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Sample records for resistant starch type

  1. Production and physicochemical characterization of resistant starch type III derived from pea starch.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Undine; Rössler, Christine; Schmiedl, Detlef; Jacobasch, Gisela

    2003-02-01

    Smooth pea starch was used for the production of physiological important resistant starch type III. For reduction of the molecular weight of the starch, different strategies including enzymatic debranching and acid hydrolysis (lintnerization), were tested to obtain an optimal starting material for retrogradation. The resulting polymer chain lengths were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Temperature regimes and starch concentrations in gel were optimized during the retrogradation with the aim to obtain a high yield of resistant starch. Optimal conditions led to resistant starch contents up to 74%. The products were thermostable and showed no loss of resistant structures after autoclaving. The peak temperatures of the thermal transition were at approximately 147 degrees C. The resulting resistant starch products are suitable for the generation of functional foods.

  2. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-Żeberska, M; Zięba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation.

  3. Characterization of resistant starch type III from banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Undine; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef

    2002-08-28

    Banana starch (Musa acuminata var. Nandigobe) was evaluated for its use in generating resistant starch (RS) type III. Structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of these products were analyzed. The investigated process includes debranching of the native starch and retrogradation under different storage temperatures and starch concentrations. After enzymatic debranching, a high amount of low-molecular-weight polymers with a degree of polymerization between 10 and 35 glucose units beside a higher molecular weight fraction were found. The resulting products comprised RS contents of about 50%. After heat-moisture treatment, the RS yield increased up to 84%. Peak temperatures of about 145 degrees C found in DSC measurements pointed to a high thermal stability of the RS products. In vitro fermentations of the RS products, carried out with intestinal microflora of healthy humans, resulted in a molar ratio of acetate:propionate:butyrate of about 49:17:34. The established method allowed the production of a high-quality RS with prebiotic properties for health preventing applications.

  4. C-type starch from high-amylose rice resistant starch granules modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cunxu; Xu, Bin; Qin, Fengling; Yu, Huaguang; Chen, Chong; Meng, Xianglen; Zhu, Lijia; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-06-23

    High-amylose starch is a source of resistant starch (RS) which has a great benefit on human health. A transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched amylose and RS had been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. In this study, the native starch granules were isolated from TRS grains as well as the wild type, and their crystalline type was carefully investigated before and after acid hydrolysis. In high-amylose TRS rice, the C-type starch, which might result from the combination of both A-type and B-type starch, was observed and subsequently confirmed by multiple physical techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared. Moreover, the change of starch crystalline structure from C- to B-type during acid hydrolysis was also observed in this RS-rich rice. These data could add to our understanding of not only the polymorph structure of cereal starch but also why high-amylose starch is more resistant to digestion.

  5. Type IV resistant starch increases cecum short chain fatty acids level in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Anioła, Jacek; Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Zaborowska, Zofia; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starches are type of dietary fibers. However, their physiological effects depend on the way they resist digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that new type of RS4 preparations, of in vitro digestibility of about 50%, obtained by cross-linking and acetylation, acts as a prebiotic by increasing short chain fatty acids content in cecum digesta. The rats were fed with diet containing pregelatinized, cross-linked and acetylated starches as a main carbohydrate source. Pregelatinized, but not chemically modified, potato starch was used in the composition of the control diet. After two weeks of experiment the increase of short chain fatty acids contents in ceceum digesta was observed. The intake of starch A, cross-linked only with adipic acid, resulted in increase of about 40% of short chain fatty acids content, whereas starch PA cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate and adipic acid of about 50%. The utmost twofold increase was observed in the case of the production of propionic acid. In contrast, the content of butyric acid increased (12%) only as an effect of consumption of starch PA and even decreased (about 30%) in case of starch A. Both RS4 starches caused an increase of the production of acetic acid by more than 40%. No changes in serum biochemistry, liver cholesterol and organ weights of rats were stated.

  6. Comparative methodologies for measuring metabolizable energy of various types of resistant high amylose corn starch.

    PubMed

    Tulley, Richard T; Appel, Marko J; Enos, Tanya G; Hegsted, Maren; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Zhou, Jun; Raggio, Anne M; Jeffcoat, Roger; Birkett, Anne; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-09-23

    Energy values of high amylose corn starches high in resistant starch (RS) were determined in vivo by two different methodologies. In one study, energy values were determined according to growth relative to glucose-based diets in rats fed diets containing RS(2), heat-treated RS(2) (RS(2)-HT), RS(3), and amylase predigested versions to isolate the RS component. Net metabolizable energy values ranged from 2.68 to 3.06 kcal/g for the RS starches, and 1.91-2.53 kcal/g for the amylase predigested versions. In a second study, rats were fed a diet containing RS(2)-HT and the metabolizable energy value was determined by bomb calorimetry. The metabolizable energy value was 2.80 kcal/g, consistent with Study 1. Thus, high amylose corn based RS ingredients and their amylase predigested equivalents have energy values approximately 65-78% and 47-62% of available starch (Atwater factor), respectively, according to the RS type (Garcia, T. A.; McCutcheon, K. L.; Francis, A. R.; Keenan, M. J.; O'Neil, C. E.; Martin, R. J.; Hegsted, M. The effects of resistant starch on gastrointestinal organs and fecal output in rats. FASEB J. 2003, 17, A335).

  7. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  8. The in vitro effects of retrograded starch (resistant starch type 3) from lotus seed starch on the proliferation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; Zhuang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    Prebiotics such as oligosaccharides, fructans, and resistant starch (RS) stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in large bowel and modify the human gastrointestinal environment. In this study, compared with glucose (GLU) and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), the in vitro effects of LRS3 and P-LRS3 (RS3 and purified RS3 prepared from lotus seed starch) on the proliferation of bifidobacteria were assessed by assessing the changes in optical density (OD), pH values, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and tolerance ability to gastrointestinal conditions. Significantly higher OD values were obtained from media containing LRS3 and P-LRS3, and especially in the medium containing P-LRS3, the OD value of which reached 1.36 when the concentration of the carbon source was 20 g L(-1). Additionally, the lag phase of bifidobacteria was 8 h in the medium with LRS3 or P-LRS3, whereas it was 16 h in the medium with GLU or HAMS. What is more, a higher content of butyric acid was obtained in the P-LRS3 medium. Compared with GLU and HAMS media, bifidobacteria had a higher tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions in LRS3 and P-LRS3 media. It shows that lotus seed resistant starch, especially P-LRS3, could stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. The rough surface of resistant starch and the SCFAs produced during fermentation might influence the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  9. Adaptation of the cecal bacterial microbiome of growing pigs in response to resistant starch type 4.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-12-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS.

  10. Adaptation of the Cecal Bacterial Microbiome of Growing Pigs in Response to Resistant Starch Type 4

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS. PMID:26431973

  11. Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Brown, I L; Topping, D L

    2000-03-01

    Starches are important as energy sources for humans and also for their interactions with the gut microflora throughout the digestive tact. Largely, those interactions promote human health. In the mouth, less gelatinised starches may lower risk of cariogensis. In the large bowel, starches which have escaped small intestinal digestion (resistant starch), together with proteins, other undigested carbohydrates and endogenous secretions are fermented by the resident microflora. The resulting short chain fatty acids contribute substantially to the normal physiological functions of the viscera. Specific types of resistant starch (e.g. the chemically modified starches used in the food industry) may be used to manipulate the gut bacteria and their products (including short chain fatty acids) so as to optimise health. In the upper gut, these starches may assist in the transport of probiotic organisms thus promoting the immune response and suppressing potential pathogens. However, it appears unlikely that current probiotic organisms can be used to modulate large bowel short chain fatty acids in adults although resistant starch and other prebiotics can do so. Suggestions that starch may exacerbate certain conditions (such as ulcerative colitis) through stimulating the growth of certain pathogenic organisms appear to be unfounded. Short chain fatty acids may modulate tissue levels and effects of growth factors in the gut and so modify gut development and risk of serious disease, including colo-rectal cancer. However, information on the relationship between starches and the microflora is relatively sparse and substantial opportunities exist both for basic research and food product development.

  12. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch type IV nanoparticles through ultrasonication and miniemulsion cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongbo; Zheng, Jiong; Xia, Xuejuan; Ren, Tingyuan; Kan, Jianquan

    2016-05-05

    This study aimed to assess the properties of resistant starch type IV (chemically modified starch, RS4) prepared from a new and convenient synthesis route by using ultrasonication combined with water-in-oil miniemulsion cross-linking technique. A three-factor Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to minimize particle size through the developed RS4 nanoparticles. The predicted minimized Z-Avel (576.1nm) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (ultrasonic power, 214.57W; sonication time, 114.73min; and oil/water ratio, 10.54:1) was very close to the experimental value (651.0nm) determined in a batch experiment. After preparing the RS4 nanoparticles, morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties were assessed. Results revealed that RS4 nanoparticle size reached about 600nm. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that ultrasonication induced notches and grooves on the surface. Under polarized light, the polarized cross was impaired. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the crystalline structure was disrupted. Smaller or no endotherms were exhibited in DSC analysis. In the FTIR graph, new peaks at 1532.91 and 1451.50cm(-1) were observed, and pasting properties were reduced. Amylose content, solubility, and SP increased, but RS content decreased. Anti-digestibility remained after ultrasonication. The prepared RS4 nanoparticles could be extensively used in biomedical applications and in the development of new medical materials.

  13. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...

  14. Effect of the production method on the properties of RS3/RS4 type resistant starch. Part 2. Effect of a degree of substitution on the selected properties of acetylated retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Michalski, A

    2012-12-01

    Resistant starch displays health-promoting properties. Starch preparations produced through acetylation of retrograded starch may be applied as a food additive. Apart from prebiotic properties, they may as well model the texture of a food product. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of retrogradation and acetylation conditions on properties of the produced RS3/4 type resistant starch. Native potato starch was used to produce starch pastes (1, 4, 10, 18 or 30g/100g), that were frozen, defrosted and dried. The resultant preparations of retrograded starch were acetylated with various doses of an acetic acid anhydride (3.25, 6.5, 13.0, 26.0 or 52.0ml/100g). The acetylated preparations of retrograded starch were characterised by increasing solubility in water and swelling power as well as a lower amylose content along with an increasing degree of their substitution with residues of acetic acid. Dependencies of: pasting temperatures, viscosity of the prepared pastes, and resistance of acetylated starch to the action of amyloglucosidase on the degree of substitution with acetic acid residues were described with a second degree polynomial function. The extent and range of changes were found to depend on the concentration of paste used to produce a retrograded starch preparation. The maximum resistance of RS3/4 preparations to the action of amyloglucosidase ranged from 28.7 to 45.9g/100g. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III as prebiotic substance.

    PubMed

    Zi-Ni, Tan; Rosma, Ahmad; Napisah, Hussin; Karim, Alias A; Liong, Min-Tze

    2015-04-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.

  16. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Bijaya; McCormack, Lacey; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Juenemann, Robert; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Clapper, Jeffrey; Specker, Bonny; Dey, Moul

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat were lower post intervention in the RS4 group compared with the control group. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing revealed a differential abundance of 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units, including the enrichment of three Bacteroides species and one each of Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Christensenella species in the RS4 group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake. Bivariate analyses showed RS4-specific associations of the gut microbiota with the host metabolic functions and SCFA levels. Here we show that dietary RS4 induced changes in the gut microbiota are linked to its biological activity in individuals with signs of MetS. These findings have potential implications for dietary guidelines in metabolic health management. PMID:27356770

  17. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bijaya; McCormack, Lacey; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Juenemann, Robert; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Clapper, Jeffrey; Specker, Bonny; Dey, Moul

    2016-06-30

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat were lower post intervention in the RS4 group compared with the control group. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing revealed a differential abundance of 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units, including the enrichment of three Bacteroides species and one each of Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Christensenella species in the RS4 group. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake. Bivariate analyses showed RS4-specific associations of the gut microbiota with the host metabolic functions and SCFA levels. Here we show that dietary RS4 induced changes in the gut microbiota are linked to its biological activity in individuals with signs of MetS. These findings have potential implications for dietary guidelines in metabolic health management.

  18. Is there any place for resistant starch, as alimentary prebiotic, for patients with type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Namazi, Nazli; Khalili, Mohammad; Sarmadi, Bahareh; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Dehghan, Parvin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine effects of Resistant Starch (RS2) on metabolic parameters and inflammation in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 females with T2DM were divided into intervention (n = 28) and placebo groups (n = 32). They received 10 g/d RS2 or placebo for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Paired t test, unpaired t-test and ANCOVA were used to compare the quantitative variables. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. RS2 decreased HbA1c (-0.3%, -3.6%), TNF-α (-3.4 pg/mL, -18.9%), triglyceride (-33.4 mg/dL, -15.4%), and it increased HDL-c (+9.4 mg/dL, +24.6%) significantly compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Changes in FBS, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, hs-CRP and IL-6 were not significant in the RS2 group compared with the control group. RS2 can improve glycemic status, inflammatory markers and lipid profile in women with T2DM. Although findings of the present study indicated positive effects of RS2 on inflammation and metabolic parameters, more studies are needed to confirm efficacy of RS2 as an adjunct therapy in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bodinham, C L; Smith, L; Thomas, E L; Bell, J D; Swann, J R; Costabile, A; Russell-Jones, D; Umpleby, A M; Robertson, M D

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been shown to beneficially affect insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with metabolic syndrome, but its effects on human type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased RS consumption on insulin sensitivity and glucose control and changes in postprandial metabolites and body fat in T2DM. Seventeen individuals with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1c 46.6±2 mmol/mol) consumed, in a random order, either 40 g of type 2 RS (HAM-RS2) or a placebo, daily for 12 weeks with a 12-week washout period in between. AT THE END OF EACH INTERVENTION PERIOD, PARTICIPANTS ATTENDED FOR THREE METABOLIC INVESTIGATIONS: a two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with an infusion of [6,6-(2)H2] glucose, a meal tolerance test (MTT) with arterio-venous sampling across the forearm, and whole-body imaging. HAM-RS2 resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose concentrations (P=0.045) and a trend for greater glucose uptake across the forearm muscle (P=0.077); however, there was no effect of HAM-RS2 on hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or on HbA1c. Fasting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.004) and NEFA suppression was greater during the clamp with HAM-RS2 (P=0.001). Fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations and soleus intramuscular TG concentrations were significantly higher following the consumption of HAM-RS2 (P=0.039 and P=0.027 respectively). Although fasting GLP1 concentrations were significantly lower following HAM-RS2 consumption (P=0.049), postprandial GLP1 excursions during the MTT were significantly greater (P=0.009). HAM-RS2 did not improve tissue insulin sensitivity in well-controlled T2DM, but demonstrated beneficial effects on meal handling, possibly due to higher postprandial GLP1.

  20. Dietary resistant starch prevents urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and vitamin D-binding protein in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Smazal, Anne L; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Anderegg, Alysse S; Schalinske, Kevin L; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Rowling, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly growing epidemic affecting millions of Americans and has been implicated in a number of devastating secondary complications. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetic rats exhibit vitamin D deficiency due to aberrant megalin-mediated endocytosis and excessive urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D3) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). Here, we examined whether a model of type 1 diabetes [T1D; streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats] would similarly excrete abnormally high concentrations of 25D3 and DBP due to renal damage and compromised expression of megalin and its endocytic partner, disabled-2 (Dab2). Moreover, we tested whether feeding diabetic rats starch that is resistant to digestion could alleviate these abnormalities. Control (n = 12) rats were fed a standard, semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 55% total dietary starch and STZ-treated rats were fed the AIN-93G diet (n = 12) or a diet containing 55% high-amylose maize that is partially resistant to digestion [20% total dietary resistant starch (RS); n = 12] for 2 and 5 wk. The RS diet attenuated weight loss and polyuria in STZ-treated rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed that dietary RS also attenuated the loss of Dab2 expression in renal proximal tubules. Moreover, urinary concentrations of both 25D3 and DBP were elevated ∼10-fold in STZ-treated rats (5 wk post STZ injection), which was virtually prevented by the RS. We also observed a ∼1.5-fold increase in megalin mRNA expression in STZ-treated rats, which was attenuated by feeding rats the RS diet for 2 wk. Taken together, these studies indicate that consumption of low-glycemic carbohydrates can attenuate disruption of vitamin D homeostasis in T1D through the rescue of megalin-mediated endocytosis in the kidney.

  1. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  2. Characterization of enzyme-resistant starch in maize amylose-extender mutant starches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the human digestive system, a type of starch known as resistant starch (RS) can not be digested. RS is not absorbed in the small intestine, and is passed to the large intestine where it is fermented by bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids, which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory prop...

  3. C-type starches and their derivatives: structure and function.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zebin; Jia, Xiangze; Zhao, Beibei; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Xiao, Jianbo; Zheng, Baodong

    2017-06-01

    The C-type starches are widely distributed in seeds or rhizomes of various legumes, medicinal plants, and crops. These carbohydrate polymers directly affect the application of starchy plant resources. The structural and crystal properties of starches are crucial parameters of starch granules, which significantly influence their physicochemical and mechanical properties. The unique crystal structure consisting of both A- and B-type polymorphs endows C-type starches with specific crystal adjustability. Furthermore, large proportions of resistant starches and slowly digestible starches are C-type starches, which contribute to benign glycemic response and proliferation of gut microflora. Here, we review the distribution of C-type starches in various plant sources, the structural models and crystal properties of C-type starches, and the behavior and functionality relevant to modified C-type starches. We outline recent advances, potential applications, and limitations of C-type starches in industry, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further research and to broaden the prospects of its applications. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Effects of β-amylolysis on the resistant starch formation of debranched corn starches.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Curtis R; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2012-05-09

    Retrograded amylose is resistant to digestion by amylolytic enzymes, which is known as resistant starch type III (RS3). In this study we investigated the effect of β-amylase hydrolysis on the formation and physicochemical properties of RS3 from debranched corn starches. Three types of corn starch (Hylon VII, Hylon V, and common corn) were first gelatinized and then hydrolyzed using β-amylase to varying degrees. The resultant hydrolyzed starch was debranched with isoamylase and then exposed to temperature cycling to promote RS formation. A broad endotherm from approximately 45 to 120 °C and a small endotherm above 150 °C were noted for all retrograded starches. All three corn starches had increased RS contents after moderate β-amylolysis, with Hylon V having the highest RS content at 70.7% after 4 h of β-amylolysis. The results suggest that RS3 formation is affected by the starch composition as well as the starch structure and can be increased by moderate β-amylolysis.

  5. Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyong; Liu, Ruiping; Qin, Chengyong; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yun; Xu, Guifa

    2010-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) escapes digestion in the small intestine and may ferment in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistant starch content in typical starchy foods and to estimate the daily resistant starch intake and identify key sources of dietary resistant starch in the Chinese diets. The resistant starch contents of 121 foods were determined using a method that mimicked gastrointestinal conditions. Tubers and legumes had high resistant starch contents. Rough food processing retained large amounts of resistant starch. In general, the content of RS decreased when foods were cooked. Deep fried and roasted foods had higher levels of resistant starch than braised foods. The average resistant starch intake in the Chinese population was estimated to be 14.9 g per day based on a dietary survey. The main resistant starch sources in the Chinese diet were cereal and tuber products. Based on dietary habits, however, the resistant starch intake varies considerably among individuals.

  6. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation.

  7. Gene cloning, functional expression and characterisation of a novel type I pullulanase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii and its application in resistant starch production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Yu; Yan, Feng; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing; Yan, Qiaojuan

    2016-05-01

    A novel pullulanase gene (PbPulA) from Paenibacillus barengoltzii was cloned. PbPulA has an open reading frame of 2028 bp encoding 675 amino acids. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as an intracellular soluble protein. The recombinant pullulanase (PbPulA) was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of about 75 kDa on SDS-PAGE. PbPulA was optimally active at pH 5.5 and 50 °C. It was stable within pH 5.5-10.5. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate specificity towards pullulan, but showed relatively low activity towards amylopectin and no activity towards other tested polysaccharides. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme on pullulan were 2.94 mg/mL and 280.5 μmol/min/mg, respectively. The addition of PbPulA in gelatinized rice and maize starches significantly increased the resistant starch type 3 (RS3) yields. Final yields from rice and maize starches were 10.82 g/100 g and 11.41 g/100 g, respectively. These properties make PbPulA useful in starch industries.

  8. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  9. A High Fiber Cookie Made with Resistant Starch Type 4 Reduces Post-Prandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Maria L.; Zimmer, J. Paul

    2017-01-01

    Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 28 healthy adults consumed a cookie containing 24 g fiber from distarch phosphate (fiber cookie) or a control cookie containing 0.5 g fiber that was matched for fat, protein, and total carbohydrate content. Intravenous blood glucose, intravenous blood insulin, and capillary glucose were measured for two hours after cookie consumption. The fiber cookie reduced the post-prandial blood glucose incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 minutes (iAUC0-120min) by 44% (p = 0.004) and reduced the maximum glucose concentration (Cmax0-120min) by 8% (p = 0.001) versus the control cookie. Consumption of the fiber cookie resulted in a significant 46% reduction of the post-prandial serum insulin iAUC0-120min (p < 0.001) and a 23% reduction in Cmax0-120min (p = 0.007) versus the control cookie. This study shows that distarch phosphate RS4 can be incorporated into a cookie and significantly reduce post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adults. PMID:28273870

  10. New starch preparations resistant to enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jochym, Kamila; Kapusniak, Janusz; Barczynska, Renata; Sliżewska, Katarzyna

    2012-03-15

    New starch preparations were produced by thermolysis of potato starch in the presence of inorganic (hydrochloric) and organic (citric and tartaric) acids under controlled conditions. The starch preparations were physicochemically and structurally characterised and analysed for their resistance to enzymatic digestion in vitro. The content of resistant fraction in dextrin D1, obtained by heating starch acidified with hydrochloric and citric acids, determined by the AOAC 2001.03 and pancreatin-gravimetric methods was similar (~200 g kg⁻¹). In the case of dextrin D3, obtained by heating starch acidified with hydrochloric and tartaric acids, the result of determination by the pancreatin-gravimetric method was almost four times higher than that obtained with the AOAC 2001.03 method. The enzymatic tests revealed that dextrin D3 obtained with excess tartaric acid can be classified as RS4, which can only be partially determined by enzymatic-gravimetric methods. Tartaric acid at high concentration had a significantly stronger influence on starch hydrolysis than citric acid. This was confirmed by chromatographic analysis of dextrins and chemical investigation of the reducing power. The results confirmed the possibility of applying dextrins, prepared under specific conditions, as soluble dietary fibre. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Inheritance analysis of resistant starch content in kernels of wheat].

    PubMed

    Pang, Huan; Li, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Lin; Yin, Yong-An; Yuan, Hui-Gong; Wang, Zi-Bu

    2010-02-01

    In this study, three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with high and low levels of resistant starch contents each were selected to obtain 15 F1 combinations from a diallel cross without reciprocals to be used to study the inheritance of resistant starch content. The results of this study are useful to select new wheat cultivar with high level of resistant starch content. Annong 90202 and D68-20 were the best among the wheat cultivars tested for general combining ability of resistant starch content, which significantly increased the resistant starch content in its progenies. The specific combining ability of Annong 90202 x 04 Dan 28 and 06-5 x D68-20 were the best among the F1 combinations, and the values of specific combining ability effects were significantly higher than other combinations. The inheritance of resistant starch content fitted the additive-dominance model, and the degree of dominance was super dominance. The alleles for increasing resistant starch content were recessive. The distribution of alleles for increasing and reducing resistant starch contents in the parental lines was not even. The number of recessive alleles for resistant starch content was greater than the dominant alleles. Annong 90202 and 04 Dan 28 had more recessive genes controlling resistant starch content, while Ningchun 18 and Xinchun 5 had more dominant genes. The narrow sense heritability of resistant starch content was 36.49%.

  12. Structural and functional properties of C-type starches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Man, Jianmin; Zhou, Weidong; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-30

    This study investigated the structural and functional properties of C-type starches from pea seeds, faba bean seeds, yam rhizomes and water chestnut corms. These starches were mostly oval in shape with significantly different sizes and contents of amylose, damaged starch and phosphorus. Pea, faba bean and water chestnut starches had central hila, and yam starch had eccentric hilum. Water chestnut and yam starches had higher amylopectin short and long chain, respectively. Water chestnut and faba bean starches showed CA-type crystallinities, and pea and yam starches had C-type crystallinities. Water chestnut starch had the highest swelling power, granule swelling and pasting viscosity, lowest gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. Faba bean starch had the lowest pasting viscosity, whereas yam starch had the highest gelatinization temperatures. Water chestnut and yam starches possessed significantly higher and lower susceptibility to acid and enzyme hydrolysis, the highest and lowest RDS contents, and the lowest and highest RS contents, respectively.

  13. Resistant starch in food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Ezekiel, Rajarathnam; Raigond, Baswaraj

    2015-08-15

    The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classified as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food is highly influenced by food preparation manner and processing techniques. Physical or chemical treatments also alter the level of RS in a food. Commercial preparations of RS are now available and can be added to foods as an ingredient for lowering the calorific value and improving textural and organoleptic characteristics along with increasing the amount of dietary fiber. RS has assumed great importance owing to its unique functional properties and health benefits. The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control and control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals. This review attempts to analyze the information published, especially in the recent past, on classification, structure, properties, applications and health benefits of RS.

  14. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  15. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Resistant starch content of Indian foods.

    PubMed

    Platel, K; Shurpalekar, K S

    1994-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) was determined in a few selected cereals, legumes and vegetables after processing. Higher RS contents were observed in foods subjected to dry heat treatment compared to wet processed ones. Among the foods studied, sorghum, green gram dhal, and green plantain showed relatively higher RS content. Based on the RS content thus determined in individual foods and the known composition of the Indian diet, RS content of Indian diets were computed.

  17. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yafeng; Wang, Qi; Li, Baoyu; Lin, Liangmei; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-19

    Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  18. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-01-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.

  19. Critical roles of soluble starch synthase SSIIIa and granule-bound starch synthase Waxy in synthesizing resistant starch in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongju; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Guifu; Meng, Xiangbing; Jing, Yanhui; Shu, Xiaoli; Kong, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Yu, Hong; Smith, Steven M.; Wu, Dianxing; Li, Jiayang

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human lifestyle and food consumption have resulted in a large increase in the incidence of type-2 diabetes, obesity, and colon disease, especially in Asia. These conditions are a growing threat to human health, but consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) can potentially reduce their incidence. Strategies to increase RS in rice are limited by a lack of knowledge of its molecular basis. Through map-based cloning of a RS locus in indica rice, we have identified a defective soluble starch synthase gene (SSIIIa) responsible for RS production and further showed that RS production is dependent on the high expression of the Waxya (Wxa) allele, which is prevalent in indica varieties. The resulting RS has modified granule structure; high amylose, lipid, and amylose–lipid complex; and altered physicochemical properties. This discovery provides an opportunity to increase RS content of cooked rice, especially in the indica varieties, which predominates in southern Asia. PMID:27791174

  20. Synthesis of resistant starches in plants.

    PubMed

    Morell, Matthew K; Konik-Rose, Christine; Ahmed, Regina; Li, Zhongyi; Rahman, Sadiq

    2004-01-01

    The increased incidence in many countries in lifestyle diseases such as colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes has led to an enhanced interest in disease-prevention measures that can be delivered to target populations through diet. Resistant starch (RS) is emerging as an important dietary component that has the potential to reduce the incidence of bowel health disorders. However, the range of crop species that can serve as effective sources of RS is limited. In this paper the state of knowledge of the starch biosynthesis pathway is reviewed and opportunities to manipulate crop genetics in order to generate additional sources of RS are discussed. The need for a "whole of chain" approach to delivery of RS to the consumer is highlighted because of the impact that different food-processing technologies can have in maintaining, enhancing, or destroying the RS potential of a raw material or food.

  1. Preparation, structure, and digestibility of crystalline A- and B-type aggregates from debranched waxy starches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liming; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-05-25

    Highly crystalline A- and B-type aggregates were prepared from short linear α-1,4 glucans generated from completely debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches by manipulating the chain length and crystallization conditions including starch solids concentration and crystallization temperature. The A-type crystalline products were more resistant to enzyme digestion than the B-type crystalline products, and the digestibility of the A- and B-type allomorphs was not correlated with the size of the aggregates formed. Annealing increased the peak melting temperature of the B-type crystallites, making it similar to that of the A-type crystallites, but did not improve the enzyme resistance of the B-type crystalline products. The possible reason for these results was due to the compact morphology as well as the denser packing pattern of double helices in A-type crystallites. Our observations counter the fact that most B-type native starches are more enzyme-resistant than A-type native starches. Crystalline type per se does not seem to be the key factor that controls the digestibility of native starch granules; the resistance of native starches with a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern is probably attributed to the other structural features in starch granules.

  2. Granule structure and distribution of allomorphs in C-type high-amylose rice starch granule modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cunxu; Qin, Fengling; Zhou, Weidong; Yu, Huaguang; Xu, Bin; Chen, Chong; Zhu, Lijia; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-11-24

    C-type starch, which is a combination of both A-type and B-type crystal starch, is usually found in legumes and rhizomes. We have developed a high-amylose transgenic line of rice (TRS) by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. The starch in the endosperm of this TRS was identified as typical C-type crystalline starch, but its fine granular structure and allomorph distribution remained unclear. In this study, we conducted morphological and spectroscopic studies on this TRS starch during acid hydrolysis to determine the distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. The morphology of starch granules after various durations of acid hydrolysis was compared by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that amorphous regions were located at the center part of TRS starch subgranules. During acid hydrolysis, starch was degraded from the interior of the subgranule to the outer surface, while the peripheral part of the subgranules and the surrounding band of the starch granule were highly resistant to acid hydrolysis. The spectroscopic changes detected by X-ray powder diffraction, 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared showed that the A-type allomorph was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type, and that the X-ray diffraction profile gradually changed from a native C-type to a CB-type with increasing hydrolysis time. Our results showed that, in TRS starch, the A-type allomorph was located around the amorphous region, and was surrounded by the B-type allomorph located in the peripheral region of the subgranules and the surrounding band of the starch granule. Thus, the positions of A- and B-type allomorphs in the TRS C-type starch granule differ markedly from those in C-type legume and rhizome starch.

  3. Postprandial glucose, insulin and gastrointestinal hormones in healthy and diabetic subjects fed a fructose-free and resistant starch type IV-enriched enteral formula.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz Erika; Mesa, María Dolores; Olza, Josune; Buccianti, Gilda; Pérez, Milagros; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the dietary glycaemic response has been proposed as a means of reducing the risk of diabetes. To evaluate the effects of a new diabetes-specific formula (DSF) enriched with resistant starch type IV and fructose-free on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and gastrointestinal hormones in healthy volunteers and in outpatient type 2 diabetics. (1) Twenty-four healthy volunteers were divided into two groups: Group 1 ( n = 10) was provided 50 g of the carbohydrate (CHO) constituent of the new product and 50 g of glucose separated by 1 week; Group 2 ( n = 14) was provided 400 ml of the new DSF (T-Diet Plus(®) Diabet NP) and 400 ml of a control product separated by 1 week. (2) Ten type 2 diabetic patients received 400 ml of the new DSF and two other commercially available DSF (Glucerna(®) SR and Novasource(®) Diabet) on three occasions separated by 1 week. Venous blood samples were drawn at time 0 and at different times until 120 min. Glucose, insulin and gastrointestinal hormones were determined. Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices and glycaemic load were calculated. The CHO constituent and the new DSF showed low glycaemic index and glycaemic load. In healthy subjects, insulin and C-peptide release were lower after administration of the CHO constituent as well as after the new DSF (P < 0.001). Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) production were lower after intake of the CHO constituent (P ranging from <0.001 to 0.019) compared with glucose, and GIP was lower after ingestion of the new DSF (P = 0.002) than after the control product. In type 2 diabetic patients, glucose AUC was lower after the administration of the new DSF (P = 0.037) compared with the others. Our results indicate that this new product could be beneficial for diabetic patients.

  4. Resistant starches for the management of metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bindels, Laure B; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2015-11-01

    Recent clinical trials and animal studies indicate that resistant starches may be beneficial therapeutic tools for the management of metabolic diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize these findings and discuss the established and proposed mechanisms by which resistant starches exert their benefits. We also examine open questions regarding how resistant starches improve metabolism and propose future research directions for the field. Data from both humans and animal models clearly support a role for resistant starches in improving a variety of metabolic features; however, discrepancies do exist regarding specific effects. Concomitant improvements in both insulin levels and body fat depots are often reported in rodents fed resistant starches, whereas resistant starch feeding in humans improves insulin sensitivity without having a major impact on fat mass. These differences could be explained by the coexistence of several mechanisms (both gut microbiota-dependent and gut microbiota-independent) underpinning the metabolic benefits of resistant starches. Together, the studies presented in this review offer new insights into the potential pathways by which resistant starches enhance metabolic health, including modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating inflammatory mediators, innate immune cells, and the bile acid cycle.

  5. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Resistant-starch Formation in High-amylose Maize Starch During Kernel Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to understand the resistant-starch (RS) formation during the kernel development of high-amylose maize, GEMS-0067 line. RS content of the starch, determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber, increased with kernel maturation and the increase in amylose/...

  7. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  8. Starch bioavailability in arepas made from ordinary or high amylose corn: concentration and gastrointestinal fate of resistant starch in rats.

    PubMed

    Granfeldt, Y E; Drews, A W; Björck, I M

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the importance of the amylose/amylopectin ratio for the content and gastrointestinal fate of resistant starch in a realistic composite starchy food. Corn-based breads (arepas) from dent corn (25% amylose) and from high amylose corn (70% amylose) were used as test products. Resistant starch concentration was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using rats treated with an antibiotic drug (Nebacitin) to suppress hindgut fermentation. Experiments in rats with intact hindgut microflora allowed determination of resistant starch fermentability. The small intestinal digestibility of starch in dent corn arepas was close to 96% (total starch basis), whereas the starch in high amylose arepas was poorly digested (approximately 68%, total starch basis), as calculated from the fecal recovery of resistant starch in Nebacitin-treated animals. The main resistant starch fraction required solubilization in alkali to render it available to the analytical amylases (nonhydrated fraction). The total amount of resistant starch as well as the nonhydrated starch fraction delivered to the hindgut could be accurately predicted from analysis of starch remnants in an enzymatic gravimetric dietary fiber residue. Resistant starch present in dent corn arepas was fermented approximately 63%, whereas the fermentability of resistant starch from the high amylose product was remarkably low (< 11%).

  9. Comparison of physicochemical properties of B-type nontraditional starches from different sources.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Man, Jianmin; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Weidong; Huai, Huyin; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-01-01

    Starches were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, Canna edulis and Canna indica and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium, and showed a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Their physicochemical properties were investigated and compared. These starches showed significantly different granule morphologies and sizes, but all had eccentric hila. The C. longa starch had the lowest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the highest content of amylopectin long branch-chain, and the L. lancifolium starch the highest content of amylopectin short branch-chain and branching degree and the lowest content of amylopectin long branch-chain among the four starches. The L. lancifolium starch had the lowest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the lowest pasting peak, hot and final viscosities, and the C. longa starch had the highest resistance to gelatinization, and showed the highest pasting hot, final and setback viscosities and the lowest pasting breakdown viscosity. The C. longa and L. lancifolium starches possessed very high and low resistance to hydrolysis and digestion, respectively. The above physicochemical properties would be useful for the applications of B-type starches in food and nonfood industries.

  10. Starch-branching enzymes preferentially associated with A-type starch granules in wheat endosperm.

    PubMed

    Peng, M; Gao, M; Båga, M; Hucl, P; Chibbar, R N

    2000-09-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 microm) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 microm) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 microm). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 microm). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution.

  11. A single amino acid mutation of OsSBEIIb contributes to resistant starch accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifang; Bai, Jianjiang; Fang, Jun; Wang, Ying; Lee, Gangseob; Piao, Zhongze

    2016-09-01

    Foods rich in resistant starch can help prevent various diseases, including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea, and chronic renal and hepatic diseases. Variations in starch biosynthesis enzymes could contribute to the high content of resistant starch in some cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previously published work indicated that the sbe3-rs gene in the rice mutant line, 'Jiangtangdao1' was a putative allele of the rice starch branching enzyme gene SBEIIb (previously known as SBE3); sbe3-rs might control the biosynthesis of the high resistant starch content in the rice line. Biomolecular analysis showed that the activity of SBEs was significantly lower in soluble extracts of immature seeds harvested from 'Jiangtangdao1' 15 days after flowering than in the extracts of the wild-type rice line 'Huaqingdao'. We performed gene complementation assays by introducing the wild-type OsSBEIIb into the sbe3-rs mutant 'Jiangtangdao1'. The genetically complemented lines demonstrated restored seed-related traits. The structures of endosperm amylopectin and the morphological and physicochemical properties of the starch granules in the transformants recovered to wild-type levels. This study provides evidence that sbe3-rs is a novel allele of OsSBEIIb, responsible for biosynthesis of high resistant starch in 'Jiangtangdao1'.

  12. A single amino acid mutation of OsSBEIIb contributes to resistant starch accumulation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifang; Bai, Jianjiang; Fang, Jun; Wang, Ying; Lee, Gangseob; Piao, Zhongze

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in resistant starch can help prevent various diseases, including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea, and chronic renal and hepatic diseases. Variations in starch biosynthesis enzymes could contribute to the high content of resistant starch in some cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previously published work indicated that the sbe3-rs gene in the rice mutant line, ‘Jiangtangdao1’ was a putative allele of the rice starch branching enzyme gene SBEIIb (previously known as SBE3); sbe3-rs might control the biosynthesis of the high resistant starch content in the rice line. Biomolecular analysis showed that the activity of SBEs was significantly lower in soluble extracts of immature seeds harvested from ‘Jiangtangdao1’ 15 days after flowering than in the extracts of the wild-type rice line ‘Huaqingdao’. We performed gene complementation assays by introducing the wild-type OsSBEIIb into the sbe3-rs mutant ‘Jiangtangdao1’. The genetically complemented lines demonstrated restored seed-related traits. The structures of endosperm amylopectin and the morphological and physicochemical properties of the starch granules in the transformants recovered to wild-type levels. This study provides evidence that sbe3-rs is a novel allele of OsSBEIIb, responsible for biosynthesis of high resistant starch in ‘Jiangtangdao1’. PMID:27795673

  13. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double blind controlled cross-over intervention.

    PubMed

    Nichenametla, Sailendra N; Weidauer, Lee A; Wey, Howard E; Beare, Tianna M; Specker, Bonny L; Dey, Moul

    2014-06-01

    A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of RS4-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster cross-over intervention (n = 86, age≥18, 2-12 week interventions, 2-week washout) in the United States, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-criteria. RS4 consumption compared with CF resulted in 7.2% (p = 0.002) lower mean total cholesterol, 5.5% (p = 0.04) lower non-HDL, and a 12.8% (p < 0.001) lower HDL cholesterol in the With-MetS group. No-MetS individuals had a 2.6% (p = 0.02) smaller waist circumference and 1.5% (p = 0.03) lower percent body fat following RS4 intervention compared to CF. A small but significant 1% increase in fat-free mass was observed in all participants combined (p = 0.02). No significant effect of RS4 was observed for glycemic variables and blood pressures. RS4 consumption improved dyslipidemia and body composition. Incorporation of RS4 in routine diets could offer an effective strategy for public cardio-metabolic health promotion.

  14. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system. In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4–8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9–7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9–17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6–20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1–6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3–8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant. A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  15. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1-6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3-8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant.A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion.

  16. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application.

  17. A comparative study on starch digestibility, glycemic index and resistant starch of pigmented ('Njavara' and 'Jyothi') and a non-pigmented ('IR 64') rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Deepa, G; Singh, Vasudeva; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2010-12-01

    In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic indices of three rice varieties- 'Njavara', 'Jyothi' (pigmented rice verities) and 'IR 64' (non-pigmented rice) with similar amylose content were studied. Starch digestibility studies showed differences in glycemic response in three types of rice. The rate of starch hydrolysis was maximum (67.3%) in 'Njavara' rice compared to other two rice varieties. 'Njavara' exhibited the lowest kinetic constant (k) indicating inherent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. The glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) of 'Njavara' were similar to 'Jyothi' and 'IR 64'. Resistant starch content was high in pigmented rice varieties compared to 'IR 64'. The resistant starch content of dehusked and cooked rice increased with the storage time at refrigeration temperature (4°C). 'Njavara' is an easily digestible rice and can be used for baby and geriatric foods.

  18. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG.

  19. Effect of resistant starch on hydrolysis and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Rausch, Kent D; Graeber, James V; Schmidt, Shelly J; Buriak, Philip; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2010-03-01

    Starch samples with 0% or 30% amylose were subjected to four different liquefaction enzyme treatments (at various temperature and pH conditions) followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Resistant starch (RS) measurements were conducted for the initial starch sample, after liquefaction and after SSF. Initial RS was higher for 30% amylose starch samples (16.53 g/100 g sample) compared with 0% amylose (0.76 g/100 g sample). Higher initial RS resulted in lower conversion of starch into sugars and lower final ethanol yields. The four enzymes hydrolyzed RS, but in varying amounts. Higher temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a larger portion of RS, resulting in higher ethanol concentrations and lower final residual solids (non-fermentables), whereas lower temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a smaller portion of RS and resulted in lower ethanol concentrations and higher final residual solids. Decreases in resistant starch after high temperature liquefaction were 55% to 74%, whereas low temperature liquefaction decreases were 11% to 43%. For all enzyme treatments, RS content of starch samples decreased further after SSF.

  20. Production of resistant starch by extrusion cooking of acid-modified normal-maize starch.

    PubMed

    Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize extrusion cooking and hydrothermal treatment to produce resistant starch (RS) as an economical alternative to a batch-cooking process. A hydrothermal treatment (110 degrees C, 3 d) of batch-cooked and extruded starch samples facilitated propagation of heat-stable starch crystallites and increased the RS contents from 2.1% to 7.7% up to 17.4% determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber. When starch samples were batch cooked and hydrothermally treated at a moisture content below 70%, acid-modified normal-maize starch (AMMS) produced a greater RS content than did native normal-maize starch (NMS). This was attributed to the partially hydrolyzed, smaller molecules in the AMMS, which had greater mobility and freedom than the larger molecules in the NMS. The RS contents of the batch-cooked and extruded AMMS products after the hydrothermal treatment were similar. A freezing treatment of the AMMS samples at -20 degrees C prior to the hydrothermal treatment did not increase the RS content. The DSC thermograms and the X-ray diffractograms showed that retrograded amylose and crystalline starch-lipid complex, which had melting temperatures above 100 degrees C, accounted for the RS contents.

  1. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    PubMed Central

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S.

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged. PMID:25642454

  2. Resistant starch contents of native and heat-moisture treated jackfruit seed starch.

    PubMed

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S; Kittipongpatana, Nisit

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20-25%, together with temperatures 80-110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm(-1) suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  3. Characterization of Maize Amylose-Extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part I: Relationship Between Resistant Starch Contents and Molecular Structures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endosperm starches were isolated from kernels of seven maize amylose-extender (ae) lines. The resistant starch (RS) contents, measured using AOAC method 991.43, showed that three new ae-mutant starch lines developed by the USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement (GEM) and Truman State University had larger R...

  4. Structural characteristics and crystalline properties of lotus seed resistant starch and its prebiotic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Hongliang; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Baodong

    2014-07-15

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is a type of retrograded starch that is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (RS3). The structural and crystalline properties of unpurified LRS (NP-LRS3), enzyme purified LRS after drying (GP-LRS3), and enzyme purified LRS (ZP-LRS3) were characterized. The result showed that the molecular weights of NP-LRS3, GP-LRS3, and ZP-LRS3 were 0.102 × 10(6), 0.014 × 10(6), and 0.025 × 10(6)Da, respectively. Compared with native starch and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), LRS lacked the polarization cross and the irregularly shaped LRS granules had a rougher surface, B-type crystal structure, and greater level of molecular order. The FT-IR measurements indicated no differences in the chemical groups. Analysis by (13)C NMR indicated an increased propensity for double helix formation and higher crystallinity in LRS than in the two other types of starch. Moreover, LRS was more effective than either glucose or HAMS in promoting the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  5. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content. PMID:27818720

  6. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  7. Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-03-01

    The realization that low-glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable.

  8. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    PubMed

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-27

    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  10. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  11. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films.

  12. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions.

