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Sample records for resistant starch fighting

  1. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Brown, I L; Topping, D L

    2000-03-01

    Starches are important as energy sources for humans and also for their interactions with the gut microflora throughout the digestive tact. Largely, those interactions promote human health. In the mouth, less gelatinised starches may lower risk of cariogensis. In the large bowel, starches which have escaped small intestinal digestion (resistant starch), together with proteins, other undigested carbohydrates and endogenous secretions are fermented by the resident microflora. The resulting short chain fatty acids contribute substantially to the normal physiological functions of the viscera. Specific types of resistant starch (e.g. the chemically modified starches used in the food industry) may be used to manipulate the gut bacteria and their products (including short chain fatty acids) so as to optimise health. In the upper gut, these starches may assist in the transport of probiotic organisms thus promoting the immune response and suppressing potential pathogens. However, it appears unlikely that current probiotic organisms can be used to modulate large bowel short chain fatty acids in adults although resistant starch and other prebiotics can do so. Suggestions that starch may exacerbate certain conditions (such as ulcerative colitis) through stimulating the growth of certain pathogenic organisms appear to be unfounded. Short chain fatty acids may modulate tissue levels and effects of growth factors in the gut and so modify gut development and risk of serious disease, including colo-rectal cancer. However, information on the relationship between starches and the microflora is relatively sparse and substantial opportunities exist both for basic research and food product development.

  3. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  4. Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyong; Liu, Ruiping; Qin, Chengyong; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yun; Xu, Guifa

    2010-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) escapes digestion in the small intestine and may ferment in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistant starch content in typical starchy foods and to estimate the daily resistant starch intake and identify key sources of dietary resistant starch in the Chinese diets. The resistant starch contents of 121 foods were determined using a method that mimicked gastrointestinal conditions. Tubers and legumes had high resistant starch contents. Rough food processing retained large amounts of resistant starch. In general, the content of RS decreased when foods were cooked. Deep fried and roasted foods had higher levels of resistant starch than braised foods. The average resistant starch intake in the Chinese population was estimated to be 14.9 g per day based on a dietary survey. The main resistant starch sources in the Chinese diet were cereal and tuber products. Based on dietary habits, however, the resistant starch intake varies considerably among individuals.

  5. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  6. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  7. New starch preparations resistant to enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jochym, Kamila; Kapusniak, Janusz; Barczynska, Renata; Sliżewska, Katarzyna

    2012-03-15

    New starch preparations were produced by thermolysis of potato starch in the presence of inorganic (hydrochloric) and organic (citric and tartaric) acids under controlled conditions. The starch preparations were physicochemically and structurally characterised and analysed for their resistance to enzymatic digestion in vitro. The content of resistant fraction in dextrin D1, obtained by heating starch acidified with hydrochloric and citric acids, determined by the AOAC 2001.03 and pancreatin-gravimetric methods was similar (~200 g kg⁻¹). In the case of dextrin D3, obtained by heating starch acidified with hydrochloric and tartaric acids, the result of determination by the pancreatin-gravimetric method was almost four times higher than that obtained with the AOAC 2001.03 method. The enzymatic tests revealed that dextrin D3 obtained with excess tartaric acid can be classified as RS4, which can only be partially determined by enzymatic-gravimetric methods. Tartaric acid at high concentration had a significantly stronger influence on starch hydrolysis than citric acid. This was confirmed by chromatographic analysis of dextrins and chemical investigation of the reducing power. The results confirmed the possibility of applying dextrins, prepared under specific conditions, as soluble dietary fibre. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Production and physicochemical characterization of resistant starch type III derived from pea starch.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Undine; Rössler, Christine; Schmiedl, Detlef; Jacobasch, Gisela

    2003-02-01

    Smooth pea starch was used for the production of physiological important resistant starch type III. For reduction of the molecular weight of the starch, different strategies including enzymatic debranching and acid hydrolysis (lintnerization), were tested to obtain an optimal starting material for retrogradation. The resulting polymer chain lengths were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Temperature regimes and starch concentrations in gel were optimized during the retrogradation with the aim to obtain a high yield of resistant starch. Optimal conditions led to resistant starch contents up to 74%. The products were thermostable and showed no loss of resistant structures after autoclaving. The peak temperatures of the thermal transition were at approximately 147 degrees C. The resulting resistant starch products are suitable for the generation of functional foods.

  9. [Inheritance analysis of resistant starch content in kernels of wheat].

    PubMed

    Pang, Huan; Li, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Lin; Yin, Yong-An; Yuan, Hui-Gong; Wang, Zi-Bu

    2010-02-01

    In this study, three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with high and low levels of resistant starch contents each were selected to obtain 15 F1 combinations from a diallel cross without reciprocals to be used to study the inheritance of resistant starch content. The results of this study are useful to select new wheat cultivar with high level of resistant starch content. Annong 90202 and D68-20 were the best among the wheat cultivars tested for general combining ability of resistant starch content, which significantly increased the resistant starch content in its progenies. The specific combining ability of Annong 90202 x 04 Dan 28 and 06-5 x D68-20 were the best among the F1 combinations, and the values of specific combining ability effects were significantly higher than other combinations. The inheritance of resistant starch content fitted the additive-dominance model, and the degree of dominance was super dominance. The alleles for increasing resistant starch content were recessive. The distribution of alleles for increasing and reducing resistant starch contents in the parental lines was not even. The number of recessive alleles for resistant starch content was greater than the dominant alleles. Annong 90202 and 04 Dan 28 had more recessive genes controlling resistant starch content, while Ningchun 18 and Xinchun 5 had more dominant genes. The narrow sense heritability of resistant starch content was 36.49%.

  10. Resistant starch in food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Ezekiel, Rajarathnam; Raigond, Baswaraj

    2015-08-15

    The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classified as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food is highly influenced by food preparation manner and processing techniques. Physical or chemical treatments also alter the level of RS in a food. Commercial preparations of RS are now available and can be added to foods as an ingredient for lowering the calorific value and improving textural and organoleptic characteristics along with increasing the amount of dietary fiber. RS has assumed great importance owing to its unique functional properties and health benefits. The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control and control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals. This review attempts to analyze the information published, especially in the recent past, on classification, structure, properties, applications and health benefits of RS.

  11. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  12. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Resistant starch content of Indian foods.

    PubMed

    Platel, K; Shurpalekar, K S

    1994-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) was determined in a few selected cereals, legumes and vegetables after processing. Higher RS contents were observed in foods subjected to dry heat treatment compared to wet processed ones. Among the foods studied, sorghum, green gram dhal, and green plantain showed relatively higher RS content. Based on the RS content thus determined in individual foods and the known composition of the Indian diet, RS content of Indian diets were computed.

  14. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-01-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.

  15. Synthesis of resistant starches in plants.

    PubMed

    Morell, Matthew K; Konik-Rose, Christine; Ahmed, Regina; Li, Zhongyi; Rahman, Sadiq

    2004-01-01

    The increased incidence in many countries in lifestyle diseases such as colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes has led to an enhanced interest in disease-prevention measures that can be delivered to target populations through diet. Resistant starch (RS) is emerging as an important dietary component that has the potential to reduce the incidence of bowel health disorders. However, the range of crop species that can serve as effective sources of RS is limited. In this paper the state of knowledge of the starch biosynthesis pathway is reviewed and opportunities to manipulate crop genetics in order to generate additional sources of RS are discussed. The need for a "whole of chain" approach to delivery of RS to the consumer is highlighted because of the impact that different food-processing technologies can have in maintaining, enhancing, or destroying the RS potential of a raw material or food.

  16. Resistant starches for the management of metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bindels, Laure B; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2015-11-01

    Recent clinical trials and animal studies indicate that resistant starches may be beneficial therapeutic tools for the management of metabolic diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize these findings and discuss the established and proposed mechanisms by which resistant starches exert their benefits. We also examine open questions regarding how resistant starches improve metabolism and propose future research directions for the field. Data from both humans and animal models clearly support a role for resistant starches in improving a variety of metabolic features; however, discrepancies do exist regarding specific effects. Concomitant improvements in both insulin levels and body fat depots are often reported in rodents fed resistant starches, whereas resistant starch feeding in humans improves insulin sensitivity without having a major impact on fat mass. These differences could be explained by the coexistence of several mechanisms (both gut microbiota-dependent and gut microbiota-independent) underpinning the metabolic benefits of resistant starches. Together, the studies presented in this review offer new insights into the potential pathways by which resistant starches enhance metabolic health, including modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating inflammatory mediators, innate immune cells, and the bile acid cycle.

  17. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistant-starch Formation in High-amylose Maize Starch During Kernel Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to understand the resistant-starch (RS) formation during the kernel development of high-amylose maize, GEMS-0067 line. RS content of the starch, determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber, increased with kernel maturation and the increase in amylose/...

  19. Characterization of enzyme-resistant starch in maize amylose-extender mutant starches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the human digestive system, a type of starch known as resistant starch (RS) can not be digested. RS is not absorbed in the small intestine, and is passed to the large intestine where it is fermented by bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids, which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory prop...

  20. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  1. Starch bioavailability in arepas made from ordinary or high amylose corn: concentration and gastrointestinal fate of resistant starch in rats.

    PubMed

    Granfeldt, Y E; Drews, A W; Björck, I M

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the importance of the amylose/amylopectin ratio for the content and gastrointestinal fate of resistant starch in a realistic composite starchy food. Corn-based breads (arepas) from dent corn (25% amylose) and from high amylose corn (70% amylose) were used as test products. Resistant starch concentration was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using rats treated with an antibiotic drug (Nebacitin) to suppress hindgut fermentation. Experiments in rats with intact hindgut microflora allowed determination of resistant starch fermentability. The small intestinal digestibility of starch in dent corn arepas was close to 96% (total starch basis), whereas the starch in high amylose arepas was poorly digested (approximately 68%, total starch basis), as calculated from the fecal recovery of resistant starch in Nebacitin-treated animals. The main resistant starch fraction required solubilization in alkali to render it available to the analytical amylases (nonhydrated fraction). The total amount of resistant starch as well as the nonhydrated starch fraction delivered to the hindgut could be accurately predicted from analysis of starch remnants in an enzymatic gravimetric dietary fiber residue. Resistant starch present in dent corn arepas was fermented approximately 63%, whereas the fermentability of resistant starch from the high amylose product was remarkably low (< 11%).

  2. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-Żeberska, M; Zięba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation.

  3. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation.

  4. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application.

  5. Effects of β-amylolysis on the resistant starch formation of debranched corn starches.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Curtis R; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2012-05-09

    Retrograded amylose is resistant to digestion by amylolytic enzymes, which is known as resistant starch type III (RS3). In this study we investigated the effect of β-amylase hydrolysis on the formation and physicochemical properties of RS3 from debranched corn starches. Three types of corn starch (Hylon VII, Hylon V, and common corn) were first gelatinized and then hydrolyzed using β-amylase to varying degrees. The resultant hydrolyzed starch was debranched with isoamylase and then exposed to temperature cycling to promote RS formation. A broad endotherm from approximately 45 to 120 °C and a small endotherm above 150 °C were noted for all retrograded starches. All three corn starches had increased RS contents after moderate β-amylolysis, with Hylon V having the highest RS content at 70.7% after 4 h of β-amylolysis. The results suggest that RS3 formation is affected by the starch composition as well as the starch structure and can be increased by moderate β-amylolysis.

  6. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG.

  7. Effect of resistant starch on hydrolysis and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Rausch, Kent D; Graeber, James V; Schmidt, Shelly J; Buriak, Philip; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2010-03-01

    Starch samples with 0% or 30% amylose were subjected to four different liquefaction enzyme treatments (at various temperature and pH conditions) followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Resistant starch (RS) measurements were conducted for the initial starch sample, after liquefaction and after SSF. Initial RS was higher for 30% amylose starch samples (16.53 g/100 g sample) compared with 0% amylose (0.76 g/100 g sample). Higher initial RS resulted in lower conversion of starch into sugars and lower final ethanol yields. The four enzymes hydrolyzed RS, but in varying amounts. Higher temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a larger portion of RS, resulting in higher ethanol concentrations and lower final residual solids (non-fermentables), whereas lower temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a smaller portion of RS and resulted in lower ethanol concentrations and higher final residual solids. Decreases in resistant starch after high temperature liquefaction were 55% to 74%, whereas low temperature liquefaction decreases were 11% to 43%. For all enzyme treatments, RS content of starch samples decreased further after SSF.

  8. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin – isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis – and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  9. Production of resistant starch by extrusion cooking of acid-modified normal-maize starch.

    PubMed

    Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize extrusion cooking and hydrothermal treatment to produce resistant starch (RS) as an economical alternative to a batch-cooking process. A hydrothermal treatment (110 degrees C, 3 d) of batch-cooked and extruded starch samples facilitated propagation of heat-stable starch crystallites and increased the RS contents from 2.1% to 7.7% up to 17.4% determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber. When starch samples were batch cooked and hydrothermally treated at a moisture content below 70%, acid-modified normal-maize starch (AMMS) produced a greater RS content than did native normal-maize starch (NMS). This was attributed to the partially hydrolyzed, smaller molecules in the AMMS, which had greater mobility and freedom than the larger molecules in the NMS. The RS contents of the batch-cooked and extruded AMMS products after the hydrothermal treatment were similar. A freezing treatment of the AMMS samples at -20 degrees C prior to the hydrothermal treatment did not increase the RS content. The DSC thermograms and the X-ray diffractograms showed that retrograded amylose and crystalline starch-lipid complex, which had melting temperatures above 100 degrees C, accounted for the RS contents.

  10. Characterization of Maize Amylose-Extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part I: Relationship Between Resistant Starch Contents and Molecular Structures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endosperm starches were isolated from kernels of seven maize amylose-extender (ae) lines. The resistant starch (RS) contents, measured using AOAC method 991.43, showed that three new ae-mutant starch lines developed by the USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement (GEM) and Truman State University had larger R...

  11. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  12. Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-03-01

    The realization that low-glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable.

  13. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films.

  14. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions.

  15. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  16. Effects of grain development on formation of resistant starch in rice.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaoli; Sun, Jian; Wu, Dianxing

    2014-12-01

    Three rice mutants with different contents of resistant starch (RS) were selected to investigate the effects of grain filling process on the formation of resistant starch. During grain development, the content of RS was increased with grain maturation and showed negative correlations with the grain weight and the starch molecular weight (Mn, Mw) and a positive correlation with the distribution of molecular mass (polydispersity, Pd). The morphologies of starch granules in high-RS rice were almost uniform in single starch granules and exhibited different proliferation modes from common rice. The lower activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch branching enzyme and the higher activity of starch synthase and starch de-branching enzyme observed in high-RS rice might be responsible for the formation of small irregular starch granules with large spaces between them. In addition, the lower molecular weight and the broad distribution of molecular weights lead to differences in the physiochemical properties of starch.

  17. Critical roles of soluble starch synthase SSIIIa and granule-bound starch synthase Waxy in synthesizing resistant starch in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongju; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Guifu; Meng, Xiangbing; Jing, Yanhui; Shu, Xiaoli; Kong, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Yu, Hong; Smith, Steven M.; Wu, Dianxing; Li, Jiayang

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human lifestyle and food consumption have resulted in a large increase in the incidence of type-2 diabetes, obesity, and colon disease, especially in Asia. These conditions are a growing threat to human health, but consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) can potentially reduce their incidence. Strategies to increase RS in rice are limited by a lack of knowledge of its molecular basis. Through map-based cloning of a RS locus in indica rice, we have identified a defective soluble starch synthase gene (SSIIIa) responsible for RS production and further showed that RS production is dependent on the high expression of the Waxya (Wxa) allele, which is prevalent in indica varieties. The resulting RS has modified granule structure; high amylose, lipid, and amylose–lipid complex; and altered physicochemical properties. This discovery provides an opportunity to increase RS content of cooked rice, especially in the indica varieties, which predominates in southern Asia. PMID:27791174

  18. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  19. Is there variation in resistant starch among high amylose rice varieties?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS) is the fraction of the starch and the products of starch degradation that resist digestion in the small intestines of healthy humans and is partially or entirely fermented in the colon by the microbiota. RS in food lowers postprandial glucose concentration and has potential in ...

  20. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R(2) values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. C-type starch from high-amylose rice resistant starch granules modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cunxu; Xu, Bin; Qin, Fengling; Yu, Huaguang; Chen, Chong; Meng, Xianglen; Zhu, Lijia; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-06-23

    High-amylose starch is a source of resistant starch (RS) which has a great benefit on human health. A transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched amylose and RS had been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. In this study, the native starch granules were isolated from TRS grains as well as the wild type, and their crystalline type was carefully investigated before and after acid hydrolysis. In high-amylose TRS rice, the C-type starch, which might result from the combination of both A-type and B-type starch, was observed and subsequently confirmed by multiple physical techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared. Moreover, the change of starch crystalline structure from C- to B-type during acid hydrolysis was also observed in this RS-rich rice. These data could add to our understanding of not only the polymorph structure of cereal starch but also why high-amylose starch is more resistant to digestion.

  2. Utilization of resistant starch of native tapioca, corn and waxy corn starches and their retrograded preparations by Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Wronkowska, Malgorzata; Soral-Smietana, Maria; Biedrzycka, Elzbieta

    2008-02-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of native starches from tapioca, normal and waxy corn, and their laboratory modified preparations, by selected Bifidobacterium strains (Bifidobacterium pseudolongum KSI9, Bifidobacterium breve KN14, and Bifidobacterium animalis KS20a1) was carried out under in vitro conditions. The growth and acidifying properties of bifidobacteria and utilization of resistant starches were determined in relation to glucose in the control sample. The preparations obtained from normal and waxy corn starches were the best substrates for growth of B. breve KN14, even compared with glucose. The growth of B. animalis KS20a1 was comparable, both on native and modified starches, whereas the starch preparations better stimulated the growth and acidifying activity of B. pseudolongum KSI9, as compared with native starches. The resistant starch fractions of all preparations were generally utilized to a higher degree (64-85%) compared with native starches (56-79%). The results of the study indicate that tapioca and corn starches, both native and modified, could be substrates beneficial for the enhancement of Bifidobacterium intestinal populations.

  3. [Resistant starches. Part II. Physico-chemical and technological aspects solution medico-biological problems].

    PubMed

    Iur'ev, V P; Gapparov, M M; Vasserman, L A; Genkina, N K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recent literature data related to structure, composition and physico-chemical properties of starches as well as the special methods of processing of the starch containing raw sources producing the food products with increasing content of resistant starches. The prognosis is made about usefulness of such resistant starches for control of some metabolic disorder in human organism and for prophylactic aims.

  4. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character.

  5. Characterization of resistant starch type III from banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Undine; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef

    2002-08-28

    Banana starch (Musa acuminata var. Nandigobe) was evaluated for its use in generating resistant starch (RS) type III. Structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of these products were analyzed. The investigated process includes debranching of the native starch and retrogradation under different storage temperatures and starch concentrations. After enzymatic debranching, a high amount of low-molecular-weight polymers with a degree of polymerization between 10 and 35 glucose units beside a higher molecular weight fraction were found. The resulting products comprised RS contents of about 50%. After heat-moisture treatment, the RS yield increased up to 84%. Peak temperatures of about 145 degrees C found in DSC measurements pointed to a high thermal stability of the RS products. In vitro fermentations of the RS products, carried out with intestinal microflora of healthy humans, resulted in a molar ratio of acetate:propionate:butyrate of about 49:17:34. The established method allowed the production of a high-quality RS with prebiotic properties for health preventing applications.

  6. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat.

  7. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  8. Resistant starch: a functional food that prevents DNA damage and chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, S D; Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Ogo, F M; Oliveira, R J

    2015-03-06

    Resistant starch is formed from starch and its degradation products and is not digested or absorbed in the intestine; thus, it is characterized as a fiber. Because fiber intake is associated with the prevention of DNA damage and cancer, the potential antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic capabilities of resistant starch from green banana flour were evaluated. Animals were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and their diet was supplemented with 10% green banana flour according to the following resistant starch protocols: pretreatment, simultaneous treatment, post-treatment, and pre + continuous treatment. The results demonstrated that resistant starch is not genotoxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. The results suggest that resistant starch acts through desmutagenesis and bio-antimutagenesis, as well as by reducing aberrant crypt foci, thereby improving disease prognosis. These findings imply that green banana flour has therapeutic properties that should be explored for human dietary applications.

  9. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    PubMed Central

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S.

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged. PMID:25642454

  10. Resistant starch contents of native and heat-moisture treated jackfruit seed starch.

    PubMed

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S; Kittipongpatana, Nisit

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20-25%, together with temperatures 80-110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm(-1) suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  11. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to classical infection prevention protocols and surveillance programs, counterintuitive interventions, such as selective decontamination with antibiotics and antibiotic rotation have been applied and investigated to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review provides an overview of selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic rotation as strategies to modulate antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit.

  12. The in vitro effects of retrograded starch (resistant starch type 3) from lotus seed starch on the proliferation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; Zhuang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    Prebiotics such as oligosaccharides, fructans, and resistant starch (RS) stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in large bowel and modify the human gastrointestinal environment. In this study, compared with glucose (GLU) and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), the in vitro effects of LRS3 and P-LRS3 (RS3 and purified RS3 prepared from lotus seed starch) on the proliferation of bifidobacteria were assessed by assessing the changes in optical density (OD), pH values, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and tolerance ability to gastrointestinal conditions. Significantly higher OD values were obtained from media containing LRS3 and P-LRS3, and especially in the medium containing P-LRS3, the OD value of which reached 1.36 when the concentration of the carbon source was 20 g L(-1). Additionally, the lag phase of bifidobacteria was 8 h in the medium with LRS3 or P-LRS3, whereas it was 16 h in the medium with GLU or HAMS. What is more, a higher content of butyric acid was obtained in the P-LRS3 medium. Compared with GLU and HAMS media, bifidobacteria had a higher tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions in LRS3 and P-LRS3 media. It shows that lotus seed resistant starch, especially P-LRS3, could stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. The rough surface of resistant starch and the SCFAs produced during fermentation might influence the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  13. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yafeng; Wang, Qi; Li, Baoyu; Lin, Liangmei; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-19

    Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  14. Resistant starch as a carrier for oral colon-targeting drug matrix system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Pang, Yansheng; Li, Lin; Zhang, Ximei; Yu, Long

    2007-11-01

    In this study, a novel tablet of protein drug matrix for colon targeting was developed using resistant starch as a carrier prepared by pre-gelatinization and cross-linking of starch. The effects of pre-gelatinization and cross-linking on the swelling and enzymatic degradation of maize starch as well as the release rate of drug from the matrix tablets were examined. Cross-linked pre-gelatinized maize starches were prepared by double modification of pre-gelatinization and cross-linked with POCl(3), and bovine serum albumin was used as a model drug. For in vitro drug release assays, the resistant starch matrix tablets were incubated in simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid, respectively. The content of resistant starch and swelling property of maize starch were increased by pre-gelatinization and cross-linking, which retarded its enzymatic degradation. Drug release studies have shown that the matrix tablets of cross-linked pre-gelatinized maize starch could delivery the drug to the colon. These results indicate that the resistant starch carrier prepared by pre-gelatinization and cross-linking can be used for a potential drug delivery carrier for colon-targeting drug matrix delivery system.

  15. Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the production of cross-linked starch with high resistant starch content.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Kevser; Koksel, Hamit; Ng, Perry K W

    2015-05-01

    The optimum reaction conditions (temperature and pH) for the preparation of cross-linked (CL) corn and wheat starches with maximum resistant starch (RS) content were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). According to the preliminary results, five levels were selected for reaction temperature (38-70 °C) and pH (10-12) in the main study. RS contents of the CL corn and wheat starch samples increased with increasing temperature and pH, and pH had a greater influence on RS content than had temperature. The maximum RS content (with a maximum p value of 0.4%) was obtained in wheat starch cross-linked at 38 °C and pH 12. In the case of CL corn starch, the optimum condition was 70 °C and pH 12. CL corn and wheat starch samples were also produced separately under the optimum conditions and their RS contents were 80.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These results were also in agreement with the values predicted by RSM.

  16. Effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response.

    PubMed

    Sonia, Steffi; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Ridwan, Rahmawati

    2015-01-01

    Cooling of cooked starch is known to cause starch retrogradation which increases resistant starch content. This study aimed to determine the effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response in healthy subjects. Resistant starch contents were analyzed on freshly cooked white rice (control rice), cooked white rice cooled for 10 hours at room temperature (test rice I), and cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated (test rice II). The results showed that resistant starch contents in control rice, test rice I, and test rice II were 0.64 g/100 g, 1.30 g/100 g, and 1.65 g/100 g, respectively. Test rice II had higher resistant starch content than test rice I, hence used in the clinical study along with control rice to characterize glycemic response in 15 healthy adults. The clinical study was a randomized, single-blind crossover study. In the clinical study, test rice II significantly lowered glycemic response compared with control rice (125±50.1 vs 152±48.3 mmol.min/L, respectively; p=0.047). In conclusion, cooling of cooked white rice increased resistant starch content. Cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated lowered glycemic response compared with freshly cooked white rice.

  17. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    PubMed Central

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  18. Changes in resistant starch from two banana cultivars during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Tang, Xue Juan; Chen, Ping Sheng; Huang, Hui Hua

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch samples were extracted and isolated from two banana cultivars (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup and Musa ABB group, Pisang Awak subgroup) at seven ripening stages during postharvest storage. The structures of the resistant starch samples were analysed by light microscopy, polarising microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical properties (e.g., water-holding capacity, solubility, swelling power, transparency, starch-iodine absorption spectrum, and Brabender microviscoamylograph profile) were determined. The results revealed significant differences in microstructure and physicochemical characteristics among the banana resistant starch samples during different ripening stages. The results of this study provide valuable information for the potential applications of banana resistant starches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2013-09-12

    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications.

  20. The regulatory effects of resistant starch on glycaemic response in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tohru

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of resistant starch on postprandial glycaemic response in obese dogs. The changes in blood glucose concentrations and glycaemic index (GI) were chronologically determined after the administration of resistant and normal starches by nasal feeding. Resistant starch contained indigestible dextrin (IDD) and β-cyclic dextrin (β-CD). Soluble starch (SS) served as a control starch. Glucose concentrations reached their maximum 15 min after the administration of SS solutions, and decreased gradually during the experimental period. In contrast, after the administration of IDD solutions, increased glucose concentrations rapidly decreased to the initial values. After the administration of β-CD solutions, glucose concentrations remained unchanged during this study. GI levels remained constant in the following order: β-CD < IDD < SS. GI levels of dogs receiving IDD and β-CD solutions were significantly lower as compared with those animals receiving SS solutions. In this study, nasal tube feeding was an effective method for evaluating glycaemic responses to various starches accurately. The present data revealed that resistant starches were useful materials in controlling nutritionally glucose concentrations in obese dogs. These results raise the possibility that resistant starches are valuable for dietetic treatment of diabetes and obesity in dogs.

  1. Fighting antibiotic resistance in Sweden--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Struwe, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Sweden has been in the favorable situation of having limited antibiotic resistance and low antibiotic consumption. When pneumococci with reduced susceptibility to penicillin and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged during the 1990s, professionals and relevant authorities called for extensive action plans to avoid the critical threshold levels of resistance experienced in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish experiences in light of new and future challenges by reviewing Swedish data on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use, notifications, outbreak control, action plans and scientific papers. The tradition of liberal performance of clinical cultures, together with well functioning diagnostic laboratories, has formed a basis for close collaboration and development of surveillance within quality assurance programs. For more than 20 years the pharmacy monopoly in Sweden has made it possible to collect well defined data on antibiotic sales at the county level with almost 100% coverage. Multisectorial collaboration was set up in regional Strama (Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance) groups. Large diagnosis-prescribing surveys have been undertaken, and the concept of basic hygiene precautions was introduced, together with extensive programs for early case finding. However, surveillance has been hampered by inadequate IT systems and some difficulties in collecting relevant data on antibiotic sales at the national level. Also, a decentralized system with 21 counties and regions has resulted in divergence of action plans and rules. The containment of antibiotic resistance thus far may be explained by the early response in human and veterinary medicine and close multisectorial collaboration, supported by the government, before problems got out of hand. Nevertheless, rapidly growing problems with bacteria that produce extended beta-lactamases have recently emerged and antibiotic sales have started to increase

  2. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose.

  3. [The fight against bacterial resistance, a public health priority].

    PubMed

    Carlet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria represents a major danger for the health of humans and animals. Combined with an almost complete absence of new antibiotics, it is one of the most alarming public health issues of our time. Measures must be taken in order to control the use of these drugs and safeguard their effectiveness.

  4. Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of Resistance and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Stephen L., Ed.

    Sixteen essays document the extent and variety of community resistance and struggle in Appalachia since 1960, and the origins and factors contributing to success or failure of particular efforts. They also relate the study of Appalachian dissent to issues informing scholarly discussions of dissent nationally. Of particular educational relevance…

  5. Supercomputer Simulations Help Develop New Approach to Fight Antibiotic Resistance

    ScienceCinema

    Zgurskaya, Helen; Smith, Jeremy

    2016-11-23

    ORNL leveraged powerful supercomputing to support research led by University of Oklahoma scientists to identify chemicals that seek out and disrupt bacterial proteins called efflux pumps, known to be a major cause of antibiotic resistance. By running simulations on Titan, the team selected molecules most likely to target and potentially disable the assembly of efflux pumps found in E. coli bacteria cells.

  6. Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of Resistance and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Stephen L., Ed.

    Sixteen essays document the extent and variety of community resistance and struggle in Appalachia since 1960, and the origins and factors contributing to success or failure of particular efforts. They also relate the study of Appalachian dissent to issues informing scholarly discussions of dissent nationally. Of particular educational relevance…

  7. Supercomputer Simulations Help Develop New Approach to Fight Antibiotic Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Zgurskaya, Helen; Smith, Jeremy

    2016-11-17

    ORNL leveraged powerful supercomputing to support research led by University of Oklahoma scientists to identify chemicals that seek out and disrupt bacterial proteins called efflux pumps, known to be a major cause of antibiotic resistance. By running simulations on Titan, the team selected molecules most likely to target and potentially disable the assembly of efflux pumps found in E. coli bacteria cells.

  8. Dietary fibre in bread and corresponding flours--formation of resistant starch during baking.

    PubMed

    Johansson, C G; Siljeström, M; Asp, N G

    1984-07-01

    Dietary fibre, assayed with an enzymatic/gravimetric method, was higher in wheat/rye bread than in the corresponding flours. The increase was most pronounced in crumbs from bread baked with mainly low-extraction-rate flour, and could be accounted for to a large extent as "resistant starch", i.e. a starch fraction available to amyloglucosidase only after solubilization with 2 m-KOH. The resistant starch was formed at dough-making and/or baking and did not increase further during freezing or storage at room temperature. The chemical modifications leading to resistant starch formation remain to be investigated. Starch-lipid complexes are probably not involved, since these are hydrolyzed by the heat-stable amylase used in the dietary fibre assay.

  9. Controlling the Resistive Switching Behavior in Starch-Based Flexible Biomemristors.

    PubMed

    Raeis-Hosseini, Niloufar; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-03-23

    Implementation of biocompatible materials in resistive switching memory (ReRAM) devices provides opportunities to use them in biomedical applications. We demonstrate a robust, nonvolatile, flexible, and transparent ReRAM based on potato starch. We also introduce a biomolecular memory device that has a starch-chitosan composite layer. The ReRAM behavior can be controlled by mixing starch with chitosan in the resistive switching layer. Whereas starch-based biomemory devices which show abrupt changes in current level; the memory device with mixed biopolymers undergoes gradual changes. Both devices exhibit uniform and robust programmable memory properties for nonvolatile memory applications. The explicated source of the bipolar resistive switching behavior is assigned to formation and rupture of carbon-rich filaments. The gradual set/reset behavior in the memory device based on a starch-chitosan mixture makes it suitable for use in neuromorphic devices.

  10. Preparation and characterization of sorghum flour with increased resistant starch content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary objective of this research was to develop an effective process to increase the resistant starch content of sorghum flour. A secondary objective was to investigate the role of the sorghum proteins on starch digestibility. Samples of white sorghum flour (28.9% amylose content) with differe...

  11. Cyclodextrins: A Weapon in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chew Ee; Dolzhenko, Anton V.; Lee, Sui Mae; Young, David James

    Antimicrobial resistance poses one of the most serious global challenges of our age. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely utilized excipients in formulations because of their solubilizing properties, low toxicity, and low inflammatory response. This review summarizes recent investigations of antimicrobial agents involving CDs and CD-based antimicrobial materials. CDs have been employed for antimicrobial applications either through formation of inclusion complexes or by chemical modification of their hydroxyl groups to tailor pharmaceutically active compounds. Applications of these CD inclusion complexes include drug delivery, antimicrobial coatings on materials (e.g., biomedical devices and implants) and antimicrobial dressings that help to prevent wound infections. There are relatively limited studies of chemically modified CDs with antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial CD inclusion complexes and derivatives needs further elucidation, but activity of CDs and their derivatives is often associated with their interaction with bacterial cell membranes.

  12. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (λmax), we propose a novel index, "new λmax" (AAC/(λmax of sample rice starches-λmax of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of λmax and "new λmax." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method.

  13. A single amino acid mutation of OsSBEIIb contributes to resistant starch accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifang; Bai, Jianjiang; Fang, Jun; Wang, Ying; Lee, Gangseob; Piao, Zhongze

    2016-09-01

    Foods rich in resistant starch can help prevent various diseases, including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea, and chronic renal and hepatic diseases. Variations in starch biosynthesis enzymes could contribute to the high content of resistant starch in some cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previously published work indicated that the sbe3-rs gene in the rice mutant line, 'Jiangtangdao1' was a putative allele of the rice starch branching enzyme gene SBEIIb (previously known as SBE3); sbe3-rs might control the biosynthesis of the high resistant starch content in the rice line. Biomolecular analysis showed that the activity of SBEs was significantly lower in soluble extracts of immature seeds harvested from 'Jiangtangdao1' 15 days after flowering than in the extracts of the wild-type rice line 'Huaqingdao'. We performed gene complementation assays by introducing the wild-type OsSBEIIb into the sbe3-rs mutant 'Jiangtangdao1'. The genetically complemented lines demonstrated restored seed-related traits. The structures of endosperm amylopectin and the morphological and physicochemical properties of the starch granules in the transformants recovered to wild-type levels. This study provides evidence that sbe3-rs is a novel allele of OsSBEIIb, responsible for biosynthesis of high resistant starch in 'Jiangtangdao1'.

  14. A single amino acid mutation of OsSBEIIb contributes to resistant starch accumulation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifang; Bai, Jianjiang; Fang, Jun; Wang, Ying; Lee, Gangseob; Piao, Zhongze

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in resistant starch can help prevent various diseases, including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea, and chronic renal and hepatic diseases. Variations in starch biosynthesis enzymes could contribute to the high content of resistant starch in some cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previously published work indicated that the sbe3-rs gene in the rice mutant line, ‘Jiangtangdao1’ was a putative allele of the rice starch branching enzyme gene SBEIIb (previously known as SBE3); sbe3-rs might control the biosynthesis of the high resistant starch content in the rice line. Biomolecular analysis showed that the activity of SBEs was significantly lower in soluble extracts of immature seeds harvested from ‘Jiangtangdao1’ 15 days after flowering than in the extracts of the wild-type rice line ‘Huaqingdao’. We performed gene complementation assays by introducing the wild-type OsSBEIIb into the sbe3-rs mutant ‘Jiangtangdao1’. The genetically complemented lines demonstrated restored seed-related traits. The structures of endosperm amylopectin and the morphological and physicochemical properties of the starch granules in the transformants recovered to wild-type levels. This study provides evidence that sbe3-rs is a novel allele of OsSBEIIb, responsible for biosynthesis of high resistant starch in ‘Jiangtangdao1’. PMID:27795673

  15. Pasting, textural and thermal properties of resistant starch prepared from potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch using pullulanase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Pramila, S; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-03-01

    Pullulanase enzyme (40 U/g, 10 h) was used for enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch which was autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h) and lyophilized. Comparison of morphological, pasting, textural and thermal properties among native hydrolysed starch (V2) and gelatinized hydrolysed starch (V3) prepared using pullulanase enzyme on potato starch (V1) were studied. The round, elliptical, irregular and oval shape with smooth surface of V1 was replaced with amorphous mass of cohesive structure leading to loss of granular appearance in V2 and V3. The percentage of amylose and resistant starch content of V2 (27.16 %) and (24.16 %); V3 (51.44 %) and (29.35 %) was higher when compared to V1 (22.17 %) and (3.62 %). The swelling power of V1 observed at 60 °C (0.85 %) and 95 °C (8.64 %) were significantly different from V2 at 60 °C (4.97 %) and 95 °C (7.66 %) and that of V3 at 60 °C (5.82 %) and 95 °C (7.5 %). Significance difference in water solubility (7.62 %) and absorption capacity (6.11 %) was noted in V3 when compared with V1 and V2 owing to amylose/amylopectin content. Increase in water solubility and absorption capacity along with decrease in swelling power of V2 and V3 was noted due to hydrolytic and thermal process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P < 0.05).

  16. Type IV resistant starch increases cecum short chain fatty acids level in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Anioła, Jacek; Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Zaborowska, Zofia; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starches are type of dietary fibers. However, their physiological effects depend on the way they resist digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that new type of RS4 preparations, of in vitro digestibility of about 50%, obtained by cross-linking and acetylation, acts as a prebiotic by increasing short chain fatty acids content in cecum digesta. The rats were fed with diet containing pregelatinized, cross-linked and acetylated starches as a main carbohydrate source. Pregelatinized, but not chemically modified, potato starch was used in the composition of the control diet. After two weeks of experiment the increase of short chain fatty acids contents in ceceum digesta was observed. The intake of starch A, cross-linked only with adipic acid, resulted in increase of about 40% of short chain fatty acids content, whereas starch PA cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate and adipic acid of about 50%. The utmost twofold increase was observed in the case of the production of propionic acid. In contrast, the content of butyric acid increased (12%) only as an effect of consumption of starch PA and even decreased (about 30%) in case of starch A. Both RS4 starches caused an increase of the production of acetic acid by more than 40%. No changes in serum biochemistry, liver cholesterol and organ weights of rats were stated.

  17. A comparative study on starch digestibility, glycemic index and resistant starch of pigmented ('Njavara' and 'Jyothi') and a non-pigmented ('IR 64') rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Deepa, G; Singh, Vasudeva; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2010-12-01

    In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic indices of three rice varieties- 'Njavara', 'Jyothi' (pigmented rice verities) and 'IR 64' (non-pigmented rice) with similar amylose content were studied. Starch digestibility studies showed differences in glycemic response in three types of rice. The rate of starch hydrolysis was maximum (67.3%) in 'Njavara' rice compared to other two rice varieties. 'Njavara' exhibited the lowest kinetic constant (k) indicating inherent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. The glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) of 'Njavara' were similar to 'Jyothi' and 'IR 64'. Resistant starch content was high in pigmented rice varieties compared to 'IR 64'. The resistant starch content of dehusked and cooked rice increased with the storage time at refrigeration temperature (4°C). 'Njavara' is an easily digestible rice and can be used for baby and geriatric foods.

  18. Some Nutritional Characteristics of Enzymatically Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch.

    PubMed

    Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min. The resulting resistant maltodextrin contained 24.45% dextrose equivalents, 56.06% indigestible starch and 86.62% dietary fiber. Compared to the cassava native starch, the pyrodextrin exhibited 56% solubility at room temperature and the resistant maltodextrin 100%. The glycemic index value for the resistant maltodextrin was 59% in healthy persons. Its high indigestible starch and dietary fiber contents, as well as its complete solubility, make the resistant maltodextrin a promising ingredient for raising dietary fiber content in a wide range of foods, especially in drinks, dairy products, creams and soups.

