develop an estimate of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) using blood flow measurements from 3D velocity-encoded phase contract magnetic resonance imaging (here termed 4D MRI). In all, 17 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and five controls underwent right heart catheterization (RHC), 4D and 2D Cine MRI (1.5T) within 24 hours. MRI was used to compute maximum spatial peak systolic vorticity in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and right pulmonary artery (RPA), cardiac output, and relative area change in the MPA. These parameters were combined in a four-parameter multivariate linear regression model to arrive at an estimate of PVR. Agreement between model predicted and measured PVR was also evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Finally, model accuracy was tested by randomly withholding a patient from regression analysis and using them to validate the multivariate equation. A decrease in vorticity in the MPA and RPA were correlated with an increase in PVR (MPA: R(2) = 0.54, P < 0.05; RPA: R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.05). Expanding on this finding, we identified a multivariate regression equation that accurately estimates PVR (R(2) = 0.94, P < 0.05) across severe PH and normotensive populations. Bland-Altman plots showed 95% of the differences between predicted and measured PVR to lie within 1.49 Wood units. Model accuracy testing revealed a prediction error of ∼20%. A multivariate model that includes MPA relative area change and flow characteristics, measured using 4D and 2D Cine MRI, offers a promising technique for noninvasively estimating PVR in PH patients. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:914-922. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. A Systematic Review of Add-on Pharmacologic Therapy in the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tataru, Anita P; Barry, Arden R

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of add-on pharmacologic therapies in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RH), defined as blood pressure (BP) above target despite three antihypertensive agents. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar (inception to June 2016) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any antihypertensive agent with control in patients with RH. Outcomes of interest included differences in BP, cardiovascular events, and serious adverse events. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in RCTs was used to evaluate the quality of the included trials. Six RCTs were identified, including 749 participants. Four RCTs compared spironolactone with placebo and two used an active comparator. Four of the six studies did not report sufficient information regarding methods. A quantitative meta-analysis was not performed because of clinical heterogeneity among the RCTs. Compared with placebo, spironolactone reduced mean office BP by ~10 to 20 mmHg/~3 to 9 mmHg and home BP by ~10/4 mmHg. Compared with doxazosin or bisoprolol, spironolactone reduced clinic and home systolic BP, but not diastolic BP. Hyperkalemia occurred in ~3% of patients receiving spironolactone. Cardiovascular events were not consistently reported. All trials were limited by low enrollment, short follow-up, and inconsistent reporting of clinically meaningful outcomes and/or serious adverse events. Spironolactone has the best evidence as add-on pharmacologic therapy in patients with RH, but data are limited.

  8. The role of norepinephrine and insulin resistance in an early stage of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, Adela; Radikova, Zofia; Cizmarova, Eva; Kvetnanský, Richard; Blazicek, Pavel; Vlcek, Miroslav; Koska, Juraj; Vigas, Milan

    2008-12-01

    The interrelationship between activity of sympathetic nervous system and metabolic risk factors in youth with hypertension (HT) has been poorly studied. The aim of our present study was to assess the interrelationship between metabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance, concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and catecholamines in an early stage of HT onset. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 17 young males with early-diagnosed nontreated HT grade 1 and 16 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched normotensive controls. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PAI-1, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in venous plasma. Insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) proposed by Cederholm, Matsuda, and Gutt were calculated. HT had higher baseline levels of norepinephrine, insulin (P= 0.02), and PAI-1 (P= 0.04). ISIs were lower in HT subjects (P < 0.001). Baseline concentrations of epinephrine were negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (r=-0.415, P= 0.02), ISI Matsuda (r=-0.361, P= 0.04), ISI Cederholm (r=-0.354, P= 0.04), and ISI Gutt (r=-0.429, P= 0.01), and positively with PRA (r= 0.609, P < 0.0001). Positive association was found between baseline concentrations of norepinephrine and PAI-1 (r= 0.418, P= 0.02). The sympathetic overactivity, which occurs in the early stage of HT may contribute to reduced insulin sensitivity even in young patients and intensify the undesirable development of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and progress of the disease.

  9. Effect of environmental and lifestyle factors on hypertension: Shimane COHRE study.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yoshinari; Takeda, Miwako; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Isomura, Minoru; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing evidence of an association between residential remoteness and hypertension (HTN); however, no study has examined the effects of residential remoteness-lifestyle associations on HTN. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of residential remoteness, as measured by road network distance and elevation, and lifestyle associations, including access to daily products as a measure of car use, on HTN in a rural region in Japan. This is a cross-sectional population based study. We analyzed data from the Shimane COHRE study conducted from 2006 to 2009 in the rural mountainous regions of Japan. After excluding missing data, we conducted a logistic regression analysis of the data for 1,348 individuals and examined the effects of residential remoteness and lifestyle associations, including road network distance, elevation and access to daily products as a measure of car use, on the prevalence of HTN. In participants without access to car use, the odds ratios for self-reported HTN (i.e. taking antihypertensive medication) were significantly increased in those living in moderate (odds ratio (OR): 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-4.08) and far (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.00-6.51) road distances, whereas there were no significant associations in participants with access to car use. There were no significant associations between elevation and HTN for participants either with or without access to car transportation. Our findings show that specific residential remoteness-hypertension associations vary according to access to daily products as a measure of car use in a rural mountainous area of Japan. These results advance the understanding and importance of considering residential environment, "where people live," in establishing health policy.

  10. Prevalence of hypertension in the Gambia and Sierra Leone, western Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Morcos; Setareh-Shenas, Saman; Robert Pixton, J; Soliman, Camelia; Czer, Lawrence SC; Ruzza, Andrea; Mirocha, James

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Hypertension (HTN) is one of the causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Africa, and may be associated with lower socio-economic status (SES). The prevalence of HTN is not well established in the Gambia or in Sierra Leone. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study of adults was conducted in the Gambia in 2000 and in Sierra Leone from 2001 to 2003 and in 2009. The study was conducted as part of the annual visit to countries in western Africa sponsored by a medical delegation from California. People from the Gambia and Sierra Leone were examined by the medical delegation and blood pressures were measured. Results A total of 2 615 adults were examined: 1 400 females and 1 215 males. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the females was 134.3 ± 29.7 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 84.5 ± 17.5 mmHg, and 46.2% were hypertensive. The mean SBP of the males was 132.8 ± 28.5 mmHg, mean DBP was 82.8 ± 16.2 mmHg, and 43.2% were hypertensive. Overall prevalence of HTN in the subjects was 44.8%. Mean SBP, mean DBP and HTN prevalence increased with age decade, both in males and females. In addition, after age adjustment (known age), females had higher mean SBP (p = 0.042), mean DBP (p = 0.001) and rate of occurrence of HTN (p = 0.016) when compared with males. Conclusions Prevalence rates of HTN in the Gambia and Sierra Leone were higher than 40% in males and females, and may be a major contributor to CVD in both countries. Due to the association of HTN with low SES, improvements in educational, public health, economic, non-governmental and governmental efforts in the Gambia and Sierra Leone may lead to a lower prevalence of HTN. The cause of the higher prevalence in women may be due to post-menopausal hormonal changes. PMID:25333811

  11. Differences in fat and sodium intake across hypertension subgroups in the Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living (MCHL) Nutrition Intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to examine differences between self-reported intakes of sodium, trans-fat, and total fat among hypertension (HTN) subgroups of participants in Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living nutrition education intervention. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequenc...