  13. Resistant Starch and Starch-Derived Oligosaccharides as Prebiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam-Perrot, A.; Gutton, L.; Sanders, L.; Bouvier, S.; Combe, C.; van den Abbeele, R.; Potter, S.; Einerhand, A. W. C.

    Dietary fiber has long been recommended as part of a healthy diet based on the observations made by Burkitt and Trowell (1975). Since then, epidemiological evidence has consistently shown that populations consuming higher levels of foods containing fiber have decreased risk of a variety of chronic health disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers. Average fiber intake in the United States is approximately 13 g/day for women and 18 g/day for men (National Academy of Sciences, 2006). The FDA recommends a minimum of 20-35 g/day for a healthy adult depending on calorific intake. In many EU countries including France, Germany and the UK (see Figure 9.1 ), fiber intakes are much lower than authorities recommend for men and women (Buttriss and Stokes, 2008; Gray, 2006). Thus, there is a need to increase fiber consumption and many newly isolated or developed fibers can easily be added to beverages and processed foods. The reasons for such low compliance is somewhat complex, however the most basic rationale for not consuming fiber-rich foods is perceived bad taste and mouthfeel and the availability of conventional food items containing fiber.

  14. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  15. Effect of the production method on the properties of RS3/RS4 type resistant starch. Part 1: properties of retrograded starch (RS3) produced under various conditions and its susceptibility to acetylation.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Golachowski, A; Gryszkin, A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effect of the concentration of a starch paste subjected to freezing on the properties of the produced retrograded starch, and to determine its susceptibility to acetylation with acetic acid anhydride. A starch paste (1, 4, 10, 18 or 30g/100g) was produced from native potato starch that was frozen, defrosted and dried. Al preparations of retrograded starch had the same chemical structure determined with the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diversified physical form visible on photos taken with an electron microscope (SEM). An increase in the concentration of paste, used to produce the preparations, resulted in decreased: amylose content (from 25.0 to 20.4/100g), solubility in water (from 41.1 to 20.1/100g), swelling power (from 45.0 to 19.3/g), and susceptibility of the preparations to the action of amyloglucosidase (from 95.4 to 83.6/100g). The heat of phase transition of solubilisation determined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) ranged from 3.8 to 7.1J/g, and the initial temperature of transition was increasing from 43.4 to 49.7°C along with an increasing concentration of the paste subjected to retrogradation. The 1-10/100g concentration of the paste used to produce preparations was observed to increase, whereas that between 10 and 30/100g to decrease the susceptibility to acetylation and viscosity of the prepared pastes, determined both with a Brabender viscograph and a Haake oscillating-rotational viscosimeter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P; Muir, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation.
METHODS—Twenty four pigs were fed four human type diets: a control diet, or control diet supplemented with resistant starch, wheat bran, or both. Intestinal contents and faeces were collected after two weeks.
RESULTS—Without wheat bran, resistant starch was rapidly fermented in the caecum and proximal colon. Supplementation with wheat bran inhibited the caecal fermentation of resistant starch, resulting in an almost twofold increase (from 12.9 (2.5) to 20.5 (2.1) g/day, p<0.05) in resistant starch being fermented between the proximal colon and faeces. This resulted in higher butyrate (133%, p<0.05) and lower ammonia (81%, p<0.05) concentrations in the distal colonic regions.
CONCLUSIONS—Wheat bran can shift the fermentation of resistant starch further distally, thereby improving the luminal conditions in the distal colonic regions where tumours most commonly occur. Therefore, the combined consumption of resistant starch and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides may contribute to the dietary modulation of colon cancer risk.


Keywords: resistant starch; non-starch polysaccharides; colonic fermentation; butyrate; ammonia; colon cancer risk PMID:10562582

  17. Effects of grain development on formation of resistant starch in rice.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaoli; Sun, Jian; Wu, Dianxing

    2014-12-01

    Three rice mutants with different contents of resistant starch (RS) were selected to investigate the effects of grain filling process on the formation of resistant starch. During grain development, the content of RS was increased with grain maturation and showed negative correlations with the grain weight and the starch molecular weight (Mn, Mw) and a positive correlation with the distribution of molecular mass (polydispersity, Pd). The morphologies of starch granules in high-RS rice were almost uniform in single starch granules and exhibited different proliferation modes from common rice. The lower activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch branching enzyme and the higher activity of starch synthase and starch de-branching enzyme observed in high-RS rice might be responsible for the formation of small irregular starch granules with large spaces between them. In addition, the lower molecular weight and the broad distribution of molecular weights lead to differences in the physiochemical properties of starch.

  18. Inhibition by resistant starch of red meat-induced promutagenic adducts in mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jean; Nyskohus, Laura; Young, Graeme P; Hu, Ying; Conlon, Michael A; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Le Leu, Richard K

    2011-11-01

    Population studies have shown that high red meat intake may increase colorectal cancer risk. Our aim was to examine the effect of different amounts and sources of dietary protein on induction of the promutagenic adduct O(6)-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O(6)MeG) in colonocytes, to relate these to markers of large bowel protein fermentation and ascertain whether increasing colonic carbohydrate fermentation modified these effects. Mice (n = 72) were fed 15% or 30% protein as casein or red meat or 30% protein with 10% high amylose maize starch as the source of resistant starch. Genetic damage in distal colonocytes was detected by immunohistochemical staining for O(6)MeG and apoptosis. Feces were collected for measurement of pH, ammonia, phenols, p-cresol, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). O(6)MeG and fecal p-cresol concentrations were significantly higher with red meat than with casein (P < 0.018), with adducts accumulating in cells at the crypt apex. DNA adducts (P < 0.01) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) were lower and protein fermentation products (fecal ammonia, P < 0.05; phenol, P < 0.0001) higher in mice fed resistant starch. Fecal SCFA levels were also higher in mice fed resistant starch (P < 0.0001). This is the first demonstration that high protein diets increase promutagenic adducts (O(6)MeG) in the colon and dietary protein type seems to be the critical factor. The delivery of fermentable carbohydrate to the colon (as resistant starch) seems to switch from fermentation of protein to that of carbohydrate and a reduction in adduct formation, supporting previous observations that dietary resistant starch opposes the mutagenic effects of dietary red meat.

  19. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with resistant starch display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) is a fermentable dietary fiber known to alter the gut milieu, including the gut microbiota, which may explain reported effects of resistant starch to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. Our working hypothesis is that HAMRS2-induced...

  20. Is there variation in resistant starch among high amylose rice varieties?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS) is the fraction of the starch and the products of starch degradation that resist digestion in the small intestines of healthy humans and is partially or entirely fermented in the colon by the microbiota. RS in food lowers postprandial glucose concentration and has potential in ...

  1. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R(2) values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of resistant starch of native tapioca, corn and waxy corn starches and their retrograded preparations by Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Wronkowska, Malgorzata; Soral-Smietana, Maria; Biedrzycka, Elzbieta

    2008-02-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of native starches from tapioca, normal and waxy corn, and their laboratory modified preparations, by selected Bifidobacterium strains (Bifidobacterium pseudolongum KSI9, Bifidobacterium breve KN14, and Bifidobacterium animalis KS20a1) was carried out under in vitro conditions. The growth and acidifying properties of bifidobacteria and utilization of resistant starches were determined in relation to glucose in the control sample. The preparations obtained from normal and waxy corn starches were the best substrates for growth of B. breve KN14, even compared with glucose. The growth of B. animalis KS20a1 was comparable, both on native and modified starches, whereas the starch preparations better stimulated the growth and acidifying activity of B. pseudolongum KSI9, as compared with native starches. The resistant starch fractions of all preparations were generally utilized to a higher degree (64-85%) compared with native starches (56-79%). The results of the study indicate that tapioca and corn starches, both native and modified, could be substrates beneficial for the enhancement of Bifidobacterium intestinal populations.

  3. [Resistant starches. Part II. Physico-chemical and technological aspects solution medico-biological problems].

    PubMed

    Iur'ev, V P; Gapparov, M M; Vasserman, L A; Genkina, N K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recent literature data related to structure, composition and physico-chemical properties of starches as well as the special methods of processing of the starch containing raw sources producing the food products with increasing content of resistant starches. The prognosis is made about usefulness of such resistant starches for control of some metabolic disorder in human organism and for prophylactic aims.

  4. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character.

  5. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    PubMed

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  6. A new fructose-free, resistant-starch type IV-enriched enteral formula improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk biomarkers when administered for six weeks to elderly diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mesa García, María Dolores; García-Rodríguez, Cruz Erika; Rico, María de la Cruz; Aguilera, Concepción María; Pérez-Rodríguez, Milagros; Pérez-de-la-Cruz, Antonio Jesús; Gil, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Reducing the dietary glycaemic response has been proposed as a way to reduce the risk of diabetes complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in fragile, elderly type 2 diabetes patients after the intake of a new fructose-free diabetes-specific formula enriched with resistant-starch type IV and high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Forty-one type 2 diabetes patients aged 78.9 ± 2.8 years were fed exclusively with an enteral diabetes-specific formula for 6 weeks. Data were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks of feeding. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers were measured to evaluated the course of diabetes complications. Blood glycated haemoglobin significantly decreased after the intervention (6.1 ± 0.1 vs. 5.8 ± 0.1 %; p< 0,045), as well as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and soluble E-selectin (p < 0.05), while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 tended to decrease from baseline to 6 weeks (p = 0.084 and p = 0.05, respectively). The new product improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk without altering lipid metabolism, which is useful for the prevention of diabetic complications. Longer intervention studies are needed in order to validate these results in a larger population.

  7. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat.

  8. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  9. Resistant starch: a functional food that prevents DNA damage and chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, S D; Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Ogo, F M; Oliveira, R J

    2015-03-06

    Resistant starch is formed from starch and its degradation products and is not digested or absorbed in the intestine; thus, it is characterized as a fiber. Because fiber intake is associated with the prevention of DNA damage and cancer, the potential antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic capabilities of resistant starch from green banana flour were evaluated. Animals were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and their diet was supplemented with 10% green banana flour according to the following resistant starch protocols: pretreatment, simultaneous treatment, post-treatment, and pre + continuous treatment. The results demonstrated that resistant starch is not genotoxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. The results suggest that resistant starch acts through desmutagenesis and bio-antimutagenesis, as well as by reducing aberrant crypt foci, thereby improving disease prognosis. These findings imply that green banana flour has therapeutic properties that should be explored for human dietary applications.

  10. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (P<0·05). PS diet decreased the expression of the insulin receptor, and increased the expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 in liver compared with the WMS diet (P<0·05). These findings indicated that the diet with higher amylose content could down-regulate gluconeogenesis, and cause less fat deposition and more protein deposition by affecting the insulin/PI3K/protein kinase B signalling pathway in liver of finishing pigs.

  11. Water-resistant cellulosic filter containing non-leaching antimicrobial starch for water purification and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Heydarifard, Solmaz; Pan, Yuanfeng; Xiao, Huining; M Nazhad, Mousa; Shipin, Oleg

    2017-05-01

    Water-resistant cellulose foam paper was developed in this work in an attempt to improve the antimicrobial activity of cellulose foam paper for capture and deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms existed in water. Results indicated that the cellulose foam paper could significantly improve household water quality by incorporating guanidine-based polymer modified with starch or called antibacterial thermoplastic starch (ATPS) into fibre network in the presence of proper amount of fiber fines. Ring diffusion testing demonstrated that no ATPS diffused around or underneath of samples, verifying that cellulose foam filter added by ATPS were of non-leaching type. Furthermore, the viability of bacteria before and after filtering and the structure of cellulose foam paper were analyzed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images. The findings further proved the effectiveness of antimicrobial cellulose foam in deactivating pathogens, E.coli in particular.

  12. Resistant starch as a carrier for oral colon-targeting drug matrix system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Pang, Yansheng; Li, Lin; Zhang, Ximei; Yu, Long

    2007-11-01

    In this study, a novel tablet of protein drug matrix for colon targeting was developed using resistant starch as a carrier prepared by pre-gelatinization and cross-linking of starch. The effects of pre-gelatinization and cross-linking on the swelling and enzymatic degradation of maize starch as well as the release rate of drug from the matrix tablets were examined. Cross-linked pre-gelatinized maize starches were prepared by double modification of pre-gelatinization and cross-linked with POCl(3), and bovine serum albumin was used as a model drug. For in vitro drug release assays, the resistant starch matrix tablets were incubated in simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid, respectively. The content of resistant starch and swelling property of maize starch were increased by pre-gelatinization and cross-linking, which retarded its enzymatic degradation. Drug release studies have shown that the matrix tablets of cross-linked pre-gelatinized maize starch could delivery the drug to the colon. These results indicate that the resistant starch carrier prepared by pre-gelatinization and cross-linking can be used for a potential drug delivery carrier for colon-targeting drug matrix delivery system.

  13. Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the production of cross-linked starch with high resistant starch content.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Kevser; Koksel, Hamit; Ng, Perry K W

    2015-05-01

    The optimum reaction conditions (temperature and pH) for the preparation of cross-linked (CL) corn and wheat starches with maximum resistant starch (RS) content were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). According to the preliminary results, five levels were selected for reaction temperature (38-70 °C) and pH (10-12) in the main study. RS contents of the CL corn and wheat starch samples increased with increasing temperature and pH, and pH had a greater influence on RS content than had temperature. The maximum RS content (with a maximum p value of 0.4%) was obtained in wheat starch cross-linked at 38 °C and pH 12. In the case of CL corn starch, the optimum condition was 70 °C and pH 12. CL corn and wheat starch samples were also produced separately under the optimum conditions and their RS contents were 80.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These results were also in agreement with the values predicted by RSM.

  14. Effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response.

    PubMed

    Sonia, Steffi; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Ridwan, Rahmawati

    2015-01-01

    Cooling of cooked starch is known to cause starch retrogradation which increases resistant starch content. This study aimed to determine the effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response in healthy subjects. Resistant starch contents were analyzed on freshly cooked white rice (control rice), cooked white rice cooled for 10 hours at room temperature (test rice I), and cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated (test rice II). The results showed that resistant starch contents in control rice, test rice I, and test rice II were 0.64 g/100 g, 1.30 g/100 g, and 1.65 g/100 g, respectively. Test rice II had higher resistant starch content than test rice I, hence used in the clinical study along with control rice to characterize glycemic response in 15 healthy adults. The clinical study was a randomized, single-blind crossover study. In the clinical study, test rice II significantly lowered glycemic response compared with control rice (125±50.1 vs 152±48.3 mmol.min/L, respectively; p=0.047). In conclusion, cooling of cooked white rice increased resistant starch content. Cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated lowered glycemic response compared with freshly cooked white rice.

  15. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    PubMed Central

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  16. Changes in resistant starch from two banana cultivars during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Tang, Xue Juan; Chen, Ping Sheng; Huang, Hui Hua

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch samples were extracted and isolated from two banana cultivars (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup and Musa ABB group, Pisang Awak subgroup) at seven ripening stages during postharvest storage. The structures of the resistant starch samples were analysed by light microscopy, polarising microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical properties (e.g., water-holding capacity, solubility, swelling power, transparency, starch-iodine absorption spectrum, and Brabender microviscoamylograph profile) were determined. The results revealed significant differences in microstructure and physicochemical characteristics among the banana resistant starch samples during different ripening stages. The results of this study provide valuable information for the potential applications of banana resistant starches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2013-09-12

    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications.

  18. The regulatory effects of resistant starch on glycaemic response in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tohru

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of resistant starch on postprandial glycaemic response in obese dogs. The changes in blood glucose concentrations and glycaemic index (GI) were chronologically determined after the administration of resistant and normal starches by nasal feeding. Resistant starch contained indigestible dextrin (IDD) and β-cyclic dextrin (β-CD). Soluble starch (SS) served as a control starch. Glucose concentrations reached their maximum 15 min after the administration of SS solutions, and decreased gradually during the experimental period. In contrast, after the administration of IDD solutions, increased glucose concentrations rapidly decreased to the initial values. After the administration of β-CD solutions, glucose concentrations remained unchanged during this study. GI levels remained constant in the following order: β-CD < IDD < SS. GI levels of dogs receiving IDD and β-CD solutions were significantly lower as compared with those animals receiving SS solutions. In this study, nasal tube feeding was an effective method for evaluating glycaemic responses to various starches accurately. The present data revealed that resistant starches were useful materials in controlling nutritionally glucose concentrations in obese dogs. These results raise the possibility that resistant starches are valuable for dietetic treatment of diabetes and obesity in dogs.

  19. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose.

  20. Dietary fibre in bread and corresponding flours--formation of resistant starch during baking.

    PubMed

    Johansson, C G; Siljeström, M; Asp, N G

    1984-07-01

    Dietary fibre, assayed with an enzymatic/gravimetric method, was higher in wheat/rye bread than in the corresponding flours. The increase was most pronounced in crumbs from bread baked with mainly low-extraction-rate flour, and could be accounted for to a large extent as "resistant starch", i.e. a starch fraction available to amyloglucosidase only after solubilization with 2 m-KOH. The resistant starch was formed at dough-making and/or baking and did not increase further during freezing or storage at room temperature. The chemical modifications leading to resistant starch formation remain to be investigated. Starch-lipid complexes are probably not involved, since these are hydrolyzed by the heat-stable amylase used in the dietary fibre assay.

  1. Controlling the Resistive Switching Behavior in Starch-Based Flexible Biomemristors.

    PubMed

    Raeis-Hosseini, Niloufar; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-03-23

    Implementation of biocompatible materials in resistive switching memory (ReRAM) devices provides opportunities to use them in biomedical applications. We demonstrate a robust, nonvolatile, flexible, and transparent ReRAM based on potato starch. We also introduce a biomolecular memory device that has a starch-chitosan composite layer. The ReRAM behavior can be controlled by mixing starch with chitosan in the resistive switching layer. Whereas starch-based biomemory devices which show abrupt changes in current level; the memory device with mixed biopolymers undergoes gradual changes. Both devices exhibit uniform and robust programmable memory properties for nonvolatile memory applications. The explicated source of the bipolar resistive switching behavior is assigned to formation and rupture of carbon-rich filaments. The gradual set/reset behavior in the memory device based on a starch-chitosan mixture makes it suitable for use in neuromorphic devices.

  2. Preparation and characterization of sorghum flour with increased resistant starch content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary objective of this research was to develop an effective process to increase the resistant starch content of sorghum flour. A secondary objective was to investigate the role of the sorghum proteins on starch digestibility. Samples of white sorghum flour (28.9% amylose content) with differe...

  3. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (λmax), we propose a novel index, "new λmax" (AAC/(λmax of sample rice starches-λmax of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of λmax and "new λmax." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method.

  4. Pasting, textural and thermal properties of resistant starch prepared from potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch using pullulanase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Pramila, S; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-03-01

    Pullulanase enzyme (40 U/g, 10 h) was used for enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch which was autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h) and lyophilized. Comparison of morphological, pasting, textural and thermal properties among native hydrolysed starch (V2) and gelatinized hydrolysed starch (V3) prepared using pullulanase enzyme on potato starch (V1) were studied. The round, elliptical, irregular and oval shape with smooth surface of V1 was replaced with amorphous mass of cohesive structure leading to loss of granular appearance in V2 and V3. The percentage of amylose and resistant starch content of V2 (27.16 %) and (24.16 %); V3 (51.44 %) and (29.35 %) was higher when compared to V1 (22.17 %) and (3.62 %). The swelling power of V1 observed at 60 °C (0.85 %) and 95 °C (8.64 %) were significantly different from V2 at 60 °C (4.97 %) and 95 °C (7.66 %) and that of V3 at 60 °C (5.82 %) and 95 °C (7.5 %). Significance difference in water solubility (7.62 %) and absorption capacity (6.11 %) was noted in V3 when compared with V1 and V2 owing to amylose/amylopectin content. Increase in water solubility and absorption capacity along with decrease in swelling power of V2 and V3 was noted due to hydrolytic and thermal process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P < 0.05).

  5. Resistant starch film-coated microparticles for an oral colon-specific polypeptide delivery system and its release behaviors.

    PubMed

    Situ, Wenbei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-23

    For the delivery of bioactive components to the colon, an oral colon-specific controlled release system coated with a resistant starch-based film through aqueous dispersion coating process was developed. Starch was modified by a high-temperature-pressure reaction, enzymatic debranching, and retrogradation, resulting in a dramatic increase in the resistibility against enzymatic digestion (meaning the formation of resistant starch, specifically RS3). This increase could be associated with an increase in the relative crystallinity, a greater amount of starch molecular aggregation structure, and the formation of a compact mass fractal structure, resulting from the treatment. The microparticles coated with this RS3 film showed an excellent controlled release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the RS3 film-coated insulin-loaded microparticles exhibited the ability to steadily decrease the plasma glucose level initially and then maintain the plasma glucose level within the normal range for total 14-22 h with different insulin dosages after oral administration; no glycopenia or glycemic fluctuation was observed. Therefore, the potential of this new RS3 film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated for the accurate delivery of bioactive polypeptides or protein to the colon.

  6. Some Nutritional Characteristics of Enzymatically Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch.

    PubMed

    Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min. The resulting resistant maltodextrin contained 24.45% dextrose equivalents, 56.06% indigestible starch and 86.62% dietary fiber. Compared to the cassava native starch, the pyrodextrin exhibited 56% solubility at room temperature and the resistant maltodextrin 100%. The glycemic index value for the resistant maltodextrin was 59% in healthy persons. Its high indigestible starch and dietary fiber contents, as well as its complete solubility, make the resistant maltodextrin a promising ingredient for raising dietary fiber content in a wide range of foods, especially in drinks, dairy products, creams and soups.

  7. β-Glucans and Resistant Starch Alter the Fermentation of Recalcitrant Fibers in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Vasanthan, Thava; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (BW 28±1.4 kg) were assigned to the diets according to a 6×6 Latin square. β-glucan-extract increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of non-glucosyl polysaccharides (accounting for ~40% of the fiber-fraction) from rapeseed meal (6%-units, P<0.001), but did not affect non-glucosyl polysaccharides from DDGS. Retrograded tapioca reduced ATTD of non-glucosyl polysaccharides from rapeseed meal and DDGS (>10%-units, P<0.001), indicating that the large amount of resistant starch entering the hindgut was preferentially degraded over recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal and DDGS, possibly related to reduced hindgut-retention time following the increased intestinal bulk. Fermentation of fiber sources was not only dependent on fiber characteristics, but also on the presence of other fibers in the diet. Hence, interactions in the gastrointestinal tract among fibrous feed ingredients should be considered when evaluating their nutritive value. PMID:27911928

  8. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  9. Dietary-resistant starch improves maternal glycemic control in Goto-Kakizaki rat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Keenan, Michael J; Raggio, Anne; Williams, Cathy; Martin, Roy J

    2011-10-01

    Dietary prebiotics show potential in anti-diabetes. Dietary resistant starch (RS) has a favorable impact on gut hormone profiles, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) consistently released, a potent anti-diabetic incretin. Also RS reduced body fat and improved glucose tolerance in rats and mice. In the current project, we hypothesize that dietary-resistant starch can improve insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β cell mass in a type 2 diabetic rat model. Altered gut fermentation and microbiota are the initial mechanisms, and enhancement in serum GLP-1 is the secondary mechanism. In this study, GK rats were fed an RS diet with 30% RS and an energy control diet. After 10 wk, these rats were mated and went through pregnancy and lactation. At the end of the study, pancreatic β cell mass, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic insulin content, total GLP-1 levels, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and butyrate producing bacteria in cecal contents were greatly improved by RS feeding. The offspring of RS-fed dams showed improved fasting glucose levels and normal growth curves. Dietary RS is potentially of great therapeutic importance in the treatment of diabetes and improvement in outcomes of pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Development of EMS-induced mutation population for amylose and resistant starch variation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and identification of candidate genes responsible for amylose variation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ankita; Singh, Anuradha; Sharma, Monica; Kumar, Pankaj; Roy, Joy

    2016-10-06

    Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions. The topic of nutrition security is currently receiving much attention and consumer demand for food products with improved nutritional qualities has increased. In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), variation in amylose content is narrow, hence its limited improvement. Therefore, it is necessary to produce wheat lines or populations showing wide variation in amylose/resistant starch content. In this study, a set of EMS-induced M4 mutant lines showing dynamic variation in amylose/resistant starch content were produced. Furthermore, two diverse mutant lines for amylose content were used to study quantitative expression patterns of 20 starch metabolic pathway genes and to identify candidate genes for amylose biosynthesis. A population comprising 101 EMS-induced mutation lines (M4 generation) was produced in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety. Two methods of amylose measurement in grain starch showed variation in amylose content ranging from ~3 to 76 % in the population. The method of in vitro digestion showed variation in resistant starch content from 1 to 41 %. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variation (p < 0.05) in amylose and resistant starch content within the population. A multiple comparison test (Dunnett's test) showed that significant variation in amylose and resistant starch content, with respect to the parent, was observed in about 89 and 38 % of the mutant lines, respectively. Expression pattern analysis of 20 starch metabolic pathway genes in

  11. Nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of resistant starch varieties and conventional fibres in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Liu, Qiang; Wood, Peter; Fan, Ming Z

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the influence of different resistant starch (RS) varieties and conventional fibres on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation in pigs. Thirty-six pigs (30 kg) were fed poultry meal-based diets supplemented with 10 % granular resistant corn starch (GCS), granular resistant potato starch (GPS), retrograded resistant corn starch (RCS), guar gum (GG) or cellulose for 36 d according to a completely randomised block design. Distal ileal and total tract recoveries were similar (P>0.05) among the RS varieties. Distal ileal starch recovery was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs consuming the RS diets (27-42 %) as compared with the control group (0.64 %). Consumption of GCS reduced (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility and whole-body retention of crude protein in comparison with the control group. Consumption of GPS reduced (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility and whole-body retention of Ca and P compared with the control group. However, consumption of RCS increased (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility compared with the control group. Caecal butyrate concentration was increased (P < 0.05) following consumption of RCS and GG in comparison with the control group. Consumption of all the RS varieties reduced (P < 0.05) caecal indole concentrations compared with the control. Caecal butyrate concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.05; r 0.63-0.83) with thermal properties among the RS varieties. We conclude that nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of different RS varieties and types of fibres. Thermal properties associated with different RS varieties may be useful markers for developing RS varieties with specific functionality.

  12. Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Coudray, C; Bellanger, J; Demigné, C; Rayssiguier, Y; Rémésy, C

    2001-10-01

    Resistant starch and inulin are complex carbohydrates that are fermented by the microflora and known to increase colonic absorption of minerals in animals. The fermentation of these substrates in the large bowel to short-chain fatty acids is the main reason for this increase in mineral absorption. The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential synergistic effect of a combination of these two fermentable carbohydrates. For this purpose, thirty-two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 g were used in the present study. The rats were distributed into four groups, and fed for 21 d a fibre-free basal purified diet or diet containing 100 g inulin, or 150 g resistant starch (raw potato starch)/kg diet or a blend of 50 g inulin and 75 g resistant starch/kg diet. After an adaptation period of 14 d, the rats were then transferred to metabolic cages and dietary intake, faeces and urine were monitored for 5 d. The animals were then anaesthetized and caecal Ca and Mg absorption were measured. Finally, the rats were killed and blood, caecum and tissues were sampled. Ca and Mg levels were assessed in diets, faeces, urine, caecum and plasma by atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results confirmed that inulin and resistant starch ingestion led to considerable caecal fermentation in the three experimental groups compared with the control group diet. Moreover, both carbohydrates significantly increased the intestinal absorption and balance of Ca and Mg, without altering the plasma level of these two minerals. Interestingly, the combination of the studied carbohydrates increased significantly the caecal soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, the apparent intestinal absorption and balance of Ca, and non-significantly the plasma Mg level. In conclusion, a combination of different carbohydrates showed synergistic effects on intestinal Ca absorption and balance in rats. Further studies with other types of carbohydrate combinations should be carried out to extend these findings.

  13. Functionality of chemically modified waxy, partial waxy and wild-type starches from common wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch contains little or no amylose. Partial waxy wheats have amylose concentrations intermediate between those of waxy and wild-type (normal) starches. A factorial design was used to compare waxy, wild-type, partial waxy, and blends (10 and 17% amylose) of waxy an...

  14. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Ai, Yongfeng; Jones, Roger W.; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  15. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-09-17

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  16. Effect of Dietary Resistant Starch on Prevention and Treatment of Obesity-related Diseases and Its Possible Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hua Ting; Shen, Li; Fang, Qi Chen; Qian, Ling Ling; Jia, Wei Ping

    2015-04-01

    Overweight or obesity has become a serious public health problem in the world, scientists are concentrating their efforts on exploring novel ways to treat obesity. Nowadays, the availabilities of bariatric surgery and pharmacotherapy have enhanced obesity treatment, but it should has support from diet, physical exercise and lifestyle modification, especially the functional food. Resistant starch, an indigestible starch, has been studied for years for its beneficial effects on regulating blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of resistant starch on weight loss and the possible mechanisms. According to numerous previous studies it could be concluded that resistant starch can reduce fat accumulation, enhance insulin sensitivity, regulate blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. Recent investigations have focused on the possible associations between resistant starch and incretins as well as gut microbiota. Resistant starch seems to be a promising dietary fiber for the prevention or treatment of obesity and its related diseases.

  17. Banana Resistant Starch and Its Effects on Constipation Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2θ 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation. PMID:25046686

  18. Banana resistant starch and its effects on constipation model mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2(θ) 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation.

  19. Effects of Arabinoxylan and Resistant Starch on Intestinal Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary E.; Dige, Anders; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Agnholt, Jørgen; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld; Marco, Maria L.; Gregersen, Søren; Dahlerup, Jens F.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the intestinal microbiota has been emphasised as an important contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome. Dietary fibre may exert beneficial effects through modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolic end products. We investigated the effects of a diet enriched with two different dietary fibres, arabinoxylan and resistant starch type 2, on the gut microbiome and faecal short-chain fatty acids. Nineteen adults with metabolic syndrome completed this randomised crossover study with two 4-week interventions of a diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch and a low-fibre Western-style diet. Faecal samples were collected before and at the end of the interventions for fermentative end-product analysis and 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial gene amplification for identification of bacterial taxa. Faecal carbohydrate residues were used to verify compliance. The diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch resulted in significant reductions in the total species diversity of the faecal-associated intestinal microbiota but also increased the heterogeneity of bacterial communities both between and within subjects. The proportion of Bifidobacterium was increased by arabinoxylan and resistant starch consumption (P<0.001), whereas the proportions of certain bacterial genera associated with dysbiotic intestinal communities were reduced. Furthermore, the total short-chain fatty acids (P<0.01), acetate (P<0.01) and butyrate concentrations (P<0.01) were higher by the end of the diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with those resulting from the Western-style diet. The concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.05) and isovalerate (P = 0.03) decreased in response to the arabinoxylan and resistant starch enriched diet, indicating reduced protein fermentation. In conclusion, arabinoxylan and resistant starch intake changes the microbiome and short-chain fatty acid compositions, with potential beneficial effects on colonic health

  20. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  2. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of molecular weight profile of sorghum proanthocyanidins on resistant starch formation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Frederico; Awika, Joseph; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest to increase resistant starch (RS) in foods through natural modification of starch. Sorghum tannins (proanthocyanidins, PAs) were recently reported to interact with starch, increasing RS. However, there is no information about how the molecular weight profile of PAs affects RS formation. This study investigated how different-molecular-weight PAs from sorghum affected RS formation in different starch models. The levels of RS were higher (331-437 mg g(-1)) when high-amylose starch was cooked with phenolic extracts containing mostly high-molecular-weight PAs compared with extracts containing lower-molecular-weight PAs or monomeric catechin (249-285 mg g(-1)). In general, binding capacity of PAs with amylose increased proportionally with molecular weight. For example, the percentage of PAs bound to amylose increased from 45% (PAs with degree of polymerization (DP) = 6) to 94% (polymeric PAs, DP > 10). The results demonstrate that molecular weight of the PAs directly affects their interaction with starch: the higher the molecular weight, the stronger the binding to amylose and the higher the RS formation. Polymeric PAs from sorghum can naturally modify starch by interacting strongly with amylose and are thus most suitable to produce foods with higher RS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis.

  5. [X-ray diffraction study of high hydrostatic pressure on crystalline structure of different type starches].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Ling; Shen, Qun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2012-09-01

    Crystalline changes of different type starches after high hydrostatic pressure treated under 300, 450, 600 MPa were studied by X-ray diffraction. Waxy maize (A type, 100% amylopectin), hylon VII (B type, 30% amylopectin) and tapioca starch (C type, 83% amylopectin) were chosen. The results indicated that for waxy maize starch, annealing effect was observed at 300 MPa, disappearance of crystalline structure happened at 450 MPa and retrogradation at 600 MPa. The results proved that the granule under high hydrostatic pressure processing experiences "three development stages" including annealling effect, disappearance of crystalline structure and recrystalline after granule disintegration.

  6. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Topping, D L; Clifton, P M

    2001-07-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is starch and products of its small intestinal digestion that enter the large bowel. It occurs for various reasons including chemical structure, cooking of food, chemical modification, and food mastication. Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. SCFA stimulate colonic blood flow and fluid and electrolyte uptake. Butyrate is a preferred substrate for colonocytes and appears to promote a normal phenotype in these cells. Fermentation of some RS types favors butyrate production. Measurement of colonic fermentation in humans is difficult, and indirect measures (e.g., fecal samples) or animal models have been used. Of the latter, rodents appear to be of limited value, and pigs or dogs are preferable. RS is less effective than NSP in stool bulking, but epidemiological data suggest that it is more protective against colorectal cancer, possibly via butyrate. RS is a prebiotic, but knowledge of its other interactions with the microflora is limited. The contribution of RS to fermentation and colonic physiology seems to be greater than that of NSP. However, the lack of a generally accepted analytical procedure that accommodates the major influences on RS means this is yet to be established.

  7. Resistant starch for modulation of gut microbiota: Promising adjuvant therapy for chronic kidney disease patients?

    PubMed

    Moraes, Cristiane; Borges, Natália A; Mafra, Denise

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota has been extensively studied in all health science fields because its imbalance is linked to many disorders, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications. Novel therapeutic strategies that aim to reduce the complications caused by this imbalance have increased in recent years. Studies have shown that prebiotic supplementation can beneficially modulate the gut microbiota in CKD patients. Prebiotics consist of non-digestible dietary soluble fiber, which acts as a substrate for the gut microbiota. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that can reach the large bowel and act as a substrate for microbial fermentation; for these reasons, it has been considered to be a prebiotic. Few studies have analyzed the effects of RS on the gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review discusses recent information about RS and the potential role of the gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on CKD patients.

  8. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.

  9. Class 2 resistant starches lower plasma and liver lipids and improve mineral retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Levrat-Verny, M A; Coudray, C; Besson, C; Krespine, V; Messager, A; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    2001-04-01

    The effects of raw potato starch (RPS) and high amylose corn starch (HAS) on cecal digestion, lipid metabolism and mineral utilization (Ca and Mg) were compared in rats adapted to semipurified diets. The diets provided either 710 g wheat starch/100 g diet (control) alone or 510 g wheat starch/100 g diet plus 200 g resistant starch/100 g (RPS or HAS). Compared with rats fed the control diet, significant cecal hypertrophy (240% after 7 d of the fiber consumption) and short-chain fatty acids accumulation (especially propionic and butyric acids) occurred after both resistant starch diets. Apparent Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu absorptions were similarly enhanced by RPS and HAS (50, 50, 27, 21 and 90%, respectively). Cholesterol absorption was reduced to 14% of intake in rats fed RPS or HAS compared with 47% absorption in control rats. RPS and HAS were also effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (-31 and -27%, respectively) and triglycerides (-28 and -22%, respectively). There was no effect of the diets on cholesterol in d > 1.040 kg/L lipoproteins (HDL), whereas RPS and HAS depressed cholesterol in d < 1.040 kg/L lipoproteins (especially in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins). Moreover, there were lower concentrations of cholesterol (-50 and -40%, respectively) and triglycerides (-53 and -47%, respectively) in the livers of RPS- and HAS-fed rats. Thus, RPS and HAS have similar effects on intestinal fermentation, mineral utilization and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

  10. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in white vegetables: links to health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-05-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets.

  11. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  12. Proteomic analysis of the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis of maize with different endosperm type and characterization of the starch.

    PubMed

    Juárez-García, Erika; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Gómez-Montiel, Noel Orlando; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2013-08-30

    The characterization of starch maize with different endosperm type and the proteomic analysis of its biosynthetic enzymes at 20 and 50 days after pollination (DAP) was carried out. There were differences between both endosperm types at 20 DAP, mainly in starch accumulation, amylose content, granule size and crystallinity percentage, whereas at 50 DAP the differences found were not relevant in the case of starch content, granule size, chain length distribution and thermal properties. SSSI, SBEIIb and GBSSI enzymes were identified; however, SBEIIb was only identified in two samples: floury endosperm at 20 DAP and vitreous at 50 DAP. Starch did not show differences in its morphological or structural characteristics in either endosperm on reaching maturity. Starch biosynthetic enzymes identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight did not show a relationship to starch structure. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Impacts of Cellulose Fiber Particle Size and Starch Type on Expansion During Extrusion Processing.

    PubMed

    Kallu, Sravya; Kowalski, Ryan J; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2017-07-01

    Objective of this study was to understand the impacts of cellulose fiber with different particle size distributions, and starches with different molecular weights, on the expansion of direct expanded products. Fiber with 3 different particle size distributions (<125, 150 to 250, 300 to 425 μm) and 4 types of starches representing different amylose contents (0%, 23%, 50%, and 70%) were investigated. Feed moisture content (18 ± 0.5 % w.b) and extruder temperature (140 °C) were kept constant and only the extruder screw speed was varied (100, 175, and 250 rpm) to achieve different specific mechanical energy inputs. Fiber particle size and starch type significantly influenced the various product parameters. In general, the smaller fiber particle size resulted in extrudate with higher expansion ratio. Starch with an amylose: amylopectin ratio of 23:77 resulted in highest expansion compared to the other starches, when no fiber was added. Interestingly, starch with 50:50, amylose: amylopectin ratio in combination with smaller fiber particles resulted in product with significantly greater expansion than the control starch extrudates. Aggregation of fiber and shrinkage of surface was observed in the Scanning Electron Microscope images at 10% fiber level. The results suggest the presence of active interactions between the cellulose fiber particles and corn starch molecules during the expansion process. A better understanding of these interactions can help in the development of high fiber extruded products with better expansion. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Melliana C; Haenen, Daniëlle; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and barley. Digesta from different parts of the large intestine were collected and analysed for sugar composition and carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities. Resistant starch, as well as β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan, was utilised mainly in the caecum. The utilisation of β-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan in the caecum was higher in DS-fed pigs than in RS-fed pigs. Analyses on carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities demonstrated that microbial enzyme production was stimulated according to the diet composition, and the enzyme profile throughout the large intestine of RS-fed pigs indicated that the presence of resistant starch shifted the utilisation of NSPs to more distal parts of the colon.

  15. Impact of resistant starch in three plantain (Musa AAB) products on glycaemic response of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Oladele, Ebun-Oluwa; Williamson, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Plantains can be eaten in various forms providing a good opportunity to study the effect of starch type on glycaemic response, and so three products differing in their types of available carbohydrate and contents of resistant starch were tested. Boiled unripe plantain (BUP), boiled unripe plantain crisps (BUPC), ripe raw plantain (RRP) and white bread as reference (all 25 g available carbohydrate portion) were given to ten pre-screened healthy individuals. Postprandial glycaemic responses and glycaemic indices (GI) were measured. Peak blood glucose for BUP, BUPC and RRP was at 45, 45 and 30 min post-meal time, respectively. The peak blood glucose concentrations for BUP, BUPC and RRP (1.8 ± 0.8, 2.3 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L, n = 10, respectively) reflected the in vitro quantities/types of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in the samples. On the other hand, mean GI ± SEM values obtained for the test products (BUP = 44.9 ± 3.6, BUPC = 55.0 ± 4.2, RRP = 38 ± 4.4, n = 10) were neither significantly different nor directly correlated with RAG. The results show a potential link between RAG and GI, but the correlation is confounded by the presence of other constituents in the plantains.

  16. Preparation and physicochemical properties of three types of modified glutinous rice starches.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Zhou, Yibin; Wu, Yiming; Meng, Xin; Jiang, Yamei; Zhang, Haiwei; Wang, Haisong

    2016-02-10

    Hydroxypropylated, phosphorylated, and hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated starches were prepared from glutinous rice starch, and their physicochemical and structural properties were investigated. With increasing reaction time, the molar or degree of substitution of modified starches increased. SEM micrographs revealed that phosphorylated starch granules retained their relative integrity, while some cracks appeared on the surface of hydroxypropylated and hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated starch granules. RVA analyses revealed that pasting properties improved after chemical modification. Additionally, chemical modification improved freeze-thaw stability, especially in hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated starch. DSC analyses showed that onset temperature and gelatinization enthalpy decreased with increasing reaction time, especially in the dual-modified starch. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that native and modified starches had A-type crystalline patterns. FT-IR spectra showed some minor spectral differences after modification. (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra showed that a novel peak appeared at 20 ppm after hydroxypropylation and that the relative intensity signals in the C4 region increased after phosphorylation.

  17. Variable responses of human microbiomes to dietary supplementation with resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, A; Sieber, J R; Schmidt, A W; Waldron, C; Theis, K R; Schmidt, T M

    2016-06-29

    The fermentation of dietary fiber to various organic acids is a beneficial function provided by the microbiota in the human large intestine. In particular, butyric acid contributes to host health by facilitating maintenance of epithelial integrity, regulating inflammation, and influencing gene expression in colonocytes. We sought to increase the concentration of butyrate in 20 healthy young adults through dietary supplementation with resistant starch (unmodified potato starch-resistant starch (RS) type 2). Fecal samples were collected from individuals to characterize butyrate concentration via liquid chromatography and composition of the microbiota via surveys of 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences from the Illumina MiSeq platform. Random Forest and LEfSe analyses were used to associate responses in butyrate production to features of the microbiota. RS supplementation increased fecal butyrate concentrations in this cohort from 8 to 12 mmol/kg wet feces, but responses varied widely between individuals. Individuals could be categorized into three groups based upon butyrate concentrations before and during RS: enhanced, high, and low (n = 11, 3, and 6, respectively). Fecal butyrate increased by 67 % in the enhanced group (from 9 to 15 mmol/kg), while it remained ≥11 mmol/kg in the high group and ≤8 mmol/kg in the low group. Microbiota analyses revealed that the relative abundance of RS-degrading organisms-Bifidobacterium adolescentis or Ruminococcus bromii-increased from ~2 to 9 % in the enhanced and high groups, but remained at ~1.5 % in the low group. The lack of increase in RS-degrading bacteria in the low group may explain why there was no increase in fecal butyrate in response to RS. The microbiota of individuals in the high group were characterized by an elevated abundance of the butyrogenic microbe Eubacterium rectale (~6 % in high vs. 3 % in enhanced and low groups) throughout the study. We document the heterogeneous responses in butyrate

  18. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Janine A.

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance; the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced prostprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a “weight loss wonder food”. This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims. PMID:24499148

  19. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. This was a small controlled clinical trial to dete...

  20. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shu-Man; Lau, Wei Ling; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Adams, Sean H; Martin, Roy J

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammonia leading to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation; and restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables which are common sources of fermentable fiber. Restriction of these foods leads to depletion of bacteria that convert indigestible carbohydrates to short chain fatty acids which are important nutrients for colonocytes and regulatory T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that a high resistant starch diet attenuates CKD progression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks to induce CKD. Rats were then fed diets supplemented with amylopectin (low-fiber control) or high fermentable fiber (amylose maize resistant starch, HAM-RS2) for 3 weeks. CKD rats consuming low fiber diet exhibited reduced creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, tubular damage, activation of NFkB, upregulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-fibrotic molecules; impaired Nrf2 activity, down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction. The high resistant starch diet significantly attenuated these abnormalities. Thus high resistant starch diet retards CKD progression and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of HAM-RS2 in CKD patients.

  1. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Janine A

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight-loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance--the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes, which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food, thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due to its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a "weight loss wonder food". This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims.