  19. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Ai, Yongfeng; Jones, Roger W.; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  20. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-09-17

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  1. Effect of Dietary Resistant Starch on Prevention and Treatment of Obesity-related Diseases and Its Possible Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hua Ting; Shen, Li; Fang, Qi Chen; Qian, Ling Ling; Jia, Wei Ping

    2015-04-01

    Overweight or obesity has become a serious public health problem in the world, scientists are concentrating their efforts on exploring novel ways to treat obesity. Nowadays, the availabilities of bariatric surgery and pharmacotherapy have enhanced obesity treatment, but it should has support from diet, physical exercise and lifestyle modification, especially the functional food. Resistant starch, an indigestible starch, has been studied for years for its beneficial effects on regulating blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of resistant starch on weight loss and the possible mechanisms. According to numerous previous studies it could be concluded that resistant starch can reduce fat accumulation, enhance insulin sensitivity, regulate blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. Recent investigations have focused on the possible associations between resistant starch and incretins as well as gut microbiota. Resistant starch seems to be a promising dietary fiber for the prevention or treatment of obesity and its related diseases.

  2. Banana Resistant Starch and Its Effects on Constipation Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2θ 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation. PMID:25046686

  3. Banana resistant starch and its effects on constipation model mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2(θ) 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation.

  4. African Flora Has the Potential to Fight Multidrug Resistance of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Continuous efforts from scientists of diverse fields are necessary not only to better understand the mechanism by which multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells occur, but also to boost the discovery of new cytotoxic compounds to fight MDR phenotypes. Objectives. The present review reports on the contribution of African flora in the discovery of potential cytotoxic phytochemicals against MDR cancer cells. Methodology. Scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge were used to retrieve publications related to African plants, isolated compounds, and drug resistant cancer cells. The data were analyzed to highlight cytotoxicity and the modes of actions of extracts and compounds of the most prominent African plants. Also, thresholds and cutoff points for the cytotoxicity and modes of action of phytochemicals have been provided. Results. Most published data related to the antiproliferative potential of African medicinal plants were from Cameroon, Egypt, Nigeria, or Madagascar. The cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds isolated in African plants was generally much better documented than that of terpenoids and alkaloids. Conclusion. African flora represents an enormous resource for novel cytotoxic compounds. To unravel the full potential, efforts should be strengthened throughout the continent, to meet the challenge of a successful fight against MDR cancers. PMID:25961047

  5. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  6. Effect of molecular weight profile of sorghum proanthocyanidins on resistant starch formation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Frederico; Awika, Joseph; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest to increase resistant starch (RS) in foods through natural modification of starch. Sorghum tannins (proanthocyanidins, PAs) were recently reported to interact with starch, increasing RS. However, there is no information about how the molecular weight profile of PAs affects RS formation. This study investigated how different-molecular-weight PAs from sorghum affected RS formation in different starch models. The levels of RS were higher (331-437 mg g(-1)) when high-amylose starch was cooked with phenolic extracts containing mostly high-molecular-weight PAs compared with extracts containing lower-molecular-weight PAs or monomeric catechin (249-285 mg g(-1)). In general, binding capacity of PAs with amylose increased proportionally with molecular weight. For example, the percentage of PAs bound to amylose increased from 45% (PAs with degree of polymerization (DP) = 6) to 94% (polymeric PAs, DP > 10). The results demonstrate that molecular weight of the PAs directly affects their interaction with starch: the higher the molecular weight, the stronger the binding to amylose and the higher the RS formation. Polymeric PAs from sorghum can naturally modify starch by interacting strongly with amylose and are thus most suitable to produce foods with higher RS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis.

  8. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.

  9. Structural characteristics and crystalline properties of lotus seed resistant starch and its prebiotic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Hongliang; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Baodong

    2014-07-15

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is a type of retrograded starch that is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (RS3). The structural and crystalline properties of unpurified LRS (NP-LRS3), enzyme purified LRS after drying (GP-LRS3), and enzyme purified LRS (ZP-LRS3) were characterized. The result showed that the molecular weights of NP-LRS3, GP-LRS3, and ZP-LRS3 were 0.102 × 10(6), 0.014 × 10(6), and 0.025 × 10(6)Da, respectively. Compared with native starch and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), LRS lacked the polarization cross and the irregularly shaped LRS granules had a rougher surface, B-type crystal structure, and greater level of molecular order. The FT-IR measurements indicated no differences in the chemical groups. Analysis by (13)C NMR indicated an increased propensity for double helix formation and higher crystallinity in LRS than in the two other types of starch. Moreover, LRS was more effective than either glucose or HAMS in promoting the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  10. Class 2 resistant starches lower plasma and liver lipids and improve mineral retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Levrat-Verny, M A; Coudray, C; Besson, C; Krespine, V; Messager, A; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    2001-04-01

    The effects of raw potato starch (RPS) and high amylose corn starch (HAS) on cecal digestion, lipid metabolism and mineral utilization (Ca and Mg) were compared in rats adapted to semipurified diets. The diets provided either 710 g wheat starch/100 g diet (control) alone or 510 g wheat starch/100 g diet plus 200 g resistant starch/100 g (RPS or HAS). Compared with rats fed the control diet, significant cecal hypertrophy (240% after 7 d of the fiber consumption) and short-chain fatty acids accumulation (especially propionic and butyric acids) occurred after both resistant starch diets. Apparent Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu absorptions were similarly enhanced by RPS and HAS (50, 50, 27, 21 and 90%, respectively). Cholesterol absorption was reduced to 14% of intake in rats fed RPS or HAS compared with 47% absorption in control rats. RPS and HAS were also effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (-31 and -27%, respectively) and triglycerides (-28 and -22%, respectively). There was no effect of the diets on cholesterol in d > 1.040 kg/L lipoproteins (HDL), whereas RPS and HAS depressed cholesterol in d < 1.040 kg/L lipoproteins (especially in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins). Moreover, there were lower concentrations of cholesterol (-50 and -40%, respectively) and triglycerides (-53 and -47%, respectively) in the livers of RPS- and HAS-fed rats. Thus, RPS and HAS have similar effects on intestinal fermentation, mineral utilization and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

  11. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in white vegetables: links to health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-05-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets.

  12. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  13. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Melliana C; Haenen, Daniëlle; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and barley. Digesta from different parts of the large intestine were collected and analysed for sugar composition and carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities. Resistant starch, as well as β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan, was utilised mainly in the caecum. The utilisation of β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan in the caecum was higher in DS-fed pigs than in RS-fed pigs. Analyses on carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities demonstrated that microbial enzyme production was stimulated according to the diet composition, and the enzyme profile throughout the large intestine of RS-fed pigs indicated that the presence of resistant starch shifted the utilisation of NSPs to more distal parts of the colon.

  14. Inhibition by resistant starch of red meat-induced promutagenic adducts in mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jean; Nyskohus, Laura; Young, Graeme P; Hu, Ying; Conlon, Michael A; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Le Leu, Richard K

    2011-11-01

    Population studies have shown that high red meat intake may increase colorectal cancer risk. Our aim was to examine the effect of different amounts and sources of dietary protein on induction of the promutagenic adduct O(6)-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O(6)MeG) in colonocytes, to relate these to markers of large bowel protein fermentation and ascertain whether increasing colonic carbohydrate fermentation modified these effects. Mice (n = 72) were fed 15% or 30% protein as casein or red meat or 30% protein with 10% high amylose maize starch as the source of resistant starch. Genetic damage in distal colonocytes was detected by immunohistochemical staining for O(6)MeG and apoptosis. Feces were collected for measurement of pH, ammonia, phenols, p-cresol, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). O(6)MeG and fecal p-cresol concentrations were significantly higher with red meat than with casein (P < 0.018), with adducts accumulating in cells at the crypt apex. DNA adducts (P < 0.01) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) were lower and protein fermentation products (fecal ammonia, P < 0.05; phenol, P < 0.0001) higher in mice fed resistant starch. Fecal SCFA levels were also higher in mice fed resistant starch (P < 0.0001). This is the first demonstration that high protein diets increase promutagenic adducts (O(6)MeG) in the colon and dietary protein type seems to be the critical factor. The delivery of fermentable carbohydrate to the colon (as resistant starch) seems to switch from fermentation of protein to that of carbohydrate and a reduction in adduct formation, supporting previous observations that dietary resistant starch opposes the mutagenic effects of dietary red meat.

  15. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-27

    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  16. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content. PMID:27818720

  17. Comparative methodologies for measuring metabolizable energy of various types of resistant high amylose corn starch.

    PubMed

    Tulley, Richard T; Appel, Marko J; Enos, Tanya G; Hegsted, Maren; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Zhou, Jun; Raggio, Anne M; Jeffcoat, Roger; Birkett, Anne; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-09-23

    Energy values of high amylose corn starches high in resistant starch (RS) were determined in vivo by two different methodologies. In one study, energy values were determined according to growth relative to glucose-based diets in rats fed diets containing RS(2), heat-treated RS(2) (RS(2)-HT), RS(3), and amylase predigested versions to isolate the RS component. Net metabolizable energy values ranged from 2.68 to 3.06 kcal/g for the RS starches, and 1.91-2.53 kcal/g for the amylase predigested versions. In a second study, rats were fed a diet containing RS(2)-HT and the metabolizable energy value was determined by bomb calorimetry. The metabolizable energy value was 2.80 kcal/g, consistent with Study 1. Thus, high amylose corn based RS ingredients and their amylase predigested equivalents have energy values approximately 65-78% and 47-62% of available starch (Atwater factor), respectively, according to the RS type (Garcia, T. A.; McCutcheon, K. L.; Francis, A. R.; Keenan, M. J.; O'Neil, C. E.; Martin, R. J.; Hegsted, M. The effects of resistant starch on gastrointestinal organs and fecal output in rats. FASEB J. 2003, 17, A335).

  18. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Janine A.

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance; the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced prostprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a “weight loss wonder food”. This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims. PMID:24499148

  19. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. This was a small controlled clinical trial to dete...

  20. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shu-Man; Lau, Wei Ling; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Adams, Sean H; Martin, Roy J

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammonia leading to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation; and restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables which are common sources of fermentable fiber. Restriction of these foods leads to depletion of bacteria that convert indigestible carbohydrates to short chain fatty acids which are important nutrients for colonocytes and regulatory T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that a high resistant starch diet attenuates CKD progression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks to induce CKD. Rats were then fed diets supplemented with amylopectin (low-fiber control) or high fermentable fiber (amylose maize resistant starch, HAM-RS2) for 3 weeks. CKD rats consuming low fiber diet exhibited reduced creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, tubular damage, activation of NFkB, upregulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-fibrotic molecules; impaired Nrf2 activity, down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction. The high resistant starch diet significantly attenuated these abnormalities. Thus high resistant starch diet retards CKD progression and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of HAM-RS2 in CKD patients.

  1. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Janine A

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight-loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance--the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes, which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food, thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due to its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a "weight loss wonder food". This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims.

  2. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  3. Characterization of the endosperm starch and the pleiotropic effects of biosynthetic enzymes on their properties in novel mutant rice lines with high resistant starch and amylose content.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuuki; Crofts, Naoko; Abe, Misato; Hosaka, Yuko; Fujita, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is beneficial to human health. In order to reduce the current prevalence of diabetes and obesity, several transgenic and mutant crops containing high RS content are being developed. RS content of steamed rice with starch-branching enzyme (BE)IIb-deficient mutant endosperms is considerably high. To understand the mechanisms of RS synthesis and to increase RS content, we developed novel mutant rice lines by introducing the gene encoding starch synthase (SS)IIa and/or granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS)I from an indica rice cultivar into a japonica rice-based BEIIb-deficient mutant line, be2b. Introduction of SSIIa from an indica rice cultivar produced higher levels of amylopectin chains with degree of polymerization (DP) 11-18 than those in be2b; the extent of the change was slight due to the shortage of donor chains for SSIIa (DP 6-12) owing to BEIIb deficiency. The introduction of GBSSI from an indica rice cultivar significantly increased amylose content (by approximately 10%) in the endosperm starch. RS content of the new mutant lines was the same as or slightly higher than that of the be2b parent line. The relationship linking starch structure, RS content, and starch biosynthetic enzymes in the new mutant lines has also been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    PubMed

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  5. Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Xiaolei; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    The release of energy from particulate substrates such as dietary fiber and resistant starch (RS) in the human colon may depend on the presence of specialist primary degraders (or ‘keystone species') within the microbial community. We have explored the roles of four dominant amylolytic bacteria found in the human colon in the degradation and utilization of resistant starches. Eubacterium rectale and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron showed limited ability to utilize RS2- and RS3-resistant starches by comparison with Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Ruminococcus bromii. In co-culture, however, R. bromii proved unique in stimulating RS2 and RS3 utilization by the other three bacterial species, even in a medium that does not permit growth of R. bromii itself. Having previously demonstrated low RS3 fermentation in vivo in two individuals with undetectable populations of R. bromii-related bacteria, we show here that supplementation of mixed fecal bacteria from one of these volunteers with R. bromii, but not with the other three species, greatly enhanced the extent of RS3 fermentation in vitro. This argues strongly that R. bromii has a pivotal role in fermentation of RS3 in the human large intestine, and that variation in the occurrence of this species and its close relatives may be a primary cause of variable energy recovery from this important component of the diet. This work also indicates that R. bromii possesses an exceptional ability to colonize and degrade starch particles when compared with previously studied amylolytic bacteria from the human colon. PMID:22343308

  6. Physical Cross-Linking Starch-Based Zwitterionic Hydrogel Exhibiting Excellent Biocompatibility, Protein Resistance, and Biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Qiangsong; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Boguang; Ji, Feng; Dong, Dianyu; Gao, Lina; Cui, Yuanlu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a novel starch-based zwitterionic copolymer, starch-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (ST-g-PSBMA), was synthesized via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Starch, which formed the main chain, can be degraded completely in vivo, and the pendent segments of PSBMA endowed the copolymer with excellent protein resistance properties. This ST-g-PSBMA copolymer could self-assemble into a physical hydrogel in normal saline, and studies of the formation mechanism indicated that the generation of the physical hydrogel was driven by electrostatic interactions between PSBMA segments. The obtained hydrogels were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio, protein resistance, and rheology tests. Toxicity and hemolysis analysis demonstrated that the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, the cytokine secretion assays (IL-6, TNF-α, and NO) confirmed that ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels had low potential to trigger the activation of macrophages and were suitable for in vivo biomedical applications. On the basis of these in vitro results, the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels were implanted in SD rats. The tissue responses to hydrogel implantation and the hydrogel degradation in vivo were determined by histological analysis (Hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome stains). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the physical cross-linking, starch-based zwitterionic hydrogels possess excellent protein resistance, low macrophage-activation properties, and good biocompatibility, and they are a promising candidate for an in vivo biomedical application platform.

  7. Peculiarities of enhancing resistant starch in ruminants using chemical methods: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-06-04

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants.

  8. Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  9. Mutations in durum wheat SBEII genes conferring increased amylose and resistant starch affect grain yield components, semolina and pasta quality and fermentation responses in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum spp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that provide human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of t...

  10. Research Advances on Structural Characterization of Resistant Starch and Its Structure-Physiological Function Relationship: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I

    2016-09-19

    Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the fraction of starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine due to either difficult enzyme/starch contact or to the strength of the crystalline regions formed both in native starch and in those retrograded starch. RS occurs naturally in some foods, and some may be generated in others as the results of several processing conditions. A variety of techniques have been employed to obtain structural characteristics of resistant starch such as their crystallinity, structural order, chain length distribution and conformation, helicity, and double helical structures. These structure plays an important role in determining the physiological properties of RS such as their prebiotic and hypoglycaemic properties. However, such topic on structural characterization of RS and their structure-physiological function relationship have not been reviewed in previous literatures. Therefore, this review focuses on the past and current achievements of research on structural characterizations of a range of resistant starch prepared from different sources of native starches as a result of a variety of processing conditions. The potential relationships between the structure and the physiological properties of RS which is of paramount importance for the furtherance understanding and application of RS are also reviewed in this study.

  11. FIGHTING MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE: EFFECTS OF UV-ACTIVATED CHLORPROMAZINE ON RABBIT'S EYE PSEUDOTUMOURS.

    PubMed

    Pirvulescu, Ruxandra Angela; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Romanitan, Mihaela Oana; Dascalu, Ana Maria; Alexandrescu, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance requires a flexible approach to find medicines able to overcome it. One method could be the exposure of existing medicines to UV laser beams to generate active photoproducts against bacteria and/or malignant tumors. The interaction of Chlorpromazine (CPZ) (irradiated with 266 nm pulsed laser beams) was studied at concentrations of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ ml in ultrapure water, with pseudotumors of rabbits eyes. The use of CPZ water solution exposed to 266 nm in the treatment of pseudotumor tissues produced on rabbit eyes showed that treatment results depend on initial (before irradiation) CPZ concentration and exposure time. At this stage, one could not specify which out of the generated photoproducts, individual or as a group, was/were efficient in pseudotumor cure but overall effects were observable. Application of CPZ irradiated solutions on rabbit eyes pseudotumors seemed to produce a faster recovery of tissues with respect to control, untreated eyes. Histologic findings in the treated tissues showed a good anti-inflammatory response. The results obtained open perspectives to fight MDR and/or development of pseudotumoral processes with substances that were not initially made for this purpose (non-antibiotics, for instance).

  12. A Putative Gene sbe3-rs for Resistant Starch Mutated from SBE3 for Starch Branching Enzyme in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancer, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world’s population. A japonica mutant ‘Jiang...

  13. Continuous enzymatic cooking and liquefaction of starch using the technique of direct resistive heating.

    PubMed

    Varella, V L; Concone, B R; Senise, J T; Doin, P A

    1984-07-01

    Continuous cooker prototypes of very simple design, using electricity as a primary energy source, were developed for the process of cooking and liquefaction of starch suspensions. Previous work on equipment using microwave dielectric heating has already been reported. Results of energy consumption as low as 330 kcal/kg based on starch content were achieved. Considering these results and looking for new solutions or engineering concepts, the authors have been investigating the possibility of using electric energy at 60 Hz for direct resistive heating, in which the starch suspension is the proper "resistor."The most important results of energetic yield obtained until now, working in a continuous process of cooking-liquefaction, are not larger than 235 kcal (272 Wh)/kg based on starch content. These results were obtained using a commercial grade alpha-amylase from B. subtillis, working with temperatures ranging from 70 to 75 degrees C, and with residence times in the reactor not greater than 1.5 min. The experiments of saccharification and fermentation accomplished as a test for the efficiency of this heating technique gave good results (as with a conventional technique) and thus enabled us to proceed with the studies.

  14. Effect of the production method on the properties of RS3/RS4 type resistant starch. Part 2. Effect of a degree of substitution on the selected properties of acetylated retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Michalski, A

    2012-12-01

    Resistant starch displays health-promoting properties. Starch preparations produced through acetylation of retrograded starch may be applied as a food additive. Apart from prebiotic properties, they may as well model the texture of a food product. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of retrogradation and acetylation conditions on properties of the produced RS3/4 type resistant starch. Native potato starch was used to produce starch pastes (1, 4, 10, 18 or 30g/100g), that were frozen, defrosted and dried. The resultant preparations of retrograded starch were acetylated with various doses of an acetic acid anhydride (3.25, 6.5, 13.0, 26.0 or 52.0ml/100g). The acetylated preparations of retrograded starch were characterised by increasing solubility in water and swelling power as well as a lower amylose content along with an increasing degree of their substitution with residues of acetic acid. Dependencies of: pasting temperatures, viscosity of the prepared pastes, and resistance of acetylated starch to the action of amyloglucosidase on the degree of substitution with acetic acid residues were described with a second degree polynomial function. The extent and range of changes were found to depend on the concentration of paste used to produce a retrograded starch preparation. The maximum resistance of RS3/4 preparations to the action of amyloglucosidase ranged from 28.7 to 45.9g/100g. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001). Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to the control

  16. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M.; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001). Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to the control

  17. Physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch prepared from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.L) starch by enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2013-06-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch (RS) from red kidney bean starch by enzymatic method. Native and gelatinized starch were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g/10 h), autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h), and lyophilized. The enzymatic hydrolysis and thermal treatment of starch increased the formation of RS which showed an increase in water absorption and water solubility indexes and a decrease in swelling power due to hydrolytic and thermal process. The process for obtaining RS changed the crystallinity pattern from C to B and increased the crystallinity due to the retrogradation process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05).

  18. Water resistance and thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol-starch fiber blend film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, M. S. N.; Nor, N. N. Mohamed; Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. Syed

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention of starch fiber (SF) has led to the innovation of Polyvinyl Alcohol-SF (PVA-SF) blends. This blend is regarded as the biodegradable material which aims to reduce the accumulation of synthetic polymer solid waste derived from petroleum. In this study, the thermal blending characterizations of PVA-SF were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The water resistance of the blend was also evaluated to study the polarity of the blends. The blend was prepared by plasticizing the polyvinyl alcohol with glycerol and distilled water with the addition of starch fiber. The incorporation of SF to the blends was at 10 wt% to 50 wt% composition. Based on the thermal analysis, PVA-SF blends were suitable for processing at high temperatures, which can be seen by the shifted onset degradation temperature to a higher temperature. This is because cyclic hemiacetals which were provided by SF can act to prevent the thermal attacks. Conversely, increasing the starch fiber proportion to the film blend reduce the endothermic peak amplitude in the DSC thermogram. It was found that PVA-SF blend at the higher composition of SF had the highest water resistance. This may be attributed to the content of fibre in SF which is hydrophilic.

  19. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P; Muir, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation.
METHODS—Twenty four pigs were fed four human type diets: a control diet, or control diet supplemented with resistant starch, wheat bran, or both. Intestinal contents and faeces were collected after two weeks.
RESULTS—Without wheat bran, resistant starch was rapidly fermented in the caecum and proximal colon. Supplementation with wheat bran inhibited the caecal fermentation of resistant starch, resulting in an almost twofold increase (from 12.9 (2.5) to 20.5 (2.1) g/day, p<0.05) in resistant starch being fermented between the proximal colon and faeces. This resulted in higher butyrate (133%, p<0.05) and lower ammonia (81%, p<0.05) concentrations in the distal colonic regions.
CONCLUSIONS—Wheat bran can shift the fermentation of resistant starch further distally, thereby improving the luminal conditions in the distal colonic regions where tumours most commonly occur. Therefore, the combined consumption of resistant starch and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides may contribute to the dietary modulation of colon cancer risk.


Keywords: resistant starch; non-starch polysaccharides; colonic fermentation; butyrate; ammonia; colon cancer risk PMID:10562582

  20. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-08-25

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California-Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch.

  1. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California–Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch. PMID:27110322

  2. The effects of temperature on the crystalline properties and resistant starch during storage of white bread.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, William R; Hughes, Jeff G; Cockman, Russell W; Small, Darryl M

    2017-08-01

    Resistant starch (RS) can form during storage of foods, thereby bestowing a variety of potential health benefits. The purpose of the current study has been to determine the influence of storage temperature and time on the crystallinity and RS content of bread. Loaves of white bread were baked and stored at refrigeration, frozen and room temperatures with analysis over a period of zero to seven days. RS determination and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and time on total crystallinity and RS content. The rate of starch recrystallisation was affected by storage temperature and time, where refrigeration temperatures accelerated RS formation and total crystallinity more than storage time at both frozen and room temperature. A strong statistical model has been established between RS formation in bread and XRD patterns, having a 96.7% fit indicating the potential of XRD to measure RS concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water-resistant cellulosic filter containing non-leaching antimicrobial starch for water purification and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Heydarifard, Solmaz; Pan, Yuanfeng; Xiao, Huining; M Nazhad, Mousa; Shipin, Oleg

    2017-05-01

    Water-resistant cellulose foam paper was developed in this work in an attempt to improve the antimicrobial activity of cellulose foam paper for capture and deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms existed in water. Results indicated that the cellulose foam paper could significantly improve household water quality by incorporating guanidine-based polymer modified with starch or called antibacterial thermoplastic starch (ATPS) into fibre network in the presence of proper amount of fiber fines. Ring diffusion testing demonstrated that no ATPS diffused around or underneath of samples, verifying that cellulose foam filter added by ATPS were of non-leaching type. Furthermore, the viability of bacteria before and after filtering and the structure of cellulose foam paper were analyzed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images. The findings further proved the effectiveness of antimicrobial cellulose foam in deactivating pathogens, E.coli in particular.

  4. In vitro production of short-chain fatty acids from resistant starch by pig faecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Moschini, M; Masoero, F

    2013-09-01

    The need to improve the knowledge of fermentation processes within the digestive tract in pigs is growing, particularly for ingredients that may act as potential prebiotic sources, such as resistant starch (RS). A study (based on enzymatic digestion followed by in vitro fermentation) was conducted to investigate whether various sources of RS, obtained from eight native starches characterized by inherent heterogeneous starch chemistry and structure, can influence short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and relative production kinetics. Total and individual SCFA productions were evaluated over time and up to 72 h of incubation. The in vitro hydrolysis of native starches allowed a classification from very high [≥ 650 g/kg dry matter (DM)] to low (<50 g/kg DM) RS amount. The total SCFA production was similar between ingredients, whereas acetate and butyrate molar ratios in the SCFA profile differed (from 0.48 to 0.56 and from 0.17 to 0.25, respectively; P < 0.05). Differences in fermentation kinetic parameters for total and individual SCFA productions were observed (P < 0.05). Considering the total SCFA production after 72 h of incubation, the time at which half of the maximum production has been reached (T 1/2), the maximum rate of production (R max) and its time of occurrence (T max) differed between ingredients (P < 0.05), with values ranging from 6.1 to 11.9 h, from 0.459 to 1.300 mmol/g DM incubated per hour and from 5.1 to 9.8 h, respectively. Overall, a similar trend was observed considering individual SCFA productions. In particular, T 1/2 ranged from 6.4 to 12.5 h, from 5.5 to 12.5 h and from 6.7 to 11.3 h for acetate, propionate and butyrate, respectively (P < 0.05). For R max, differences were obtained for propionate and butyrate productions (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was recorded for acetate. In summary, our findings indicated that both quantitative and qualitative production of SCFA and related kinetics were influenced by fermentation of RS

  5. Resistant starch alters colonic contractility and expression of related genes in rats fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Kerr, Caroline A; Dunne, Robert A; Shaw, Janet M; Bird, Anthony R; Regina, Ahmed; Morell, Matthew K; Lockett, Trevor J; Molloy, Peter L; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Dietary fiber shortens gut transit time, but data on the effects of fiber components (including resistant starch, RS) on intestinal contractility are limited. We have examined RS effects in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) or a wholemeal made from high-amylose wheat (HAW) on ileal and colonic contractility ex vivo and expression of genes associated with smooth muscle contractility. Rats were fed diets containing 19 % fat, 20 % protein, and either low-amylose maize starch (LAMS), HAMS, wholemeal low-amylose wheat (LAW) or HAW for 11 week. Isolated ileal and proximal colonic sections were induced to contract electrically, or by receptor-independent (KCl) or receptor-dependent agents. Colonic gene expression was assessed using an Affymetrix microarray. Ileal contractility was unaffected by treatment. Maximal proximal colonic contractility induced electrically or by angiotensin II or carbachol was lower for rats fed HAMS and LAW relative to those fed LAMS (P < 0.05). The colonic expression of genes, including cholinergic receptors (Chrm2, Chrm3), serotonin receptors (Htr5a, Htr7), a protease-activated receptor (F2r), a prokineticin receptor (Prokr1), prokineticin (Prok1), and nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), was altered by dietary HAMS relative to LAMS (P < 0.05). HAW did not significantly affect these genes or colonic contractility relative to effects of LAMS. RS and other fiber components could influence colorectal health through modulation of stool transit time via effects on muscular contractility.

  6. Effects of locust bean gum on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Singh, Ajaypal; Vatankhah, Hamed; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-03-01

    In this study, interactions between resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) on the viscoelastic, pasting and morphological characteristics of aqueous dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with the addition of LBG, and the rheograms demonstrated a biphasic behavior. RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G' > G'') or viscous (G'' > G'), depending on the added concentration level of LBG. Gum addition also caused higher peak viscosity, breakdown and total set back of RS/LBG mixtures. A strong correlation between rheological and structural properties was found. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed the transition of starch particles from a scattered angular shape to clustered structures cross-linked by dense aggregate junction zones justifying the observed changes in rheological properties.

  7. [Research on Resistant Starch Content of Rice Grain Based on NIR Spectroscopy Model].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Wu, Fang-xi; Xie, Hong-guang; Zhu, Yong-sheng; Zhang, Jian-fu; Xie, Hua-an

    2016-03-01

    A new method based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis was explored to determine the content of rice-resistant starch instead of common chemical method which took long time was high-cost. First of all, we collected 62 spectral data which have big differences in terms of resistant starch content of rice, and then the spectral data and detected chemical values are imported chemometrics software. After that a near-infrared spectroscopy calibration model for rice-resistant starch content was constructed with partial least squares (PLS) method. Results are as follows: In respect of internal cross validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.920 2, 0.967 0 and 0.976 7 respectively. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.533 7, 1.011 2 and 0.837 1 respectively. In respect of external validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+ 1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.805, 0.976 and 0.992 respectively. The average absolute error was 1.456, 0.818, 0.515 respectively. There was no significant difference between chemical and predicted values (Turkey multiple comparison), so we think near infrared spectrum analysis is more feasible than chemical measurement. Among the different pretreatment, the first derivation and standard normal variate (1thD+SNV) have higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower error value whether in internal validation and external validation. In other words, the calibration model has higher precision and less error by pretreatment with 1thD+SNV.

  8. Adaptation of the cecal bacterial microbiome of growing pigs in response to resistant starch type 4.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-12-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS.

  9. Adaptation of the Cecal Bacterial Microbiome of Growing Pigs in Response to Resistant Starch Type 4

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS. PMID:26431973

  10. Ecology and evolution as targets: the need for novel eco-evo drugs and strategies to fight antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, the explosive spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria has reached a global dimension. Classical measures trying to contain or slow locally the progress of antibiotic resistance in patients on the basis of better antibiotic prescribing policies have clearly become insufficient at the global level. Urgent measures are needed to directly confront the processes influencing antibiotic resistance pollution in the microbiosphere. Recent interdisciplinary research indicates that new eco-evo drugs and strategies, which take ecology and evolution into account, have a promising role in resistance prevention, decontamination, and the eventual restoration of antibiotic susceptibility. This minireview summarizes what is known and what should be further investigated to find drugs and strategies aiming to counteract the "four P's," penetration, promiscuity, plasticity, and persistence of rapidly spreading bacterial clones, mobile genetic elements, or resistance genes. The term "drug" is used in this eco-evo perspective as a tool to fight resistance that is able to prevent, cure, or decrease potential damage caused by antibiotic resistance, not necessarily only at the individual level (the patient) but also at the ecological and evolutionary levels. This view offers a wealth of research opportunities for science and technology and also represents a large adaptive challenge for regulatory agencies and public health officers. Eco-evo drugs and interventions constitute a new avenue for research that might influence not only antibiotic resistance but the maintenance of a healthy interaction between humans and microbial systems in a rapidly changing biosphere.

  11. Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, P; Ramakrishna, B S; Oommen, Samuel P; Ahmed, Mir Shovkat; Priyaa, G; Dziura, James; Young, Graeme P; Binder, Henry J

    2006-04-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) for treatment of diarrhea relies on enhancement of small intestinal sodium and fluid absorption to correct dehydration. Amylase-resistant starch added to ORS significantly reduced the duration and severity of diarrhea in adults with cholera, presumably by generation of short-chain fatty acids in the colon and enhancement of colonic sodium and fluid absorption. The present study was initiated to determine whether addition of amylase-resistant starch to standard World Health Organization glucose-ORS (G-ORS) would reduce the duration of diarrhea and fecal fluid losses in children with acute diarrhea. One hundred eighty-three children (6 months to 3 years) with acute watery diarrhea were randomized to receive either standard treatment with G-ORS or G-ORS with additional amylase-resistant starch, HAMS (HAMS-ORS, 50g/L). Stool weight and consistency were monitored serially until development of formed stool or development of treatment failure defined as either the need for unscheduled intravenous fluid therapy or diarrhea longer than 72 hours. Five of the subjects were lost to follow up. In 178 remaining children (87 HAMS-ORS and 91 G-ORS) with evaluable data, time from enrolment to last unformed stool was significantly less in children receiving HAMS-ORS (median, 6.75 hours; 95% confidence interval, 4.27-9.22) than in children treated with G-ORS (12.80 hours, 8.69-16.91) (P = 0.0292). Time to first formed stool was also significantly shorter in children receiving HAMS-ORS (median, 18.25 hours; 95% confidence interval, 13.09-23.41) compared with children receiving G-ORS (median, 21.50 hours; 95% confidence interval, 17.26-25.74) (P = 0.0440). The total amount of ORS consumed was similar in both groups. There was a trend toward lower mean stool weight in first 24 hours (P = 0.0752) as well as total diarrheal stool weight (P = 0.0926) in patients in the HAMS group compared with the G-ORS group. In children with acute diarrhea, the addition of

  12. The citric acid-modified, enzyme-resistant dextrin from potato starch as a potential prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Sliżewska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and citric (0.1% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 3 h (CA-dextrin), was tested as a source of carbon for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria isolated from feces of three healthy 70-year old volunteers. The dynamics of growth of bacterial monocultures in broth containing citric acid (CA)-modified dextrin were estimated. It was also investigated whether lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria in the presence of resistant dextrin would be able to dominate the intestinal isolates. Prebiotic fermentation of resistant dextrin was analyzed using prebiotic index (PI). In co-cultures of intestinal and probiotic bacteria, the environment was found to be dominated by the probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which is a beneficial effect.

  13. β-Glucans and Resistant Starch Alter the Fermentation of Recalcitrant Fibers in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Vasanthan, Thava; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (BW 28±1.4 kg) were assigned to the diets according to a 6×6 Latin square. β-glucan-extract increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of non-glucosyl polysaccharides (accounting for ~40% of the fiber-fraction) from rapeseed meal (6%-units, P<0.001), but did not affect non-glucosyl polysaccharides from DDGS. Retrograded tapioca reduced ATTD of non-glucosyl polysaccharides from rapeseed meal and DDGS (>10%-units, P<0.001), indicating that the large amount of resistant starch entering the hindgut was preferentially degraded over recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal and DDGS, possibly related to reduced hindgut-retention time following the increased intestinal bulk. Fermentation of fiber sources was not only dependent on fiber characteristics, but also on the presence of other fibers in the diet. Hence, interactions in the gastrointestinal tract among fibrous feed ingredients should be considered when evaluating their nutritive value. PMID:27911928

  14. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    PubMed Central

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  15. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children.

  16. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with resistant starch display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) is a fermentable dietary fiber known to alter the gut milieu, including the gut microbiota, which may explain reported effects of resistant starch to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. Our working hypothesis is that HAMRS2-induced...

  17. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  18. Is resistant starch protective against colorectal cancer via modulation of the WNT signalling pathway?

    PubMed

    Malcomson, Fiona C; Willis, Naomi D; Mathers, John C

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) including resistant starch are protective against colorectal cancer. These anti-neoplastic effects are presumed to result from the production of the SCFA, butyrate, by colonic fermentation, which binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43 to regulate inflammation and other cancer-related processes. The WNT pathway is central to the maintenance of homeostasis within the large bowel through regulation of processes such as cell proliferation and migration and is frequently aberrantly hyperactivated in colorectal cancers. Abnormal WNT signalling can lead to irregular crypt cell proliferation that favours a hyperproliferative state. Butyrate has been shown to modulate the WNT pathway positively, affecting functional outcomes such as apoptosis and proliferation. Butyrate's ability to regulate gene expression results from epigenetic mechanisms, including its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and through modulating DNA methylation and the expression of microRNA. We conclude that genetic and epigenetic modulation of the WNT signalling pathway may be an important mechanism through which butyrate from fermentation of resistant starch and other NDC exert their chemoprotective effects.

  19. Films from resistant starch-pectin dispersions intended for colonic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira; Evangelista, Raul Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Free films were obtained by the solvent casting method from retrograded starch-pectin dispersions at different polymer proportions and concentrations with and without plasticizer. Film forming dispersions were characterized according to their hardness, birefringence and rheological properties. The polymer dispersions showed a predominantly viscous behavior (G″>G') and the absence of plasticizers lead to building of stronger structures, while the occurrence of Maltese crosses in the retrograded dispersions indicates the occurrence of a crystalline organization. Analyses of the films included mechanical properties, thickness, superficial and cross sectional morphology, water vapor permeability, liquid uptake ability, X-ray diffractometry, in vitro dissolution and enzymatic digestion. The high resistant starch content (65.8-96.8%) assured the resistance of materials against enzymatic digestion by pancreatin. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns indicated a more organized and crystalline structure of free films in relation to isolated polymers. Increasing of pectin proportion and pH values favored the dissolution and liquid uptake of films. Films prepared with lower polymer concentration presented better barrier function (WVP and mechanical properties).

  20. Dietary-resistant starch improves maternal glycemic control in Goto-Kakizaki rat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Keenan, Michael J; Raggio, Anne; Williams, Cathy; Martin, Roy J

    2011-10-01

    Dietary prebiotics show potential in anti-diabetes. Dietary resistant starch (RS) has a favorable impact on gut hormone profiles, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) consistently released, a potent anti-diabetic incretin. Also RS reduced body fat and improved glucose tolerance in rats and mice. In the current project, we hypothesize that dietary-resistant starch can improve insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β cell mass in a type 2 diabetic rat model. Altered gut fermentation and microbiota are the initial mechanisms, and enhancement in serum GLP-1 is the secondary mechanism. In this study, GK rats were fed an RS diet with 30% RS and an energy control diet. After 10 wk, these rats were mated and went through pregnancy and lactation. At the end of the study, pancreatic β cell mass, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic insulin content, total GLP-1 levels, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and butyrate producing bacteria in cecal contents were greatly improved by RS feeding. The offspring of RS-fed dams showed improved fasting glucose levels and normal growth curves. Dietary RS is potentially of great therapeutic importance in the treatment of diabetes and improvement in outcomes of pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Resistant starch improves insulin resistance and reduces adipose tissue weight and CD11c expression in rat OLETF adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Harazaki, Tomomi; Inoue, Seiya; Imai, Chihiro; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2014-05-01

    CD11s/CD18 dimers induce monocyte/macrophage infiltration into many tissues, including adipose tissues. In particular, it was reported that β2-integrin CD11c-positive macrophages in adipose tissues are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether intake of resistant starch (RS) reduces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissues and inhibits the development of insulin resistance at an early stage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Twenty-two-wk-old male OLETF rats were fed a control diet (55% α-corn starch) or an RS diet (55% RS) for 5 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 wk of feeding; tissues (mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissues, and liver) and tail vein blood were collected after 5 wk of feeding the test diets. Feeding the RS diet to OLETF rats for 5 wk improved insulin resistance, reduced the mesenteric adipose tissue weight, and enhanced the number of small adipocytes. CD68 expression, a macrophage infiltration marker, was not changed by the RS diet, whereas the gene expression levels of integrins such as CD11c, CD11d, and CD18, but not CD11a, and CD11b, were significantly reduced. CD11c protein expression was reduced by the RS diet. These findings suggest that part of the mechanism for the improved insulin resistance by the RS diet involves a reduction of CD11c expression in adipose tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively.

  3. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains.