  12. Quality of Life, Depression, and Healthcare Resource Utilization among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Concomitant Hypertension and Obesity: A Prospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew J.; Bazata, Debbra D.; Fox, Kathleen M.; Grandy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study compared quality of life, depression, and healthcare resource utilization among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and comorbid hypertension (HTN) and obesity with those of adults reporting T2DM alone. Methods. Respondents to the US SHIELD survey self-reported their height, weight, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits and completed the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Respondents reporting T2DM and HTN and obesity (body mass index, BMI, ≥30 kg/m2) were compared with a T2DM-alone group. Results. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity (n = 1292) had significantly lower SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (37.3 and 50.9, resp.) than T2DM-alone respondents (n = 349) (45.8 and 53.5, resp., P < 0.0001). Mean PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher among T2DM respondents with comorbid HTN and obesity (5.0 versus 2.5, P < 0.0001), indicating greater depression burden. Respondents with T2DM, HTN, and obesity had significantly more resource utilization with respect to physician visits and emergency room visits but not hospitalizations than respondents with T2DM alone (P = 0.03). Conclusions. SHIELD respondents with comorbid conditions of T2DM, HTN, and obesity reported greater healthcare resource utilization, more depression symptoms, and lower quality of life than the T2DM-alone group. PMID:22762006

  13. Radial pressure pulse and heart rate variability in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Kao, Shung-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wei, Ching-Chuan; Chen, Chia Chung; Chen, Fun-jou; Tsou, Shi-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    The characteristics of the right/left radial pressure pulse (RPP) at the six diagnosis positions in Chinese medicine are not well documented. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spectral energy and augmentation index (AI) of bilateral RPP at the six diagnosis positions and heart rate variability (HRV) in the normotensives, hypertensives without heart dysfunction (HTN-N), and hypertensives with mild diastolic dysfunction (HTN-A). One hundred and thirty-eight (138) subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent measurements of brachial arterial blood pressure and RPP of both wrists while seated, and the supine measurement of HRV. AI and spectral energy of RPP as well as HRV were analyzed. The low-frequency component, the spectral HRV parameter, was significantly reduced in HTN-A compared with that in the normotensive group. Radial AI of the six diagnosis positions in HTN-N was significantly higher compared with that in the normotensive group or HTN-A. At the six diagnosis positions, the spectral energy of 0-10 Hz (SE(0-10 Hz)) in both hypertensive groups and 10-50 Hz (SE(10-50 Hz)) in the HTN-A group were significantly higher compared with those in the normotensive group. SE(10-50 Hz) at right Chy, left Chun, and left Guan in the HTN-N group were higher than those in the normotensive group. Within each group, there was a significant difference in the energy proportion, 10-50 Hz% (EP(10-50 Hz%)), between the six positions and a significant reduction only at the left Chun position in both hypertensive groups compared to that in the normotensive group. It is concluded that the EP(10-50 Hz%) revealed the specific characteristics of RPP and significantly varied at the six positions, and the left Chun position, the position to detect the heart diseases in Chinese medicine, is qualified to discriminate the differences between the normotensive and hypertensive patients.

  14. Hypertension associated with neurocognitive performance among persons with type 2 diabetes: a brief report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) it is not known whether the presence of hypertension could have a detrimental effect on learning ability and whether repeated exposure to information changes the amount of information retained. The aim of this study was to determine cross-sectional evidence for a differential burden to cognitive functioning among persons with T2DM and comorbid hypertension (HTN). Methods This study performed a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis, by medical chart review, of patients with a diagnosis of T2DM. Results Medical records information for history of HTN, age, gender and cognitive performance scores were recorded and analysed for 112 T2DM patients, with an average age of 60 years (SD = 13.84). Differences in cognitive performance scores were compared between patients with and without a history of HTN. The results show that participants who were diagnosed with hypertension produced lower average Rey Auditory–Verbal Learning Test scores than individuals who are not diagnosed with hypertension. Trial 2 was the only trial to prove significant with a P-value of 0.041. Conclusions Our results support previous studies showing that HTN is associated with increased risk to learning and memory functioning, although the degree of interference with these cognitive functions could not be determined from our research. Recognising that people diagnosed with HTN may be at risk for poorer learning and memory skills, future research can investigate how the length of time with the diseases affects learning and memory, and how medication management can attenuate cognitive learning and memory performance. PMID:23205065

  15. Serum vitamin D in hypertensive patients versus healthy controls is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Roghayeh; Adelani, Bahram; Ghadimi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both vitamin D deficiency and hypertension are prevalent in the general population. Several observations indicate an association between vitamin D deficiency and high blood pressure. The present case-control study aimed to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in hypertensive patients versus healthy controls. Methods: One hundred patients aged 30-60 years with hypertension (HTN) and 100 healthy controls without history of hypertention were compared regarding serum 25-OHD. Blood pressure was measured using standard method and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than140 mmHg and 90 mmHg respectively were considered as HTN. Patients and controls with coexistent morbidities, vitamin D supplementation were excluded. The serum levels of 25-OHD, PTH and calcium were measured after obtaining a written informed consent from the patients and taking their blood pressure under standard conditions. In statistical analysis, the two groups were compared using independent t test and chi-square test using SPSS Version 18. Results: The mean age of patients and controls was comparable (53.7±6.4 vs 52.3±7.54 years, P=0.17). Serum 25-OHD in HTN was significantly higher than controls (P=0.001). Conclusion: In the present study, serum 25-OHD level in hypertension was higher than controls. The results contradict with earlier studies indicating an association of HTN with vitamin D deficiency. This issue warrants further investigations in particular the follow-up of serum 25-OHD deficient and sufficient subjects with regard to the development of HTN. PMID:27757200