  2. Characterization of the endosperm starch and the pleiotropic effects of biosynthetic enzymes on their properties in novel mutant rice lines with high resistant starch and amylose content.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuuki; Crofts, Naoko; Abe, Misato; Hosaka, Yuko; Fujita, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is beneficial to human health. In order to reduce the current prevalence of diabetes and obesity, several transgenic and mutant crops containing high RS content are being developed. RS content of steamed rice with starch-branching enzyme (BE)IIb-deficient mutant endosperms is considerably high. To understand the mechanisms of RS synthesis and to increase RS content, we developed novel mutant rice lines by introducing the gene encoding starch synthase (SS)IIa and/or granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS)I from an indica rice cultivar into a japonica rice-based BEIIb-deficient mutant line, be2b. Introduction of SSIIa from an indica rice cultivar produced higher levels of amylopectin chains with degree of polymerization (DP) 11-18 than those in be2b; the extent of the change was slight due to the shortage of donor chains for SSIIa (DP 6-12) owing to BEIIb deficiency. The introduction of GBSSI from an indica rice cultivar significantly increased amylose content (by approximately 10%) in the endosperm starch. RS content of the new mutant lines was the same as or slightly higher than that of the be2b parent line. The relationship linking starch structure, RS content, and starch biosynthetic enzymes in the new mutant lines has also been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between branching density and crystalline structure of A- and B-type maize mutant starches.

    PubMed

    Gérard, C; Planchot, V; Colonna, P; Bertoft, E

    2000-06-02

    Amylopectin from two double maize mutant starches of A-crystalline (wxdu) and B-crystalline type (aewx) was subjected successively to hydrolysis involving alpha and beta amylases, which isolated clusters and all branching zones of clusters (BZC). Enzymatic analysis together with ionic and size-exclusion chromatography revealed the structural features of the clusters and BZC and their role in starch crystallization. A-type clusters were larger (dp(n) > 80) and contained more (but shorter) chains than B-type clusters. The BZC of A-type starch was also larger, but with a shorter distance between the branching points than in B-type BZC. A-type clusters had a densely packed structure and B-type a poorly branched structure. Models for the structure of A- and B-type clusters are presented, and a hypothesis for the influence of cluster geometry on crystallization is proposed.

  4. Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Xiaolei; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    The release of energy from particulate substrates such as dietary fiber and resistant starch (RS) in the human colon may depend on the presence of specialist primary degraders (or ‘keystone species') within the microbial community. We have explored the roles of four dominant amylolytic bacteria found in the human colon in the degradation and utilization of resistant starches. Eubacterium rectale and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron showed limited ability to utilize RS2- and RS3-resistant starches by comparison with Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Ruminococcus bromii. In co-culture, however, R. bromii proved unique in stimulating RS2 and RS3 utilization by the other three bacterial species, even in a medium that does not permit growth of R. bromii itself. Having previously demonstrated low RS3 fermentation in vivo in two individuals with undetectable populations of R. bromii-related bacteria, we show here that supplementation of mixed fecal bacteria from one of these volunteers with R. bromii, but not with the other three species, greatly enhanced the extent of RS3 fermentation in vitro. This argues strongly that R. bromii has a pivotal role in fermentation of RS3 in the human large intestine, and that variation in the occurrence of this species and its close relatives may be a primary cause of variable energy recovery from this important component of the diet. This work also indicates that R. bromii possesses an exceptional ability to colonize and degrade starch particles when compared with previously studied amylolytic bacteria from the human colon. PMID:22343308

  5. Physical Cross-Linking Starch-Based Zwitterionic Hydrogel Exhibiting Excellent Biocompatibility, Protein Resistance, and Biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Qiangsong; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Boguang; Ji, Feng; Dong, Dianyu; Gao, Lina; Cui, Yuanlu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a novel starch-based zwitterionic copolymer, starch-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (ST-g-PSBMA), was synthesized via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Starch, which formed the main chain, can be degraded completely in vivo, and the pendent segments of PSBMA endowed the copolymer with excellent protein resistance properties. This ST-g-PSBMA copolymer could self-assemble into a physical hydrogel in normal saline, and studies of the formation mechanism indicated that the generation of the physical hydrogel was driven by electrostatic interactions between PSBMA segments. The obtained hydrogels were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio, protein resistance, and rheology tests. Toxicity and hemolysis analysis demonstrated that the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, the cytokine secretion assays (IL-6, TNF-α, and NO) confirmed that ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels had low potential to trigger the activation of macrophages and were suitable for in vivo biomedical applications. On the basis of these in vitro results, the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels were implanted in SD rats. The tissue responses to hydrogel implantation and the hydrogel degradation in vivo were determined by histological analysis (Hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome stains). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the physical cross-linking, starch-based zwitterionic hydrogels possess excellent protein resistance, low macrophage-activation properties, and good biocompatibility, and they are a promising candidate for an in vivo biomedical application platform.

  6. Peculiarities of enhancing resistant starch in ruminants using chemical methods: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-06-04

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants.

  7. Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  8. Mutations in durum wheat SBEII genes conferring increased amylose and resistant starch affect grain yield components, semolina and pasta quality and fermentation responses in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum spp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that provide human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of t...

  9. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.

  10. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  11. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products.

    PubMed

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.

  12. Research Advances on Structural Characterization of Resistant Starch and Its Structure-Physiological Function Relationship: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I

    2016-09-19

    Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the fraction of starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine due to either difficult enzyme/starch contact or to the strength of the crystalline regions formed both in native starch and in those retrograded starch. RS occurs naturally in some foods, and some may be generated in others as the results of several processing conditions. A variety of techniques have been employed to obtain structural characteristics of resistant starch such as their crystallinity, structural order, chain length distribution and conformation, helicity, and double helical structures. These structure plays an important role in determining the physiological properties of RS such as their prebiotic and hypoglycaemic properties. However, such topic on structural characterization of RS and their structure-physiological function relationship have not been reviewed in previous literatures. Therefore, this review focuses on the past and current achievements of research on structural characterizations of a range of resistant starch prepared from different sources of native starches as a result of a variety of processing conditions. The potential relationships between the structure and the physiological properties of RS which is of paramount importance for the furtherance understanding and application of RS are also reviewed in this study.

  13. Effect of acetylation, oxidation and annealing on physicochemical properties of bean starch.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Senay; Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-10-15

    Black and Pinto bean starches were physically and chemically modified to investigate the effect of modification on digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch. The impact of acetylation, oxidation (ozonation) and annealing on the chemical composition, syneresis, swelling volume, pasting, thermal properties and digestibility of starches was evaluated. The physicochemical and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the Black and Pinto bean starches treated with ozone were not significantly (P>0.05) different than that of their respective control starches. Annealed starches had improved thermal and pasting properties compared to native starches. Acetylated starches presented reduced syneresis, good pasting properties and lower eGI. Also, all modified starches had increased levels of resistant starch (RS). Therefore, the digestibility and physicochemical properties of bean starch were affected by the type of modification but there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the Black and Pinto bean starches.

  14. Development, relative retention, and productivity of red flour beetle on resistant starches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development, relative retention, and fecundity of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), on six different types of starches, flour, and flour plus yeast was investigated in the laboratory. The viability of T. castaneum eggs was checked initially by placin...

  15. A Putative Gene sbe3-rs for Resistant Starch Mutated from SBE3 for Starch Branching Enzyme in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancer, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world’s population. A japonica mutant ‘Jiang...

  16. Effect of starch type and its modifications on physicochemical properties of bologna-type sausage produced with sheep tail fat.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, N; Gençcelep, H

    2006-10-01

    Gelatinized, solubilized/dispersed and retrograded starches were produced from normal (unmodified) corn and potato starches, and were used with sheep tail fat for sausage batters. Emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, water holding capacity (WHC), emulsion viscosity and batter pH were determined. Penetrometer reading after cooking of the batters, and tenderness of the end-product were determined. Modified starches statistically (p<0.01) affected emulsion stability and emulsion viscosity. The modification process was not significant for pH, WHC, jelly and fat separation and penetrometer values (p>0.05). While type of used starch had a significant effect on jelly and fat separation (p<0.05), for the other measurements it was not significant (p>0.05).

  17. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten-free pasta enriched with resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Foschia, Martina; Beraldo, Paola; Peressini, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine the potential use of resistant starch (RS) as a fibre-enriching ingredient in gluten-free pasta. Pasta was enriched with commercial RS type II (Hi-Maize™ 260) at 100-200 g kg(-1) substitution of rice flour. The effects on the rheological properties of dough and pasta quality as a result of RS addition and the loss in RS due to the process were evaluated. Dough water absorption was not influenced by the addition of RS. The cooking loss (CL) of RS-enriched samples was 30% lower than reference without fibre. The addition of RS significantly increased firmness of cooked pasta, and above 100 g kg(-1) RS level of substitution samples showed a lower stickiness value. Dynamic rheological tests on pasta dough showed a higher storage modulus for fibre samples, indicating a higher number of elastically physical interactions. Loss in RS in uncooked pasta was about 31% compared with the initial amount added to the product. The addition of RS improved the quality of gluten-free pasta owing to its ability to increase the firmness and decrease the CL and stickiness of cooked pasta. The product enriched with 200 g kg(-1) RS can be considered a source of DF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Resistant starch manipulated hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and related genes expression in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, ZhongKai; Wang, Fang; Ren, XiaoChong; Wang, Yuyang; Blanchard, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) administration on biological parameters including blood glucose, lipids composition and oxidative stress of type 2 diabetic rats was investigated. The results showed blood glucose level, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations significantly reduced, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was doubly increased in the rats of RS administration group compared to model control group (P<0.01). The analyses of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism pathways demonstrated that the expression levels of lipid oxidation gene Acox1, glycogen synthesis genes, GS2 and GYG1, and insulin-induced genes, Insig-1 and Insig-2, were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01). In contrast, fatty acids and triglycerides synthesis and metabolism-related gene SREBP-1, fatty acid synthesis gene Fads1 and gluconeogenesis gene G6PC1 were greatly down-regulated. The mechanism study shows that the lowering of blood glucose level in diabetic rats by feeding RS is regulated through promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis, and the increased lipid metabolism is modulated through promoting lipid oxidation and cholesterol homeostasis. Our study revealed for the first time that the regulation of hepatic genes expression involved in glucose and lipids metabolisms in diabetic rats could be achieved even at a moderate level of RS consumption.

  19. Continuous enzymatic cooking and liquefaction of starch using the technique of direct resistive heating.

    PubMed

    Varella, V L; Concone, B R; Senise, J T; Doin, P A

    1984-07-01

    Continuous cooker prototypes of very simple design, using electricity as a primary energy source, were developed for the process of cooking and liquefaction of starch suspensions. Previous work on equipment using microwave dielectric heating has already been reported. Results of energy consumption as low as 330 kcal/kg based on starch content were achieved. Considering these results and looking for new solutions or engineering concepts, the authors have been investigating the possibility of using electric energy at 60 Hz for direct resistive heating, in which the starch suspension is the proper "resistor."The most important results of energetic yield obtained until now, working in a continuous process of cooking-liquefaction, are not larger than 235 kcal (272 Wh)/kg based on starch content. These results were obtained using a commercial grade alpha-amylase from B. subtillis, working with temperatures ranging from 70 to 75 degrees C, and with residence times in the reactor not greater than 1.5 min. The experiments of saccharification and fermentation accomplished as a test for the efficiency of this heating technique gave good results (as with a conventional technique) and thus enabled us to proceed with the studies.

  20. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001). Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to the control

  1. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M.; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001). Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to the control

  2. A putative gene sbe3-rs for resistant starch mutated from SBE3 for starch branching enzyme in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifang; Sun, Chunlong; Bai, Jianjiang; Luo, Zhixiang; Shi, Biao; Zhang, Jianming; Yan, Wengui; Piao, Zhongze

    2012-01-01

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world population. A japonica mutant 'Jiangtangdao 1' (RS = 11.67%) was crossed with an indica cultivar 'Miyang 23' (RS = 0.41%). The mutant sbe3-rs that explained 60.4% of RS variation was mapped between RM6611 and RM13366 on chromosome 2 (LOD = 36) using 178 F(2) plants genotyped with 106 genome-wide polymorphic SSR markers. Using 656 plants from four F(3:4) families, sbe3-rs was fine mapped to a 573.3 Kb region between InDel 2 and InDel 6 using one STS, five SSRs and seven InDel markers. SBE3 which codes for starch branching enzyme was identified as a candidate gene within the putative region. Nine pairs of primers covering 22 exons were designed to sequence genomic DNA of the wild type for SBE3 and the mutant for sbe3-rs comparatively. Sequence analysis identified a missense mutation site where Leu-599 of the wild was changed to Pro-599 of the mutant in the SBE3 coding region. Because the point mutation resulted in the loss of a restriction enzyme site, sbe3-rs was not digested by a CAPS marker for SpeI site while SBE3 was. Co-segregation of the digestion pattern with RS content among 178 F(2) plants further supported sbe3-rs responsible for RS in rice. As a result, the CAPS marker could be used in marker-assisted breeding to develop rice cultivars with elevated RS which is otherwise difficult to accurately assess in crops. Transgenic technology should be employed for a definitive conclusion of the sbe3-rs.

  3. Biodegradation of polystyrene-graft-starch copolymers in three different types of soil.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Vladimir; Velickovic, Sava; Popovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Materials based on polystyrene and starch copolymers are used in food packaging, water pollution treatment, and textile industry, and their biodegradability is a desired characteristic. In order to examine the degradation patterns of modified, biodegradable derivates of polystyrene, which may keep its excellent technical features but be more environmentally friendly at the same time, polystyrene-graft-starch biomaterials obtained by emulsion polymerization in the presence of new type of initiator/activator pair (potassium persulfate/different amines) were subjected to 6-month biodegradation by burial method in three different types of commercially available soils: soil rich in humus and soil for cactus and orchid growing. Biodegradation was monitored by mass decrease, and the highest degradation rate was achieved in soil for cactus growing (81.30%). Statistical analysis proved that microorganisms in different soil samples have different ability of biodegradation, and there is a significant negative correlation between the share of polystyrene in copolymer and degree of biodegradation. Grafting of polystyrene on starch on one hand prevents complete degradation of starch that is present (with maximal percentage of degraded starch ranging from 55 to 93%), while on the other hand there is an upper limit of share of polystyrene in the copolymer (ranging from 37 to 77%) that is preventing biodegradation of degradable part of copolymers.

  4. Physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch prepared from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.L) starch by enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2013-06-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch (RS) from red kidney bean starch by enzymatic method. Native and gelatinized starch were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g/10 h), autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h), and lyophilized. The enzymatic hydrolysis and thermal treatment of starch increased the formation of RS which showed an increase in water absorption and water solubility indexes and a decrease in swelling power due to hydrolytic and thermal process. The process for obtaining RS changed the crystallinity pattern from C to B and increased the crystallinity due to the retrogradation process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05).

  5. Water resistance and thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol-starch fiber blend film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, M. S. N.; Nor, N. N. Mohamed; Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. Syed

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention of starch fiber (SF) has led to the innovation of Polyvinyl Alcohol-SF (PVA-SF) blends. This blend is regarded as the biodegradable material which aims to reduce the accumulation of synthetic polymer solid waste derived from petroleum. In this study, the thermal blending characterizations of PVA-SF were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The water resistance of the blend was also evaluated to study the polarity of the blends. The blend was prepared by plasticizing the polyvinyl alcohol with glycerol and distilled water with the addition of starch fiber. The incorporation of SF to the blends was at 10 wt% to 50 wt% composition. Based on the thermal analysis, PVA-SF blends were suitable for processing at high temperatures, which can be seen by the shifted onset degradation temperature to a higher temperature. This is because cyclic hemiacetals which were provided by SF can act to prevent the thermal attacks. Conversely, increasing the starch fiber proportion to the film blend reduce the endothermic peak amplitude in the DSC thermogram. It was found that PVA-SF blend at the higher composition of SF had the highest water resistance. This may be attributed to the content of fibre in SF which is hydrophilic.

  6. Effects of structural imperfection on gelatinization characteristics of amylopectin starches with A- and B-type crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Genkina, Natalia K; Wikman, Jeanette; Bertoft, Eric; Yuryev, Vladimir P

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of physical structures on the properties of starch granules. Starches with a high amylopectin content possessing A- and B-type crystallinity were chosen for the study. The gelatinization temperature decreased in the following order: maize (A) > potato (B) > wheat (A) > barley (A), which did not reflect a correlation with the type of crystallinity. Low values of gelatinization temperature were accompanied with high free surface energy of the crystallites. It is proposed that these data are caused by different types of imperfections in starch crystals. Annealing resulted in an enhancement of the gelatinization temperature and a decrease of the free surface energy of the crystallites for all starches reflecting a partial improvement of crystalline perfection. A limited acid hydrolysis (lintnerization) of the starches decreased the gelatinization temperature because of a partial disruption of the crystalline lamellae and an increase of the amount of defects on the edges of the crystallites. Annealing of the lintnerized starches improved the structure of maize and potato starch, giving them similar structural and physicochemical parameters, which was opposite the behavior of the annealed sample from wheat. The possible nature of removable and nonremovable defects inside the crystalline region of the starch granules is discussed. It is concluded that, besides the allomorphic A- and B-types of crystal packing, physical defects in the crystals possess a major impact on starch gelatinization.

  7. Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry.

  8. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Pelkman, Christine L; Finocchiaro, E Terry; Kelley, Kathleen M; Lawless, Andrea L; Schild, Arianne L; Rains, Tia M

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model S(I) was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for S(I) did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10⁻⁵ pmol⁻¹ · L⁻¹ × min⁻¹). These results suggest that consumption of 15-30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves S(I) in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed.

  9. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-08-25

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California-Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch.

  10. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California–Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch. PMID:27110322

  11. The effects of temperature on the crystalline properties and resistant starch during storage of white bread.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, William R; Hughes, Jeff G; Cockman, Russell W; Small, Darryl M

    2017-08-01

    Resistant starch (RS) can form during storage of foods, thereby bestowing a variety of potential health benefits. The purpose of the current study has been to determine the influence of storage temperature and time on the crystallinity and RS content of bread. Loaves of white bread were baked and stored at refrigeration, frozen and room temperatures with analysis over a period of zero to seven days. RS determination and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and time on total crystallinity and RS content. The rate of starch recrystallisation was affected by storage temperature and time, where refrigeration temperatures accelerated RS formation and total crystallinity more than storage time at both frozen and room temperature. A strong statistical model has been established between RS formation in bread and XRD patterns, having a 96.7% fit indicating the potential of XRD to measure RS concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gravitropism and development of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Katembe, W. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    The "starch-statolith" hypothesis has been used by plant physiologists to explain the gravity perception mechanism in higher plants. In order to help resolve some of the controversy associated with ground-based research that has supported this theory, we performed a spaceflight experiment during the January 1997 mission of the Space Shuttle STS-81. Seedlings of wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, two reduced-starch strains, and a starchless mutant were grown in microgravity and then given a gravity stimulus on a centrifuge. In terms of development in space, germination was greater than 90% for seeds in microgravity, and flight seedlings were smaller (60% in total length) compared to control plants grown on the ground and to control plants on a rotating clinostat. Seedlings grown in space had two structural features that distinguished them from the controls: a greater density of root hairs and an anomalous hypocotyl hook structure. However, the slower growth and morphological changes observed in the flight seedlings may be due to the effects of ethylene present in the spacecraft. Nevertheless, during the flight hypocotyls of WT seedlings responded to a unilateral 60 min stimulus provided by a 1-g centrifuge while those of the starch-deficient strains did not. Thus the strain with the greatest amount of starch responded to the stimulus given in flight and therefore, these data support the starch-statolith model for gravity sensing.

  13. Gravitropism and development of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Katembe, W. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    The "starch-statolith" hypothesis has been used by plant physiologists to explain the gravity perception mechanism in higher plants. In order to help resolve some of the controversy associated with ground-based research that has supported this theory, we performed a spaceflight experiment during the January 1997 mission of the Space Shuttle STS-81. Seedlings of wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, two reduced-starch strains, and a starchless mutant were grown in microgravity and then given a gravity stimulus on a centrifuge. In terms of development in space, germination was greater than 90% for seeds in microgravity, and flight seedlings were smaller (60% in total length) compared to control plants grown on the ground and to control plants on a rotating clinostat. Seedlings grown in space had two structural features that distinguished them from the controls: a greater density of root hairs and an anomalous hypocotyl hook structure. However, the slower growth and morphological changes observed in the flight seedlings may be due to the effects of ethylene present in the spacecraft. Nevertheless, during the flight hypocotyls of WT seedlings responded to a unilateral 60 min stimulus provided by a 1-g centrifuge while those of the starch-deficient strains did not. Thus the strain with the greatest amount of starch responded to the stimulus given in flight and therefore, these data support the starch-statolith model for gravity sensing.

  14. Distinct functional properties of isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes in monocot and dicot leaves.

    PubMed

    Facon, Maud; Lin, Qiaohui; Azzaz, Abdelhamid M; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A; Myers, Alan M; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Roussel, Xavier; D'Hulst, Christophe; Wattebled, Fabrice

    2013-11-01

    Isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes (ISA) play important roles in starch biosynthesis in chloroplast-containing organisms, as shown by the strict conservation of both catalytically active ISA1 and the noncatalytic homolog ISA2. Functional distinctions exist between species, although they are not understood yet. Numerous plant tissues require both ISA1 and ISA2 for normal starch biosynthesis, whereas monocot endosperm and leaf exhibit nearly normal starch metabolism without ISA2. This study took in vivo and in vitro approaches to determine whether organism-specific physiology or evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots is responsible for distinctions in ISA function. Maize (Zea mays) ISA1 was expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lacking endogenous ISA1 or lacking both native ISA1 and ISA2. The maize protein functioned in Arabidopsis leaves to support nearly normal starch metabolism in the absence of any native ISA1 or ISA2. Analysis of recombinant enzymes showed that Arabidopsis ISA1 requires ISA2 as a partner for enzymatic function, whereas maize ISA1 was active by itself. The electrophoretic mobility of recombinant and native maize ISA differed, suggestive of posttranslational modifications in vivo. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements showed recombinant maize ISA1 to be a dimer, in contrast to previous gel permeation data that estimated the molecular mass as a tetramer. These data demonstrate that evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots is responsible for the distinctions in ISA1 function.

  15. Gravitropism and development of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Kiss, J Z; Katembe, W J; Edelmann, R E

    1998-04-01

    The "starch-statolith" hypothesis has been used by plant physiologists to explain the gravity perception mechanism in higher plants. In order to help resolve some of the controversy associated with ground-based research that has supported this theory, we performed a spaceflight experiment during the January 1997 mission of the Space Shuttle STS-81. Seedlings of wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, two reduced-starch strains, and a starchless mutant were grown in microgravity and then given a gravity stimulus on a centrifuge. In terms of development in space, germination was greater than 90% for seeds in microgravity, and flight seedlings were smaller (60% in total length) compared to control plants grown on the ground and to control plants on a rotating clinostat. Seedlings grown in space had two structural features that distinguished them from the controls: a greater density of root hairs and an anomalous hypocotyl hook structure. However, the slower growth and morphological changes observed in the flight seedlings may be due to the effects of ethylene present in the spacecraft. Nevertheless, during the flight hypocotyls of WT seedlings responded to a unilateral 60 min stimulus provided by a 1-g centrifuge while those of the starch-deficient strains did not. Thus the strain with the greatest amount of starch responded to the stimulus given in flight and therefore, these data support the starch-statolith model for gravity sensing.

  16. Functions of heteromeric and homomeric isoamylase-type starch-debranching enzymes in developing maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Akiko; Colleoni, Christophe; Dinges, Jason R; Lin, Qiaohui; Lappe, Ryan R; Rivenbark, Joshua G; Meyer, Alexander J; Ball, Steven G; James, Martha G; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A; Myers, Alan M

    2010-07-01

    Functions of isoamylase-type starch-debranching enzyme (ISA) proteins and complexes in maize (Zea mays) endosperm were characterized. Wild-type endosperm contained three high molecular mass ISA complexes resolved by gel permeation chromatography and native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two complexes of approximately 400 kD contained both ISA1 and ISA2, and an approximately 300-kD complex contained ISA1 but not ISA2. Novel mutations of sugary1 (su1) and isa2, coding for ISA1 and ISA2, respectively, were used to develop one maize line with ISA1 homomer but lacking heteromeric ISA and a second line with one form of ISA1/ISA2 heteromer but no homomeric enzyme. The mutations were su1-P, which caused an amino acid substitution in ISA1, and isa2-339, which was caused by transposon insertion and conditioned loss of ISA2. In agreement with the protein compositions, all three ISA complexes were missing in an ISA1-null line, whereas only the two higher molecular mass forms were absent in the ISA2-null line. Both su1-P and isa2-339 conditioned near-normal starch characteristics, in contrast to ISA-null lines, indicating that either homomeric or heteromeric ISA is competent for starch biosynthesis. The homomer-only line had smaller, more numerous granules. Thus, a function of heteromeric ISA not compensated for by homomeric enzyme affects granule initiation or growth, which may explain evolutionary selection for ISA2. ISA1 was required for the accumulation of ISA2, which is regulated posttranscriptionally. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the ISA1 transcript level was elevated in tissues where starch is synthesized and low during starch degradation, whereas ISA2 transcript was relatively abundant during periods of either starch biosynthesis or catabolism.

  17. Resistant Starch but Not Enzymatically Modified Waxy Maize Delays Development of Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2017-05-01

    Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS). Blood glucose after feed deprivation was assessed every second week; blood samples taken at run-in and at the end of the experiment were analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids. During weeks 2 and 8, urine was collected for metabolomic analysis.Results: Based on blood glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0-18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4.9%) than rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS (5.6-6.1%) diets. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was significantly lower in rats fed RS than in rats fed the other diets (185 compared with 311-360), indicating that rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS diets were diabetic, and a 100% higher urine excretion during week 8 in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets than that of rats fed S and RS showed that they were diabetic. Urinary nontargeted metabolomics revealed that the diabetic state of rats fed S, GLU, and EMS diets influenced microbial metabolism, as well as amino acid, lipid, and vitamin metabolism.Conclusions: EMS did not delay the onset of diabetes in ZDF rats, whereas rats fed RS showed no signs of diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. In vitro production of short-chain fatty acids from resistant starch by pig faecal inoculum.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Moschini, M; Masoero, F

    2013-09-01

    The need to improve the knowledge of fermentation processes within the digestive tract in pigs is growing, particularly for ingredients that may act as potential prebiotic sources, such as resistant starch (RS). A study (based on enzymatic digestion followed by in vitro fermentation) was conducted to investigate whether various sources of RS, obtained from eight native starches characterized by inherent heterogeneous starch chemistry and structure, can influence short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and relative production kinetics. Total and individual SCFA productions were evaluated over time and up to 72 h of incubation. The in vitro hydrolysis of native starches allowed a classification from very high [≥ 650 g/kg dry matter (DM)] to low (<50 g/kg DM) RS amount. The total SCFA production was similar between ingredients, whereas acetate and butyrate molar ratios in the SCFA profile differed (from 0.48 to 0.56 and from 0.17 to 0.25, respectively; P < 0.05). Differences in fermentation kinetic parameters for total and individual SCFA productions were observed (P < 0.05). Considering the total SCFA production after 72 h of incubation, the time at which half of the maximum production has been reached (T 1/2), the maximum rate of production (R max) and its time of occurrence (T max) differed between ingredients (P < 0.05), with values ranging from 6.1 to 11.9 h, from 0.459 to 1.300 mmol/g DM incubated per hour and from 5.1 to 9.8 h, respectively. Overall, a similar trend was observed considering individual SCFA productions. In particular, T 1/2 ranged from 6.4 to 12.5 h, from 5.5 to 12.5 h and from 6.7 to 11.3 h for acetate, propionate and butyrate, respectively (P < 0.05). For R max, differences were obtained for propionate and butyrate productions (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was recorded for acetate. In summary, our findings indicated that both quantitative and qualitative production of SCFA and related kinetics were influenced by fermentation of RS

  19. Resistant starch alters colonic contractility and expression of related genes in rats fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Kerr, Caroline A; Dunne, Robert A; Shaw, Janet M; Bird, Anthony R; Regina, Ahmed; Morell, Matthew K; Lockett, Trevor J; Molloy, Peter L; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Dietary fiber shortens gut transit time, but data on the effects of fiber components (including resistant starch, RS) on intestinal contractility are limited. We have examined RS effects in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) or a wholemeal made from high-amylose wheat (HAW) on ileal and colonic contractility ex vivo and expression of genes associated with smooth muscle contractility. Rats were fed diets containing 19 % fat, 20 % protein, and either low-amylose maize starch (LAMS), HAMS, wholemeal low-amylose wheat (LAW) or HAW for 11 week. Isolated ileal and proximal colonic sections were induced to contract electrically, or by receptor-independent (KCl) or receptor-dependent agents. Colonic gene expression was assessed using an Affymetrix microarray. Ileal contractility was unaffected by treatment. Maximal proximal colonic contractility induced electrically or by angiotensin II or carbachol was lower for rats fed HAMS and LAW relative to those fed LAMS (P < 0.05). The colonic expression of genes, including cholinergic receptors (Chrm2, Chrm3), serotonin receptors (Htr5a, Htr7), a protease-activated receptor (F2r), a prokineticin receptor (Prokr1), prokineticin (Prok1), and nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), was altered by dietary HAMS relative to LAMS (P < 0.05). HAW did not significantly affect these genes or colonic contractility relative to effects of LAMS. RS and other fiber components could influence colorectal health through modulation of stool transit time via effects on muscular contractility.

  20. Effects of locust bean gum on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Singh, Ajaypal; Vatankhah, Hamed; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-03-01

    In this study, interactions between resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) on the viscoelastic, pasting and morphological characteristics of aqueous dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with the addition of LBG, and the rheograms demonstrated a biphasic behavior. RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G' > G'') or viscous (G'' > G'), depending on the added concentration level of LBG. Gum addition also caused higher peak viscosity, breakdown and total set back of RS/LBG mixtures. A strong correlation between rheological and structural properties was found. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed the transition of starch particles from a scattered angular shape to clustered structures cross-linked by dense aggregate junction zones justifying the observed changes in rheological properties.

  1. Resistant starch can improve insulin sensitivity independently of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bindels, Laure B; Segura Munoz, Rafael R; Gomes-Neto, João Carlos; Mutemberezi, Valentin; Martínez, Inés; Salazar, Nuria; Cody, Elizabeth A; Quintero-Villegas, Maria I; Kittana, Hatem; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Schmaltz, Robert J; Muccioli, Giulio G; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2017-02-07

    Obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations, and dietary interventions for their prevention are therefore important. Resistant starches (RS) improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials, but the mechanisms underlying this health benefit remain poorly understood. Because RS fermentation by the gut microbiota results in the formation of physiologically active metabolites, we chose to specifically determine the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the metabolic benefits of RS. To achieve this goal, we determined the effects of RS when added to a Western diet on host metabolism in mice with and without a microbiota. RS feeding of conventionalized mice improved insulin sensitivity and redressed some of the Western diet-induced changes in microbiome composition. However, parallel experiments in germ-free littermates revealed that RS-mediated improvements in insulin levels also occurred in the absence of a microbiota. RS reduced gene expression of adipose tissue macrophage markers and altered cecal concentrations of several bile acids in both germ-free and conventionalized mice; these effects were strongly correlated with the metabolic benefits, providing a potential microbiota-independent mechanism to explain the physiological effects of RS. This study demonstrated that some metabolic benefits exerted by dietary RS, especially improvements in insulin levels, occur independently of the microbiota and could involve alterations in the bile acid cycle and adipose tissue immune modulation. This work also sets a precedent for future mechanistic studies aimed at establishing the causative role of the gut microbiota in mediating the benefits of bioactive compounds and functional foods.

  2. [Research on Resistant Starch Content of Rice Grain Based on NIR Spectroscopy Model].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Wu, Fang-xi; Xie, Hong-guang; Zhu, Yong-sheng; Zhang, Jian-fu; Xie, Hua-an

    2016-03-01

    A new method based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis was explored to determine the content of rice-resistant starch instead of common chemical method which took long time was high-cost. First of all, we collected 62 spectral data which have big differences in terms of resistant starch content of rice, and then the spectral data and detected chemical values are imported chemometrics software. After that a near-infrared spectroscopy calibration model for rice-resistant starch content was constructed with partial least squares (PLS) method. Results are as follows: In respect of internal cross validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.920 2, 0.967 0 and 0.976 7 respectively. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.533 7, 1.011 2 and 0.837 1 respectively. In respect of external validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+ 1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.805, 0.976 and 0.992 respectively. The average absolute error was 1.456, 0.818, 0.515 respectively. There was no significant difference between chemical and predicted values (Turkey multiple comparison), so we think near infrared spectrum analysis is more feasible than chemical measurement. Among the different pretreatment, the first derivation and standard normal variate (1thD+SNV) have higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower error value whether in internal validation and external validation. In other words, the calibration model has higher precision and less error by pretreatment with 1thD+SNV.

  3. Gravitropism of hypocotyls of wild-type and starch-deficient Arabidopsis seedlings in spaceflight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Edelmann, R. E.; Wood, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    The major purpose of this spaceflight project was to investigate the starch-statolith hypothesis for gravity perception, and a secondary goal was to study plant growth and development under spaceflight conditions. This research was based on our ground studies of gravity perception in the wild type and three starch-deficient (one starchless and two reduced starch) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Dark-grown seedlings that developed in microgravity were given one of several (30 min, 60 min, or 90 min) 1-g stimuli by an on-board centrifuge, and additional controls for seedling development also were performed. These latter control experiments included a morphological study of plants that developed in space in microgravity (F microg), in space on a centrifuge (F 1g), on the ground (G 1g), and on a rotating clinostat on the ground. Since elevated levels of ethylene were reported in the spacecraft atmosphere, additional controls for morphology and gravitropism with added ethylene also were performed. While exogenous ethylene reduced the absolute magnitude of the response in all four strains of Arabidopsis, this gas did not appear to change the relative graviresponsiveness among the strains. The relative response of hypocotyls of microgravity-grown seedlings to the stimuli provided by the in-flight centrifuge was: wild type > starch-deficient mutants. Although the protoplast pressure model for gravity perception cannot be excluded, these results are consistent with a statolith-based model for perception in plants.

  4. Gravitropism of hypocotyls of wild-type and starch-deficient Arabidopsis seedlings in spaceflight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Edelmann, R. E.; Wood, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    The major purpose of this spaceflight project was to investigate the starch-statolith hypothesis for gravity perception, and a secondary goal was to study plant growth and development under spaceflight conditions. This research was based on our ground studies of gravity perception in the wild type and three starch-deficient (one starchless and two reduced starch) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Dark-grown seedlings that developed in microgravity were given one of several (30 min, 60 min, or 90 min) 1-g stimuli by an on-board centrifuge, and additional controls for seedling development also were performed. These latter control experiments included a morphological study of plants that developed in space in microgravity (F microg), in space on a centrifuge (F 1g), on the ground (G 1g), and on a rotating clinostat on the ground. Since elevated levels of ethylene were reported in the spacecraft atmosphere, additional controls for morphology and gravitropism with added ethylene also were performed. While exogenous ethylene reduced the absolute magnitude of the response in all four strains of Arabidopsis, this gas did not appear to change the relative graviresponsiveness among the strains. The relative response of hypocotyls of microgravity-grown seedlings to the stimuli provided by the in-flight centrifuge was: wild type > starch-deficient mutants. Although the protoplast pressure model for gravity perception cannot be excluded, these results are consistent with a statolith-based model for perception in plants.

  5. Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, P; Ramakrishna, B S; Oommen, Samuel P; Ahmed, Mir Shovkat; Priyaa, G; Dziura, James; Young, Graeme P; Binder, Henry J

    2006-04-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) for treatment of diarrhea relies on enhancement of small intestinal sodium and fluid absorption to correct dehydration. Amylase-resistant starch added to ORS significantly reduced the duration and severity of diarrhea in adults with cholera, presumably by generation of short-chain fatty acids in the colon and enhancement of colonic sodium and fluid absorption. The present study was initiated to determine whether addition of amylase-resistant starch to standard World Health Organization glucose-ORS (G-ORS) would reduce the duration of diarrhea and fecal fluid losses in children with acute diarrhea. One hundred eighty-three children (6 months to 3 years) with acute watery diarrhea were randomized to receive either standard treatment with G-ORS or G-ORS with additional amylase-resistant starch, HAMS (HAMS-ORS, 50g/L). Stool weight and consistency were monitored serially until development of formed stool or development of treatment failure defined as either the need for unscheduled intravenous fluid therapy or diarrhea longer than 72 hours. Five of the subjects were lost to follow up. In 178 remaining children (87 HAMS-ORS and 91 G-ORS) with evaluable data, time from enrolment to last unformed stool was significantly less in children receiving HAMS-ORS (median, 6.75 hours; 95% confidence interval, 4.27-9.22) than in children treated with G-ORS (12.80 hours, 8.69-16.91) (P = 0.0292). Time to first formed stool was also significantly shorter in children receiving HAMS-ORS (median, 18.25 hours; 95% confidence interval, 13.09-23.41) compared with children receiving G-ORS (median, 21.50 hours; 95% confidence interval, 17.26-25.74) (P = 0.0440). The total amount of ORS consumed was similar in both groups. There was a trend toward lower mean stool weight in first 24 hours (P = 0.0752) as well as total diarrheal stool weight (P = 0.0926) in patients in the HAMS group compared with the G-ORS group. In children with acute diarrhea, the addition of

  6. The citric acid-modified, enzyme-resistant dextrin from potato starch as a potential prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Sliżewska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, enzyme-resistant dextrin, prepared by heating of potato starch in the presence of hydrochloric (0.1% dsb) and citric (0.1% dsb) acid at 130ºC for 3 h (CA-dextrin), was tested as a source of carbon for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria isolated from feces of three healthy 70-year old volunteers. The dynamics of growth of bacterial monocultures in broth containing citric acid (CA)-modified dextrin were estimated. It was also investigated whether lactobacilli and bifidobacteria cultured with intestinal bacteria in the presence of resistant dextrin would be able to dominate the intestinal isolates. Prebiotic fermentation of resistant dextrin was analyzed using prebiotic index (PI). In co-cultures of intestinal and probiotic bacteria, the environment was found to be dominated by the probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which is a beneficial effect.

  7. Mutational Analysis of the Pullulanase-Type Debranching Enzyme of Maize Indicates Multiple Functions in Starch Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Jason R.; Colleoni, Christophe; James, Martha G.; Myers, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    Plants contain two types of α(1→6) glucan hydrolase (starch-debranching enzyme [DBE]). Mutations that affect the pullulanase-type DBE have not been described, although defects in isoamylase-type DBE, known in many plant species, indicate a function in starch biosynthesis. We describe a null mutation of a pullulanase-type DBE gene, a Mutator insertion in maize Zpu1. Plants homozygous for the zpu1-204 mutation are impaired in transient and storage starch degradation. Thus, hydrolytic activity of pullulanase-type DBE contributes to starch catabolism. Developing zpu1-204 endosperm accumulates branched maltooligosaccharides not found in the wild type and is deficient in linear maltooligosaccharides, indicating that the pullulanase-type DBE functions in glucan hydrolysis during kernel starch formation. Furthermore, in a background deficient in isoamylase-type DBE, zpu1-204 conditions a significant accumulation of phytoglycogen in the kernel that is not seen in the wild type. Therefore, pullulanase-type DBE partially compensates for the defect in isoamylase-type DBE, suggesting a function during starch synthesis as well as degradation. PMID:12615940

  8. Effects of dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Gao, T; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0.05). Moreover, the PS diet led to reduced percentage of bound hexokinase activity, decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (P<0.05) and increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet with high amylose content might promote PCr degradation and inhibit the rate of glycolysis, followed by attenuation of early postmortem glycolysis in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and characterization of glycoprotein-resistant starch complex as a coating material for oral bioadhesive microparticles for colon-targeted polypeptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Situ, Wenbei; Li, Xiaoxi; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ling

    2015-04-29

    For effective oral delivery of polypeptide or protein and enhancement their oral bioavailability, a new resistant starch-glycoprotein complex bioadhesive carrier and an oral colon-targeted bioadhesive delivery microparticle system were developed. A glycoprotein, concanavalin A (Con A), was successfully conjugated to the molecules of resistant starch acetate (RSA), leading to the formation of resistant starch-glycoprotein complex. This Con A-conjugated RSA film as a coating material showed an excellent controlled-release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the insulin-loaded microparticles coated with this Con A-conjugated RSA film exhibited good hypoglycemic response for keeping the plasma glucose level within the normal range for totally 44-52 h after oral administration with different insulin dosages. Oral glucose tolerance tests indicated that successive oral administration of these colon-targeted bioadhesive microparticles with insulin at a level of 50 IU/kg could achieve a hypoglycemic effect similar to that by injection of insulin at 35 IU/kg. Therefore, the potential of this new Con A-conjugated RSA film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated to be capable of improving the oral bioavailability of bioactive proteins and peptides.

  10. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    PubMed Central

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  11. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children.

  12. Is resistant starch protective against colorectal cancer via modulation of the WNT signalling pathway?

    PubMed

    Malcomson, Fiona C; Willis, Naomi D; Mathers, John C

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) including resistant starch are protective against colorectal cancer. These anti-neoplastic effects are presumed to result from the production of the SCFA, butyrate, by colonic fermentation, which binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43 to regulate inflammation and other cancer-related processes. The WNT pathway is central to the maintenance of homeostasis within the large bowel through regulation of processes such as cell proliferation and migration and is frequently aberrantly hyperactivated in colorectal cancers. Abnormal WNT signalling can lead to irregular crypt cell proliferation that favours a hyperproliferative state. Butyrate has been shown to modulate the WNT pathway positively, affecting functional outcomes such as apoptosis and proliferation. Butyrate's ability to regulate gene expression results from epigenetic mechanisms, including its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and through modulating DNA methylation and the expression of microRNA. We conclude that genetic and epigenetic modulation of the WNT signalling pathway may be an important mechanism through which butyrate from fermentation of resistant starch and other NDC exert their chemoprotective effects.

  13. Films from resistant starch-pectin dispersions intended for colonic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira; Evangelista, Raul Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Free films were obtained by the solvent casting method from retrograded starch-pectin dispersions at different polymer proportions and concentrations with and without plasticizer. Film forming dispersions were characterized according to their hardness, birefringence and rheological properties. The polymer dispersions showed a predominantly viscous behavior (G″>G') and the absence of plasticizers lead to building of stronger structures, while the occurrence of Maltese crosses in the retrograded dispersions indicates the occurrence of a crystalline organization. Analyses of the films included mechanical properties, thickness, superficial and cross sectional morphology, water vapor permeability, liquid uptake ability, X-ray diffractometry, in vitro dissolution and enzymatic digestion. The high resistant starch content (65.8-96.8%) assured the resistance of materials against enzymatic digestion by pancreatin. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns indicated a more organized and crystalline structure of free films in relation to isolated polymers. Increasing of pectin proportion and pH values favored the dissolution and liquid uptake of films. Films prepared with lower polymer concentration presented better barrier function (WVP and mechanical properties).

  14. Resistant starch improves insulin resistance and reduces adipose tissue weight and CD11c expression in rat OLETF adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Harazaki, Tomomi; Inoue, Seiya; Imai, Chihiro; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2014-05-01

    CD11s/CD18 dimers induce monocyte/macrophage infiltration into many tissues, including adipose tissues. In particular, it was reported that β2-integrin CD11c-positive macrophages in adipose tissues are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether intake of resistant starch (RS) reduces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissues and inhibits the development of insulin resistance at an early stage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Twenty-two-wk-old male OLETF rats were fed a control diet (55% α-corn starch) or an RS diet (55% RS) for 5 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 wk of feeding; tissues (mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissues, and liver) and tail vein blood were collected after 5 wk of feeding the test diets. Feeding the RS diet to OLETF rats for 5 wk improved insulin resistance, reduced the mesenteric adipose tissue weight, and enhanced the number of small adipocytes. CD68 expression, a macrophage infiltration marker, was not changed by the RS diet, whereas the gene expression levels of integrins such as CD11c, CD11d, and CD18, but not CD11a, and CD11b, were significantly reduced. CD11c protein expression was reduced by the RS diet. These findings suggest that part of the mechanism for the improved insulin resistance by the RS diet involves a reduction of CD11c expression in adipose tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively.