  4. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch type IV nanoparticles through ultrasonication and miniemulsion cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongbo; Zheng, Jiong; Xia, Xuejuan; Ren, Tingyuan; Kan, Jianquan

    2016-05-05

    This study aimed to assess the properties of resistant starch type IV (chemically modified starch, RS4) prepared from a new and convenient synthesis route by using ultrasonication combined with water-in-oil miniemulsion cross-linking technique. A three-factor Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to minimize particle size through the developed RS4 nanoparticles. The predicted minimized Z-Avel (576.1nm) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (ultrasonic power, 214.57W; sonication time, 114.73min; and oil/water ratio, 10.54:1) was very close to the experimental value (651.0nm) determined in a batch experiment. After preparing the RS4 nanoparticles, morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties were assessed. Results revealed that RS4 nanoparticle size reached about 600nm. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that ultrasonication induced notches and grooves on the surface. Under polarized light, the polarized cross was impaired. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the crystalline structure was disrupted. Smaller or no endotherms were exhibited in DSC analysis. In the FTIR graph, new peaks at 1532.91 and 1451.50cm(-1) were observed, and pasting properties were reduced. Amylose content, solubility, and SP increased, but RS content decreased. Anti-digestibility remained after ultrasonication. The prepared RS4 nanoparticles could be extensively used in biomedical applications and in the development of new medical materials.

  5. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Topping, D L; Clifton, P M

    2001-07-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is starch and products of its small intestinal digestion that enter the large bowel. It occurs for various reasons including chemical structure, cooking of food, chemical modification, and food mastication. Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. SCFA stimulate colonic blood flow and fluid and electrolyte uptake. Butyrate is a preferred substrate for colonocytes and appears to promote a normal phenotype in these cells. Fermentation of some RS types favors butyrate production. Measurement of colonic fermentation in humans is difficult, and indirect measures (e.g., fecal samples) or animal models have been used. Of the latter, rodents appear to be of limited value, and pigs or dogs are preferable. RS is less effective than NSP in stool bulking, but epidemiological data suggest that it is more protective against colorectal cancer, possibly via butyrate. RS is a prebiotic, but knowledge of its other interactions with the microflora is limited. The contribution of RS to fermentation and colonic physiology seems to be greater than that of NSP. However, the lack of a generally accepted analytical procedure that accommodates the major influences on RS means this is yet to be established.

  6. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...

  7. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  8. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  9. Resistant starch for modulation of gut microbiota: Promising adjuvant therapy for chronic kidney disease patients?

    PubMed

    Moraes, Cristiane; Borges, Natália A; Mafra, Denise

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota has been extensively studied in all health science fields because its imbalance is linked to many disorders, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications. Novel therapeutic strategies that aim to reduce the complications caused by this imbalance have increased in recent years. Studies have shown that prebiotic supplementation can beneficially modulate the gut microbiota in CKD patients. Prebiotics consist of non-digestible dietary soluble fiber, which acts as a substrate for the gut microbiota. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that can reach the large bowel and act as a substrate for microbial fermentation; for these reasons, it has been considered to be a prebiotic. Few studies have analyzed the effects of RS on the gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review discusses recent information about RS and the potential role of the gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on CKD patients.

  10. Resistant starch/pectin free-standing films reinforced with nanocellulose intended for colonic methotrexate release.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia B; Ferreira Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti; Dos Santos, Aline M; Franco, Douglas Faza; Barud, Hernane S; da Silva Filho, Edson C

    2017-02-10

    Although resistant starch/pectin (RS/P) films have previously displayed suitable properties for colon-specific drug delivery, nanocomposite films were developed aiming to enhance physicochemical, thermal, mechanical and barrier properties, as well as the low oral bioavailability of methotrexate (MTX). FEG-SEM micrographs of nanocomposite films showed different interaction patterns occurring among nanocellulose and RS/P. The nanofiller addition led to an increase in the thermal stability, probably due to its interaction with RS crystalline double helices. Results also displayed an improvement of the puncture strength, while barrier properties revealed a low water vapor permeability. Ex vivo bioadhesion test displayed the nanocomposites films to interact strongly with porcine gastrointestinal mucosa. In vitro drug release studies showed that the films developed enhanced the drug dissolution rates with approximately 80% of MTX release in 150min, suggesting the potential of these materials as a poor solubility drugs carrier, which constitutes an important tool for enhancing oral bioavailability.

  11. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  12. Resistant starch and arabinoxylan augment SCFA absorption, but affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses differently.

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2014-05-01

    The effects of increased colonic fermentation of dietary fibres (DF) on the net portal flux (NPF) of carbohydrate-derived metabolites (glucose, SCFA and, especially, butyrate), hormones (insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and NEFA were studied in a healthy catheterised pig model. A total of six pigs weighing 59 (SEM 1·6) kg were fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and in the portal and hepatic veins, and a flow probe around the portal vein, and included in a double 3 × 3 cross-over design with three daily feedings (at 09.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours). Fasting and 5 h postprandial blood samples were collected after 7 d adaptation to each diet. The pigs were fed a low-DF Western-style control diet (WSD) and two high-DF diets (an arabinoxylan-enriched diet (AXD) and a resistant starch-enriched diet (RSD)). The NPF of insulin was lower (P= 0·04) in AXD-fed pigs (4·6 nmol/h) than in RSD-fed pigs (10·5 nmol/h), despite the lowest NPF of glucose being observed in RSD-fed pigs (203 mmol/h, P= 0·02). The NPF of total SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate were high, intermediate and low (P< 0·01) in AXD-, RSD- and WSD-fed pigs, respectively, with the largest relative increase being observed for butyrate in response to arabinoxylan supplementation. In conclusion, the RSD and AXD had different effects on the NPF of insulin and glucose, suggesting different impacts of arabinoxylan and resistant starch on human health.

  13. Fighting Baptism with a Hose: Understanding Student Resistance to Liberation Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janangelo, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three major areas of student resistance to teachers' attempts to bring liberation pedagogy into the classroom, so that teachers can better understand the validity of this resistance. Suggests possible ways of overcoming it. (SR)

  14. Variable responses of human microbiomes to dietary supplementation with resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, A; Sieber, J R; Schmidt, A W; Waldron, C; Theis, K R; Schmidt, T M

    2016-06-29

    The fermentation of dietary fiber to various organic acids is a beneficial function provided by the microbiota in the human large intestine. In particular, butyric acid contributes to host health by facilitating maintenance of epithelial integrity, regulating inflammation, and influencing gene expression in colonocytes. We sought to increase the concentration of butyrate in 20 healthy young adults through dietary supplementation with resistant starch (unmodified potato starch-resistant starch (RS) type 2). Fecal samples were collected from individuals to characterize butyrate concentration via liquid chromatography and composition of the microbiota via surveys of 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences from the Illumina MiSeq platform. Random Forest and LEfSe analyses were used to associate responses in butyrate production to features of the microbiota. RS supplementation increased fecal butyrate concentrations in this cohort from 8 to 12 mmol/kg wet feces, but responses varied widely between individuals. Individuals could be categorized into three groups based upon butyrate concentrations before and during RS: enhanced, high, and low (n = 11, 3, and 6, respectively). Fecal butyrate increased by 67 % in the enhanced group (from 9 to 15 mmol/kg), while it remained ≥11 mmol/kg in the high group and ≤8 mmol/kg in the low group. Microbiota analyses revealed that the relative abundance of RS-degrading organisms-Bifidobacterium adolescentis or Ruminococcus bromii-increased from ~2 to 9 % in the enhanced and high groups, but remained at ~1.5 % in the low group. The lack of increase in RS-degrading bacteria in the low group may explain why there was no increase in fecal butyrate in response to RS. The microbiota of individuals in the high group were characterized by an elevated abundance of the butyrogenic microbe Eubacterium rectale (~6 % in high vs. 3 % in enhanced and low groups) throughout the study. We document the heterogeneous responses in butyrate

  15. Resistant starch film-coated microparticles for an oral colon-specific polypeptide delivery system and its release behaviors.

    PubMed

    Situ, Wenbei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-23

    For the delivery of bioactive components to the colon, an oral colon-specific controlled release system coated with a resistant starch-based film through aqueous dispersion coating process was developed. Starch was modified by a high-temperature-pressure reaction, enzymatic debranching, and retrogradation, resulting in a dramatic increase in the resistibility against enzymatic digestion (meaning the formation of resistant starch, specifically RS3). This increase could be associated with an increase in the relative crystallinity, a greater amount of starch molecular aggregation structure, and the formation of a compact mass fractal structure, resulting from the treatment. The microparticles coated with this RS3 film showed an excellent controlled release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the RS3 film-coated insulin-loaded microparticles exhibited the ability to steadily decrease the plasma glucose level initially and then maintain the plasma glucose level within the normal range for total 14-22 h with different insulin dosages after oral administration; no glycopenia or glycemic fluctuation was observed. Therefore, the potential of this new RS3 film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated for the accurate delivery of bioactive polypeptides or protein to the colon.

  16. Effect of cooking on the anthocyanins, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, and resistant starch content in two pigmented cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Mulinacci, Nadia; Ieri, Francesca; Giaccherini, Catia; Innocenti, Marzia; Andrenelli, Luisa; Canova, Giulia; Saracchi, Marco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2008-12-24

    HPLC/DAD/MS analysis of the phenolic acids and anthocyanin content of three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. (Vitelotte Noire, Highland Burgundy Red, with pigmented flesh, and Kennebec with white pulp) was performed. The analyses were carried out both on fresh tubers and after cooking treatments (boiling and microwaves). Starch digestibility and the % of resistant starch were also determined on cooked tubers by in vitro methods. For the pigmented potatoes, the heating treatment did not cause any changes in the phenolic acids content, while anthocyanins showed only a small decrement (16-29%). The cv. Highland Burgundy Red showed anthocyanins and phenolic acid concentrations close to 1 g/kg and more than 1.1 g/kg, respectively. Vitellotte Noire showed the highest amounts of resistant starch. Potato starch digestibility and % of resistant starch, considered as a component of dietary fiber, were affected both by cultivar and by heating/cooling treatments.

  17. Fighting microbial drug resistance: a primer on the role of evolutionary biology in public health

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Gabriel G; Inglis, R Fredrik; Pennings, Pleuni S; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Although microbes have been evolving resistance to antimicrobials for millennia, the spread of resistance in pathogen populations calls for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies. We propose that successful, long-term resistance management requires a better understanding of how resistance evolves in the first place. This is an opportunity for evolutionary biologists to engage in public health, a collaboration that has substantial precedent. Resistance evolution has been an important tool for developing and testing evolutionary theory, especially theory related to the genetic basis of new traits and constraints on adaptation. The present era is no exception. The articles in this issue highlight the breadth of current research on resistance evolution and also its challenges. In this introduction, we review the conceptual advances that have been achieved from studying resistance evolution and describe a path forward. PMID:25861380

  18. Nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of resistant starch varieties and conventional fibres in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Liu, Qiang; Wood, Peter; Fan, Ming Z

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the influence of different resistant starch (RS) varieties and conventional fibres on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation in pigs. Thirty-six pigs (30 kg) were fed poultry meal-based diets supplemented with 10 % granular resistant corn starch (GCS), granular resistant potato starch (GPS), retrograded resistant corn starch (RCS), guar gum (GG) or cellulose for 36 d according to a completely randomised block design. Distal ileal and total tract recoveries were similar (P>0.05) among the RS varieties. Distal ileal starch recovery was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs consuming the RS diets (27-42 %) as compared with the control group (0.64 %). Consumption of GCS reduced (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility and whole-body retention of crude protein in comparison with the control group. Consumption of GPS reduced (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility and whole-body retention of Ca and P compared with the control group. However, consumption of RCS increased (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility compared with the control group. Caecal butyrate concentration was increased (P < 0.05) following consumption of RCS and GG in comparison with the control group. Consumption of all the RS varieties reduced (P < 0.05) caecal indole concentrations compared with the control. Caecal butyrate concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.05; r 0.63-0.83) with thermal properties among the RS varieties. We conclude that nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of different RS varieties and types of fibres. Thermal properties associated with different RS varieties may be useful markers for developing RS varieties with specific functionality.

  19. Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Coudray, C; Bellanger, J; Demigné, C; Rayssiguier, Y; Rémésy, C

    2001-10-01

    Resistant starch and inulin are complex carbohydrates that are fermented by the microflora and known to increase colonic absorption of minerals in animals. The fermentation of these substrates in the large bowel to short-chain fatty acids is the main reason for this increase in mineral absorption. The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential synergistic effect of a combination of these two fermentable carbohydrates. For this purpose, thirty-two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 g were used in the present study. The rats were distributed into four groups, and fed for 21 d a fibre-free basal purified diet or diet containing 100 g inulin, or 150 g resistant starch (raw potato starch)/kg diet or a blend of 50 g inulin and 75 g resistant starch/kg diet. After an adaptation period of 14 d, the rats were then transferred to metabolic cages and dietary intake, faeces and urine were monitored for 5 d. The animals were then anaesthetized and caecal Ca and Mg absorption were measured. Finally, the rats were killed and blood, caecum and tissues were sampled. Ca and Mg levels were assessed in diets, faeces, urine, caecum and plasma by atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results confirmed that inulin and resistant starch ingestion led to considerable caecal fermentation in the three experimental groups compared with the control group diet. Moreover, both carbohydrates significantly increased the intestinal absorption and balance of Ca and Mg, without altering the plasma level of these two minerals. Interestingly, the combination of the studied carbohydrates increased significantly the caecal soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, the apparent intestinal absorption and balance of Ca, and non-significantly the plasma Mg level. In conclusion, a combination of different carbohydrates showed synergistic effects on intestinal Ca absorption and balance in rats. Further studies with other types of carbohydrate combinations should be carried out to extend these findings.

  20. Outwitting Evolution: Fighting Drug Resistance in the Treatment of TB, Malaria and HIV

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Daniel E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Jacobs, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Although caused by vastly different pathogens, the world’s three most serious infectious diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and HIV-1 infection, share the common problem of drug resistance. The pace of drug development has been very slow for tuberculosis and malaria and rapid for HIV-1. But for each disease, resistance to most drugs has appeared quickly after the introduction of the drug. Learning how to manage and prevent resistance is a major medical challenge that requires an understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of each pathogen. This review summarized the similarities and differences in the evolution of drug resistance for these three pathogens. PMID:22424234

  1. Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Haenen, D; Koopmans, S J; Hooiveld, G J E J; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Müller, M; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-09-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P<0.001), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake was ~3% lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). RS-fed pigs showed less feeder-directed (P=0.001) and drinking (P=0.10) behaviours than PS-fed pigs throughout the day. Postprandial peripheral short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Triglyceride levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.01), and non-esterified fatty acid levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Blood serotonin levels were lower (P<0.001), whereas monoamine oxidase activity (P<0.05) and tryptophan (P<0.01) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs. Despite a lower ME intake, RS seemed to prolong satiety, based on behavioural observations. Possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety include

  2. Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapy in Combination to Fight Biofilms and Resistant Surface Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Federica; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata A.; Vollaro, Adriana; Postiglione, Ilaria; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT), a therapeutic approach that involves a photosensitizer, light and O2, has been principally considered for the treatment of specific types of cancers, other applications exist, including the treatment of infections. Unfortunately, PDT does not always guarantee full success since it exerts lethal effects only in cells that have taken up a sufficient amount of photosensitizer and have been exposed to adequate light doses, conditions that are not always achieved. Based on our previous experience on the combination PDT/chemotherapy, we have explored the possibility of fighting bacteria that commonly crowd infected surfaces by combining PDT with an antibiotic, which normally does not harm the strain at low concentrations. To this purpose, we employed 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a pro-drug that, once absorbed by proliferating bacteria, is converted into the natural photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), followed by Gentamicin. Photoactivation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damage or kill the cell, while Gentamicin, even at low doses, ends the work. Our experiments, in combination, have been highly successful against biofilms produced by several Gram positive bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, etc.). This original approach points to potentially new and wide applications in the therapy of infections of superficial wounds and sores. PMID:26343645

  3. Resistant starch is more effective than cholestyramine as a lipid-lowering agent in the rat.

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Levrat, M A; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    1995-09-01

    Amylase-resistant starch (RS) represents a substrate for the bacterial flora of the colon, and the question arises as whether RS shares with soluble fibers common mechanisms for their lipid-lowering effects. It is uncertain whether a cholesterol-lowering effect depends basically on an enhanced rate of steroid excretion or whether colonic fermentations also play a role in this effect. In the present study, the effect of RS (25% raw potato starch), of a steroid sequestrant (0.8% cholestyramine), or both were compared on bile acid excretion and lipid metabolism in rats fed semipurified diets. RS diets led to a marked rise in cecal size and the cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), as well as SCFA absorption; cholestyramine did not noticeably affect cecal fermentation. Whereas cholestyramine was particularly effective at enhancing bile acid excretion, RS was more effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (-32%) and triglycerides (-29%). The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase was increased fivefold by cholestyramine and twofold by RS. This induction in rats fed RS diets was concomittant to a depressed fatty acid synthase activity. In rats fed the RS diet, there was a lower concentration of cholesterol in all lipoprotein fractions, especially the (d = 1.040-1.080) fraction high-density lipoprotein (HDL1), while those fed cholestyramine had only a significant reduction of HDL1 cholesterol. In contrast to cholestyramine, RS also depressed the concentration of triglycerides in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Impact of resistant starch in three plantain (Musa AAB) products on glycaemic response of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Oladele, Ebun-Oluwa; Williamson, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Plantains can be eaten in various forms providing a good opportunity to study the effect of starch type on glycaemic response, and so three products differing in their types of available carbohydrate and contents of resistant starch were tested. Boiled unripe plantain (BUP), boiled unripe plantain crisps (BUPC), ripe raw plantain (RRP) and white bread as reference (all 25 g available carbohydrate portion) were given to ten pre-screened healthy individuals. Postprandial glycaemic responses and glycaemic indices (GI) were measured. Peak blood glucose for BUP, BUPC and RRP was at 45, 45 and 30 min post-meal time, respectively. The peak blood glucose concentrations for BUP, BUPC and RRP (1.8 ± 0.8, 2.3 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L, n = 10, respectively) reflected the in vitro quantities/types of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in the samples. On the other hand, mean GI ± SEM values obtained for the test products (BUP = 44.9 ± 3.6, BUPC = 55.0 ± 4.2, RRP = 38 ± 4.4, n = 10) were neither significantly different nor directly correlated with RAG. The results show a potential link between RAG and GI, but the correlation is confounded by the presence of other constituents in the plantains.

  5. Effect of storage time on in vitro digestion rate and resistant starch content of tortillas elaborated from commercial corn masas.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Tovar, Juscelino; Trejo-Estrada, Sergio Rubén; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2005-03-01

    Tortilla samples were elaborated by four small commercial factories in Mexico, employing masas prepared with the traditional nixtamalization process. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 hours and their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility features were evaluated. Chemical composition did not change with the storage time, but soluble carbohydrates decreased slightly during storage. A significant decrease in available starch content upon storage was observed, concomitant with increased resistant starch (RS) levels. These changes are possibly due to retrogradation. Retrograded resistant starch (RRS) values increased with storage time; in some samples, RRS represented more than 75% of total RS whereas in others it only accounted for 25%. The digestion rate (DR) in the freshly prepared tortillas was similar for the various samples, but after 72 h storage some differences among tortillas were found. Also, when a single tortilla sample was compared throughout the different storage times, lower DRs were determined in samples subjected to prolonged storage, which is related to the concomitant. increase in RRS. The differences found among the various tortilla samples may be due to minor variations in the commercial processing conditions and to the use of different corn varieties.

  6. Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Sharma, Alka; Yadav, Ritika B

    2009-01-01

    'Resistant starch' (RS) is defined as starch and starch degradation products that resist the action of amylolytic enzymes. The effect of multiple heating/cooling treatments on the RS content of legumes, cereals and tubers was studied. The mean RS contents of the freshly cooked legumes, cereals and tubers (4.18%, 1.86% and 1.51% dry matter basis, respectively) increased to 8.16%, 3.25% and 2.51%, respectively, after three heating/cooling cycles (P< or =0.05) with a maximum increase of 114.8% in pea and a minimum of 62.1% in sweet potato (P< or =0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between the RS content and amylose (y=0.443x-5.993, r=0.829, P< or =0.05, n=9) as well as between the percentage increase in RS and insoluble dietary fiber content (y=2.149x-24.787, r=0.962, P< or =0.05, n=9). A differential scanning calorimeter study showed an increase in the T(0), T(p), T(c) and DeltaH values of the repeatedly autoclaved/cooled starches. The intact granular structure was also observed disappear, as studied using scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Microbiome-Metabolome Responses in the Cecum and Colon of Pig to a High Resistant Starch Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch) diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson's correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host. PMID:27303373

  8. Contribution of mathematical modeling to the fight against bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Opatowski, Lulla; Guillemot, Didier; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Temime, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Modeling of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria responsible for human disease has developed considerably over the last decade. Herein, we summarize the main published studies to illustrate the contribution of models for understanding both within-host and population-based phenomena. We then suggest possible topics for future studies. Model building of bacterial resistance has involved epidemiologists, biologists and modelers with two different objectives. First, modeling has helped largely in identifying and understanding the factors and biological phenomena responsible for the emergence and spread of resistant strains. Second, these models have become important decision support tools for medicine and public health. Major improvements of models in the coming years should take into account specific pathogen characteristics (resistance mechanisms, multiple colonization phenomena, cooperation and competition among species) and better description of the contacts associated with transmission risk within populations.

  9. New generations of targeted therapies fighting the resistance in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, Philippe; Aftimos, Philippe; Awada, Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    The identification of molecular alterations that drive tumor growth and spread of solid tumors has led to the development of multiple targeted therapies considered as first-generation agents that have improved clinical benefit. However, tumor cells are able to rapidly develop resistance to these agents. The growing understanding of the biology of the resistance mechanisms has spurred ongoing development of second-generation and third-generation targeted therapies aiming at new strategies to overcome resistance. Several generations of targeted therapies have been developed in order to prevent, delay or overcome tumor resistance. Some agents have already been approved, and others are currently under active clinical investigation in several cancer subtypes, including breast cancer, nonsmall cell lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell cancer and colorectal cancer. In the present review, we will discuss in solid tumors, the recent development of next generation anticancer-targeted therapies and new strategies including combination agents currently under active clinical investigation.

  10. A new strategy to fight antimicrobial resistance: the revival of old antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Cassir, Nadim; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of hospital and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is limiting the options for effective antibiotic therapy. Moreover, this alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance has not been paralleled by the development of novel antimicrobials. Resistance to the scarce new antibiotics is also emerging. In this context, the rational use of older antibiotics could represent an alternative to the treatment of MDR bacterial pathogens. It would help to optimize the armamentarium of antibiotics in the way to preserve new antibiotics and avoid the prescription of molecules known to favor the spread of resistance (i.e., quinolones). Furthermore, in a global economical perspective, this could represent a useful public health orientation knowing that several of these cheapest “forgotten” antibiotics are not available in many countries. We will review here the successful treatment of MDR bacterial infections with the use of old antibiotics and discuss their place in current practice. PMID:25368610

  11. Response surface optimization of low-fat ice cream production by using resistant starch and maltodextrin as a fat replacing agent.

    PubMed

    Azari-Anpar, Mojtaba; Khomeiri, Morteza; Ghafouri-Oskuei, Hamed; Aghajani, Narjes

    2017-04-01

    In this research, maltodextrin (0, 1 and 2% w/w) and resistant starch (0, 1 and 2% w/w) were used in the formulation of low-fat ice cream (4% fat) and their effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties were investigated. The optimum levels of maltodextrin and resistant starch were determined by response surface methodology. Increment of maltodextrin and resistant starch increased acidity, viscosity, melting rate, time of dripping and overrun but decreased melting rate of ice cream. Results showed that the incorporation of maltodextrin and resistant starch at 0 and 2% w/w respectively, resulted into ice cream with suitable viscosity, melting rate, first dripping time, overrun and acidity.

  12. Strategies and molecular tools to fight antimicrobial resistance: resistome, transcriptome, and antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Letícia S.; Silva, Carolina S. F.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; da Silva, Vânia L.; Diniz, Cláudio G.; Santos, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic resistant bacteria motivates prospective research toward discovery of new antimicrobial active substances. There are, however, controversies concerning the cost-effectiveness of such research with regards to the description of new substances with novel cellular interactions, or description of new uses of existing substances to overcome resistance. Although examination of bacteria isolated from remote locations with limited exposure to humans has revealed an absence of antibiotic resistance genes, it is accepted that these genes were both abundant and diverse in ancient living organisms, as detected in DNA recovered from Pleistocene deposits (30,000 years ago). Indeed, even before the first clinical use of antibiotics more than 60 years ago, resistant organisms had been isolated. Bacteria can exhibit different strategies for resistance against antibiotics. New genetic information may lead to the modification of protein structure affecting the antibiotic carriage into the cell, enzymatic inactivation of drugs, or even modification of cellular structure interfering in the drug-bacteria interaction. There are still plenty of new genes out there in the environment that can be appropriated by putative pathogenic bacteria to resist antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, there are several natural compounds with antibiotic activity that may be used to oppose them. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules which are wide-spread in all forms of life, from multi-cellular organisms to bacterial cells used to interfere with microbial growth. Several AMPs have been shown to be effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria and have low propensity to resistance development, probably due to their unique mode of action, different from well-known antimicrobial drugs. These substances may interact in different ways with bacterial cell membrane, protein synthesis, protein modulation, and protein folding. The analysis of bacterial transcriptome

  13. Covalently linked kanamycin - Ciprofloxacin hybrid antibiotics as a tool to fight bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Michal; Pokrovskaya, Varvara; Belakhov, Valery; Baasov, Timor

    2017-03-16

    To address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a set of 12 hybrid compounds that covalently link fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside (kanamycin A) antibiotics were synthesized, and their activity was determined against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. The hybrids were antagonistic relative to the ciprofloxacin, but were substantially more potent than the parent kanamycin against Gram-negative bacteria, and overcame most dominant resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides. Selected hybrids were 42-640 fold poorer inhibitors of bacterial protein synthesis than the parent kanamycin, while they displayed similar inhibitory activity to that of ciprofloxacin against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. The hybrids showed significant delay of resistance development in both E. coli and B. subtilis in comparison to that of component drugs alone or their 1:1 mixture. More generally, the data suggest that an antagonistic combination of aminoglycoside-fluoroquinolone hybrids can lead to new compounds that slowdown/prevent the emergence of resistance.

  14. Sustainability for behaviour change in the fight against antibiotic resistance: a social marketing framework.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Timothy; Boyd, Stephanie D; Palamé, Megan J

    2009-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of today's most urgent public health problems, threatening to undermine the effectiveness of infectious disease treatment in every country of the world. Specific individual behaviours such as not taking the entire antibiotic regimen and skipping doses contribute to resistance development as does the taking of antibiotics for colds and other illnesses that antibiotics cannot treat. Antibiotic resistance is as much a societal problem as it is an individual one; if mass behaviour change across the population does not occur, the problem of resistance cannot be mitigated at community levels. The problem is one that potentially can be solved if both providers and patients become sufficiently aware of the issue and if they engage in appropriate behaviours. Although a number of initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to elicit behaviour change, results have been mixed, and there is little evidence that trial programmes with positive outcomes serve as models of sustainability. In recent years, several scholars have suggested social marketing as the framework for behaviour change that has the greatest chance of sustained success, but the antibiotic resistance literature provides no specifics for how the principles of social marketing should be applied. This paper provides an overview of previous communication-based initiatives and offers a detailed approach to social marketing to guide future efforts.

  15. Integrating Antimicrobial Therapy with Host Immunity to Fight Drug-Resistant Infections: Classical vs. Adaptive Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gjini, Erida; Brito, Patricia H

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of infectious agents is a growing problem worldwide. To prevent the continuing selection and spread of drug resistance, rational design of antibiotic treatment is needed, and the question of aggressive vs. moderate therapies is currently heatedly debated. Host immunity is an important, but often-overlooked factor in the clearance of drug-resistant infections. In this work, we compare aggressive and moderate antibiotic treatment, accounting for host immunity effects. We use mathematical modelling of within-host infection dynamics to study the interplay between pathogen-dependent host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. We compare classical (fixed dose and duration) and adaptive (coupled to pathogen load) treatment regimes, exploring systematically infection outcomes such as time to clearance, immunopathology, host immunization, and selection of resistant bacteria. Our analysis and simulations uncover effective treatment strategies that promote synergy between the host immune system and the antimicrobial drug in clearing infection. Both in classical and adaptive treatment, we quantify how treatment timing and the strength of the immune response determine the success of moderate therapies. We explain key parameters and dimensions, where an adaptive regime differs from classical treatment, bringing new insight into the ongoing debate of resistance management. Emphasizing the sensitivity of treatment outcomes to the balance between external antibiotic intervention and endogenous natural defenses, our study calls for more empirical attention to host immunity processes.

  16. Integrating Antimicrobial Therapy with Host Immunity to Fight Drug-Resistant Infections: Classical vs. Adaptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gjini, Erida; Brito, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of infectious agents is a growing problem worldwide. To prevent the continuing selection and spread of drug resistance, rational design of antibiotic treatment is needed, and the question of aggressive vs. moderate therapies is currently heatedly debated. Host immunity is an important, but often-overlooked factor in the clearance of drug-resistant infections. In this work, we compare aggressive and moderate antibiotic treatment, accounting for host immunity effects. We use mathematical modelling of within-host infection dynamics to study the interplay between pathogen-dependent host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. We compare classical (fixed dose and duration) and adaptive (coupled to pathogen load) treatment regimes, exploring systematically infection outcomes such as time to clearance, immunopathology, host immunization, and selection of resistant bacteria. Our analysis and simulations uncover effective treatment strategies that promote synergy between the host immune system and the antimicrobial drug in clearing infection. Both in classical and adaptive treatment, we quantify how treatment timing and the strength of the immune response determine the success of moderate therapies. We explain key parameters and dimensions, where an adaptive regime differs from classical treatment, bringing new insight into the ongoing debate of resistance management. Emphasizing the sensitivity of treatment outcomes to the balance between external antibiotic intervention and endogenous natural defenses, our study calls for more empirical attention to host immunity processes. PMID:27078624

  17. Characteristics of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III as prebiotic substance.

    PubMed

    Zi-Ni, Tan; Rosma, Ahmad; Napisah, Hussin; Karim, Alias A; Liong, Min-Tze

    2015-04-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.

  18. A review of global initiatives to fight antibiotic resistance and recent antibiotics׳ discovery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Arpana Sagwal

    2016-11-01

    Data from across the world have shown an overall decline in the antibiotic pipeline and continually rising resistance to all first-line and last-resort antibiotics. The gaps in our knowledge of existing prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance (ABR) are all too well known. Several decades of antibiotic abuse in humans, animals, and agricultural practices have created health emergency situations and huge socio-economic impact. This paper discusses key findings of the studies conducted by several national and international collaborative organizations on the current state of affairs in ABR. Alongside, a brief overview of the antibacterial agents׳ discovery in recent years approved by the US FDA is discussed.

  19. Fighting fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  20. New small-molecule drug design strategies for fighting resistant influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zuyuan; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus is the major cause of seasonal or pandemic flu worldwide. Two main treatment strategies–vaccination and small molecule anti-influenza drugs are currently available. As an effective vaccine usually takes at least 6 months to develop, anti-influenza small molecule drugs are more effective for the first line of protection against the virus during an epidemic outbreak, especially in the early stage. Two major classes of anti-influenza drugs currently available are admantane-based M2 protein blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir). However, the continuous evolvement of influenza A virus and the rapid emergence of resistance to current drugs, particularly to amantadine, rimantadine, and oseltamivir, have raised an urgent need for developing new anti-influenza drugs against resistant forms of influenza A virus. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of the molecular mechanisms behind resistance, and then discuss new strategies in small-molecule drug development to overcome influenza A virus resistance targeting mutant M2 proteins and neuraminidases, and other viral proteins not associated with current drugs. PMID:26579472

  1. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I.; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW. PMID:28677623

  2. Preparation and properties of a starch-based wood adhesive with high bonding strength and water resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Ding, Longlong; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Libin

    2015-01-22

    A Highly efficient method was developed for preparing starch-based wood adhesives with high performance, using H2O2, a silane coupling agent and an olefin monomer as an oxidant, cross-linking agent and comonomer, respectively. The effects of various parameters on the shear adhesive strength were investigated in the dry state (DS) and wet state (WS). The results indicated that the bonding strength of starch-based wood adhesives could reach 7.88 MPa in dry state and 4.09 MPa in wet state. The oxidation could reduce the content of the hydroxyl transforming into carboxyl and aldehyde groups, and the graft copolymerization enhanced the thermal stability, which improved the bonding strength and water resistance. The starch-based adhesive and the fractures in the bonded joints were analyzed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The improved properties were attributed to the modified of microstructure of the graft-copolymerized starch-based adhesive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of EMS-induced mutation population for amylose and resistant starch variation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and identification of candidate genes responsible for amylose variation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ankita; Singh, Anuradha; Sharma, Monica; Kumar, Pankaj; Roy, Joy

    2016-10-06

    Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions. The topic of nutrition security is currently receiving much attention and consumer demand for food products with improved nutritional qualities has increased. In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), variation in amylose content is narrow, hence its limited improvement. Therefore, it is necessary to produce wheat lines or populations showing wide variation in amylose/resistant starch content. In this study, a set of EMS-induced M4 mutant lines showing dynamic variation in amylose/resistant starch content were produced. Furthermore, two diverse mutant lines for amylose content were used to study quantitative expression patterns of 20 starch metabolic pathway genes and to identify candidate genes for amylose biosynthesis. A population comprising 101 EMS-induced mutation lines (M4 generation) was produced in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety. Two methods of amylose measurement in grain starch showed variation in amylose content ranging from ~3 to 76 % in the population. The method of in vitro digestion showed variation in resistant starch content from 1 to 41 %. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variation (p < 0.05) in amylose and resistant starch content within the population. A multiple comparison test (Dunnett's test) showed that significant variation in amylose and resistant starch content, with respect to the parent, was observed in about 89 and 38 % of the mutant lines, respectively. Expression pattern analysis of 20 starch metabolic pathway genes in

  4. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Bijaya; McCormack, Lacey; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Juenemann, Robert; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Clapper, Jeffrey; Specker, Bonny; Dey, Moul

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat were lower post intervention in the RS4 group compared with the control group. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing revealed a differential abundance of 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units, including the enrichment of three Bacteroides species and one each of Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Christensenella species in the RS4 group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake. Bivariate analyses showed RS4-specific associations of the gut microbiota with the host metabolic functions and SCFA levels. Here we show that dietary RS4 induced changes in the gut microbiota are linked to its biological activity in individuals with signs of MetS. These findings have potential implications for dietary guidelines in metabolic health management. PMID:27356770

  5. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  6. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten-free pasta enriched with resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Foschia, Martina; Beraldo, Paola; Peressini, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine the potential use of resistant starch (RS) as a fibre-enriching ingredient in gluten-free pasta. Pasta was enriched with commercial RS type II (Hi-Maize™ 260) at 100-200 g kg(-1) substitution of rice flour. The effects on the rheological properties of dough and pasta quality as a result of RS addition and the loss in RS due to the process were evaluated. Dough water absorption was not influenced by the addition of RS. The cooking loss (CL) of RS-enriched samples was 30% lower than reference without fibre. The addition of RS significantly increased firmness of cooked pasta, and above 100 g kg(-1) RS level of substitution samples showed a lower stickiness value. Dynamic rheological tests on pasta dough showed a higher storage modulus for fibre samples, indicating a higher number of elastically physical interactions. Loss in RS in uncooked pasta was about 31% compared with the initial amount added to the product. The addition of RS improved the quality of gluten-free pasta owing to its ability to increase the firmness and decrease the CL and stickiness of cooked pasta. The product enriched with 200 g kg(-1) RS can be considered a source of DF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Resistant starch manipulated hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and related genes expression in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, ZhongKai; Wang, Fang; Ren, XiaoChong; Wang, Yuyang; Blanchard, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) administration on biological parameters including blood glucose, lipids composition and oxidative stress of type 2 diabetic rats was investigated. The results showed blood glucose level, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations significantly reduced, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was doubly increased in the rats of RS administration group compared to model control group (P<0.01). The analyses of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism pathways demonstrated that the expression levels of lipid oxidation gene Acox1, glycogen synthesis genes, GS2 and GYG1, and insulin-induced genes, Insig-1 and Insig-2, were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01). In contrast, fatty acids and triglycerides synthesis and metabolism-related gene SREBP-1, fatty acid synthesis gene Fads1 and gluconeogenesis gene G6PC1 were greatly down-regulated. The mechanism study shows that the lowering of blood glucose level in diabetic rats by feeding RS is regulated through promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis, and the increased lipid metabolism is modulated through promoting lipid oxidation and cholesterol homeostasis. Our study revealed for the first time that the regulation of hepatic genes expression involved in glucose and lipids metabolisms in diabetic rats could be achieved even at a moderate level of RS consumption.

  8. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bijaya; McCormack, Lacey; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Juenemann, Robert; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Clapper, Jeffrey; Specker, Bonny; Dey, Moul

    2016-06-30

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat were lower post intervention in the RS4 group compared with the control group. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing revealed a differential abundance of 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units, including the enrichment of three Bacteroides species and one each of Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Christensenella species in the RS4 group. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake. Bivariate analyses showed RS4-specific associations of the gut microbiota with the host metabolic functions and SCFA levels. Here we show that dietary RS4 induced changes in the gut microbiota are linked to its biological activity in individuals with signs of MetS. These findings have potential implications for dietary guidelines in metabolic health management.

  9. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast.

  10. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products.

    PubMed

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.

  11. Indole Based Weapons to Fight Antibiotic Resistance: A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    PubMed

    Lepri, Susan; Buonerba, Federica; Goracci, Laura; Velilla, Irene; Ruzziconi, Renzo; Schindler, Bryan D; Seo, Susan M; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2016-02-11

    Antibiotic resistance represents a worldwide concern, especially regarding the outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause for serious skin and soft tissues infections. A major contributor to Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance is the NorA efflux pump, which is able to extrude selected antibacterial drugs and biocides from the membrane, lowering their effective concentrations. Thus, the inhibition of NorA represents a promising and challenging strategy that would allow recycling of substrate antimicrobial agents. Among NorA inhibitors, the indole scaffold proved particularly effective and suitable for further optimization. In this study, some unexplored modifications on the indole scaffold are proposed. In particular, for the first time, substitutions at the C5 and N1 positions have been designed to give 48 compounds, which were synthesized and tested against norA-overexpressing S. aureus. Among them, 4 compounds have NorA IC50 values lower than 5.0 μM proving to be good efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) candidates. In addition, preliminary data on their ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) profile is reported.

  12. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Pelkman, Christine L; Finocchiaro, E Terry; Kelley, Kathleen M; Lawless, Andrea L; Schild, Arianne L; Rains, Tia M

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model S(I) was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for S(I) did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹). These results suggest that consumption of 15-30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves S(I) in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed.

