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Sample records for resists palivizumab prophylaxis

  1. Palivizumab prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus disease in 2000-2001: results from The Palivizumab Outcomes Registry.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Curt; Guillermin, Judith; Habersang, Rolf; Nicholes, Peggy; Chawla, Vijay; Kelly, Tammy; Fishbein, Judith; McRae, Patty; Goessler, Mary; Gatti, Antoinette; Calcagno, John A; Eki, Cheryl; Harris, Kristen A; Joyave, Joseph; McFarland, Kathy; Protter, Paul; Sullivan, Mary; Stanford, Allan; Lovett, Nancy; Ortiz, Marisol; Rojas, Sharon; Cyrus, Scott; Cyrus, Janell; Cohen, Stuart; Buchin, Debbie; Riordan, Linda; Zuniga, Monica; Shah, Rupa; Minard, Carmen; Quintin, Arden; Douglas, Glenda; van Houten, John; Freutner, Sharyn; Chartrand, Stephen; Nowatzke, Patsy; Romero, Jose; Rhodes, Torunn; Benoit, Michelle; Walter, Emmanuel; Walker, Leslie; DeBonnett, Laurie; Cross, Mia; Free, Teresa; Martin, Sharman; Shank, Karen; Guedes, Ben; Atkinson, Lee Ann; Halpin, George J; Rouse, Kathy; Hand, Ivan; Geiss, Donna; Marshall, James R; Burleson, Lois; Boland, Jim; Seybold, Kelsey; Hunter, Vicki; Unfer, Susan; Schmucker, Jackie; Gley, Margaret; Marcus, Michael; Thompson, Patricia; Milla, Paulino; Young, Connie; Zanni, Robert; Zinno, Virginia; Fetter-Zarzeka, Alexandra; Busey, Amanda; Sokunbi, Modupe A; Airington, Sherrie; Richard, Nancy; Muraligopal, Vellore; Lewis, Stephanie; Weber, F Thomas; Giordano, Beverly P; Linehan, Denise; Roach, Jane; Davis, Randle; Rzepka, Andrew A; Booth, Teri; Smeltzer, David; Walsh, Jeanne; Arispe, Emilio; Rowley, Rhonda; Bolling, Christopher; Botts, Tanya; Haskett, Kateri; Raby, Deana; Batiz, Evelyn; Gelfand, Andrew; Farrell, Lynn; Butler, Stephen; Colby, Linda; Schochet, Peter; Bentler, Julie; Hirsch, David; Wilkinson, Lisa; Aaronson, Allen; Bennett, Eleanora; Wingate, Julie; Quinn, Dawn; Komendowski, Katherine; Deckard, Marcia; Frogel, Michael; Nerwen, Cliff; Copenhaver, Steven; Prater, Michele; Wolsztein, Jacob; Mackey, Kristine; Benbow, Marshall; Naranjo, Marisela; Hensley, Sandra; Hayes, Cindy; Sadeghi, Hossein; Lawson, Sally May; McCall, Mark; Combs, Karla; Ledbetter, Joel; Sarnosky, Karen; Swafford, Cathy; Speer, Michael; Barton, Wendy J; Mink, J W; Lemm, Dianne; Hudak, Mark; Case, Elizabeth; Rowen, Judith; Fuentes, Sandra; Pane, Carly; Richardson, Leslie; Chavarria, Cesar; Cassino, Deanne; Ghaffari, Kourosh; Carroll, Carol; Lee, Haesoon; Guclu, Lydia; Johnson, Christopher; Blum, Valerie; Boron, Marnie L; Sorrentino, Mark; Hirsch, Robert L; Van Veldhuisen, Paul C; Smith, Carol