  16. Inheritance of low pasting temperature in sweetpotato starch and the dosage effect of wild-type alleles

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kenji; Tamiya, Seiji; Sakai, Tetsufumi; Kai, Yumi; Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Yoshinaga, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.), which is an outcrossing hexaploid, is one of the most important starch-producing crops in the world. During the last decade, new sweetpotato cultivars, e.g. ‘Quick Sweet’, which have approximately 20°C lower pasting temperature, slower retrogradation and higher digestibility of raw starch than ordinary cultivars, have been developed in Japan. Genetic analysis of these variants with low pasting temperature starch was conducted in this study. Using 8 variants and 15 normal clones, 26 families were generated. The results from analyzing these progenies suggested that this trait is a qualitative character controlled by one recessive allele (designated spt), which is inherited in a hexasomic manner. A dosage effect of the wild-type Spt allele was found for starch pasting temperature, although the effect was not linear. These results will aid breeders to develop sweetpotato cultivars with a range of starch pasting temperatures. PMID:26366119

  17. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L.; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E.; Marco, Maria L.; Martin, Roy J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function. PMID:26841824

  18. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E; Marco, Maria L; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function.

  19. Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft and hard wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Li, Bo; Wang, Leilei; Chen, Xinyu; Wang, Wenjun; Gu, Yunjie; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) observe the effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (2) investigate the effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; and (3) compare the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. DS resulted in large A-type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B-type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000-grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose-to-amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B-type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A-type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α-amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinised, and retrograded starches. Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Workineh; Collar, Concha; Ronda, Felicidad

    2015-01-22

    Tef grain is becoming very attractive in the Western countries since it is a gluten-free grain with appreciated nutritional advantages. However there is little information of its functional properties and starch digestibility and how they are affected by variety type and particle size distribution. This work evaluates the effect of the grain variety and the mill used on tef flour physico-chemical and functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior. In vitro starch digestibility of the flours by Englyst method was assessed. Two types of mills were used to obtain whole flours of different granulation. Rice and wheat flours were analyzed as references. Protein molecular weight distribution and flour structure by SEM were also analyzed to justify some of the differences found among the cereals studied. Tef cultivar and mill type exhibited important effect on granulation, bulking density and starch damage, affecting the processing performance of the flours and determining the hydration and pasting properties. The color was darker although one of the white varieties had a lightness near the reference flours. Different granulation of tef flour induced different in vitro starch digestibility. The disc attrition mill led to higher starch digestibility rate index and rapidly available glucose, probably as consequence of a higher damaged starch content. The results confirm the adequacy of tef flour as ingredient in the formulation of new cereal based foods and the importance of the variety and the mill on its functional properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro digestibility of potato and cassava starches under organic acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh

    2017-02-01

    A combination of acid (citric acid or lactic acid) and heat-moisture treatment was used to modify cassava and potato starches in this study. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of the treated starches were investigated. The cassava starch contained 17.0% amylose and possessed A-type crystallinity, whereas the potato starch had 27.4% amylose and possessed B-type crystallinity. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, the crystalline structure of the cassava starch remained unchanged (A type), while the crystalline structure of the potato starch changed from B type to the C (B+A) type. The acid and heat-moisture treatment increased gelatinization temperature, peak and final viscosities of cassava starch but reduced peak and breakdown viscosities of the potato starch. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, rapid digestible starch contents of the treated cassava and potato starches were significantly reduced. However, resistant starch (RS) contents of the treated starches significantly increased as compared to the native starches. Citric acid was found to have high impact on formation of RS in starches. The RS contents of cassava and potato starches obtained under the citric acid and heat-moisture treatment were 40.2% and 39.0%, respectively, two times higher than those of the native starches.

  3. Plastid sedimentation kinetics in roots of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCleery, S. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    Sedimentation and movement of plastids in columella cells of the root cap were measured in seedlings of wild-type, a reduced starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis. To assay for sedimentation, we used both linear measurements and the change of angle from the cell center as indices in vertical and reoriented plants with the aid of computer-assisted image analysis. Seedlings were fixed at short periods after reorientation, and plastid sedimentation correlated with starch content in the three strains of Arabidopsis. Amyloplasts of wild-type seedlings showed the greatest sedimentation, whereas plastids of the starchless mutant showed no significant sedimentation in the vertically grown and reoriented seedlings. Because previous research has shown that a full complement of starch is needed for full gravitropic sensitivity, this study correlates increased sensitivity with plastid sedimentation. However, although plastid sedimentation contributed to gravisensitivity, it was not required, because the gravitropic starchless mutant had plastids that did not sediment. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to measure plastid sedimentation in Arabidopsis roots after reorientation of seedlings. Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with the classic plastid-based and protoplast-based models of graviperception and suggest that multiple systems of perception exist in plant cells.

  4. Plastid sedimentation kinetics in roots of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCleery, S. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    Sedimentation and movement of plastids in columella cells of the root cap were measured in seedlings of wild-type, a reduced starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis. To assay for sedimentation, we used both linear measurements and the change of angle from the cell center as indices in vertical and reoriented plants with the aid of computer-assisted image analysis. Seedlings were fixed at short periods after reorientation, and plastid sedimentation correlated with starch content in the three strains of Arabidopsis. Amyloplasts of wild-type seedlings showed the greatest sedimentation, whereas plastids of the starchless mutant showed no significant sedimentation in the vertically grown and reoriented seedlings. Because previous research has shown that a full complement of starch is needed for full gravitropic sensitivity, this study correlates increased sensitivity with plastid sedimentation. However, although plastid sedimentation contributed to gravisensitivity, it was not required, because the gravitropic starchless mutant had plastids that did not sediment. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to measure plastid sedimentation in Arabidopsis roots after reorientation of seedlings. Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with the classic plastid-based and protoplast-based models of graviperception and suggest that multiple systems of perception exist in plant cells.

  5. Effect of granule size on the properties of lotus rhizome C-type starch.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lingshang; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Wang, Juan; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-12-10

    Lotus rhizome C-type starch was separated into different size fractions. Starch morphologies changed from irregular to elongated, ellipsoid, oval, and spherical with decreasing granule size. The small- and very-small-sized fractions had a centric hilum, and the other size fractions had an eccentric hilum. The different size fractions all showed C-type crystallinity, pseudoplasticity and shear-thinning rheological properties. The range of amylose content was 25.6 to 26.6%, that of relative crystallinity was 23.9 to 25.8%, that of swelling power was 29.0 to 31.4 g/g, and that of gelatinization enthalpy was 12.4 to 14.2J/g. The very-small-sized fraction had a significantly lower short-range ordered degree and flow behavior index and higher scattering peak intensity, water solubility, gelatinization peak temperature, gelatinization conclusion temperature, consistency coefficient, hydrolysis degrees, and digestion rate than the large-sized fraction. Granule size significantly positively influenced short-range ordered structure and swelling power and negatively influenced scattering peak intensity, water solubility, hydrolysis and digestion of starch (p<0.01). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol fermentation of raw cassava starch with Rhizopus koji in a gas circulation type fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujio, Y.; Ogato, M.; Ueda, S.

    1985-08-01

    Studies have been conducted in a gas circulation type fermentor in order to characterize the ethanol fermentation of uncooked cassava starch with Rhizopus koji. Results showed that ethanol concentration reached 13-14% (v/v) in 4-day broth, and the maximum productivity of ethanol was 2.3 g ethanol/l broth h. This productivity was about 50% compared to the productivity of a glucose-yeast system. Ethanol yield reached 83.5-72.3% of the theoretical yield for the cassava starch used. The fermentor used in the present work has been proven by experiment to be suitable for ethanol fermentation of the broth with solid substrate. 10 references.

  7. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  8. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  9. Influence of starch source on sporulation and enterotoxin production by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Labbe, R; Somers, E; Duncan, C

    1976-03-01

    Of 16 different starch preparations tested, Clostridium perfringes NCTC 8798 yielded maximum sporulation and enterotoxin formation when ICN-soluble starch was included in Duncan and Strong sporulation medium. In general soluble starches were better than potato, corn, or arrowroot starch with regard to these two parameters.

  10. Allomorph distribution and granule structure of lotus rhizome C-type starch during gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Canhui; Cai, Jinwen; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-01

    The allomorph distribution and granule structure of C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques during gelatinization. The disruption of crystallinity during gelatinization began from the end distant from the eccentric hilum and then propagated into the center of granule. The periphery of hilum end was finally gelatinized, accompanied by high swelling. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during gelatinization, and finally became amorphous structure. The amylose content, crystal degree, helix content, ratio of 1045/1022cm(-1), and peak intensity of crystalline lamellae of gelatinizing starch significantly decreased after 70°C. The amorphous content and ratio of 1022/995cm(-1) increased after 70°C. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in crystal structure of chickpea starch samples during processing treatments: an X-ray diffraction and starch moisture analysis study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongkang; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Wang, Wei; Lei, Shicheng; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-05-05

    To detect more credibly the changes in the crystal structure of chickpea starch during processing treatments, two methods, a deconvolution method based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of starch and a moisture analysis method based on starch moisture content, were applied to determine the relative crystallinity (RC) of A- and B-type polymorphs (RCA and RCB) in the same chickpea starch sample. It was found that the values of RCA for chickpea starch samples determined by these two methods were close and showed similar trend. The results suggested that these two methods could be used to estimate RCA in the same chickpea starch sample and provide mutual corroboration. Based on the deconvolution method, it was observed that the crystalline region of chickpea starch was less susceptible to α-amylase hydrolysis than its amorphous region, and B-type polymorph in chickpea starch was more resistant to α-amylase hydrolysis than A-type polymorph.

  12. Resistant starch/pectin free-standing films reinforced with nanocellulose intended for colonic methotrexate release.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia B; Ferreira Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti; Dos Santos, Aline M; Franco, Douglas Faza; Barud, Hernane S; da Silva Filho, Edson C

    2017-02-10

    Although resistant starch/pectin (RS/P) films have previously displayed suitable properties for colon-specific drug delivery, nanocomposite films were developed aiming to enhance physicochemical, thermal, mechanical and barrier properties, as well as the low oral bioavailability of methotrexate (MTX). FEG-SEM micrographs of nanocomposite films showed different interaction patterns occurring among nanocellulose and RS/P. The nanofiller addition led to an increase in the thermal stability, probably due to its interaction with RS crystalline double helices. Results also displayed an improvement of the puncture strength, while barrier properties revealed a low water vapor permeability. Ex vivo bioadhesion test displayed the nanocomposites films to interact strongly with porcine gastrointestinal mucosa. In vitro drug release studies showed that the films developed enhanced the drug dissolution rates with approximately 80% of MTX release in 150min, suggesting the potential of these materials as a poor solubility drugs carrier, which constitutes an important tool for enhancing oral bioavailability.

  13. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  14. Structural variability between starch granules in wild type and in ae high-amylose mutant maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Parker, Mary L; Wellner, Nikolaus; Kirby, Andrew R; Cross, Kathryn; Morris, Victor J; Cheng, Fang

    2013-09-12

    Starch granule structure within wild-type and ae high-amylose mutant maize kernels has been mapped in situ using light, electron and atomic force microscopy, and both Raman and infra-red spectroscopy. The population of wild-type starch granules is found to be homogenous. The ae mutant granule population is heterogeneous. Heterogeneity in chemical and physical structure is observed within individual granules, between granules within cells, and spatially within the kernel. The highest level of heterogeneity is observed in the region where starch is first deposited during kernel development. Light microscopy demonstrates structural diversity through use of potassium iodide/iodine staining and polarised microscopy. Electron and atomic force microscopy, and infra-red and Raman spectroscopy defined the nature of the structural changes within granules. The methodology provides novel information on the changes in starch structure resulting from kernel development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  16. Resistant starch and arabinoxylan augment SCFA absorption, but affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses differently.

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2014-05-01

    The effects of increased colonic fermentation of dietary fibres (DF) on the net portal flux (NPF) of carbohydrate-derived metabolites (glucose, SCFA and, especially, butyrate), hormones (insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and NEFA were studied in a healthy catheterised pig model. A total of six pigs weighing 59 (SEM 1·6) kg were fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and in the portal and hepatic veins, and a flow probe around the portal vein, and included in a double 3 × 3 cross-over design with three daily feedings (at 09.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours). Fasting and 5 h postprandial blood samples were collected after 7 d adaptation to each diet. The pigs were fed a low-DF Western-style control diet (WSD) and two high-DF diets (an arabinoxylan-enriched diet (AXD) and a resistant starch-enriched diet (RSD)). The NPF of insulin was lower (P= 0·04) in AXD-fed pigs (4·6 nmol/h) than in RSD-fed pigs (10·5 nmol/h), despite the lowest NPF of glucose being observed in RSD-fed pigs (203 mmol/h, P= 0·02). The NPF of total SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate were high, intermediate and low (P< 0·01) in AXD-, RSD- and WSD-fed pigs, respectively, with the largest relative increase being observed for butyrate in response to arabinoxylan supplementation. In conclusion, the RSD and AXD had different effects on the NPF of insulin and glucose, suggesting different impacts of arabinoxylan and resistant starch on human health.

  17. Functional Interactions between Starch Synthase III and Isoamylase-Type Starch-Debranching Enzyme in Maize Endosperm1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiaohui; Huang, Binquan; Zhang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rivenbark, Joshua; Lappe, Ryan L.; James, Martha G.; Myers, Alan M.; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized genetic interactions between the maize (Zea mays) genes dull1 (du1), encoding starch synthase III (SSIII), and isa2, encoding a noncatalytic subunit of heteromeric isoamylase-type starch-debranching enzyme (ISA1/ISA2 heteromer). Mutants lacking ISA2 still possess the ISA1 homomeric enzyme. Eight du1- mutations were characterized, and structural changes in amylopectin resulting from each were measured. In every instance, the same complex pattern of alterations in discontinuous spans of chain lengths was observed, which cannot be explained solely by a discrete range of substrates preferred by SSIII. Homozygous double mutants were constructed containing the null mutation isa2-339 and either du1-Ref, encoding a truncated SSIII protein lacking the catalytic domain, or the null allele du1-R4059. In contrast to the single mutant parents, double mutant endosperms affected in both SSIII and ISA2 were starch deficient and accumulated phytoglycogen. This phenotype was previously observed only in maize sugary1 mutants impaired for the catalytic subunit ISA1. ISA1 homomeric enzyme complexes assembled in both double mutants and were enzymatically active in vitro. Thus, SSIII is required for normal starch crystallization and the prevention of phytoglycogen accumulation when the only isoamylase-type debranching activity present is ISA1 homomer, but not in the wild-type condition, when both ISA1 homomer and ISA1/ISA2 heteromer are present. Previous genetic and biochemical analyses showed that SSIII also is required for normal glucan accumulation when the only isoamylase-type debranching enzyme activity present is ISA1/ISA heteromer. These data indicate that isoamylase-type debranching enzyme and SSIII work in a coordinated fashion to repress phytoglycogen accumulation. PMID:22193705

  18. Effect of cooking on the anthocyanins, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, and resistant starch content in two pigmented cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Mulinacci, Nadia; Ieri, Francesca; Giaccherini, Catia; Innocenti, Marzia; Andrenelli, Luisa; Canova, Giulia; Saracchi, Marco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2008-12-24

    HPLC/DAD/MS analysis of the phenolic acids and anthocyanin content of three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. (Vitelotte Noire, Highland Burgundy Red, with pigmented flesh, and Kennebec with white pulp) was performed. The analyses were carried out both on fresh tubers and after cooking treatments (boiling and microwaves). Starch digestibility and the % of resistant starch were also determined on cooked tubers by in vitro methods. For the pigmented potatoes, the heating treatment did not cause any changes in the phenolic acids content, while anthocyanins showed only a small decrement (16-29%). The cv. Highland Burgundy Red showed anthocyanins and phenolic acid concentrations close to 1 g/kg and more than 1.1 g/kg, respectively. Vitellotte Noire showed the highest amounts of resistant starch. Potato starch digestibility and % of resistant starch, considered as a component of dietary fiber, were affected both by cultivar and by heating/cooling treatments.

  19. Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Haenen, D; Koopmans, S J; Hooiveld, G J E J; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Müller, M; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-09-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P<0.001), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake was ~3% lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). RS-fed pigs showed less feeder-directed (P=0.001) and drinking (P=0.10) behaviours than PS-fed pigs throughout the day. Postprandial peripheral short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Triglyceride levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.01), and non-esterified fatty acid levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Blood serotonin levels were lower (P<0.001), whereas monoamine oxidase activity (P<0.05) and tryptophan (P<0.01) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs. Despite a lower ME intake, RS seemed to prolong satiety, based on behavioural observations. Possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety include

  20. Resistant starch is more effective than cholestyramine as a lipid-lowering agent in the rat.

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Levrat, M A; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    1995-09-01

    Amylase-resistant starch (RS) represents a substrate for the bacterial flora of the colon, and the question arises as whether RS shares with soluble fibers common mechanisms for their lipid-lowering effects. It is uncertain whether a cholesterol-lowering effect depends basically on an enhanced rate of steroid excretion or whether colonic fermentations also play a role in this effect. In the present study, the effect of RS (25% raw potato starch), of a steroid sequestrant (0.8% cholestyramine), or both were compared on bile acid excretion and lipid metabolism in rats fed semipurified diets. RS diets led to a marked rise in cecal size and the cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), as well as SCFA absorption; cholestyramine did not noticeably affect cecal fermentation. Whereas cholestyramine was particularly effective at enhancing bile acid excretion, RS was more effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (-32%) and triglycerides (-29%). The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase was increased fivefold by cholestyramine and twofold by RS. This induction in rats fed RS diets was concomittant to a depressed fatty acid synthase activity. In rats fed the RS diet, there was a lower concentration of cholesterol in all lipoprotein fractions, especially the (d = 1.040-1.080) fraction high-density lipoprotein (HDL1), while those fed cholestyramine had only a significant reduction of HDL1 cholesterol. In contrast to cholestyramine, RS also depressed the concentration of triglycerides in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Effect of storage time on in vitro digestion rate and resistant starch content of tortillas elaborated from commercial corn masas.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Tovar, Juscelino; Trejo-Estrada, Sergio Rubén; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2005-03-01

    Tortilla samples were elaborated by four small commercial factories in Mexico, employing masas prepared with the traditional nixtamalization process. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 hours and their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility features were evaluated. Chemical composition did not change with the storage time, but soluble carbohydrates decreased slightly during storage. A significant decrease in available starch content upon storage was observed, concomitant with increased resistant starch (RS) levels. These changes are possibly due to retrogradation. Retrograded resistant starch (RRS) values increased with storage time; in some samples, RRS represented more than 75% of total RS whereas in others it only accounted for 25%. The digestion rate (DR) in the freshly prepared tortillas was similar for the various samples, but after 72 h storage some differences among tortillas were found. Also, when a single tortilla sample was compared throughout the different storage times, lower DRs were determined in samples subjected to prolonged storage, which is related to the concomitant. increase in RRS. The differences found among the various tortilla samples may be due to minor variations in the commercial processing conditions and to the use of different corn varieties.

  2. Studies on effect of multiple heating/cooling cycles on the resistant starch formation in cereals, legumes and tubers.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Sharma, Alka; Yadav, Ritika B

    2009-01-01

    'Resistant starch' (RS) is defined as starch and starch degradation products that resist the action of amylolytic enzymes. The effect of multiple heating/cooling treatments on the RS content of legumes, cereals and tubers was studied. The mean RS contents of the freshly cooked legumes, cereals and tubers (4.18%, 1.86% and 1.51% dry matter basis, respectively) increased to 8.16%, 3.25% and 2.51%, respectively, after three heating/cooling cycles (P< or =0.05) with a maximum increase of 114.8% in pea and a minimum of 62.1% in sweet potato (P< or =0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between the RS content and amylose (y=0.443x-5.993, r=0.829, P< or =0.05, n=9) as well as between the percentage increase in RS and insoluble dietary fiber content (y=2.149x-24.787, r=0.962, P< or =0.05, n=9). A differential scanning calorimeter study showed an increase in the T(0), T(p), T(c) and DeltaH values of the repeatedly autoclaved/cooled starches. The intact granular structure was also observed disappear, as studied using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Microbiome-Metabolome Responses in the Cecum and Colon of Pig to a High Resistant Starch Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch) diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson's correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host. PMID:27303373

  4. Identification of a major QTL controlling the content of B-type starch granules in Aegilops

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Thomas; Rejab, Nur Ardiyana; Griffiths, Simon; Leigh, Fiona; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Simmonds, James; Uauy, Cristobal; Trafford, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Starch within the endosperm of most species of the Triticeae has a unique bimodal granule morphology comprising large lenticular A-type granules and smaller near-spherical B-type granules. However, a few wild wheat species (Aegilops) are known to lack B-granules. Ae. peregrina and a synthetic tetraploid Aegilops with the same genome composition (SU) were found to differ in B-granule number. The synthetic tetraploid had normal A- and B-type starch granules whilst Ae. peregrina had only A-granules because the B-granules failed to initiate. A population segregating for B-granule number was generated by crossing these two accessions and was used to study the genetic basis of B-granule initiation. A combination of Bulked Segregant Analysis and QTL mapping identified a major QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 4S that accounted for 44.4% of the phenotypic variation. The lack of B-granules in polyploid Aegilops with diverse genomes suggests that the B-granule locus has been lost several times independently during the evolution of the Triticeae. It is proposed that the B-granule locus is susceptible to silencing during polyploidization and a model is presented to explain the observed data based on the assumption that the initiation of B-granules is controlled by a single major locus per haploid genome. PMID:21227932

  5. Response surface optimization of low-fat ice cream production by using resistant starch and maltodextrin as a fat replacing agent.

    PubMed

    Azari-Anpar, Mojtaba; Khomeiri, Morteza; Ghafouri-Oskuei, Hamed; Aghajani, Narjes

    2017-04-01

    In this research, maltodextrin (0, 1 and 2% w/w) and resistant starch (0, 1 and 2% w/w) were used in the formulation of low-fat ice cream (4% fat) and their effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties were investigated. The optimum levels of maltodextrin and resistant starch were determined by response surface methodology. Increment of maltodextrin and resistant starch increased acidity, viscosity, melting rate, time of dripping and overrun but decreased melting rate of ice cream. Results showed that the incorporation of maltodextrin and resistant starch at 0 and 2% w/w respectively, resulted into ice cream with suitable viscosity, melting rate, first dripping time, overrun and acidity.

  6. Characterization of chemically modified waxy, partially waxy, and wild type tetraploid wheat starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) contain two Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) genes (wx-A1and wx-B1) controlling amylose synthesis; the other major starch polymer in durum wheat is amylopectin. Starches with little or no amylose are “waxy.” A GBSS null (non-producing) gene results ...

  7. Encapsulation altered starch digestion: toward developing starch-based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2014-01-30

    Starch is an abundant biomaterial that forms a vital energy source for humans. Altering its digestion, e.g. increasing the proportions of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), would revolutionize starch utility in addressing a number of health issues related to glucose absorption, glycemic index and colon health. The research reported in this article is based on my hypothesis that water channels present in the B-type starch crystalline matrix, particularly in tuber starches, can embed guest molecules such as nutraceuticals, drugs, flavor compounds and vitamins leading to altered starch digestion. Toward this goal, potato starch has been chosen as the model tuber starch, and ibuprofen, benzocaine, sulfapyridine, curcumin, thymol and ascorbic acid as model guest molecules. X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR analyses clearly suggest the incorporation of guest molecules in the water channels of potato starch. Furthermore, the in vitro digestion profiles of complexes are intriguing with major variations occurring after 60 min of starch digestion and finally at 120 min. These changes are concomitantly reflected in the SDS and RS amounts, with about 24% decrease in SDS for benzocaine complex and 6% increase in RS for ibuprofen complex, attesting the ability of guest molecule encapsulation in modulating the digestion properties of potato starch. Overall, this research provides an elegant opportunity for the design and development of novel starch-based stable carriers that not only bestow tailored glucose release rates but could also transport health promoting and disease preventing compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A microarray study indicates high-amylose resistant starch increases hormones and improves structure and function of the GI tract

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Martin, Roy J; Raggio, Anne M; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Brown, Ian L; Birkett, Anne; Newman, Susan S; Skaf, Jihad; Hegsted, Maren; Tulley, Richard T; Blair, Eric; Zhou, June

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is associated with increased fermentation, increased expression of proglucagon (gene for GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) genes in the large intestine, and improved health. To determine what other genes are up- or down-regulated with feeding of HAM-RS2 a microarray was performed. Methods Adult, male SD rats were fed one of the following three diets for a four week study period: cornstarch control (CC, 3.74 kcal/g), dietary energy density control (EC, 3.27kcal/g), and 30% HAM-RS2 (RS, 3.27 kcal/g). Rat microarray with ∼27,000 genes and validation of 94 representative genes with multiple qPCR were used to determine gene expression in total RNA extracts of cecal cells from rats. The RS vs. EC comparison tested effects of fermentation as energy density of the diet was controlled. Results For the RS vs. EC comparison, 86% of the genes were validated from the microarray and the expression indicates promotion of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Gut hormones GLP-1 and PYY were increased. Conclusions Gene expression results predict improved structure and function of the GI tract and production of gut hormones may promote healthy functions beyond the GI tract. PMID:22516953

  9. The intestinal microbiota in aged mice is modulated by dietary resistant starch and correlated with improvements in host responses.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Sybille; Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Marco, Maria L

    2013-02-01

    Dietary interventions might prevent or reverse age-related declines in health through modification of the activity and composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a first step toward more comprehensive evaluations of single dietary components on healthy aging, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied to determine the structure of the bacterial communities in the ceca of 20-month-old healthy mice fed energy-controlled diets containing 0, 18, or 36% type 2 resistant starch (RS) from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2). The cecal microbiota of mice fed a diet depleted in RS and containing the readily digestible carbohydrate amylopectin were dominated by bacteria in the Firmicutes phylum and contained low levels of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. In contrast, mice fed diets containing HAM-RS2 were colonized by higher levels of Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, and Allobaculum species in proportions that were dependent on the concentration of the dietary fiber. The proportions of Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia were positively correlated with mouse feeding responses, gut weight, and expression levels of proglucagon, the precursor of the gut anti-obesity/diabetic hormone GLP-1. This study showed that aging mice harbor a distinct microbiota, which can be modulated by RS and enriched for bacteria that are associated with improved health.

  10. In depth study of a new highly efficient raw starch hydrolyzing α-amylase from Rhizomucor sp.

    PubMed

    Tawil, Georges; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Colonna, Paul; Buléon, Alain

    2011-01-10

    A new α-amylase from Rhizomucor sp. (RA) was studied in detail due to its very efficient hydrolysis of raw starch granules at low temperature (32 °C). RA contains a starch binding domain (SBD) connected to the core amylase catalytic domain by a O-glycosylated linker. The mode of degradation of native maize starch granules and, in particular, the changes in the starch structure during the hydrolysis, was monitored for hydrolysis of raw starch at concentrations varying between 0.1 and 31%. RA was compared to porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), which has been widely studied either on resistant starch or as a model enzyme in solid starch hydrolysis studies. RA is particularly efficient on native maize starch and release glucose only. The hydrolysis rate reaches 75% for a 31% starch solution and is complete at 0.1% starch concentration. The final hydrolysis rate was dependent on both starch concentration and enzyme amount applied. RA is also very efficient in hydrolyzing the crystalline domains in the maize starch granule. The major A-type crystalline structure is more rapidly degraded than amorphous domains in the first stages of hydrolysis. This is in agreement with the observed preferential hydrolysis of amylopectin, the starch constituent that forms the backbone of the crystalline part of the granule. Amylose-lipid complexes present in most cereal starches are degraded in a second stage, yielding amylose fragments that then reassociate into B-type crystalline structures, forming the final resistant fraction.

  11. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I.; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW. PMID:28677623

  12. Preparation and properties of a starch-based wood adhesive with high bonding strength and water resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Ding, Longlong; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Libin

    2015-01-22

    A Highly efficient method was developed for preparing starch-based wood adhesives with high performance, using H2O2, a silane coupling agent and an olefin monomer as an oxidant, cross-linking agent and comonomer, respectively. The effects of various parameters on the shear adhesive strength were investigated in the dry state (DS) and wet state (WS). The results indicated that the bonding strength of starch-based wood adhesives could reach 7.88 MPa in dry state and 4.09 MPa in wet state. The oxidation could reduce the content of the hydroxyl transforming into carboxyl and aldehyde groups, and the graft copolymerization enhanced the thermal stability, which improved the bonding strength and water resistance. The starch-based adhesive and the fractures in the bonded joints were analyzed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The improved properties were attributed to the modified of microstructure of the graft-copolymerized starch-based adhesive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The metabolic effect of resistant starch and yoghurt on the renal and faecal nitrogen and ammonia excretion in humans as measured by lactose-[(15)N2]ureide.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Scholübbers, Debora

    2013-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) and Lactobacillus acidophilus yoghurt (LC1) were supplemented simultaneously in healthy adults to evaluate the effect on the urinary and faecal nitrogen and ammonia excretion by means of lactose-[(15)N2]ureide ((15)N-LU) degradation. Nineteen subjects received a regular daily diet either without or with supplementation of an RS-LC1-mixture composed of fibre of potatoes (RS type 1), wrinkle pea starch (RS type 2), and LC1 over a 20-day period in randomised order. Thereafter, (15)N-LU was administered together with breakfast. Urine and faeces were collected over a period of 48 and 72 h, respectively. The (15)N abundances were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The intake of the pre- and probiotic mixture composed of RS of type 1, type 2 and of LC1 significantly lowered the colonic generation and the renal excretion of toxic (15)NH3 and functioned as an ammonia shift from urinary to faecal (15)N excretion when using (15)N-LU as a xenobiotic marker.

  14. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    PubMed

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  15. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast.

  18. Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-06-25

    Banana starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the banana starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the banana starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All banana starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked banana starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in banana starches. Banana starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four banana starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of banana amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP≥37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine banana varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality.

  19. Structural changes of high-amylose rice starch residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Xinghua; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Fengmin; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2012-09-12

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch content. In this paper, starches were isolated from mature grains of high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) and digested in vitro and in vivo. The structural changes of digestive starch residues were characterized using DSC, XRD, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, and ATR-FTIR. TQ starch was very susceptible to digestion; its residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion showed similar structural characteristics with TQ control starch, which suggested that both amorphous and crystalline structures were simultaneously digested. Both amorphous and the long-range order structures were also simultaneously hydrolyzed in TRS starch, but the short-range order (double helix) structure in the external region of TRS starch granule increased with increasing digestion time. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type polymorph. These results suggested that B-type crystallinity and short-range order structure in the external region of starch granule made TRS starch resistant to digestion.

  20. Impact of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion in regard to their hypolipidemic action in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, E A; Forgbert, K; Rieckhoff, D; Erbersdobler, H F

    1999-01-29

    To examine the impact on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion as a mechanism involved in the lipid-lowering action of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch in comparison to cholestyramine, male golden Syrian hamsters were fed 0% (control), 8% or 12% of beta-cyclodextrin or resistant starch or 1% cholestyramine. Resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations compared to control. Distinct changes in the bile acid profile of gallbladder bile were caused by resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine. While cholestyramine significantly reduced chenodeoxycholate independently of its taurine-glycine conjugation, beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch decreased especially the percentage of taurochenodeoxycholate by -75% and -44%, respectively. As a result, the cholate:chenodeoxycholate ratio was significantly increased by 100% with beta-cyclodextrin and by 550% with cholestyramine while resistant starch revealed no effect on this ratio. beta-Cyclodextrin and resistant starch, not cholestyramine, significantly increased the glycine:taurine conjugation ratio demonstrating the predominance of glycine conjugated bile acids. Daily fecal excretion of bile acids was 4-times higher with 8% beta-cyclodextrin and 19-times with 1% cholestyramine compared to control. beta-Cyclodextrin and cholestyramine also induced a 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol excretion, demonstrating the sterol binding capacity of these two compounds. Resistant starch had only a modest effect on fecal bile acid excretion (80% increase) and no effect on excretion of neutral sterols, suggesting a weak interaction with intestinal steroid absorption. These data demonstrate the lipid-lowering potential of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch. An impaired reabsorption of circulating bile acids and intestinal cholesterol absorption leading to an increase in fecal bile acid and neutral sterol

  1. Resistant starch prevents colonic DNA damage induced by high dietary cooked red meat or casein in rats.

    PubMed

    Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    In a previous study we have shown that high levels of dietary protein (as casein) result in increased levels of colonic DNA damage, measured by the comet assay, and thinning of the colonic mucus layer in rats when dietary resistant starch (RS) is negligible. Feeding RS abolishes these effects. This study aimed to establish whether a diet high in protein as cooked red meat would have similar effects and whether RS was protective. Rats were fed a diet containing 15% or 25% casein or 25% cooked lean red beef, each with or without the addition of 48% high amylose maize starch (a rich source of RS) for four weeks. As expected, high dietary casein caused a 2-fold increase in colonic DNA damage compared with a low casein diet and reduced the thickness of the colonic mucus layer by 41%. High levels of cooked meat caused 26% greater DNA damage than the high casein diet but reduced mucus thickness to a similar degree to casein. Addition of RS to the diet abolished the increase in DNA damage and the loss of colonic mucus thickness induced by either high protein diet. Cecal and fecal short chain fatty acid pools were also increased by inclusion of RS in the diet. Because DNA damage is an early step in the initiation of cancer, these findings suggest that increased DNA damage due to high dietary protein as cooked red meat or casein could increase colorectal cancer risk but inclusion of resistant starch in the diet could significantly reduce that risk.

  2. Structural characterization of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) starch and the effect of annealing on its semicrystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thais S; Cunha, Verena A G; Jane, Jay-Lin; Franco, Celia M L

    2011-04-27

    Structural characteristics of native and annealed Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) starches were determined and compared to those of cassava and potato starches. Peruvian carrot starch presented round and irregular shaped granules, low amylose content and B-type X-ray pattern. Amylopectin of this starch contained a large proportion of long (DP > 37) and short (DP 6-12) branched chains. These last ones may contribute to its low gelatinization temperature. After annealing, the gelatinization temperatures of all starches increased, but the ΔH and the crystallinity increased only in Peruvian carrot and potato starches. The annealing process promoted a higher exposure of Peruvian carrot amylose molecules, which were more quickly attacked by enzymes, whereas amylopectin molecules became more resistant to hydrolysis. Peruvian carrot starch had structural characteristics that differed from those of cassava and potato starches. Annealing affected the semicrystalline structure of this starch, enhancing its crystallinity, mainly due to a better interaction between amylopectin chains.

  3. Distinct Functional Properties of Isoamylase-Type Starch Debranching Enzymes in Monocot and Dicot Leaves1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Facon, Maud; Lin, Qiaohui; Azzaz, Abdelhamid M.; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A.; Myers, Alan M.; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Roussel, Xavier; D’Hulst, Christophe; Wattebled, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes (ISA) play important roles in starch biosynthesis in chloroplast-containing organisms, as shown by the strict conservation of both catalytically active ISA1 and the noncatalytic homolog ISA2. Functional distinctions exist between species, although they are not understood yet. Numerous plant tissues require both ISA1 and ISA2 for normal starch biosynthesis, whereas monocot endosperm and leaf exhibit nearly normal starch metabolism without ISA2. This study took in vivo and in vitro approaches to determine whether organism-specific physiology or evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots is responsible for distinctions in ISA function. Maize (Zea mays) ISA1 was expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lacking endogenous ISA1 or lacking both native ISA1 and ISA2. The maize protein functioned in Arabidopsis leaves to support nearly normal starch metabolism in the absence of any native ISA1 or ISA2. Analysis of recombinant enzymes showed that Arabidopsis ISA1 requires ISA2 as a partner for enzymatic function, whereas maize ISA1 was active by itself. The electrophoretic mobility of recombinant and native maize ISA differed, suggestive of posttranslational modifications in vivo. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements showed recombinant maize ISA1 to be a dimer, in contrast to previous gel permeation data that estimated the molecular mass as a tetramer. These data demonstrate that evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots is responsible for the distinctions in ISA1 function. PMID:24027240

  4. Function of isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes ISA1 and ISA2 in the Zea mays leaf.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaohui; Facon, Maud; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dinges, Jason R; Wattebled, Fabrice; D'Hulst, Christophe; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A; Myers, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    Conserved isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes (ISAs), including the catalytic ISA1 and noncatalytic ISA2, are major starch biosynthesis determinants. Arabidopsis thaliana leaves require ISA1 and ISA2 for physiological function, whereas endosperm starch is near normal with only ISA1. ISA functions were characterized in maize (Zea mays) leaves to determine whether species-specific distinctions in ISA1 primary structure, or metabolic differences in tissues, are responsible for the differing ISA2 requirement. Genetic methods provided lines lacking ISA1 or ISA2. Biochemical analyses characterized ISA activities in mutant tissues. Starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin fine structure were determined. Three ISA activity forms were observed in leaves, two ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimers and one ISA1 homomultimer. ISA1 homomultimer activity existed in mutants lacking ISA2. Mutants without ISA2 differed in leaf starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin structure compared with nonmutants or lines lacking both ISA1 and ISA2. The data imply that both the ISA1 homomultimer and ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer function in the maize leaf. The ISA1 homomultimer is present and functions in the maize leaf. Evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots probably explains the ability of ISA1 to function as a homomultimer in maize leaves, in contrast to other species where the ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer is the only active form.

  5. Enhancement of corrosion resistance of carbon steel by Dioscorea Hispida starch in NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhusni, M. D. M.; Othman, N. K.; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Starch is a one of the most abundant natural product in the world and has the potential as corrosion inhibitor replacing harmful synthetic chemical based corrosion inhibitor. This research was aimed to examines the potential of starch extracted from local Malaysian wild yam (Dioscorea hispida), as corrosion inhibitor to carbon steel in NaCl media replicating sea water. By using gravimetric test and analysis, in which the carbon steel specimens were immersed in NaCl media for 24, 48 and 60 hours with the starch as corrosion inhibitor. the corrosion rate (mmpy) and inhibition efficiencies (%) was calculated. The results obtained showed decrease in corrosion rate as higher concentration of starch was employed. The inhibition efficiencies also shows an increasing manner up to 95.97 % as the concentration of the inhibitor increased.

  6. Functions of Heteromeric and Homomeric Isoamylase-Type Starch-Debranching Enzymes in Developing Maize Endosperm1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiko; Colleoni, Christophe; Dinges, Jason R.; Lin, Qiaohui; Lappe, Ryan R.; Rivenbark, Joshua G.; Meyer, Alexander J.; Ball, Steven G.; James, Martha G.; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A.; Myers, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Functions of isoamylase-type starch-debranching enzyme (ISA) proteins and complexes in maize (Zea mays) endosperm were characterized. Wild-type endosperm contained three high molecular mass ISA complexes resolved by gel permeation chromatography and native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two complexes of approximately 400 kD contained both ISA1 and ISA2, and an approximately 300-kD complex contained ISA1 but not ISA2. Novel mutations of sugary1 (su1) and isa2, coding for ISA1 and ISA2, respectively, were used to develop one maize line with ISA1 homomer but lacking heteromeric ISA and a second line with one form of ISA1/ISA2 heteromer but no homomeric enzyme. The mutations were su1-P, which caused an amino acid substitution in ISA1, and isa2-339, which was caused by transposon insertion and conditioned loss of ISA2. In agreement with the protein compositions, all three ISA complexes were missing in an ISA1-null line, whereas only the two higher molecular mass forms were absent in the ISA2-null line. Both su1-P and isa2-339 conditioned near-normal starch characteristics, in contrast to ISA-null lines, indicating that either homomeric or heteromeric ISA is competent for starch biosynthesis. The homomer-only line had smaller, more numerous granules. Thus, a function of heteromeric ISA not compensated for by homomeric enzyme affects granule initiation or growth, which may explain evolutionary selection for ISA2. ISA1 was required for the accumulation of ISA2, which is regulated posttranscriptionally. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the ISA1 transcript level was elevated in tissues where starch is synthesized and low during starch degradation, whereas ISA2 transcript was relatively abundant during periods of either starch biosynthesis or catabolism. PMID:20448101

  7. Molecular rearrangement of waxy and normal maize starch granules during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Teng, Anju; Witt, Torsten; Wang, Kai; Li, Ming; Hasjim, Jovin

    2016-03-30

    The objective of the present study is to understand the changes in starch structures during digestion and the structures contributing to slow digestion properties. The molecular, crystalline, and granular structures of native waxy maize, normal maize, high-amylose maize, and normal potato starch granules were monitored using SEC, XRD, DSC, and SEM. The amylose and amylopectin molecules of all four starches were hydrolyzed to smaller dextrins, with some having linear molecular structure. Neither the A- nor B-type crystallinity was resistant to enzyme hydrolysis. Starch crystallites with melting temperature above 120°C appeared in waxy and normal maize starches after digestion, suggesting that the linear dextrins retrograded into thermally stable crystalline structure. These crystallites were also observed for high-amylose maize starch before and after digestion, contributing to its low enzyme digestibility. On the contrary, the enzyme-resistant granular structure of native normal potato starch was responsible for its low susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  8. Resistant starch, large bowel fermentation and a broader perspective of prebiotics and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Conlon, M A; Christophersen, C T; Topping, D L

    2010-11-01

    The metabolic end products of the large bowel microbiota contribute significantly to human health. After weaning to solid foods, some of the most important of these are the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by the fermentation of undigested dietary components and endogenous secretions. The main SCFA are acetate, propionate and butyrate which have numerous documented effects promoting large bowel function. Of the major acids, butyrate seems especially important. It is a major metabolic fuel for colonocytes and promotes a normal phenotype in these cells, potentially lowering the risk of diseases such as colo-rectal cancer. Imbalances in the microbiota are thought to predispose to large bowel dysfunction and probiotics are being developed to correct this. However, most commercial products contain bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) which are dominant species in milk-fed infants but have limited roles in adults. Prebiosis is defined usually by the specific stimulation of these bacteria. However, the end products of most probiotics do not include butyrate or propionate which raises questions about their effectiveness in promoting bowel health in adults. Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fibre component and its fermentation generally favours butyrate production. Dietary RS intakes and faecal butyrate levels are high in populations at low risk of diet-related large bowel diseases. Conversely, RS intakes and faecal butyrate levels are very low in high risk groups. This raises the possibility that greater RS consumption could be of health benefit. RS is not regarded widely as a prebiotic but (according to the accepted definition) most forms show the requisite features in stimulating specific bacteria, giving raised total SCFA and butyrate levels and a consequent benefit to the host. Current efforts to improve public health through increasing RS consumption could be facilitated by greater recognition of its prebiotic role.

  9. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Maleta, Ken; Westcott, Jamie; Ryan, Kelsey; Hambidge, K. Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Young, Graeme; Mortimer, Elissa; Manary, Mark J.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. Methods This was a small controlled clinical trial to determine the effects of added dietary RS on zinc homeostasis among 17 stunted children, aged 3–5 years consuming a plant-based diet and at risk for perturbed zinc homeostasis. Dual zinc stable isotope studies were performed before and after 28 d of intervention with RS, so that each child served as their own control. The RS was incorporated into fried wheat flour dough and given under direct observation twice daily for 28 d. Changes in zinc homeostatic measures were compared using paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results Children had a mean height-for-age Z-score of −3.3, and consumed animal source foods ≤twice per month. Their habitual diet contained a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 34:1. Children avidly consumed the RS without complaints. EFZ was 0.8±0.4 mg/d (mean±SD) both before and after the intervention. Fractional absorption of zinc was 0.38±0.08 and 0.35±0.06 before and after the RS intervention respectively. NAZ was 1.1±0.5 and 0.6±0.7 before and after the RS intervention. This reduction of NAZ corresponded with diminished dietary zinc intake on the study day following intervention with RS. Regression analysis indicated no change in zinc absorption relative to dietary intake as a result of the RS intervention. Conclusion Consumption of RS did not improve zinc homeostasis in rural African children without zinc deficiency. RS was well tolerated in this setting. PMID:25744509

  10. Engagement with dietary fibre and receptiveness to resistant starch in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Philip; Quinn, Sinéad; Morell, Matthew; Topping, David

    2010-11-01

    To investigate community engagement with the health benefits of dietary fibre (DF) and its potential as a framework for the promotion of increased consumption of resistant starch (RS). A nationwide postal Food and Health Survey conducted in Australia by CSIRO Human Nutrition. Adults aged 18 years and above, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll (n 849). A cross-sectional design was employed to analyse ratings of (i) the importance of various RS health and functional claims and (ii) receptiveness to different foods as RS delivery vehicles, according to the respondents' level of fibre engagement as classified under the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) of Health Behaviour. There was a high level of recognition (89·5 %) of DF as being important for health. Significant gender differences were found for ratings of RS attributes and RS delivery options. Women were both more fibre-engaged than men and more receptive than men to RS and its potential benefits. Ratings of the acceptability of several foods as means of delivering RS revealed a general preference for healthy staples over indulgences, with the margin between acceptability of staples and indulgences increasing markedly with increased fibre engagement. Application of the PAPM to awareness of DF reveals a ready-made target group for health messages about RS and pockets of differential potential receptiveness. The findings support the promotion of RS as providing health benefits of DF with the added reduction of risk of serious disease, its delivery through healthy staples and the targeting of messages at both fibre-engaged individuals and women in general.