  13. Impact of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion in regard to their hypolipidemic action in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, E A; Forgbert, K; Rieckhoff, D; Erbersdobler, H F

    1999-01-29

    To examine the impact on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion as a mechanism involved in the lipid-lowering action of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch in comparison to cholestyramine, male golden Syrian hamsters were fed 0% (control), 8% or 12% of beta-cyclodextrin or resistant starch or 1% cholestyramine. Resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations compared to control. Distinct changes in the bile acid profile of gallbladder bile were caused by resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine. While cholestyramine significantly reduced chenodeoxycholate independently of its taurine-glycine conjugation, beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch decreased especially the percentage of taurochenodeoxycholate by -75% and -44%, respectively. As a result, the cholate:chenodeoxycholate ratio was significantly increased by 100% with beta-cyclodextrin and by 550% with cholestyramine while resistant starch revealed no effect on this ratio. beta-Cyclodextrin and resistant starch, not cholestyramine, significantly increased the glycine:taurine conjugation ratio demonstrating the predominance of glycine conjugated bile acids. Daily fecal excretion of bile acids was 4-times higher with 8% beta-cyclodextrin and 19-times with 1% cholestyramine compared to control. beta-Cyclodextrin and cholestyramine also induced a 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol excretion, demonstrating the sterol binding capacity of these two compounds. Resistant starch had only a modest effect on fecal bile acid excretion (80% increase) and no effect on excretion of neutral sterols, suggesting a weak interaction with intestinal steroid absorption. These data demonstrate the lipid-lowering potential of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch. An impaired reabsorption of circulating bile acids and intestinal cholesterol absorption leading to an increase in fecal bile acid and neutral sterol

  14. A breakthrough in enzyme technology to fight penicillin resistance-industrial application of penicillin amidase.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic penicillin hydrolysis by penicillin amidase (also penicillin acylase, PA) represents a Landmark: the first industrially and economically highly important process using an immobilized biocatalyst. Resistance of infective bacteria to antibiotics had become a major topic of research and industrial activities. Solutions to this problem, the antibiotics resistance of infective microorganisms, required the search for new antibiotics, but also the development of derivatives, notably penicillin derivatives, that overcame resistance. An obvious route was to hydrolyse penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), as a first step, for the introduction via chemical synthesis of various different side chains. Hydrolysis via chemical reaction sequences was tedious requiring large amounts of toxic chemicals, and they were cost intensive. Enzymatic hydrolysis using penicillin amidase represented a much more elegant route. The basis for such a solution was the development of techniques for enzyme immobilization, a highly difficult task with respect to industrial application. Two pioneer groups started to develop solutions to this problem in the late 1960s and 1970s: that of Günter Schmidt-Kastner at Bayer AG (Germany) and that of Malcolm Lilly of Imperial College London. Here, one example of this development, that at Bayer, will be presented in more detail since it illustrates well the achievement of a solution to the problems of industrial application of enzymatic processes, notably development of an immobilization method for penicillin amidase suitable for scale up to application in industrial reactors under economic conditions. A range of bottlenecks and technical problems of large-scale application had to be overcome. Data giving an inside view of this pioneer achievement in the early phase of the new field of biocatalysis are presented. The development finally resulted in a highly innovative and commercially important enzymatic process to produce 6-APA that

  15. Resistant starch prevents colonic DNA damage induced by high dietary cooked red meat or casein in rats.

    PubMed

    Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    In a previous study we have shown that high levels of dietary protein (as casein) result in increased levels of colonic DNA damage, measured by the comet assay, and thinning of the colonic mucus layer in rats when dietary resistant starch (RS) is negligible. Feeding RS abolishes these effects. This study aimed to establish whether a diet high in protein as cooked red meat would have similar effects and whether RS was protective. Rats were fed a diet containing 15% or 25% casein or 25% cooked lean red beef, each with or without the addition of 48% high amylose maize starch (a rich source of RS) for four weeks. As expected, high dietary casein caused a 2-fold increase in colonic DNA damage compared with a low casein diet and reduced the thickness of the colonic mucus layer by 41%. High levels of cooked meat caused 26% greater DNA damage than the high casein diet but reduced mucus thickness to a similar degree to casein. Addition of RS to the diet abolished the increase in DNA damage and the loss of colonic mucus thickness induced by either high protein diet. Cecal and fecal short chain fatty acid pools were also increased by inclusion of RS in the diet. Because DNA damage is an early step in the initiation of cancer, these findings suggest that increased DNA damage due to high dietary protein as cooked red meat or casein could increase colorectal cancer risk but inclusion of resistant starch in the diet could significantly reduce that risk.

  16. Covering more Territory to Fight Resistance: Considering Nurses’ Role in Antimicrobial Stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, R; Drumright, LN; Kiernan, M; Holmes, A

    2011-01-01

    The potential contribution nurses can make to the management of antimicrobials within an in-patient setting could impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and healthcare associated infections (HCAIs). Current initiatives promoting prudent antimicrobial prescribing and management have generally failed to include nurses, which subsequently limits the extent to which these strategies can improve patient outcomes. For antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programmes to be successful, a sustained and seamless level of monitoring and decision making in relation to antimicrobial therapy is needed. As nurses have the most consistent presence as patient carer, they are in the ideal position to provide this level of service. However, for nurses to truly impact on AMR and HCAIs through increasing their profile in AS, barriers and facilitators to adopting this enhanced role must be contextualised in the implementation of any initiative. PMID:21532974

  17. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots

    PubMed Central

    Gordya, Natalia; Yakovlev, Andrey; Kruglikova, Anastasia; Tulin, Dmitry; Potolitsina, Evdokia; Suborova, Tatyana; Bordo, Domenico; Rosano, Camillo; Chernysh, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms’ resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio) provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable. PMID:28278280

  18. Trust, reciprocity and collective action to fight antibiotic resistance. An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Rönnerstrand, Björn; Andersson Sundell, Karolina

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a collective action dilemma. Individuals may request antibiotics, but an overall reduction in use is necessary to limit resistance. A reoccurring theoretical claim is that social capital increase cooperation in social dilemmas. The aim of this paper is to investigate the link between generalized trust and reciprocity and the willingness to postpone antibiotic treatment in order to limit overuse in a scenario-based study. A between-subject scenario experimental approach with hypothetical scenarios was utilized. Participants were asked to imagine that they were seeing a doctor for a respiratory infection. The doctor prescribes antibiotics, but advise postponing therapy to see if the disease resolves by itself, for the sake of limiting overuse. Respondents were asked to answer how long they could accept postponing antibiotic treatment, from 0 to 7 days. The number of days that most people would be able to accept postponing treatment was considered the between-subject factor. In total, the study sample included 981 respondents with a mean age of 51 years. A majority of respondents were men (65.7%). The mean number of days that the respondents stated they were willing to postpone antibiotic treatment was positively associated with the number of days the respondents were told that most people were willing to postpone antibiotic treatment, p < 0.001. There was a positive association between number of days they were willing to postpone antibiotic treatment and generalized trust, p = 0.001. In conclusion, the results showed that the proclaimed public willingness to postpone therapy influenced a respondent's willingness to postpone antibiotic therapy in different scenarios. Also, generalized trust was positively associated with the willingness to postpone therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots.

    PubMed

    Gordya, Natalia; Yakovlev, Andrey; Kruglikova, Anastasia; Tulin, Dmitry; Potolitsina, Evdokia; Suborova, Tatyana; Bordo, Domenico; Rosano, Camillo; Chernysh, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio) provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.

  20. Enhancement of corrosion resistance of carbon steel by Dioscorea Hispida starch in NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhusni, M. D. M.; Othman, N. K.; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Starch is a one of the most abundant natural product in the world and has the potential as corrosion inhibitor replacing harmful synthetic chemical based corrosion inhibitor. This research was aimed to examines the potential of starch extracted from local Malaysian wild yam (Dioscorea hispida), as corrosion inhibitor to carbon steel in NaCl media replicating sea water. By using gravimetric test and analysis, in which the carbon steel specimens were immersed in NaCl media for 24, 48 and 60 hours with the starch as corrosion inhibitor. the corrosion rate (mmpy) and inhibition efficiencies (%) was calculated. The results obtained showed decrease in corrosion rate as higher concentration of starch was employed. The inhibition efficiencies also shows an increasing manner up to 95.97 % as the concentration of the inhibitor increased.

  1. A putative gene sbe3-rs for resistant starch mutated from SBE3 for starch branching enzyme in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifang; Sun, Chunlong; Bai, Jianjiang; Luo, Zhixiang; Shi, Biao; Zhang, Jianming; Yan, Wengui; Piao, Zhongze

    2012-01-01

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world population. A japonica mutant 'Jiangtangdao 1' (RS = 11.67%) was crossed with an indica cultivar 'Miyang 23' (RS = 0.41%). The mutant sbe3-rs that explained 60.4% of RS variation was mapped between RM6611 and RM13366 on chromosome 2 (LOD = 36) using 178 F(2) plants genotyped with 106 genome-wide polymorphic SSR markers. Using 656 plants from four F(3:4) families, sbe3-rs was fine mapped to a 573.3 Kb region between InDel 2 and InDel 6 using one STS, five SSRs and seven InDel markers. SBE3 which codes for starch branching enzyme was identified as a candidate gene within the putative region. Nine pairs of primers covering 22 exons were designed to sequence genomic DNA of the wild type for SBE3 and the mutant for sbe3-rs comparatively. Sequence analysis identified a missense mutation site where Leu-599 of the wild was changed to Pro-599 of the mutant in the SBE3 coding region. Because the point mutation resulted in the loss of a restriction enzyme site, sbe3-rs was not digested by a CAPS marker for SpeI site while SBE3 was. Co-segregation of the digestion pattern with RS content among 178 F(2) plants further supported sbe3-rs responsible for RS in rice. As a result, the CAPS marker could be used in marker-assisted breeding to develop rice cultivars with elevated RS which is otherwise difficult to accurately assess in crops. Transgenic technology should be employed for a definitive conclusion of the sbe3-rs.

  2. Effects of Arabinoxylan and Resistant Starch on Intestinal Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary E.; Dige, Anders; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Agnholt, Jørgen; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld; Marco, Maria L.; Gregersen, Søren; Dahlerup, Jens F.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the intestinal microbiota has been emphasised as an important contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome. Dietary fibre may exert beneficial effects through modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolic end products. We investigated the effects of a diet enriched with two different dietary fibres, arabinoxylan and resistant starch type 2, on the gut microbiome and faecal short-chain fatty acids. Nineteen adults with metabolic syndrome completed this randomised crossover study with two 4-week interventions of a diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch and a low-fibre Western-style diet. Faecal samples were collected before and at the end of the interventions for fermentative end-product analysis and 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial gene amplification for identification of bacterial taxa. Faecal carbohydrate residues were used to verify compliance. The diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch resulted in significant reductions in the total species diversity of the faecal-associated intestinal microbiota but also increased the heterogeneity of bacterial communities both between and within subjects. The proportion of Bifidobacterium was increased by arabinoxylan and resistant starch consumption (P<0.001), whereas the proportions of certain bacterial genera associated with dysbiotic intestinal communities were reduced. Furthermore, the total short-chain fatty acids (P<0.01), acetate (P<0.01) and butyrate concentrations (P<0.01) were higher by the end of the diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with those resulting from the Western-style diet. The concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.05) and isovalerate (P = 0.03) decreased in response to the arabinoxylan and resistant starch enriched diet, indicating reduced protein fermentation. In conclusion, arabinoxylan and resistant starch intake changes the microbiome and short-chain fatty acid compositions, with potential beneficial effects on colonic health

  3. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  4. Resistant starch can improve insulin sensitivity independently of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bindels, Laure B; Segura Munoz, Rafael R; Gomes-Neto, João Carlos; Mutemberezi, Valentin; Martínez, Inés; Salazar, Nuria; Cody, Elizabeth A; Quintero-Villegas, Maria I; Kittana, Hatem; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Schmaltz, Robert J; Muccioli, Giulio G; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2017-02-07

    Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS. To achieve this goal, we determined the effects of RS when added to a Western diet on host metabolism in mice with and without a microbiota. RS feeding of conventionalized mice improved insulin sensitivity and redressed some of the Western diet-induced changes in microbiome composition. However, parallel experiments in germ-free littermates revealed that RS-mediated improvements in insulin levels also occurred in the absence of a microbiota. RS reduced gene expression of adipose tissue macrophage markers and altered cecal concentrations of several bile acids in both germ-free and conventionalized mice; these effects were strongly correlated with the metabolic benefits, providing a potential microbiota-independent mechanism to explain the physiological effects of RS. This study demonstrated that some metabolic benefits exerted by dietary RS, especially improvements in insulin levels, occur independently of the microbiota and could involve alterations in the bile acid cycle and adipose tissue immune modulation. This work also sets a precedent for future mechanistic studies aimed at establishing the causative role of the gut microbiota in mediating the benefits of bioactive compounds and functional foods.

  5. Resistant starch, large bowel fermentation and a broader perspective of prebiotics and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Conlon, M A; Christophersen, C T; Topping, D L

    2010-11-01

    The metabolic end products of the large bowel microbiota contribute significantly to human health. After weaning to solid foods, some of the most important of these are the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by the fermentation of undigested dietary components and endogenous secretions. The main SCFA are acetate, propionate and butyrate which have numerous documented effects promoting large bowel function. Of the major acids, butyrate seems especially important. It is a major metabolic fuel for colonocytes and promotes a normal phenotype in these cells, potentially lowering the risk of diseases such as colo-rectal cancer. Imbalances in the microbiota are thought to predispose to large bowel dysfunction and probiotics are being developed to correct this. However, most commercial products contain bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) which are dominant species in milk-fed infants but have limited roles in adults. Prebiosis is defined usually by the specific stimulation of these bacteria. However, the end products of most probiotics do not include butyrate or propionate which raises questions about their effectiveness in promoting bowel health in adults. Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fibre component and its fermentation generally favours butyrate production. Dietary RS intakes and faecal butyrate levels are high in populations at low risk of diet-related large bowel diseases. Conversely, RS intakes and faecal butyrate levels are very low in high risk groups. This raises the possibility that greater RS consumption could be of health benefit. RS is not regarded widely as a prebiotic but (according to the accepted definition) most forms show the requisite features in stimulating specific bacteria, giving raised total SCFA and butyrate levels and a consequent benefit to the host. Current efforts to improve public health through increasing RS consumption could be facilitated by greater recognition of its prebiotic role.

  6. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Maleta, Ken; Westcott, Jamie; Ryan, Kelsey; Hambidge, K. Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Young, Graeme; Mortimer, Elissa; Manary, Mark J.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. Methods This was a small controlled clinical trial to determine the effects of added dietary RS on zinc homeostasis among 17 stunted children, aged 3–5 years consuming a plant-based diet and at risk for perturbed zinc homeostasis. Dual zinc stable isotope studies were performed before and after 28 d of intervention with RS, so that each child served as their own control. The RS was incorporated into fried wheat flour dough and given under direct observation twice daily for 28 d. Changes in zinc homeostatic measures were compared using paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results Children had a mean height-for-age Z-score of −3.3, and consumed animal source foods ≤twice per month. Their habitual diet contained a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 34:1. Children avidly consumed the RS without complaints. EFZ was 0.8±0.4 mg/d (mean±SD) both before and after the intervention. Fractional absorption of zinc was 0.38±0.08 and 0.35±0.06 before and after the RS intervention respectively. NAZ was 1.1±0.5 and 0.6±0.7 before and after the RS intervention. This reduction of NAZ corresponded with diminished dietary zinc intake on the study day following intervention with RS. Regression analysis indicated no change in zinc absorption relative to dietary intake as a result of the RS intervention. Conclusion Consumption of RS did not improve zinc homeostasis in rural African children without zinc deficiency. RS was well tolerated in this setting. PMID:25744509

  7. Is there any place for resistant starch, as alimentary prebiotic, for patients with type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Namazi, Nazli; Khalili, Mohammad; Sarmadi, Bahareh; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Dehghan, Parvin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine effects of Resistant Starch (RS2) on metabolic parameters and inflammation in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 females with T2DM were divided into intervention (n = 28) and placebo groups (n = 32). They received 10 g/d RS2 or placebo for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Paired t test, unpaired t-test and ANCOVA were used to compare the quantitative variables. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. RS2 decreased HbA1c (-0.3%, -3.6%), TNF-α (-3.4 pg/mL, -18.9%), triglyceride (-33.4 mg/dL, -15.4%), and it increased HDL-c (+9.4 mg/dL, +24.6%) significantly compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Changes in FBS, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, hs-CRP and IL-6 were not significant in the RS2 group compared with the control group. RS2 can improve glycemic status, inflammatory markers and lipid profile in women with T2DM. Although findings of the present study indicated positive effects of RS2 on inflammation and metabolic parameters, more studies are needed to confirm efficacy of RS2 as an adjunct therapy in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engagement with dietary fibre and receptiveness to resistant starch in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Philip; Quinn, Sinéad; Morell, Matthew; Topping, David

    2010-11-01

    To investigate community engagement with the health benefits of dietary fibre (DF) and its potential as a framework for the promotion of increased consumption of resistant starch (RS). A nationwide postal Food and Health Survey conducted in Australia by CSIRO Human Nutrition. Adults aged 18 years and above, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll (n 849). A cross-sectional design was employed to analyse ratings of (i) the importance of various RS health and functional claims and (ii) receptiveness to different foods as RS delivery vehicles, according to the respondents' level of fibre engagement as classified under the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) of Health Behaviour. There was a high level of recognition (89·5 %) of DF as being important for health. Significant gender differences were found for ratings of RS attributes and RS delivery options. Women were both more fibre-engaged than men and more receptive than men to RS and its potential benefits. Ratings of the acceptability of several foods as means of delivering RS revealed a general preference for healthy staples over indulgences, with the margin between acceptability of staples and indulgences increasing markedly with increased fibre engagement. Application of the PAPM to awareness of DF reveals a ready-made target group for health messages about RS and pockets of differential potential receptiveness. The findings support the promotion of RS as providing health benefits of DF with the added reduction of risk of serious disease, its delivery through healthy staples and the targeting of messages at both fibre-engaged individuals and women in general.

  9. Fighting Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a fight at Guilford College engaging athletes and students and the continued argument about what to call the incident. In their appeals for patience, officials have cited the college's Quaker traditions, including the "testimony of integrity," which is associated with honesty, fairness, and the search for truth. This…

  10. Fighting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  11. Fighting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  12. Physicochemical Changes and Resistant-Starch Content of Extruded Cornstarch with and without Storage at Refrigerator Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Neder-Suárez, David; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Alanís-Guzmán, María G de J; Báez-González, Juan G; García-Díaz, Carlos L; Núñez-González, María A; Lardizábal-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A

    2016-08-15

    Effects of extrusion cooking and low-temperature storage on the physicochemical changes and resistant starch (RS) content in cornstarch were evaluated. The cornstarch was conditioned at 20%-40% moisture contents and extruded in the range 90-130 °C and at screw speeds in the range 200-360 rpm. The extrudates were stored at 4 °C for 120 h and then at room temperature. The water absorption, solubility index, RS content, viscoelastic, thermal, and microstructural properties of the extrudates were evaluated before and after storage. The extrusion temperature and moisture content significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extrudates before and after storage. The RS content increased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature, and the viscoelastic and thermal properties showed related behaviors. Microscopic analysis showed that extrusion cooking damaged the native starch structure, producing gelatinization and retrogradation and forming RS. The starch containing 35% moisture and extruded at 120 °C and 320 rpm produced the most RS (1.13 g/100 g) after to storage at low temperature. Although the RS formation was low, the results suggest that extrusion cooking could be advantageous for RS production and application in the food industry since it is a pollution less, continuous process requiring only a short residence time.

  13. Dietary resistant starch prevents urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and vitamin D-binding protein in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Smazal, Anne L; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Anderegg, Alysse S; Schalinske, Kevin L; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Rowling, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly growing epidemic affecting millions of Americans and has been implicated in a number of devastating secondary complications. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetic rats exhibit vitamin D deficiency due to aberrant megalin-mediated endocytosis and excessive urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D3) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). Here, we examined whether a model of type 1 diabetes [T1D; streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats] would similarly excrete abnormally high concentrations of 25D3 and DBP due to renal damage and compromised expression of megalin and its endocytic partner, disabled-2 (Dab2). Moreover, we tested whether feeding diabetic rats starch that is resistant to digestion could alleviate these abnormalities. Control (n = 12) rats were fed a standard, semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 55% total dietary starch and STZ-treated rats were fed the AIN-93G diet (n = 12) or a diet containing 55% high-amylose maize that is partially resistant to digestion [20% total dietary resistant starch (RS); n = 12] for 2 and 5 wk. The RS diet attenuated weight loss and polyuria in STZ-treated rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed that dietary RS also attenuated the loss of Dab2 expression in renal proximal tubules. Moreover, urinary concentrations of both 25D3 and DBP were elevated ∼10-fold in STZ-treated rats (5 wk post STZ injection), which was virtually prevented by the RS. We also observed a ∼1.5-fold increase in megalin mRNA expression in STZ-treated rats, which was attenuated by feeding rats the RS diet for 2 wk. Taken together, these studies indicate that consumption of low-glycemic carbohydrates can attenuate disruption of vitamin D homeostasis in T1D through the rescue of megalin-mediated endocytosis in the kidney.

  14. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  15. Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bodinham, C L; Smith, L; Thomas, E L; Bell, J D; Swann, J R; Costabile, A; Russell-Jones, D; Umpleby, A M; Robertson, M D

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been shown to beneficially affect insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with metabolic syndrome, but its effects on human type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased RS consumption on insulin sensitivity and glucose control and changes in postprandial metabolites and body fat in T2DM. Seventeen individuals with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1c 46.6±2 mmol/mol) consumed, in a random order, either 40 g of type 2 RS (HAM-RS2) or a placebo, daily for 12 weeks with a 12-week washout period in between. AT THE END OF EACH INTERVENTION PERIOD, PARTICIPANTS ATTENDED FOR THREE METABOLIC INVESTIGATIONS: a two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with an infusion of [6,6-(2)H2] glucose, a meal tolerance test (MTT) with arterio-venous sampling across the forearm, and whole-body imaging. HAM-RS2 resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose concentrations (P=0.045) and a trend for greater glucose uptake across the forearm muscle (P=0.077); however, there was no effect of HAM-RS2 on hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or on HbA1c. Fasting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.004) and NEFA suppression was greater during the clamp with HAM-RS2 (P=0.001). Fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations and soleus intramuscular TG concentrations were significantly higher following the consumption of HAM-RS2 (P=0.039 and P=0.027 respectively). Although fasting GLP1 concentrations were significantly lower following HAM-RS2 consumption (P=0.049), postprandial GLP1 excursions during the MTT were significantly greater (P=0.009). HAM-RS2 did not improve tissue insulin sensitivity in well-controlled T2DM, but demonstrated beneficial effects on meal handling, possibly due to higher postprandial GLP1.

  16. Unique Organization of Extracellular Amylases into Amylosomes in the Resistant Starch-Utilizing Human Colonic Firmicutes Bacterium Ruminococcus bromii.

    PubMed

    Ze, Xiaolei; Ben David, Yonit; Laverde-Gomez, Jenny A; Dassa, Bareket; Sheridan, Paul O; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Bayer, Edward A; Flint, Harry J

    2015-09-29

    Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human gut microbiota that plays a key role in releasing energy from dietary starches that escape digestion by host enzymes via its exceptional activity against particulate "resistant" starches. Genomic analysis of R. bromii shows that it is highly specialized, with 15 of its 21 glycoside hydrolases belonging to one family (GH13). We found that amylase activity in R. bromii is expressed constitutively, with the activity seen during growth with fructose as an energy source being similar to that seen with starch as an energy source. Six GH13 amylases that carry signal peptides were detected by proteomic analysis in R. bromii cultures. Four of these enzymes are among 26 R. bromii proteins predicted to carry dockerin modules, with one, Amy4, also carrying a cohesin module. Since cohesin-dockerin interactions are known to mediate the formation of protein complexes in cellulolytic ruminococci, the binding interactions of four cohesins and 11 dockerins from R. bromii were investigated after overexpressing them as recombinant fusion proteins. Dockerins possessed by the enzymes Amy4 and Amy9 are predicted to bind a cohesin present in protein scaffoldin 2 (Sca2), which resembles the ScaE cell wall-anchoring protein of a cellulolytic relative, R. flavefaciens. Further complexes are predicted between the dockerin-carrying amylases Amy4, Amy9, Amy10, and Amy12 and two other cohesin-carrying proteins, while Amy4 has the ability to autoaggregate, as its dockerin can recognize its own cohesin. This organization of starch-degrading enzymes is unprecedented and provides the first example of cohesin-dockerin interactions being involved in an amylolytic system, which we refer to as an "amylosome." Fermentation of dietary nondigestible carbohydrates by the human colonic microbiota supplies much of the energy that supports microbial growth in the intestine. This activity has important consequences for health via modulation of

  17. In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Melliana; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. Diets contained pregelatinized starch, retrograded starch, alginate, or a mix of retrograded starch and alginate. Faeces were collected on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 39 and 74. Clear trends in intestinal alginate degradation were observed. Up to day 39, the total tract digestibility of alginate was limited (0.52 ± 0.10), and was lower with the inclusion of retrograded starch in the diet (0.34 ± 0.02). More than 90% of the faecal alginate was insoluble in water, which may explain the low digestibility of the alginate. The digestibility of mannuronic acid (M) was 2-3 times higher than that of guluronic acid (G). The changes of G:M ratio and the relative amounts of alginate oligosaccharides between day 39 and 74 indicated that the microbiota needed more than 39 days to adapt to alginate. This study demonstrated that in-depth analyses of dietary fibres are valuable in understanding the fate of the dietary fibres in the large intestine as it was shown that degradation of a dietary fibre depends not only on the properties of the fibre itself, but also on the other dietary fibres present in the diet and the adaptation time.

  18. Development, relative retention, and productivity of red flour beetle on resistant starches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development, relative retention, and fecundity of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), on six different types of starches, flour, and flour plus yeast was investigated in the laboratory. The viability of T. castaneum eggs was checked initially by placin...

  19. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Resistant Starch but Not Enzymatically Modified Waxy Maize Delays Development of Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2017-05-01

    Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS). Blood glucose after feed deprivation was assessed every second week; blood samples taken at run-in and at the end of the experiment were analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids. During weeks 2 and 8, urine was collected for metabolomic analysis.Results: Based on blood glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0-18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4.9%) than rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS (5.6-6.1%) diets. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was significantly lower in rats fed RS than in rats fed the other diets (185 compared with 311-360), indicating that rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS diets were diabetic, and a 100% higher urine excretion during week 8 in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets than that of rats fed S and RS showed that they were diabetic. Urinary nontargeted metabolomics revealed that the diabetic state of rats fed S, GLU, and EMS diets influenced microbial metabolism, as well as amino acid, lipid, and vitamin metabolism.Conclusions: EMS did not delay the onset of diabetes in ZDF rats, whereas rats fed RS showed no signs of diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  2. Metabolomic and transcriptomic responses induced in the livers of pigs by the long-term intake of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Yu, K; Zhou, L; Fang, L; Su, Y; Zhu, W

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated metabolomic and transcriptomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of resistant starch on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. Thirty-six Duroc× Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 d of age) were randomly allocated to either the corn starch (CS) group or the raw potato starch (RPS) group with a randomized complete block design; each group consisted of 6 replicates (pens), with 3 pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn-soybean-based diet, whereas pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 (growing) or 280 g/kg (finishing) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-d trial. The livers of pigs were collected for metabolome and gene expression analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that compared with the CS diet, the RPS diet decreased ( < 0.05) cholesterol and palmitic acid as well as increased ( < 0.05) 3-hydroxybutyric acid, which indicated the reduction of adipose weight and fatty acid biosynthesis and the elevation of fatty acid β-oxidation. In addition, 2-ketoglutaric acid and glucose-6-phosphate were increased (< 0.05) although pyruvic acid was decreased ( < 0.05) in the RPS group, indicating the upregulated capacity of glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis. Microarray analysis showed that the mRNA expression of (), (), and () were downregulated ( < 0.05) whereas (), (), and () were upregulated ( < 0.05) in the RPS diet, indicating a decrease in fatty acid intake and synthesis and an increase in fatty acid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis. The results demonstrated that the long-term consumption of RPS could modulate hepatic lipid metabolism by decreasing fatty acid synthesis as well as increasing lipid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis.

  3. Responses in colonic microbial community and gene expression of pigs to a long-term high resistant starch diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Zhou, Liping; Fang, Lingdong; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Intake of raw potato starch (RPS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge of its mechanism in a long-term is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term intake of RPS on microbial composition, genes expression profiles in the colon of pigs. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows were randomly allocated to corn starch (CS) and RPS groups with a randomized block design. Each group consisted of six replicates (pens), with three pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn/soybean-based diet, while pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 g/kg (growing period) or 280 g/kg (finishing period) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-day trial. Real-time PCR assay showed that RPS significantly decreased the number of total bacteria in the colonic digesta. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that RPS significantly decreased the relative abundance of Clostridium, Treponema, Oscillospira, Phascolarctobacterium, RC9 gut group, and S24-7-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and increased the relative abundance of Turicibacter, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Marvinbryantia, and Ruminococcus bromii-related OTUs in colonic digesta and mucosa. Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that the RPS diet changed the colonic expression profile of the host genes mainly involved in immune response pathways. RPS significantly increased proinflammartory cytokine IL-1β gene expression and suppressed genes involved in lysosome. Our findings suggest that long-term intake of high resistant starch (RS) diet may result in both positive and negative roles in gut health. PMID:26379652

  4. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  5. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.

  6. Resistant starch: Variation among high amylose rice varieties and its relationship with apparent amylose content, pasting properties and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Bergman, Christine J; McClung, Anna M; Everette, Jace D; Tabien, Rodante E

    2017-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestine, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS content in cooked rice and a 1.9-fold difference was found. Some varieties had more than two-fold greater RS content than a US long-grain intermediate-amylose rice. The high amylose varieties were grouped into four classes according to paste viscosity and gelatinization temperature based on genetic variants of the Waxy and Starch Synthase IIa genes, respectively. RS content was not different between the four paste viscosity-gelatinization temperature classes. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that apparent amylose content and pasting temperature were strong predictors of RS within each class. Two cooking methods, fixed water-to-rice ratio/time and in excess-water/minimum-cook-time, were compared using six rice varieties that were extremes in RS in each of the genetic variant classes, no difference in RS content due to cooking method was observed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Idso, Laura; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jackson, Matthew I; Combs, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has unique digestive and absorptive properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking method and service temperature. Potatoes of three common commercial varieties (Yukon Gold, Dark Red Norland, and Russet Burbank) were subjected to two methods of cooking (baking or boiling) and three service temperatures: hot (65°C), chilled (4°C) and reheated (4°C for 6d; reheated to 65°C) and analyzed the starch content by modification of a commercially available assay. Results showed that RS content (g/100g) varied by cooking method and service temperature but not variety. Baked potatoes had higher RS contents than boiled; chilled potatoes had more RS than either hot or reheated. These results may assist in dietary choices for reducing chronic disease risk.

  8. Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

    2013-06-01

    Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 μm) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak.

  9. A standardized method for preparation of potatoes and analysis of their resistant starch content: Variation by cooking method and service temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) may lead to reduced glycemia, improved satiety, and beneficial changes in gut microbiota due to its unique digestive and absorptive properties. We developed a standardized protocol for preparation of potatoes in order to assess their RS content and modified a com...

  10. Positive effects of resistant starch supplementation on bowel function in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Shen, Deqiang; Bai, Hao; Li, Zhaoping; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Huanhuan; Chen, Liyong

    2017-03-01

    Animal experimental studies have found that resistant starch can significantly improve bowel function, but the outcomes are mixed while conducting human studies. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the relationship between resistant starch supplementation and large intestinal function. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model. The pooled findings revealed that resistant starch significantly increased fecal wet weight (WMD 35.51 g/d, 95% CI 1.21, 69.82) and butyrate concentration (SMD 0.61, 95% CI 0.32, 0.89). Also, it significantly reduced fecal PH (WMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.35, -0.03), but the increment of defecation frequency were not statistically significant (WMD 0.04stools/g, 95% CI -0.08, 0.16). To conclude, our study found that resistant starch elicited a beneficial effect on the function of large bowel in healthy adults.[Formula: see text].

  11. Development of play fighting in kindling-prone (FAST) and kindling-resistant (SLOW) rats: how does the retention of phenotypic juvenility affect the complexity of play?

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Christine J; Pellis, Sergio M; McIntyre, Dan C

    2004-09-01

    Rats selectively bred for susceptibility to amygdala kindling (FAST) have been shown to retain neural and behavioral features of the juvenile phase into adulthood. In contrast, rats selectively bred for resistance to amygdala kindling (SLOW) are neurobehaviorally more typically adult. The development of play fighting in male and female rats of both selected lines was studied. Given the apparent association of juvenility and play often noted in the literature for mammals in general, it was predicted that the FAST rats should be more playful and be more likely to retain the juvenile tactics of play that lead to more prolonged and complex patterns of social contact. As expected, FAST rats initiated more playful attacks and were more likely to defend against attacks than SLOW rats as both juveniles and adults. Unexpectedly, however, both selected lines exhibited patterns of defense that reduced the likelihood of complex and prolonged social contact. Importantly, the two selected lines did so by very different means. The FAST rats did so by avoiding contact whereas the SLOW rats did so by responding in an adult-typical manner that blocks contact. That is, the FAST rats exaggerated the changes typically occurring at puberty whereas the SLOW rats, at all ages, responded in a more adult manner. These data suggest that the different components of play fighting do not change uniformly with changes in the neurobehavioral underpinnings of juvenility.

  12. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L.; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E.; Marco, Maria L.; Martin, Roy J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function. PMID:26841824

  13. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E; Marco, Maria L; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function.

  14. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Jones, Roger W.; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  15. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Timothy J; Jones, Roger W; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F; McClelland, John F

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  16. Heterologous expression of Thermobifida fusca thermostable alpha-amylase in Yarrowia lipolytica and its application in boiling stable resistant sago starch preparation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Wen, Chia-Ying

    2010-09-01

    A gene encoding the thermostable alpha-amylase in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into Yarrowia lipolytica P01g host strain using the vector pYLSC1 allowing constitutive expression and secretion of the protein. Recombinant expression resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production, as high as 730 U/l in the Hinton flask culture broth. It is higher than that observed in P. pastoris expression system and E. coli expression system. The purified amylase showed a single band at about 65 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and this agrees with the predicted size based on the nucleotide sequence. About 70% of the original activity remained after heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 3 h. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified amylase were 7.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The purified amylase exhibited a high level of activity with raw sago starch. After 72-h treatment, the DP(w) of raw sago starch obviously decreased from 830,945 to 237,092. The boiling stable resistant starch content of the sago starch increased from 8.3 to 18.1%. The starch recovery rate was 71%.

  17. Cell wall composition and penetration resistance against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum are affected by impaired starch turnover in Arabidopsis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Engelsdorf, Timo; Will, Cornelia; Hofmann, Jörg; Schmitt, Christine; Merritt, Brian B.; Rieger, Leonie; Frenger, Marc S.; Marschall, André; Franke, Rochus B.; Pattathil, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Penetration resistance represents the first level of plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report that the starch-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant has impaired penetration resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. We could not determine any changes in leaf cutin and epicuticular wax composition or indolic glucosinolate levels, but detected complex alterations in the cell wall monosaccharide composition of pgm. Notably, other mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis (adg1) or mobilization (sex1) had similarly affected cell wall composition and penetration resistance. Glycome profiling analysis showed that both overall cell wall polysaccharide extractability and relative extractability of specific pectin and xylan epitopes were affected in pgm, suggesting extensive structural changes in pgm cell walls. Screening of mutants with alterations in content or modification of specific cell wall monosaccharides indicated an important function of pectic polymers for penetration resistance and hyphal growth of C. higginsianum during the biotrophic interaction phase. While mutants with affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (mur8) were hypersusceptible, penetration frequency and morphology of fungal hyphae were impaired on pmr5 pmr6 mutants with increased pectin levels. Our results reveal a strong impact of starch metabolism on cell wall composition and suggest a link between carbohydrate availability, cell wall pectin and penetration resistance. PMID:28204541

  18. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  19. Fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but are usually increased by a diet high in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    McOrist, Alexandra L; Miller, Rosalind B; Bird, Anthony R; Keogh, Jennifer B; Noakes, Manny; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Butyrate and other SCFA produced by bacterial fermentation of resistant starch (RS) or nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) promote human colonic health. To examine variation in fecal variables, especially butyrate, among individuals and the response to these fibers, a randomized cross-over study was conducted that compared the effects of foods supplying 25 g of NSP or 25 g of NSP plus 22 g of RS/d over 4 wk in 46 healthy adults (16 males, 30 females; age 31-66 y). Fecal SCFA levels varied widely among participants at entry (butyrate concentrations: 3.5-32.6 mmol/kg; butyrate excretions: 0.3-18.2 mmol/48 h). BMI explained 27% of inter-individual butyrate variation, whereas protein, starch, carbohydrate, fiber, and fat intake explained up to 16, 6, 2, 4, and 2% of butyrate variation, respectively. Overall, acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations were higher when participants consumed RS compared with entry and NSP diets, but individual responses varied. Individual and total fecal SCFA excretion, weight, and moisture were higher than those for habitual diets when either fiber diet was consumed. SCFA concentrations (except butyrate) and excretions were higher for males than for females. Butyrate levels increased in response to RS in most individuals but often decreased when entry levels were high. Fecal butyrate and ammonia excretions were positively associated ((2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). In conclusion, fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but consuming a diet high in RS usually increases levels and may help maintain colorectal health.

  20. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  1. Starch gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  2. Fighting an old disease with modern tools: characteristics and molecular detection methods of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Engström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease, but not a disease of the past. The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, demands new measures to combat the situation. Rapid and accurate detection of the pathogen, and its drug susceptibility pattern, is essential for timely initiation of treatment, and ultimately, control of the disease. Molecular-based methods offer a great chance to improve detection of drug-resistant TB; however, their development and usage should be accompanied with a profound understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and circulating M. tuberculosis strains in specific settings, as otherwise, the usefulness of such tests may be limited. This review gives an overview of the history of TB treatment and drug resistance, drug resistance mechanisms for the most commonly used drugs and molecular methods designed to detect drug-resistant strains.

  3. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  4. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F; Mueller, André N; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  5. Taking a break from chemotherapy to fight drug-resistance: The cases of cancer and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hadjiandreou, Marios M; Mitsis, Georgios D

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present how optimized treatment interruptions during chemotherapy may be used to control drug-resistance, a major challenge for clinicians worldwide. Specifically, we examine resistance in cancer and HIV/AIDS. For each disease, we use mathematical models alongside real data to represent the respective complex biological phenomena and optimal control algorithms to design optimized treatment schedules aiming at controlling disease progression and patient death. In both diseases, it is shown that the key to controlling resistance is the optimal management of the frequency and magnitude of treatment interruptions as a way to facilitate the interplay between the competitive resistant/sensitive strains.

  6. [Adherence to international recommendations in the fight against antimicrobial resistance - Substantial difference between outpatient consumption in Spain and Denmark].

    PubMed

    Malo, Sara; Rabanaque, María José; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance represents a major public health threat that jeopardises the future treatment of bacterial infections. This study aims to describe the adherence to recommendations proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR), in Spain and Denmark, and to analyse the relation between the outpatient use of Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA) and the bacterial resistance rates to these agents. The Antimicrobial consumption interactive database (ESAC-Net) and Antimicrobial resistance interactive database (EARS-Net) provided data on outpatient use (2010-2013) of CIA (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins) and the percentages of isolates of the main pathogens causing serious infections, resistant to these agents. The use of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, as well as the percentage of bacteria resistant, is higher in Spain than in Denmark. Although consumption of macrolides in both countries is similar, the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolides is significantly higher in Spain. The high outpatient consumption of CIA agents in Spain deviates substantially from the WHO recommendations. Moreover, it has the effect of elevated rates of antimicrobial resistance, that are lower in Denmark.

  7. Preparation and characterization of glycoprotein-resistant starch complex as a coating material for oral bioadhesive microparticles for colon-targeted polypeptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Situ, Wenbei; Li, Xiaoxi; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ling

    2015-04-29

    For effective oral delivery of polypeptide or protein and enhancement their oral bioavailability, a new resistant starch-glycoprotein complex bioadhesive carrier and an oral colon-targeted bioadhesive delivery microparticle system were developed. A glycoprotein, concanavalin A (Con A), was successfully conjugated to the molecules of resistant starch acetate (RSA), leading to the formation of resistant starch-glycoprotein complex. This Con A-conjugated RSA film as a coating material showed an excellent controlled-release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the insulin-loaded microparticles coated with this Con A-conjugated RSA film exhibited good hypoglycemic response for keeping the plasma glucose level within the normal range for totally 44-52 h after oral administration with different insulin dosages. Oral glucose tolerance tests indicated that successive oral administration of these colon-targeted bioadhesive microparticles with insulin at a level of 50 IU/kg could achieve a hypoglycemic effect similar to that by injection of insulin at 35 IU/kg. Therefore, the potential of this new Con A-conjugated RSA film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated to be capable of improving the oral bioavailability of bioactive proteins and peptides.