  16. Hypertension associated with neurocognitive performance among persons with type 2 diabetes: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L

    2011-12-01

    Background Among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) it is not known whether the presence of hypertension could have a detrimental effect on learning ability and whether repeated exposure to information changes the amount of information retained. The aim of this study was to determine cross-sectional evidence for a differential burden to cognitive functioning among persons with T2DM and comorbid hypertension (HTN).Methods This study performed a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis, by medical chart review, of patients with a diagnosis of T2DM.Results Medical records information for history of HTN, age, gender and cognitive performance scores were recorded and analysed for 112 T2DM patients, with an average age of 60 years (SD = 13.84). Differences in cognitive performance scores were compared between patients with and without a history of HTN. The results show that participants who were diagnosed with hypertension produced lower average Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test scores than individuals who are not diagnosed with hypertension. Trial 2 was the only trial to prove significant with a P-value of 0.041.Conclusions Our results support previous studies showing that HTN is associated with increased risk to learning and memory functioning, although the degree of interference with these cognitive functions could not be determined from our research. Recognising that people diagnosed with HTN may be at risk for poorer learning and memory skills, future research can investigate how the length of time with the diseases affects learning and memory, and how medication management can attenuate cognitive learning and memory performance.

  17. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  18. Renal and cardiovascular risk predictive value of two different microalbuminuria screening methods in patients with hypertension with/without diabetes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Polónia, J; Carvalho, D; Nazaré, J; Martins, L; da Silva, P M; Aguiar, C; Manso, M C; Carqueja, T

    2016-11-01

    MicRoAlbuminuria sCreening survEy (RACE) was a multicentre, observational, cross-sectional study conducted in primary health-care settings of Portugal. Here, we present a post-hoc analysis from the RACE study, assessing the renal and cardiovascular (CV) risk predictive value of two different microalbuminuria (MA) screening methods, nephelometry with 24-h urine (MA-24 h) and Micral test with occasional urine (MicralA) in patients with hypertension (HTN) with/without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Out of 3065 patients, 1173 (38.3%) were in the HTN group without T2DM (HTN) and 1892 (61.7%) in the HTN group with T2DM (HTN+T2DM). The overall prevalence of MA was 50.6% determined by MicralA and 22.1% with MA-24 h. Urinary albumin excretion data obtained by both techniques correlated significantly (rs=0.586; P<0.001). In all subjects, MicralA showed a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 62% for detection of MA, with a positive predictive value of 41% and negative predictive value of 97%. With both methods, the presence of MA was independently associated with a higher risk (1.5- to 2.9-fold) of CV and renal organ damage in both HTN and HTN+T2DM groups. MicralA, due to its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, can be considered as a valid and reliable method for MA screening in patients with HTN with/without T2DM.

  19. Role of Adding Spironolactone and Renal Denervation in True Resistant Hypertension: One-Year Outcomes of Randomized PRAGUE-15 Study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Waldauf, Petr; Lambert, Lukáš; Zelinka, Tomáš; Táborský, Miloš; Branny, Marian; Toušek, Petr; Petrák, Ondřej; Čurila, Karol; Bednář, František; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Václavík, Jan; Nykl, Igor; Krátká, Zuzana; Kociánová, Eva; Jiravský, Otakar; Rappová, Gabriela; Indra, Tomáš; Widimský, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    This randomized, multicenter study compared the relative efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) versus pharmacotherapy alone in patients with true resistant hypertension and assessed the effect of spironolactone addition. We present here the 12-month data. A total of 106 patients with true resistant hypertension were enrolled in this study: 52 patients were randomized to RDN and 54 patients to the spironolactone addition, with baseline systolic blood pressure of 159±17 and 155±17 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. Twelve-month results are available in 101 patients. The intention-to-treat analysis found a comparable mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure decline of 6.4 mm Hg, P=0.001 in RDN versus 8.2 mm Hg, P=0.002 in the pharmacotherapy group. Per-protocol analysis revealed a significant difference of 24-hour systolic blood pressure decline between complete RDN (6.3 mm Hg, P=0.004) and the subgroup where spironolactone was added, and this continued within the 12 months (15 mm Hg, P= 0.003). Renal artery computed tomography angiograms before and after 1 year post-RDN did not reveal any relevant changes. This study shows that over a period of 12 months, RDN is safe, with no serious side effects and no major changes in the renal arteries. RDN in the settings of true resistant hypertension with confirmed compliance is not superior to intensified pharmacological treatment. Spironolactone addition (if tolerated) seems to be more effective in blood pressure reduction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction.

  1. Relationship of autonomic imbalance and circadian disruption with obesity and type 2 diabetes in resistant hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes and obesity are not isolated findings, but a series of interacting interactive physiologic derangements. Taking into account genetic background and lifestyle behavior, AI (autonomic imbalance) could be a common root for RHTN (resistant hypertension) or RHTN plus type 2 diabetes (T2D) comorbidity development. Moreover, circadian disruption can lead to metabolic and vasomotor impairments such as obesity, insulin resistance and resistant hypertension. In order to better understand the triggered emergence of obesity and T2D comorbidity in resistant hypertension, we investigated the pattern of autonomic activity in the circadian rhythm in RHTN with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), and its relationship with serum adiponectin concentration. Methods Twenty five RHTN patients (15 non-T2D and 10 T2D, 15 males, 10 females; age range 34 to 70 years) were evaluated using the following parameters: BMI (body mass index), biochemical analysis, serum adiponectinemia, echocardiogram and ambulatory electrocardiograph heart rate variability (HRV) in time and frequency domains stratified into three periods: 24 hour, day time and night time. Results Both groups demonstrated similar characteristics despite of the laboratory analysis concerning T2D like fasting glucose, HbA1c levels and hypertriglyceridemia. Both groups also revealed disruption of the circadian rhythm: inverted sympathetic and parasympathetic tones during day (parasympathetic > sympathetic tone) and night periods (sympathetic > parasympathetic tone). T2D group had increased BMI and serum triglyceride levels (mean 33.7 ± 4.0 vs 26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2 - p = 0.00; 254.8 ± 226.4 vs 108.6 ± 48.7 mg/dL - p = 0.04), lower levels of adiponectin (6729.7 ± 3381.5 vs 10911.5 ± 5554.0 ng/mL - p = 0.04) and greater autonomic imbalance evaluated by HRV parameters in time domain compared to non-T2D RHTN patients. Total patients had HRV correlated positively with serum adiponectin (r = 0.37 [95% CI -0