  11. Mutation of the maize sbe1a and ae genes alters morphology and physical behavior of wx-type endosperm starch granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hong; Guiltinan, Mark J; Thompson, Donald B

    2007-12-10

    In maize, three isoforms of starch-branching enzyme, SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb, are encoded by the Sbe1a, Sbe2a, and Amylose extender (Ae) genes, respectively. The objective of this research was to explore the effects of null mutations in the Sbe1a and Ae genes alone and in combination in wx background on kernel characteristics and on the morphology and physical behavior of endosperm starch granules. Differences in kernel morphology and weight, starch accumulation, starch granule size and size distribution, starch microstructure, and thermal properties were observed between the ae wx and sbe1a ae wx plants but not between the sbe1a wx mutants when compared to wx. Starch from sbe1a ae wx plants exhibited a larger granule size with a wider gelatinization temperature range and a lower endotherm enthalpy than ae wx. Microscopy shows weaker iodine staining in sbe1a ae wx starch granules. X-ray diffraction revealed A-type crystallinity in wx and sbe1a wx starches and B-type in sbe1a ae wx and ae wx. This study suggests that, while the SBEIIb isoform plays a dominant role in maize endosperm starch synthesis, SBEI also plays a role, which is only observable in the presence of the ae mutation.

  12. Physicochemical Changes and Resistant-Starch Content of Extruded Cornstarch with and without Storage at Refrigerator Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Neder-Suárez, David; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Alanís-Guzmán, María G de J; Báez-González, Juan G; García-Díaz, Carlos L; Núñez-González, María A; Lardizábal-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A

    2016-08-15

    Effects of extrusion cooking and low-temperature storage on the physicochemical changes and resistant starch (RS) content in cornstarch were evaluated. The cornstarch was conditioned at 20%-40% moisture contents and extruded in the range 90-130 °C and at screw speeds in the range 200-360 rpm. The extrudates were stored at 4 °C for 120 h and then at room temperature. The water absorption, solubility index, RS content, viscoelastic, thermal, and microstructural properties of the extrudates were evaluated before and after storage. The extrusion temperature and moisture content significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extrudates before and after storage. The RS content increased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature, and the viscoelastic and thermal properties showed related behaviors. Microscopic analysis showed that extrusion cooking damaged the native starch structure, producing gelatinization and retrogradation and forming RS. The starch containing 35% moisture and extruded at 120 °C and 320 rpm produced the most RS (1.13 g/100 g) after to storage at low temperature. Although the RS formation was low, the results suggest that extrusion cooking could be advantageous for RS production and application in the food industry since it is a pollution less, continuous process requiring only a short residence time.

  13. Circulating adiponectin concentrations are increased by dietary resistant starch and correlate with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and kidney function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; Derscheid, Rachel; Fuller, Kelly N Z; Valentine, Rudy J; Leow, Shu En; Reed, Leah; Wisecup, Emily; Schalinske, Kevin L; Rowling, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that dietary resistant starch (RS) type 2 prevented proteinuria and promoted vitamin D balance in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Here, our primary objective was to identify potential mechanisms that could explain our earlier observations. We hypothesized that RS could promote adiponectin secretion and regulate the renin-angiotensin system activity in the kidney. Lean Zucker rats (n = 5) were fed control diet; Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 5/group) were fed either an AIN-93G control diet (DC) or AIN-93G diet containing either 10% RS or 20% RS (HRS) for 6 weeks. Resistant starch had no impact on blood glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A1c percentage, yet circulating adiponectin was 77% higher in HRS-fed rats, compared to DC rats. Adiponectin concentrations strongly correlated with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.815; P < .001) and urinary creatinine concentrations (r = 0.818; P < .001) and inversely correlated with proteinuria (r = -0.583; P = .02). Serum angiotensin II concentrations were 44% lower, and expression of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1, was attenuated in RS-fed rats. Moreover, we observed a 14-fold increase in messenger RNA expression of nephrin, which is required for functioning of the renal filtration barrier, in HRS rats. The HRS, but not 10% RS diet, increased circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and attenuated urinary loss of vitamin D metabolites in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Taken together, we provide evidence that vitamin D balance in the presence of hyperglycemia is strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels and reduced renal renin-angiotensin system signaling.

  14. Thermotoga maritima maltosyltransferase, a novel type of maltodextrin glycosyltransferase acting on starch and malto-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Meissner, H; Liebl, W

    1998-12-15

    A novel enzyme acting on starch and malto-oligosaccharides was identified and characterised. The non-hydrolytic enzyme, designated maltosyltransferase (MTase), of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 disproportionates malto-oligosaccharides via glycosyl transfer reactions. The enzyme has a unique transfer specificity strictly confined to the transfer of maltosyl units. Incubation of MTase with starch or its constituents. i.e. amylose and amylopectin, led to the formation of a set of multiples of maltose (i.e. maltose, maltotetraose, maltohexaose etc.). Malto-oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) X were disproportionated to products with a DP of X +/- 2n (with X > or = 3 and n = 0,1,2,...). Maximum activity in a 10-min assay was recorded at pH 6.5 and 85-90 degrees C. The enzyme displayed extraordinary resistance to thermal inactivation. For example, at 90, 85, and 70 degrees C (pH 6.5, 0.34 mg ml-1 protein), MTase half-lives of about 2.5 h, 17 h, and 21 days, respectively, were recorded. The gene for MTase, designated mmtA, was isolated from a gene library of T. maritima strain MSB8. Analysis of the MTase primary structure as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of mmtA revealed that the enzyme is not closely related to known protein sequences. However, low-level local similarity between MTase and the alpha-amylase enzyme family (glycosyl hydrolase family 13) was detected, including conserved acidic residues essential for catalysis. Therefore, MTase should be assigned to this family. Based on detailed sequence analyses and comparison with amylolytic enzymes of known crystal structure we propose that MTase contains a (beta/alpha)8-fold as the core supersecondary structure which is typical for the alpha-amylase family. On the other hand, MTase is unique in that it lacks several residues highly conserved throughout this family. Also, MTase possesses an extraordinarily large domain B (a domain typical for the alpha-amylase family

  15. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  16. Structural properties of hydrolyzed high-amylose rice starch by α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengling; Man, Jianmin; Xu, Bin; Hu, Maozhi; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2011-12-14

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch (RS) content. Enzyme hydrolysis of native starch is very helpful in understanding the structure of starch granules and utilizing them. In this paper, native starch granules were isolated from a transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and RS and hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Structural properties of hydrolyzed TRS starches were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed faster than the B-type polymorph, but the crystallinity did not significantly change during enzyme hydrolysis. The degree of order in the external region of starch granule increased with increasing enzyme hydrolysis time. The amylose content decreased at first and then went back up during enzyme hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed starches exhibited increased onset and peak gelatinization temperatures and decreased gelatinization enthalpy on hydrolysis. These results suggested that the B-type polymorph and high amylose that formed the double helices and amylose-lipid complex increased the resistance to BAA hydrolysis. Furthermore, the spectrum results of RS from TRS native starch digested by pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase also supported the above conclusion.

  17. Physical properties and enzyme susceptibility of rice and high-amylose maize starch mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Wang, Sunan; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2013-09-01

    Resistant starch has promising health benefits and possesses great potential as a functional ingredient in diverse food formulation and production. Here, 10-50% high-amylose maize starch with 70% amylose content (H7) representing type 2 resistant starch was incorporated into three types of rice starch with varying amylose content (1.6-32%). Thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility to porcine pancreatic α-amylase of the starch mixtures were analyzed. Addition of H7 at levels of 10-50% decreased the yield stress and consistency coefficient of rice starches for the flow properties as modeled by the Herschel-Bulkley equation. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that addition of H7 decreased the storage modulus during heating and increased it during cooling and frequency sweeping for all rice starches tested. Gelatinization, retrogradation, and enzyme susceptibility of the resulting mixtures appeared additive of that of individual components. A desirable reduction in the digestibility of starchy foods could be achieved by adding high-amylose maize starch. The physical modifications in properties of the starch blends are dependent on the addition level of resistant starch. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Unique Organization of Extracellular Amylases into Amylosomes in the Resistant Starch-Utilizing Human Colonic Firmicutes Bacterium Ruminococcus bromii.

    PubMed

    Ze, Xiaolei; Ben David, Yonit; Laverde-Gomez, Jenny A; Dassa, Bareket; Sheridan, Paul O; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Bayer, Edward A; Flint, Harry J

    2015-09-29

    Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human gut microbiota that plays a key role in releasing energy from dietary starches that escape digestion by host enzymes via its exceptional activity against particulate "resistant" starches. Genomic analysis of R. bromii shows that it is highly specialized, with 15 of its 21 glycoside hydrolases belonging to one family (GH13). We found that amylase activity in R. bromii is expressed constitutively, with the activity seen during growth with fructose as an energy source being similar to that seen with starch as an energy source. Six GH13 amylases that carry signal peptides were detected by proteomic analysis in R. bromii cultures. Four of these enzymes are among 26 R. bromii proteins predicted to carry dockerin modules, with one, Amy4, also carrying a cohesin module. Since cohesin-dockerin interactions are known to mediate the formation of protein complexes in cellulolytic ruminococci, the binding interactions of four cohesins and 11 dockerins from R. bromii were investigated after overexpressing them as recombinant fusion proteins. Dockerins possessed by the enzymes Amy4 and Amy9 are predicted to bind a cohesin present in protein scaffoldin 2 (Sca2), which resembles the ScaE cell wall-anchoring protein of a cellulolytic relative, R. flavefaciens. Further complexes are predicted between the dockerin-carrying amylases Amy4, Amy9, Amy10, and Amy12 and two other cohesin-carrying proteins, while Amy4 has the ability to autoaggregate, as its dockerin can recognize its own cohesin. This organization of starch-degrading enzymes is unprecedented and provides the first example of cohesin-dockerin interactions being involved in an amylolytic system, which we refer to as an "amylosome." Fermentation of dietary nondigestible carbohydrates by the human colonic microbiota supplies much of the energy that supports microbial growth in the intestine. This activity has important consequences for health via modulation of

  19. In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Melliana; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. Diets contained pregelatinized starch, retrograded starch, alginate, or a mix of retrograded starch and alginate. Faeces were collected on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 39 and 74. Clear trends in intestinal alginate degradation were observed. Up to day 39, the total tract digestibility of alginate was limited (0.52 ± 0.10), and was lower with the inclusion of retrograded starch in the diet (0.34 ± 0.02). More than 90% of the faecal alginate was insoluble in water, which may explain the low digestibility of the alginate. The digestibility of mannuronic acid (M) was 2-3 times higher than that of guluronic acid (G). The changes of G:M ratio and the relative amounts of alginate oligosaccharides between day 39 and 74 indicated that the microbiota needed more than 39 days to adapt to alginate. This study demonstrated that in-depth analyses of dietary fibres are valuable in understanding the fate of the dietary fibres in the large intestine as it was shown that degradation of a dietary fibre depends not only on the properties of the fibre itself, but also on the other dietary fibres present in the diet and the adaptation time.

  20. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  1. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  2. Development of an infusion method for encapsulating ascorbyl palmitate in V-type granular cold-water swelling starch.

    PubMed

    Dries, D M; Gomand, S V; Pycarelle, S C; Smet, M; Goderis, B; Delcour, J A

    2017-06-01

    Certain lipophilic components can be inserted very efficiently as guest molecule in the existing single helical amylose cavities in VH-type crystalline granular cold-water swelling starch (GCWSS). In the present study, ascorbyl palmitate (AscP) was used as a model guest compound. The impacts of temperature (20 and 60°C) and ethanol [48 and 68% (v/v)] and AscP [1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% (w/w)] concentrations on encapsulation performance were investigated. First, native maize and potato starches were converted into VH-type GCWSS by aqueous ethanol [48% (v/v)] treatment at 95°C. Exposing GCWSS to AscP induced the formation of inclusion complexes when a particular solvent (and temperature) environment was met. In 48% (v/v) ethanol, raising the treatment temperature to 60°C did not significantly impact on the encapsulation performance. Maximum degrees of AscP encapsulation were 2.9 and 1.5% (w/w) for maize and potato starch, respectively, as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. As maize GCWSS contained more 'parent' VH-type crystals, it was capable of entrapping more AscP than potato GCWSS.

  3. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-10-14

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had energy density equal to that of the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (w/w) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the seventh week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. (1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and (2) along with their inability to ferment RS, RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss.

  4. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had equal energy density as the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (wt/wt) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the 7th week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice, and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Results: Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice, but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. Conclusion: 1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and 2) along with their inability to ferment RS; RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss. PMID:19739641

  5. Starch chain interactions within the amorphous and crystalline domains of pulse starches during heat-moisture treatment at different temperatures and their impact on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, P; Hoover, R; Donner, E; Liu, Q

    2014-01-15

    Pulse (faba bean [FB], black bean [BB] and pinto bean [PB]) starches were heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 80, 100 and 120°C for 12h at a moisture content of ∼23%. Structural changes on HMT were monitored by microscopy, HPAEC-PAD, ATR-FTIR, WAXS, DSC and susceptibility towards acid and enzyme hydrolysis. Amylopectin chain length distribution remained unchanged in all starches on HMT. In all starches, HMT increased crystallinity and gelatinisation temperatures. The gelatinization enthalpy remained unchanged in some starches, whereas it decreased slightly in other starches on HMT. Slowly digestible starch content decreased at all temperatures of HMT, whereas resistant starch content increased at HMT80 and HMT100 (HMT80>HMT100), but decreased at HMT120. Birefringence, B-type crystallites and acid hydrolysis decreased on HMT. The extent of the above changes varied amongst starch sources and genotypes. HMT altered the X-ray pattern from A+B→A. The results of this study showed that structural reorganisation of starch chains during HMT temperature was influenced by starch chain flexibility, starch chain interactions and crystalline stability of the native granules.

  6. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  7. Metabolomic and transcriptomic responses induced in the livers of pigs by the long-term intake of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Yu, K; Zhou, L; Fang, L; Su, Y; Zhu, W

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated metabolomic and transcriptomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of resistant starch on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. Thirty-six Duroc× Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 d of age) were randomly allocated to either the corn starch (CS) group or the raw potato starch (RPS) group with a randomized complete block design; each group consisted of 6 replicates (pens), with 3 pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn-soybean-based diet, whereas pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 (growing) or 280 g/kg (finishing) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-d trial. The livers of pigs were collected for metabolome and gene expression analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that compared with the CS diet, the RPS diet decreased ( < 0.05) cholesterol and palmitic acid as well as increased ( < 0.05) 3-hydroxybutyric acid, which indicated the reduction of adipose weight and fatty acid biosynthesis and the elevation of fatty acid β-oxidation. In addition, 2-ketoglutaric acid and glucose-6-phosphate were increased (< 0.05) although pyruvic acid was decreased ( < 0.05) in the RPS group, indicating the upregulated capacity of glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis. Microarray analysis showed that the mRNA expression of (), (), and () were downregulated ( < 0.05) whereas (), (), and () were upregulated ( < 0.05) in the RPS diet, indicating a decrease in fatty acid intake and synthesis and an increase in fatty acid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis. The results demonstrated that the long-term consumption of RPS could modulate hepatic lipid metabolism by decreasing fatty acid synthesis as well as increasing lipid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis.

  8. Responses in colonic microbial community and gene expression of pigs to a long-term high resistant starch diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Zhou, Liping; Fang, Lingdong; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Intake of raw potato starch (RPS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge of its mechanism in a long-term is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term intake of RPS on microbial composition, genes expression profiles in the colon of pigs. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows were randomly allocated to corn starch (CS) and RPS groups with a randomized block design. Each group consisted of six replicates (pens), with three pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn/soybean-based diet, while pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 g/kg (growing period) or 280 g/kg (finishing period) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-day trial. Real-time PCR assay showed that RPS significantly decreased the number of total bacteria in the colonic digesta. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that RPS significantly decreased the relative abundance of Clostridium, Treponema, Oscillospira, Phascolarctobacterium, RC9 gut group, and S24-7-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and increased the relative abundance of Turicibacter, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Marvinbryantia, and Ruminococcus bromii-related OTUs in colonic digesta and mucosa. Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that the RPS diet changed the colonic expression profile of the host genes mainly involved in immune response pathways. RPS significantly increased proinflammartory cytokine IL-1β gene expression and suppressed genes involved in lysosome. Our findings suggest that long-term intake of high resistant starch (RS) diet may result in both positive and negative roles in gut health. PMID:26379652

  9. Water sorption behavior and swelling characteristics of starches subjected to dielectric heating.

    PubMed

    Szepes, Anikó; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mohnicke, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of microwave irradiation and storage on the moisture content, adsorption behavior and swelling properties of potato (B-type) and maize starches (A-type). Volumetric heating resulted in reversible moisture loss from both types of samples. The crystallinity of potato starch was decreased, whereas its water retention capacity and swelling power were increased irreversibly, and its swelling capacity was increased reversibly by the thermal process applied. The corresponding parameters of maize starch were not influenced significantly by dielectric heating; this may be related to its special structure resulting in the thermal resistance of this polymer. Our results allow the conclusion that microwave irradiation offers an appropriate and selective alternative for the physicochemical modification of potato starch. In consequence of its low susceptibility to thermal processes, maize starch may be used for the microwave drying of pharmaceutical formulations containing starch.

  10. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  11. Purification and molecular genetic characterization of ZPU1, a pullulanase-type starch-debranching enzyme from maize.

    PubMed

    Beatty, M K; Rahman, A; Cao, H; Woodman, W; Lee, M; Myers, A M; James, M G

    1999-01-01

    This study identified and purified specific isoamylase- and pullulanase-type starch-debranching enzymes (DBEs) present in developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm. The cDNA clone Zpu1 was isolated based on its homology with a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cDNA coding for a pullulanase-type DBE. Comparison of the protein product, ZPU1, with 18 other DBEs identified motifs common to both isoamylase- and pullulanase-type enzymes, as well as class-specific sequence blocks. Hybridization of Zpu1 to genomic DNA defined a single-copy gene, zpu1, located on chromosome 2. Zpu1 mRNA was abundant in endosperm throughout starch biosynthesis, but was not detected in the leaf or the root. Anti-ZPU1 antiserum specifically recognized the approximately 100-kD ZPU1 protein in developing endosperm, but not in leaves. Pullulanase- and isoamylase-type DBEs were purified from extracts of developing maize kernels. The pullulanase-type activity was identified as ZPU1 and the isoamylase-type activity as SU1. Mutations of the sugary1 (su1) gene are known to cause deficiencies of SU1 isoamylase and a pullulanase-type DBE. ZPU1 activity, protein level, and electrophoretic mobility were altered in su1-mutant kernels, indicating that it is the affected pullulanase-type DBE. The Zpu1 transcript levels were equivalent in nonmutant and su1-mutant kernels, suggesting that coordinated regulation of ZPU1 and SU1 occurs posttranscriptionally.

  12. Purification and Molecular Genetic Characterization of ZPU1, a Pullulanase-Type Starch-Debranching Enzyme from Maize1

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mary K.; Rahman, Afroza; Cao, Heping; Woodman, Wendy; Lee, Michael; Myers, Alan M.; James, Martha G.

    1999-01-01

    This study identified and purified specific isoamylase- and pullulanase-type starch-debranching enzymes (DBEs) present in developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm. The cDNA clone Zpu1 was isolated based on its homology with a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cDNA coding for a pullulanase-type DBE. Comparison of the protein product, ZPU1, with 18 other DBEs identified motifs common to both isoamylase- and pullulanase-type enzymes, as well as class-specific sequence blocks. Hybridization of Zpu1 to genomic DNA defined a single-copy gene, zpu1, located on chromosome 2. Zpu1 mRNA was abundant in endosperm throughout starch biosynthesis, but was not detected in the leaf or the root. Anti-ZPU1 antiserum specifically recognized the approximately 100-kD ZPU1 protein in developing endosperm, but not in leaves. Pullulanase- and isoamylase-type DBEs were purified from extracts of developing maize kernels. The pullulanase-type activity was identified as ZPU1 and the isoamylase-type activity as SU1. Mutations of the sugary1 (su1) gene are known to cause deficiencies of SU1 isoamylase and a pullulanase-type DBE. ZPU1 activity, protein level, and electrophoretic mobility were altered in su1-mutant kernels, indicating that it is the affected pullulanase-type DBE. The Zpu1 transcript levels were equivalent in nonmutant and su1-mutant kernels, suggesting that coordinated regulation of ZPU1 and SU1 occurs posttranscriptionally. PMID:9880368

  13. Genetics Home Reference: type A insulin resistance syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions type A insulin resistance syndrome type A insulin resistance syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Type A insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by ...

  14. Resistant starch: Variation among high amylose rice varieties and its relationship with apparent amylose content, pasting properties and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Bergman, Christine J; McClung, Anna M; Everette, Jace D; Tabien, Rodante E

    2017-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestine, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS content in cooked rice and a 1.9-fold difference was found. Some varieties had more than two-fold greater RS content than a US long-grain intermediate-amylose rice. The high amylose varieties were grouped into four classes according to paste viscosity and gelatinization temperature based on genetic variants of the Waxy and Starch Synthase IIa genes, respectively. RS content was not different between the four paste viscosity-gelatinization temperature classes. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that apparent amylose content and pasting temperature were strong predictors of RS within each class. Two cooking methods, fixed water-to-rice ratio/time and in excess-water/minimum-cook-time, were compared using six rice varieties that were extremes in RS in each of the genetic variant classes, no difference in RS content due to cooking method was observed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Idso, Laura; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jackson, Matthew I; Combs, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has unique digestive and absorptive properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking method and service temperature. Potatoes of three common commercial varieties (Yukon Gold, Dark Red Norland, and Russet Burbank) were subjected to two methods of cooking (baking or boiling) and three service temperatures: hot (65°C), chilled (4°C) and reheated (4°C for 6d; reheated to 65°C) and analyzed the starch content by modification of a commercially available assay. Results showed that RS content (g/100g) varied by cooking method and service temperature but not variety. Baked potatoes had higher RS contents than boiled; chilled potatoes had more RS than either hot or reheated. These results may assist in dietary choices for reducing chronic disease risk.

  16. Effect of resistant starch on the cooking quality of yam (Dioscorea spp.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) based paste products.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Olivier Kouadio; N'dri, Denis Yao; Nindjin, Charlemagne; Marti, Alessandra; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Faoro, Franco; Erba, Daniela; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Amani, N'guessan Georges

    2013-06-01

    Total starch (TS) and resistant starch (RS) contents in pasty edible product of mealy and hard cooking tubers of three yam varieties and four cassava varieties were determined to evaluate their contribution in their cooking quality. TS and RS contents appeared as the main components in determining yam cooking quality. Mealy cooking yam varieties were characterized by a significant higher TS content (75.2 ± 7.7 g/100 g d.m.) and lower RS content (13.8 ± 3.4 g/100 g d.m.) than hard cooking yam varieties, which, in contrast, contained less TS (61.7 ± 12.1 g/100 g d.m.) and particularly high RS (21.8 ± 9.9 g/100 g d.m.), possibly as a consequence of the prevalence of large granules (35-40 μm) observed by light microscope. Conversely, TS and RS contents appeared not determinant on the cooking quality of cassava. Moreover, higher amylose contents were associated with substantially elevated percentages of RS in yam and cassava, and high RS content in samples modulates their pasting properties by reducing the peak viscosity and the breakdown and requiring higher temperature and longer time to the peak.

  17. A standardized method for preparation of potatoes and analysis of their resistant starch content: Variation by cooking method and service temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) may lead to reduced glycemia, improved satiety, and beneficial changes in gut microbiota due to its unique digestive and absorptive properties. We developed a standardized protocol for preparation of potatoes in order to assess their RS content and modified a com...

  18. Positive effects of resistant starch supplementation on bowel function in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Shen, Deqiang; Bai, Hao; Li, Zhaoping; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Huanhuan; Chen, Liyong

    2017-03-01

    Animal experimental studies have found that resistant starch can significantly improve bowel function, but the outcomes are mixed while conducting human studies. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the relationship between resistant starch supplementation and large intestinal function. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model. The pooled findings revealed that resistant starch significantly increased fecal wet weight (WMD 35.51 g/d, 95% CI 1.21, 69.82) and butyrate concentration (SMD 0.61, 95% CI 0.32, 0.89). Also, it significantly reduced fecal PH (WMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.35, -0.03), but the increment of defecation frequency were not statistically significant (WMD 0.04stools/g, 95% CI -0.08, 0.16). To conclude, our study found that resistant starch elicited a beneficial effect on the function of large bowel in healthy adults.[Formula: see text].

  19. New type of cryogenic semiconductor resistance thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, S. A.

    A new type of semiconductor resistance thermometer is described. The new thermometers are made of monocrystalline InSb doped with manganese. They have been employed in the measurement of temperature from 0.01 to 350 K, and showed high sensitivity, low resistivity and excellent temperature reproducibility. Calibration of such thermometers at low and super-low temperatures is very simple because of their pure exponential temperature-resistivity dependence. Use of InSb:Mn thermometers in magnetic fields at temperatures below 4.2 K is not recommended.

  20. Functionality of Chemically Modified Wild-Type, Partial Waxy and Waxy Starches from Tetraploid Wheats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Partial waxy (reduced-amylose) and fully waxy (amylose-free) tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) were developed by introgression of null alleles at the Wx-A1 and Wx-B1 loci from common hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum L.). Purified starches were obtained from each genotype, and chemicall...

  1. Preparation of slowly digestible sweet potato Daeyumi starch by dual enzyme modification.

    PubMed

    Jo, A Ra; Kim, Ha Ram; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, Joon Seol; Chung, Mi Nam; Han, Seon Kyeong; Park, Cheon-Seok; Moon, Tae Wha

    2016-06-05

    Sweet potato Daeyumi starch was dually modified using glycogen branching enzyme (BE) from Streptococcus mutans and amylosucrase (AS) from Neisseria polysaccharea to prepare slowly digestible starch (SDS). Dually modified starches had higher SDS and resistant starch (RS) contents than control starch. The branched chain length distributions of the BE-modified starches indicated an increase in short side-chains [degree of polymerization (DP)≤12] compared with native starch. AS treatment of the BE-modified starches decreased the proportion of short side-chains and increased the proportion of long side-chains (DP≥25) and molecular mass. It also resulted in a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern and an increased relative crystallinity. Regarding thermal properties, the BE-modified starches showed no endothermic peak, whereas the BEAS-modified starches had a broader melting temperature range and lower melting enthalpy compared to native starch. The combined enzymatic treatment resulted in novel glucan polymers with slow digestion properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Jones, Roger W.; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  3. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Timothy J; Jones, Roger W; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F; McClelland, John F

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  4. Role of Red Meat and Resistant Starch in Promutagenic Adduct Formation, MGMT Repair, Thymic Lymphoma and Intestinal Tumourigenesis in Msh2 -Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jean M; Hu, Ying; Young, Graeme P; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Le Leu, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Red meat may increase promutagenic lesions in the colon. Resistant starch (RS) can reduce these lesions and chemically induced colon tumours in rodents. Msh2 is a mismatch repair (MMR) protein, recognising unrepaired promutagenic adducts for removal. We determined if red meat and/or RS modulated DNA adducts or oncogenesis in Msh2-deficient mice. A total of 100 Msh2-/- and 60 wild-type mice consumed 1 of 4 diets for 6 months: control, RS, red meat and red meat+RS. Survival time, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colon and small intestinal tumours, lymphoma, colonic O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O6MeG) adducts, methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) and cell proliferation were examined. In Msh2-/- mice, red meat enhanced survival compared to control (p<0.01) and lowered total tumour burden compared to RS (p<0.167). Msh2-/- mice had more ACF than wild-type mice (p<0.014), but no colon tumours developed. Msh2-/- increased cell proliferation (p<0.001), lowered DNA O6MeG adducts (p<0.143) and enhanced MGMT protein levels (p<0.001) compared to wild-type mice, with RS supplementation also protecting against DNA adducts (p<0.01). No link between red meat-induced promutagenic adducts and risk for colorectal cancer was observed after 6 months' feeding. Colonic epithelial changes after red meat and RS consumption with MMR deficiency will differ from normal epithelial cells.

  5. Heterologous expression of Thermobifida fusca thermostable alpha-amylase in Yarrowia lipolytica and its application in boiling stable resistant sago starch preparation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Wen, Chia-Ying

    2010-09-01

    A gene encoding the thermostable alpha-amylase in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into Yarrowia lipolytica P01g host strain using the vector pYLSC1 allowing constitutive expression and secretion of the protein. Recombinant expression resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production, as high as 730 U/l in the Hinton flask culture broth. It is higher than that observed in P. pastoris expression system and E. coli expression system. The purified amylase showed a single band at about 65 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and this agrees with the predicted size based on the nucleotide sequence. About 70% of the original activity remained after heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 3 h. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified amylase were 7.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The purified amylase exhibited a high level of activity with raw sago starch. After 72-h treatment, the DP(w) of raw sago starch obviously decreased from 830,945 to 237,092. The boiling stable resistant starch content of the sago starch increased from 8.3 to 18.1%. The starch recovery rate was 71%.

  6. Production of an in Vitro Low-Digestible Starch via Hydrothermal Treatment of Amylosucrase-Modified Normal and Waxy Rice Starches and Its Structural Properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ha Ram; Choi, Seung Jun; Park, Cheon-Seok; Moon, Tae Wha

    2016-06-22

    We investigated dual modification of normal and waxy rice starch, focusing on digestibility. Amylosucrase (AS) was applied to maximize the slowly digestible and resistant starch fractions. AS-modified starches were adjusted to 25-40% moisture levels and heated at 100 °C for 40 min. AS-modified starches exhibited a B-type crystalline structure, and hydrothermal treatment (HTT) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative crystallinity with moisture level. The thermal transition properties of modified starches were also affected by the moisture level. The contents of rapidly digestible starch fraction in AS-modified normal and waxy starches (43.3 ± 3.9 and 18.1 ± 0.6%) decreased to 13.0 ± 1.0 and 0.3 ± 0.3% after HTT, accordingly increasing the low digestible fractions. Although the strengthened crystalline structures of AS-modified starches by HTT were not stable enough to maintain their rigidity under cooking, application of AS and HTT was more effective in waxy rice starch than normal rice starch when lowering digestibility.

  7. High Fiber and Low Starch Intakes Are Associated with Circulating Intermediate Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes among Women123

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H; Malik, Vasanti S; Campos, Hannia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carbohydrate quality has been consistently related to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, limited information is available about the effect of carbohydrate quality on biomarkers related to T2D. Objective: We examined the associations of carbohydrate quality measures (CQMs) including carbohydrate intake; starch intake; glycemic index; glycemic load; total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intakes; and different combinations of these nutrients with plasma concentrations of adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 2458 diabetes-free women, ages 43–70 y, in the Nurses Health Study. CQMs were estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, and averages from 1984, 1986, and 1990 were used. Plasma biomarkers were collected in 1990. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between CQMs and biomarkers. Results: After age, body mass index, lifestyle, and dietary variables were adjusted, 1) total fiber intake was positively associated with adiponectin (P-trend = 0.004); 2) cereal fiber intake was positively associated with adiponectin and inversely associated with CRP, and fruit fiber intake was negatively associated with HbA1c concentrations (all P-trend < 0.03); 3) starch intake was inversely associated with adiponectin (P-trend = 0.02); 4) a higher glycemic index was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HbA1c (both P-trend < 0.05); 5) a higher carbohydrate-to-total fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin (P-trend = 0.005); 6) a higher starch-to-total fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HbA1c (both P-trend < 0.05); and 7) a higher starch-to-cereal fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin (P-trend = 0.002). Conclusions: A greater fiber intake and a lower starch-to-fiber intake ratio are favorably associated with adiponectin and HbA1c, but only cereal fiber intake was

  8. High Fiber and Low Starch Intakes Are Associated with Circulating Intermediate Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes among Women.

    PubMed

    AlEssa, Hala B; Ley, Sylvia H; Rosner, Bernard; Malik, Vasanti S; Willett, Walter C; Campos, Hannia; Hu, Frank B

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate quality has been consistently related to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, limited information is available about the effect of carbohydrate quality on biomarkers related to T2D. We examined the associations of carbohydrate quality measures (CQMs) including carbohydrate intake; starch intake; glycemic index; glycemic load; total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intakes; and different combinations of these nutrients with plasma concentrations of adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). This is a cross-sectional analysis of 2458 diabetes-free women, ages 43-70 y, in the Nurses Health Study. CQMs were estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, and averages from 1984, 1986, and 1990 were used. Plasma biomarkers were collected in 1990. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between CQMs and biomarkers. After age, body mass index, lifestyle, and dietary variables were adjusted, 1) total fiber intake was positively associated with adiponectin (P-trend = 0.004); 2) cereal fiber intake was positively associated with adiponectin and inversely associated with CRP, and fruit fiber intake was negatively associated with HbA1c concentrations (all P-trend < 0.03); 3) starch intake was inversely associated with adiponectin (P-trend = 0.02); 4) a higher glycemic index was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HbA1c (both P-trend < 0.05); 5) a higher carbohydrate-to-total fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin (P-trend = 0.005); 6) a higher starch-to-total fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HbA1c (both P-trend < 0.05); and 7) a higher starch-to-cereal fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin (P-trend = 0.002). A greater fiber intake and a lower starch-to-fiber intake ratio are favorably associated with adiponectin and HbA1c, but only cereal fiber intake was associated with CRP in women. Further research is warranted to

  9. Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of 3 Lilium Bulb Starches.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Lilium (Liliaceae) is an important wild plant and is used as food and traditional medicine worldwide. One Lilium cultivar (Lilium lancifolium) and 2 wild types (Lilium leucanthum and Lilium rosthornii) that are commonly distributed in Western China were investigated to completely utilize Lilium resources. The morphology of the flowers, bulbs, and scales and soluble sugar, total starch and amylose contents was remarkably different among the 3 Lilium species. Starches from the 3 Lilium species presented different granule size and shape. The starch of L. lancifolium exhibited higher swelling power and solubility than that of L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. The starches from the 3 Lilium bulbs presented similar X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the 3 Lilium species, L. lancifolium showed the lowest crystallinity and the largest proportion of ordered structures in granule external region. Gelatinization temperatures and retrogradation percentage were significantly lower, but gelatinization enthalpy was significantly higher in L. lancifolium than those in L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Pasting properties of starch were different among the 3 Lilium species. Starch from L. lancifolium showed the highest degree of amylopectin branching, followed by L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii. Starches from L. leucanthum and L. rosthornii showed higher resistance to porcine pancreatic α-amylase hydrolysis compared to that of L. lancifolium. These results indicated that 3 Lilium bulbs exhibited remarkable differences in morphological, crystal, thermal, pasting, and hydrolysis properties of starches. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  11. Effect of acid hydrolysis on morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchi; Wen, Fanting; Zhang, Shurong; Shen, Ruru; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effect of acid hydrolysis on the morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was investigated in this study. The hydrolysis degree of C. auriculatum starch rapidly increased to 63.69% after 4days and reached 78.67% at the end of 9days. Morphology observation showed that the starch granules remained intact during the first 4days of hydrolysis. However, serious erosion phenomenon was observed after 5days and starch granules completely fell into pieces after 7days. During acid hydrolysis process, the crystal type of hydrolyzed starch changed from original CB-type to final A-type. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns showed the semi-crystalline growth rings started to be hydrolyzed after 4days. The proportions of single helix and amorphous components as well as amylose content in starch gradually decreased, whereas the proportion of double helix components continuously increased during acid hydrolysis. However, the contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were almost constant during acid hydrolysis process, indicating the in vitro digestion property of C. auriculatum starch was not affected by acid hydrolysis. Our results provided novel information on the inner structure of C. auriculatum starch granules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trápala, María A.; Francisco-Luria, Mateo U.; Córdova-Uscanga, Rubén; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Méndez, José D.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation. PMID:20623003

  13. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  14. Cell wall composition and penetration resistance against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum are affected by impaired starch turnover in Arabidopsis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Engelsdorf, Timo; Will, Cornelia; Hofmann, Jörg; Schmitt, Christine; Merritt, Brian B.; Rieger, Leonie; Frenger, Marc S.; Marschall, André; Franke, Rochus B.; Pattathil, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Penetration resistance represents the first level of plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report that the starch-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana phosphoglucomutase (pgm) mutant has impaired penetration resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. We could not determine any changes in leaf cutin and epicuticular wax composition or indolic glucosinolate levels, but detected complex alterations in the cell wall monosaccharide composition of pgm. Notably, other mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis (adg1) or mobilization (sex1) had similarly affected cell wall composition and penetration resistance. Glycome profiling analysis showed that both overall cell wall polysaccharide extractability and relative extractability of specific pectin and xylan epitopes were affected in pgm, suggesting extensive structural changes in pgm cell walls. Screening of mutants with alterations in content or modification of specific cell wall monosaccharides indicated an important function of pectic polymers for penetration resistance and hyphal growth of C. higginsianum during the biotrophic interaction phase. While mutants with affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (mur8) were hypersusceptible, penetration frequency and morphology of fungal hyphae were impaired on pmr5 pmr6 mutants with increased pectin levels. Our results reveal a strong impact of starch metabolism on cell wall composition and suggest a link between carbohydrate availability, cell wall pectin and penetration resistance. PMID:28204541

  15. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  16. Physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower. This suggests different biosynthetic properties between these two starches. The enthalpy changes of gelatinization of outer pericarp starches were high (∼21J/g). Rheological properties of outer pericarp starches were compared with normal maize and potato starches showed high yield stress of flow properties. This study revealed the unique properties of kiwifruit starch among various types of starches.

  17. Fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but are usually increased by a diet high in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    McOrist, Alexandra L; Miller, Rosalind B; Bird, Anthony R; Keogh, Jennifer B; Noakes, Manny; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Butyrate and other SCFA produced by bacterial fermentation of resistant starch (RS) or nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) promote human colonic health. To examine variation in fecal variables, especially butyrate, among individuals and the response to these fibers, a randomized cross-over study was conducted that compared the effects of foods supplying 25 g of NSP or 25 g of NSP plus 22 g of RS/d over 4 wk in 46 healthy adults (16 males, 30 females; age 31-66 y). Fecal SCFA levels varied widely among participants at entry (butyrate concentrations: 3.5-32.6 mmol/kg; butyrate excretions: 0.3-18.2 mmol/48 h). BMI explained 27% of inter-individual butyrate variation, whereas protein, starch, carbohydrate, fiber, and fat intake explained up to 16, 6, 2, 4, and 2% of butyrate variation, respectively. Overall, acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA concentrations were higher when participants consumed RS compared with entry and NSP diets, but individual responses varied. Individual and total fecal SCFA excretion, weight, and moisture were higher than those for habitual diets when either fiber diet was consumed. SCFA concentrations (except butyrate) and excretions were higher for males than for females. Butyrate levels increased in response to RS in most individuals but often decreased when entry levels were high. Fecal butyrate and ammonia excretions were positively associated ((2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). In conclusion, fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but consuming a diet high in RS usually increases levels and may help maintain colorectal health.

  18. Comparison of pasting and gel stabilities of waxy and normal starches from potato, maize, and rice with those of a novel waxy cassava starch under thermal, chemical, and mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Teresa; Dufour, Dominique; Moreno, Isabel Ximena; Ceballos, Hernán

    2010-04-28

    Functional properties of normal and waxy starches from maize, rice, potato, and cassava as well as the modified waxy maize starch COLFLO 67 were compared. The main objective of this study is to position the recently discovered spontaneous mutation for amylose-free cassava starch in relation to the other starches with well-known characteristics. Paste clarity, wavelength of maximum absorption (lambda(max)), pasting properties, swelling power, solubility, and dispersed volume fraction measurements and gel stability (acid and alkaline resistance, shear, refrigeration, and freeze/thaw stability) were evaluated in the different types and sources of starch included in this study. lambda(max) in the waxy cassava starch was reduced considerably in comparison with that of normal cassava starch (535 vs 592 nm). RVA peak viscosity of waxy cassava starch was larger than in normal cassava starch (1119 vs 937 cP) and assumed a position intermediate between the waxy potato and maize starches. Acid, alkaline, and shear stability of waxy cassava starch were similar to normal cassava except for alkaline pH, at which it showed a low effect. Gels from normal root and tuber starches after refrigeration and freeze/thaw had lower syneresis than cereal starches. Gels from waxy starches (except for potato) did not present any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. Waxy cassava starch was the only one not showing any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at -20 degrees C. Natural waxy cassava starch is, therefore, a promising ingredient to formulate refrigerated or frozen food.

  19. Effect of preparation method on the properties of potato starch acetates with an equal degree of substitution.

    PubMed

    Zięba, T; Kapelko, M; Szumny, A

    2013-04-15

    Acetylated retrograded starch is one of the forms of resistant starch (RS3/4). Apart from the known resistance to amylolysis, it is characterized by the capability to form viscous pastes. Properties of this type of acetates are mainly determined by the degree of substitution and raw material used for esterification. The objective of this study was to produce starch acetates with a degree of substitution DS=0.1 from native potato starch and retrograded potato starch, and to compare selected properties of the resultant preparations. Retrograded starch was produced by freezing pastes with concentrations of 1, 4, 10, 18 or 30 g/100 g. Starch acetates with a degree of substitution DS∼0.1 were produced from native or retrograded starch through acetylation with various doses of acetic acid anhydride (6.5-26.0 cm(3)/100 g of starch). The preparations produced were characterized by various properties. A positive correlation was observed between resistance to amylolysis and the number of acetyl groups at C2 and C3 the produced starch acetates.

  20. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  1. Starch gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  2. Sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate as an emulsifier in "light" type mayonnaises.