  8. Gene cloning, functional expression and characterisation of a novel type I pullulanase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii and its application in resistant starch production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Yu; Yan, Feng; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing; Yan, Qiaojuan

    2016-05-01

    A novel pullulanase gene (PbPulA) from Paenibacillus barengoltzii was cloned. PbPulA has an open reading frame of 2028 bp encoding 675 amino acids. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as an intracellular soluble protein. The recombinant pullulanase (PbPulA) was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of about 75 kDa on SDS-PAGE. PbPulA was optimally active at pH 5.5 and 50 °C. It was stable within pH 5.5-10.5. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate specificity towards pullulan, but showed relatively low activity towards amylopectin and no activity towards other tested polysaccharides. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme on pullulan were 2.94 mg/mL and 280.5 μmol/min/mg, respectively. The addition of PbPulA in gelatinized rice and maize starches significantly increased the resistant starch type 3 (RS3) yields. Final yields from rice and maize starches were 10.82 g/100 g and 11.41 g/100 g, respectively. These properties make PbPulA useful in starch industries.

  9. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action Honor a Loved ... taking place nationwide. Join Us We Are Ending Blindness The urgent mission of the Foundation Fighting Blindness ...

  10. A microarray study indicates high-amylose resistant starch increases hormones and improves structure and function of the GI tract

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Martin, Roy J; Raggio, Anne M; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Brown, Ian L; Birkett, Anne; Newman, Susan S; Skaf, Jihad; Hegsted, Maren; Tulley, Richard T; Blair, Eric; Zhou, June

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is associated with increased fermentation, increased expression of proglucagon (gene for GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) genes in the large intestine, and improved health. To determine what other genes are up- or down-regulated with feeding of HAM-RS2 a microarray was performed. Methods Adult, male SD rats were fed one of the following three diets for a four week study period: cornstarch control (CC, 3.74 kcal/g), dietary energy density control (EC, 3.27kcal/g), and 30% HAM-RS2 (RS, 3.27 kcal/g). Rat microarray with ∼27,000 genes and validation of 94 representative genes with multiple qPCR were used to determine gene expression in total RNA extracts of cecal cells from rats. The RS vs. EC comparison tested effects of fermentation as energy density of the diet was controlled. Results For the RS vs. EC comparison, 86% of the genes were validated from the microarray and the expression indicates promotion of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Gut hormones GLP-1 and PYY were increased. Conclusions Gene expression results predict improved structure and function of the GI tract and production of gut hormones may promote healthy functions beyond the GI tract. PMID:22516953

  11. Colonocyte telomere shortening is greater with dietary red meat than white meat and is attenuated by resistant starch.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Nathan J; Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Fenech, Michael; Conlon, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Population studies indicate that greater red meat consumption increases colorectal cancer risk while dietary fibre is protective. Previous work in rats showed that diets high in protein, including red meat, increase colonocyte DNA strand breaks and that this effect is attenuated by resistant starches (RS). Telomeres are long hexamer repeats that protect against spontaneous DNA damage which would lead to chromosomal instability. Telomere shortening is associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. The current study aimed to determine the effects of cooked red and white meat intake on colonocyte telomere length in rats and whether dietary RS modified their effects. After four weeks of feeding cooked beef or chicken at 15, 25 and 35% of diet with or without RS, colonocyte telomere length was measured. Telomere length decreased in proportion to red meat content of the diet. A similar trend was observed in the white meat group. Colonocyte telomere shortening due to increased dietary meat was attenuated by the inclusion of RS. These data support previous findings of increased colonocyte DNA damage with greater red and white meat intake and also the protective effect of dietary fibre. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  13. The intestinal microbiota in aged mice is modulated by dietary resistant starch and correlated with improvements in host responses.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Marco, Maria L

    2013-02-01

    Dietary interventions might prevent or reverse age-related declines in health through modification of the activity and composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a first step toward more comprehensive evaluations of single dietary components on healthy aging, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied to determine the structure of the bacterial communities in the ceca of 20-month-old healthy mice fed energy-controlled diets containing 0, 18, or 36% type 2 resistant starch (RS) from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2). The cecal microbiota of mice fed a diet depleted in RS and containing the readily digestible carbohydrate amylopectin were dominated by bacteria in the Firmicutes phylum and contained low levels of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. In contrast, mice fed diets containing HAM-RS2 were colonized by higher levels of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, and Allobaculum species in proportions that were dependent on the concentration of the dietary fiber. The proportions of Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia were positively correlated with mouse feeding responses, gut weight, and expression levels of proglucagon, the precursor of the gut anti-obesity/diabetic hormone GLP-1. This study showed that aging mice harbor a distinct microbiota, which can be modulated by RS and enriched for bacteria that are associated with improved health.

  14. Resistant starch and pullulan reduce postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, but have no effect on satiety in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Klosterbuer, Abby S; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-12-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three novel fibers on satiety and serum parameters. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, fasted subjects (n=20) consumed a low-fiber control breakfast or one of four breakfasts containing 25 g of fiber from soluble corn fiber (SCF) or resistant starch (RS), alone or in combination with pullulan (SCF+P and RS+P). Visual analog scales assessed appetite, and blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The fiber treatments did not influence satiety or energy intake compared to control. RS+P significantly reduced glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, but neither SCF treatment differed from control. To conclude, these fibers have little impact on satiety when provided as a mixed meal matched for calories and macronutrients. Additional research regarding the physiological effects of these novel fibers is needed to guide their use as functional ingredients in food products.

  15. Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Gerald E.; Holtrop, Grietje; Bremner, David M.; Calder, A. Graham; Milne, Eric; Johnstone, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) or resistant starch (RS), above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) than observed with modest weight loss (WL). Obese male volunteers (n = 14) were given an energy-maintenance (M) diet containing 27 g NSP and 5 g RS daily for one week. They then received, in a cross-over design, energy-maintenance intakes of either an NSP-enriched diet (42 g NSP, 2.5 g RS) or an RS-enriched diet (16 g NSP, 25 g RS), each for three weeks. Finally, a high protein (30% calories) WL diet was provided at 8 MJ/day for three weeks. During each dietary intervention, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and IS were assessed. Fasting glycaemia was unaltered by diet, but plasma insulin and C-peptide both decreased with the WL diet (p < 0.001), as did EGP (−11%, p = 0.006). Homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance improved following both WL (p < 0.001) and RS (p < 0.05) diets. Peripheral tissue IS improved only with WL (57%–83%, p < 0.005). Inclusion of additional RS or NSP above amounts currently recommended resulted in little or no improvement in glycaemic control, whereas moderate WL (approximately 3 kg fat) improved IS. PMID:23752495

  16. Slow digestion property of native cereal starches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genyi; Ao, Zihua; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2006-11-01

    The slow digestion property of native cereal starches, represented by normal maize starch, was investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed that 53.0% of the maize starch is slowly digestible starch (SDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SDS starts from an increase of pore size until almost complete fragmentation of starch granules. However, similar amounts of SDS ( approximately 50%) were shown for partially digested fragmented starch residuals, which would normally be considered resistant to digestion based on the Englyst assay. Molecularly, both amylopectin (AP) and amylose (AM) contributed to the amount of SDS as evidenced by a similar ratio of AP to AM at different digestion times. Consistently, similar degrees of crystallinity, comparable gelatinization behavior, and similar debranched profiles of starch residuals following different digestion times indicated that the crystalline and amorphous regions of starch granules were evenly digested through a mechanism of side-by-side digestion of concentric layers of semicrystalline shells of native starch granules.

  17. Resistant starch intake partly restores metabolic and inflammatory alterations in the liver of high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Díaz-Rubio, María Elena; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Jean-François; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Sebedio, Jean-Louis; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2013-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) constitutes the most important feature of the metabolic syndrome, whose prevalence is highly associated to the consumption of Western diets. Resistant starch (RS) consumption has been shown to have beneficial metabolic effects, including improved insulin sensitivity, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the mechanisms (especially at the molecular level) by which this takes place are still not completely known. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the liver in the ameliorated high-fat (HF)-induced IR status by RS. Thus, three groups of rats were fed either a control diet, or an HF diet containing or not RS. After 9 weeks of feeding, we evaluated the whole-body insulin sensitivity, and the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at the biochemical and molecular levels and the metabolome of the cecum content. We demonstrated for the first time that at least part of the beneficial effects of RS consumption in the context of an HF feeding can be driven by changes elicited at the hepatic level. The ability of the RS to correct the HF-induced dyslipidemia and the associated IR resulted from the return to the basal expression levels of transcription factors involved in lipogenesis (SREBP-1c), cholesterol metabolism (SREBP-2, LXRs) and fatty acid oxidation (PPARα). Moreover, the RS feeding was able to correct the HF-induced reduction in hepatic glucose phosphorylation and muscle glucose transport, improving glucose tolerance. Finally, as a whole, the improved hepatic metabolism seemed to be the result of an ameliorated inflammatory status.

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. A High Fiber Cookie Made with Resistant Starch Type 4 Reduces Post-Prandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Maria L.; Zimmer, J. Paul

    2017-01-01

    Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 28 healthy adults consumed a cookie containing 24 g fiber from distarch phosphate (fiber cookie) or a control cookie containing 0.5 g fiber that was matched for fat, protein, and total carbohydrate content. Intravenous blood glucose, intravenous blood insulin, and capillary glucose were measured for two hours after cookie consumption. The fiber cookie reduced the post-prandial blood glucose incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 minutes (iAUC0-120min) by 44% (p = 0.004) and reduced the maximum glucose concentration (Cmax0-120min) by 8% (p = 0.001) versus the control cookie. Consumption of the fiber cookie resulted in a significant 46% reduction of the post-prandial serum insulin iAUC0-120min (p < 0.001) and a 23% reduction in Cmax0-120min (p = 0.007) versus the control cookie. This study shows that distarch phosphate RS4 can be incorporated into a cookie and significantly reduce post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adults. PMID:28273870

  20. State of the Art, Unresolved Issues, and Future Research Directions in the Fight against Hepatitis C Virus: Perspectives for Screening, Diagnostics of Resistances, and Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) still represents a major public health threat, with a dramatic burden from both epidemiological and clinical points of view. New generation of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has been recently introduced in clinical practice promising to cure HCV and to overcome the issues related to the interferon-based therapies. However, the emergence of drug resistance and the suboptimal activity of DAAs therapies against diverse HCV genotypes have been observed, determining treatment failure and hampering an effective control of HCV spread worldwide. Moreover, these treatments remain poorly accessible, particularly in low-income countries. Finally, effective screening strategy is crucial to early identifying and treating all HCV chronically infected patients. For all these reasons, even though new drugs may contribute to impacting HCV spread worldwide a preventive HCV vaccine remains a cornerstone in the road to significantly reduce the HCV spread globally, with the ultimate goal of its eradication. Advances in molecular vaccinology, together with a strong financial, political, and societal support, will enable reaching this fundamental success in the coming years. In this comprehensive review, the state of the art about these major topics in the fight against HCV and the future of research in these fields are discussed. PMID:27843956

  1. The combined effects of soya isoflavones and resistant starch on equol production and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomised mice.

    PubMed

    Tousen, Yuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Matsumoto, Chiho; Nishide, Yoriko; Nagahata, Yuya; Kobayashi, Isao; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-07-01

    Equol is a metabolite of the soya isoflavone (ISO) daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. Equol has greater oestrogenic activity compared with other ISO, and it prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. Resistant starch (RS), which has a prebiotic activity and is a dietary fibre, was reported to promote equol production. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is reported to directly regulate bone health by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and T-lymphocytes in bone. The present study evaluated the combined effects of diet supplemented with ISO and RS on intestinal microbiota, equol production, bone mineral density (BMD) and inflammatory gene expression in the bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were either sham-operated (Sham, n 7) or OVX. OVX mice were randomly divided into the following four groups (seven per group): OVX control (OVX); OVX fed 0·05 % ISO diet (OVX+ISO); OVX fed 9 % RS diet (OVX+RS); and OVX fed 0·05 % ISO- and 9 % RS diet (OVX+ISO+RS). After 6 weeks, treatment with the combination of ISO and RS increased equol production, prevented the OVX-induced decline in trabecular BMD in the distal femur by modulating the enteric environment and altered OVX-induced inflammation-related gene expression in the bone marrow. However, there were no significant differences in bone parameters between the ISO+RS and ISO-alone groups in OVX mice. Our findings suggest that the combination of ISO and RS might alter intestinal microbiota and immune status in the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice.

  2. Combining wheat bran with resistant starch has more beneficial effects on fecal indexes than does wheat bran alone.

    PubMed

    Muir, Jane G; Yeow, Elaine G W; Keogh, Jennifer; Pizzey, Catherine; Bird, Anthony R; Sharpe, Ken; O'Dea, Kerin; Macrae, Finlay A

    2004-06-01

    Wheat bran (WB) increases fecal bulk and hastens colonic transit, whereas resistant starch (RS) has effects on colonic fermentation, including increasing concentrations of butyrate. We hypothesized that a diet combining WB with RS would produce more favorable changes in fecal variables (eg, fecal bulk, rapid transit time, lower pH, and higher butyrate) than would WB alone. This was a randomized crossover block-design study for which 20 volunteers with a family history of colorectal cancer were recruited. The study included 3 diets: control, WB (12 g fiber/d), and WBRS (12 g WB fiber/d plus 22 g RS/d), each continued for 3 wk. In each diet, the major source of protein was lean red meat. During 5 consecutive days (days 15-19) of each dietary period, the subjects collected their total fecal output for analysis. The WB diet resulted in greater fecal output (by 23% and 21% for wet and dry weights, respectively) and a lesser transit time (-11 h) than did the control diet but did not have major effects on fermentation variables. Compared with the control diet, the WBRS diet resulted in greater fecal output (by 56%) and a shorter transit time (-10 h), lower fecal pH (-0.15 units), higher fecal concentration (by 14%) and daily excretion (by 101%) of acetate, higher fecal concentration (by 79%) and daily excretion (by 162%) of butyrate, a higher fecal ratio of butyrate to total short-chain fatty acids (by 45%), and lower concentrations of total phenols (-34%) and ammonia (-27%). Combining WB with RS had more benefits than did WB alone. This finding may have important implications for the dietary modulation of luminal contents, especially in the distal colon (the most common site of tumor formation).

  3. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  4. Role of Phenothiazines and Structurally Similar Compounds of Plant Origin in the Fight against Infections by Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dastidar, Sujata G.; Kristiansen, Jette E.; Molnar, Joseph; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Phenothiazines have their primary effects on the plasma membranes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the components of the prokaryotic plasma membrane affected are efflux pumps, their energy sources and energy providing enzymes, such as ATPase, and genes that regulate and code for the permeability aspect of a bacterium. The response of multidrug and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis to phenothiazines shows an alternative therapy for the treatment of these dreaded diseases, which are claiming more and more lives every year throughout the world. Many phenothiazines have shown synergistic activity with several antibiotics thereby lowering the doses of antibiotics administered to patients suffering from specific bacterial infections. Trimeprazine is synergistic with trimethoprim. Flupenthixol (Fp) has been found to be synergistic with penicillin and chlorpromazine (CPZ); in addition, some antibiotics are also synergistic. Along with the antibacterial action described in this review, many phenothiazines possess plasmid curing activities, which render the bacterial carrier of the plasmid sensitive to antibiotics. Thus, simultaneous applications of a phenothiazine like TZ would not only act as an additional antibacterial agent but also would help to eliminate drug resistant plasmid from the infectious bacterial cells. PMID:27029292

  5. Pectin-non-starch nanofibers biocomposites as novel gastrointestinal-resistant prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Alireza Chackoshian; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of nanofibers of chitin (NC), lignocellulose (NLC) and bacterial cellulose (BNC) in pectin was studied to improve prebiotic activity and gastrointestinal resistance of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites for protection of probiotics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The biocomposites were prepared using various compositions of pectin and nanofibers, which were designed using D-optimal mixture method. The incorporation of the nanofibers in pectin led to a slow degradation of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites in contrast to their rapid swelling. AFM analysis indicated the homogenous distribution of interconnected nanofibers network structure in the pectin-nanofibers biocomposite. FTIR spectra demonstrated fabrication of the biocomposites based on the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and ionic interaction of pectin-Ca(2+). XRD patterns revealed the amorphous structures of the biocomposites as compared to the crystalline structures of the nanofibers. Among the compositions, the optimal compositions were as follows: 60% pectin+40% NC, 50% pectin+50% NLC and 60% pectin+40% BNC, where the prebiotic score, probiotic survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions were optimum. The optimal biocomposite pectin-NC exhibited the highest survival of the entrapped probiotic bacteria under simulated gastric (97.7%) and intestinal (95.8%) conditions when compared with the corresponding to free cells (76.2 and 73.4%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content and resistant starch content based on the pasting properties measured by RVA of Japonica polished rice and starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Katsura, Junji; Kato, Kiyoko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We searched for the easy and simple method to measure the novel indicators which reflect not only AAC, but also (RS) based on pasting properties using RVA. Novel indexes such as SB/Con and Max/Fin (Maximum viscosity/Minimum viscosity) ratios had a very high correlation with proportion of intermediate and long chains of amylopectin; Fb1+2+3 (DP ≧ 13). In Japonica polished rice, estimation formulae for AAC and RS content were developed using novel indexes based on pasting properties by RVA, and these equations showed determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.80 for calibration and 0.71 and 0.75 for validation test. We developed the estimation formulae for AAC and RS content for Japonica starch samples. These equations showed determination coefficients of 0.86 and 1.00 for calibration and 0.76 and 0.83 for validation test, which showed that these equations can be applied to the unknown rice samples.

  7. Dietary fibre-rich resistant starches promote ammonia detoxification in the human colon as measured by lactose-[¹⁵N₂]ureide.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Tisztl, Michael; Salewski, Birgit; Glass, Änne

    2015-01-01

    Three resistant starches (RSs), namely fibre of potatoes (FP), wrinkle pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) with different dietary fibre contents, were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on urinary nitrogen and ammonia excretion as well as on faecal nitrogen excretion by means of lactose-[(15)N2]ureide ((15)N-LU) degradation. Twenty subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of FP, WPS, and HAMS in a randomized order. After administration of (15)N-LU, urine and faeces were collected over 48 and 72 h, respectively, whereas blood was collected after 6 h. The (15)N-abundances were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In comparison to the dry run, supplementation with RS significantly lowered renal (15)N-excretion (dry run: 43.2%, FP: 34.6%, WPS: 37.9%, HAMS: 36.4%) as well as the corresponding (15)NH3-excretion (dry run: 0.08%, FP: 0.06%, HAMS: 0.05%), clearly indicating a reduced colonic nitrogen generation at high dietary fibre intake.

  8. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  9. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    PubMed

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  10. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    PubMed Central

    Bogden, John D; Kemp, Francis W; Huang, Abigail E; Shapses, Sue A; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Jagpal, Sugeet; Brown, Ian L; Birkett, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2), which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks) were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls) or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight) throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p < 0.05) and marginally lower BMD (p = 0.09) than rats not undergoing weight cycling. In comparison to controls, rats fed RS2 had higher femur BMD (p < 0.01) and BMC (p < 0.05), as well as higher values for BMD and BMC measured at the distal end (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) and femoral neck (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Consistent with these findings, RS2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.0001) concentrations. They also had higher lumbar vertebrae calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.05) concentrations. Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A

  11. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-10-14

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had energy density equal to that of the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (w/w) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the seventh week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. (1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and (2) along with their inability to ferment RS, RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss.

  12. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had equal energy density as the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (wt/wt) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the 7th week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice, and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Results: Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice, but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. Conclusion: 1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and 2) along with their inability to ferment RS; RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss. PMID:19739641

  13. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Elinor; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; Björck, Inger; Östman, Elin

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%). Design Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW), EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la), and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW). All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C). A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF) was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS) content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects. Results The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis) in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001). Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001) compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI) (r=−0.571, p<0.001). Conclusions This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response. PMID:21876685

  14. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Elinor; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; Björck, Inger; Ostman, Elin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%). Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW), EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la), and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW). All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C). A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF) was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS) content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects. The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis) in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001). Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001) compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI) (r=-0.571, p<0.001). This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response.

  15. The Fighting Mynahs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Leslie Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a story from Hawaii about how it is better to share and cooperate than to squabble and fight. The story is about two large mynah birds fighting for a ripe mango hanging from a tree. In the midst of their battle, a mother and father sparrow pecked small pieces from the mango to feed their large hungry family. Flying back and…

  16. Fighting Spam And Winning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBose, Cornelius B.

    2004-01-01

    E-mail has become a significant means of communication between teachers, students, parents and administrators in many school systems. The increasing amount of SPAM e-mail threatens to overload school email systems. The experience of Lake Forest, IL School District #67 in fighting e-mail spam is described. Spam basics, spam fighting tools, and…

  17. Fighting the Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  18. The Fighting Mynahs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Leslie Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a story from Hawaii about how it is better to share and cooperate than to squabble and fight. The story is about two large mynah birds fighting for a ripe mango hanging from a tree. In the midst of their battle, a mother and father sparrow pecked small pieces from the mango to feed their large hungry family. Flying back and…

  19. Effects of chemical modification on in vitro rate and extent of food starch digestion: an attempt to discover a slowly digested starch.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B W; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C

    1999-10-01

    Differences in glycemic and insulinemic responses to dietary starch are directly related to the rate of starch digestion. Chemical modification of starch may allow for the production of a slowly digested starch that could be used for the treatment of certain medical modalities. An in vitro method was utilized to evaluate the effects of chemical modification on the rate and extent of raw and cooked starch digestion. The extent of starch digestion was significantly reduced by dextrinization, etherification, and oxidation. However, the rate of starch digestion was not significantly affected by chemical modification. For most modified starches, as the degree of modification increased, the extent of digestion decreased, suggesting an increase in the amount of resistant starch. The results of this study suggest that chemically modified starch has a metabolizable energy value of <16.7 kJ/g. Chemically modified starch ingredients may serve as a good source of resistant starch in human and animal diets.

  20. Making starch.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M

    1999-06-01

    Improvements in understanding the structure of the starch granule and the nature and roles of starch-synthesising enzymes have allowed detailed mechanisms of the synthesis of the amylopectin and amylose components of the granule to be suggested. However, none of these proposed mechanisms has yet been shown to operate in vivo. Several critical aspects of granule synthesis, including granule initiation and the formation of the growth rings, remain a mystery.

  1. Unique Organization of Extracellular Amylases into Amylosomes in the Resistant Starch-Utilizing Human Colonic Firmicutes Bacterium Ruminococcus bromii

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Xiaolei; Ben David, Yonit; Laverde-Gomez, Jenny A.; Dassa, Bareket; Sheridan, Paul O.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Louis, Petra; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie; Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human gut microbiota that plays a key role in releasing energy from dietary starches that escape digestion by host enzymes via its exceptional activity against particulate “resistant” starches. Genomic analysis of R. bromii shows that it is highly specialized, with 15 of its 21 glycoside hydrolases belonging to one family (GH13). We found that amylase activity in R. bromii is expressed constitutively, with the activity seen during growth with fructose as an energy source being similar to that seen with starch as an energy source. Six GH13 amylases that carry signal peptides were detected by proteomic analysis in R. bromii cultures. Four of these enzymes are among 26 R. bromii proteins predicted to carry dockerin modules, with one, Amy4, also carrying a cohesin module. Since cohesin-dockerin interactions are known to mediate the formation of protein complexes in cellulolytic ruminococci, the binding interactions of four cohesins and 11 dockerins from R. bromii were investigated after overexpressing them as recombinant fusion proteins. Dockerins possessed by the enzymes Amy4 and Amy9 are predicted to bind a cohesin present in protein scaffoldin 2 (Sca2), which resembles the ScaE cell wall-anchoring protein of a cellulolytic relative, R. flavefaciens. Further complexes are predicted between the dockerin-carrying amylases Amy4, Amy9, Amy10, and Amy12 and two other cohesin-carrying proteins, while Amy4 has the ability to autoaggregate, as its dockerin can recognize its own cohesin. This organization of starch-degrading enzymes is unprecedented and provides the first example of cohesin-dockerin interactions being involved in an amylolytic system, which we refer to as an “amylosome.” PMID:26419877

  2. Looking for a Fight.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    111112 , L.25 H.i... W(RoU ’U OLU~ICG ifVI Kb). t £ AD-A195 290 .-:IECTE JUNO 8~ AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE STUDENT REPORT LOOKING FOR A FIGHT MAJOR...8217. .-47- UO _.-.",’ .’_ ,= .% REPORT NUMBER 88-1115 TITLE LOOKING FOR A FIGHT AUTHOR(S) MAJOR BARNEY A. GRIMESIII, USMC FACULTY ADVISOR MAJOR R...Classification) LOOKING FOR A FIGHT 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Grimes, Barney A. III Major, USMC 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year

  3. Effect of high-pressure treatment on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch/locust bean gum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Vatankhah, Hamed; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-10-05

    In this study, effects of a 30min high pressure (HP) treatment (200-600MPa) at room temperature on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties of resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with an increase pressure level, and demonstrated a bi-phasic behavior. HP treated RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G'>G'') or viscous (G''>G'), depending on the pressure level and LBG concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the pressurized mixtures showed a major effect on gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp,), and it was observed that RS/LBG mixtures gelatinized completely at ≥400MPa with a 30min holding time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed that at 600MPa, RS/LBG mixtures retained granular structures and their complete disintegration was not observed even at the endpoint of the gelatinization.

  4. Enhanced oxidative stability of fish oil by encapsulating in culled banana resistant starch-soy protein isolate based microcapsules in functional bakery products.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Taslima Ayesha Aktar; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Oil in water emulsions were produced by the mixture of culled banana resistant starch (CBRS) & soy protein isolate (SPI), mixture of Hylon VII & SPI and SPI with 7.5 and 5 % (w/w) Menhaden fish oil. The emulsions were further freeze- dried obtaining 33 and 50 % oil load microcapsules. The range of particles diameter was 4.11 to 7.25 μm and viscosity was 34.6 to 146.48 cP of the emulsions. Compressibility index (CI), Hasner ratio (HR) and angle of repose (AR) was significantly (p < 0.01) lower of the microcapsules made with starch and protein (CBRS & SPI and Hylon VII & SPI) than that made with protein (SPI) only. Microcapsules composed of CBRS & SPI with 33 % oil load had maximum microencapsulation efficiency (82.49 %) and highest oxidative stability. Muffin made with emulsions containing mixture of CBRS & SPI exhibited less fishy flavour than that containing mixture of Hylon VII & SPI.

  5. Resistant starch reduces colonic and urinary p-cresol in rats fed a tyrosine-supplemented diet, whereas konjac mannan does not.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixiao; Morioka, Sahya; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) and konjac mannan (KM) to maintain and improve the large intestinal environment was compared. Wistar SPF rats were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: negative control diet (C diet), tyrosine-supplemented positive control diet (T diet), and luminacoid supplemented diets containing either high-molecular konjac mannan A (KMAT diet), low-molecular konjac mannan B (KMBT diet), high-amylose cornstarch (HAST diet), or heat-moisture-treated starch (HMTST diet). The luminacoid-fed group had an increased content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum. HAS caused a significant decrease in p-cresol content in the cecum, whereas KM did not. Urinary p-cresol was reduced in the HAST group compared with the T group, but not the KM fed groups. Deterioration in the large intestinal environment was only improved completely in the HAST and HMTST groups, suggesting that RS is considerably more effective than KM in maintaining the large intestinal environment.

  6. Effects of a highly resistant rice starch and pre-incubation temperatures on the physicochemical properties of surimi gel from grass carp (Ctenopharyn Odon Idellus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2014-02-15

    The effects of a specific rice starch (SRS), containing highly resistant starch (RSIII), on gel properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the influence of five levels of SRS (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%w/w) on gel physicochemical properties at three different pre-incubation temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C) were investigated. Gels with increasing amounts of SRS addition showed lower expressible water contents and cooking loss values than did control gels. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no changes in protein patterns, regardless of different SRS-added levels at the same pre-incubation temperature, but an evident decrease in the MHC when the pre-incubation temperature increased. The texture properties, colour attributes, SEM were optimal in the treatments containing 4%w/w SRS at the pre-incubation temperature 25 °C. Thus, the optimum SRS addition level and pre-incubation temperature are proposed to be 4%w/w and 25 °C, respectively.

  7. Halotolerant, acid-alkali stable, chelator resistant and raw starch digesting α-amylase from a marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis S8-18.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-08-01

    A halotolerant α-amylase having the ability of digesting the insoluble raw starches was characterized from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay region. The electrophoresis techniques unveiled that the α-amylase was indeed a monomer with a molecular weight of 57 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60 °C and 6.0 respectively. The enzyme was highly stable for 24 h over a wide range of pH from 4.0 to 12.0 by showing 84-94% activity. Interestingly, by retaining 72% activity even after 24 h, the enzyme also showed tolerance towards 28% NaCl. The α-amylase retained a minimum of 93% residual activity in 1 mM concentration for the selected divalent metal ions. The enzyme was found to be chelator resistant as it remained unaffected by 1 mM of EDTA and exhibited 96% activity even at 5 mM concentration. Furthermore, though 1% SDS caused remarkable reduction (68%) in amylase activity, the enzyme showed tolerance towards other detergents (1% of Triton-X and Tween 80) with 85% activity. Additionally, the α-amylase enzyme is capable of hydrolyzing the insoluble raw starch substrates which was evident from the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and spectrophotometric analyses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The metabolic effect of resistant starch and yoghurt on the renal and faecal nitrogen and ammonia excretion in humans as measured by lactose-[(15)N2]ureide.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Scholübbers, Debora

    2013-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) and Lactobacillus acidophilus yoghurt (LC1) were supplemented simultaneously in healthy adults to evaluate the effect on the urinary and faecal nitrogen and ammonia excretion by means of lactose-[(15)N2]ureide ((15)N-LU) degradation. Nineteen subjects received a regular daily diet either without or with supplementation of an RS-LC1-mixture composed of fibre of potatoes (RS type 1), wrinkle pea starch (RS type 2), and LC1 over a 20-day period in randomised order. Thereafter, (15)N-LU was administered together with breakfast. Urine and faeces were collected over a period of 48 and 72 h, respectively. The (15)N abundances were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The intake of the pre- and probiotic mixture composed of RS of type 1, type 2 and of LC1 significantly lowered the colonic generation and the renal excretion of toxic (15)NH3 and functioned as an ammonia shift from urinary to faecal (15)N excretion when using (15)N-LU as a xenobiotic marker.

  9. Fighting Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Chronic Pain Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... diagnose, health care professionals and scientists know that chronic pain is very complex. Below are some of the ...

  10. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  11. Fighting Off Frostbite

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine? Fight Off Frostbite by Dressing for Cold Weather Page Content Frostbite, the freezing of skin or ... If you must venture outside in severely cold weather, wear sufficient layers of loose-fitting clothing , keeping ...

  12. Why Men Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    A Review Essay WHY MEN FIGHT DR MARK R. SHULMAN FOR TOO LONG, military historians have attempted to adhere to Clausewitz’s description of war as...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Why Men Fight

  13. Circulating adiponectin concentrations are increased by dietary resistant starch and correlate with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and kidney function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; Derscheid, Rachel; Fuller, Kelly N Z; Valentine, Rudy J; Leow, Shu En; Reed, Leah; Wisecup, Emily; Schalinske, Kevin L; Rowling, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that dietary resistant starch (RS) type 2 prevented proteinuria and promoted vitamin D balance in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Here, our primary objective was to identify potential mechanisms that could explain our earlier observations. We hypothesized that RS could promote adiponectin secretion and regulate the renin-angiotensin system activity in the kidney. Lean Zucker rats (n = 5) were fed control diet; Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 5/group) were fed either an AIN-93G control diet (DC) or AIN-93G diet containing either 10% RS or 20% RS (HRS) for 6 weeks. Resistant starch had no impact on blood glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A1c percentage, yet circulating adiponectin was 77% higher in HRS-fed rats, compared to DC rats. Adiponectin concentrations strongly correlated with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.815; P < .001) and urinary creatinine concentrations (r = 0.818; P < .001) and inversely correlated with proteinuria (r = -0.583; P = .02). Serum angiotensin II concentrations were 44% lower, and expression of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1, was attenuated in RS-fed rats. Moreover, we observed a 14-fold increase in messenger RNA expression of nephrin, which is required for functioning of the renal filtration barrier, in HRS rats. The HRS, but not 10% RS diet, increased circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and attenuated urinary loss of vitamin D metabolites in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Taken together, we provide evidence that vitamin D balance in the presence of hyperglycemia is strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels and reduced renal renin-angiotensin system signaling.

  14. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility.

  15. Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry.

  16. [Physical, chemical and biological properties of food modified starches].

    PubMed

    Gapparov, M M; Sokolov, A I; Martynova, E A; Kulikova, O S; Bessonov, V V; Berketova, L V

    2007-01-01

    Aim of work was to compare the chemical and biological properties of starches modified by adipinic acid acetylation. Starches in question were: native maize starch "Novation 4600"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the cold swelling "Prejeflo CH 20"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the cold swelling "Prejeflo CH 40"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the hot swelling "Clearam CH 2020". The differences between starches were connected with number of cross-cut lacings in the structure, and with abilities to be gelatinized in the cold water. Rate of hydrolysis and water-retaining capacities were higher for cold swelling starches which contained the smaller number of resistance fractions. Acetyl value of cold swelling starches was higher under elevation of cross-cut lacing.

  17. Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-10-15

    Black and Pinto bean starches were physically and chemically modified to investigate the effect of modification on digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch. The impact of acetylation, oxidation (ozonation) and annealing on the chemical composition, syneresis, swelling volume, pasting, thermal properties and digestibility of starches was evaluated. The physicochemical and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the Black and Pinto bean starches treated with ozone were not significantly (P>0.05) different than that of their respective control starches. Annealed starches had improved thermal and pasting properties compared to native starches. Acetylated starches presented reduced syneresis, good pasting properties and lower eGI. Also, all modified starches had increased levels of resistant starch (RS). Therefore, the digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch were affected by the type of modification but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the Black and Pinto bean starches.

  18. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability.

  19. Effects of Resistant Starch and Arabinoxylan on Parameters Related to Large Intestinal and Metabolic Health in Pigs Fed Fat-Rich Diets.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Theil, Peter Kappel; Purup, Stig; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2015-12-09

    This study compared the effects of a resistant starch (RS)-rich, arabinoxylan (AX)-rich, or low-DF Western-style control diet (all high-fat) on large intestinal gene expression, adiposity, and glycemic response parameters in pigs. Animals were slaughtered after 3 weeks of treatment. Plasma butyrate concentration was higher following the high-DF diets, whereas plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased after 3 weeks irrespective of diet. The mRNA abundance in the large intestine of genes involved in nutrient transport, immune response, and intestinal permeability was affected by segment (cecum, proximal, mid or distal colon) and some genes also by diet. In contrast, there was no diet-induced effect on adipose mRNA abundance or adipocyte size. Overall, a high level of RS or AX did not demonstrate strong beneficial effects on large intestinal gene expression as indicators of colonic health or glycemic response parameters when included in a high-fat diet for pigs as a model of healthy humans.

  20. Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weick, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

  1. Fast fight detection.

    PubMed

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications.

  2. Fast Fight Detection

    PubMed Central

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  3. A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Mohan, Vivek; Sebastian, Bendon K; Young, Graeme P; Farthing, Michael J; Binder, Henry J

    2008-02-13

    Reduction of gross diarrhea rate in excess of that seen over time with intravenous therapy and appropriate antibiotics is not usually achieved by oral glucose-electrolyte rehydration therapy for cholera and cholera-like diarrheas. This prospective randomized clinical trial at a tertiary referral hospital in southern India was undertaken to determine whether amylase resistant starch, substituting for glucose in hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution, would reduce diarrhea duration and weight in adults with acute severe dehydrating diarrhea. 50 adult males with severe watery diarrhea of less than three days' duration and moderate to severe dehydration were randomized to receive hypo-osmolar ORS (HO-ORS) or HO-ORS in which amylase resistant high amylose maize starch 50g/L substituted for glucose (HAMS-ORS). All remaining therapy followed standard protocol. Duration of diarrhea (ORS commencement to first formed stool) in hours was significantly shorter with HAMS-ORS (median 19, IQR 10-28) compared to HO-ORS (median 42, IQR 24-50) (Bonferroni adjusted P, P(adj)<0.001). Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) showed faster recovery from diarrhea in the HAMS-ORS group (P<0.001, log rank test). Total diarrhea fecal weight in grams (median, IQR) was not significantly lower in the HAMS-ORS group (2190, 1160-5635) compared to HO-ORS (5210, 2095-12190) (P(adj) = 0.08). However, stool weight at 13-24 hours (280, 0-965 vs. 1360, 405-2985) and 25-48 hours (0, 0-360 vs. 1080, 55-3485) were significantly lower in HAMS-ORS compared to HO-ORS group (P(adj) = 0.048 and P = 0.012, respectively). ORS intake after first 24 hours was lower in the HAMS-ORS group. Subgroup analysis of patients with culture isolates of Vibrio cholerae indicated similar significant differences between the treatment groups. Compared to HO-ORS, HAMS-ORS reduced diarrhea duration by 55% and significantly reduced fecal weight after the first 12 hours of ORS therapy in adults with cholera-like diarrhea. Current

  4. Construction of local gene network for revealing different liver function of rats fed deep-fried oil with or without resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liao, Tianqi; Zhou, Zhongkai; Wang, Yuyang; Diao, Yongjia; Strappe, Padraig; Prenzler, Paul; Ayton, Jamie; Blanchard, Chris

    2016-09-06

    To study the mechanism underlying the liver damage induced by deep-fried oil (DO) consumption and the beneficial effects from resistant starch (RS) supplement, differential gene expression and pathway network were analyzed based on RNA sequencing data from rats. The up/down regulated genes and corresponding signaling pathways were used to construct a novel local gene network (LGN). The topology of the network showed characteristics of small-world network, with some pathways demonstrating a high degree. Some changes in genes led to a larger probability occurrence of disease or infection with DO intake. More importantly, the main pathways were found to be almost the same between the two LGNs (30 pathways overlapped in total 48) with gene expression profile. This finding may indicate that RS supplement in DO-containing diet may mainly regulate the genes that related to DO damage, and RS in the diet may provide direct signals to the liver cells and modulate its effect through a network involving complex gene regulatory events. It is the first attempt to reveal the mechanism of the attenuation of liver dysfunction from RS supplement in the DO-containing diet using differential gene expression and pathway network.

  5. Effect of variety and cooking method on resistant starch content of white rice and subsequent postprandial glucose response and appetite in humans.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Ting; Stewart, Maria L

    2013-01-01

    Rice is a staple carbohydrate throughout much of the world. Previous work indicated that resistant starch (RS) content of rice consumed in India varied with rice variety and cooking method. This study quantified RS in 4 white rice varieties (jasmine, long grain, medium grain, and short grain) cooked in three manners (oven baked, conventional rice cooker, and pressure cooker), and analyzed for RS content immediately after preparation or after 3 days of refrigeration at 4°C. The rice varieties with the highest and lowest RS content were selected for a pilot- scale trial to characterize postprandial glycemic response and appetite ratings in healthy adults (n=21). Refrigerated long-grain rice cooked in a conventional rice cooker had the highest RS content (HRS, 2.55 g RS/100 g) and refrigerated short-grain rice cooked in a pressure cooker had the lowest RS content (LRS, 0.20 g RS/100 g). These rice samples were served reheated in the clinical trial. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) were significantly lower with HRS and LRS compared to glucose beverage; however, there was no difference between HRS and LRS. Glycemic indices did not differ significantly between HRS and LRS. Subjects reported an overall increased feeling of fullness and decreased desire to eat based on incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for both HRS and LRS compared to control. This study found that RS naturally occurring in rice had minimal impact on the postprandial glycemic response and appetite.