  2. Treatment of Vasodilator-resistant Mixed Connective Tissue Disease-associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with Glucocorticoid and Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Eri; Kato, Masaru; Hisada, Ryo; Oku, Kenji; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Horita, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or mixed connective tissue disease (MTCD), in contrast to other types of PAH, may respond to immunosuppressive therapy. Most PAH cases with an immunosuppressant response were in the early stages of the disease (WHO functional class III or less). The present case was a 34-year-old woman with MCTD-associated PAH (WHO functional class IV) who was resistant to a combination of three vasodilators. Afterwards, she was treated with glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide. This case suggested the potential benefit of immunosuppressants in patients with severe MCTD-associated PAH. PMID:28202869

  3. Treatment of Vasodilator-resistant Mixed Connective Tissue Disease-associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with Glucocorticoid and Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Eri; Kato, Masaru; Hisada, Ryo; Oku, Kenji; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Horita, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or mixed connective tissue disease (MTCD), in contrast to other types of PAH, may respond to immunosuppressive therapy. Most PAH cases with an immunosuppressant response were in the early stages of the disease (WHO functional class III or less). The present case was a 34-year-old woman with MCTD-associated PAH (WHO functional class IV) who was resistant to a combination of three vasodilators. Afterwards, she was treated with glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide. This case suggested the potential benefit of immunosuppressants in patients with severe MCTD-associated PAH.

  4. Spironolactone versus sympathetic renal denervation to treat true resistant hypertension: results from the DENERVHTA study – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Clarà, Albert; Sans-Atxer, Laia; Vázquez, Susana; Pascual, Julio; De la Sierra, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Both renal denervation (RDN) and spironolactone have been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. However, they have not been compared in a randomized clinical trial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of spironolactone versus RDN in patients with resistant hypertension. Methods: A total of 24 patients with office SBP at least 150 mmHg and 24-h SBP at least 140 mmHg despite receiving at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs, one a diuretic, but without aldosterone antagonists, were randomized to receive RDN or spironolactone (50 mg) as add-on therapy. Primary endpoint was change in 24-h SBP at 6 months. Comparisons between treatment groups were performed using generalized linear models adjusted by age, sex, and baseline values. Results: Spironolactone was more effective than RDN in reducing 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP: mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were −17.9 mmHg (95%CI −30.9 to −4.9); P = 0.010 and −6.6 mmHg (95%CI −12.9 to −0.3); P = 0.041, for 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP, respectively. As regards changes in office blood pressure, mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were −12.1 mmHg (95%CI −29.1 to 5.1); P = 0.158 and of −5.3 mmHg (95%CI −16.3 to 5.8); P = 0.332, for office SBP and office DBP, respectively. Otherwise, the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater in the spironolactone group; mean baseline-adjusted difference between the two groups was −10.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95%CI −20.1 to −1.4); P = 0.027. Conclusion: We conclude that spironolactone is more effective than RDN to reduce 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP in patients with resistant hypertension. Therefore, spironolactone should be the fourth antihypertensive drug to prescribe if deemed well tolerated’ in all patients with resistant hypertension before considering RDN. PMID:27327441

  5. Management of resistant hypertension: aldosterone antagonists or intensification of diuretic therapy?

    PubMed

    Verdalles, Ursula; García de Vinuesa, Soledad; Goicoechea, Marian; Macías, Nicolas; Santos, Alba; Perez de Jose, Ana; Verde, Eduardo; Yuste, Claudia; Luño, Jose

    2015-08-01

    No consensus has been established as to which is the best fourth-line agent in patients with resistant hypertension (RHT). The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of intensifying diuretic treatment with loop diuretic (furosemide) or aldosterone antagonist (spironolactone) on blood pressure (BP) control in RHT. The study population comprised 30 patients with RHT who were divided into two treatment arms. Fifteen patients received furosemide 40 mg/day and 15 patients received spironolactone 25 mg/day. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed baseline, 3 and 6 months. Baseline BP was 162 ± 8/90 ± 6 mmHg, 70% men, mean age 63.3 ± 9.1 years 56.1% diabetic and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 55.8 ± 16.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) . There were no significant differences between groups at baseline in age, gender, percentage diabetics, eGFR, BP, number of antihypertensive drugs, or aldosterone levels. At 6 months, systolic BP decreased by 24 ± 9.2 mmHg (from 163.6 ± 8.6 to 139.6 ± 8.1 mmHg) in the spironolactone group, compared with 13.8 ± 2.8 mmHg (from 162 ± 7.9 to 148 ± 6.4 mmHg) in the furosemide group (P < 0.01). Diastolic BP fell 11 ± 8.1 mmHg in the spironolactone group compared with 5.2 ± 2.2 mmHg in the furosemide group (P < 0.01). Significant reduction in urinary albumin creatinine ratio (from 173 ± 268 to 14 ± 24 mg/g, P < 0.01) was observed in the spironolactone group at 6 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that only treatment with spironolactone was associated with control of BP < 140/90 mmHg at 6 months. No severe adverse events were recorded. Spironolactone is more effective than furosemide for control of BP in RHT patients, with a positive added effect on albuminuria. Spironolactone is safe in patients with mild kidney impairment, although serum potassium should be closely monitored, especially in diabetics. © 2015 Asian

  6. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication in Treatment-Resistant Hypertension Undergoing Renal Denervation.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Ott, Christian; Schmid, Axel; Friedrich, Stefanie; Kistner, Iris; Ditting, Tilmann; Veelken, Roland; Uder, Michael; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-02-12

    Adherence to medication has been repeatedly proposed to represent a major cause of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH); however, treatment decisions such as treating TRH with renal denervation depend on accurate judgment of adherence. We carefully analyzed adherence rates to medication before and after renal denervation and its effect on blood pressure (BP) control. Eighty patients with TRH were included in 2 prospective observational studies that assessed the difference of potential antihypertensive and nephroprotective effects of renal denervation. To compare prescribed with actual medication intake (representing a measure of adherence), we analyzed urine samples collected at baseline and at 6 months after renal denervation for antihypertensive compounds or metabolites (by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). In addition to office BP, 24-hour ambulatory BP and central hemodynamics (central systolic pressure, central pulse pressure) were assessed. Informed consent for analyses of urine metabolites was obtained from 79 of 80 patients. Actual intake of all antihypertensive drugs was detected at baseline and at 6 months after renal denervation in 44 (56%) and 52 (66%) patients, respectively; 1 drug was missing in 22 (28%) and 17 (22%) patients, respectively, and ≥2 drugs were missing in 13 (16%) and 10 (13%) patients, respectively. At baseline, 24-hour ambulatory BP (P=0.049) and central systolic BP (P=0.012) were higher in nonadherent patients. Adherence did not significantly change overall (McNemar-Bowker test, P=0.362). An increase in adherence was observed in 21 patients, and a decrease was observed in 11 patients. The decrease in 24-hour ambulatory BP was not different in those with stable adherence 6 months after renal denervation (n=41, -7±13 mm Hg) compared with those with increased adherence (n=21, -10±13 mm Hg) and decreased adherence (n=11, -7±14 mm Hg) (P>0.20). Our study is limited by the relatively small sample size and potentially by the