    PubMed

    Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Małyszek, Zuzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Zięba, Tomasz; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    The E 1450 sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate which exhibits emulsifying properties is used as food additive and is also recommended as yolk replacer in the process of mayonnaise production. Commercial E 1450 preparations reveal excellent functional properties in mayonnaise production. However, sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate produced in the course of the suspension process (as well as the product of its hydrolysis in a membrane reactor), despite high surface activity, is unsuitable for this purpose. Therefore, a hypothesis was put forward that the cause of the unsuitability of these preparations for mayonnaise production is their improper profile of molecular mass distribution and the objective of this study was to verify the above thesis. E 1450 preparations of different degree of substitution obtained alternately by means of reactive extrusion or enzymatic hydrolysis preceded by esterification in suspension were investigated. Preparations were characterised physico-chemically by determining the degree of substitution, viscosity, emulsifying activity index (EAI) and their capability to stabilise model emulsions (ME). Their molecular mass distribution profiles were determined and their suitability for the manufacture of low-fat mayonnaises was assessed. These investigations were also carried out for mixtures of preparations obtained as a result of a reactive extrusion and hydrolysis of the ester obtained during the suspension process. Despite the fact that the preparations obtained in suspension were characterised by 100% values of the ES parameter, all attempts to manufacture with their assistance of mayonnaise by way of a simple substitution in the formulation of dried egg yolk by E 1450 starch failed. Similarly, attempts to manufacture mayonnaise using any of the preparations obtained by means of reactive extrusion or enzymatic hydrolysis of the reaction product in suspension also ended in failure. The only successful solution was the application of

  3. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  4. Resistant starch from high amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary butyrate reduce abdominal fat by a different apparent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vidrine, Kirk; Ye, Jianping; Martin, Roy J; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Raggio, Anne M; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Zhou, June; Senevirathne, Reshani N; Williams, Cathy; Greenway, Frank; Finley, John; Gao, Zhanguo; Goldsmith, Felicia; Keenan, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a health concern. Resistant starch (RS) type 2 from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) and dietary sodium butyrate (SB) reduce abdominal fat in rodents. RS treatment is associated with increased gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), but it is not known if SB increases these hormones. This was investigated in a 2 × 2 rat study with HAM-RS2 (0 or 28% weight) and dietary sodium butyrate (0 and 3.2%) resulting in isocaloric treatments: energy control (EC), sodium butyrate (SB), HAM-RS2 (RS), and the combination (SBRS). RS and SB reduced abdominal fat and the combination reduced abdominal fat compared to SB and RS. RS was associated with increased fermentation in the cecum. Serum PYY and GLP-1 total were increased with RS treatment. RS treatment was associated with increased cecal butyrate produced from fermentation of RS, but there was no cecal increase for dietary SB. SB after its absorption into the blood appears to not affect production of PYY and GLP-1, while butyrate from fermentation in the cecum promotes increased PYY and GLP-1. Future studies with lower doses of RS and SB are warranted and the combination may be beneficial for human health. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  6. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  7. A Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna

    2017-03-17

    Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed 'functional' bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved. Bread intake did not change during the trial. The functional bread reduced glycated hemoglobin by ~0.5% (absolute units) vs. pre-treatment values (p = 0.028), and by ~0.6% vs. the control group (p = 0.027). Post-prandial and mean plasma glucose was decreased in the treatment group too. Body weight, blood pressure and plasma lipids did not change. The acceptance of the functional bread was good in the majority of subjects, except for taste. A starch-restricted, fiber-rich functional bread, with an increased beta glucan/starch ratio, improved long term metabolic control, and may be indicated in the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  8. A Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Design: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed ‘functional’ bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved. Results: Bread intake did not change during the trial. The functional bread reduced glycated hemoglobin by ~0.5% (absolute units) vs. pre-treatment values (p = 0.028), and by ~0.6% vs. the control group (p = 0.027). Post-prandial and mean plasma glucose was decreased in the treatment group too. Body weight, blood pressure and plasma lipids did not change. The acceptance of the functional bread was good in the majority of subjects, except for taste. Conclusions: A starch-restricted, fiber-rich functional bread, with an increased beta glucan/starch ratio, improved long term metabolic control, and may be indicated in the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28304350

  9. Impact of amylose content on starch physicochemical properties in transgenic sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenzhi; Yang, Jun; Hong, Yan; Liu, Guiling; Zheng, Jianli; Gu, Zhengbiao; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-20

    The intrinsic relationship between amylose content and starch physicochemical properties was studied using six representative starch samples (amylose content 0-65%) produced from transgenic sweet potato (cultivar Xushu22). The transgenic lines (waxy and high-amylose) and wild-type (WT) sweet potatoes were analyzed for amylose content, particle size and chain length distribution, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermal characteristics, pasting and rheological property. Compared to the WT starch, the waxy and high-amylose starches showed larger average granule sizes and had fewer short chains and more medium and long chains. X-ray diffractogram analysis revealed that high-amylose starches show a type-B crystal form with a markedly decreased degree of crystallinity in contrast to the type-A crystal form of the WT and waxy starches. In the high-amylose sweet potato starches, the rise of setback value and the reduction of breakdown value led to the high shear resistance as indicated by the higher G', G", and tanδ from the oscillation test. ΔH was not found to be decreased with the reduction of crystallinity. The shear stress resistance of starch gel after gelatinization was also enhanced as amylose content increased. Principal component analysis also confirmed that the amylose content greatly influenced the starch structure and properties, e.g., storage modulus, setback value, and average chain length. Thus, our study not only shed light on how amylose content affects starch properties but also identified novel starches that are available for various applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of amylosucrase modification on the structural and physicochemical properties of native and acid-thinned waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Xing; He, Jian; Wang, Tao; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and Effect of Gamma Radiation on The Properties and Biodegradability of Poly(Styrene/Starch) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. E.; Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable blends based on Poly(styrene/starch) Poly(Sty/Starch) were prepared by the casting method using different contents of starch in the range of 0-20 wt% aiming at preparing disposable packaging materials. The prepared bio-blends were Characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), swelling behavior, mechanical properties, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the swelling behavior slightly increased with increasing starch content and not exceeding 7.5%. The results showed that by increasing irradiation dose up to 5 kGy, the mechanical properties of the prepared PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film modified than other blend films, and hence it is selected. Also the water resistant increased, by irradiation of the selected PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between Starch and PSty of the PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film promote a more homogenous blend film as shown in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared Poly(Sty/Starch) blends with different compositions and the selected irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch blend were subjected to biodegradation in soil burial tests for 6 months using two different types of soils; agricultural and desert soils, then analyzed gravimetrically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggested that there is a possibility of using irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch at a dose of 5 kGy as a potential candidate for packaging material.

  12. Colonocyte telomere shortening is greater with dietary red meat than white meat and is attenuated by resistant starch.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Nathan J; Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Fenech, Michael; Conlon, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Population studies indicate that greater red meat consumption increases colorectal cancer risk while dietary fibre is protective. Previous work in rats showed that diets high in protein, including red meat, increase colonocyte DNA strand breaks and that this effect is attenuated by resistant starches (RS). Telomeres are long hexamer repeats that protect against spontaneous DNA damage which would lead to chromosomal instability. Telomere shortening is associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. The current study aimed to determine the effects of cooked red and white meat intake on colonocyte telomere length in rats and whether dietary RS modified their effects. After four weeks of feeding cooked beef or chicken at 15, 25 and 35% of diet with or without RS, colonocyte telomere length was measured. Telomere length decreased in proportion to red meat content of the diet. A similar trend was observed in the white meat group. Colonocyte telomere shortening due to increased dietary meat was attenuated by the inclusion of RS. These data support previous findings of increased colonocyte DNA damage with greater red and white meat intake and also the protective effect of dietary fibre. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  14. Resistant starch and pullulan reduce postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, but have no effect on satiety in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Klosterbuer, Abby S; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-12-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three novel fibers on satiety and serum parameters. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, fasted subjects (n=20) consumed a low-fiber control breakfast or one of four breakfasts containing 25 g of fiber from soluble corn fiber (SCF) or resistant starch (RS), alone or in combination with pullulan (SCF+P and RS+P). Visual analog scales assessed appetite, and blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The fiber treatments did not influence satiety or energy intake compared to control. RS+P significantly reduced glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, but neither SCF treatment differed from control. To conclude, these fibers have little impact on satiety when provided as a mixed meal matched for calories and macronutrients. Additional research regarding the physiological effects of these novel fibers is needed to guide their use as functional ingredients in food products.

  15. Mixed biopolymer systems based on starch.

    PubMed

    Abd Elgadir, M; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Ferdosh, Sahena; Mehrnoush, Amid; Karim, Alias A; Noda, Takahiro; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam

    2012-01-09

    A binary mixture of starch-starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influence of their interaction on physicochemical and rheological properties of the starch-based foods. It is evident that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the biopolymers mixture are highly dependent on the type of starch and other biopolymers that make them up mixing ratios, mixing procedure and presence of other food ingredients in the mixture. Understanding these properties will lead to improve the formulation of starch-based foods and minimize the need to resort to chemically modified starch.

  16. New type of starch-binding domain: the direct repeat motif in the C-terminal region of Bacillus sp. no. 195 alpha-amylase contributes to starch binding and raw starch degrading.

    PubMed

    Sumitani, J; Tottori, T; Kawaguchi, T; Arai, M

    2000-09-01

    The alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp. no. 195 (BAA) consists of two domains: one is the catalytic domain similar to alpha-amylases from animals and Streptomyces in the N-terminal region; the other is the functionally unknown domain composed of an approx. 90-residue direct repeat in the C-terminal region. The gene coding for BAA was expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK24. Three active forms of the gene products were found. The pH and thermal profiles of BAAs, and their catalytic activities for p-nitrophenyl maltopentaoside and soluble starch, showed almost the same behaviours. The largest, 69 kDa, form (BAA-alpha) was of the same molecular mass as that of the mature protein estimated from the nucleotide sequence, and had raw-starch-binding and -degrading abilities. The second largest, 60 kDa, form (BAA-beta), whose molecular mass was the same as that of the natural enzyme from Bacillus sp. no. 195, was generated by proteolytic processing between the two repeat sequences in the C-terminal region, and had lower activities for raw starch binding and degrading than those of BAA-alpha. The smallest, 50 kDa, form (BAA-gamma) contained only the N-terminal catalytic domain as a result of removal of the C-terminal repeat sequence, which led to loss of binding and degradation of insoluble starches. Thus the starch adsorption capacity and raw-starch-degrading activity of BAAs depends on the existence of the repeat sequence in the C-terminal region. BAA-alpha was specifically adsorbed on starch or dextran (alpha-1,4 or alpha-1,6 glucan), and specifically desorbed with maltose or beta-cyclodextrin. These observations indicated that the repeat sequence of the enzyme was functional in the starch-binding domain (SBD). We propose the designation of the homologues to the SBD of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger as family I SBDs, the homologues to that of glucoamylase from Rhizopus oryzae as family II, and the homologues of this repeat sequence of BAA as family III.

  17. New type of starch-binding domain: the direct repeat motif in the C-terminal region of Bacillus sp. no. 195 alpha-amylase contributes to starch binding and raw starch degrading.

    PubMed Central

    Sumitani, J; Tottori, T; Kawaguchi, T; Arai, M

    2000-01-01

    The alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp. no. 195 (BAA) consists of two domains: one is the catalytic domain similar to alpha-amylases from animals and Streptomyces in the N-terminal region; the other is the functionally unknown domain composed of an approx. 90-residue direct repeat in the C-terminal region. The gene coding for BAA was expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK24. Three active forms of the gene products were found. The pH and thermal profiles of BAAs, and their catalytic activities for p-nitrophenyl maltopentaoside and soluble starch, showed almost the same behaviours. The largest, 69 kDa, form (BAA-alpha) was of the same molecular mass as that of the mature protein estimated from the nucleotide sequence, and had raw-starch-binding and -degrading abilities. The second largest, 60 kDa, form (BAA-beta), whose molecular mass was the same as that of the natural enzyme from Bacillus sp. no. 195, was generated by proteolytic processing between the two repeat sequences in the C-terminal region, and had lower activities for raw starch binding and degrading than those of BAA-alpha. The smallest, 50 kDa, form (BAA-gamma) contained only the N-terminal catalytic domain as a result of removal of the C-terminal repeat sequence, which led to loss of binding and degradation of insoluble starches. Thus the starch adsorption capacity and raw-starch-degrading activity of BAAs depends on the existence of the repeat sequence in the C-terminal region. BAA-alpha was specifically adsorbed on starch or dextran (alpha-1,4 or alpha-1,6 glucan), and specifically desorbed with maltose or beta-cyclodextrin. These observations indicated that the repeat sequence of the enzyme was functional in the starch-binding domain (SBD). We propose the designation of the homologues to the SBD of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger as family I SBDs, the homologues to that of glucoamylase from Rhizopus oryzae as family II, and the homologues of this repeat sequence of BAA as family III. PMID:10947962

  18. Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Gerald E.; Holtrop, Grietje; Bremner, David M.; Calder, A. Graham; Milne, Eric; Johnstone, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) or resistant starch (RS), above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) than observed with modest weight loss (WL). Obese male volunteers (n = 14) were given an energy-maintenance (M) diet containing 27 g NSP and 5 g RS daily for one week. They then received, in a cross-over design, energy-maintenance intakes of either an NSP-enriched diet (42 g NSP, 2.5 g RS) or an RS-enriched diet (16 g NSP, 25 g RS), each for three weeks. Finally, a high protein (30% calories) WL diet was provided at 8 MJ/day for three weeks. During each dietary intervention, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and IS were assessed. Fasting glycaemia was unaltered by diet, but plasma insulin and C-peptide both decreased with the WL diet (p < 0.001), as did EGP (−11%, p = 0.006). Homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance improved following both WL (p < 0.001) and RS (p < 0.05) diets. Peripheral tissue IS improved only with WL (57%–83%, p < 0.005). Inclusion of additional RS or NSP above amounts currently recommended resulted in little or no improvement in glycaemic control, whereas moderate WL (approximately 3 kg fat) improved IS. PMID:23752495

  19. Slow digestion property of native cereal starches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genyi; Ao, Zihua; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2006-11-01

    The slow digestion property of native cereal starches, represented by normal maize starch, was investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed that 53.0% of the maize starch is slowly digestible starch (SDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SDS starts from an increase of pore size until almost complete fragmentation of starch granules. However, similar amounts of SDS ( approximately 50%) were shown for partially digested fragmented starch residuals, which would normally be considered resistant to digestion based on the Englyst assay. Molecularly, both amylopectin (AP) and amylose (AM) contributed to the amount of SDS as evidenced by a similar ratio of AP to AM at different digestion times. Consistently, similar degrees of crystallinity, comparable gelatinization behavior, and similar debranched profiles of starch residuals following different digestion times indicated that the crystalline and amorphous regions of starch granules were evenly digested through a mechanism of side-by-side digestion of concentric layers of semicrystalline shells of native starch granules.

  20. Resistant starch intake partly restores metabolic and inflammatory alterations in the liver of high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Díaz-Rubio, María Elena; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Jean-François; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Sebedio, Jean-Louis; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2013-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) constitutes the most important feature of the metabolic syndrome, whose prevalence is highly associated to the consumption of Western diets. Resistant starch (RS) consumption has been shown to have beneficial metabolic effects, including improved insulin sensitivity, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the mechanisms (especially at the molecular level) by which this takes place are still not completely known. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the liver in the ameliorated high-fat (HF)-induced IR status by RS. Thus, three groups of rats were fed either a control diet, or an HF diet containing or not RS. After 9 weeks of feeding, we evaluated the whole-body insulin sensitivity, and the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at the biochemical and molecular levels and the metabolome of the cecum content. We demonstrated for the first time that at least part of the beneficial effects of RS consumption in the context of an HF feeding can be driven by changes elicited at the hepatic level. The ability of the RS to correct the HF-induced dyslipidemia and the associated IR resulted from the return to the basal expression levels of transcription factors involved in lipogenesis (SREBP-1c), cholesterol metabolism (SREBP-2, LXRs) and fatty acid oxidation (PPARα). Moreover, the RS feeding was able to correct the HF-induced reduction in hepatic glucose phosphorylation and muscle glucose transport, improving glucose tolerance. Finally, as a whole, the improved hepatic metabolism seemed to be the result of an ameliorated inflammatory status.

  1. In-vitro digestibility, rheology, structure, and functionality of RS3 from oat starch.

    PubMed

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Starches isolated from three different varieties of oat were modified with dual autoclaving-retrogradation treatment to make modified food starches with high contents of type 3 resistant starch (RS3). FT-IR spectroscopy showed increase in the ratio of intensity of 1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1) on treatment. Morphology of the oat starches changed into a continuous network with increased values for onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), and conclusion temperature (Tc). XRD showed an additional peak at 13° and increase in peak intensity at 20° inclusive of the major X-ray diffraction peaks which reflects formation of amylose-lipid complex from dual autoclaving-retrogradation cycle. Peaks at 13° and 20° are the typical peaks of the V-type pattern. Rheological analysis suggested that retrogradated oat starches showed shear thickening behavior as revealed from Herschel-Bulkely model and frequency sweep.

  2. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  3. Comparison of starches from five plants of Sect. Stenophora Uline and Sect. Lasiophyton Uline of Dioscorea grown in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Qian; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Shi, Yan-Peng; Li, Xia; Wang, Hai-Yang

    2015-03-15

    Dioscorea resources with vital medicinal and functional values are abundant in south-west regions of China, especially in Sichuan Province. However, the resource in this region has received less attention compared with that of the north. D. zingiberensis, D. collettii, D. kamoonensis cv. Emei and Jinfo, and D. melanophyma from Sichuan Province and Chongqing City were studied with regard to the most abundant carbohydrate (starch) to search for new medicinal and food resources. The starches were small round granules or small oval granules and large elongated granules, except D. zingiberensis starch granules, which were disc-like in shape. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher values in total starch content, water-binding capacity and infrared ratio of absorbance bands at 1047/1035 and 1047/1022 cm⁻¹. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated a higher gelatinisation temperature required more energy during the gelatinisation process. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher resistant starch content of 724.0 and 693.2 g kg⁻¹, respectively, with lower hydrolysis index and estimation of glycaemic index. All the starches exhibited an A-type pattern except D. melanophyma starch, which showed a C-type pattern evaluated by X-ray diffraction. These results showed that the starches with their low hydrolysis index values possessed potential values as healthy food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of ozone-oxidized starch.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui T; Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, Alias A

    2009-07-08

    The effects of oxidation by ozone gas on some physicochemical and functional properties of starch (corn, sago, and tapioca) were investigated. Starch in dry powder form was exposed to ozone for 10 min at different ozone generation times (OGTs). Carboxyl and carbonyl contents increased markedly in all starches with increasing OGTs. Oxidation significantly decreased the swelling power of oxidized sago and tapioca starches but increased that of oxidized corn starch. The solubility of tapioca starch decreased and sago starch increased after oxidation. However, there was an insignificant changed in the solubility of oxidized corn starch. Intrinsic viscosity [eta] of all oxidized starches decreased significantly, except for tapioca starch oxidized at 5 min OGT. Pasting properties of the oxidized starches followed different trends as OGTs increased. These results show that under similar conditions of ozone treatment, the extent of starch oxidation varies among different types of starch.

  5. Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on acetylated starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Biduski, Bárbara; Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapor permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. BD-Type Write-Once Disk with Pollutant-Free Material and Starch Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, Yasuo; Higuchi, Takanobu; Shida, Noriyoshi; Imai, Tetsuya; Iida, Tetsuya; Kuriyama, Kazumi; Yokogawa, Fumihiko

    2005-05-01

    We realized an inorganic write-once disk for an optical recording system of the Blu-ray disk format. We developed a new Al alloy for the reflective layer and a Nb-compound oxide nitride material for the dielectric layer. By adopting these materials for the reflective layer and the dielectric layer of our write-once disk, we achieved complete exclusion of toxic substances specified in the pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) law. That is, this disk did not contain any substances specified in the PRTR law. We confirmed this disk to be compatible with 1× to 2× recording at the user capacity of 25.0 GB. The bottom jitter values of both 1× and 2× were less than 6.0%. In addition, we developed another kind of substrate, which was made of a natural polymer derived from corn starch. The bottom jitter value was 6.0% at the user capacity of 25.0 GB with the limit equalizer.

  7. The combined effects of soya isoflavones and resistant starch on equol production and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomised mice.

    PubMed

    Tousen, Yuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Matsumoto, Chiho; Nishide, Yoriko; Nagahata, Yuya; Kobayashi, Isao; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-07-01

    Equol is a metabolite of the soya isoflavone (ISO) daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. Equol has greater oestrogenic activity compared with other ISO, and it prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. Resistant starch (RS), which has a prebiotic activity and is a dietary fibre, was reported to promote equol production. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is reported to directly regulate bone health by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and T-lymphocytes in bone. The present study evaluated the combined effects of diet supplemented with ISO and RS on intestinal microbiota, equol production, bone mineral density (BMD) and inflammatory gene expression in the bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were either sham-operated (Sham, n 7) or OVX. OVX mice were randomly divided into the following four groups (seven per group): OVX control (OVX); OVX fed 0·05 % ISO diet (OVX+ISO); OVX fed 9 % RS diet (OVX+RS); and OVX fed 0·05 % ISO- and 9 % RS diet (OVX+ISO+RS). After 6 weeks, treatment with the combination of ISO and RS increased equol production, prevented the OVX-induced decline in trabecular BMD in the distal femur by modulating the enteric environment and altered OVX-induced inflammation-related gene expression in the bone marrow. However, there were no significant differences in bone parameters between the ISO+RS and ISO-alone groups in OVX mice. Our findings suggest that the combination of ISO and RS might alter intestinal microbiota and immune status in the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice.

  8. Combining wheat bran with resistant starch has more beneficial effects on fecal indexes than does wheat bran alone.

    PubMed

    Muir, Jane G; Yeow, Elaine G W; Keogh, Jennifer; Pizzey, Catherine; Bird, Anthony R; Sharpe, Ken; O'Dea, Kerin; Macrae, Finlay A

    2004-06-01

    Wheat bran (WB) increases fecal bulk and hastens colonic transit, whereas resistant starch (RS) has effects on colonic fermentation, including increasing concentrations of butyrate. We hypothesized that a diet combining WB with RS would produce more favorable changes in fecal variables (eg, fecal bulk, rapid transit time, lower pH, and higher butyrate) than would WB alone. This was a randomized crossover block-design study for which 20 volunteers with a family history of colorectal cancer were recruited. The study included 3 diets: control, WB (12 g fiber/d), and WBRS (12 g WB fiber/d plus 22 g RS/d), each continued for 3 wk. In each diet, the major source of protein was lean red meat. During 5 consecutive days (days 15-19) of each dietary period, the subjects collected their total fecal output for analysis. The WB diet resulted in greater fecal output (by 23% and 21% for wet and dry weights, respectively) and a lesser transit time (-11 h) than did the control diet but did not have major effects on fermentation variables. Compared with the control diet, the WBRS diet resulted in greater fecal output (by 56%) and a shorter transit time (-10 h), lower fecal pH (-0.15 units), higher fecal concentration (by 14%) and daily excretion (by 101%) of acetate, higher fecal concentration (by 79%) and daily excretion (by 162%) of butyrate, a higher fecal ratio of butyrate to total short-chain fatty acids (by 45%), and lower concentrations of total phenols (-34%) and ammonia (-27%). Combining WB with RS had more benefits than did WB alone. This finding may have important implications for the dietary modulation of luminal contents, especially in the distal colon (the most common site of tumor formation).

  9. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  10. Study of the structure and properties of native and hydrothermally processed wild-type, lam and r variant pea starches that affect amylolysis of these starches.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Rumana; Ellis, Peter R; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Meares-Taylor, Cheryl; Butterworth, Peter J

    2011-01-10

    Starches from WT, lam, and r pea mutants differing in amylopectin/amylose contents (70, 90, and 28% amylopectin, respectively) were used in kinetic studies of pancreatic α-amylase action at 37 °C and for investigations of their supramolecular structure and physicochemical properties during heating. For WT and lam starches, amylase accessibility and catalytic efficiencies (CE) increased following hydrothermal processing up to 100 °C. Accessibility changed relatively less in r during heating with increasing K(m) between 60-90 °C. Limiting values of K(m) after gelatinization were very similar for all three mutants, indicating that relative proportions of amylose/amylopectin have little influence on amylase accessibility once ordered structures are lost. For WT and lam, increases in enzyme accessibility and CE paralleled a rise in amorphous content. It is suggested that the complex behavior for r resulted from amylose gel formation between 60-90 °C. Amorphous amylopectin seems a better substrate for amylase than amorphous amylose.

  11. Pectin-non-starch nanofibers biocomposites as novel gastrointestinal-resistant prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Alireza Chackoshian; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of nanofibers of chitin (NC), lignocellulose (NLC) and bacterial cellulose (BNC) in pectin was studied to improve prebiotic activity and gastrointestinal resistance of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites for protection of probiotics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The biocomposites were prepared using various compositions of pectin and nanofibers, which were designed using D-optimal mixture method. The incorporation of the nanofibers in pectin led to a slow degradation of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites in contrast to their rapid swelling. AFM analysis indicated the homogenous distribution of interconnected nanofibers network structure in the pectin-nanofibers biocomposite. FTIR spectra demonstrated fabrication of the biocomposites based on the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and ionic interaction of pectin-Ca(2+). XRD patterns revealed the amorphous structures of the biocomposites as compared to the crystalline structures of the nanofibers. Among the compositions, the optimal compositions were as follows: 60% pectin+40% NC, 50% pectin+50% NLC and 60% pectin+40% BNC, where the prebiotic score, probiotic survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions were optimum. The optimal biocomposite pectin-NC exhibited the highest survival of the entrapped probiotic bacteria under simulated gastric (97.7%) and intestinal (95.8%) conditions when compared with the corresponding to free cells (76.2 and 73.4%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content and resistant starch content based on the pasting properties measured by RVA of Japonica polished rice and starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Katsura, Junji; Kato, Kiyoko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We searched for the easy and simple method to measure the novel indicators which reflect not only AAC, but also (RS) based on pasting properties using RVA. Novel indexes such as SB/Con and Max/Fin (Maximum viscosity/Minimum viscosity) ratios had a very high correlation with proportion of intermediate and long chains of amylopectin; Fb1+2+3 (DP ≧ 13). In Japonica polished rice, estimation formulae for AAC and RS content were developed using novel indexes based on pasting properties by RVA, and these equations showed determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.80 for calibration and 0.71 and 0.75 for validation test. We developed the estimation formulae for AAC and RS content for Japonica starch samples. These equations showed determination coefficients of 0.86 and 1.00 for calibration and 0.76 and 0.83 for validation test, which showed that these equations can be applied to the unknown rice samples.

  13. Classification of cassava starch films by physicochemical properties and water vapor permeability quantification by FTIR and PLS.

    PubMed

    Henrique, C M; Teófilo, R F; Sabino, L; Ferreira, M M C; Cereda, M P

    2007-05-01

    Cassava starches are widely used in the production of biodegradable films, but their resistance to humidity migration is very low. In this work, commercial cassava starch films were studied and classified according to their physicochemical properties. A nondestructive method for water vapor permeability determination, which combines with infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration, is also presented. The following commercial cassava starches were studied: pregelatinized (amidomax 3550), carboxymethylated starch (CMA) of low and high viscosities, and esterified starches. To make the films, 2 different starch concentrations were evaluated, consisting of water suspensions with 3% and 5% starch. The filmogenic solutions were dried and characterized for their thickness, grammage, water vapor permeability, water activity, tensile strength (deformation force), water solubility, and puncture strength (deformation). The minimum thicknesses were 0.5 to 0.6 mm in pregelatinized starch films. The results were treated by means of the following chemometric methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. PCA analysis on the physicochemical properties of the films showed that the differences in concentration of the dried material (3% and 5% starch) and also in the type of starch modification were mainly related to the following properties: permeability, solubility, and thickness. IR spectra collected in the region of 4000 to 600 cm(-1) were used to build a PLS model with good predictive power for water vapor permeability determination, with mean relative errors of 10.0% for cross-validation and 7.8% for the prediction set.

  14. Dietary fibre-rich resistant starches promote ammonia detoxification in the human colon as measured by lactose-[¹⁵N₂]ureide.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Tisztl, Michael; Salewski, Birgit; Glass, Änne

    2015-01-01

    Three resistant starches (RSs), namely fibre of potatoes (FP), wrinkle pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) with different dietary fibre contents, were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on urinary nitrogen and ammonia excretion as well as on faecal nitrogen excretion by means of lactose-[(15)N2]ureide ((15)N-LU) degradation. Twenty subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of FP, WPS, and HAMS in a randomized order. After administration of (15)N-LU, urine and faeces were collected over 48 and 72 h, respectively, whereas blood was collected after 6 h. The (15)N-abundances were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In comparison to the dry run, supplementation with RS significantly lowered renal (15)N-excretion (dry run: 43.2%, FP: 34.6%, WPS: 37.9%, HAMS: 36.4%) as well as the corresponding (15)NH3-excretion (dry run: 0.08%, FP: 0.06%, HAMS: 0.05%), clearly indicating a reduced colonic nitrogen generation at high dietary fibre intake.

  15. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  16. Effect of storage time on the retrogradation of banana starch extrudate.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Ottenhof, M-A; Agama-Acevedo, E; Farhat, I A

    2005-02-23

    Starch was isolated from banana starch and the retrogradation phenomenon was studied using diverse techniques, including an enzymatic measurement. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) showed that the sample stored for 7 h presented small peaks and when the storage time increased the peaks increased in intensity. The type of diffraction pattern found in banana extrudates is typical of the A-type crystal polymorph. The crystallinity index from the diffractograms, showed a plateau after approximately 20 h of storage. The short-range order measurement with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that banana starch retrogradation reached a maximum value at approximately 11 h of storage, a value that agrees with the results obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), because the maximum enthalpy value (approximately 5 J/g) was calculated in the stored sample for 8 h, without changes in the stored samples for more time. Retrograded resistant starch values did not change after 12 h of storage, obtaining the maximum starch retrogradation level. FTIR, DSC, and the enzymatic technique showed the changes at the molecular level in starch during storage; in the case of WAXS, they determine the long-range order that explains the differences found in the starch retrogradation pattern measurement in banana starch.

  17. Starch digestibility of foods: a nutritional perspective.

    PubMed

    Dreher, M L; Dreher, C J; Berry, J W

    1984-01-01

    Dietary starch varies greatly in digestibility and its effects on the utilization of other nutrients. The variation appears to be due to differences in starch components and their crystallinity. Processing treatments, storage conditions, chemical modification, and genetic breeding influence the digestibility of starch. Cereal starches are generally more digestible than root/tuber and legume starches. Although cooking often significantly improves the digestibility of poor and intermediately digestible starches, some foods such as bananas with starches of these types are consumed uncooked. The efficient digestion of starch is especially important to specific groups of people such as infants under 6 months of age. Ruminants must also be provided with highly digestible starch to assure maximum production efficiency. Poor digestibility of starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the availability of certain vitamins. Decreases in the rate of starch digestion may have therapeutic application. Most clinical studies have reported that starch blockers do not elicit a significant decrease in the digestion of starch in humans. Much remains to be learned, clarified, and understood about starch digestion and its effects on diabetes and weight control.

  18. Mechanisms of starch digestion by α-amylase-Structural basis for kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Warren, Frederick J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-03-24

    Recent studies of the mechanisms determining the rate and extent of starch digestion by α-amylase are reviewed in the light of current widely-used classifications for (a) the proportions of rapidly-digestible (RDS), slowly-digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on in vitro digestibility, and (b) the types of resistant starch (RS 1,2,3,4…) based on physical and/or chemical form. Based on methodological advances and new mechanistic insights, it is proposed that both classification systems should be modified. Kinetic analysis of digestion profiles provides a robust set of parameters that should replace the classification of starch as a combination of RDS, SDS, and RS from a single enzyme digestion experiment. This should involve determination of the minimum number of kinetic processes needed to describe the full digestion profile, together with the proportion of starch involved in each process, and the kinetic properties of each process. The current classification of resistant starch types as RS1,2,3,4 should be replaced by one which recognizes the essential kinetic nature of RS (enzyme digestion rate vs. small intestinal passage rate), and that there are two fundamental origins for resistance based on (i) rate-determining access/binding of enzyme to substrate and (ii) rate-determining conversion of substrate to product once bound.

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with its high morbidity and mortality becomes an important health problem. The multifactorial etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is relative to many gene and molecule alterations, and increased insulin resistance. Besides these, however, there are still other predisposing and risk factors accounting for type 2 diabetes mellitus not to be identified and recognized. Emerging evidence indicated that defects in galanin function played a crucial role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Galanin homeostasis is tightly relative to insulin resistance and is regulated by blood glucose. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinism, enhanced plasma galanin levels and decreased galanin receptor activities are some of the characters of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The discrepancy between high insulin level and low glucose handling is named as insulin resistance. Similarly, the discrepancy between high galanin level and low glucose handling may be denominated as galanin resistance too. In this review, the characteristic milestones of type 2 diabetes mellitus were condensed as two analogical conceptual models, obesity-hyper-insulin-insulin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity-hyper-galanin-galanin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both galanin resistance and insulin resistance are correlative with each other. Conceptualizing the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance may inspire a new concept to deepen our knowledge about pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, eventually leading to novel preventive and therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    PubMed Central

    Bogden, John D; Kemp, Francis W; Huang, Abigail E; Shapses, Sue A; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Jagpal, Sugeet; Brown, Ian L; Birkett, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2), which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks) were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls) or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight) throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p < 0.05) and marginally lower BMD (p = 0.09) than rats not undergoing weight cycling. In comparison to controls, rats fed RS2 had higher femur BMD (p < 0.01) and BMC (p < 0.05), as well as higher values for BMD and BMC measured at the distal end (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) and femoral neck (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Consistent with these findings, RS2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.0001) concentrations. They also had higher lumbar vertebrae calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.05) concentrations. Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A

  1. Starch with a slow digestion property produced by altering its chain length, branch density, and crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Ao, Zihua; Simsek, Senay; Zhang, Genyi; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2007-05-30

    The hypothesis of increasing the branch density of starch to reduce its digestion rate through partial shortening of amylopectin exterior chains and the length of amylose was investigated. Starch products prepared using beta-amylase, beta-amylase and transglucosidase, maltogenic alpha-amylase, and maltogenic alpha-amylase and transglucosidase showed significant reduction of rapidly digested starch by 14.5%, 29.0%, 19.8%, and 31.0% with a concomitant increase of slowly digested starch by 9.0%, 19.7%, 5.7%, and 11.0%, respectively. The resistant starch content increased from 5.1% to 13.5% in treated starches. The total contents of the prebiotics isomaltose, isomaltotriose, and panose (Isomaltooligosaccharides) were 2.3% and 5.5%, respectively, for beta-amylase/transglucosidase- and maltogenic alpha-amylase/transglucosidase-treated starches. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches and their debranched chain length distributions, analyzed using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detection (HPSEC-MALLS-RI) and HPSEC-RI, showed distinctly different patterns among starches with different enzyme treatments. A larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in starches treated additionally with transglucosidase. All enzyme-treated starches showed a mixture of B- and V-type X-ray diffraction patterns, and 1H NMR spectra showed a significant increase of alpha-1,6 linkages. Both the increase of the starch branch density and the crystalline structure in the treated starches likely contribute to their slow digestion property.

  2. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Elinor; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; Björck, Inger; Östman, Elin

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%). Design Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW), EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la), and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW). All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C). A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF) was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS) content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects. Results The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis) in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001). Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001) compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI) (r=−0.571, p<0.001). Conclusions This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response. PMID:21876685

  3. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Elinor; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; Björck, Inger; Ostman, Elin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%). Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW), EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la), and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW). All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C). A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF) was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS) content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects. The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis) in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001). Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001) compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI) (r=-0.571, p<0.001). This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response.

  4. Preparation and characterization of starch-based loose-fill packaging foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qi

    Regular and waxy corn starches were blended in various ratios with biodegradable polymers including polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) and Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and extruded with a C. W. Brabender laboratory twin screw extruder using a 3-mm die nozzle at 150°C and 150 rev/min. Physical characteristics including radial expansion, unit density and bulk density and water solubility index, water absorption characteristics, mechanical properties including compressibility, Young's modulus, spring index, bulk compressibility and bulk spring index and abrasion resistance were investigated as affected by the ingredient formulations, i.e. type of polymers, type of starches, polymer to starch ratio and starch moisture content. A completely randomized factorial blocking experimental design was used. Fifty-four treatments resulted. Each treatment was replicated three times. SAS statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Foams made of waxy starch had better radial expansion, lower unit density and bulk density than did foams made of regular starch. Regular starch foams had significantly lower water solubility index than did the waxy starch foams. PLA-starch foams had the lowest compressibility and Young's modulus. MBI-starch foams were the most rigid. All foams had excellent spring indices and bulk spring indices which were comparable to the spring index of commercial expanded polystyrene foam. Correlations were established between the foam mechanical properties and the physical characteristics. Foam compressibility and Young's modulus decreased as increases in radial expansion and decreases in unit and bulk densities. Their relationships were modeled with power law equations. No correlation was observed between spring index and bulk spring index and foam physical characteristics. MBI-starch foams had the highest equilibrium moisture content. EBC-starch and PLA-starch foams had similar water absorption characteristics. No significant

  5. Effects of chemical modification on in vitro rate and extent of food starch digestion: an attempt to discover a slowly digested starch.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B W; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C

    1999-10-01

    Differences in glycemic and insulinemic responses to dietary starch are directly related to the rate of starch digestion. Chemical modification of starch may allow for the production of a slowly digested starch that could be used for the treatment of certain medical modalities. An in vitro method was utilized to evaluate the effects of chemical modification on the rate and extent of raw and cooked starch digestion. The extent of starch digestion was significantly reduced by dextrinization, etherification, and oxidation. However, the rate of starch digestion was not significantly affected by chemical modification. For most modified starches, as the degree of modification increased, the extent of digestion decreased, suggesting an increase in the amount of resistant starch. The results of this study suggest that chemically modified starch has a metabolizable energy value of <16.7 kJ/g. Chemically modified starch ingredients may serve as a good source of resistant starch in human and animal diets.

  6. Making starch.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M

    1999-06-01

    Improvements in understanding the structure of the starch granule and the nature and roles of starch-synthesising enzymes have allowed detailed mechanisms of the synthesis of the amylopectin and amylose components of the granule to be suggested. However, none of these proposed mechanisms has yet been shown to operate in vivo. Several critical aspects of granule synthesis, including granule initiation and the formation of the growth rings, remain a mystery.

  7. Resistive-Type Fault Current Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; Angeli, G.

    Among the wide range of High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) materials presently known Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) is a very suitable candidate for power applications either at low temperature (e.g. <30K) at any field or at high temperature (e.g. 77K) in self-field conditions. This is due to several advantages of BSCCO from an electrical, thermal, mechanical and economic point of view. In particular, BSCCO has been proven to be particularly suitable for hybrid current leads and HTS cables. However, BSCCO-based Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) applications have been an important issue within the Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico (RSE) S.p.A. R&D portfolio in the last decade. The SFCL project, funded in the framework of a R&D national project, started focusing on a preliminary single-phase device, which was submitted to dielectric and short-circuit current testing. The first success paved the way for the finalization of the remaining two phases and the final result was a three-phase resistive-type 9 kV/3.4 MVA SFCL device, based on first generation (1G) BSCCO tapes that was installed in the S. Dionigi substation, belonging to the Italian utility A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A. (A2A), in the Milan MV distribution grid. The in-field activity lasted for more than two years, demonstrating the SFCL capability to cope with the grid in every-day operating conditions. Moreover, at the end of the experimentation, the SFCL device was able to perform a true limitation during a three-phase fault, thereby becoming one of the first SFCL devices in the world (the first in Italy) installed in a real grid and to have limited a real short-circuit current.

  8. Molecular, mesoscopic and microscopic structure evolution during amylase digestion of maize starch granules.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ashok K; Blazek, Jaroslav; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Dhital, Sushil; Larroque, Oscar; Morell, Matthew K; Gilbert, Elliot P; Gidley, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    Cereal starch granules with high (>50%) amylose content are a promising source of nutritionally desirable resistant starch, i.e. starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine, but the structural features responsible are not fully understood. We report the effects of partial enzyme digestion of maize starch granules on amylopectin branch length profiles, double and single helix contents, gelatinisation properties, crystallinity and lamellar periodicity. Comparing results for three maize starches (27, 57, and 84% amylose) that differ in both structural features and amylase-sensitivity allows conclusions to be drawn concerning the rate-determining features operating under the digestion conditions used. All starches are found to be digested by a side-by-side mechanism in which there is no major preference during enzyme attack for amylopectin branch lengths, helix form, crystallinity or lamellar organisation. We conclude that the major factor controlling enzyme susceptibility is granule architecture, with shorter length scales not playing a major role as inferred from the largely invariant nature of numerous structural measures during the digestion process (XRD, NMR, SAXS, DSC, FACE). Results are consistent with digestion rates being controlled by restricted diffusion of enzymes within densely packed granular structures, with an effective surface area for enzyme attack determined by external dimensions (57 or 84% amylose - relatively slow) or internal channels and pores (27% amylose - relatively fast). Although the process of granule digestion is to a first approximation non-discriminatory with respect to structure at molecular and mesoscopic length scales, secondary effects noted include (i) partial crystallisation of V-type helices during digestion of 27% amylose starch, (ii) preferential hydrolysis of long amylopectin branches during the early stage hydrolysis of 27% and 57% but not 84% amylose starches, linked with disruption of lamellar repeating structure

  9. Unique Organization of Extracellular Amylases into Amylosomes in the Resistant Starch-Utilizing Human Colonic Firmicutes Bacterium Ruminococcus bromii

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Xiaolei; Ben David, Yonit; Laverde-Gomez, Jenny A.; Dassa, Bareket; Sheridan, Paul O.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Louis, Petra; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie; Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human gut microbiota that plays a key role in releasing energy from dietary starches that escape digestion by host enzymes via its exceptional activity against particulate “resistant” starches. Genomic analysis of R. bromii shows that it is highly specialized, with 15 of its 21 glycoside hydrolases belonging to one family (GH13). We found that amylase activity in R. bromii is expressed constitutively, with the activity seen during growth with fructose as an energy source being similar to that seen with starch as an energy source. Six GH13 amylases that carry signal peptides were detected by proteomic analysis in R. bromii cultures. Four of these enzymes are among 26 R. bromii proteins predicted to carry dockerin modules, with one, Amy4, also carrying a cohesin module. Since cohesin-dockerin interactions are known to mediate the formation of protein complexes in cellulolytic ruminococci, the binding interactions of four cohesins and 11 dockerins from R. bromii were investigated after overexpressing them as recombinant fusion proteins. Dockerins possessed by the enzymes Amy4 and Amy9 are predicted to bind a cohesin present in protein scaffoldin 2 (Sca2), which resembles the ScaE cell wall-anchoring protein of a cellulolytic relative, R. flavefaciens. Further complexes are predicted between the dockerin-carrying amylases Amy4, Amy9, Amy10, and Amy12 and two other cohesin-carrying proteins, while Amy4 has the ability to autoaggregate, as its dockerin can recognize its own cohesin. This organization of starch-degrading enzymes is unprecedented and provides the first example of cohesin-dockerin interactions being involved in an amylolytic system, which we refer to as an “amylosome.” PMID:26419877

  10. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.

  11. Molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization and its effect on starch digestibility: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2013-11-01

    Starch is the most important glycemic carbohydrate in foods. The relationship between the rate and extent of starch digestion to produce glucose for absorption into the bloodstream and risk factors for diet-related diseases is of considerable nutritional interest. Native starch is attacked slowly by enzymes, but after hydrothermal processing its susceptibility to enzymatic breakdown is greatly increased. Most starch consumed by humans has undergone some form of processing or cooking, which causes native starch granules to gelatinize, followed by retrogradation on cooling. The extent of gelatinization and retrogradation are major determinants of the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion and its functional properties for food processing. The type and extent of changes that occur in starch as a result of gelatinization, pasting and retrogradation are determined by the type of the starch, processing and storage conditions. A mechanistic understanding of the molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization is critical to explaining the effects of processing or cooking on starch digestibility. This review focuses on the molecular disassembly of starch granules during starch gelatinization over a wide range of water levels, and its consequential effect on in vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic index.

  12. Effect of high-pressure treatment on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch/locust bean gum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Vatankhah, Hamed; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-10-05

    In this study, effects of a 30min high pressure (HP) treatment (200-600MPa) at room temperature on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties of resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with an increase pressure level, and demonstrated a bi-phasic behavior. HP treated RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G'>G'') or viscous (G''>G'), depending on the pressure level and LBG concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the pressurized mixtures showed a major effect on gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp,), and it was observed that RS/LBG mixtures gelatinized completely at ≥400MPa with a 30min holding time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed that at 600MPa, RS/LBG mixtures retained granular structures and their complete disintegration was not observed even at the endpoint of the gelatinization.

  13. Enhanced oxidative stability of fish oil by encapsulating in culled banana resistant starch-soy protein isolate based microcapsules in functional bakery products.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Taslima Ayesha Aktar; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Oil in water emulsions were produced by the mixture of culled banana resistant starch (CBRS) & soy protein isolate (SPI), mixture of Hylon VII & SPI and SPI with 7.5 and 5 % (w/w) Menhaden fish oil. The emulsions were further freeze- dried obtaining 33 and 50 % oil load microcapsules. The range of particles diameter was 4.11 to 7.25 μm and viscosity was 34.6 to 146.48 cP of the emulsions. Compressibility index (CI), Hasner ratio (HR) and angle of repose (AR) was significantly (p < 0.01) lower of the microcapsules made with starch and protein (CBRS & SPI and Hylon VII & SPI) than that made with protein (SPI) only. Microcapsules composed of CBRS & SPI with 33 % oil load had maximum microencapsulation efficiency (82.49 %) and highest oxidative stability. Muffin made with emulsions containing mixture of CBRS & SPI exhibited less fishy flavour than that containing mixture of Hylon VII & SPI.