  6. Role of Red Meat and Resistant Starch in Promutagenic Adduct Formation, MGMT Repair, Thymic Lymphoma and Intestinal Tumourigenesis in Msh2 -Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jean M; Hu, Ying; Young, Graeme P; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Le Leu, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Red meat may increase promutagenic lesions in the colon. Resistant starch (RS) can reduce these lesions and chemically induced colon tumours in rodents. Msh2 is a mismatch repair (MMR) protein, recognising unrepaired promutagenic adducts for removal. We determined if red meat and/or RS modulated DNA adducts or oncogenesis in Msh2-deficient mice. A total of 100 Msh2-/- and 60 wild-type mice consumed 1 of 4 diets for 6 months: control, RS, red meat and red meat+RS. Survival time, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colon and small intestinal tumours, lymphoma, colonic O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O6MeG) adducts, methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) and cell proliferation were examined. In Msh2-/- mice, red meat enhanced survival compared to control (p<0.01) and lowered total tumour burden compared to RS (p<0.167). Msh2-/- mice had more ACF than wild-type mice (p<0.014), but no colon tumours developed. Msh2-/- increased cell proliferation (p<0.001), lowered DNA O6MeG adducts (p<0.143) and enhanced MGMT protein levels (p<0.001) compared to wild-type mice, with RS supplementation also protecting against DNA adducts (p<0.01). No link between red meat-induced promutagenic adducts and risk for colorectal cancer was observed after 6 months' feeding. Colonic epithelial changes after red meat and RS consumption with MMR deficiency will differ from normal epithelial cells.

  7. Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vidrine, Kirk; Ye, Jianping; Martin, Roy J; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Raggio, Anne M; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Zhou, June; Senevirathne, Reshani N; Williams, Cathy; Greenway, Frank; Finley, John; Gao, Zhanguo; Goldsmith, Felicia; Keenan, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a health concern. Resistant starch (RS) type 2 from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary sodium butyrate (SB) reduce abdominal fat in rodents. RS treatment is associated with increased gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), but it is not known if SB increases these hormones. This was investigated in a 2 × 2 rat study with HAM-RS2 (0 or 28% weight) and dietary sodium butyrate (0 and 3.2%) resulting in isocaloric treatments: energy control (EC), sodium butyrate (SB), HAM-RS2 (RS), and the combination (SBRS). RS and SB reduced abdominal fat and the combination reduced abdominal fat compared to SB and RS. RS was associated with increased fermentation in the cecum. Serum PYY and GLP-1 total were increased with RS treatment. RS treatment was associated with increased cecal butyrate produced from fermentation of RS, but there was no cecal increase for dietary SB. SB after its absorption into the blood appears to not affect production of PYY and GLP-1, while butyrate from fermentation in the cecum promotes increased PYY and GLP-1. Future studies with lower doses of RS and SB are warranted and the combination may be beneficial for human health. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  9. Effects of xanthan and galactomannan on the freeze/thaw properties of starch gels.

    PubMed

    Lo, C T; Ramsden, L

    2000-06-01

    Three starches (maize, rice and wheat), and the two non-starch polysaccharides xanthan and locust bean gum galactomannan (LBG) were examined in gel and dough systems for texture and stability properties during freezing and low temperature storage. Xanthan and LBG were found to confer increased resistance to freeze/thaw cycling on rice starch gels but the non-starch polysaccharides had little effect on the performance of maize and wheat starch gels or on wheat dough.

  10. Encapsulation altered starch digestion: toward developing starch-based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2014-01-30

    Starch is an abundant biomaterial that forms a vital energy source for humans. Altering its digestion, e.g. increasing the proportions of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), would revolutionize starch utility in addressing a number of health issues related to glucose absorption, glycemic index and colon health. The research reported in this article is based on my hypothesis that water channels present in the B-type starch crystalline matrix, particularly in tuber starches, can embed guest molecules such as nutraceuticals, drugs, flavor compounds and vitamins leading to altered starch digestion. Toward this goal, potato starch has been chosen as the model tuber starch, and ibuprofen, benzocaine, sulfapyridine, curcumin, thymol and ascorbic acid as model guest molecules. X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR analyses clearly suggest the incorporation of guest molecules in the water channels of potato starch. Furthermore, the in vitro digestion profiles of complexes are intriguing with major variations occurring after 60 min of starch digestion and finally at 120 min. These changes are concomitantly reflected in the SDS and RS amounts, with about 24% decrease in SDS for benzocaine complex and 6% increase in RS for ibuprofen complex, attesting the ability of guest molecule encapsulation in modulating the digestion properties of potato starch. Overall, this research provides an elegant opportunity for the design and development of novel starch-based stable carriers that not only bestow tailored glucose release rates but could also transport health promoting and disease preventing compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the production method on the properties of RS3/RS4 type resistant starch. Part 1: properties of retrograded starch (RS3) produced under various conditions and its susceptibility to acetylation.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Golachowski, A; Gryszkin, A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effect of the concentration of a starch paste subjected to freezing on the properties of the produced retrograded starch, and to determine its susceptibility to acetylation with acetic acid anhydride. A starch paste (1, 4, 10, 18 or 30g/100g) was produced from native potato starch that was frozen, defrosted and dried. Al preparations of retrograded starch had the same chemical structure determined with the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diversified physical form visible on photos taken with an electron microscope (SEM). An increase in the concentration of paste, used to produce the preparations, resulted in decreased: amylose content (from 25.0 to 20.4/100g), solubility in water (from 41.1 to 20.1/100g), swelling power (from 45.0 to 19.3/g), and susceptibility of the preparations to the action of amyloglucosidase (from 95.4 to 83.6/100g). The heat of phase transition of solubilisation determined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) ranged from 3.8 to 7.1J/g, and the initial temperature of transition was increasing from 43.4 to 49.7°C along with an increasing concentration of the paste subjected to retrogradation. The 1-10/100g concentration of the paste used to produce preparations was observed to increase, whereas that between 10 and 30/100g to decrease the susceptibility to acetylation and viscosity of the prepared pastes, determined both with a Brabender viscograph and a Haake oscillating-rotational viscosimeter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reformulating cereal bars: high resistant starch reduces in vitro digestibility but not in vivo glucose or insulin response; whey protein reduces glucose but disproportionately increases insulin.

    PubMed

    Wolever, Thomas Ms; van Klinken, B Jan-Willem; Bordenave, Nicolas; Kaczmarczyk, Melissa; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Chu, YiFang; Harkness, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) and whey protein are thought to be effective nutrients for reducing glycemic responses. We aimed to determine the effect of varying the sucrose, RS, and whey protein content of cereal bars on glucose and insulin responses. Twelve healthy subjects [mean ± SD age: 36 ± 12 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.9 ± 2.7] consumed 40 g available-carbohydrate (avCHO) portions of 5 whole-grain cereal bars that contained varying amounts of RS and whey protein concentrate [WPC; 70% protein; RS:WPC, %wt:wt: 15:0 (Bar15/0); 15:0, low in sucrose (Bar15/0LS); 15:5 (Bar15/5); 10:5 (Bar10/5); and 10:10 (Bar10/10)] and 2 portion sizes of a control bar low in whole grains, protein, and RS [control 1 contained 40 g avCHO (Control1); control 2 contained total carbohydrate equal to Bar15/0LS (Control2)] on separate days by using a randomized crossover design. Glucose and insulin responses in vivo and carbohydrate digestibility in vitro were measured over 3 h. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) over 0-3 h for glucose (min × mmol/L) differed significantly between treatments (P < 0.001) [Bar15/0LS (mean ± SEM), 169 ± 14; Control2, 164 ± 20; Bar15/0, 144 ± 15; Control1, 140 ± 17; Bar10/5, 117 ± 12; Bar15/5, 116 ± 9; and Bar10/10, 100 ± 9; Tukey's least significant difference = 42, P < 0.05], but insulin iAUC did not differ significantly. Higher protein content was associated with a lower glucose iAUC (P = 0.028) and a higher insulin-to-glucose iAUC ratio (P = 0.002) All 5 RS-containing bars were digested in vitro ∼30% more slowly than the control bars (P < 0.05); however, in vivo responses were not related to digestibility in vitro. Glucose and insulin responses elicited by high-RS, whey protein-free bars were similar to those elicited from control bars. The inclusion of RS in cereal bar formulations did not reduce glycemic responses despite slower starch digestion in vitro. Thus, caution is required when extrapolating in vitro starch

  13. Icodextrin reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis: results of a randomized controlled trial (STARCH).

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Thyago Proença; Andreoli, Maria Cláudia Cruz; Canziani, Maria Eugênia; da Silva, Dirceu Reis; Caramori, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira; Ponce, Daniela; Cassi, Hélio Vida; de Andrade Bastos, Kleyton; Rio, Danyelle Romana Alves; Pinto, Sergio Wyton; Filho, Sebastião Rodrigues Ferreira; de Campos, Ludimila Guedim; Olandoski, Marcia; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a common risk factor in chronic kidney disease patients contributing to the high cardiovascular burden, even in the absence of diabetes. Glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions are thought to intensify insulin resistance due to the continuous glucose absorption from the peritoneal cavity. The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of the substitution of glucose for icodextrin on insulin resistance in non-diabetic PD patients in a multicentric randomized clinical trial. This was a multicenter, open-label study with balanced randomization (1:1) and two parallel-groups. Inclusion criteria were non-diabetic adult patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for at least 3 months on therapy prior to randomization. Patients assigned to the intervention group were treated with 2L of icodextrin 7.5%, and the control group with glucose 2.5% during the long dwell and, at night in the cycler, with a prescription of standard glucose-based PD solution only in both groups. The primary end-point was the change in insulin resistance measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index at 90 days. Sixty patients were included in the intervention (n = 33) or the control (n = 27) groups. There was no difference between groups at baseline. After adjustment for pre-intervention HOMA index levels, the group treated with icodextrin had the lower post-intervention levels at 90 days in both intention to treat [1.49 (95% CI: 1.23-1.74) versus 1.89 (95% CI: 1.62-2.17)], (F = 4.643, P = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.078); and the treated analysis [1.47 (95% CI: 1.01-1.84) versus 2.18 (95% CI: 1.81-2.55)], (F = 7.488, P = 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.195). The substitution of glucose for icodextrin for the long dwell improved insulin resistance measured by HOMA index in non-diabetic APD patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship of cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions with other physicochemical properties.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen rice cultivars representing 5 cytosine-thymine repeat (CTn) microsatellite genetic marker groups were analyzed for their cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions (rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch), basic grain quality indices (apparent amylose, crude pr...

  15. Slowly digestible starch: concept, mechanism, and proposed extended glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2009-11-01

    Starch is the major glycemic carbohydrate in foods, and its nutritional property is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A classification of starch into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on the in vitro Englyst test is used to specify the nutritional quality of starch. Both the RDS and RS fractions have been extensively studied while there are only limited studies on the intermediate starch fraction of SDS, particularly regarding its structural basis and slow digestion mechanism. The current understanding of SDS including its concept, measurement method, structural basis and mechanism, physiological consequences, and approaches to make SDS is reviewed. An in vivo method of extended glycemic index (EGI) is proposed to evaluate its metabolic effect and related health consequences.

  16. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown.

  17. When Your Parents Fight (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? When Your Parents Fight KidsHealth > For Kids > When Your Parents Fight A ... of kids. What Does It Mean When Parents Fight? Kids often worry about what it means when ...

  18. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  19. Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Boll, Elin V Johansson; Ekström, Linda M N K; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Nilsson, Anne C; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-06-01

    Specific combinations of dietary fiber (DF) have been observed to result in improved glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardized breakfast. Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are considered as DF with prebiotic potential, but so far no studies have investigated their metabolic effects in humans. This randomized cross-over study evaluated the overnight impact of breads containing AXOS-rich wheat bran extract and resistant starch (RS, Hi-Maize), separately or combined, on glucose tolerance, related metabolic parameters and markers of gut fermentation in healthy subjects. Evening reference and test products were: (1) reference white wheat flour bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with (2) AXOS and RS (WWB + AXOS + RS), (3) an increased content of either AXOS (WWB + hiAXOS) or (4) RS (WWB + hiRS). At the subsequent standardized breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h to monitor glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2. Breath hydrogen (H2) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured as markers of gut fermentation, and subjective appetite was rated using visual analog scales. Dose-dependent decreases in glucose responses were observed with increased AXOS over the duration of 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index was improved in the morning after the WWB + hiAXOS evening meal. An increase in breath H2 concentration and circulating SCFA was observed in the morning after both evening meals containing AXOS. The present study indicates that AXOS have the potential of improving glucose tolerance in an overnight perspective and suggested mechanisms are improved insulin sensitivity and increased gut fermentation.

  20. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (P< 0.001). AXD feeding resulted in a higher number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  1. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K; Hazen, Stanley L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2016-12-01

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51-53 %E) v. lower CHO (39-40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine and γ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high- v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by high v. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  2. The effects of whole grain high-amylose maize flour as a source of resistant starch on blood glucose, satiety, and food intake in young men.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Mollard, Rebecca C; Yurchenko, Svitlana; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Berengut, Shari; Liu, Ting Ting; Smith, Christopher E; Pelkman, Christine L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose response effect of whole grain high-amylose maize (HAM) flour as a source of resistant starch (RS) on blood glucose, appetite and short-term food intake. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, healthy men (n = 30, 22.9 ± 0.6 y, BMI of 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 cookies once a week for 3 wk. Cookies were control (100% wheat flour), low-dose (63% wheat flour,37% HAM flour), and high-dose (33% wheat flour, 67% HAM flour) providing 53.5, 43.5, and 36.3 g of available carbohydrate, respectively. Ad libitum food intake was measured 120 min at a pizza meal, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured after consumption of the cookie (0 to 120 min) and after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min). Blood glucose concentrations were lower at 30 and 45 min after high-dose treatment, and at 120 min after both high- and low-dose treatments compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood glucose AUC before the pizza meal (0 to 120 min) was 44% and 14% lower, and higher by 43% and 41% after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min) compared with control. Yet despite the higher response following the meal, cumulative AUC (0 to 200 min) was still 22% lower after the high-dose treatment (P < 0.05). All treatments equally suppressed subjective appetite and there was no effect on food intake. In conclusion, HAM flour as a source of RS and incorporated into a cookie was associated with better glycemic control in young men.

  3. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double blind controlled cross-over intervention.

    PubMed

    Nichenametla, Sailendra N; Weidauer, Lee A; Wey, Howard E; Beare, Tianna M; Specker, Bonny L; Dey, Moul

    2014-06-01

    A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of RS4-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster cross-over intervention (n = 86, age≥18, 2-12 week interventions, 2-week washout) in the United States, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-criteria. RS4 consumption compared with CF resulted in 7.2% (p = 0.002) lower mean total cholesterol, 5.5% (p = 0.04) lower non-HDL, and a 12.8% (p < 0.001) lower HDL cholesterol in the With-MetS group. No-MetS individuals had a 2.6% (p = 0.02) smaller waist circumference and 1.5% (p = 0.03) lower percent body fat following RS4 intervention compared to CF. A small but significant 1% increase in fat-free mass was observed in all participants combined (p = 0.02). No significant effect of RS4 was observed for glycemic variables and blood pressures. RS4 consumption improved dyslipidemia and body composition. Incorporation of RS4 in routine diets could offer an effective strategy for public cardio-metabolic health promotion.

  4. Postprandial glucose, insulin and gastrointestinal hormones in healthy and diabetic subjects fed a fructose-free and resistant starch type IV-enriched enteral formula.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz Erika; Mesa, María Dolores; Olza, Josune; Buccianti, Gilda; Pérez, Milagros; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the dietary glycaemic response has been proposed as a means of reducing the risk of diabetes. To evaluate the effects of a new diabetes-specific formula (DSF) enriched with resistant starch type IV and fructose-free on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and gastrointestinal hormones in healthy volunteers and in outpatient type 2 diabetics. (1) Twenty-four healthy volunteers were divided into two groups: Group 1 ( n = 10) was provided 50 g of the carbohydrate (CHO) constituent of the new product and 50 g of glucose separated by 1 week; Group 2 ( n = 14) was provided 400 ml of the new DSF (T-Diet Plus(®) Diabet NP) and 400 ml of a control product separated by 1 week. (2) Ten type 2 diabetic patients received 400 ml of the new DSF and two other commercially available DSF (Glucerna(®) SR and Novasource(®) Diabet) on three occasions separated by 1 week. Venous blood samples were drawn at time 0 and at different times until 120 min. Glucose, insulin and gastrointestinal hormones were determined. Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices and glycaemic load were calculated. The CHO constituent and the new DSF showed low glycaemic index and glycaemic load. In healthy subjects, insulin and C-peptide release were lower after administration of the CHO constituent as well as after the new DSF (P < 0.001). Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) production were lower after intake of the CHO constituent (P ranging from <0.001 to 0.019) compared with glucose, and GIP was lower after ingestion of the new DSF (P = 0.002) than after the control product. In type 2 diabetic patients, glucose AUC was lower after the administration of the new DSF (P = 0.037) compared with the others. Our results indicate that this new product could be beneficial for diabetic patients.

  5. The resistant starch level of heat moisture-treated high amylose cornstarch is much lower when measured in the human terminal ileum than when estimated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Danjo, Kazuma; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sugawara, Kazuo

    2003-07-01

    According to the definition of resistant starch (RS), the true value of foodstuff-derived RS can be assessed only from that found in the contents of the terminal ileum. To date, a few methods exist for in vivo measurement of RS in the terminal ileum, but their accuracy is questionable. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of RS in the terminal ileum to determine its true value as dietary fiber (DF). Volunteers (n = 7 men) were given a test meal containing 10 g of heat moisture-treated high amylose cornstarch (HMT-HAS) containing 8.8 g of RS as measured by Englyst's method. A double-lumen tube was positioned in the terminal ileum using the endoscopic retrograde bowel insertion method (ERBI). Intestinal contents were aspirated, and the amount of RS was measured as the glucose concentration (Englyst's method), and compared with the values for RS administrated orally using the same method. The mean amount of HMT-HAS-derived RS collected in the terminal ileum was 3.37 +/- 0.95 g (mean +/- SD), which was 34.5 +/- 9.7% of the in vitro RS value. Furthermore, there were large individual differences in recoveries, ranging from 22.2 to 47.5%. The measured amount of HMT-HAS-derived RS was much smaller in our in vivo study than that measured in vitro, suggesting that in vitro measurement may inaccurately estimate the RS and DF levels of foodstuffs. The problem is further compounded by the large individual in vivo variations in RS values from subjects consuming identical diets.

  6. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T.; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-12-20

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E)v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine andγ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high-v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by highv. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  7. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Becker, Stephan T; Podschun, Rainer; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Springer, Ingo N; Russo, Paul A J; Wiltfang, Joerg; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sherry, Eugene

    2009-10-01

    Hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be major health concerns worldwide. Particularly problematic is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its ability to cause severe soft tissue, bone or implant infections. First used by the Australian Aborigines, Tea tree oil and Eucalyptus oil (and several other essential oils) have each demonstrated promising efficacy against several bacteria and have been used clinically against multi-resistant strains. Several common and hospital-acquired bacterial and yeast isolates (6 Staphylococcus strains including MRSA, 4 Streptococcus strains and 3 Candida strains including Candida krusei) were tested for their susceptibility for Eucalyptus, Tea tree, Thyme white, Lavender, Lemon, Lemongrass, Cinnamon, Grapefruit, Clove Bud, Sandalwood, Peppermint, Kunzea and Sage oil with the agar diffusion test. Olive oil, Paraffin oil, Ethanol (70%), Povidone iodine, Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) served as controls. Large prevailing effective zones of inhibition were observed for Thyme white, Lemon, Lemongrass and Cinnamon oil. The other oils also showed considerable efficacy. Remarkably, almost all tested oils demonstrated efficacy against hospital-acquired isolates and reference strains, whereas Olive and Paraffin oil from the control group produced no inhibition. As proven in vitro, essential oils represent a cheap and effective antiseptic topical treatment option even for antibiotic-resistant strains as MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species.

  8. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  9. Ionic starch-based hydrogels for the prevention of nonspecific protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmei; Sun, Hong; Li, Junjie; Dong, Dianyu; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian

    2015-03-06

    Non-fouling materials bind water molecules via either hydrogen bonding or ionic solvation to form a hydration layer which is responsible for their resistance to protein adsorption. Three ionic starch-based polymers, namely a cationic starch (C-Starch), an anionic starch (A-Starch) and a zwitterionic starch (Z-Starch), were synthesized via etherification reactions to incorporate both hydrogen bonding and ionic solvation hydration groups into one molecule. Further, C-, A- and Z-Starch hydrogels were prepared via chemical crosslinking. The non-fouling properties of these hydrogels were tested with different proteins in solutions with different ionic strengths. The C-Starch hydrogel had low protein resistance at all ionic strengths; the A-Starch hydrogel resisted protein adsorption at ionic strengths of more than 10mM; and the Z-Starch hydrogel resisted protein adsorption at all ionic strengths. In addition, the A- and Z-Starch hydrogels both resisted cell adhesion. This work provides a new path for developing non-fouling materials using the integration of polysaccharides with anionic or zwitterionic moieties to regulate the protein resistance of materials.

  10. C-type starches and their derivatives: structure and function.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zebin; Jia, Xiangze; Zhao, Beibei; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Xiao, Jianbo; Zheng, Baodong

    2017-06-01

    The C-type starches are widely distributed in seeds or rhizomes of various legumes, medicinal plants, and crops. These carbohydrate polymers directly affect the application of starchy plant resources. The structural and crystal properties of starches are crucial parameters of starch granules, which significantly influence their physicochemical and mechanical properties. The unique crystal structure consisting of both A- and B-type polymorphs endows C-type starches with specific crystal adjustability. Furthermore, large proportions of resistant starches and slowly digestible starches are C-type starches, which contribute to benign glycemic response and proliferation of gut microflora. Here, we review the distribution of C-type starches in various plant sources, the structural models and crystal properties of C-type starches, and the behavior and functionality relevant to modified C-type starches. We outline recent advances, potential applications, and limitations of C-type starches in industry, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further research and to broaden the prospects of its applications. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants.

  13. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas.

  14. Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft and hard wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Li, Bo; Wang, Leilei; Chen, Xinyu; Wang, Wenjun; Gu, Yunjie; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) observe the effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (2) investigate the effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; and (3) compare the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. DS resulted in large A-type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B-type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000-grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose-to-amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B-type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A-type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α-amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinised, and retrograded starches. Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of high-pressure on calorimetric, rheological and dielectric properties of selected starch dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, H S; Pandey, Pramod K; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-03-15

    Effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment on the rheological, thermal and dielectric properties of the four selected starch dispersions (two modified starches, one native and one resistant) were evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry were employed to assess the extent of starch gelatinization and the developed gel rigidity (G') of starch gels after HP treatment. It was observed that starch dispersions gelatinized completely at 500 MPa with a 30-min holding time. The HP-treated starch samples exhibited predominantly solid-like (G'>G") behavior except for the resistant starch. Pressure-induced gel rigidity differed significantly among starch samples. The G' of starch gels increased with the pressure (400-600 MPa) in the studied frequency range (0.1-10 Hz) except for the native starch where a marginal decrease was recorded at similar condition. The holding time (15-30 min) and concentration (20-25% w/w) significantly attributed towards gel rigidity of starch samples. Measurement of dielectric properties of HP-treated samples over the frequency range 450-4450 MHz indicated differences in the dielectric constant (ɛ'), loss factor (ɛ") and penetration depth among starch gels. Pressure did not show any effect on dielectric property of the resistant starch sample. Power penetration depth decreased significantly with frequency and with the pressure.

  16. A user-friendly mathematical modelling web interface to assist local decision making in the fight against drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ragonnet, Romain; Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; Marais, Ben J; McBryde, Emma S

    2017-05-30

    Multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) represent an important challenge for global tuberculosis (TB) control. The high rates of MDR/RR-TB observed among re-treatment cases can arise from diverse pathways: de novo amplification during initial treatment, inappropriate treatment of undiagnosed MDR/RR-TB, relapse despite appropriate treatment, or reinfection with MDR/RR-TB. Mathematical modelling allows quantification of the contribution made by these pathways in different settings. This information provides valuable insights for TB policy-makers, allowing better contextualised solutions. However, mathematical modelling outputs need to consider local data and be easily accessible to decision makers in order to improve their usefulness. We present a user-friendly web-based modelling interface, which can be used by people without technical knowledge. Users can input their own parameter values and produce estimates for their specific setting. This innovative tool provides easy access to mathematical modelling outputs that are highly relevant to national TB control programs. In future, the same approach could be applied to a variety of modelling applications, enhancing local decision making.

  17. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system. In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4–8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9–7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9–17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6–20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1–6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3–8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant. A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  18. Engineered Resistant-Starch (ERS) Diet Shapes Colon Microbiota Profile in Parallel with the Retardation of Tumor Growth in In Vitro and In Vivo Pancreatic Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Concetta; Adamberg, Kaarel; Adamberg, Signe; Saracino, Chiara; Jaagura, Madis; Kolk, Kaia; Di Chio, Anna Grazia; Graziano, Paolo; Vilu, Raivo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-03-27

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells were cultured in the control, and in the ERS-mimicking diet culturing condition, to evaluate tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to an ERS diet to assess tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with a control diet. The composition and activity of fecal microbiota were further analyzed in growth experiments by isothermal microcalorimetry. Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in an ERS diet-mimicking medium showed decreased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins) and phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) levels, as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to an ERS diet displayed significant retardation in tumor growth. In in vitro growth experiments, the fecal microbial cultures from mice fed with an ERS diet showed enhanced growth on residual substrates, higher production of formate and lactate, and decreased amounts of propionate, compared to fecal microbiota from mice fed with the control diet. A positive effect of the ERS diet on composition and metabolism of mouse fecal microbiota shown in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as a

  19. Engineered Resistant-Starch (ERS) Diet Shapes Colon Microbiota Profile in Parallel with the Retardation of Tumor Growth in In Vitro and In Vivo Pancreatic Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Panebianco, Concetta; Adamberg, Kaarel; Adamberg, Signe; Saracino, Chiara; Jaagura, Madis; Kolk, Kaia; Di Chio, Anna Grazia; Graziano, Paolo; Vilu, Raivo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells were cultured in the control, and in the ERS-mimicking diet culturing condition, to evaluate tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to an ERS diet to assess tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with a control diet. The composition and activity of fecal microbiota were further analyzed in growth experiments by isothermal microcalorimetry. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in an ERS diet-mimicking medium showed decreased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins) and phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) levels, as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to an ERS diet displayed significant retardation in tumor growth. In in vitro growth experiments, the fecal microbial cultures from mice fed with an ERS diet showed enhanced growth on residual substrates, higher production of formate and lactate, and decreased amounts of propionate, compared to fecal microbiota from mice fed with the control diet. Conclusion: A positive effect of the ERS diet on composition and metabolism of mouse fecal microbiota shown in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that

  20. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1-6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3-8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant.A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion.

  1. A Randomized Placebo-controlled Prevention Trial of Aspirin and/or Resistant Starch in Young People with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Burn, John; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chapman, Pamela D.; Elliott, Faye; Bertario, Lucio; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Eccles, Diana; Ellis, Anthony; Evans, D. Gareth; Fodde, Ricardo; Maher, Eamonn R.; Möslein, Gabriela; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Coaker, Julie; Phillips, Robin K. S.; Bülow, Steffen; Mathers, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supporting aspirin and resistant starch (RS) for colorectal cancer prevention comes from epidemiological and laboratory studies (aspirin and RS) and randomized controlled clinical trials (aspirin). Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) strikes young people and, untreated, confers virtually a 100% risk of colorectal cancer and early death. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin (600 mg/day) and/or RS (30 g/day) for from 1 to 12 years to prevent disease progression in FAP patients from 10 to 21 years of age. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to the following four study arms: aspirin plus RS placebo; RS plus aspirin placebo; aspirin plus RS; RS placebo plus aspirin placebo; they were followed with standard annual clinical examinations including endoscopy. The primary endpoint was polyp number in the rectum and sigmoid colon (at the end of intervention), and the major secondary endpoint was size of the largest polyp. A total of 206 randomized FAP patients commenced intervention, of whom 133 had at least 1 follow-up endoscopy and so were included in the primary analysis. Neither intervention significantly reduced polyp count in the rectum and sigmoid colon: aspirin relative risk (RR) = 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–1.10; versus non-aspirin arms); RS RR = 1.05 (95% CI, 0.73–1.49; versus non-RS arms). There was a trend toward a smaller size of largest polyp in patients treated with aspirin versus non-aspirin—mean 3.8 mm versus 5.5 mm for patients treated one or more years (adjusted P = 0.09) and mean 3.0 mm versus 6.0 mm for patients treated more than one year (P = 0.02); there were weaker such trends with RS versus non-RS. Exploratory translational endpoints included crypt length (which was significantly shorter in normal-appearing mucosa in the RS group over time) and laboratory measures of proliferation (including Ki67). This clinical trial is the largest one ever

  2. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  3. Characterization of pinto bean high-starch fraction after air classification and extrustion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The properties of three bean flours (whole, high-starch fraction, and extruded) were studied to determine their potential applications. Significant differences in moisture, protein, resistant starch, total starch, lipids, ash, phytic acid, amino acid content, and fatty acid profile were observed amo...

  4. Preparing for the Next Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    Preparing for the Next Fight EWS Contemporary Issue Paper Submitted by Captain ET Sprague To Major AB Irvin, CG...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...for the Next Fight 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  5. Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Juanjuan; Hu, Jian; Li, Xueling; Du, Xianfeng

    2015-09-05

    To understand the susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes and its potential impact on glycemic response, enzyme kinetics and in vitro digestibility of the native and gelatinized starches were investigated. The results showed that the Km values of the native and gelatinized starch were 10.35 mg/mL and 9.92 mg/mL, respectively. The digestion rate coefficients k values of the native and gelatinized starches were 2.0 × 10(-3)min(-1) and 1.1 × 10(-2)min(-1), respectively. The contents of rapid digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in native glutinous rice starch were 8.92%, 21.52% and 69.56%, respectively. After gelatinization, the amounts of RDS, SDS and RS were 18.47%, 29.75% and 51.78%, respectively. The native and gelatinized glutinous rice starches were 10.34% and 14.07% for hydrolysis index (HI), as well as 43.14% and 45.92% for glycemic index (GI), respectively. During the in vitro digestion, the crystallinity of native glutinous rice starch was increased from 34.7% to 35.8% and 38.4% after 20 and 120 min, respectively.

  6. Selected properties of acetylated adipate of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Kapelko, M

    2014-01-01

    Native potato starch (NS) and retrograded starch (R - obtained via freezing and defrosting of a starch paste) were used to prepare starch acetates: NS-A and R-A, and then acetylated distarch adipates: NS-ADA and R-ADA. The chemically-modified preparations produced from retrograded starch (R-A; R-ADA) were characterized by a higher degree of esterification compared to the modified preparations produced under the same conditions from native potato starch (NS-A; NS-ADA). Starch resistance to amylolysis was observed to increase (to 30-40 g/100 g) as a result of starch retrogradation and acetylation. Starch cross-linking had a significant impact on the increased viscosity of the paste in the entire course of pasting characteristics and on the increased values of rheological coefficients determined from the equations describing flow curves. The produced preparation of acetylated retrograded starch cross-linked with adipic acid (R-ADA) may be deemed an RS3/4 preparation to be used as a food thickening agent.

  7. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Krunic, Susanne Langgaard; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers the potential for rapidly analysing resistant and slowly digested dietary starches. PMID:27468930

  8. Flight and fight

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes. The most active alarm pheromone component, isoamyl acetate (IAA) causes increased respiration and may induce stress analgesia in bees. IAA primes worker bees for ‘fight or flight’, possibly through actions of neuropeptides and/or biogenic amines. Studies of aggression in other species lead to an expectation that octopamine or 5-HT might play a role in honey bee defensive response. Genome sequence and QTL mapping identified 128 candidate genes for three regions known to influence defensive behavior. Comparative bioinformatics suggest possible roles of genes involved in neurogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) activity, and genes involved in sensory tuning through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as an arrestin (AmArr4) and the metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABA-B-R1). PMID:17379239

  9. Effects of cooking methods and starch structures on starch hydrolysis rates of rice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael O; Ai, Yongfeng; Leutcher, Josh L; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of different cooking methods, including steamed, pilaf, and traditional stir-fried, on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. Rice grains of 3 varieties, japonica, indica, and waxy, were used for the study. Rice starch was isolated from the grain and characterized. Amylose contents of starches from japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 13.5%, 18.0%, and 0.9%, respectively. The onset gelatinization temperature of indica starch (71.6 °C) was higher than that of the japonica and waxy starch (56.0 and 56.8 °C, respectively). The difference was attributed to longer amylopectin branch chains of the indica starch. Starch hydrolysis rates and resistant starch (RS) contents of the rice varieties differed after they were cooked using different methods. Stir-fried rice displayed the least starch hydrolysis rate followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice for each rice variety. RS contents of freshly steamed japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 0.7%, 6.6%, and 1.3%, respectively; those of rice pilaf were 12.1%, 13.2%, and 3.4%, respectively; and the stir-fried rice displayed the largest RS contents of 15.8%, 16.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. Mechanisms of the large RS contents of the stir-fried rice were studied. With the least starch hydrolysis rate and the largest RS content, stir-fried rice would be a desirable way of preparing rice for food to reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses and to improve colon health of humans.

  10. High Intensity Resistance Training Methods with and without Protein Supplementation to Fight Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526

  11. Changes in crystal structure of chickpea starch samples during processing treatments: an X-ray diffraction and starch moisture analysis study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongkang; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Wang, Wei; Lei, Shicheng; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-05-05

    To detect more credibly the changes in the crystal structure of chickpea starch during processing treatments, two methods, a deconvolution method based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of starch and a moisture analysis method based on starch moisture content, were applied to determine the relative crystallinity (RC) of A- and B-type polymorphs (RCA and RCB) in the same chickpea starch sample. It was found that the values of RCA for chickpea starch samples determined by these two methods were close and showed similar trend. The results suggested that these two methods could be used to estimate RCA in the same chickpea starch sample and provide mutual corroboration. Based on the deconvolution method, it was observed that the crystalline region of chickpea starch was less susceptible to α-amylase hydrolysis than its amorphous region, and B-type polymorph in chickpea starch was more resistant to α-amylase hydrolysis than A-type polymorph.

  12. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, O V; Versino, F; Villar, M A; García, M A

    2015-12-10

    Biocomposites films based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) containing 0.5% w/w fibrous residue from Pachyrhizus ahipa starch extraction (PASR) were obtained by melt-mixing and compression molding. PASR is mainly constituted by remaining cell walls and natural fibers, revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition of the residue indicated that fiber and starch were the principal components. Biocomposites thermo-stability was determined by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. A continuous PASR-TPS interface was observed by SEM, as a result of a good adhesion of the fibrous residue to starch matrix. Likewise, films containing PASR presented fewer superficial cracks than TPS ones, whereas their fracture surfaces were more irregular. Besides, the presence of PASR increased starch films roughness, due to fibers agglomerates. Films reinforced with PASR showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP). In addition, PARS filler increased maximum tensile strength and Young's modulus of TPS films, thus leading to more resistant starch matrixes.

  13. Plasma modification of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cross-linking and enzymatic hydrolysis composite modification on the properties of rice starches.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huaxi; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Native rice starch lacks the versatility necessary to function adequately under rigorous industrial processing, so modified starches are needed to meet the functional properties required in food products. This work investigated the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis and cross-linking composite modification on the properties of rice starches. Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (EPI) with different concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% w/w, on a dry starch basis), affording cross-linked rice starches with the three different levels of cross-linking that were named R₁, R₂, and R₃, respectively. The cross-linked rice starches were hydrolyzed by α-amylase and native, hydrolyzed, and hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches were comparatively studied. It was found that hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches showed a lower the degree of amylase hydrolysis compared with hydrolyzed rice starch. The higher the degree of cross-linking, the higher the capacity to resist enzyme hydrolysis. Hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches further increased the adsorptive capacities of starches for liquids and decreased the trend of retrogradation, and it also strengthened the capacity to resist shear compared to native and hydrolyzed rice starches.

  16. Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-06-25

    Banana starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the banana starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the banana starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All banana starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked banana starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in banana starches. Banana starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four banana starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of banana amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine banana varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality.

  17. Progress in the Fight Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria? A Review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Approved Antibiotics, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Deak, Dalia; Outterson, Kevin; Powers, John H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-09-06

    A weak antibiotic pipeline and the increase in drug-resistant pathogens have led to calls for more new antibiotics. Eight new antibiotics were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between January 2010 and December 2015: ceftaroline, fidaxomicin, bedaquiline, dalbavancin, tedizolid, oritavancin, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. This study evaluates the development course and pivotal trials of these antibiotics for their innovativeness, development process, documented patient outcomes, and cost. Data sources were FDA approval packages and databases (January 2010 to December 2015); the Red Book (Truven Health Analytics); Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (FDA); and supplementary information from company filings, press releases, and media reports. Four antibiotics were approved for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection. Seven had similar mechanisms of action to those of previously approved drugs. Six were initially developed by small to midsized companies, and 7 are currently marketed by 1 of 3 large companies. The drugs spent a median of 6.2 years in clinical trials (interquartile range [IQR], 5.4 to 8.8 years) and 8 months in FDA review (IQR, 7.5 to 8 months). The median number of patients enrolled in the pivotal trials was 666 (IQR, 553 to 739 patients; full range, 44 to 1005 patients), and median trial duration was 18 months (IQR, 15 to 22 months). Seven drugs were approved on the basis of pivotal trials evaluating noninferiority. One drug demonstrated superiority on an exploratory secondary end point, 2 showed decreased efficacy in patients with renal insufficiency, and 1 showed increased mortality compared with older drugs. Seven of the drugs are substantially more expensive than their trial comparators. Limitations are that future research may show benefit to patients, new drugs from older classes may show superior effectiveness in specific patient populations, and

  18. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions.

  19. Gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with reduced starch digestibility and enhanced protein content.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Jyothi, A N; Asha, V; Sajeev, M S

    2016-09-01

    Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20 % WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40 % BS fortified noodles followed by 50 % ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20 % WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.

  20. Blue maize: morphology and starch synthase characterization of starch granule.

    PubMed

    Utrilla-Coello, Rubi G; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Martinez-Salgado, Jose L; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2009-03-01

    The use of pigmented maize varieties has increased due to their high anthocyanins content, but very few studies are reported about the starch properties of these grains. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch granules from pigmented blue maize and carry out the morphological, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization studies. The proximate composition of starch granules showed high protein contents, after purification, the blue maize starch presented lower protein amount than starch from white maize (control). Although the purity of starch granules was increased, the damaged starch (determined for the Maltase cross absence) was also increased. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of some pores and channels in the blue maize starch. The electrophoretic protein profiles showed differences in the bands that correspond to the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis; these differences could explain the variation in morphological characteristics of blue maize starches against starch from white maize.