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the Registry was to characterize the population of infants receiving prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease by describing the patterns and scope of usage of palivizumab in a cross section of US infants. RSV hospitalization outcomes were also described. The Palivizumab (Synagis, MedImmune, Inc., 25 West Watkins Mill Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878) Outcomes Registry was a prospective multicenter survey conducted at 63 sites. Demographics, injection history, and RSV hospitalization outcomes were collected on 2,116 infants receiving palivizumab. Infants were enrolled in the Registry between September 1, 2000-March 1, 2001, at the time of their first injection. Infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation accounted for 47% of infants enrolled, and those between 32-35 weeks accounted for 45%; approximately 8% were greater than 35 weeks of gestation. Lower RSV hospitalization rates were observed in infants who had greater adherence to regularly scheduled injections. Nearly one-half of all hospitalizations occurred within the first and second injection intervals, suggesting the importance of early RSV protection. The confirmed RSV hospitalization rate of all infants in the Registry was 2.9%; the rate was 5.8% in infants with chronic lung disease of infancy, and 2.1% in premature infants without chronic lung disease. In conclusion, these data support the continued effectiveness of palivizumab prophylaxis for severe RSV lower respiratory tract disease in a large cohort of high-risk infants from geographically diverse pediatric offices and clinics. The Palivizumab Outcomes Registry provides an opportunity to assess palivizumab utilization and clinical effectiveness in the US.

  2. Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for the use of palivizumab prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first published in a policy statement in 1998. Guidance initially was based on the result from a single randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 1996-1997 describing an overall reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 10.6% among placebo recipients to 4.8% among children who received prophylaxis. The results of a second randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children with hemodynamically significant heart disease were published in 2003 and revealed a reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 9.7% in control subjects to 5.3% among prophylaxis recipients. Because no additional controlled trials regarding efficacy were published, AAP guidance has been updated periodically to reflect the most recent literature regarding children at greatest risk of severe disease. Since the last update in 2012, new data have become available regarding the seasonality of RSV circulation, palivizumab pharmacokinetics, the changing incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, the effects of gestational age and other risk factors on RSV hospitalization rates, the mortality of children hospitalized with RSV infection, and the effect of prophylaxis on wheezing and palivizumab-resistant RSV isolates. These data enable further refinement of AAP guidance to most clearly focus on those children at greatest risk.

  3. Respiratory infections in children up to two years of age on prophylaxis with palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744

  4. Recommendations for the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus in infants with congenital cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tulloh, Robert; Marsh, Michael; Blackburn, Michael; Casey, Frank; Lenney, Warren; Weller, Peter; Keeton, Barry R

    2003-10-01

    New data are emerging on the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis against infection with the respiratory syncytial virus in infants with congenital cardiac disease. Following a 4-year multicentre randomised trial, it was shown that prophylactic injections with palivizumab were effective and safe for such children. Prophylaxis consists of 5, monthly, intramuscular injections of palivizumab, at a dose of 15 mg/kg, given during the season for infection with the respiratory syncytial virus. Timing is at the discretion of the physician, depending on the onset of the season locally. It is suggested that, in the United Kingdom, this should be commenced in mid-September. To help clinicians to identify appropriate candidates for palivizumab, a working group of the British Paediatric Cardiac Association has developed recommendations. Infants, namely those under 1 year old, with congenital cardiac disease likely to benefit from prophylaxis include those with haemodynamically significant lesions, particularly increased pulmonary blood flow with or without cyanosis; pulmonary venous congestion, pulmonary hypertension or long-term pulmonary complications, residual haemodynamic abnormalities following medical or surgical intervention (patients who have undergone cardiopulmonary bypass should receive an injection as soon as they are medically stable), cardiomyopathy requiring treatment, and congenital cardiac disease likely to need hospital admission for medical or surgical intervention during the season of infection with the virus. Prophylaxis with palivizumab may also be indicated, at the discretion of the physician, in some children with complex cardiac disease over the age of 1 year. Children less likely to benefit from prophylaxis are those with haemodynamically insignificant disease, or those with lesions adequately corrected by medical or surgical intervention.