  14. Resistant starch reduces colonic and urinary p-cresol in rats fed a tyrosine-supplemented diet, whereas konjac mannan does not.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixiao; Morioka, Sahya; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) and konjac mannan (KM) to maintain and improve the large intestinal environment was compared. Wistar SPF rats were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: negative control diet (C diet), tyrosine-supplemented positive control diet (T diet), and luminacoid supplemented diets containing either high-molecular konjac mannan A (KMAT diet), low-molecular konjac mannan B (KMBT diet), high-amylose cornstarch (HAST diet), or heat-moisture-treated starch (HMTST diet). The luminacoid-fed group had an increased content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum. HAS caused a significant decrease in p-cresol content in the cecum, whereas KM did not. Urinary p-cresol was reduced in the HAST group compared with the T group, but not the KM fed groups. Deterioration in the large intestinal environment was only improved completely in the HAST and HMTST groups, suggesting that RS is considerably more effective than KM in maintaining the large intestinal environment.

  15. Effects of a highly resistant rice starch and pre-incubation temperatures on the physicochemical properties of surimi gel from grass carp (Ctenopharyn Odon Idellus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2014-02-15

    The effects of a specific rice starch (SRS), containing highly resistant starch (RSIII), on gel properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the influence of five levels of SRS (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%w/w) on gel physicochemical properties at three different pre-incubation temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C) were investigated. Gels with increasing amounts of SRS addition showed lower expressible water contents and cooking loss values than did control gels. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no changes in protein patterns, regardless of different SRS-added levels at the same pre-incubation temperature, but an evident decrease in the MHC when the pre-incubation temperature increased. The texture properties, colour attributes, SEM were optimal in the treatments containing 4%w/w SRS at the pre-incubation temperature 25 °C. Thus, the optimum SRS addition level and pre-incubation temperature are proposed to be 4%w/w and 25 °C, respectively.

  16. Halotolerant, acid-alkali stable, chelator resistant and raw starch digesting α-amylase from a marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis S8-18.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-08-01

    A halotolerant α-amylase having the ability of digesting the insoluble raw starches was characterized from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay region. The electrophoresis techniques unveiled that the α-amylase was indeed a monomer with a molecular weight of 57 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60 °C and 6.0 respectively. The enzyme was highly stable for 24 h over a wide range of pH from 4.0 to 12.0 by showing 84-94% activity. Interestingly, by retaining 72% activity even after 24 h, the enzyme also showed tolerance towards 28% NaCl. The α-amylase retained a minimum of 93% residual activity in 1 mM concentration for the selected divalent metal ions. The enzyme was found to be chelator resistant as it remained unaffected by 1 mM of EDTA and exhibited 96% activity even at 5 mM concentration. Furthermore, though 1% SDS caused remarkable reduction (68%) in amylase activity, the enzyme showed tolerance towards other detergents (1% of Triton-X and Tween 80) with 85% activity. Additionally, the α-amylase enzyme is capable of hydrolyzing the insoluble raw starch substrates which was evident from the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and spectrophotometric analyses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [Nutritional evaluation of green plantain flour dehydrated soups. Starch in vitro digestibility].

    PubMed

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E

    2001-01-01

    Previous works have shown that green plantain flour (GPF) contains a considerable amount of resistant with similar effects to dietary fiber. In order to diversify the use of this fruit the purpose of present study was to formulate and elaborate powered, dehydrated, cream type soups with green plantain flour flavored with vegetables (onion, coriander and leak) which increase the dietary fiber content of the preparation. Green plantain was peeled, cut in medium size pieces and submerged in 0.1% citric acid solution. The dehydration process was forced air-drying (80 degrees C), followed by milling. The same procedure was applied to the flavoring vegetables. To obtain the cream type soups various formulations were tried containing 50-63% resistant starch, 11.7-12% dietary fiber 6.5-6.9% protein. The mineral content of the preparations is reported. Viscosity of 1:10 (w/v) soups was 630-670 cps. In vitro starch digestibility after 6 hours was 38% with porcine amylase, increasing to 48% if the enzyme was from bacterial origin, supporting previous results that suggest resistance to hydrolysis of green plantain (GP) starch granules. In conclusion this study diversifies the use of GP and suggests that dehydrated GPF soups due to their high dietary fiber, resistant starch content and to the slow starch hydrolysis may be used in special nutrition regimes.

  18. Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Francisco, Perigio B; Hosaka, Yuko; Sato, Aya; Sawada, Takayuki; Kubo, Akiko; Fujita, Naoko

    2005-05-01

    Four amino acids were variable between the 'active' indica-type and 'inactive' japonica-type soluble starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) of rice plants; Glu-88 and Gly-604 in SSIIa of indica-cultivars IR36 and Kasalath were replaced by Asp-88 and Ser-604, respectively, in both japonica cultivars Nipponbare and Kinmaze SSIIa, whereas Val-737 and Leu-781 in indica SSIIa were replaced by Met-737 in cv. Nipponbare and Phe-781 in cv. Kinmaze SSIIa, respectively. The SSIIa gene fragments shuffling experiments revealed that Val-737 and Leu-781 are essential not only for the optimal SSIIa activity, but also for the capacity to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. Surprisingly, however, a combination of Phe-781 and Gly-604 could restore about 44% of the SSIIa activity provided that Val-737 was conserved. The introduction of the 'active' indica-type SSIIa gene enabled the japonica-type cv. Kinmaze to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. The starch in the transformed japonica rice plants exhibited gelatinization-resistant properties that are characteristic of indica-rice starch. Transformed lines expressing different levels of the IR36 SSIIa protein produced a variety of starches with amylopectin chain-length distribution patterns that correlated well with their onset temperatures of gelatinization. The present study confirmed that the SSIIa activity determines the type of amylopectin structure of rice starch to be either the typical indica-type or japonica-type, by playing a specific role in the synthesis of the long B(1) chains by elongating short A and B(1) chains, notwithstanding the presence of functional two additional SSII genes, a single SSI gene, two SSIII genes, and two SSIV genes in rice plants.

  19. Effect of granule organisation on the behaviour of starches in the NMMO (N-methyl morpholine N-oxide) solvent system.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Nagamani; Mitchell, John; MacNaughtan, William; Hill, Sandra; Foster, Tim

    2015-02-13

    The response of starches of different botanical origin to heating in 78% N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is compared with their behaviour in water. For all starches studied an exothermic transition is obtained in the NMMO system rather than the endothermic transition in water. In NMMO the transition temperatures are lower for A-type starches (wheat, rice and tapioca) than the C-type starches (sago and pea) and also potato which has a B-type polymorph. Observations using a hot stage microscope show two different types of initial behaviour in NMMO; erosion of the granule from the surface or disruption into fragments. In both cases the final outcome is dissolution but for the most resistant C-type starches (pea and sago) some intact granules could be seen following heating at 95 °C in 78% NMMO and subsequent precipitation in ethanol. The results are discussed in terms of what is known from previous structural studies on these six starches and the behaviour of maize starch in NMMO and ionic liquids. The work is relevant to the co-dissolution of starch and cellulose to form novel polysaccharide based materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility.

  1. [Physical, chemical and biological properties of food modified starches].

    PubMed

    Gapparov, M M; Sokolov, A I; Martynova, E A; Kulikova, O S; Bessonov, V V; Berketova, L V

    2007-01-01

    Aim of work was to compare the chemical and biological properties of starches modified by adipinic acid acetylation. Starches in question were: native maize starch "Novation 4600"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the cold swelling "Prejeflo CH 20"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the cold swelling "Prejeflo CH 40"; acetylated adipat di-starch of the hot swelling "Clearam CH 2020". The differences between starches were connected with number of cross-cut lacings in the structure, and with abilities to be gelatinized in the cold water. Rate of hydrolysis and water-retaining capacities were higher for cold swelling starches which contained the smaller number of resistance fractions. Acetyl value of cold swelling starches was higher under elevation of cross-cut lacing.

  2. Effects of different types of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on microcirculation perfusion and tissue oxygenation in patients undergoing liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinghua; Sun, Bo; Wang, Changsong; Liu, Shujuan; Li, Peng; Shi, Jinghui; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 and HES 200/0.5, which have different molecular weights and degrees of substitution, on microcirculation perfusion and tissue oxygenation in patients undergoing liver surgery. Thirty patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists status I/II who were scheduled for liver surgery were randomly divided into two groups: one received an intraoperative HES 130/0.4 infusion equal to the amount of blood loss (HES 130/0.4 group, n=15), and the other received HES 200/0.5 equal to the amount of blood loss (HES 200/0.5 group, n=15). Gastric mucosal perfusion and tissue oxygenation were monitored by measuring the gastric mucosal pH (pHi), which was determined using a carbon dioxide tonometer inserted through a nasogastric tube. Gastric mucosal pHi , hemodynamic parameters, body temperature, and blood gas parameters were recorded upon entering the operating room, before skin incision, one hour and two hours after skin incision, and at the end of surgery. The intraoperative pHi decreased in both groups of patients, but the decline in the HES 130/0.4 group was smaller than that of the HES 200/0.5 group. The pHi of the HES 130/0.4 group was significantly higher than that of the HES 200/0.5 group two hours after skin incision and at the end of surgery (P<0.05). A multivariate analysis showed that the type of colloid used intraoperatively was the only variant that affected pHi (F=0.626, P<0.05). Moreover, there were good correlation between pHi at the end of surgery and the length of postoperative hospital stay (r=-0.536, P<0.05) and the time intervals from surgery to the passage of flatus (r=-0.547, P<0.05). Compared with HES 200/0.5, the use of HES 130/0.4 (with a relatively lower molecular weight and lower degree of substitution) could significantly improve internal organ perfusion and tissue oxygenation in patients undergoing liver surgery with a relatively large amount of blood loss.

  3. Electricity. Electrical Appliance Serviceman (Major Resistive Type).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moughan, John P.; And Others

    Two types of materials comprise the curriculum guide: descriptive information about student, job and individualized instruction techniques for use by the instructor and a set of 10 learning activity packages for the student. Together, these form a work unit which, when successfully completed by the student, provides the necessary skills for an…

  4. Effects of oligomeric procyanidins on the retrogradation properties of maize starch with different amylose/amylopectin ratios.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xu, Chen; Cong, Xu; Wu, Tao; Song, Yingshi; Zhang, Min

    2017-04-15

    The effect of oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) on the retrogradation of maize starch with different amylose/amylopectin ratios was investigated. The apparent amylose contents in high-amylose maize (HAM), normal maize (NM), and amylopectin maize (APM) starches are 79.05%, 25.43% and 0%. Structural characterizations of retrograded maize starches in the presence of OPCs were conducted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results suggest that OPCs inhibit the retrogradation of maize starches in low concentrations (1.5-2.5%) with different inhibitory effects for HAM, NM and APM starches. It may be attributed to the variations on interaction ways and binding capabilities between different types of starches and OPCs. The in vitro enzymatic digestion result indicates HAM starch and OPCs have stronger interactions with the formation of resistant structures. These findings provide a further evidence for exploring the interactions between starches and phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability.

  6. Isolation and physicochemical characterization of Assam Bora rice starch for use as a plasma volume expander.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Bhattacharya, Ashokanshu

    2010-04-01

    Water soluble polysaccharides are most effective oncotic agents which are used for treatment of intravascular volume deficiency. Nowadays, they are used as basic material for plasma volume expander. Plasma volume expander based on starch has lower tendency to remain in any major organ of body in comparison to other plasma volume expander. Branched component of starch amylopectin is very similar in structure to glycogen, the reserve polysaccharides of animal; for all this reason starch is compatible with body tissues. Physicochemical properties of raw starch and amylopectin, isolated from Assam Bora rice were characterized for use as plasma volume expander. Characterization involves the determination of ash value, weight average molecular mass, viscosity and resistance towards enzymatic (amylase) hydrolysis. Amylose content was almost negligible. The X-ray diffraction pattern of Assam Bora rice starch was typically A type. High degree of crystallinity of Assam Bora rice starch reflects its resistance towards enzymatic hydrolysis which is of therapeutic advantage for using it as a plasma volume expander.

  7. A starch-accumulating mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in a chloroplastic starch-hydrolysing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, S C; Northrop, F; Smith, A M; Rees, T

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify enzymes that participate in the degradation of transitory starch in Arabidopsis. A mutant line was isolated by screening leaves at the end of the night for the presence of starch. The mutant had a higher starch content than the wild-type throughout the diurnal cycle. This accumulation was due to a reduction in starch breakdown, leading to an imbalance between the rates of synthesis and degradation. No reduction in the activity of endo-amylase (alpha-amylase), beta-amylase, starch phosphorylase, maltase, pullulanase or D-enzyme could be detected in crude extracts of leaves of the mutant. However, native PAGE in gels containing amylopectin revealed that a starch-hydrolysing activity, putatively identified as an endo-amylase and present in wild-type chloroplasts, was absent or appreciably reduced in the mutant. This is the first time that a specific enzyme required for starch degradation has been identified in leaves.

  8. The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J.

    2000-08-01

    Current textbooks deal only briefly with the chemistry of starch. A short review with 21 references is presented, describing the structure of starch and indicating the double helix structure of A-type and B-type starch. The structure of the starch granule is examined, pointing out the existence of growth rings of alternating crystalline and noncrystalline starch, with growing amylopectin molecules extending from the hilum (point of origin) to the surface of the starch granule. The swelling of starch granules in water, above the gelatinization temperature of about 60 °C, is discussed. The process of gelatinization involves unraveling of the starch helix and a manyfold increase in volume of the starch granule as water is imbibed and bound to the unraveled starch polymer by hydrogen bonding. Baking bread or pastries causes unraveling of the starch helix, and the process by which these products become stale corresponds primarily to the re-forming of the starch helix. The importance of this phenomenon in food science is discussed. The absorption of nonpolar linear molecules such as I2, or linear nonpolar portions of molecules such as n-butanol or fats and phospholipids, by the C-type helix of starch is examined. The way in which starch is structurally modified to retard staling is discussed in relation to food technology.

  9. Starch Synthesis in Arabidopsis. Granule Synthesis, Composition, and Structure1

    PubMed Central

    Zeeman, Samuel C.; Tiessen, Axel; Pilling, Emma; Kato, K. Lisa; Donald, Athene M.; Smith, Alison M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize starch synthesis, composition, and granule structure in Arabidopsis leaves. First, the potential role of starch-degrading enzymes during starch accumulation was investigated. To discover whether simultaneous synthesis and degradation of starch occurred during net accumulation, starch was labeled by supplying 14CO2 to intact, photosynthesizing plants. Release of this label from starch was monitored during a chase period in air, using different light intensities to vary the net rate of starch synthesis. No release of label was detected unless there was net degradation of starch during the chase. Similar experiments were performed on a mutant line (dbe1) that accumulates the soluble polysaccharide, phytoglycogen. Label was not released from phytoglycogen during the chase indicating that, even when in a soluble form, glucan is not appreciably degraded during accumulation. Second, the effect on starch composition of growth conditions and mutations causing starch accumulation was studied. An increase in starch content correlated with an increased amylose content of the starch and with an increase in the ratio of granule-bound starch synthase to soluble starch synthase activity. Third, the structural organization and morphology of Arabidopsis starch granules was studied. The starch granules were birefringent, indicating a radial organization of the polymers, and x-ray scatter analyses revealed that granules contained alternating crystalline and amorphous lamellae with a periodicity of 9 nm. Granules from the wild type and the high-starch mutant sex1 were flattened and discoid, whereas those of the high-starch mutant sex4 were larger and more rounded. These larger granules contained “growth rings” with a periodicity of 200 to 300 nm. We conclude that leaf starch is synthesized without appreciable turnover and comprises similar polymers and contains similar levels of molecular organization to storage starches, making Arabidopsis

  10. Starch synthesis in Arabidopsis. Granule synthesis, composition, and structure.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Samuel C; Tiessen, Axel; Pilling, Emma; Kato, K Lisa; Donald, Athene M; Smith, Alison M

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize starch synthesis, composition, and granule structure in Arabidopsis leaves. First, the potential role of starch-degrading enzymes during starch accumulation was investigated. To discover whether simultaneous synthesis and degradation of starch occurred during net accumulation, starch was labeled by supplying (14)CO(2) to intact, photosynthesizing plants. Release of this label from starch was monitored during a chase period in air, using different light intensities to vary the net rate of starch synthesis. No release of label was detected unless there was net degradation of starch during the chase. Similar experiments were performed on a mutant line (dbe1) that accumulates the soluble polysaccharide, phytoglycogen. Label was not released from phytoglycogen during the chase indicating that, even when in a soluble form, glucan is not appreciably degraded during accumulation. Second, the effect on starch composition of growth conditions and mutations causing starch accumulation was studied. An increase in starch content correlated with an increased amylose content of the starch and with an increase in the ratio of granule-bound starch synthase to soluble starch synthase activity. Third, the structural organization and morphology of Arabidopsis starch granules was studied. The starch granules were birefringent, indicating a radial organization of the polymers, and x-ray scatter analyses revealed that granules contained alternating crystalline and amorphous lamellae with a periodicity of 9 nm. Granules from the wild type and the high-starch mutant sex1 were flattened and discoid, whereas those of the high-starch mutant sex4 were larger and more rounded. These larger granules contained "growth rings" with a periodicity of 200 to 300 nm. We conclude that leaf starch is synthesized without appreciable turnover and comprises similar polymers and contains similar levels of molecular organization to storage starches, making Arabidopsis

  11. Effects of Resistant Starch and Arabinoxylan on Parameters Related to Large Intestinal and Metabolic Health in Pigs Fed Fat-Rich Diets.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Theil, Peter Kappel; Purup, Stig; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2015-12-09

    This study compared the effects of a resistant starch (RS)-rich, arabinoxylan (AX)-rich, or low-DF Western-style control diet (all high-fat) on large intestinal gene expression, adiposity, and glycemic response parameters in pigs. Animals were slaughtered after 3 weeks of treatment. Plasma butyrate concentration was higher following the high-DF diets, whereas plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased after 3 weeks irrespective of diet. The mRNA abundance in the large intestine of genes involved in nutrient transport, immune response, and intestinal permeability was affected by segment (cecum, proximal, mid or distal colon) and some genes also by diet. In contrast, there was no diet-induced effect on adipose mRNA abundance or adipocyte size. Overall, a high level of RS or AX did not demonstrate strong beneficial effects on large intestinal gene expression as indicators of colonic health or glycemic response parameters when included in a high-fat diet for pigs as a model of healthy humans.

  12. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

  13. Feeding different types of cooked white rice to piglets after weaning influences starch digestion, digesta and fermentation characteristics and the faecal shedding of beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pluske, John R; Montagne, Lucile; Cavaney, Fiona S; Mullan, Bruce P; Pethick, David W; Hampson, David J

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight, 21-d-old pigs were used to examine the effects of different types of cooked white rice on starch digestion, digesta and fermentation characteristics, shedding of beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli and performance after weaning. Pigs received one of three rice-based diets: (i) medium-grain Amaroo (AM), (ii) long-grain Doongara (DOON), and (iii) waxy (WAXY). The remainder of the diet consisted predominantly of animal proteins. A fourth diet contained mainly wheat, barley and lupins (WBL). On days 1, 3, 7 and 9 after weaning, a faecal swab was taken for assessment of beta-haemolytic E. coli and faecal consistency. Apparent digestibility of starch measured in the ileum 14 d after weaning was highest (P = 0.004) in AM and WAXY and lowest, but the same (P>0.05), in DOON and WBL. Starch digestibility in the rectum was highest in all rice diets (P < 0.001). Digesta viscosity was highest in pigs fed WBL in both the ileum (P < 0.001) and caecum (P = 0.027). Pigs fed rice generally had lighter (P < 0.05) gastrointestinal organs than pigs fed WBL. Performance of pigs was similar for all treatments; however, pigs fed rice-based diets had a higher (P < 0.001) carcass percentage than pigs fed WBL. Pigs fed WBL produced more acid (P < 0.05) but had lower molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.05), isobutyrate (P < 0.01) and isovalerate (P < 0.001) and a higher molar proportion of butyrate (P < 0.01) in the large intestine than pigs fed rice. Shedding of E. coli was low; however, pigs fed AM and WBL shed less E. coli than pigs fed other diets.

  14. Biochemical Characterization of the Lactobacillus reuteri Glycoside Hydrolase Family 70 GTFB Type of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes That Synthesize Soluble Dietary Starch Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Leemhuis, Hans; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-01-01

    4,6-α-Glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes, such as GTFB and GTFW of Lactobacillus reuteri strains, constitute a new reaction specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) and are novel enzymes that convert starch or starch hydrolysates into isomalto/maltopolysaccharides (IMMPs). These IMMPs still have linear chains with some α1→4 linkages but mostly (relatively long) linear chains with α1→6 linkages and are soluble dietary starch fibers. 4,6-α-GTase enzymes and their products have significant potential for industrial applications. Here we report that an N-terminal truncation (amino acids 1 to 733) strongly enhances the soluble expression level of fully active GTFB-ΔN (approximately 75-fold compared to full-length wild type GTFB) in Escherichia coli. In addition, quantitative assays based on amylose V as the substrate are described; these assays allow accurate determination of both hydrolysis (minor) activity (glucose release, reducing power) and total activity (iodine staining) and calculation of the transferase (major) activity of these 4,6-α-GTase enzymes. The data show that GTFB-ΔN is clearly less hydrolytic than GTFW, which is also supported by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of their final products. From these assays, the biochemical properties of GTFB-ΔN were characterized in detail, including determination of kinetic parameters and acceptor substrate specificity. The GTFB enzyme displayed high conversion yields at relatively high substrate concentrations, a promising feature for industrial application. PMID:26253678

  15. Biochemical Characterization of the Lactobacillus reuteri Glycoside Hydrolase Family 70 GTFB Type of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes That Synthesize Soluble Dietary Starch Fibers.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Leemhuis, Hans; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-10-01

    4,6-α-Glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes, such as GTFB and GTFW of Lactobacillus reuteri strains, constitute a new reaction specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) and are novel enzymes that convert starch or starch hydrolysates into isomalto/maltopolysaccharides (IMMPs). These IMMPs still have linear chains with some α1→4 linkages but mostly (relatively long) linear chains with α1→6 linkages and are soluble dietary starch fibers. 4,6-α-GTase enzymes and their products have significant potential for industrial applications. Here we report that an N-terminal truncation (amino acids 1 to 733) strongly enhances the soluble expression level of fully active GTFB-ΔN (approximately 75-fold compared to full-length wild type GTFB) in Escherichia coli. In addition, quantitative assays based on amylose V as the substrate are described; these assays allow accurate determination of both hydrolysis (minor) activity (glucose release, reducing power) and total activity (iodine staining) and calculation of the transferase (major) activity of these 4,6-α-GTase enzymes. The data show that GTFB-ΔN is clearly less hydrolytic than GTFW, which is also supported by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of their final products. From these assays, the biochemical properties of GTFB-ΔN were characterized in detail, including determination of kinetic parameters and acceptor substrate specificity. The GTFB enzyme displayed high conversion yields at relatively high substrate concentrations, a promising feature for industrial application. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Changes in starch physical characteristics following digestion of foods in the human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongkai; Topping, David L; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R

    2010-08-01

    Factors controlling the concentration of resistant starch (RS) in foods are of considerable interest on account of the potential for this type of fibre to deliver health benefits to consumers. The present study was aimed at establishing changes in starch granule morphology as a result of human small-intestinal digestion. Volunteers with ileostomy consumed six selected foods: breakfast cereal (muesli), white bread, oven-baked French fries, canned mixed beans and a custard containing either a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS) or a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS). Analysis showed that digesta total RS (as a fraction of ingested starch) was: muesli, 8.9 %; bread, 4.8 %; fries, 4.2 %; bean mix, 35.9 %; LAMS custard, 4.0 %; HAMS custard, 29.1 %. Chromatographic analysis showed that undigested food contained three major starch fractions. These had average molecular weights (MW) of 43,500 kDa, 420 kDa and 8.5 kDa and were rich in amylopectin, higher-MW amylose and low-MW amylose, respectively. The low-MW amylose fraction became enriched preferentially in the stomal effluent while the medium-MW starch fraction showed the greatest loss. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that absorbance at 1022 per cm decreased after digestion while the absorbance band at 1047 per cm became greater. Such changes have been suggested to indicate shifts from less ordered to more ordered granule structures. Further analysis of amylose composition by scanning iodine spectra indicated that the MW of amylose in ileal digesta was lower than that of undigested amylose. It appears that high-MW amylose is preferentially digested and that MW, rather than amylose content alone, is associated with resistance of starch to digestion in the upper gut of humans.

  17. A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Mohan, Vivek; Sebastian, Bendon K; Young, Graeme P; Farthing, Michael J; Binder, Henry J

    2008-02-13

    Reduction of gross diarrhea rate in excess of that seen over time with intravenous therapy and appropriate antibiotics is not usually achieved by oral glucose-electrolyte rehydration therapy for cholera and cholera-like diarrheas. This prospective randomized clinical trial at a tertiary referral hospital in southern India was undertaken to determine whether amylase resistant starch, substituting for glucose in hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution, would reduce diarrhea duration and weight in adults with acute severe dehydrating diarrhea. 50 adult males with severe watery diarrhea of less than three days' duration and moderate to severe dehydration were randomized to receive hypo-osmolar ORS (HO-ORS) or HO-ORS in which amylase resistant high amylose maize starch 50g/L substituted for glucose (HAMS-ORS). All remaining therapy followed standard protocol. Duration of diarrhea (ORS commencement to first formed stool) in hours was significantly shorter with HAMS-ORS (median 19, IQR 10-28) compared to HO-ORS (median 42, IQR 24-50) (Bonferroni adjusted P, P(adj)<0.001). Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) showed faster recovery from diarrhea in the HAMS-ORS group (P<0.001, log rank test). Total diarrhea fecal weight in grams (median, IQR) was not significantly lower in the HAMS-ORS group (2190, 1160-5635) compared to HO-ORS (5210, 2095-12190) (P(adj) = 0.08). However, stool weight at 13-24 hours (280, 0-965 vs. 1360, 405-2985) and 25-48 hours (0, 0-360 vs. 1080, 55-3485) were significantly lower in HAMS-ORS compared to HO-ORS group (P(adj) = 0.048 and P = 0.012, respectively). ORS intake after first 24 hours was lower in the HAMS-ORS group. Subgroup analysis of patients with culture isolates of Vibrio cholerae indicated similar significant differences between the treatment groups. Compared to HO-ORS, HAMS-ORS reduced diarrhea duration by 55% and significantly reduced fecal weight after the first 12 hours of ORS therapy in adults with cholera-like diarrhea. Current

  18. Effect of extruded wheat flour and pre-gelatinized cassava starch on process and quality parameters of French-type bread elaborated from frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Ortolan, Fernanda; Brites, Lara Tatiane G; Montenegro, Flávio M; Schmiele, Marcio; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S; Almeida, Eveline L; Chang, Yoon K

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to verify the potential of extruded wheat flour (EWF) or pre-gelatinized cassava starch (PGS) to improve the process and the quality of French bread elaborated from frozen dough. Three formulations were prepared: 100% control wheat flour (CWF) and the other two formulations with 5% substitution of wheat flour by EWF or PGS. Frozen doughs were frozen stored for seven days and after this period they were thawed, fermented, baked and evaluated for physical, chemical and technological characteristics. Available glucose levels found for EWF (12g/100g), and PGS (11.7g/100g) in relation to CWF (7.1g/100g) showed higher sugar availability for yeasts at the initial stage of proofing, and may also have had a cryoprotective effect when freezing bread doughs. The frozen doughs with EWF or PGS, when thawed and fermented, presented higher volume increase, but after baking, they presented lower volume when compared to the control bread. The results of this study are promising for the use of extruded wheat flour or pre-gelatinized cassava starch as sugar providers for doughs' post-freezing proofing process, improving frozen dough process of French-type bread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance and gain-of-resistance phenotypes in cancers harboring wild-type p53.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rivera, Michelle; Siddik, Zahid H

    2012-04-15

    Chemotherapy is the bedrock for the clinical management of cancer, and the tumor suppressor p53 has a central role in this therapeutic modality. This protein facilitates favorable antitumor drug response through a variety of key cellular functions, including cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. These functions essentially cease once p53 becomes mutated, as occurs in ∼50% of cancers, and some p53 mutants even exhibit gain-of-function effects, which lead to greater drug resistance. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that resistance is also seen in cancers harboring wild-type p53. In this review, we discuss how wild-type p53 is inactivated to render cells resistant to antitumor drugs. This may occur through various mechanisms, including an increase in proteasomal degradation, defects in post-translational modification, and downstream defects in p53 target genes. We also consider evidence that the resistance seen in wild-type p53 cancers can be substantially greater than that seen in mutant p53 cancers, and this poses a far greater challenge for efforts to design strategies that increase drug response in resistant cancers already primed with wild-type p53. Because the mechanisms contributing to this wild-type p53 "gain-of-resistance" phenotype are largely unknown, a concerted research effort is needed to identify the underlying basis for the occurrence of this phenotype and, in parallel, to explore the possibility that the phenotype may be a product of wild-type p53 gain-of-function effects. Such studies are essential to lay the foundation for a rational therapeutic approach in the treatment of resistant wild-type p53 cancers.

  20. Innate immunity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Pickup, John C

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has disclosed previously unrecognized links among insulin resistance, obesity, circulating immune markers, immunogenetic susceptibility, macrophage function and chronic infection. Genetic variations leading to altered production or function of circulating innate immune proteins, cellular pattern-recognition receptors and inflammatory cytokines have been linked with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis. Cellular innate immune associations with obesity and insulin resistance include increased white blood cell count and adipose tissue macrophage numbers. The innate immune response is modulated possibly by both predisposition (genetic or fetal programming), perhaps owing to evolutionary pressures caused by acute infections at the population level (pandemics), and chronic low exposure to environmental products or infectious agents. The common characteristics shared among innate immunity activation, obesity and insulin resistance are summarized.

  1. The effect of high moisture heat-acid treatment on the structure and digestion property of normal maize starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liang, Rong; Antoniou, John; Liu, Fei; Shoemaker, Charles F; Li, Yue; Zhong, Fang

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of thermal-acid treatment on the formation of resistant starch (RS). The maximum RS content in citric acid-heat treated starches (CAHT) reached 36.55%, which was 7 times higher of that in native starch. According to HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis, amylopectin was more susceptible to hydrolysis than amylose during citric acid-heat treatment (CAH). X-ray measurement revealed that even though the starch crystalline pattern was changed from A-type to a more resistant B-type after CAH, the fraction of crystalline region decreased from 21.16% to 8.37%. The hydroxyls on the starch chains were substituted by the citric acid anhydrides during CAH according to FT-IR analysis, which led to the formation of ester bond cross-linking structures in starch granules, and it could be the main contribution to the increase of RS content in CAHT samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin action and resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Czech, Michael P

    2017-07-11

    Nutritional excess is a major forerunner of type 2 diabetes. It enhances the secretion of insulin, but attenuates insulin's metabolic actions in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. However, conflicting evidence indicates a lack of knowledge of the timing of these events during the development of obesity and diabetes, pointing to a key gap in our understanding of metabolic disease. This Perspective reviews alternate viewpoints and recent results on the temporal and mechanistic connections between hyperinsulinemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Although much attention has addressed early steps in the insulin signaling cascade, insulin resistance in obesity seems to be largely elicited downstream of these steps. New findings also connect insulin resistance to extensive metabolic cross-talk between the liver, adipose tissue, pancreas and skeletal muscle. These and other advances over the past 5 years offer exciting opportunities and daunting challenges for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  3. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  4. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  5. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  7. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  9. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  10. Construction of local gene network for revealing different liver function of rats fed deep-fried oil with or without resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liao, Tianqi; Zhou, Zhongkai; Wang, Yuyang; Diao, Yongjia; Strappe, Padraig; Prenzler, Paul; Ayton, Jamie; Blanchard, Chris

    2016-09-06

    To study the mechanism underlying the liver damage induced by deep-fried oil (DO) consumption and the beneficial effects from resistant starch (RS) supplement, differential gene expression and pathway network were analyzed based on RNA sequencing data from rats. The up/down regulated genes and corresponding signaling pathways were used to construct a novel local gene network (LGN). The topology of the network showed characteristics of small-world network, with some pathways demonstrating a high degree. Some changes in genes led to a larger probability occurrence of disease or infection with DO intake. More importantly, the main pathways were found to be almost the same between the two LGNs (30 pathways overlapped in total 48) with gene expression profile. This finding may indicate that RS supplement in DO-containing diet may mainly regulate the genes that related to DO damage, and RS in the diet may provide direct signals to the liver cells and modulate its effect through a network involving complex gene regulatory events. It is the first attempt to reveal the mechanism of the attenuation of liver dysfunction from RS supplement in the DO-containing diet using differential gene expression and pathway network.

  11. Effect of variety and cooking method on resistant starch content of white rice and subsequent postprandial glucose response and appetite in humans.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Ting; Stewart, Maria L

    2013-01-01

    Rice is a staple carbohydrate throughout much of the world. Previous work indicated that resistant starch (RS) content of rice consumed in India varied with rice variety and cooking method. This study quantified RS in 4 white rice varieties (jasmine, long grain, medium grain, and short grain) cooked in three manners (oven baked, conventional rice cooker, and pressure cooker), and analyzed for RS content immediately after preparation or after 3 days of refrigeration at 4°C. The rice varieties with the highest and lowest RS content were selected for a pilot- scale trial to characterize postprandial glycemic response and appetite ratings in healthy adults (n=21). Refrigerated long-grain rice cooked in a conventional rice cooker had the highest RS content (HRS, 2.55 g RS/100 g) and refrigerated short-grain rice cooked in a pressure cooker had the lowest RS content (LRS, 0.20 g RS/100 g). These rice samples were served reheated in the clinical trial. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) were significantly lower with HRS and LRS compared to glucose beverage; however, there was no difference between HRS and LRS. Glycemic indices did not differ significantly between HRS and LRS. Subjects reported an overall increased feeling of fullness and decreased desire to eat based on incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for both HRS and LRS compared to control. This study found that RS naturally occurring in rice had minimal impact on the postprandial glycemic response and appetite.

  12. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  13. Effects of xanthan and galactomannan on the freeze/thaw properties of starch gels.

    PubMed

    Lo, C T; Ramsden, L

    2000-06-01

    Three starches (maize, rice and wheat), and the two non-starch polysaccharides xanthan and locust bean gum galactomannan (LBG) were examined in gel and dough systems for texture and stability properties during freezing and low temperature storage. Xanthan and LBG were found to confer increased resistance to freeze/thaw cycling on rice starch gels but the non-starch polysaccharides had little effect on the performance of maize and wheat starch gels or on wheat dough.

  14. Mutations Affecting Starch Synthase III in Arabidopsis Alter Leaf Starch Structure and Increase the Rate of Starch Synthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Myers, Alan M.; James, Martha G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of starch synthase (SS) III (SSIII) in the synthesis of transient starch in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was investigated by characterizing the effects of two insertion mutations at the AtSS3 gene locus. Both mutations, termed Atss3-1 and Atss3-2, condition complete loss of SSIII activity and prevent normal gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The mutations cause a starch excess phenotype in leaves during the light period of the growth cycle due to an apparent increase in the rate of starch synthesis. In addition, both mutations alter the physical structure of leaf starch. Significant increases were noted in the mutants in the frequency of linear chains in amylopectin with a degree of polymerization greater than approximately 60, and relatively small changes were observed in chains of degree of polymerization 4 to 50. Furthermore, starch in the Atss3-1 and Atss3-2 mutants has a higher phosphate content, approximately two times that of wild-type leaf starch. Total SS activity is increased in both Atss3 mutants and a specific SS activity appears to be up-regulated. The data indicate that, in addition to its expected direct role in starch assembly, SSIII also has a negative regulatory function in the biosynthesis of transient starch in Arabidopsis. PMID:15908598

  15. Membrane-bound amylopullulanase is essential for starch metabolism of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Cha, Jaeho

    2015-09-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 produced an acid-resistant membrane-bound amylopullulanase (Apu) during growth on starch as a sole carbon and energy source. The physiological role of Apu in starch metabolism was investigated by the growth and starch degradation pattern of apu disruption mutant as well as biochemical properties of recombinant Apu. The Δapu mutant lost the ability to grow in minimal medium in the presence of starch, and the amylolytic activity observed in the membrane fraction of the wild-type strain was not detected in the Δapu mutant when the cells were grown in YT medium. The purified membrane-bound Apu initially hydrolyzed starch, amylopectin, and pullulan into various sizes of maltooligosaccharides, and then produced glucose, maltose, and maltotriose in the end, indicating Apu is a typical endo-acting glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) amylopullulanase. The maltose and maltotriose observed in the culture medium during the exponential and stationary phase growth indicates that Apu is the essential enzyme to initially hydrolyze the starch into small maltooligosaccharides to be transported into the cell.

  16. Morphology, structure and gelatinization properties of heterogeneous starch granules from high-amylose maize.

    PubMed

    Cai, Canhui; Zhao, Lingxiao; Huang, Jun; Chen, Yifang; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-02-15

    High-amylose cereal endosperm is rich in heterogeneous starch granules. In this paper, we investigated the morphology, structure and gelatinization properties of high-amylose maize endosperm starch. Starch had individual, aggregate and elongated heterogeneous granules. Most of individual granules were round with small size and had one central hilum. Aggregate and elongated granules consisted of many subgranules with central hila, and had irregular and rod/filamentous shapes, respectively. Iodine stained starch granules showed five types of polarization colors: blue, purple, fuchsia, dark red, and interior dark blue and exterior brown. Most of individual and aggregate granules had the color of dark red, that of elongated granules the color of interior dark blue and exterior brown. Amylose was mainly distributed in the hilum region and the circumference of starch granules. Aggregate and elongated granules had higher amylose content than individual granules. Elongated and individual granules had the highest and the lowest gelatinization resistance among high-amylose maize heterogeneous starch granules, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance and gain-of-resistance phenotypes in cancers harboring wild-type p53

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Rivera, Michelle; Siddik, Zahid H.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the bedrock for the clinical management of cancer, and the tumor suppressor p53 has a central role in this therapeutic modality. This protein facilitates favorable antitumor drug response through a variety of key cellular functions, including cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. These functions essentially cease once p53 becomes mutated, as occurs in ~50% of cancers, and some p53 mutants even exhibit gain-of-function effects, which lead to greater drug resistance. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that resistance is also seen in cancers harboring wild-type p53. In this review, we discuss how wild-type p53 is inactivated to render cells resistant to antitumor drugs. This may occur through various mechanisms, including an increase in proteasomal degradation, defects in post-translational modification, and downstream defects in p53 target genes. We also consider evidence that the resistance seen in wild-type p53 cancers can be substantially greater than that seen in mutant p53 cancers, and this poses a far greater challenge for efforts to design strategies that increase drug response in resistant cancers already primed with wild-type p53. Because the mechanisms contributing to this wild-type p53 “gain-of-resistance” phenotype are largely unknown, a concerted research effort is needed to identify the underlying basis for the occurrence of this phenotype and, in parallel, to explore the possibility that the phenotype may be a product of wild-type p53 gain-of-function effects. Such studies are essential to lay the foundation for a rational therapeutic approach in the treatment of resistant wild-type p53 cancers. PMID:22227014

  18. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  19. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heterogeneous structure and spatial distribution in endosperm of high-amylose rice starch granules with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Canhui; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-10-15

    Starch granules from high-amylose cereal mutants or transgenic lines usually have different morphologies. It is not clear whether the structure and spatial distribution of starch granules with different morphologies in endosperm is homogeneous or heterogeneous. In the present study, the structure and spatial distribution in endosperm of morphologically different starch granules from high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) were investigated. The TRS endosperm had individual, aggregate, elongated, and interior hollow starch granules. The individual and interior hollow granules had the lowest and the highest amylose content and gelatinization resistance, respectively, among the four types of granules. The individual granules were mainly distributed in the middle of the endosperm; the aggregate granules in the starchy endosperm cells between the subaleurone layer and the middle of the endosperm; the elongated granules in the peripheral starchy endosperm cells adjacent to the subaleurone layer; and the interior hollow granules in the subaleurone layer cells.

  1. Effect of replacement of corn starch by whey protein isolate in biodegradable film blends obtained by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Viviane Machado; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Marconcini, José Manoel; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Neto, Alfredo Rodrigues Sena; Pereira, Tamara Coelho; Pereira, Camila Ferreira Gonçalves

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn starch by whey protein isolated (WPI) in biodegradable polymer blends developed by extrusion. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of a Vh-type crystalline arrangement. The films were homogeneous, indicating strong interfacial adhesion between the protein and the thermoplastic starch matrix (TPS) as observed in scanning electron microscopy. The addition of WPI on TPS matrix promoted an increase in the thermal stability of the materials. It was observed 58.5% decrease in the water vapor permeability. The effect of corn starch substitution by WPI on mechanical properties resulted in a more resistant and less flexible film when compared the TPS film. The addition of WPI caused greenish yellow color and less transparent films. The substitution of corn starch by WPI made it possible to obtain polymer blends with improved properties and represents an innovation for application as a packaging material.

  2. Reformulating cereal bars: high resistant starch reduces in vitro digestibility but not in vivo glucose or insulin response; whey protein reduces glucose but disproportionately increases insulin.

    PubMed

    Wolever, Thomas Ms; van Klinken, B Jan-Willem; Bordenave, Nicolas; Kaczmarczyk, Melissa; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Chu, YiFang; Harkness, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) and whey protein are thought to be effective nutrients for reducing glycemic responses. We aimed to determine the effect of varying the sucrose, RS, and whey protein content of cereal bars on glucose and insulin responses. Twelve healthy subjects [mean ± SD age: 36 ± 12 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.9 ± 2.7] consumed 40 g available-carbohydrate (avCHO) portions of 5 whole-grain cereal bars that contained varying amounts of RS and whey protein concentrate [WPC; 70% protein; RS:WPC, %wt:wt: 15:0 (Bar15/0); 15:0, low in sucrose (Bar15/0LS); 15:5 (Bar15/5); 10:5 (Bar10/5); and 10:10 (Bar10/10)] and 2 portion sizes of a control bar low in whole grains, protein, and RS [control 1 contained 40 g avCHO (Control1); control 2 contained total carbohydrate equal to Bar15/0LS (Control2)] on separate days by using a randomized crossover design. Glucose and insulin responses in vivo and carbohydrate digestibility in vitro were measured over 3 h. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) over 0-3 h for glucose (min × mmol/L) differed significantly between treatments (P < 0.001) [Bar15/0LS (mean ± SEM), 169 ± 14; Control2, 164 ± 20; Bar15/0, 144 ± 15; Control1, 140 ± 17; Bar10/5, 117 ± 12; Bar15/5, 116 ± 9; and Bar10/10, 100 ± 9; Tukey's least significant difference = 42, P < 0.05], but insulin iAUC did not differ significantly. Higher protein content was associated with a lower glucose iAUC (P = 0.028) and a higher insulin-to-glucose iAUC ratio (P = 0.002) All 5 RS-containing bars were digested in vitro ∼30% more slowly than the control bars (P < 0.05); however, in vivo responses were not related to digestibility in vitro. Glucose and insulin responses elicited by high-RS, whey protein-free bars were similar to those elicited from control bars. The inclusion of RS in cereal bar formulations did not reduce glycemic responses despite slower starch digestion in vitro. Thus, caution is required when extrapolating in vitro starch

  3. Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of modified starches from banana (Musa AAB) and its biological activities in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Vidya, P V; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a simple method of preparation and physico-chemical properties of modified starches (type-3 resistant starches) from banana (Musa AAB), and the modified starches investigated as functional food with a beneficial effect on type-2 diabetes. RS3 was prepared using a method combined with debranching modification and physical modification; native and modifies starches were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyzer (RVA). Use of the enzymatic and physical modification methodology, improved the yield of RS (26.62%) from Musa AAB. A reduced viscosity and swelling power; increased transition temperatures, water absorption capacity and solubility index with B-type crystalline pattern and loss of granular appearance were observed during the debranching modification and physical modification. The modified starches exhibited beneficial health effects in diabetic and HFD rats who consumed it. These results recommend that dietary feeding of RS3 was effective in the regulation of glucose and lipid profile in serum and suppressing the oxidative stress in rats under diabetic and HFD condition. This current study provides new bioactive starches, with potential applications in the food and non-food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  7. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  8. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  9. Selection and characterization of brivudin resistant bovine herpesvirus type 5

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; dos Santos, Cyndia Mara Bezerra; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2010-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the agent of meningoencephalitis, an important disease of cattle in South America. The neuropathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection is poorly understood and most previous research focused on the role of envelope glicoproteins in neurovirulence. Thymidine kinase (TK) is a viral enzyme necessary for virus replication in neurons and, therefore, represents a potential target for virus attenuation. The selection and characterization of BoHV-5 variants resistant to the nucleoside analog brivudin (BVDU), which selects TK-defective viruses is here described. Several BVDU-resistant clones were obtained after multiple passages in tissue culture in the presence of BVDU and one clone (BoHV-5/R-27) was further characterized. The selected clone replicated to similar titers and produced plaques with similar size and morphology to those of wild-type virus (SV507/99). The genetic stability of the resistant virus was demonstrated after ten passages in cell culture in the absence of the drug. Moreover, the drug-resistant virus showed reduced virulence in a rabbit model: virus inoculation in four rabbits did not result in disease, in contrast with 75% morbidity (3/4) and 50% mortality (2/2) among rabbits inoculated with the parental virus. These results demonstrate that BoHV-5 is sensitive to BVDU and that drug-resistant mutants can be readily selected upon BVDU treatment. BVDU-resistant mutants, likely defective in TK, retained their ability to replicate in tissue culture yet were attenuated for rabbits. This strategy to obtain TK-defective BoHV-5 may be useful to study the role of TK in BoHV-5 neuropathogenesis and for vaccine development. PMID:24031472

  10. Icodextrin reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis: results of a randomized controlled trial (STARCH).