  1. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro digestibility of potato and cassava starches under organic acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh

    2017-02-01

    A combination of acid (citric acid or lactic acid) and heat-moisture treatment was used to modify cassava and potato starches in this study. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of the treated starches were investigated. The cassava starch contained 17.0% amylose and possessed A-type crystallinity, whereas the potato starch had 27.4% amylose and possessed B-type crystallinity. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, the crystalline structure of the cassava starch remained unchanged (A type), while the crystalline structure of the potato starch changed from B type to the C (B+A) type. The acid and heat-moisture treatment increased gelatinization temperature, peak and final viscosities of cassava starch but reduced peak and breakdown viscosities of the potato starch. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, rapid digestible starch contents of the treated cassava and potato starches were significantly reduced. However, resistant starch (RS) contents of the treated starches significantly increased as compared to the native starches. Citric acid was found to have high impact on formation of RS in starches. The RS contents of cassava and potato starches obtained under the citric acid and heat-moisture treatment were 40.2% and 39.0%, respectively, two times higher than those of the native starches.

  3. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  4. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  5. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... the fight to control and cure type 1 diabetes. As international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research ...

  6. Influence of oxidized starch on the properties of thermoplastic starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhao, Guo-Ming; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    Thermoplastic starch was prepared by adding oxidized starches and glycerol together into starch. The addition of oxidized starch improved the rheological properties and also increased the toughness of thermoplastic starch. Compared with TPS30, the elongation at break increased from 126.8% to 152.5% when 5wt% OS 117% was added. Good compatibility of thermoplastic starch between the matrix and oxidized starch was confirmed by SEM. The addition of oxidized starch lowered the storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg) of thermoplastic starch, decreasing Tg from 34.1 to 30°C when 10 wt% OS117% was added. The thermal stability of blending was improved by adding oxidized starches, i.e. when 5 wt% OS70% was added, T5% increased from 134 to 156°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular rearrangement of waxy and normal maize starch granules during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Teng, Anju; Witt, Torsten; Wang, Kai; Li, Ming; Hasjim, Jovin

    2016-03-30

    The objective of the present study is to understand the changes in starch structures during digestion and the structures contributing to slow digestion properties. The molecular, crystalline, and granular structures of native waxy maize, normal maize, high-amylose maize, and normal potato starch granules were monitored using SEC, XRD, DSC, and SEM. The amylose and amylopectin molecules of all four starches were hydrolyzed to smaller dextrins, with some having linear molecular structure. Neither the A- nor B-type crystallinity was resistant to enzyme hydrolysis. Starch crystallites with melting temperature above 120°C appeared in waxy and normal maize starches after digestion, suggesting that the linear dextrins retrograded into thermally stable crystalline structure. These crystallites were also observed for high-amylose maize starch before and after digestion, contributing to its low enzyme digestibility. On the contrary, the enzyme-resistant granular structure of native normal potato starch was responsible for its low susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  8. In depth study of a new highly efficient raw starch hydrolyzing α-amylase from Rhizomucor sp.

    PubMed

    Tawil, Georges; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Colonna, Paul; Buléon, Alain

    2011-01-10

    A new α-amylase from Rhizomucor sp. (RA) was studied in detail due to its very efficient hydrolysis of raw starch granules at low temperature (32 °C). RA contains a starch binding domain (SBD) connected to the core amylase catalytic domain by a O-glycosylated linker. The mode of degradation of native maize starch granules and, in particular, the changes in the starch structure during the hydrolysis, was monitored for hydrolysis of raw starch at concentrations varying between 0.1 and 31%. RA was compared to porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), which has been widely studied either on resistant starch or as a model enzyme in solid starch hydrolysis studies. RA is particularly efficient on native maize starch and release glucose only. The hydrolysis rate reaches 75% for a 31% starch solution and is complete at 0.1% starch concentration. The final hydrolysis rate was dependent on both starch concentration and enzyme amount applied. RA is also very efficient in hydrolyzing the crystalline domains in the maize starch granule. The major A-type crystalline structure is more rapidly degraded than amorphous domains in the first stages of hydrolysis. This is in agreement with the observed preferential hydrolysis of amylopectin, the starch constituent that forms the backbone of the crystalline part of the granule. Amylose-lipid complexes present in most cereal starches are degraded in a second stage, yielding amylose fragments that then reassociate into B-type crystalline structures, forming the final resistant fraction.

  9. Digestibility and supramolecular structural changes of maize starch by non-covalent interactions with gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chengdeng; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Yiping; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-02-22

    The effects of non-covalent interactions between gallic acid (GA) and starch on starch digestibility and supramolecular structural changes (short-range ordered molecular structure, crystalline structure, lamellar structure and fractal structure) were investigated. The results indicated that the digestibility of both starches was substantially reduced in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content, but resistant starch (RS) was increased after interacting with GA. The RS content of starch-GA complexes ranged from 17.70 to 50.02%, which is much higher than that of high amylose starch (G50) (11.11%) and normal maize starch (NMS) (4.46%). Compared with native starches, starch-GA complexes possess more ordered and compact structures; furthermore, G50-GA complexes possessed more compact scattering objects, thicker crystalline lamellae and thinner amorphous lamellae than those of NMS-GA complexes. This revealed that more ordered multi-scale structures promote the RS formation. Docking studies were conducted to reveal the mechanism of digestibility variations. It showed that GA would non-covalently interact with starch molecules and contribute to ordered structure formation to somewhat extent; meanwhile, GA had higher binding affinities to α-amylase than to starch chains; during the hydrolytic process, GA could be released from the complex and was more likely to occupy the active sites of Asp197, Asp300, His299 and Glu233 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, which kept starch out of the active site pocket and reduced starch digestibility. These results demonstrate that the non-covalent interactions between GA and starch could be a promising method of controlling starch structures and starch digestion behaviors.

  10. Juanita Fights the School Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasquez, Gloria

    This book relates the fictional story of Juanita Chavez, a Mexican-American teenager who unjustly faces expulsion from school after fighting with a White student who was spreading rumors about her family. Juanita knows that if she is expelled this will greatly disappoint her parents and shatter her dream of becoming the first one in her family to…

  11. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  12. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  13. Thermoplastic starch films reinforced with talc nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luciana; López, Olivia; López, Cintia; Zaritzky, Noemí; García, M Alejandra; Barbosa, Silvia; Villar, Marcelo

    2013-06-20

    Nanocomposite films of thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) with talc particles were obtained by thermo-compression in order to study the effect of filler on structure, optical, and thermal properties. Talc increased the films rigid phase, thus their cross-sections resulted more irregular. Talc preferential orientation within matrix and good compatibility between particles and TPS was observed by SEM. Slight crystalline structure changes in TPS matrix were measured by XRD and DSC, due to talc nucleating effect. Randomly dispersed talc nanoagglomerates and individual platelets were assessed by TEM. Laminar morphology and nano-sized particles allowed that nanocomposite films were optically transparent. TPS-talc films resulted heterogeneous materials, presenting domains rich in glycerol and others rich in starch. Talc incorporation higher than 3%, w/w increased softening resistance of the nanocomposites as stated by DMA. Relaxation temperatures of glycerol-rich phase shifted to higher values since talc reduces the mobility of starch chains.

  14. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  15. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  16. Why Adolescents Fight: A Qualitative Study of Youth Perspectives on Fighting and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lee, Simon C.; Tillitski, John; Wilson, Connie; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify risk factors for fighting, factors that protect against fighting, and strategies to prevent fighting, among adolescents who fight and those uninvolved in fighting. Methods Focus groups were conducted with middle and high-school students, stratified by fighting (fighter/non-fighter) status, race/ethnicity, and gender. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and thematic content analysis. Themes were independently identified by three coders; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results The 65 participants in the 12 focus groups were 13–17 years old. Reasons for fighting include self-defense, to gain/maintain respect, or due to anger; having goals for the future is protective. Non-fighters state that their parents condone fighting only when physically attacked, and teach adolescents strategies to avoid fighting. Fighters describe mixed messages from parents, and pro-fighting attitudes and modeling of aggressive behavior among some family members. Non-fighters avoid fighting by ignoring insults or walking away. Fighters feel unable to use nonviolent conflict-resolution methods effectively. Peers may instigate or encourage fights. Suggested prevention strategies include anger-management and conflict-resolution programs, relationships with caring adults, and physicians counseling youth about the consequences of fighting. Conclusions Non-fighters use various strategies to avoid fighting, whereas fighters are aware of few alternatives to fighting. Conflicting parental messages about fighting may enhance the likelihood of fighting. Physicians can counsel youth about the negative consequences of fighting. Interventions that teach anger management and conflict resolution, promote adolescent self-efficacy for using non-violent strategies, and address parental attitudes about fighting may be effective in preventing fighting. PMID:25528128

  17. Structural characterization of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) starch and the effect of annealing on its semicrystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thais S; Cunha, Verena A G; Jane, Jay-Lin; Franco, Celia M L

    2011-04-27

    Structural characteristics of native and annealed Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) starches were determined and compared to those of cassava and potato starches. Peruvian carrot starch presented round and irregular shaped granules, low amylose content and B-type X-ray pattern. Amylopectin of this starch contained a large proportion of long (DP > 37) and short (DP 6-12) branched chains. These last ones may contribute to its low gelatinization temperature. After annealing, the gelatinization temperatures of all starches increased, but the ΔH and the crystallinity increased only in Peruvian carrot and potato starches. The annealing process promoted a higher exposure of Peruvian carrot amylose molecules, which were more quickly attacked by enzymes, whereas amylopectin molecules became more resistant to hydrolysis. Peruvian carrot starch had structural characteristics that differed from those of cassava and potato starches. Annealing affected the semicrystalline structure of this starch, enhancing its crystallinity, mainly due to a better interaction between amylopectin chains.

  18. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates exclusive of resistant starch are collectively termed "dietary starch." This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals, as it can have posi...

  19. Relationships among Genetic, Structural, and Functional Properties of Rice Starch.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangli; Chen, Yaling; Zhu, Ping; Sui, Zhongquan; Corke, Harold; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among the structural properties, in vitro digestibility, and genetic factors in starches of 14 rice cultivars. Weight-based chain-length distributions in amylopectin ranged from 18.07% to 24.71% (fa, DP 6-12), 45.01% to 55.67% (fb1, DP 13-24), 12.72% to 14.05% (fb2, DP 25-36), and 10.80 to 20.72% (fb3, DP > 36), respectively. The contents of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 78.5% to 87.5%, 1.2% to 6.0%, and 10.1% to 18.0%, respectively. AAC was negatively correlated with RDS content but positively correlated with RS content in rice starch. The proportion of short chains in amylopectin, i.e. the amount of fraction IIa (FrIIa) fractionated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), was positively correlated with RDS. Starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) gene controlled the degree of crystallinity, the amount of fa chains of amylopectin. SSIIIa gene controlled the amount of fb1 chains. Wx gene controlled the FrI, FrIIa, RDS, and RS. Starch debranching enzyme isoamylase II (ISA2) gene also controlled the RDS, which may suggest that RDS was also affected by amylopectin structure, although no correlation between them was found. This study indicated that genetics (i.e., starch biosynthesis related genes) controlled the structural properties of starch, and both amylose content and amylopectin fine structure determined functional properties of rice starch (i.e., the digestion), each in a different way. Understanding the "genetics-structure-function" relationships in rice starches will assist plant breeders and food processors in developing new rice varieties and functional foods.

  20. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  1. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    PubMed

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  2. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition. PMID:24936295

  3. Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of 3 Lilium Bulb Starches.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Lilium (Liliaceae) is an important wild plant and is used as food and traditional medicine worldwide. One Lilium cultivar (Lilium lancifolium) and 2 wild types (Lilium leucanthum and Lilium rosthornii) that are commonly distributed in Western China were investigated to completely utilize Lilium resources. The morphology of the flowers, bulbs, and scales and soluble sugar, total starch and amylose contents was remarkably different among the 3 Lilium species. Starches from the 3 Lilium species presented different granule size and shape. The starch of L. lancifolium exhibited higher swelling power and solubility than that of L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. The starches from the 3 Lilium bulbs presented similar X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the 3 Lilium species, L. lancifolium showed the lowest crystallinity and the largest proportion of ordered structures in granule external region. Gelatinization temperatures and retrogradation percentage were significantly lower, but gelatinization enthalpy was significantly higher in L. lancifolium than those in L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Pasting properties of starch were different among the 3 Lilium species. Starch from L. lancifolium showed the highest degree of amylopectin branching, followed by L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Starches from L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii showed higher resistance to porcine pancreatic α-amylase hydrolysis compared to that of L. lancifolium. These results indicated that 3 Lilium bulbs exhibited remarkable differences in morphological, crystal, thermal, pasting, and hydrolysis properties of starches. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity.

  5. Starch chain interactions within the amorphous and crystalline domains of pulse starches during heat-moisture treatment at different temperatures and their impact on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, P; Hoover, R; Donner, E; Liu, Q

    2014-01-15

    Pulse (faba bean [FB], black bean [BB] and pinto bean [PB]) starches were heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 80, 100 and 120°C for 12h at a moisture content of ∼23%. Structural changes on HMT were monitored by microscopy, HPAEC-PAD, ATR-FTIR, WAXS, DSC and susceptibility towards acid and enzyme hydrolysis. Amylopectin chain length distribution remained unchanged in all starches on HMT. In all starches, HMT increased crystallinity and gelatinisation temperatures. The gelatinization enthalpy remained unchanged in some starches, whereas it decreased slightly in other starches on HMT. Slowly digestible starch content decreased at all temperatures of HMT, whereas resistant starch content increased at HMT80 and HMT100 (HMT80>HMT100), but decreased at HMT120. Birefringence, B-type crystallites and acid hydrolysis decreased on HMT. The extent of the above changes varied amongst starch sources and genotypes. HMT altered the X-ray pattern from A+B→A. The results of this study showed that structural reorganisation of starch chains during HMT temperature was influenced by starch chain flexibility, starch chain interactions and crystalline stability of the native granules.

  6. Structural changes of high-amylose rice starch residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Xinghua; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Fengmin; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2012-09-12

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch content. In this paper, starches were isolated from mature grains of high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) and digested in vitro and in vivo. The structural changes of digestive starch residues were characterized using DSC, XRD, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, and ATR-FTIR. TQ starch was very susceptible to digestion; its residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion showed similar structural characteristics with TQ control starch, which suggested that both amorphous and crystalline structures were simultaneously digested. Both amorphous and the long-range order structures were also simultaneously hydrolyzed in TRS starch, but the short-range order (double helix) structure in the external region of TRS starch granule increased with increasing digestion time. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type polymorph. These results suggested that B-type crystallinity and short-range order structure in the external region of starch granule made TRS starch resistant to digestion.

  7. Characterization of Maize Amylose-extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part II: Structures and Properties of Starch Residues Remaining After Enzymatic Hydrolyis at Boiling-water Temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GEMS-0067 maize ae-line starch developed by Truman State University and the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project consisted of 39.4%-43.2% resistant-starch (RS), which was larger than the existing ae-line starches of H99ae, OH43ae, B89ae, and B84ae (11.5%-19.1%) as reported in part I of the s...

  8. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (△H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein.

  9. Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro

    2014-09-15

    Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium.

  10. Structural changes of waxy and normal maize starches modified by heat moisture treatment and their relationship with starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongzhi; Yang, Qingyu; Xu, Xiaojuan; Qi, Liang; Dong, Zhihong; Luo, Zhigang; Lu, Xuanxuan; Peng, Xichun

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the variations in structure of waxy and normal maize starches modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) for different treating time (3h and 9h) were investigated. HMT caused the destruction of starch granules. The (1)H NMR confirmed that glycosidic bonds were broken during HMT. The (13)C NMR result suggested that HMT caused the transformation of starch granules from double and single helical components into amorphous components. Heat-moisture treated starches exhibited higher gelatinization temperature (To, Tp and Tc), narrower gelatinization temperature range (Tc-To) and lower gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH). HMT caused the rearrangement of starch molecules, degeneration of double helices and formation of new single helix. In addition, in vitro digestibility assessment indicated that the contents of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) were improved and resistant starch (RS) was reduced after HMT, which was related to the decrease of single and double helical components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical properties and enzyme susceptibility of rice and high-amylose maize starch mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Wang, Sunan; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2013-09-01

    Resistant starch has promising health benefits and possesses great potential as a functional ingredient in diverse food formulation and production. Here, 10-50% high-amylose maize starch with 70% amylose content (H7) representing type 2 resistant starch was incorporated into three types of rice starch with varying amylose content (1.6-32%). Thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility to porcine pancreatic α-amylase of the starch mixtures were analyzed. Addition of H7 at levels of 10-50% decreased the yield stress and consistency coefficient of rice starches for the flow properties as modeled by the Herschel-Bulkley equation. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that addition of H7 decreased the storage modulus during heating and increased it during cooling and frequency sweeping for all rice starches tested. Gelatinization, retrogradation, and enzyme susceptibility of the resulting mixtures appeared additive of that of individual components. A desirable reduction in the digestibility of starchy foods could be achieved by adding high-amylose maize starch. The physical modifications in properties of the starch blends are dependent on the addition level of resistant starch. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. How to fight pertussis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Universal pertussis vaccination has successfully decreased pertussis mortality and morbidity in childhood. However, despite intensive vaccination of young children, pertussis remains a major public health problem in both developing and industrialized regions. Recent epidemics in California and Australia demonstrated that the agent of the disease is still circulating. They also revealed several aspects that must not be neglected concerning vaccine-preventable diseases. Indeed, pertussis is one of the oldest vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases, so can provide a good illustration of all of the aspects associated with the need for surveillance after the introduction of vaccination. (i) The type of vaccine: two types of pertussis vaccine, whole cell and acellular, inducing different types of immunity are now used around the world. (ii) The vaccine strategy, the vaccine coverage and the duration of vaccine immunity: pertussis epidemics provide evidence that 90% of the infants must be vaccinated, vaccination must be sufficiently early and both vaccine-induced immunity and natural infection-induced immunity to pertussis wane with time indicating that pertussis is not only a pediatric disease. (iii) The agents of the disease, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis: the intensive vaccination of young infants modified the herd immunity, controlled bacteria similar to the vaccine strains but not all, revealing polymorphism of the agents of the disease evidencing the importance of continuing their isolation and their surveillance as well as monitoring their antibiotic resistance. (iv) The diagnosis of the disease: the epidemics showed the importance of specific diagnostic techniques that are easy to use by medical laboratories and the availability of the reagents required. (v) Communication with the public, the health authorities and the health providers: any changes of vaccine type, vaccine strategy, characteristics of the disease, and biological diagnosis must

  13. Stress, fighting and neuroendocrine function.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. L.; Levine, S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adrenocortical steroids in rats after testing in the shock-induced fighting paradigm were examined. The investigations provide data consistent with the view that psychological aspects of the stressful situation are important in determining the effects of shock on physiological function. The data indicate that the pituitary-adrenal response can be attenuated by the expression of an organized pattern of behavior.

  14. Effect of dry heat treatment with xanthan on waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Huien; Shoemaker, Charles F; Xu, Zhiting; Zhu, Song; Zhong, Fang

    2013-02-15

    Waxy rice starch was impregnated with xanthan and heat-treated in a dry state. The effects on the pasting and rheological properties of the treated starch-xanthan mixture were evaluated. Swelling of the granule was restricted, and a continuous rise of the viscosity during pasting was provided for the treated sample. After pasting, the gel forming ability of the treated starch was strengthened, as both storage and loss modulus increased and tan δ decreased. The paste also owned the highest zero order Newtonian viscosity and yield stress. An increase in starch particle size of the dry heated starch-xanthan mixture suggested a cross linking of the starch granules by the xanthan polymers. An increase of crystallinity was observed for the starch after dry heat treatment, but with the addition of xanthan the amorphous region of the granule became more resistant to dry-heating. The melting enthalpy was found to be correlated with the crystallinity.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of starch from banana cultivars grown in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Salazar, A; Bello-Pérez, L A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Castellanos-Galeano, F J; Álvarez-Barreto, C I; Pacheco-Vargas, G

    2017-05-01

    Banana starch is resistant to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes due to its structure and dietary fibre content. Starch was isolated from the following three cultivars of Colombian Musaceae: Gros Michel (dessert), Dominico Harton and FHIA 20 (cooking); also, the amylose and amylopectin contents, morphology of the granules, thermal properties, pasting, molecular characteristics and digestibility were determined. The total starch content, amylose content and digestibility (gelatinized starch) were higher in cooking varieties; the purity and gelatinization temperature were similar for the three varieties, but the enthalpy was higher in the dessert variety. The three varieties showed higher viscosities in the pasting profile compared to commercial maize starch in both acid and neutral conditions. Starch granules presented with heterogeneous sizes and shapes (elongated and ovals) that had birefringence. The Dominico Hartón variety showed the lowest rapidly digestible starch (RDS) value in the gelatinized sample that is in agreement with the greater proportion of long chains.

  16. Effects of thermo-resistant non-starch polysaccharide degrading multi-enzyme on growth performance, meat quality, relative weights of body organs and blood profile in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Gheisar, M; Hosseindoust, A; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with heat-treated non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme. A total of 432 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five treatments: (i) CON (basal diet), (ii) E1: CON + 0.05% multi-enzyme, (iii) E2: CON + 0.1% multi-enzyme, (iv) E3: CON + 0.05% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme and (v) E4: CON + 0.1% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme, each treatment consisted of six replications and 12 chickens in each replication. The chickens were housed in three floor battery cages during 28-day experimental period. On days 1-7, gain in body weight (BWG) improved by feeding the diets supplemented with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme. On days 7-21 and 1-28, chickens fed the diets containing thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed improved (p < 0.05) BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON group. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme affected the percentage of drip loss on d 1 (p < 0.05). Drip loss percentage on days 3 and 5 and also meat colour were not affected significantly. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme did not affect the relative weights of organs but compared to CON group, relative weight of breast muscle increased and abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). Among measured blood constituents, chickens fed supplemented diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed higher (p < 0.05) IgG. Counts of red and white blood cells and lymphocyte percentage were not affected. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that supplementing pelleted diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme improved performance of broiler chickens.

  17. Centrifugally spun starch-based fibers from amylopectin rich starches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Chen, Huanhuan; Yang, Bin

    2016-02-10

    Centrifugal spinning and electrospinning have proved to be effective techniques for fabricating micro-to-nanofibers. However, starches of amylopectin content above 65% cannot be fabricated to fiber by electrospinning. This paper is focus on the centrifugal spinnability of amylopectin rich starches. We investigated the amylopectin content of starches by Dual-wavelength colorimetry, studied the rheological properties of starch dopes to determine entanglement concentration (ce) by rotary rheometer. Results indicated that amylopectin rich native corn and potato starches, which with amylopectin content higher than 65%, were suitable for centrifugal spinning to micro-to-nanofibers. Additionally, starch-based fibers were successfully fabricated from the amylose rich corn starch as well. Rheological studies showed that the entanglement concentration (ce) of starch solution was crucial for successful centrifugal spinning. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Granule structure and distribution of allomorphs in C-type high-amylose rice starch granule modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cunxu; Qin, Fengling; Zhou, Weidong; Yu, Huaguang; Xu, Bin; Chen, Chong; Zhu, Lijia; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-11-24

    C-type starch, which is a combination of both A-type and B-type crystal starch, is usually found in legumes and rhizomes. We have developed a high-amylose transgenic line of rice (TRS) by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. The starch in the endosperm of this TRS was identified as typical C-type crystalline starch, but its fine granular structure and allomorph distribution remained unclear. In this study, we conducted morphological and spectroscopic studies on this TRS starch during acid hydrolysis to determine the distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. The morphology of starch granules after various durations of acid hydrolysis was compared by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that amorphous regions were located at the center part of TRS starch subgranules. During acid hydrolysis, starch was degraded from the interior of the subgranule to the outer surface, while the peripheral part of the subgranules and the surrounding band of the starch granule were highly resistant to acid hydrolysis. The spectroscopic changes detected by X-ray powder diffraction, 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared showed that the A-type allomorph was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type, and that the X-ray diffraction profile gradually changed from a native C-type to a CB-type with increasing hydrolysis time. Our results showed that, in TRS starch, the A-type allomorph was located around the amorphous region, and was surrounded by the B-type allomorph located in the peripheral region of the subgranules and the surrounding band of the starch granule. Thus, the positions of A- and B-type allomorphs in the TRS C-type starch granule differ markedly from those in C-type legume and rhizome starch.

  19. New starch methodology to measure both soluble and insoluble starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch is a natural sugarcane juice impurity that greatly influences raw sugar quality and affects factory and refinery processing. Since the advent of the USDA Starch Research method, the mechanisms in which starch concentration and physical form affects sugar crop processing, conversion, and end-g...

  20. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins.

    PubMed

    Barczyńska, Renata; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Libudzisz, Zdzisława; Kapuśniak, Kamila; Kapuśniak, Janusz

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion - they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells) counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  1. Genotype by environment interaction effects on starch content and digestibility in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Stephanie; Yada, Rickey Y; Bizimungu, Benoit; Fan, Ming; Sullivan, J Alan

    2013-04-24

    Biochemically, starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin but can also be defined by its digestibility rates within the human intestinal tract, i.e., rapidly digested (RDS), slowly digested (SDS), or resistant (RS). The relative ratio of these starch components is the main contributor to differences in the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate sources. This study evaluated the digestible starch profile of 12 potato genotypes comprising elite breeding lines and commercial varieties in six environments, with the optimal profile defined as low RDS and high SDS. Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) analysis found significant (p = 0.05) genotypic and environmental effects for all digestibility rate components; however, interaction effects were only significant for SDS. Optimal starch profiles were identified for two genotypes, CV96044-3 and Goldrush. The desirable starch profile in these potato cultivars can be exploited in breeding programs for the improvement of starch profile and other important characteristics such as high yields and disease resistance.

  2. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  3. Production of an in Vitro Low-Digestible Starch via Hydrothermal Treatment of Amylosucrase-Modified Normal and Waxy Rice Starches and Its Structural Properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ha Ram; Choi, Seung Jun; Park, Cheon-Seok; Moon, Tae Wha

    2016-06-22

    We investigated dual modification of normal and waxy rice starch, focusing on digestibility. Amylosucrase (AS) was applied to maximize the slowly digestible and resistant starch fractions. AS-modified starches were adjusted to 25-40% moisture levels and heated at 100 °C for 40 min. AS-modified starches exhibited a B-type crystalline structure, and hydrothermal treatment (HTT) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative crystallinity with moisture level. The thermal transition properties of modified starches were also affected by the moisture level. The contents of rapidly digestible starch fraction in AS-modified normal and waxy starches (43.3 ± 3.9 and 18.1 ± 0.6%) decreased to 13.0 ± 1.0 and 0.3 ± 0.3% after HTT, accordingly increasing the low digestible fractions. Although the strengthened crystalline structures of AS-modified starches by HTT were not stable enough to maintain their rigidity under cooking, application of AS and HTT was more effective in waxy rice starch than normal rice starch when lowering digestibility.

  4. Polymeric tannins significantly alter properties and in vitro digestibility of partially gelatinized intact starch granule.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Derrick B; Awika, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    Excess calorie intake is a growing global problem. This study investigated effect of complexing partially gelatinized starch with condensed tannins on in vitro starch digestibility. Extracts from tannin and non-tannin sorghum, and cellulose control, were reacted with normal and waxy maize starch in 30% (30E) and 50% ethanol (50E) solutions at 70°C/20min. More tannins complexed with the 30E than 50E starches (mean 6.2 vs 3.5mg/g, respectively). In the 30E treatments, tannins significantly increased crystallinity, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, and slow digesting starch (from 100 to 274mg/g) in normal, but not waxy starch, suggesting intragranular cross-linking with amylose. Tannins doubled resistant starch (RS) to approx. 300mg/g in both starches. In 50E treatments, tannins made both maize starches behave like raw potato starch (>90% RS), suggesting granule surface interactions dominated. Non-tannin treatments generally behaved similar to cellulose. Condensed tannins could be used to favorably alter starch digestion profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of slowly digestible sweet potato Daeyumi starch by dual enzyme modification.

    PubMed

    Jo, A Ra; Kim, Ha Ram; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, Joon Seol; Chung, Mi Nam; Han, Seon Kyeong; Park, Cheon-Seok; Moon, Tae Wha

    2016-06-05

    Sweet potato Daeyumi starch was dually modified using glycogen branching enzyme (BE) from Streptococcus mutans and amylosucrase (AS) from Neisseria polysaccharea to prepare slowly digestible starch (SDS). Dually modified starches had higher SDS and resistant starch (RS) contents than control starch. The branched chain length distributions of the BE-modified starches indicated an increase in short side-chains [degree of polymerization (DP)≤12] compared with native starch. AS treatment of the BE-modified starches decreased the proportion of short side-chains and increased the proportion of long side-chains (DP≥25) and molecular mass. It also resulted in a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern and an increased relative crystallinity. Regarding thermal properties, the BE-modified starches showed no endothermic peak, whereas the BEAS-modified starches had a broader melting temperature range and lower melting enthalpy compared to native starch. The combined enzymatic treatment resulted in novel glucan polymers with slow digestion properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch samples, canna starch contained the highest amylose content (30.4 %), while taro had the lowest (7.6 %). In terms of protein content, arrowroot flour had the highest amount (7.7 %), in contrast to cassava flour which had the lowest (1.5 %). Compared to other flours, canna and konjac flour were the most slowly digested which indicated by their high amount of resistant starch (RS). Canna starch had the highest swelling power and viscosity than other starches and flours. The clearest paste was observed from cassava flour and starch as opposed to konjac starch which was the most opaque paste.

  9. Illicit Trafficking Challenges: Fighting the Good Fight Against Illicit Trafficking Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    2012 U.S. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL • CENTER ON CONTEMPORARY CONFLICT PASCC REPORT NUMBER 2012 012 ILLICIT TRAFFICKING CHALLENGES FIGHTING THE...GOOD FIGHT AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFICKING NETWORKS Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection... Trafficking Challenges: Fighting the Good Fight Against Illicit Trafficking Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. Structural properties of hydrolyzed high-amylose rice starch by α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengling; Man, Jianmin; Xu, Bin; Hu, Maozhi; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2011-12-14

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch (RS) content. Enzyme hydrolysis of native starch is very helpful in understanding the structure of starch granules and utilizing them. In this paper, native starch granules were isolated from a transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and RS and hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Structural properties of hydrolyzed TRS starches were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed faster than the B-type polymorph, but the crystallinity did not significantly change during enzyme hydrolysis. The degree of order in the external region of starch granule increased with increasing enzyme hydrolysis time. The amylose content decreased at first and then went back up during enzyme hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed starches exhibited increased onset and peak gelatinization temperatures and decreased gelatinization enthalpy on hydrolysis. These results suggested that the B-type polymorph and high amylose that formed the double helices and amylose-lipid complex increased the resistance to BAA hydrolysis. Furthermore, the spectrum results of RS from TRS native starch digested by pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase also supported the above conclusion.

  11. Characterisation, in vitro digestibility and expected glycemic index of commercial starches as uncooked ingredients.

    PubMed

    Romano, Annalisa; Mackie, Alan; Farina, Federica; Aponte, Maria; Sarghini, Fabrizio; Masi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this study native starches as ingredients (corn, rice, wheat, tapioca and potato) were characterized for microstructure, physicochemical, functional and thermal properties, in vitro digestibility and glycemic index. There was a significant variation in the granule shape and size distribution of the starches. Particle size monomodal (corn, tapioca, potato) and bimodal (rice, wheat) distribution was observed amongst the starches. The potato starch showed the biggest size granules while the rice showed the smallest. The examined properties and nutritional characteristics of starches were significantly different. Thermal properties were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). DSC results showed that the transition temperatures (58.8-78.7 °C) and enthalpies of gelatinization (2.3-8.2 J/g) of the starches appeared to be greatly influenced by microstructure and chemical composition (e.g. resistant starch). Nutritional properties such as slowly digestible starch and expected glycemic index values followed the order: rice > wheat > tapioca > corn > potato. In particular, the highest resistant starch was recorded for potato starch.

  12. [Hydroxyethyl starch solutions].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2005-01-01

    Hypovolemia is common among surgical, trauma, and intensive care unit patients. It can occur in the absence of obvious fluid loss secondary to vasodilatation or during generalized alterations of the endothelial barrier resulting in increased capillary permeability. Hydroxyethyl starch solutions are increasingly used for the volume replacement therapy. Hydroxyethyl starch solutions are synthetic colloids with the pharmacological properties that are the closest to natural colloids. Important characteristics for these products are molecular weight, their concentration, the degree of molar substitution, and the substitution pattern. In this review article a large variety of hydroxyethyl starch solutions, their physical and chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, the main route of elimination, mechanism of action, effect on blood plasma volume, safety, tolerability and side effects (the risk of adverse effects on hemostasis, platelet function, frequency of pruritus, anaphylactoid reaction, incidence of rise in serum amylase) are presented.

  13. Physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower. This suggests different biosynthetic properties between these two starches. The enthalpy changes of gelatinization of outer pericarp starches were high (∼21J/g). Rheological properties of outer pericarp starches were compared with normal maize and potato starches showed high yield stress of flow properties. This study revealed the unique properties of kiwifruit starch among various types of starches.

  14. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives.

  16. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  17. Starch biosynthesis: experiments on how starch granules grow in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mukerjea, Romila; Mukerjea, Rupendra; Robyt, John F

    2009-01-05

    Four varieties of starch granules from potato, wheat, maize, and rice were fractionated into homogeneous 10-microm-sized ranges. The size with the largest amount of granules was reacted with ADP-[(14)C]Glc, washed, and peeled into 7-9 layers, using a controlled peeling process, involving 90:10 volume proportions of Me(2)SO-H(2)O at 10 degrees C. All of the starches showed biosynthesis of starch throughout the granules. Starch synthase activities were determined for each of the layers. Three of the starches had a relatively large amount of synthase activity in the second layer, with only a small amount in the first layer. Potato starch had the largest amount of activity in the first layer. Starch synthase activity was found to alternate between higher and lower activities throughout all of the varieties of granules, showing that the synthesis was not uniform and also was not exclusively occurring at the surface of the starch granules, which had previously been hypothesized. From these results and our previous studies on the mechanism of starch chain elongation by the addition of d-glucose to the reducing end of a growing chain that is covalently attached to the active site of starch synthase, a hypothesis is proposed for how starch granules grow in vivo.

  18. Preparation and properties of thermoplastic poly(caprolactone) composites containing high amount of esterified starch without plasticizer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujie; Hu, Qiongen; Qian, Jiangtao; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Shi, Dongjian; Dong, Weifu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-03-30

    Based on stearyl chloride and native starch, esterified starch were prepared and the chemical structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR. It was found that stearyl chloride was an efficient agent to fabricate esterified starch with high degree of substitution (DS). During the melt blending of esterified starch (80 wt%) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL, 20 wt%), it was shown the torque of PCL/esterified starch was much lower than that of PCL/native starch without any plasticizer, and further decreased with increasing DS. Compared with PCL/native starch, the tensile properties of PCL/esterified starch composites were significantly enhanced. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased from 2.7 MPa to 56% for PCL/native starch composites to 9.1 MPa and 626% for PCL/esterified starch ones with DS of 1.50, respectively. SEM observation revealed the esterified starch particles in matrix became smaller and more uniform. In addition, the water resistance and hydrophobic character of PCL/esterified starch composites were improved. PCL composites containing 80 wt% esterified starch with favorable mechanical properties would have great potential applications in broad areas.

  19. Thermoplastic starch-waxy maize starch nanocrystals nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Angellier, Hélène; Molina-Boisseau, Sonia; Dole, Patrice; Dufresne, Alain

    2006-02-01

    Waxy maize starch nanocrystals obtained by hydrolysis of native granules were used as a reinforcing agent in a thermoplastic waxy maize starch matrix plasticized with glycerol. Compared to our previous studies on starch nanocrystals reinforced natural rubber (NR) [Macromolecules 2005, 38, 3783; 2005, 38, 9161], the present system presents two particularities: (i) thermoplastic starch is a polar matrix, contrarily to NR, and (ii) the chemical structures of the matrix and the filler are similar. The influence of the glycerol content, filler content, and aging on the reinforcing properties of waxy maize starch nanocrystals (tensile tests, DMA) and crystalline structure (X-ray diffraction) of materials were studied. It was shown that the reinforcing effect of starch nanocrystals can be attributed to strong filler/filler and filler/matrix interactions due to the establishment of hydrogen bonding. The presence of starch nanocrystals leads to a slowing down of the recrystallization of the matrix during aging in humid atmosphere.

  20. Comparison of physicochemical properties of B-type nontraditional starches from different sources.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Man, Jianmin; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Weidong; Huai, Huyin; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-01-01

    Starches were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, Canna edulis and Canna indica and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, and showed a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Their physicochemical properties were investigated and compared. These starches showed significantly different granule morphologies and sizes, but all had eccentric hila. The C. longa starch had the lowest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the highest content of amylopectin long branch-chain, and the L. lancifolium starch the highest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the lowest content of amylopectin long branch-chain among the four starches. The L. lancifolium starch had the lowest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the lowest pasting peak, hot and final viscosities, and the C. longa starch had the highest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the highest pasting hot, final and setback viscosities and the lowest pasting breakdown viscosity. The C. longa and L. lancifolium starches possessed very high and low resistance to hydrolysis and digestion, respectively. The above physicochemical properties would be useful for the applications of B-type starches in food and nonfood industries.

  1. Digestibility of starches isolated from stem and root tubers of arracacha, cassava, cush-cush yam, potato and taro.

    PubMed

    Lovera, Mighay; Pérez, Elevina; Laurentin, Alexander

    2017-11-15

    Digestibility of arracacha, cassava, cush-cush yam, potato and taro starches was evaluated. In vitro (potentially-available starch and total resistant starch) and in vivo digestibility in the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) bioassay (survival, weight variation, α-amylase like activity [ALA], and uric acid excretion [UAE] as biomarkers) were estimated. In in vitro assays, all starches presented high resistant starch content (14-56%, dry basis), except for cassava starch. In in vivo assays, cush-cush yam and potato starches promoted higher ALA (>3 times) and UAE (>4 times) compare to a reference diet (cornstarch), in agreement to their low digestibility. These two biomarkers were related with resistant starch (r>0.81) and could be used to predict the starch bioavailability. This study demonstrates that the use of both in vitro and in vivo assays allows a better evaluation of starch digestibility, and may help to elucidate the final metabolic fate of starch digestion products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance to moist conditions of whey protein isolate and pea starch biodegradable films and low density polyethylene nondegradable films: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehyar, G. F.; Bawab, A. Al

    2015-10-01

    Biodegradable packaging materials are degraded under the natural environmental conditions. Therefore using them could alleviate the problem of plastics accumulation in nature. For effective replacement of plastics, with biodegradable materials, biodegradable packages should keep their properties under the high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Therefore the objectives of the study were to develop biodegradable packaging material based on whey protein isolate (WPI) and pea starch (PS). To study their mechanical, oxygen barrier and solubility properties under different RHs compared with those of low density polyethylene (LDPE), the most used plastic in packaging. Films of WPI and PS were prepared separately and conditioned at different RH (30-90%) then their properties were studied. At low RHs (<50%), WPI films had 2-3 times lower elongation at break (E or stretchability) than PS and LDPE. Increasing RH to 90% significantly (P<0.01) increased the elongation of PS but not WPI and LDPE films. LDPE and WPI films kept significantly (P<0.01) higher tensile strength (TS) than PS films at high RH (90%). Oxygen permeability (OP) of all films was very low (<0.5 cm3 μm m-2 d-1 kPa-1) below 40% RH but increased for PS films and became significantly (P<0.01) different than that of LDPE and WPI at > 40% RH. Oxygen permeability of WPI and LDPE did not adversely affected by increasing RH to 65%. Furthermore, WPI and LDPE films had lower degree of hydration at 50% and 90% RH and total soluble matter than PS films. These results suggest that WPI could be successfully replacing LDPE in packaging of moist products.