  5. Respiratory-Related Hospitalizations following Prophylaxis in the Canadian Registry for Palivizumab (2005–2012) Compared to Other International Registries

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occurs commonly in infants aged ≤2 years, and severe infection results in hospitalization with accompanying morbidity and mortality. Palivizumab has been available for prophylaxis for the past 15 years. Prospective data on patients who received palivizumab from 2005 to 2012 has been assembled in the Canadian registry (CARESS) to document utilization, compliance, and health outcomes in both hospital and community settings. Long-term data is necessary to evaluate the impact of palivizumab on the incidence of RSV infections, minimize healthcare resources, and identify which infant subpopulations are receiving prophylaxis. A database search was also conducted for similar information from published registries, and hospitalization rates were compared to results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs).Overall hospitalization rates (percent; range) for respiratory-related illnesses and RSV-specific infection in infants who meet standard indications for prophylaxis were 6.6 (3.3–7.7) and 1.55 (0.3–2.06), respectively, in CARESS, which closely aligns with registry data from 4 other countries, despite the former comprising the largest cohort of complex patients internationally. Overall RSV-related hospitalization rates were lower across registries compared to equivalent patients in RCTs. Registry data provides valuable information regarding real-world experience with palivizumab, while facilitating the genesis of new research themes. PMID:23861694

  6. Respiratory-related hospitalizations following prophylaxis in the Canadian registry for palivizumab (2005-2012) compared to other international registries.

    PubMed

    Paes, Bosco; Mitchell, Ian; Li, Abby; Harimoto, Tetsuhiro; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occurs commonly in infants aged ≤2 years, and severe infection results in hospitalization with accompanying morbidity and mortality. Palivizumab has been available for prophylaxis for the past 15 years. Prospective data on patients who received palivizumab from 2005 to 2012 has been assembled in the Canadian registry (CARESS) to document utilization, compliance, and health outcomes in both hospital and community settings. Long-term data is necessary to evaluate the impact of palivizumab on the incidence of RSV infections, minimize healthcare resources, and identify which infant subpopulations are receiving prophylaxis. A database search was also conducted for similar information from published registries, and hospitalization rates were compared to results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs).Overall hospitalization rates (percent; range) for respiratory-related illnesses and RSV-specific infection in infants who meet standard indications for prophylaxis were 6.6 (3.3-7.7) and 1.55 (0.3-2.06), respectively, in CARESS, which closely aligns with registry data from 4 other countries, despite the former comprising the largest cohort of complex patients internationally. Overall RSV-related hospitalization rates were lower across registries compared to equivalent patients in RCTs. Registry data provides valuable information regarding real-world experience with palivizumab, while facilitating the genesis of new research themes.

  7. A comparative study of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in premature infants within the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS).

    PubMed

    Paes, B; Mitchell, I; Li, A; Lanctôt, K L

    2012-10-01

    We examined the dosing regimens, compliance, and outcomes of premature infants who received palivizumab within the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Infants receiving ≥1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2011 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons were recruited across 30 sites. Respiratory illness events were captured monthly. Infants ≤32 completed weeks gestational age (GA) (Group 1) were compared to 33-35 completed weeks GA infants (Group 2) following prophylaxis. In total, 6,654 patients were analyzed (Group 1, n = 5,183; Group 2, n = 1,471). The mean GA was 29.9 ± 2.9 versus 34.2 ± 2.2 weeks for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group differences were significant (all p-values <0.05) for the following: proportion of males, Caucasians, siblings, multiple births, maternal smoking, smoking during pregnancy, household smokers, >5 household individuals, birth weight, and enrolment age. Overall, infants received 92.6 % of expected injections. Group 1 received significantly more injections, but a greater proportion of Group 2 received injections within recommended intervals. The hospitalization rates were similar for Groups 1 and 2 for respiratory illness (4.7 % vs. 3.7 %, p = 0.1) and RSV (1.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.3). Neither the time to first respiratory illness [hazard ratio = 0.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.2, p = 0.5] nor to first RSV hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95 % CI 0.8-2.2, p = 0.3) were different. Compliance with RSV prophylaxis is high. Despite the higher number of palivizumab doses in infants ≤32 completed weeks GA, the two groups' respiratory illness and RSV-positive hospitalization rates were similar.

  8. [Update of recommendations on the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis in RSV infections].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2015-03-01

    The Standards Committee of the Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo) considers that the new document from the American Academy of Pediatrics, including recommendations for palivizumab use to prevent serious infections produced by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), provides no new scientific evidence which would justify the modification of the current recommendations of the SENeo. However, some adjustments to the criteria of the existing recommendations are proposed to reduce the cost of the drug by its correct and judicious management.