  7. Kinetics of Hypotension during 50 Sessions of Resistance and Aerobic Training in Hypertensive Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Damorim, Igor Rodrigues; Santos, Tony Meireles; Barros, Gustavo Willames Pimentel; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Background Resistance and aerobic training are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for hypertension. However, the number of sessions required until the hypotensive effect of the exercise has stabilized has not been clearly established. Objective To establish the adaptive kinetics of the blood pressure (BP) responses as a function of time and type of training in hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 69 patients with a mean age of 63.4 ± 2.1 years, randomized into one group of resistance training (n = 32) and another of aerobic training (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and one repetition maximum (1RM) testing was performed. BP was measured before each training session with a digital BP arm monitor. The 50 training sessions were categorized into quintiles. To compare the effect of BP reduction with both training methods, we used two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for the BP values obtained before the interventions. The differences between the moments were established by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 6.9 mmHg and 5.3 mmHg, respectively, with resistance training and 16.5 mmHg and 11.6 mmHg, respectively, with aerobic training. The kinetics of the hypotensive response of the SBP showed significant reductions until the 20th session in both groups. Stabilization of the DBP occurred in the 20th session of resistance training and in the 10th session of aerobic training. Conclusion A total of 20 sessions of resistance or aerobic training are required to achieve the maximum benefits of BP reduction. The methods investigated yielded distinct adaptive kinetic patterns along the 50 sessions. PMID:28380132

  8. Effects of ovariectomy on indices of insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac energy metabolism in middle-aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    PubMed

    Swislocki, A; Burgie, E S; Rodnick, K J

    2002-09-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The protection of young women from coronary events is sharply reduced with menopause. To assess the impact of menopause on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, body weight gain, heart size, and cardiac energy metabolism, we studied 28-week-old female SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, who were either ovariectomized (SHR(OVX) and WKY(OVX)) or sham-operated (SHR(SHAM) and WKY(SHAM)). Animals underwent blood-pressure measurement and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Hearts were weighed and assayed for metabolic enzyme activities. Female SHR were 33 % lighter and hypertensive (+ 36 mmHg), with 33 % larger hearts (when corrected for body weight differences) compared to WKY. Although ovariectomized animals of both strains were heavier overall than their sham-operated counterparts, when heart weights were corrected for body weight, both OVX strains had lighter hearts than both SHAM strains. Glucose and insulin responses during OGTT were similar between the four groups; however, free fatty acid (FFA) responses were approximately 50 % greater in SHR than WKY, although less in SHR(OVX) than SHR(SHAM). WKY(OVX) demonstrated 8 % lower ventricular hexokinase activity than WKY(SHAM), which may reflect reduced cardiac glucose utilization. We also noted 16 % higher citrate synthase activity in WKY hearts. In conclusion, the insulin resistance characteristic of younger SHR is blunted in middle-aged female rats, although FFA responses remain elevated. Ovariectomy did not alter in vivo glucose tolerance in this group; however, sex hormones may be important in maintaining normal heart size and the potential for cardiac glucose metabolism.

  9. Risk of Hypertension With Sorafenib Use in Patients With Cancer: A Meta-Analysis From 20,494 Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, XiongWen; Pan, Xiong; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Kuang, YuKang; Cheng, YingZhang

    Sorafenib is a new multikinase inhibitor; the incidence of hypertension (HTN) with sorafenib has been reported to vary substantially among clinical trials. We searched multiple databases to investigate the risk of sorafenib-induced HTN in patients with cancer. A total of 93 trials involving 20,494 patients were selected for this meta-analysis. The relative risks (RRs) of all-grade and high-grade HTN associated with sorafenib were 3.06 (P < 0.001) and 3.33 (P < 0.001). There are no significantly RRs of all-grade, 0.81 (P = 0.047), and high-grade HTN, 0.64 (P = 0.075), in sorafenib monotherapy versus other multitargeted antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The incidence of sorafenib-associated all-grade and high-grade HTN was 21.3% (P < 0.001) and 5.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. The patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and thyroid cancer have high incidence (≥20%) of sorafenib-associated all-grade HTN and high incidence (≥5%) of sorafenib-associated high-grade HTN. The trials with median treatment duration ≥ 4, 5, and 7 months were 21.0% (P < 0.001), 25.4% (P < 0.001), and 27.6% (P < 0.001); progression-free survival ≥ 6, 9, and 12 months were 24.5% (P < 0.001), 26.8% (P < 0.001), and 32.8% (P < 0.001); and overall survival ≥ 12, 18, and 24 months were 18.5% (P < 0.001), 22.5% (P < 0.001), and 25.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. There is a significantly high risk of sorafenib-induced HTN. In comparison between sorafenib and other multitargeted antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors, RRs had no significance. The patients with RCC and thyroid cancer have significantly higher incidence of HTN. With prolonged treatment duration, progression-free survival, and overall survival, the incidence of all-grade HTN may increase.

  10. Consumption of nitrate-containing vegetables is inversely associated with hypertension in adults: a prospective investigation from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence of the potential properties of nitrate-rich foods against development of hypertension (HTN) and vascular disease. In this study, we investigated the association of nitrate-containing vegetables (NCVs) with risk of HTN after 3 years of follow-up. This prospective study was conducted on 1546 non-hypertensive subjects, aged 20-70 years. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and after 3 years and HTN was defined by the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure criteria. Dietary intake was collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). NCVs and high-, medium- and low-NCV subcategories were defined, and the odds of HTN after 3 years according to tertiles of NCV and NCV-category intake were estimated by logistic regression and adjusted for potential variables. Mean age of participants was 38.0 ± 12.0 years at baseline and 57.0 % were women. Mean dietary intake of energy-adjusted NCV was 298.0 ± 177.3 g/day. After adjustment for total energy intake, fiber, sodium, potassium and processed meat, a significant inverse association was observed between NCV and the risk of HTN in the highest tertile category (odds ratio 0.63, 95 % confidence interval: 0.41-0.98, p for trend = 0.05). There was no significant association of 3 year risk of HTN across tertiles of low nitrate-, medium nitrate- and high-nitrate vegetables. Higher dietary nitrate intake from vegetables sources may have a protective effect against development of HTN.