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Thyago Proença; Andreoli, Maria Cláudia Cruz; Canziani, Maria Eugênia; da Silva, Dirceu Reis; Caramori, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira; Ponce, Daniela; Cassi, Hélio Vida; de Andrade Bastos, Kleyton; Rio, Danyelle Romana Alves; Pinto, Sergio Wyton; Filho, Sebastião Rodrigues Ferreira; de Campos, Ludimila Guedim; Olandoski, Marcia; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a common risk factor in chronic kidney disease patients contributing to the high cardiovascular burden, even in the absence of diabetes. Glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions are thought to intensify insulin resistance due to the continuous glucose absorption from the peritoneal cavity. The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of the substitution of glucose for icodextrin on insulin resistance in non-diabetic PD patients in a multicentric randomized clinical trial. This was a multicenter, open-label study with balanced randomization (1:1) and two parallel-groups. Inclusion criteria were non-diabetic adult patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for at least 3 months on therapy prior to randomization. Patients assigned to the intervention group were treated with 2L of icodextrin 7.5%, and the control group with glucose 2.5% during the long dwell and, at night in the cycler, with a prescription of standard glucose-based PD solution only in both groups. The primary end-point was the change in insulin resistance measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index at 90 days. Sixty patients were included in the intervention (n = 33) or the control (n = 27) groups. There was no difference between groups at baseline. After adjustment for pre-intervention HOMA index levels, the group treated with icodextrin had the lower post-intervention levels at 90 days in both intention to treat [1.49 (95% CI: 1.23-1.74) versus 1.89 (95% CI: 1.62-2.17)], (F = 4.643, P = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.078); and the treated analysis [1.47 (95% CI: 1.01-1.84) versus 2.18 (95% CI: 1.81-2.55)], (F = 7.488, P = 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.195). The substitution of glucose for icodextrin for the long dwell improved insulin resistance measured by HOMA index in non-diabetic APD patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions with other physicochemical properties.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen rice cultivars representing 5 cytosine-thymine repeat (CTn) microsatellite genetic marker groups were analyzed for their cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions (rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch), basic grain quality indices (apparent amylose, crude pr...

  12. Contribution of mucosal maltase-glucoamylase activities to mouse small intestinal starch alpha-glucogenesis.

    PubMed

    Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Robayo-Torres, Claudia C; Opekun, Antone R; Sen, Partha; Ao, Zihua; Hamaker, Bruce R; Quaroni, Andrea; Brayer, Gary D; Wattler, Sigrid; Nehls, Michael C; Sterchi, Erwin E; Nichols, Buford L

    2007-07-01

    Digestion of starch requires activities provided by 6 interactive small intestinal enzymes. Two of these are luminal endo-glucosidases named alpha-amylases. Four are exo-glucosidases bound to the luminal surface of enterocytes. These mucosal activities were identified as 4 different maltases. Two maltase activities were associated with sucrase-isomaltase. Two remaining maltases, lacking other identifying activities, were named maltase-glucoamylase. These 4 activities are better described as alpha-glucosidases because they digest all linear starch oligosaccharides to glucose. Because confusion persists about the relative roles of these 6 enzymes, we ablated maltase-glucoamylase gene expression by homologous recombination in Sv/129 mice. We assayed the alpha-glucogenic activities of the jejunal mucosa with and without added recombinant pancreatic alpha-amylase, using a range of food starch substrates. Compared with wild-type mucosa, null mucosa or alpha-amylase alone had little alpha-glucogenic activity. alpha-Amylase amplified wild-type and null mucosal alpha-glucogenesis. alpha-Amylase amplification was most potent against amylose and model resistant starches but was inactive against its final product limit-dextrin and its constituent glucosides. Both sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase were active with limit-dextrin substrate. These mucosal assays were corroborated by a 13C-limit-dextrin breath test. In conclusion, the global effect of maltase-glucoamylase ablation was a slowing of rates of mucosal alpha-glucogenesis. Maltase-glucoamylase determined rates of digestion of starch in normal mice and alpha-amylase served as an amplifier for mucosal starch digestion. Acarbose inhibition was most potent against maltase-glucoamylase activities of the wild-type mouse. The consortium of 6 interactive enzymes appears to be a mechanism for adaptation of alpha-glucogenesis to a wide range of food starches.

  13. Structure of lintnerized starch is related to X-ray diffraction pattern and susceptibility to acid and enzyme hydrolysis of starch granules.

    PubMed

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Isono, Naoto; Mishima, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2005-11-15

    Acid-resistant residues (lintnerized starches, Ls) were prepared from starches showing A-, B- and C- X-ray diffraction patterns. Ls retained the same X-ray crystalline type as their native counterparts with an improvement in diffraction intensity. Fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis (FACE) study indicated that structural characteristics of Ls were associated with X-ray diffraction patterns. Double helices originated from linear chains with an approximate average degree of polymerisation (DP) 14, 16, and 15 would span the entire length of crystalline lamellae of A-, B-, and C-type starches, respectively. The proportion of singly branched materials (SB) with DP 25 protected in Ls was higher for A-type Ls (10-17%) than for B-type Ls (4-6%) and C-type Ls (8%). The structures of SB were similar in which branched chain (DP 13-15) was longer than main chain (DP 10-12). The structural characteristics of Ls are discussed in relation to acid and enzymatic degradations of starch granules.

  14. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  15. Slowly digestible starch: concept, mechanism, and proposed extended glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2009-11-01

    Starch is the major glycemic carbohydrate in foods, and its nutritional property is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A classification of starch into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on the in vitro Englyst test is used to specify the nutritional quality of starch. Both the RDS and RS fractions have been extensively studied while there are only limited studies on the intermediate starch fraction of SDS, particularly regarding its structural basis and slow digestion mechanism. The current understanding of SDS including its concept, measurement method, structural basis and mechanism, physiological consequences, and approaches to make SDS is reviewed. An in vivo method of extended glycemic index (EGI) is proposed to evaluate its metabolic effect and related health consequences.

  16. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown.

  17. The effect of fibre and gelatinised starch type on amylolysis and apparent viscosity during in vitro digestion at a physiological shear rate.

    PubMed

    Hardacre, Allan K; Yap, Sia-Yen; Lentle, Roger G; Monro, John A

    2015-06-05

    An in vitro system was used to determine if the addition of insoluble or soluble fibre to aqueous suspensions of gelatinised starch affected the rate at which the starch was digested. Pre-gelatinised potato or corn starch suspensions were digested with porcine pancreatic amylase in the presence of either finely milled insoluble fibres from various sources or with guar gum. In vitro digestion was conducted at 37°C in a rheometer at a low and constant shear rate of 10s(-1) and the quantity of glucose released measured. The rates of starch digestion and suspension viscosity declined asymptotically and were unaffected by the addition of wheat fibre, but were considerably reduced by the addition of wood and AllBran(®) fibre and to a much greater extent (60%) by the addition of guar. The latter effect may be due to inhibition of amylase activity by non starch polysaccharide sequences.

  18. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  19. Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Boll, Elin V Johansson; Ekström, Linda M N K; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Nilsson, Anne C; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-06-01

    Specific combinations of dietary fiber (DF) have been observed to result in improved glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardized breakfast. Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are considered as DF with prebiotic potential, but so far no studies have investigated their metabolic effects in humans. This randomized cross-over study evaluated the overnight impact of breads containing AXOS-rich wheat bran extract and resistant starch (RS, Hi-Maize), separately or combined, on glucose tolerance, related metabolic parameters and markers of gut fermentation in healthy subjects. Evening reference and test products were: (1) reference white wheat flour bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with (2) AXOS and RS (WWB + AXOS + RS), (3) an increased content of either AXOS (WWB + hiAXOS) or (4) RS (WWB + hiRS). At the subsequent standardized breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h to monitor glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2. Breath hydrogen (H2) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured as markers of gut fermentation, and subjective appetite was rated using visual analog scales. Dose-dependent decreases in glucose responses were observed with increased AXOS over the duration of 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index was improved in the morning after the WWB + hiAXOS evening meal. An increase in breath H2 concentration and circulating SCFA was observed in the morning after both evening meals containing AXOS. The present study indicates that AXOS have the potential of improving glucose tolerance in an overnight perspective and suggested mechanisms are improved insulin sensitivity and increased gut fermentation.

  20. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (P< 0.001). AXD feeding resulted in a higher number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  1. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K; Hazen, Stanley L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2016-12-01

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51-53 %E) v. lower CHO (39-40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine and γ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high- v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by high v. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  2. The effects of whole grain high-amylose maize flour as a source of resistant starch on blood glucose, satiety, and food intake in young men.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Mollard, Rebecca C; Yurchenko, Svitlana; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Berengut, Shari; Liu, Ting Ting; Smith, Christopher E; Pelkman, Christine L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose response effect of whole grain high-amylose maize (HAM) flour as a source of resistant starch (RS) on blood glucose, appetite and short-term food intake. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, healthy men (n = 30, 22.9 ± 0.6 y, BMI of 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 cookies once a week for 3 wk. Cookies were control (100% wheat flour), low-dose (63% wheat flour,37% HAM flour), and high-dose (33% wheat flour, 67% HAM flour) providing 53.5, 43.5, and 36.3 g of available carbohydrate, respectively. Ad libitum food intake was measured 120 min at a pizza meal, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured after consumption of the cookie (0 to 120 min) and after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min). Blood glucose concentrations were lower at 30 and 45 min after high-dose treatment, and at 120 min after both high- and low-dose treatments compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood glucose AUC before the pizza meal (0 to 120 min) was 44% and 14% lower, and higher by 43% and 41% after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min) compared with control. Yet despite the higher response following the meal, cumulative AUC (0 to 200 min) was still 22% lower after the high-dose treatment (P < 0.05). All treatments equally suppressed subjective appetite and there was no effect on food intake. In conclusion, HAM flour as a source of RS and incorporated into a cookie was associated with better glycemic control in young men.

  3. The resistant starch level of heat moisture-treated high amylose cornstarch is much lower when measured in the human terminal ileum than when estimated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Danjo, Kazuma; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sugawara, Kazuo

    2003-07-01

    According to the definition of resistant starch (RS), the true value of foodstuff-derived RS can be assessed only from that found in the contents of the terminal ileum. To date, a few methods exist for in vivo measurement of RS in the terminal ileum, but their accuracy is questionable. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of RS in the terminal ileum to determine its true value as dietary fiber (DF). Volunteers (n = 7 men) were given a test meal containing 10 g of heat moisture-treated high amylose cornstarch (HMT-HAS) containing 8.8 g of RS as measured by Englyst's method. A double-lumen tube was positioned in the terminal ileum using the endoscopic retrograde bowel insertion method (ERBI). Intestinal contents were aspirated, and the amount of RS was measured as the glucose concentration (Englyst's method), and compared with the values for RS administrated orally using the same method. The mean amount of HMT-HAS-derived RS collected in the terminal ileum was 3.37 +/- 0.95 g (mean +/- SD), which was 34.5 +/- 9.7% of the in vitro RS value. Furthermore, there were large individual differences in recoveries, ranging from 22.2 to 47.5%. The measured amount of HMT-HAS-derived RS was much smaller in our in vivo study than that measured in vitro, suggesting that in vitro measurement may inaccurately estimate the RS and DF levels of foodstuffs. The problem is further compounded by the large individual in vivo variations in RS values from subjects consuming identical diets.

  4. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T.; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-12-20

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E)v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine andγ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high-v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by highv. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  5. Distribution of branches in whole starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-05-21

    An earlier study explored the possibility of analyzing the distribution of branches directly in native, whole starch without isolating the amylopectin component. The aim of this study was to explore if this approach can be extended to include starch mutants. Whole starches from du1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with amylose content of ∼30-40% were characterized and compared with the wild type of the common genetic background W64A. Clusters were produced from whole starch by hydrolysis with α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their compositions of building blocks and chains were analyzed further by complete α-amylolysis and by debranching, respectively, whereafter the products were subjected to gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. The size and structure of the clusters were compared with those of their isolated amylopectin component. Whereas the whole starch of the wild type sample had a branched structure similar to that of its amylopectin component, the results showed that the du1 mutation resulted in more singly branched building blocks in the whole starch compared to the isolated amylopectin. This suggested that amylose and/or intermediate materials in whole du1 starches likely contributed to the composition of branches. This study explored an alternative procedure to characterize the composition of branches in the whole starch without fractionating the components.

  6. Plant-crafted starches for bioplastics production.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Leroy, Eric; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Guilois, Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Lourdin, Denis; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-11-05

    Transgenically-produced amylose-only (AO) starch was used to manufacture bioplastic prototypes. Extruded starch samples were tested for crystal residues, elasticity, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, molecular mass and microstructure. The AO starch granule crystallinity was both of the B- and Vh-type, while the isogenic control starch was mainly A-type. The first of three endothermic transitions was attributed to gelatinization at about 60°C. The second and third peaks were identified as melting of the starch and amylose-lipid complexes, respectively. After extrusion, the AO samples displayed Vh- and B-type crystalline structures, the B-type polymorph being the dominant one. The AO prototypes demonstrated a 6-fold higher mechanical stress at break and 2.5-fold higher strain at break compared to control starch. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant increase in the storage modulus (E') for AO samples compared to the control. The data support the use of pure starch-based bioplastics devoid of non-polysaccharide fillers.

  7. Fitness cost of VanA-type vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated.

  8. Fitness Cost of VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated. PMID:19332680

  9. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch altered by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hang; Fan, Huanhuan; Cao, Rong; Blanchard, Christopher; Wang, Min

    2016-11-01

    A nonthermal processing technology, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, was investigated to assess its influence on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch (SS). There was no change in the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of SS after the pressure treatments at 120-480MPa. However, treatment at 600MPa produced a pattern similar to 'B'-type crystalline. HHP treatment also resulted in SS granules with rough surfaces. Measured amylose content, water absorption capacity, alkaline water retention, pasting temperature and thermostability increased with increasing pressure levels, while the oil absorption capacity, swelling power, relative crystallinity and viscosity decreased. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified SS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced amount of rapidly digestible starch, as well as increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results indicate that HHP treatment is an effective modification method for altering in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Processing of novel elevated amylose wheats: functional properties and starch digestibility of extruded products.

    PubMed

    Chanvrier, Hélène; Appelqvist, Ingrid A M; Bird, Anthony R; Gilbert, Elliot; Htoon, Aung; Li, Zhongyi; Lillford, Peter J; Lopez-Rubio, Amparo; Morell, Matthew K; Topping, David L

    2007-12-12

    Different types of novel wheat lines with different starch contents and amylose/amylopectin ratios, relating to defined alterations in the number and activity of starch synthase IIa genes, were processed by pilot-plant extrusion. Two types of products were produced: pure wholemeal products and breakfast cereals made from wholemeal/maize blends. Lower apparent shear viscosity was obtained in the extruder with lower starch content and higher amylose/amylopectin ratio flours (SSIIa-deficient line). The bulk density of the products decreased with increasing extrusion temperature and was always higher for the triple-null line. The bulk density was not completely explained by the melt shear viscosity, suggesting the importance of the fillers (fibers, brans) in the process of expansion and structure acquisition. The different mechanical properties were explained by the density and by the material constituting the cell walls. Enzyme-resistant starch (RS) content and hydrolysis index (HI) were not correlated to the extrusion temperature, but RS was higher in pure wholemeal products and in the SSIIa-deficient line. These results are discussed in terms of starch molecular architecture and product microstructure.

  11. Ionic starch-based hydrogels for the prevention of nonspecific protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmei; Sun, Hong; Li, Junjie; Dong, Dianyu; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian

    2015-03-06

    Non-fouling materials bind water molecules via either hydrogen bonding or ionic solvation to form a hydration layer which is responsible for their resistance to protein adsorption. Three ionic starch-based polymers, namely a cationic starch (C-Starch), an anionic starch (A-Starch) and a zwitterionic starch (Z-Starch), were synthesized via etherification reactions to incorporate both hydrogen bonding and ionic solvation hydration groups into one molecule. Further, C-, A- and Z-Starch hydrogels were prepared via chemical crosslinking. The non-fouling properties of these hydrogels were tested with different proteins in solutions with different ionic strengths. The C-Starch hydrogel had low protein resistance at all ionic strengths; the A-Starch hydrogel resisted protein adsorption at ionic strengths of more than 10mM; and the Z-Starch hydrogel resisted protein adsorption at all ionic strengths. In addition, the A- and Z-Starch hydrogels both resisted cell adhesion. This work provides a new path for developing non-fouling materials using the integration of polysaccharides with anionic or zwitterionic moieties to regulate the protein resistance of materials.

  12. Clinical resistance to three types of botulinum toxin type A in aesthetic medicine.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Farid; Habre, Maya; Tomb, Roland

    2014-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injections have become the most frequent noninvasive cosmetic procedure carried out worldwide. Botulinum toxin has also multiple other indications in different medical fields. However, with the repetition of injections, a new concern has emerged: clinical resistance and loss of effectiveness of the treatment. After reporting a case of primary nonresponsiveness to three types of botulinum toxin type A injections, we conducted a review about all factors leading to the primary or secondary nonresponsiveness, as well as the factors affecting the immunogenicity of this neurotoxin. Most of the reports and studies focused on secondary resistance to botulinum toxin (BT) and the neurotoxin immunogenicity; primary nonresponsiveness was rarely reported. Factors leading to primary or secondary resistance to BT injections were numerous. In the majority of the studies, development of neutralizing antibodies to botulinum toxin was considered responsible of the induced clinical resistance. Patients should be aware of this rising concern as well as clinicians who should learn how to minimize the risk of resistance development, sparing the patients more invasive treatment modalities. Further studies related to botulinum toxin resistance are needed.

  13. New type of silicon photoelectronic negative resistance devices: PDUBAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yanan; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Li, Shuyong; Guo, Weilian; Zheng, Yunguang

    2001-08-01

    Photoelectronic DUal Base Transistor (PDUBAT) is a novel kind of photoelectronic negative resistance devices, which features 'N' type negative resistance and small negative resistance RN. PDUBAT consists of a vertical NPN bipolar transistor and a P type diffusion region with large area over a specific distance. The base and collector of the vertical NPN BJT with a large P diffusion region form a lateral PNP BJT. The emitter and collector of the vertical NPN BJT are connected to the ground and voltage supply respectively, while the P diffusion region is left floated to detect input light signal. When the device is exposed to light, a large number of electron-hole pairs are generated at the PN junction under the P diffusion region. The holes travel along the base of the lateral PNP BJT and become the driving current of the vertical NPN BJT. In experiments, we found that PDUBAT acts as a pulse oscillator without the load of inductors, whose frequency and magnitude are modulated by the intensity of incident light. The oscillating frequency increases while the magnitude decreases with the increasing of light intensity. The manufacturing process of PDUBAT is compatible with that of JBTs, so that it can be incorporated with the ICs.

  14. Genetic variation in the physical properties of sweet potato starch.

    PubMed

    Collado, L S; Mabesa, R C; Corke, H

    1999-10-01

    Sweet potato starch, prepared from 44 genotypes adapted to Philippine conditions, showed wide variation and distinctly different pasting profiles in Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) analysis at 11% and 7% starch concentration. At 11% starch concentration, the pasting profiles were type A, characterized by high to moderate peak with a major breakdown and low cold paste viscosity. At 7%, the pasting profile was generally type C, characterized by the absence of a distinct peak with none to very slight breakdown and high cold paste viscosity. However, differentiation among genotypes was better achieved from RVA pasting profiles at 11% starch concentration. Peak viscosity (PV) and hot paste viscosity (HPV) at 11% starch paste concentration had significant negative correlation with amylose content. PV, HPV, and setback ratio were significantly correlated to adhesiveness of the starch gel. Sweet potato starch generally had high swelling volume but low solubilities at 92.5 degrees C.

  15. Structure and digestibility of debranched and repeatedly crystallized waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Chen, Fuquan; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Aadil, Rana Muhammad; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-11-15

    Debranched waxy rice starch was subjected to repeated crystallization (RC) treatment, and its physicochemical properties and digestion pattern were investigated. The A-type crystalline pattern of native starch was crystallized to a complex of B- and V-type patterns by debranching and RC treatment. Among the treated starches, the relative crystallinity of debranched starch reached its maximum (29.6%) after eight repetitions of crystallization. Changes in weight-average molar mass among treated starch samples were not significantly different. The repeated-crystallized starches showed higher thermal transition temperatures and melting enthalpy than that of debranched starch. As a result, slowly digestible starch (SDS) content of repeated-crystallized starches reached a very high level (57.8%). Results showed that RC treatment induced structural changes of waxy rice starch result in a great amount of SDS.

  16. Virulence gene typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a complement in epidemiological typing.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzian, Forough L; Karami, Nahid; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Ahrén, Christina

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has widely spread to all parts of the world. For surveillance and effective infection control molecular typing is required. We have evaluated the utility of virulence gene determination as a complementary tool for epidemiological typing of MRSA in relation to spa-typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We assessed 63 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates detected in the West part of Sweden for 30 virulence factor genes (VF) and agr allele variations by serial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. These isolates belonged to sequence types (ST) 8, 80, 45 and 30 as classified by multilocus sequence typing. The isolates in each spa-type and PFGE-type were examined over an extended time-period and constituted a varying number of PFGE-subtypes (5-14) and spa-types (3-11) within four major PFGE types. Each ST had a unique VF profile. For isolates within a major PFGE type showing high diversity both in PFGE subtypes and spa the VF profile varied as well in contrast to those with low diversity where no alterations were seen. Thus, the accuracy of each typing method does not only vary by the method per se but is rather dependent on the genetic repertoire of the typed strains and genes evaluated. For strains demonstrating high diversity VF typing may be a useful complement in the epidemiological investigations, and may highlight the accurate discriminatory power of spa or PFGE typing.

  17. Extrusion and characterization of thermoplastic starch sheets from "macho" banana.

    PubMed

    Alanís-López, P; Pérez-González, J; Rendón-Villalobos, R; Jiménez-Pérez, A; Solorza-Feria, J

    2011-08-01

    Starch isolated from macho banana was oxidized by using 2.5% and 3.5% (w/w) of sodium hypochlorite. Native and oxidized starches with glycerol were processed using a conical twin screw extruder to obtain thermoplastic laminates or sheets, which were partially characterized. Oxidized banana starches presented higher moisture and total starch but lower ash, protein, lipids, and apparent amylose content than the native starch. Micrographs of sheets from oxidized starches showed wrinkles and cavities presumably caused by the plasticizer, but with less free glycerol and unplasticized starch granules than those from native starch. Sheets from oxidized starch showed a notorious increase in all thermal parameters (To, Tp, and ΔH), mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, and elasticity), and solubility. Banana starch X-ray diffraction patterns corresponded to a mixture of the A- and B-type polymorphs, with apparently slightly higher crystallinity in oxidized specimens than in native starch. A similar trend was observed in the corresponding sheets. Due to the pollution problem caused by the conventional plastics, there has been a renewed interest in biodegradable sheets, because they may have the potential to replace conventional packaging materials. Banana starch might be an interesting raw material to be used as edible sheet, coating or in food packaging, and preservation, because it is biodegradable, cheap, innocuous, and abundant. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Characterization of rice starches extracted from Indian cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Salim, Rehana

    2013-04-01

    Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches isolated from four rice cultivars grown in India were studied. The amylose content ranged between 4.7 and 30.2% of starch, highest in K332 starch and lowest in SR1 starch. Swelling power, water solubility and water absorption capacity of starches increased with increase in temperature from 50 to 90 °C at 10 °C intervals. Highest swelling and water absorption was found in SR1 and lowest in K332 starches but reverse was observed in case of solubility that was highest for K332 and lowest for SR1 starch. The microstructure of starch granules from different rice cultivars showed the presence of mainly polyhedral granules having average size in the range of 4.0-5.2 µm. K332 showed the presence of smallest granules, whereas SR1 starch showed the presence of largest granules. X-ray diffraction pattern of rice starch from different cultivars showed typical A-type crystallinity. Pasting properties of starches differed significantly. Pasting temperature was highest for K332 and lowest for SR1, while peak viscosity was highest for aromatic rice and lowest for K448 starches. Higher setback was observed in K332 and lowest in SR1.

  19. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants.

  20. Encapsulation of the antioxidant ascorbyl palmitate in V-type granular cold-water swelling starch affects the properties of both.

    PubMed

    Dries, D M; Knaepen, L; Goderis, B; Delcour, J A

    2017-06-01

    This study reports on the functionality of V-type crystalline granular cold-water swelling starch (GCWSS) in complex with lipid (functionalized) molecules. Maize and potato GCWSS contain (empty) single helical amylose (AM) crystals which can serve as lipid complexing matrices. Different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate (AscP) were inserted in the hydrophobic cavities of the GCWSS AM helices by a low temperature infusion method. Volumetric particle size distributions of the ensuing products in water were determined using laser light scattering. Upon contact with water, the parent maize GCWSS formed lumps more than did the parent potato GCWSS. It is hypothesized that variations in the spatial distribution of cold-water soluble V-type crystals are at the origin of this difference. In contrast, GCWSS-AscP inclusion complexes formed homogenous dispersions in water. Furthermore, the impact of inclusion complex formation on cold-water swelling properties was investigated. The close packing concentration increased and the swelling power and carbohydrate leaching decreased when the level of encapsulated AscP increased. Finally, in a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity test, encapsulated AscP still had up to 70% of the antioxidant capacity of free AscP.

  1. Development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines with altered starch granule size distribution.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Båga, Monica; Ahuja, Geetika; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-03-12

    Microscope analysis of starches prepared from 139 barley genotypes identified a Japanese genotype, Kinai Kyoshinkai-2 (KK-2), with altered starch granule size distribution. Compared to normal barley starch, KK-2 produced consistently higher volumes of starch granules with 5-15 μm diameter and reduced volumes of starch granules with >15 μm diameter when grown in different environments. A cross between KK-2 and normal starch cultivar CDC Kendall was made and led to the production of 154 F5 lines with alterations to the normal 7:3:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. Three F5 lines showed unimodal starch granule size distribution due to apparent lack of very small (<5.0 μm diameter) C-type starch granules, but the phenotype was accompanied by reduced grain weight and total starch concentration. Five F5 lines produced a significantly larger population of large (>15 μm diameter) A-type starch granules as compared to normal starch and showed on average a 10:4:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. The unusual starch phenotypes displayed by the F5 lines confirm starch granule size distribution in barley can be genetically altered.

  2. ScatterType: a reading CAPTCHA resistant to segmentation attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Riopka, Terry P.

    2005-01-01

    A reading-based CAPTCHA designed to resist character-segmentation attacks, called 'ScatterType,' is described. Its challenges are pseudorandomly synthesized images of text strings rendered in machine-print typefaces: within each image, characters are fragmented using horizontal and vertical cuts, and the fragments are scattered by vertical and horizontal displacements. This scattering is designed to defeat all methods known to us for automatic segmentation into characters. As in the BaffleText CAPTCHA, English-like but unspellable text-strings are used to defend against known-dictionary attacks. In contrast to the PessimalPrint and BaffleText CAPTCHAs (and others), no physics-based image degradations, occlusions, or extraneous patterns are employed. We report preliminary results from a human legibility trial with 57 volunteers that yielded 4275 CAPTCHA challenges and responses. ScatterType human legibility remains remarkably high even on extremely degraded cases. We speculate that this is due to Gestalt perception abilities assisted by style-specific (here, typeface-specific) consistency among primitive shape features of character fragments. Although recent efforts to automate style-consistent perceptual skills have reported progress, the best known methods do not yet pose a threat to ScatterType. The experimental data also show that subjective rating of difficulty is strongly (and usefully) correlated with illegibility. In addition, we present early insights emerging from these data as we explore the ScatterType design space -- choice of typefaces, 'words', cut positioning, and displacements -- with the goal of locating regimes in which ScatterType challenges remain comfortably legible to almost all people but strongly resist mahine-vision methods for automatic segmentation into characters.

  3. ScatterType: a reading CAPTCHA resistant to segmentation attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Riopka, Terry P.

    2004-12-01

    A reading-based CAPTCHA designed to resist character-segmentation attacks, called 'ScatterType,' is described. Its challenges are pseudorandomly synthesized images of text strings rendered in machine-print typefaces: within each image, characters are fragmented using horizontal and vertical cuts, and the fragments are scattered by vertical and horizontal displacements. This scattering is designed to defeat all methods known to us for automatic segmentation into characters. As in the BaffleText CAPTCHA, English-like but unspellable text-strings are used to defend against known-dictionary attacks. In contrast to the PessimalPrint and BaffleText CAPTCHAs (and others), no physics-based image degradations, occlusions, or extraneous patterns are employed. We report preliminary results from a human legibility trial with 57 volunteers that yielded 4275 CAPTCHA challenges and responses. ScatterType human legibility remains remarkably high even on extremely degraded cases. We speculate that this is due to Gestalt perception abilities assisted by style-specific (here, typeface-specific) consistency among primitive shape features of character fragments. Although recent efforts to automate style-consistent perceptual skills have reported progress, the best known methods do not yet pose a threat to ScatterType. The experimental data also show that subjective rating of difficulty is strongly (and usefully) correlated with illegibility. In addition, we present early insights emerging from these data as we explore the ScatterType design space -- choice of typefaces, 'words', cut positioning, and displacements -- with the goal of locating regimes in which ScatterType challenges remain comfortably legible to almost all people but strongly resist mahine-vision methods for automatic segmentation into characters.

  4. Microemulsion-Type Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Temperature Flow--Minimum Temperatures 2 . Low-Temperature Filtration--Suction Versus Pressure 3. Is FRF Newtonian? 4 . Additive Effects D . Engine...oxyethylene groups (Igepal DM-430) C. H o(C( 2 CH2 0) 7H C H1 9 19 d ) A proprietary anionic phosphate ester derivative of the polyethoxy- lated...AD-A157 i25 MICROEMULSION-TYPE FIRE-RESISTANT DIESEL FUEL(U) i/ 2 SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LAB W D

  5. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas.

  6. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  7. Type 2 diabetes and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Whitney, Erin; McCormick, Joseph B.; Crespo, Gonzalo; Smith, Brian; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Restrepo, Blanca I.

    2010-01-01

    The association between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes is re-emerging with the epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We analyzed retrospective data from 2,878 TB patients across the Texas/Mexico border. Overall 161/2878 (5.6%) patients had MDR TB (resistance to rifampin and isoniazid): Texas 49/1442 (3.4%) and Mexico 112/1436 (7.8%). In Texas MDR TB was significantly associated with T2DM (OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1–4.2) when adjusted for age, gender, drug and alcohol abuse, HIV infection and history of previous episode of TB, and in Mexico (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.1–2.9) when adjusted for age and gender. Patients with T2DM were consistently more likely to be compliant with DOTS therapy (OR 2.4 95% CI 1.1–5.4) than patients without T2DM. In Texas, all but 3 of the T2DM patients with MDR TB were resistant at their first culture at the time of diagnosis. It is possible that impaired immunity in T2DM increases susceptibility to infection with resistant strains. PMID:18728934

  8. Investigation of resistive losses in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benapfl, Brendan W.

    For low-TC materials, the superconducting transition temperature (TC) is depressed by the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, one of the remarkable features of cuprate high-TC materials is that the superconducting transition is broadened by the application of a magnetic field. Tinkham presented a model for the field-dependent resistive transition of high-T C materials, arising from "phase slippage at a complicated network of channels." Coffey & Clem did not include this field-broadening effect in their sophisticated model for the field and temperature dependence of the surface resistance in type-II superconductors. From the model by Lee & Stroud, treating Josephson Junction-coupled superconducting segments, it is concluded that doped, layered superconductors are certain to have a field-broadened superconducting transition. This effect can be identified by measurements of the resistivity as a function of temperature, magnetic field strength, angle of field with respect to the crystal axis as well as with respect to an induced current density. The iron pnictide materials such as Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (BaK122) have chemical layers with different compositions, differentiating them from elemental type-II superconductors such as niobium, and also from cuprates, by the absence of copper. Experimental data on BaK122 indicate a field-broadened transition in conjunction with a field-depressed superconducting transition temperature. In this work, techniques associated with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used to measure the temperature and field-induced changes in the surface resistance of single-crystal BaK122 samples. In addition, polycrystalline foils of niobium and a NbTi (70/30) alloy were measured using the same techniques to provide comparison. Measurements were taken as a function of applied magnetic field, temperature, rf field intensity, and angle of the applied field with respect to the rf-induced current. BaK122 sample field-dependent surface

  9. Effect of high-pressure on calorimetric, rheological and dielectric properties of selected starch dispersions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, H S; Pandey, Pramod K; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-03-15

    Effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment on the rheological, thermal and dielectric properties of the four selected starch dispersions (two modified starches, one native and one resistant) were evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry were employed to assess the extent of starch gelatinization and the developed gel rigidity (G') of starch gels after HP treatment. It was observed that starch dispersions gelatinized completely at 500 MPa with a 30-min holding time. The HP-treated starch samples exhibited predominantly solid-like (G'>G") behavior except for the resistant starch. Pressure-induced gel rigidity differed significantly among starch samples. The G' of starch gels increased with the pressure (400-600 MPa) in the studied frequency range (0.1-10 Hz) except for the native starch where a marginal decrease was recorded at similar condition. The holding time (15-30 min) and concentration (20-25% w/w) significantly attributed towards gel rigidity of starch samples. Measurement of dielectric properties of HP-treated samples over the frequency range 450-4450 MHz indicated differences in the dielectric constant (ɛ'), loss factor (ɛ") and penetration depth among starch gels. Pressure did not show any effect on dielectric property of the resistant starch sample. Power penetration depth decreased significantly with frequency and with the pressure.

  10. In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic response of foxtail millet and its products.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin; Chen, Jing; Molla, Mohammad Mainuddin; Wang, Chao; Diao, Xianmin; Shen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet, as a leading variety in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa, can provide broad potential benefits to human health. However, its digestion properties have not been reported. So in this study, the in vitro starch digestibilities and in vivo glycemic indices (GI) of foxtail millet and pure millet products were investigated. The results showed that starch digestibility of the foxtail millet flour is obviously lower than that of wheat flour. However, deproteinization and heating significantly increased its rapidly digestible starch and decreased its slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. The GIs of pure millet products were in the following order: millet porridge (93.6 ± 11.3) > millet steamed bread (89.6 ± 8.8) > No. 1 millet pancake (75.0% millet flour and 25.0% extrusion flour, 83.0 ± 9.6) > No. 2 millet pancake (without extrusion flour, 76.2 ± 10.7) > cooked millet (64.4 ± 8.5). They were significantly positively correlated with the rapidly digestible starch (r = 0.959), degree of gelatinization (r = 0.967) and estimated glycemic index (r = 0.988). Both in vitro and in vivo tests suggested that boiling, steaming and extrusion enhanced the formation of digestible starch and subsequently increased the GI values. Additionally, the No. 1 millet pancake and cooked millet had a relatively gentle stimulation on β-cell. Therefore, foxtail millet, especially the cooked millet, may serve as a potential source of nutraceutical and functional food that could delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Influence of biopolymer emulsifier type on formation and stability of rice bran oil-in-water emulsions: whey protein, gum arabic, and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Charoen, Ratchanee; Jangchud, Anuvat; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Harnsilawat, Thepkunya; Naivikul, Onanong; McClements, David Julian

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health, flavor, and functional attributes. We investigated the effects of biopolymer emulsifier type and environmental stresses on the stability of RBO emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions (5% RBO, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI), gum arabic (GA), or modified starch (MS) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization. The new MS used had a higher number of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) groups per starch molecule than conventional MS. The droplet diameters produced by WPI and MS were considerably smaller (d < 300 nm) than those produced by GA (d > 1000 nm). The influence of pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 to 500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatment (30 to 90 °C) on the physical stability of the emulsions was examined. Extensive droplet aggregation occurred in WPI-stabilized emulsions around their isoelectric point (4 < pH < 6), at high salt (> 200 mM, pH 7), and at high temperatures (>70 °C, pH 7, 150 mM NaCl), which was attributed to changes in electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between droplets. There was little effect of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on emulsions stabilized by GA or MS, which was attributed to strong steric stabilization. In summary: WPI produced small droplets at low concentrations, but they had poor stability to environmental stress; GA produced large droplets and needed high concentrations, but they had good stability to stress; new MS produced small droplets at low concentrations, with good stability to stress. Practical Application: This study showed that stable rice bran oil-in-water emulsions can be formed using biopolymer emulsifiers. These emulsions could be used to incorporate RBO into a wide range of food products. We compared the relative performance of whey protein, GA, and a new MS at forming and stabilizing the emulsions. The new OSA MS was capable of forming small stable droplets at relatively low

  12. Reinforcement of injectable calcium phosphate cement by gelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiling; Guan, Ying; Wei, Donglei; Gao, Chunxia; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Current injectable calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) encounter the problems of low strength, high brittleness, and low cohesion in aqueous environment, which greatly hinder their clinical applications for loading-bearing bone substitution and minimally invasive orthopedic surgeries. Here, a strategy of using gelatinized starches to reinforce injectable CPC was investigated. Four types of starches, namely corn starch, crosslinked starch, cationic starch, and Ca-modified starch, were studied for their influence on CPC mechanical properties, injectability, setting times, anticollapsibility, and cytocompatibility. Gelatinized starch significantly improved compressive strength and modulus as well as strain energy density of CPC to different extents. Specifically, both corn starch and Ca-modified starch revealed sixfold and more than twofold increases in the compressive strength and modulus of CPC, respectively. The addition of gelatinized starches with proper contents increased the injectability and anticollapsibility of CPC. In addition, osteoblast proliferation tests on leaching solution of modified cements showed that gelatinized starches had no adverse effect on cell proliferation, and all cement samples resulted in better osteoblast proliferation compared to phosphate-buffered solution control. The mechanisms behind the reinforcing effect of different starches were preliminarily studied. Two possible mechanisms, reinforcement by the second phase of gelatinized starch and strong interlocking of apatite crystals, were proposed based on the results of starch zeta potential and viscosity, cement microstructure, and resultant mechanical properties. In conclusion, incorporating gelatinized starches could be an effective, facile, and bio-friendly strategy to reinforce injectable CPC and improve its mechanical stability, and thus, should be further studied and developed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional, thermal and molecular behaviours of ozone-oxidised cocoyam and yam starches.

    PubMed

    Oladebeye, Abraham Olasupo; Oshodi, Aladesanmi Augustine; Amoo, Isiaka Adekunle; Karim, Alias Abd

    2013-11-15

    Ozone-oxidised starches were prepared from the native starches isolated from white and red cocoyam, and white and yellow yam cultivars. The native and oxidised starches were evaluated for functional, thermal and molecular properties. The correlations between the amount of reacted ozone and carbonyl and carboxyl contents of the starches were positive, as ozone generation time (OGT) increased. Significant differences were obtained in terms of swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and textural properties of the native starches upon oxidation. The DSC data showed lower transition temperatures and enthalpies for retrograded gels compared to the gelatinized gels of the same starch types. The native starches showed CB-type XRD patterns while the oxidised starches resembled the CA-type pattern. As amylose content increased, amylopectin contents of the starches decreased upon oxidation. Similarly, an increase in Mw values were observed with a corresponding decrease in Mn values upon oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineered Resistant-Starch (ERS) Diet Shapes Colon Microbiota Profile in Parallel with the Retardation of Tumor Growth in In Vitro and In Vivo Pancreatic Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Concetta; Adamberg, Kaarel; Adamberg, Signe; Saracino, Chiara; Jaagura, Madis; Kolk, Kaia; Di Chio, Anna Grazia; Graziano, Paolo; Vilu, Raivo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-03-27

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells were cultured in the control, and in the ERS-mimicking diet culturing condition, to evaluate tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to an ERS diet to assess tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with a control diet. The composition and activity of fecal microbiota were further analyzed in growth experiments by isothermal microcalorimetry. Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in an ERS diet-mimicking medium showed decreased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins) and phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) levels, as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to an ERS diet displayed significant retardation in tumor growth. In in vitro growth experiments, the fecal microbial cultures from mice fed with an ERS diet showed enhanced growth on residual substrates, higher production of formate and lactate, and decreased amounts of propionate, compared to fecal microbiota from mice fed with the control diet. A positive effect of the ERS diet on composition and metabolism of mouse fecal microbiota shown in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as a

  15. Engineered Resistant-Starch (ERS) Diet Shapes Colon Microbiota Profile in Parallel with the Retardation of Tumor Growth in In Vitro and In Vivo Pancreatic Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Panebianco, Concetta; Adamberg, Kaarel; Adamberg, Signe; Saracino, Chiara; Jaagura, Madis; Kolk, Kaia; Di Chio, Anna Grazia; Graziano, Paolo; Vilu, Raivo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells were cultured in the control, and in the ERS-mimicking diet culturing condition, to evaluate tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to an ERS diet to assess tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with a control diet. The composition and activity of fecal microbiota were further analyzed in growth experiments by isothermal microcalorimetry. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in an ERS diet-mimicking medium showed decreased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins) and phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) levels, as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to an ERS diet displayed significant retardation in tumor growth. In in vitro growth experiments, the fecal microbial cultures from mice fed with an ERS diet showed enhanced growth on residual substrates, higher production of formate and lactate, and decreased amounts of propionate, compared to fecal microbiota from mice fed with the control diet. Conclusion: A positive effect of the ERS diet on composition and metabolism of mouse fecal microbiota shown in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that

  16. A Randomized Placebo-controlled Prevention Trial of Aspirin and/or Resistant Starch in Young People with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Burn, John; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chapman, Pamela D.; Elliott, Faye; Bertario, Lucio; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Eccles, Diana; Ellis, Anthony; Evans, D. Gareth; Fodde, Ricardo; Maher, Eamonn R.; Möslein, Gabriela; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Coaker, Julie; Phillips, Robin K. S.; Bülow, Steffen; Mathers, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supporting aspirin and resistant starch (RS) for colorectal cancer prevention comes from epidemiological and laboratory studies (aspirin and RS) and randomized controlled clinical trials (aspirin). Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) strikes young people and, untreated, confers virtually a 100% risk of colorectal cancer and early death. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin (600 mg/day) and/or RS (30 g/day) for from 1 to 12 years to prevent disease progression in FAP patients from 10 to 21 years of age. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to the following four study arms: aspirin plus RS placebo; RS plus aspirin placebo; aspirin plus RS; RS placebo plus aspirin placebo; they were followed with standard annual clinical examinations including endoscopy. The primary endpoint was polyp number in the rectum and sigmoid colon (at the end of intervention), and the major secondary endpoint was size of the largest polyp. A total of 206 randomized FAP patients commenced intervention, of whom 133 had at least 1 follow-up endoscopy and so were included in the primary analysis. Neither intervention significantly reduced polyp count in the rectum and sigmoid colon: aspirin relative risk (RR) = 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–1.10; versus non-aspirin arms); RS RR = 1.05 (95% CI, 0.73–1.49; versus non-RS arms). There was a trend toward a smaller size of largest polyp in patients treated with aspirin versus non-aspirin—mean 3.8 mm versus 5.5 mm for patients treated one or more years (adjusted P = 0.09) and mean 3.0 mm versus 6.0 mm for patients treated more than one year (P = 0.02); there were weaker such trends with RS versus non-RS. Exploratory translational endpoints included crypt length (which was significantly shorter in normal-appearing mucosa in the RS group over time) and laboratory measures of proliferation (including Ki67). This clinical trial is the largest one ever

  17. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from