  9. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  10. Apnea with RSV infection in three infants receiving palivizumab.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Michael Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The present report describes three infants receiving palivizumab prophylaxis who presented with apnea associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. All three were found to be RSV positive but had mild bronchiolitis courses. Even though palivizumab has been shown to be an effective prophylaxis in preventing RSV bronchiolitis hospitalizations, its effect on apnea is unknown. The cases presented raise the concern that apnea associated with RSV must still be considered in infants who receive proper prophylaxis with palivizumab. Also, if palivizumab is found to be ineffective in preventing apnea, clinical management of these patients could be altered.

  11. Preventing RSV bronchiolitis in vulnerable infants: the role of palivizumab.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2009-09-01

    As the vast majority of infants tolerate infection with the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] well and can be managed in the home, most should not be considered for RSV prophylaxis with palivizumab. However, there exists a subset of vulnerable infants in whom the consequences of RSV infection are greater, with an increased likelihood of intensive care admission and mechanical ventilation. These include children born extremely preterm with chronic neonatal lung disease and infants with haemodynamically significant cardiac disease in whom there exists level II evidence to suggest that palivizumab may reduce their risk of acquiring RSV by approximately 50%. The use of palivizumab varies considerably across the world, based largely on economic considerations. This article reviews the strategies developed to fight RSV infection, the evidence for the use of palivizumab and suggests a reasonable approach clinically and economically to the use of palivizumab, proposing its use selectively in the most vulnerable infants during the first six months of life.

  12. Clinical Decision Support and Palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, A.; Michel, J.; Localio, A.R.; Karavite, D.; Song, L.; Ramos, M.J.; Fiks, A.G.; Lorch, S.; Grundmeier, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Palivizumab can reduce hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but many eligible infants fail to receive the full 5-dose series. The efficacy of clinical decision support (CDS) in fostering palivizumab receipt has not been studied. We sought a comprehensive solution for identifying eligible patients and addressing barriers to palivizumab administration. Methods We developed workflow and CDS tools targeting patient identification and palivizumab administration. We randomized 10 practices to receive palivizumab-focused CDS and 10 to receive comprehensive CDS for premature infants in a 3-year longitudinal cluster-randomized trial with 2 baseline and 1 intervention RSV seasons. Results There were 356 children eligible to receive palivizumab, with 194 in the palivizumab-focused group and 162 in the comprehensive CDS group. The proportion of doses administered to children in the palivizumab-focused intervention group increased from 68.4% and 65.5% in the two baseline seasons to 84.7% in the intervention season. In the comprehensive intervention group, proportions of doses administered declined during the baseline seasons (from 71.9% to 62.4%) with partial recovery to 67.9% during the intervention season. The palivizumab-focused group improved by 19.2 percentage points in the intervention season compared to the prior baseline season (p < 0.001), while the comprehensive intervention group only improved 5.5 percentage points (p = 0.288). The difference in change between study groups was significant (p = 0.05). Conclusions Workflow and CDS tools integrated in an EHR may increase the administration of palivizumab. The support focused on palivizumab, rather than comprehensive intervention, was more effective at improving palivizumab administration. PMID:26767069

  13. Posaconazole prophylaxis in experimental azole-resistant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of posaconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates. Using a neutropenic murine model of pulmonary infection, posaconazole prophylaxis was evaluated using three isogenic clinical isolates, with posaconazole MICs of 0.063 mg/liter (wild type), 0.5 mg/liter (F219I mutation), and 16 mg/liter. A fourth isolate harboring TR34/L98H (MIC of 0.5 mg/liter) was also tested. Posaconazole prophylaxis was effective in A. fumigatus with posaconazole MICs of ≤0.5 mg/liter, where 100% survival was reached. However, breakthrough infection was observed in mice infected with the isolate for which the posaconazole MIC was >16 mg/liter.

  14. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization.

  15. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective.

    PubMed

    Homaira, Nusrat; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Thomas L; Jaffe, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  16. Echinocandin Resistance, Susceptibility Testing and Prophylaxis: Implications for Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, David S.