  11. Antihypertensive therapy improves insulin resistance and serum levels of interleukin-6 and -10 in spontaneously hypertensive rats with steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Masaya; Uto, Hirofumi; Ibusuki, Rie; Arima, Shiho; Oda, Kohei; Taguchi, Hiroki; Sasaki, Fumisato; Nasu, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Setoyama, Hitoshi; Kanmura, Shuji; Numata, Masatsugu; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome based on insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension is a risk factor for advanced liver disease and cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The present study investigated the effects of severe hypertension induced by a high‑salt (HS) diet and antihypertensive therapy on the pathophysiological condition of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis was induced using a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet (CDAA). Male SHRs (7‑week‑old) were randomly divided into five groups: Those receiving 6 weeks of standard chow with a normal salt concentration, followed by an additional 8 weeks of standard chow or CDAA with a normal salt concentration (control and CDAA groups, respectively); and those receiving 6 weeks of standard chow with HS, followed by CDAA with HS for an additional 8 weeks, with or without the antihypertensive agents, amlodipine (Aml) or hydralazine. In the CDAA and CDAA+HS groups, blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum levels of insulin, fasting blood glucose and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)‑IR. Antihypertensive therapy ameliorated the elevated glucose, insulin and HOMA‑IR. Furthermore, the increased levels of serum interleukin (IL)‑6 following the CDAA+HS diet were attenuated by antihypertensive therapy. The serum levels of IL‑10 were increased by antihypertensive therapy, and the decrease in the proportion of splenic CD4+CD25+forkhead box P3+ T cells observed following the CDAA+HS diet tended to be restored by Aml. In conclusion, antihypertensive therapy improved glucose metabolism and imbalances in cytokine expression in the rat model of hypertension with steatohepatitis, suggesting that antihypertensive therapy acting through immunological factors may be beneficial for patients with metabolic syndrome-associated NASH.

  12. Mortality Risk Associated With Resistant Hypertension Among Women: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohorts Encompassing the Spectrum of Women's Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Huo, Tianyao; Gong, Yan; Handberg, Eileen; Gulati, Martha; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Pepine, Carl J; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M

    2016-10-01

    Women are at greater risk of developing resistant hypertension (RH) than men, yet scarce data exist on RH-associated outcomes in women. We aimed to determine all-cause mortality risk associated with apparent RH (aRH) among women across the spectrum of underlying coronary disease. We analyzed data from St. James Women Take Heart (WTH; women without coronary disease at baseline), Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (women with signs/symptoms of ischemia at baseline), and the INternational VErapamil-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST; women with coronary artery disease and hypertension at baseline), totaling 15,108 adult women with no hypertension, non-RH (blood pressure [BP] ≥140/90 mmHg on ≤2 drugs or BP <140/90 mmHg on 1-3 drugs), or aRH (BP ≥140/90 mmHg on ≥3 drugs or anyone on ≥4 drugs) at baseline. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Prevalence of aRH ranged from 0.4% (WTH) to 10.6% (INVEST). Women with aRH, compared to those without, were older, more often black, and more likely to be obese or diabetic. Pooling all cohorts, risk for all-cause death was greater in women with aRH than in women with non-RH (adjusted HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.27-1.55) and women without hypertension (adjusted HR 2.34; 95% CI 1.76-3.11) over a median follow-up of 14.3 years. aRH prevalence in women varies according to underlying coronary disease, and aRH is associated with a substantial, early, and sustained increased risk of all-cause death. Additional research into early recognition and prevention strategies for RH are needed, especially in black and older women, and those with known cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. Sympathoexcitation in ANG II-salt hypertension involves reduced SK channel function in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert A; Gui, Le; Huber, Michael J; Chapp, Andrew D; Zhu, Jianhua; LaGrange, Lila P; Shan, Zhiying; Chen, Qing-Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hypertension (HTN) resulting from subcutaneous infusion of ANG II and dietary high salt (HS) intake involves sympathoexcitation. Recently, we reported reduced small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) current and increased excitability of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in ANG II-salt HTN. Here, we hypothesized that ANG II-salt HTN would be accompanied by altered PVN SK channel activity, which may contribute to sympathoexcitation in vivo. In anesthetized rats with normal salt (NS) intake, bilateral PVN microinjection of apamin (12.5 pmol/50 nl each), the SK channel blocker, remarkably elevated splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In contrast, rats with ANG II-salt HTN demonstrated significantly attenuated SSNA, RSNA, and MAP (P < 0.05) responses to PVN-injected apamin compared with NS control rats. Next, we sought to examine the individual contributions of HS and subcutaneous infusion of ANG II on PVN SK channel function. SSNA, RSNA, and MAP responses to PVN-injected apamin in rats with HS alone were significantly attenuated compared with NS-fed rats. In contrast, sympathetic nerve activity responses to PVN-injected apamin in ANG II-treated rats were slightly attenuated with SSNA, demonstrating no statistical difference compared with NS-fed rats, whereas MAP responses to PVN-injected apamin were similar to NS-fed rats. Finally, Western blot analysis showed no statistical difference in SK1-SK3 expression in the PVN between NS and ANG II-salt HTN. We conclude that reduced SK channel function in the PVN is involved in the sympathoexcitation associated with ANG II-salt HTN. Dietary HS may play a dominant role in reducing SK channel function, thus contributing to sympathoexcitation in ANG II-salt HTN.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Tayem, Yasin I; Yaseen, Nagham A; Khader, Wiam T; Abu Rajab, Lama O; Ramahi, Ahmad B; Saleh, Mohammad H

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17-26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r(s)) and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001) and physical activity in males (r(s)= - 0.162, p<0.005). No correlation was demonstrated between participants' BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females) and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females). Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (r(s)=0.252, p<0.001) and smoking (p<0.05). No relationship was detected between students' BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001). We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank

    PubMed Central

    Tayem, Yasin I.; Yaseen, Nagham A.; Khader, Wiam T.; Abu Rajab, Lama O.; Ramahi, Ahmad B.; Saleh, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17–26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r s) and Chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001) and physical activity in males (rs= − 0.162, p<0.005). No correlation was demonstrated between participants’ BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females) and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females). Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (rs=0.252, p<0.001) and smoking (p<0.05). No relationship was detected between students’ BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001). Conclusions We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community. PMID:23077467