  3. Thermoplastic starch-nanohybrid films with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pardo, I; Shanks, Robert A; Adhikari, Benu; Adhikari, Raju

    2017-10-01

    Thermoplastic starch forms packaging films that have low gas permeability, but they are more permeable to water vapour and they are attacked by water. Our approach was to create surface and internal localised hydrophobicity using added reactive nano-materials to form nano-silica hybrids with emphasis on enhancing surface water resistance. Functionalization was via epoxy-POS, that were further linked to hydrophobic erucamide or an amphiphilic poly(oxyethylene-co-oxypropylene) mono-amine. High amylose thermoplastic starch was combined with mono-functionalised hepta-isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POS). POS modified thermoplastic starch increased water resistance of TPS film. Wettability kinetics was a function of two distinct mechanisms each with independent linear behaviour. Surface water resistance increased and is proposed to be due to preferential location of the POS derivatives at the surface with associated increase of hydrophobicity due a surface change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of heat-moisture and annealing treatments on physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches from different colored sweet potato varieties.

    PubMed

    Trung, Phan Thanh Bao; Ngoc, Luu Bui Bao; Hoa, Phan Ngoc; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh; Hung, Pham Van

    2017-07-21

    The objective of this study is to investigate the change in physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches isolated from colored sweet potato varieties under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) or annealing treatment (ANN). The results showed that morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sweet potato starches remained unchanged after the HMT or ANN. The HMT significantly reduced peak viscosity, breakdown and setback and significantly increased pasting temperature, trough and final viscosities of the sweet potato starches. The swelling powers and solubility of the heat-moisture treated starches were significantly lower than those of the native or annealed starches. The decreased rapid digestible starch and the increased slowly digestible and resistant starch contents of the sweet potato starches after HMT or ANN as compared to those of the native starches were observed. The resistant starch (RS) contents of the heat-moisture treated sweet potato starches were in a range of 30.6-39.3%, significantly higher than those of the annealed starches (28.8-32.0%). The strong impact of the HMT on physicochemical properties and RS formation of the sweet potato starches compared to the ANN might be due to the high stability of the occurred interactions between starch molecules and amylopectin chains during treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of starch from potatoes differing in glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Lin Ek, Kai; Wang, Shujun; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Copeland, Les

    2014-10-01

    Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p < 0.05) pasting temperature and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) gelatinization onset, peak and conclusion temperatures, compared to the other cultivars. Differences between the potatoes in the other properties measured did not align with the GI ranking. Thermal analysis and starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI.

  6. A new fructose-free, resistant-starch type IV-enriched enteral formula improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk biomarkers when administered for six weeks to elderly diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mesa García, María Dolores; García-Rodríguez, Cruz Erika; Rico, María de la Cruz; Aguilera, Concepción María; Pérez-Rodríguez, Milagros; Pérez-de-la-Cruz, Antonio Jesús; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Reducing the dietary glycaemic response has been proposed as a way to reduce the risk of diabetes complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in fragile, elderly type 2 diabetes patients after the intake of a new fructose-free diabetes-specific formula enriched with resistant-starch type IV and high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Forty-one type 2 diabetes patients aged 78.9 ± 2.8 years were fed exclusively with an enteral diabetes-specific formula for 6 weeks. Data were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks of feeding. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers were measured to evaluated the course of diabetes complications. Blood glycated haemoglobin significantly decreased after the intervention (6.1 ± 0.1 vs. 5.8 ± 0.1 %; p< 0,045), as well as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and soluble E-selectin (p < 0.05), while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 tended to decrease from baseline to 6 weeks (p = 0.084 and p = 0.05, respectively). The new product improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk without altering lipid metabolism, which is useful for the prevention of diabetic complications. Longer intervention studies are needed in order to validate these results in a larger population.

  7. Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato.

    PubMed

    Jansky, Shelley H; Fajardo, Diego A

    2014-11-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers at low storage temperatures. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Our study evaluated the relationship between genetic resistance to CIS and two starch parameters, amylose content and starch granule size. We found that the amylose content in four CIS-resistant varieties was higher than that in five susceptible varieties. Amylose content was influenced not only by variety but also storage, production year, and field location. However, interactions between amylose content and environmental variables were not detected. In contrast, starch granule size was not associated with CIS resistance. No effect of storage on starch granule size was detected, and interactions among variety, production year, and field location were observed. Tuber starch amylose content should be considered a source of variability for CIS.

  8. Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato

    PubMed Central

    Jansky, Shelley H; Fajardo, Diego A

    2014-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers at low storage temperatures. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Our study evaluated the relationship between genetic resistance to CIS and two starch parameters, amylose content and starch granule size. We found that the amylose content in four CIS-resistant varieties was higher than that in five susceptible varieties. Amylose content was influenced not only by variety but also storage, production year, and field location. However, interactions between amylose content and environmental variables were not detected. In contrast, starch granule size was not associated with CIS resistance. No effect of storage on starch granule size was detected, and interactions among variety, production year, and field location were observed. Tuber starch amylose content should be considered a source of variability for CIS. PMID:25493178

  9. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  10. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  11. Characterization of Arenga starch in comparison with sago starch.

    PubMed

    Adawiyah, Dede R; Sasaki, Tomoko; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this research was to characterize the composition and physical properties of palm starch obtained from Arenga pinnata in comparison with another palm starch from Metroxylon sago. The amylose contents of both starches were not significantly different. Peak gelatinization temperature was also similar at approximately 67 °C, but arenga starch showed a narrower range of gelatinization temperature than sago. The crystallinity and swelling power capacity of arenga starch were lower than those of sago. Arenga and sago starch paste at low concentrations showed shear thinning behavior, and sago formed a more viscous sol/paste than arenga. The sol-gel transition concentration of sago starch paste was found at a lower concentration than arenga starch. At high concentrations, gel from arenga starch was more rigid than that of sago. The breaking properties and texture profile of both starch gels were also clearly different, suggesting that they are suited for different applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resistant Starch and Starch-Derived Oligosaccharides as Prebiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam-Perrot, A.; Gutton, L.; Sanders, L.; Bouvier, S.; Combe, C.; van den Abbeele, R.; Potter, S.; Einerhand, A. W. C.

    Dietary fiber has long been recommended as part of a healthy diet based on the observations made by Burkitt and Trowell (1975). Since then, epidemiological evidence has consistently shown that populations consuming higher levels of foods containing fiber have decreased risk of a variety of chronic health disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers. Average fiber intake in the United States is approximately 13 g/day for women and 18 g/day for men (National Academy of Sciences, 2006). The FDA recommends a minimum of 20-35 g/day for a healthy adult depending on calorific intake. In many EU countries including France, Germany and the UK (see Figure 9.1 ), fiber intakes are much lower than authorities recommend for men and women (Buttriss and Stokes, 2008; Gray, 2006). Thus, there is a need to increase fiber consumption and many newly isolated or developed fibers can easily be added to beverages and processed foods. The reasons for such low compliance is somewhat complex, however the most basic rationale for not consuming fiber-rich foods is perceived bad taste and mouthfeel and the availability of conventional food items containing fiber.

  13. Nutritionally-important starch fractions of rice cultivars grown in southern United States.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary starches can be classified into three major fractions, according to in vitro digestibility: rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS). Literature indicates that SDS and/or RS have significant implications on human health, particularly, glucose metabolism, ...

  14. Power of shell-rapping signals influences physiological costs and subsequent decisions during hermit crab fights.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Elwood, Robert W

    2002-11-22

    Understanding the costs of signals used in fights is the key to understanding decisions made by contestants. Hermit crabs use shell rapping. This is a clearly defined agonistic signal, which can be quantified in temporal terms and in the power of the key shell-rapping signal component. We examine the relationship between the power expended by attacking hermit crabs and their consequent lactate levels. High power expenditure over the whole fight leads to high lactate, and attackers give up when lactate is high. Some defenders give up early in fights, particularly if the power of raps in early bouts they receive is high. These defenders and those not allowed to fight have low glucose, but those that successfully resist eviction have high glucose. Glucose is mobilized in an attempt to resist; nevertheless, some defenders that attempt resistance are still evicted by persistent attackers. Thus, early power of the signal is a major determinant of success for attackers, albeit at a cost. These data show the link between power, repetition of a signal, metabolic consequences and decisions of contestants in fights. The different activities, decisions and costs of the two roles are not adequately described by existing models of contests.

  15. Processing effects on susceptibility of starch to digestion in some dietary starch sources.

    PubMed

    Niba, Lorraine L

    2003-01-01

    Maize flour, potato flour, cocoyam flour, plantain flour, yam flour, and rice flour were assayed for starch digestibility by an established enzymatic procedure. These were either autoclaved, microwaved, or parboiled and then freeze-dried. Freeze-dried samples were stored for 10 days either below freezing or at ambient temperature. Parameters assessed were readily digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and total starch (TS). Data was analyzed by t-test (P < or = 0.05). RDS levels among raw flours ranged from 1.01 g/100g in rice flour to 8.16 g/100 g in cocoyam flour. Autoclaving and parboiling increased RDS levels in most flours, while microwaving significantly reduced RDS compared with raw flour. Ambient temperature storage reduced the RDS content. SDS levels ranged from 4.95 g/100 g in yam flour to 22.2 g/100 g in maize flour. SDS levels were increased by autoclaving and parboling, but significantly reduced by microwaving, compared with the raw flour. Storage at ambient temperature resulted in lower SDS. The TS content in raw flour ranged from 28.0 g/100 g in plantain flour to 68.4 g/100 g in rice flour. Autoclaving resulted in reduced TS levels insome flours. Moist heat processing and the post-process storage temperature therefore result in significant changes in starch susceptibility to enzymic digestion. This information will be useful in developing food processing and storage procedures that modify starch resistance to digestion in order to optimize its nutritional quality and to enhance the physiological benefits.

  16. Impact of germination on the structures and in vitro digestibility of starch from waxy brown rice.

    PubMed

    You, Su-Yeon; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Han, Hye Min; Jun, Wujin; Hong, Young-Shick; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro digestibility as well as the molecular and crystalline structures of waxy rice starches isolated from brown rice, germinated brown rice (GBR), ultrasonicated GBR, and heat-moisture treated GBR were investigated. The germinated brown rice starch (GBRS) had a lower average molecular weight and a higher proportion of DP 6-12 in amylopectin than brown rice starch (BRS). The relative crystallinity, intensity ratio of the band at 1,047 cm(-1) and 1,022 cm(-1), gelatinization temperature and pasting temperature of waxy rice starch were reduced by germination. However, the ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS increased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. The digestibility of starch from brown waxy rice was increased by germination. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents were 50.5%, 42.4%, and 7.1% in BRS, and 69.0%, 27.9% and 3.1% in GBRS, respectively. The ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS reduced RDS content and increased RS content in raw and gelatinized starches. The decrease in starch digestibility of cooked GBR was more pronounced after heat-moisture treatment than after ultrasonication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA.

  18. Preparation of crystalline starch nanoparticles using cold acid hydrolysis and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Dong June; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-10-15

    Waxy maize starch in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution (3.16 M, 14.7% solids) was hydrolyzed for 2-6 days, either isothermally at 40 °C or 4 °C, or at cycled temperatures of 4 and 40 °C (1 day each). The starch hydrolyzates were recovered as precipitates after centrifuging the dispersion (10,000 rpm, 10 min). The yield of starch hydrolyzates depended on the hydrolysis temperature and time, which varied from 6.8% to 78%. The starch hydrolyzed at 40 °C or 4/40 °C exhibited increased crystallinity determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, but melted in broader temperature range (from 60 °C to 110 °C). However, the starch hydrolyzed at 4 °C displayed the crystallinity and melting endotherm similar to those of native starch. The starch hydrolyzates recovered by centrifugation were re-dispersed in water (15% solids), and the dispersion was treated by an ultrasonic treatment (60% amplitude, 3min). The ultrasonication effectively fragmented the starch hydrolyzates to nanoparticles. The hydrolyzates obtained after 6 days of hydrolysis were more resistant to the ultrasonication than those after 2 or 4 days, regardless of hydrolysis temperatures. The starch nanoparticles could be prepared with high yield (78%) and crystallinity by 4 °C hydrolysis for 6 days followed by ultrasonication. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the starch nanoparticles had globular shapes with diameters ranging from 50 to 90 nm.

  19. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  20. Understanding and influencing starch biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kossmann, J; Lloyd, J

    2000-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important products synthesized by plants that is used in industrial processes. If it were possible to increase production or modify starches in vivo, using combinations or either genetically altered or mutant plants, it may make them cheaper for use by industry, or open up new markets for the modified starches. The conversion of sucrose to starch in storage organs is, therefore, discussed. In particular the roles of the different enzymes directly involved in synthesizing the starch molecules on altering starch structure are reviewed, as well as the different models for the production of the fine structure of amylopectin. In addition, the process of starch phosphorylation, which is also important in determining the physical properties of starches, is reviewed. It is hoped that detailed knowledge of these processes will lead to the rational design of tailored starches. Starch degradation is also an important process, for example, in the cold-sweetening of potato tubers, but outside of cereal endosperm little is known about the processes involved. The enzymes thought to be involved and the evidence for this are discussed.

  1. Starch biosynthesis in cereal endosperm.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ryoo, Nayeon; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Walia, Harkamal; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2010-06-01

    Stored starch generally consists of two d-glucose homopolymers, the linear polymer amylose and a highly branched glucan amylopectin that connects linear chains. Amylopectin structurally contributes to the crystalline organization of the starch granule in cereals. In the endosperm, amylopectin biosynthesis requires the proper execution of a coordinated series of enzymatic reactions involving ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthase (SS), starch branching enzyme (BE), and starch debranching enzyme (DBE), whereas amylose is synthesized by AGPase and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). It is highly possible that plastidial starch phosphorylase (Pho1) plays an important role in the formation of primers for starch biosynthesis in the endosperm. Recent advances in our understanding of the functions of individual enzyme isoforms have provided new insights into how linear polymer chains and branch linkages are synthesized in cereals. In particular, genetic analyses of a suite of mutants have formed the basis of a new model outlining the role of various enzyme isoforms in cereal starch production. In our current review, we summarize the recent research findings related to starch biosynthesis in cereal endosperm, with a particular focus on rice.

  2. Fire Fighting from High Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent; Ambrosia, Vince

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on high altitude fire fighting is shown. The topics include: 1) Yellowstone Fire - 1988; 2) 2006 Western States Fire Mission Over-View; 3) AMS-Wildfire Scanner; 4) October 24-25 Mission: Yosemite NP and NF; 5) October 24-25 Mission MODIS Overpass; 6) October 24-25 Mission Highlights; 7) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire, California; 8) Response to the Esperanza Fire in Southern California -- Timeline Oct 27-29 2006; 9) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Flight Routing; 10) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Over-Flights; 11) October 28-29 Mission Highlights; 12) Results from the Esperanza Fire Response; 13) 2007 Western States Fire Mission; and 14) Western States UAS Fire Mission 2007

  3. Ants medicate to fight disease.

    PubMed

    Bos, Nick; Sundström, Liselotte; Fuchs, Siiri; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-11-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit, or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (reactive oxygen species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful to healthy ants, leads to higher survival of exposed ants. The fact that ingestion of this substance carries a fitness cost in the absence of pathogens rules out compensatory diet choice as the mechanism, and provides evidence that social insects medicate themselves against fungal infection, using a substance that carries a fitness cost to uninfected individuals.

  4. Water sorption behavior and swelling characteristics of starches subjected to dielectric heating.

    PubMed

    Szepes, Anikó; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mohnicke, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of microwave irradiation and storage on the moisture content, adsorption behavior and swelling properties of potato (B-type) and maize starches (A-type). Volumetric heating resulted in reversible moisture loss from both types of samples. The crystallinity of potato starch was decreased, whereas its water retention capacity and swelling power were increased irreversibly, and its swelling capacity was increased reversibly by the thermal process applied. The corresponding parameters of maize starch were not influenced significantly by dielectric heating; this may be related to its special structure resulting in the thermal resistance of this polymer. Our results allow the conclusion that microwave irradiation offers an appropriate and selective alternative for the physicochemical modification of potato starch. In consequence of its low susceptibility to thermal processes, maize starch may be used for the microwave drying of pharmaceutical formulations containing starch.

  5. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  6. Comparison of pasting and gel stabilities of waxy and normal starches from potato, maize, and rice with those of a novel waxy cassava starch under thermal, chemical, and mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Teresa; Dufour, Dominique; Moreno, Isabel Ximena; Ceballos, Hernán

    2010-04-28

    Functional properties of normal and waxy starches from maize, rice, potato, and cassava as well as the modified waxy maize starch COLFLO 67 were compared. The main objective of this study is to position the recently discovered spontaneous mutation for amylose-free cassava starch in relation to the other starches with well-known characteristics. Paste clarity, wavelength of maximum absorption (lambda(max)), pasting properties, swelling power, solubility, and dispersed volume fraction measurements and gel stability (acid and alkaline resistance, shear, refrigeration, and freeze/thaw stability) were evaluated in the different types and sources of starch included in this study. lambda(max) in the waxy cassava starch was reduced considerably in comparison with that of normal cassava starch (535 vs 592 nm). RVA peak viscosity of waxy cassava starch was larger than in normal cassava starch (1119 vs 937 cP) and assumed a position intermediate between the waxy potato and maize starches. Acid, alkaline, and shear stability of waxy cassava starch were similar to normal cassava except for alkaline pH, at which it showed a low effect. Gels from normal root and tuber starches after refrigeration and freeze/thaw had lower syneresis than cereal starches. Gels from waxy starches (except for potato) did not present any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. Waxy cassava starch was the only one not showing any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at -20 degrees C. Natural waxy cassava starch is, therefore, a promising ingredient to formulate refrigerated or frozen food.

  7. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch.

  8. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  9. Effect of preparation method on the properties of potato starch acetates with an equal degree of substitution.

    PubMed

    Zięba, T; Kapelko, M; Szumny, A

    2013-04-15

    Acetylated retrograded starch is one of the forms of resistant starch (RS3/4). Apart from the known resistance to amylolysis, it is characterized by the capability to form viscous pastes. Properties of this type of acetates are mainly determined by the degree of substitution and raw material used for esterification. The objective of this study was to produce starch acetates with a degree of substitution DS=0.1 from native potato starch and retrograded potato starch, and to compare selected properties of the resultant preparations. Retrograded starch was produced by freezing pastes with concentrations of 1, 4, 10, 18 or 30 g/100 g. Starch acetates with a degree of substitution DS∼0.1 were produced from native or retrograded starch through acetylation with various doses of acetic acid anhydride (6.5-26.0 cm(3)/100 g of starch). The preparations produced were characterized by various properties. A positive correlation was observed between resistance to amylolysis and the number of acetyl groups at C2 and C3 the produced starch acetates.

  10. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. STARCH HYDROLYSIS BY STREPTOCOCCUS EQUINUS

    PubMed Central

    Dunican, Lawrence K.; Seeley, Harry W.

    1962-01-01

    Dunican, Lawrence K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and Harry W. Seeley. Starch hydrolysis by Streptococcus equinus. J. Bacteriol. 82:264–269. 1962.—In a study of starch hydrolysis by strains of Streptococcus equinus, 52 isolates were obtained and their amylolytic abilities determined. It was found that all the strains could hydrolyze starch to some extent when grown in the presence of an easily fermentable carbohydrate, viz., glucose. Without this carbohydrate the organisms did not hydrolyze starch. The hydrolysis of starch was inhibited when the organisms were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% N2, even if grown in the presence of a fermentable monosaccharide. S. bovis, which was used as a reference organism, readily hydrolyzed starch in the absence of monosaccharides and in atmospheres containing CO2. In no instance did S. equinus hydrolyze the starch to the level of reducing sugars. Negligible amounts of reducing sugars were recovered when the cell-free filtrates of S. equinus were incubated with starch. With S. bovis, the yield of reducing sugars under such conditions was almost quantitative. These facts extend further the differences between these related organisms. The ability to synthesize an internal starchlike polysaccharide was noted in most of the strains of S. equinus. Synthesis was found when the organisms were grown on maltose or on a starch medium containing a small amount of fermentable monosaccharide. PMID:13888473

  12. The effect of fight cost structure on fighting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Broom, Mark; Johanis, Michal; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-10-01

    A common feature of animal populations is the stealing by animals of resources such as food from other animals. This has previously been the subject of a range of modelling approaches, one of which is the so called "producer-scrounger" model. In this model a producer finds a resource that takes some time to be consumed, and some time later a (generally) conspecific scrounger discovers the producer with its resource and potentially attempts to steal it. In this paper we consider a variant of this scenario where each individual can choose to invest an amount of energy into this contest, and the level of investment of each individual determines the probability of it winning the contest, but also the additional cost it has to bear. We analyse the model for a specific set of cost functions and maximum investment levels and show how the evolutionarily stable behaviour depends upon them. In particular we see that for high levels of maximum investment, the producer keeps the resource without a fight for concave cost functions, but for convex functions the scrounger obtains the resource (albeit at some cost).

  13. Prebiotics to fight diseases: reality or fiction?

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, F; Startek, J B; Van den Ende, W

    2013-10-01

    Bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract are crucial for human health and disease occurrence. Increasing the beneficial intestinal microflora by consumption of prebiotics, which are 'functional foods', could be an elegant way to limit the number and incidence of disorders and to recover from dysbiosis or antibiotic treatments. This review focuses on the short-chain low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) which are metabolized by gut microbiota serving as energy source, immune system enhancers or facilitators of mineral uptake. Intake of foods containing LDCs can improve the state of health and may prevent diseases as for example certain forms of cancer. Given the large number of different molecules belonging to LDCs, we focused our attention on fructans (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides), galacto-oligosaccharides and resistant starches and their therapeutic and protective applications. Evidence is accumulating that LDCs can inhibit bacterial and viral infections by modulating host defense responses and by changing the interactions between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Animal studies and studies on small groups of human subjects suggest that LDCs might help to counteract colorectal cancer, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The action mechanisms of LDCs in the human body might be broader than originally thought, perhaps also including reactive oxygen species scavenging and signaling events.

  14. Toughening polylactide with polyether-block-amide and thermoplastic starch acetate: Influence of starch esterification degree.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linyao; Zhao, Guiyan; Feng, Yulin; Yin, Jinghua; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Native corn starch was esterified with acetic anhydride and plasticized with glycerol to give the thermoplastic starch acetate (TPSA). TPSA was blended with polylactide (PLA) and polyether-block-amide-graft-glycidyl methacrylate (PEBA-g-GMA) to obtain biodegradable PLA/PEBA-g-GMA/TPSA blends with high notched impact resistance and low cost. Compared with PLA/PEBA-g-GMA blends, as much as 9 wt% expensive PEBA-g-GMA elastomer could be substituted by the slightly acetylated thermoplastic starch while retaining high impact strength. The mechanical properties depended on the esterification degree of starch acetate. The impact strength, tensile strength and elongation at break increased to the peak value with increasing the esterification degree from 0 to 0.04, thereafter they decreased on further increasing the esterification degree. The morphological results showed that the TPSA particles were smaller and more uniform at the optimum esterification degree of 0.04, leading to the peak value of the mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A possible structure of retrograded maize starch speculated by UV and IR spectra of it and its components.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Luo, Qingfeng; Wang, Chen; Liu, Xueyan

    2012-01-01

    "Retrogradation" has been used to describe the changes that occur in starch after gelatinization, from an initially amorphous state to a more ordered or crystalline state, which has a significant impact on starch application in food, textiles and materials fields. But mechanism of starch retrogradation is still unclear until now and there is no breakthrough in this area. Here we are speculating a possible structure of retrograded maize starch by UV (binding with iodine) and IR spectra of it and its compositions. We speculate that nucleation of retrograded starch origins from combination of reducing end of amylopectin and non-reducing end of amylose, and retrogradation terminates at combining of non-reducing end of amylopectin and reducing end of amylose. The chain length of resistant digestion retrograded starch should be nearly same. The hydroxyl associated with sixth carbon atoms of glucan must form hydrogen bond with other hydroxyl of starch.

  16. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials ... 25, 2017 THURSDAY, May 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol ...

  17. When Your Parents Fight (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... a job or other worries. continue How Do Kids Feel When Their Parents Fight? Kids usually feel ...

  18. Fighting detection using interaction energy force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wateosot, Chonthisa; Suvonvorn, Nikom

    2017-02-01

    Fighting detection is an important issue in security aimed to prevent criminal or undesirable events in public places. Many researches on computer vision techniques have studied to detect the specific event in crowded scenes. In this paper we focus on fighting detection using social-based Interaction Energy Force (IEF). The method uses low level features without object extraction and tracking. The interaction force is modeled using the magnitude and direction of optical flows. A fighting factor is developed under this model to detect fighting events using thresholding method. An energy map of interaction force is also presented to identify the corresponding events. The evaluation is performed using NUSHGA and BEHAVE datasets. The results show the efficiency with high accuracy regardless of various conditions.

  19. It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It’s War Out There: Fighting for life with xenobiotic degrading enzymes Beta-lactamase enzymes are well studied because of their tremendous impact on medicine. Their prominent role is in resistance to beta-lactam (four membered lactam ring) antibiotics including the first and most famous fungally d...

  20. Yemen’s Fight Against Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT YEMEN’S FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM by COL Mohamed H. Al-Bukaiti Yemen Army Dr Larry Goodson Project Advisor The views...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Yemen’s Fight Against Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  1. Classical Theories and the Will to Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Freudian or Jungian theories will be avoided. The most important psychological considerations are those observed in combat conditions. The...CLASSICAL THEORIES OF THE WILL TO FIGHT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial Fulfillment...PAGE Name of Candidate: Major Kurt P. VanderSteen Thesis Title: Classical Theories and the Will to Fight Approved by

  2. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetanhydride and azelaic acid/acetanhydride mixtures. II. Chemical and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Durđica; Subarić, Drago; Babić, Jurislav; Miličević, Borislav; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetanhydride and azelaic acid/acetanhydride mixtures on chemical and physical properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetanhydride and azelaic acid and acetanhydride in 4, 6 and 8% (w/w). Total starch content, resistant starch content, degree of modification, changes in FT-IR spectra, colour, gel texture and freeze-thaw stability were determined. Results showed that resistant starch content increased by both investigated modifications, and degree of modification increased proportionally to amount of reagents used. FT-IR analysis of modified starches showed peak around 1,740 cm(-1), characteristic for carbonyl group of ester. Total colour difference caused by modifications was detectable by trained people. Adhesiveness significantly increased, while freeze-thaw stability decreased by both investigated modifications.

  3. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPRESSION MOLDED STARCH AND PROTEIN BLENDS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One result of the rising costs of petroleum-derived plastic resins is increasing demand for biodegradable products. The main problem with using agriculture-derived biodegradable materials, based on blends of protein and starch, is their limited physical properties; such as, poor stress resistance, ...

  4. Preparation, structure, and digestibility of crystalline A- and B-type aggregates from debranched waxy starches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-05-25

    Highly crystalline A- and B-type aggregates were prepared from short linear α-1,4 glucans generated from completely debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches by manipulating the chain length and crystallization conditions including starch solids concentration and crystallization temperature. The A-type crystalline products were more resistant to enzyme digestion than the B-type crystalline products, and the digestibility of the A- and B-type allomorphs was not correlated with the size of the aggregates formed. Annealing increased the peak melting temperature of the B-type crystallites, making it similar to that of the A-type crystallites, but did not improve the enzyme resistance of the B-type crystalline products. The possible reason for these results was due to the compact morphology as well as the denser packing pattern of double helices in A-type crystallites. Our observations counter the fact that most B-type native starches are more enzyme-resistant than A-type native starches. Crystalline type per se does not seem to be the key factor that controls the digestibility of native starch granules; the resistance of native starches with a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern is probably attributed to the other structural features in starch granules.

  5. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Potato starch oxidation induced by sodium hypochlorite and its effect on functional properties and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengchao; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Qian; Kong, Baohua

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (active chlorine content at 0.1, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/100 g) on the properties of potato starch (PS) were investigated by determining the morphological, physicochemical, crystallinity, pasting, gel texture and digestive properties. The starch granules of PS oxidized with high oxidant concentrations caused cracks and pores, and oxidation mainly acts on the amorphous regions of the starch granules. As the sodium hypochlorite concentration increases, the carbonyl content, carboxyl content, solubility, and pasting temperature of PS increased, as measured using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The swelling power, breakdown, setback, and peak and final viscosities decreased according to the RVA (P<0.05). The gel strength increased under low-intensity oxidative treatments and decreased under high-intensity oxidative treatments. Oxidative treatment decreased the digestibility of gelatinized potato starch. The slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents increased significantly, while the rapidly digestible starch content decreased after the oxidation modification (P<0.05). Overall, PS oxidation with sodium hypochlorite improved the functional characteristics of starch and decreased starch digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and properties of Starch-g-PLA/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yingmo; Wang, Qingling; Tang, Mingru

    2013-07-25

    Starch/lactic acid graft copolymer (Starch-g-PLA) was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of starch grafted with lactic acid catalyzed with sodium hydroxide, and then mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to get composite films. The structures of the graft copolymer and composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability were also investigated. It was found that the compatibility of Starch-g-PLA and PVA was better than that of starch and PVA in the composite films. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the Starch-g-PLA/PVA composite film increased by 69.15% and 84.22%, respectively, while the water absorption decreased by 50.39%, which overcame the shortcomings of hydrophilicity and poor mechanical properties of Starch/PVA film. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also showed that the thermal stability of Starch-g-PLA/PVA film was improved compared with Starch/PVA film. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on acetylated starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Biduski, Bárbara; Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapor permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) loose-fill foam: preparation, properties and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Gordon, S H; Imam, S H

    2004-01-01

    Starch graft poly(methyl acrylate) (S-g-PMA) was prepared by ceric ion initiation of methyl acrylate in an aqueous corn starch slurry (prime starch) which maximized the accessibility of the starch for graft polymerization. A new ceric ion reaction sequence was established as starch-initiator-methyl acrylate followed by addition of a small amount of ceric ion solution when the graft polymerization was almost complete to quench the reaction. As a result of this improved procedure, no unreacted methyl acrylate monomer remained, and thus, essentially no ungrafted poly(methyl acrylate) homopolymer was formed in the final grafted product. Quantities of the high purity S-g-PMA so prepared in pilot scale were converted to resin pellets and loose-fill foam by single screw and twin screw extrusion. The use of prime starch significantly improved the physical properties of the final loose-fill foam, in comparison to foam produced from regular dry corn starch. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam had compressive strength and resiliency comparable to expanded polystyrene but higher bulk density. The S-g-PMA loose-fill foam also had better moisture and water resistance than other competitive starch-based materials. Studies indicated that the starch portion in S-g-PMA loose-fill foam biodegraded rapidly, whereas poly(methyl acrylate) remained relatively stable under natural environmental conditions.

  10. Starch-filled polymer composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report describes the development of degradable polymer composites that can be made at room temperature without special equipments. The developed composites are made from ethyl cyanoacrylate and starch. The polymer composites produced by this procedure contain 60 wt% of starch with compressive s...

  11. Responsive starch-based materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch, a low-cost, annually renewable resource, is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starch’s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (e.g. humidity). For example, starch-based graf...

  12. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.

  13. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  14. Characterization of potato leaf starch.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Stalin; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-07

    The starch accumulation-degradation process as well as the structure of leaf starch are not completely understood. To study this, starch was isolated from potato leaves collected in the early morning and late afternoon in July and August, representing different starch accumulation rates. The starch content of potato leaves varied between 2.9 and 12.9% (dry matter basis) over the night and day in the middle of July and between 0.6 and 1.5% in August. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the four isolated starch samples showed that the granules had either an oval or a round shape and did not exceed 5 microm in size. Starch was extracted by successive washing steps with dimethyl sulfoxide and precipitated with ethanol. An elution profile on Sepharose CL-6B of debranched starch showed the presence of a material with a chain length distribution between that generally found for amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin unit chains of low molecular size were present in a higher amount in the afternoon than in the morning samples. What remains at the end of the night is depleted in specific chain lengths, mainly between DP 15 and 24 and above DP 35, relative to the end of the day.

  15. Brucite nanoplate reinforced starch bionanocomposites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper the mechanical reinforcement in a series of bionanocomposites films based on starch and nano-sized brucite, Mg(OH)2, was investigated. Brucite nanoplates with an aspect ratio of 9.25 were synthesized by wet precipitation and incorporated into starch matrices at different concentrations...

  16. Effect of acid hydrolysis on morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchi; Wen, Fanting; Zhang, Shurong; Shen, Ruru; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effect of acid hydrolysis on the morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was investigated in this study. The hydrolysis degree of C. auriculatum starch rapidly increased to 63.69% after 4days and reached 78.67% at the end of 9days. Morphology observation showed that the starch granules remained intact during the first 4days of hydrolysis. However, serious erosion phenomenon was observed after 5days and starch granules completely fell into pieces after 7days. During acid hydrolysis process, the crystal type of hydrolyzed starch changed from original CB-type to final A-type. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns showed the semi-crystalline growth rings started to be hydrolyzed after 4days. The proportions of single helix and amorphous components as well as amylose content in starch gradually decreased, whereas the proportion of double helix components continuously increased during acid hydrolysis. However, the contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were almost constant during acid hydrolysis process, indicating the in vitro digestion property of C. auriculatum starch was not affected by acid hydrolysis. Our results provided novel information on the inner structure of C. auriculatum starch granules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of amylosucrase modification on the structural and physicochemical properties of native and acid-thinned waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Xing; He, Jian; Wang, Tao; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and Effect of Gamma Radiation on The Properties and Biodegradability of Poly(Styrene/Starch) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. E.; Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable blends based on Poly(styrene/starch) Poly(Sty/Starch) were prepared by the casting method using different contents of starch in the range of 0-20 wt% aiming at preparing disposable packaging materials. The prepared bio-blends were Characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), swelling behavior, mechanical properties, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the swelling behavior slightly increased with increasing starch content and not exceeding 7.5%. The results showed that by increasing irradiation dose up to 5 kGy, the mechanical properties of the prepared PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film modified than other blend films, and hence it is selected. Also the water resistant increased, by irradiation of the selected PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between Starch and PSty of the PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film promote a more homogenous blend film as shown in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared Poly(Sty/Starch) blends with different compositions and the selected irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch blend were subjected to biodegradation in soil burial tests for 6 months using two different types of soils; agricultural and desert soils, then analyzed gravimetrically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggested that there is a possibility of using irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch at a dose of 5 kGy as a potential candidate for packaging material.

  19. Impact of amylose content on starch physicochemical properties in transgenic sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenzhi; Yang, Jun; Hong, Yan; Liu, Guiling; Zheng, Jianli; Gu, Zhengbiao; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-20

    The intrinsic relationship between amylose content and starch physicochemical properties was studied using six representative starch samples (amylose content 0-65%) produced from transgenic sweet potato (cultivar Xushu22). The transgenic lines (waxy and high-amylose) and wild-type (WT) sweet potatoes were analyzed for amylose content, particle size and chain length distribution, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermal characteristics, pasting and rheological property. Compared to the WT starch, the waxy and high-amylose starches showed larger average granule sizes and had fewer short chains and more medium and long chains. X-ray diffractogram analysis revealed that high-amylose starches show a type-B crystal form with a markedly decreased degree of crystallinity in contrast to the type-A crystal form of the WT and waxy starches. In the high-amylose sweet potato starches, the rise of setback value and the reduction of breakdown value led to the high shear resistance as indicated by the higher G', G", and tanδ from the oscillation test. ΔH was not found to be decreased with the reduction of crystallinity. The shear stress resistance of starch gel after gelatinization was also enhanced as amylose content increased. Principal component analysis also confirmed that the amylose content greatly influenced the starch structure and properties, e.g., storage modulus, setback value, and average chain length. Thus, our study not only shed light on how amylose content affects starch properties but also identified novel starches that are available for various applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical and digestibility properties of double-modified banana ( Musa paradisiaca L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Carlos-Amaya, Fandila; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2011-02-23

    Banana starch was chemically modified using single (esterification or cross-linking) and dual modification (esterification-cross-linking and cross-linking-esterification), with the objective to increase the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) concentrations. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. The degree of substitution of the esterified samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.020. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the modified samples did not show change; however, an increase in crystallinity level was determined (from 23.79 to 32.76%). The ungelatinized samples had low rapidly digestible starch (RDS) (4.23-9.19%), whereas the modified starches showed an increase in SDS (from 10.79 to 16.79%) and had high RS content (74.07-85.07%). In the cooked samples, the esterified starch increased the SDS content (21.32%), followed by cross-linked starch (15.13%). Dual modified starch (cross-linked-esterified) had the lowest SDS content, but the highest RS amount. The esterified and cross-linked-esterified samples had higher peak viscosity than cross-linked and esterified-cross-linked. This characteristic is due to the fact that in dual modification, the groups introduced in the first modification are replaced by the functional group of the second modification. Temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased in modified starches (from 75.37 to 74.02 °C and from 10.42 to 8.68 J/g, respectively), compared with their unmodified starch (76.15 °C and 11.05 J/g). Cross-linked-esterified starch showed the lowest enthalpy of gelatinization (8.68 J/g). Retrogradation temperature decreased in modified starches compared with unmodified (59.04-57.47 °C), but no significant differences were found among the modified samples.

  1. Microbial starch-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Oviedo, Norma; Sánchez, Sergio

    2005-06-01

    Glucosidic bonds from different non-soluble polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose and xylan are hydrolyzed by amylases, cellulases and xylanases, respectively. These enzymes are produced by microorganisms. They have a modular structure that is composed of a catalytic domain and at least one non-catalytic domain that is involved in polysaccharide binding. Starch-binding modules are present in microbial enzymes that are involved in starch metabolism; these are classified into several different families on the basis of their amino acid sequence similarities. Such binding domains promote attachment to the substrate and increase its concentration at the active site of the enzyme, which allows microorganisms to degrade non-soluble starch. Fold similarities are better conserved than sequences; nevertheless, it is possible to notice two evolutionary clusters of microbial starch-binding domains. These domains have enormous potential as tags for protein immobilization, as well as for the tailoring of enzymes that play a part in polysaccharide metabolism.

  2. Native and microwaved bean and pea starch preparations: physiological effects on the intestinal ecosystem, caecal tissue and serum lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Wronkowska, Małgorzata; Soral-Smietana, Maria; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2010-04-01

    Dietary beans and peas provide fibre, resistant starch and other nutrients that are often lacking in the human diet. The influence of native starches of beans and peas (and microwaved preparations) on N utilisation, biochemical indices in blood serum and caecal ecosystem state (SCFA, bacterial enzymes, micro-organisms) was studied in vivo. The native pea starch contained more resistant starch compared with its bean counterpart (31 v. 17 %); however, processing decreased these amounts to 25 v. 10 %. N digestibility was found to decrease considerably in all experimental groups. A considerable reduction was observed in glucose and total cholesterol concentration in rat blood serum as a result of feeding both dietary legume starch preparations under microwave treatment. This indicates that starch of bean origin activated glycolytic bacterial enzymes; however, all the analysed starches were found to reduce the activity of beta-glucuronidase. In addition, both dietary bean starches significantly induced the formation of SCFA in the caecal digesta. As compared with the control group, a significant decrease in the pH of caecal and colonic digesta was demonstrated for both bean starch preparations. In comparison with the diet with native pea starch, its microwaved preparation reduced the concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids among caecal SCFA and increased the pH of caecal and colonic digesta. The atherogenic index was significantly lower in rats fed microwaved pea starch. All investigated starch preparations increased the population of Bifidobacterium spp. in caecal digesta, but were also good substrates for opportunistic Enterococcus or Escherichia coli.

  3. The Fighting Phenomenon: What It Means to Be a Girl Who Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Maureen Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate why girls in an urban high school setting engage in physical fights in order to better understand the female student's mindset about fighting. A search of ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Psychological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and dissertations was conducted to review research in the following…

  4. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  5. The Fighting Phenomenon: What It Means to Be a Girl Who Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Maureen Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate why girls in an urban high school setting engage in physical fights in order to better understan