    2014-01-01

    become drug tolerant and can form stable drug resistant FKS mutations with continued drug exposure. A major concern for resistance detection is that classical broth microdilution techniques show significant variability among clinical microbiology laboratories for certain echinocandin drugs and Candida species. The consequence is that susceptible strains are misclassified according to established clinical breakpoints, and this has led to confusion in the field. Clinical factors that appear to promote echinocandin resistance include the expanding use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy and prophylaxis. Furthermore, host reservoirs such as biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract or intra-abdominal infections can seed development of resistant organisms during therapy. A fundamental understanding of the primary molecular resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors that promote resistance emergence, is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:25255923

  17. Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: what impact on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery?

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Santoni, N

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis, introduced in the 1940s, brought in an era of relatively safe colorectal surgery. This was achieved in part due to the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Since then, Enterobacteriaceae have become increasingly resistant to the antibiotics commonly used for prophylaxis. The impact of being colonized preoperatively with resistant Enterobacteriaceae on the efficacy of colorectal SSI prophylaxis, if any, is unknown. It is also difficult to predict the likely impact of resistance as the exposure‒response relationships have not been determined for antibiotic surgical prophylaxis. Neither is it known which test for resistance to use; the importance of the concentration of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon, the ability of different species of Enterobacteriaceae to cause SSIs, and the comparative ability of minimum inhibitory concentration or presence of a resistance mechanism in predicting SSI risk have yet to be established. Clinical research is urgently needed to answer these questions.

  18. Lack of doxycycline antimalarial prophylaxis impact on Staphylococcus aureus tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed

    Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L; Zera, Wendy C; Yu, Xin; Li, Ping; Tribble, David R; Murray, Clinton K

    2016-10-01

    There is concern that susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to tetracyclines may decrease due to use of antimalarial prophylaxis (doxycycline). We examined characteristics related to tetracycline resistance, including doxycycline exposure, in S. aureus isolates collected via admission surveillance swabs and inpatient clinical cultures from United States military personnel injured during deployment (June 2009-January 2012). Tetracycline class resistance was determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first S. aureus isolate from 168 patients were analyzed, of which 38 (23%) isolates were resistant to tetracyclines (class). Tetracycline-resistant isolates had a higher proportion of resistance to clindamycin (P=0.019) compared to susceptible isolates. There was no significant difference in tetracycline resistance between isolates collected from patients with and without antimalarial prophylaxis; however, significantly more isolates had tet(M) resistance genes in the doxycycline exposure group (P=0.031). Despite 55% of the patients receiving doxycycline as antimalarial prophylaxis, there was no association with resistance to tetracyclines.

  19. [Recommendations for the use of palivizumab in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in late preterm infants (32(1) to 35(0) weeks of gestation)].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2010-08-01

    Late preterm infants (32(1) to 35(0) weeks gestation) aged less than 6 months at start of RSV station or discharged during this time may benefit from RSV monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab) administration to decrease the rates of RSV hospitalization. The Spanish Society of Neonatology considers, based on FLIP2 results in Spain, that palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended if the "2 major risk factors" are present (chronological age less than 10 weeks at start of RSV season or being born during its first 10 weeks; sibling of school age or attending day-care assistance). Palivizumab is also recommended when "1 major risk factor and the 2 minor risk factors" are present. Minor risk factors are: mother smoking during pregnancy and being a male.

  20. [Recommendations for palivizumab use. Update 2015].

    PubMed

    Fernández Jonusas, Silvia; Albas Maubett, Deleys; Satragno, Daniela; Cattaino, Adriana; Martin Alonso, Margarita; Rubio, Cecilia; Nieto, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    This recommendation updates the Argentinean Pediatrics' Neonatal Committee (CEFEN) ones published in 2007. The respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent agent for lower respiratory infection. Tiny premature, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and significant hemodynamic congenital heart disease babies are the most vulnerable populations. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus used in the cold season. These recommendations are based on the scientific review of the literature published up to date. We reinforce the importance of general prevention measures like hand hygiene and family education among others. During the predominant season of respiratory syncytial virus in our country (April to September) a monthly dose of intramuscular 15 mg/kg of palivizumab is recommended. The safety and effectiveness has been proved as well as a reduction in the hospitalizations rates. In addition, epidemiological data of previous years are provided here.