  16. Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in Dallas County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Victor, Ronald G; Leonard, David; Hess, Paul; Bhat, Deepa G; Jones, Jennifer; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Ravenell, Joseph; Freeman, Anne; Wilson, Ruth P; Haley, Robert W

    2008-06-23

    Hypertension (HTN) control rates in the United States remain lower in black than white persons, particularly before 65 years of age. Potential sociocultural factors have not been sufficiently addressed. We analyzed data from structured interviews and blood pressure measurements in a population-based sample of 1514 hypertensive (1194 non-Hispanic black and 320 non-Hispanic white) subjects aged 18 to 64 years in Dallas County, Texas, from 2000 to 2002 to identify sociocultural factors associated with low rates of HTN control. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression. Awareness, treatment, and control of HTN were negatively associated with a common perception of good health, with aORs (95% CIs) of 0.37 (0.27-0.50) for awareness, 0.47 (0.36-0.62) for treatment, and 0.66 (0.51-0.86) for control. They were positively associated with having a regular physician, with aORs (95% CIs) of 3.81 (2.86-5.07) for awareness, 8.36 (5.95-11.74) for treatment, and 5.23 (3.30-8.29) for control. Among untreated hypertensive subjects, lack of perceived need for a regular physician was associated with perceived good health (aOR [95% CI], 2.2 [1.2-4.0]), male gender (aOR [95% CI], 2.4 [1.4-4.1]), and black race/ethnicity (aOR [95% CI], 2.1 [1.0-4.4]). The HTN outcomes were unrelated to perceived racism or lay beliefs about the causes, consequences, and treatment of HTN. Among young to middle-aged hypertensive subjects, a perception of good health and the lack of perceived need for a regular physician remain major factors associated with untreated and uncontrolled HTN at the community level-particularly among black men. These factors merit greater emphasis in professional education and public health programs on HTN.

  17. Portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, G

    2001-05-01

    Portal hypertension is the main complication of cirrhosis and is responsible for its most common complications: variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and portosystemic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension is the result of increased intrahepatic resistance and increased portal venous inflow, which in turn is the result of splanchnic vasodilatation. Vasodilatation (splanchnic and systemic) and hyperdynamic circulation are hemodynamic abnormalities typical of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroesophageal varices result almost solely from portal hypertension, although the hyperdynamic circulation contributes to variceal growth and hemorrhage. Ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which is, in turn, secondary to vasodilatation and activation of neurohumoral systems. The hepatorenal syndrome represents the result of extreme vasodilatation with an extreme decrease in effective blood volume that leads to maximal activation of vasoconstrictive systems, renal vasoconstriction, and renal failure. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially lethal infection of ascites that occurs in the absence of a local source of infection. Portosystemic encephalopathy is a consequence of both portal hypertension (shunting of blood through portosystemic collaterals) and hepatic insufficiency that result in the accumulation of neurotoxins in the brain. This paper reviews the recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of the complications of portal hypertension.

  18. Portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2003-05-01

    Portal hypertension, the main complication of cirrhosis, is responsible for its most common complications: variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and portosystemic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension is the result of increased intrahepatic resistance and increased portal venous inflow. Vasodilatation (splanchnic and systemic) and the hyperdynamic circulation are hemodynamic abnormalities typical of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Gastroesophageal varices result almost solely from portal hypertension, although the hyperdynamic circulation contributes to variceal growth and hemorrhage. Ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which, in turn, is secondary to vasodilatation and activation of neurohumoral systems. The hepatorenal syndrome represents the result of extreme vasodilatation, with an extreme decrease in effective blood volume that leads to maximal activation of vasoconstrictive systems, renal vasoconstriction, and renal failure. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially lethal infection of ascites that occurs in the absence of a local source of infection. Portosystemic encephalopathy is a consequence of both portal hypertension (shunting of blood through portosystemic collaterals) and hepatic insufficiency that result in the accumulation of neurotoxins in the brain. This review covers the recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of the complications of portal hypertension.

  19. What is the role of aldosterone excess in resistant hypertension and how should it be investigated and treated?

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2011-12-01

    Resistant hypertension has evolved as an important global health care problem. Primary aldosteronism is one of several potentially reversible causes of resistant hypertension. Primary aldosteronism can be effectively treated, when recognized, with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, such as spironolactone and eplerenone. Each of these compounds can reduce blood pressure as monotherapy or when given with a range of other antihypertensive drug classes. These compounds have distinctive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic patterns that require some forethought in their use before they are prescribed. However, as the use of mineralocorticoid-blocking agents has gradually increased, the hazards inherent to use of such drugs has become more apparent. Whereas the endocrine side effects of spironolactone are in most cases little more than a cosmetic annoyance, the potassium-sparing effects of both spironolactone and eplerenone can prove fatal if sufficient degrees of hyperkalemia develop. However, for most patients the risk of developing hyperkalemia in and of itself should not discourage the prudent clinician from bringing these compounds into play. Hyperkalemia should always be considered as a likelihood in any patient receiving one or the other of these medications. As such, steps should be taken to lessen the likelihood of it occurring if therapy is being contemplated with agents in this class.

  20. New treatment for old disease: management of resistant hypertension by percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Takashi; Krum, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular events, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in its pathogenesis. However, hypertension in many patients is not adequately controlled, despite the availability of numerous medication classes. Novel procedure-as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation therapy-have been developed to improve blood pressure in these refractory patients. Renal sympathetic denervation delivers not only a decrease in blood pressure levels but also renal as well as systemic sympathetic nerve activity. The reduction in blood pressure appears to be sustained over 3 years after the procedure, which implies no counterregulatory mechanism or re-innervation of afferent renal sympathetic nerve so far. Renal sympathetic denervation is expected to be a promising treatment for patients with hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and metabolic syndrome implicated in the pathogenesis of potentiated sympathetic nerve activity. This review will focus on the current devices and procedures, their outcomes and prospects in the treatment of hypertension.