  1. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS.

  2. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  3. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Bates, John T; Keefer, Christopher J; Slaughter, James C; Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R; Crowe, James E

    2014-04-01

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (Kon) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (Koff) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced Kon with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased Kon found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants.

  4. Antiretroviral prophylaxis of perinatal HIV-1 transmission and the potential impact of antiretroviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Monica; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Mofenson, Lynne M

    2002-06-01

    Since 1994, trials of zidovudine, zidovudine and lamivudine, and nevirapine have demonstrated that these antiretroviral drugs can substantially reduce the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. With reductions in drug price, identification of simple, effective antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission, and an increasing international commitment to support health care infrastructure, antiretrovirals for both perinatal HIV-1 prevention and HIV-1 treatment will likely become more widely available to HIV-1-infected persons in resource-limited countries. In the United States, widespread antiretroviral usage has been associated with increased antiretroviral drug resistance. This raises concern that drug resistance may reduce the effectiveness of perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as well as therapeutic intervention strategies. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about resistance and risk of perinatal HIV transmission, assess the interaction between antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission, and discuss implications for current global prevention and treatment strategies.

  5. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  6. HIV-1 Drug Resistance in the iPrEx Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liegler, Teri; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Bentley, L. Gordon; Atchison, Robert; Schmidt, Timothy; Javier, Jacqueline; Mehrotra, Megha; Eden, Christopher; Glidden, David V.; McMahan, Vanessa; Anderson, Peter L.; Li, Peilin; Wong, Joseph K.; Buchbinder, Susan; Guanira, Juan V.; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The iPrEx study demonstrated that combination oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women. Selection for drug resistance could offset PrEP benefits. Methods. Phenotypic and genotypic clinical resistance assays characterized major drug resistant mutations. Minor variants with FTC/TDF mutations K65R, K70E, M184V/I were measured using 454 deep sequencing and a novel allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) diagnostic tolerant to sequence heterogeneity. Results. Control of primer-binding site heterogeneity resulted in improved accuracy of minor variant measurements by AS-PCR. Of the 48 on-study infections randomized to FTC/TDF, none showed FTC/TDF mutations by clinical assays despite detectable drug levels in 8 participants. Two randomized to FTC/TDF had minor variant M184I detected at 0.53% by AS-PCR or 0.75% by deep sequencing, only 1 of which had low but detectable drug levels. Among those with acute infection at randomization to FTC/TDF, M184V or I mutations that were predominant at seroconversion waned to background levels within 24 weeks after discontinuing drug. Conclusions. Drug resistance was rare in iPrEx on-study FTC/TDF-randomized seroconverters, and only as low-frequency minor variants. FTC resistance among those initiating PrEP with acute infection waned rapidly after drug discontinuation. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00458393. PMID:24740633

  7. Prophylaxis of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Malaria prevention in travelers to endemic areas remains dependent principally on chemoprophylaxis. Although malaria chemoprophylaxis refers to all malaria species, a distinction should be drawn between falciparum malaria prophylaxis and the prophylaxis of the relapsing malaria species (vivax & ovale). While the emergence of drug resistant strains, as well as the costs and adverse reactions to medications, complicate falciparum prophylaxis use, there are virtually no drugs available for vivax prophylaxis, beside of primaquine. Based on traveler’s malaria data, a revised recommendation for using chemoprophylaxis in low risk areas should be considered. PMID:22811794

  8. Modeling dynamic interactions between pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions & treatment programs: predicting HIV transmission & resistance.

    PubMed

    Supervie, Virginie; Barrett, Meagan; Kahn, James S; Musuka, Godfrey; Moeti, Themba Lebogang; Busang, Lesego; Busang, Lesogo; Blower, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection. Consequently, PrEP may soon be used for epidemic control. We model the dynamic interactions that will occur between treatment programs and potential PrEP interventions in resource-constrained countries. We determine the consequences for HIV transmission and drug resistance. We use response hypersurface modeling to predict the effect of PrEP on decreasing transmission as a function of effectiveness, adherence and coverage. We predict PrEP will increase need for second-line therapies (SLT) for treatment-naïve individuals, but could significantly decrease need for SLT for treatment-experienced individuals. If the rollout of PrEP is carefully planned it could increase the sustainability of treatment programs. If not, need for SLT could increase and the sustainability of treatment programs could be compromised. Our results show the optimal strategy for rolling out PrEP in resource-constrained countries is to begin around the "worst" treatment programs.