  1. Effect of CPAP on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension: the HIPARCO randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel-Angel; Capote, Francisco; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Lloberes, Patricia; Díaz de Atauri, María Josefa; Somoza, María; Masa, Juan F; González, Mónica; Sacristán, Lirios; Barbé, Ferrán; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Aizpuru, Felipe; Mañas, Eva; Barreiro, Bienvenido; Mosteiro, Mar; Cebrián, Juan J; de la Peña, Mónica; García-Río, Francisco; Maimó, Andrés; Zapater, Jordi; Hernández, Concepción; Grau SanMarti, Nuria; Montserrat, Josep María

    2013-12-11

    More than 70% of patients with resistant hypertension have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is little evidence about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. To assess the effect of CPAP treatment on blood pressure values and nocturnal blood pressure patterns in patients with resistant hypertension and OSA. Open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial of parallel groups with blinded end point design conducted in 24 teaching hospitals in Spain involving 194 patients with resistant hypertension and an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15 or higher. Data were collected from June 2009 to October 2011. CPAP or no therapy while maintaining usual blood pressure control medication. The primary end point was the change in 24-hour mean blood pressure after 12 weeks. Secondary end points included changes in other blood pressure values and changes in nocturnal blood pressure patterns. Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses were performed. A total of 194 patients were randomly assigned to receive CPAP (n = 98) or no CPAP (control; n = 96). The mean AHI was 40.4 (SD, 18.9) and an average of 3.8 antihypertensive drugs were taken per patient. Baseline 24-hour mean blood pressure was 103.4 mm Hg; systolic blood pressure (SBP), 144.2 mm Hg; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 83 mm Hg. At baseline, 25.8% of patients displayed a dipper pattern (a decrease of at least 10% in the average nighttime blood pressure compared with the average daytime blood pressure). The percentage of patients using CPAP for 4 or more hours per day was 72.4%. When the changes in blood pressure over the study period were compared between groups by ITT, the CPAP group achieved a greater decrease in 24-hour mean blood pressure (3.1 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.6 to 5.6]; P = .02) and 24-hour DBP (3.2 mm Hg [95% CI, 1.0 to 5.4]; P = .005), but not in 24-hour SBP (3.1 mm Hg [95% CI, -0.6 to 6

  2. Association of ACE, FABP2 and GST genes polymorphism with essential hypertension risk among a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Chandra, Anu; Rizvi, Saliha; Ahmed, Faisal; Eba, Ale; Mahdi, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension has a multi-factorial background based on genetic and environmental interactive factors. ACE, FABP2 and GST genes have been suggested to be involved in the development of hypertension. However, the results have been inconsistent. The present study was carried out to investigate the association of ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883) and GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphism with essential HTN cases and controls. This study includes 138 essential hypertension (HTN) patients and 116 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched control subjects. GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphisms were evaluated by multiplex PCR, ACE (rs4646994) gene polymorphisms by PCR and FABP2 (rs1799883) gene polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Significant differences were obtained in the frequencies of ACE DD, II genotype (p = 0.006, 0.003), GSTT1 null, GSTM1 positive genotype (p = 0.048, 0.010) and FABP2 Ala54/Ala54 genotype (p = 0.049) between essential HTN cases and controls. It is concluded that ACE (rs 4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883) and GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphism are associated with HTN. Further investigation with a larger sample size may be required to validate this study.

  3. Healthy lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in treatment-resistant hypertension: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Keith M; Booth, John N; Calhoun, David A; Irvin, Marguerite R; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-09-01

    Few data exist on whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with better prognosis among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, a high-risk phenotype of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of healthy lifestyle factors with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. We studied participants (n=2043) from the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg despite the use of 3 antihypertensive medication classes or the use of ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication regardless of blood pressure control). Six healthy lifestyle factors adapted from guidelines for the management of hypertension (normal waist circumference, physical activity ≥4 times/week, nonsmoking, moderate alcohol consumption, high Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, and low sodium-to-potassium intake ratio) were examined. A greater number of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events (n=360) during a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios [HR (95% confidence interval)] for cardiovascular events comparing individuals with 2, 3, and 4 to 6 versus 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factors were 0.91 (0.68-1.21), 0.80 (0.57-1.14), and 0.63 (0.41-0.95), respectively (P-trend=0.020). Physical activity and nonsmoking were individual healthy lifestyle factors significantly associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events. Similar associations were observed between healthy lifestyle factors and risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle factors, particularly physical activity and nonsmoking, are associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant

  4. Prevalence of Optimal Treatment Regimens in Patients with Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension Based on Office BP in a Community-Based Practice Network

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Brent M.; Zhao, Yumin; Li, Jiexiang; Brzezinski, W. Adam; Todoran, Thomas M.; Brook, Robert D.; Calhoun, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive patients with clinic blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications, i.e., apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) comprise ~28%–30% of all uncontrolled patients in the U.S. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used, since treatment adherence, BP measurement artifacts, and optimal therapy were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient QUuality Improvement Network (OQUIN). This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007–2010, 468,877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP <140/<90 defined control. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with ‘optimal therapy’ (prescription of diuretic and ≥2 other BP medications at ≥50% of maximum recommended hypertension doses). Among 468,877 hypertensives, 147,635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44,684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%) of which 22,189 (15.0%) were prescribed ‘optimal’ therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (OR 1.40 [95% CI 1.32–1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25–1.38]) diabetes (1.30 [1.24–1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14–1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately one in seven of all uncontrolled hypertensives and one in two with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy, for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control. PMID:23918752

  5. Prevalence of optimal treatment regimens in patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension based on office blood pressure in a community-based practice network.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Zhao, Yumin; Li, Jiexiang; Brzezinski, W Adam; Todoran, Thomas M; Brook, Robert D; Calhoun, David A

    2013-10-01

    Hypertensive patients with clinical blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications (ie, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension [aTRH]) comprise ≈28% to 30% of all uncontrolled patients in the United States. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used because treatment adherence and measurement artifacts were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient Quality Improvement Network. This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007-2010, 468 877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP <140/<90 mm Hg defined control. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with optimal therapy (prescription of diuretic and ≥2 other BP medications at ≥50% of maximum recommended hypertension doses). Among 468 877 hypertensives, 147 635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44 684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%), of whom 22 189 (15.0%) were prescribed optimal therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (odds ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25-1.38]), diabetes mellitus (1.30 [1.24-1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14-1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately 1 in 7 of all uncontrolled hypertensives and 1 in 2 with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control.

  6. Effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester on insulin resistance and hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Y; Murakawa, Y; Yokoyama, J; Tajima, N; Ikeda, Y; Nobukata, H; Ishikawa, T; Shibutani, Y

    1999-09-01

    We investigated the effect of long-term administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-E), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from fish oil, in comparison to lard on the development of hypertension and insulin resistance in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD), a model of salt-sensitive hypertension. After 16 weeks of treatment, the glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the euglycemic insulin-glucose clamp test significantly increased in the HSD-EPA-E group compared with the HSD-water or -lard control group. The GIR was approximately three times higher in the HSD-EPA-E group versus the HSD-water or -lard control group, and it was about 70% of the rate in the caloricall