  9. RP 59500 prophylaxis of experimental endocarditis due to erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant isogenic pairs of viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    L'Hériteau, F; Entenza, J M; Lacassin, F; Leport, C; Glauser, M P; Moreillon, P

    1995-01-01

    RP 59500 is a new injectable streptogramin composed of two synergistic components (quinupristin and dalfopristin) which are active against a number of erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant gram-positive bacteria. The following experiments investigate the ability of RP 59500 to prevent experimental endocarditis due to either of two erythromycin-susceptible streptococcal isolates or their constitutively erythromycin-resistant Tn916 delta E transconjugants. RP 59500 had low MICs (0.125 to 0.5 mg/liter) for all four test organisms and was substantially bactericidal in vitro. Rats with catheter-induced aortic vegetations were given single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis 30 to 60 min before bacterial inoculation through a computerized pump system which permitted the simulation of drug kinetics for humans produced by either 7 mg of RP 59500 per kg of body weight or 1 g of vancomycin. Single-dose RP 59500 prophylaxis successfully prevented endocarditis due to both the erythromycin-susceptible parent strains and their erythromycin-resistant derivatives in rats challenged with the minimal inoculum infecting 90% of controls. In addition, RP 59500 also prevented infection in animals challenged with fivefold-larger inocula of the erythromycin-susceptible parent strains. Vancomycin successfully prevented endocarditis due to any of the four test organisms. These results underline the in vivo efficacy of RP 59500 against both erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant streptococci. Such good results against the resistant strains would not be expected with erythromycin or clindamycin, which are the standard macrolidelincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics used for endocarditis prophylaxis in humans. An oral form of RP 59500 which might advantageously replace some of the older prophylactic regimens is currently being developed. PMID:7492079

  10. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-06-08

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  11. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adults.

    PubMed

    Enzler, Mark J; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement, and bite wounds. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for various surgical procedures to prevent surgical site infections. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be bactericidal, nontoxic, inexpensive, and active against the typical pathogens that can cause surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be administered within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short duration to decrease toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost.

  12. Effect of Prophylactic Palivizumab on Admission Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Former Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Mi; Seo, Hyun Joo; Choi, Seo Heui; Jung, Yu Jin; Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Sung, Se In; Shim, Jae Won; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon; Hwang, Jong Hee; Lee, Jang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Kim, Eun Sun; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Shin; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of prophylactic palivizumab on hospitalization secondary to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (RSVhospitalization) in former very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study also sought to identify the risk factors of RSVhospitalizationin this particular infant population. A prospective observational study was conducted between September 2007 and April 2008 in seven Korean hospitals. Children with a history of very low birth weight, a diagnosis of BPD and who were <2 yr old at the onset of the RSV season were included in this study. Palivizumab injections were administered monthly for a maximum of five months during the RSV season. RSVhospitalization rates were reviewed, and RSVhospitalization rates between subgroups were categorized by gestational age, birth weight, and duration of ventilator care. A total of 90 subjects completed the follow-up interviews. The mean gestational age at birth was 26.1±1.7 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 889.4±222.2 g. The incidence of RSVhospitalization in the study population was 8.9% (8/90), and the mean hospital stay was 11.0±5.5 days, including one death. There were no statistically significant differences in the patients' demographic characteristics or risk factors for RSV hospitalization. When subgroup analyses were conducted, there were still no statistically significant differences. The administration of palivizumab prophylaxis during the entire RSV season is important in VLBWI with BPD, regardless of their gestational age and birth weight, or previous ventilator dependency.

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis--the story so far.

    PubMed

    Simoes, E A F; Groothuis, J R

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious pathogen that infects nearly all children by the age of 2 years. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide among certain high-risk paediatric populations. Therapy is sub-optimal for RSV, thus treatment focuses on ameliorating symptoms. Since discovery of the virus in the 1950s, efforts have been ongoing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. These efforts have met with serious obstacles. Passive immunoprophylaxis presents a viable alternative to active immunization. In 1998, the genetically engineered humanized monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) was granted FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for prophylaxis of high-risk children in the United States; EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) approval followed in 1999 for Europe. It is now approved in over 45 countries worldwide. Palivizumab was shown to significantly reduce RSV-related hospitalizations in North America and Europe with few adverse effects. Clinical trial and outcomes data documenting experience with palivizumab to date continue to extend the initial safety and efficacy observations.

  14. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mensa, José; Trilla, Antoni; Cainzos, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery refers to a very brief course of an antimicrobial agent initiated just before the start of the procedure. The efficacy of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection at the site of surgery (incisional superficial, incisional deep, or organ/space infection) has been demonstrated for many surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the majority of studies centering on the quality of preoperative prophylaxis have found that a high percentage of the antimicrobials used are inappropriate for this purpose. This work discusses the scientific basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis, provides general recommendations for its correct use and specific recommendations for various types of surgery. The guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis are based on results from well-designed studies, whenever possible. These guidelines are focussed on reducing the incidence of infection at the surgical site while minimizing the contribution of preoperative administration of antimicrobials to the development of bacterial resistance.

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ottoline, Ana Carolina Xavier; Tomita, Shiro; Marques, Marise da Penha Costa; Felix, Felippe; Ferraiolo, Priscila Novaes; Laurindo, Roberta Silveira Santos

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: Antibiotic prophylaxis aims to prevent infection of surgical sites before contamination or infection occurs. Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis does not enhance the prevention of surgical infection and is associated with higher rates of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This review of the literature concerning antibiotic prophylaxis, with an emphasis on otolaryngologic surgery, aims to develop a guide for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery in order to reduce the numbers of complications stemming from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. PMID:25991999

  16. Cost effectiveness of a protocol using palivizumab in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gago, Yolanda; Lombardero-Pin, Marina; Ortega de la Cruz, Casilda; Maciuniak, Pablo A; Díez Del Pino, Alicia

    2017-03-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo principal fue evaluar el coste-efectividad del protocolo de uso de palivizumab en prematuros instaurado por consenso en nuestro hospital comparándolo con el basado en las recomendaciones de diferentes sociedades científicas. Como objetivo secundario se analizaron los factores de riesgo y gravedad de los pacientes hospitalizados atendiendo al protocolo establecido en nuestro centro.Material y métodos: El periodo de estudio fue de cuatro temporadas con el protocolo ampliado (datos retrospectivos) frente a dos con el protocolo restringido o consensuado (datos prospectivos). La perspectiva del estudio fue la del sistema sanitario, incluyendo los costes de hospitalización y del palivizumab en nuestro centro. El cálculo de la efectividad se determinó con la tasa de ingresos de pacientes prematuros estratificados por semanas de edad gestacional: < de 29, <32 y <35. Para el análisis de los factores de riesgo y gravedad en pacientes ingresados en las temporadas con el nuevo protocolo se recogen, de forma prospectiva, datos clínicos y factores ambientales y sociales. Resultados: En los estratos de edad gestacional <29 y <32 no se demostró una mayor efectividad del protocolo ampliado frente al consensuado. Solamente se objetivó una mayor efectividad para EG<35 en los datos acumulados y al comparar las temporadas 08/09 con la 12/13 y 13/14 para datos individuales. Este estrato lleva asociado un cociente coste eficacia incremental de 53.250,07 € (rango: 14.793,39 € a 90.446,47 € para los datos individuales y 50.525,53 € (28.688,22 € a 211.575,65 €) para los acumulados. La instauración de este protocolo en nuestro centro supuso un ahorro medio por temporada de 169.911,51 €. Se constata una relación coste-efectividad adecuada del protocolo ampliado si el coste del palivizumab por paciente fuese menor de 1.206,67 € (calculados para el máximo aprovechamiento del vial) y para una tasa de hospitalizaci

  17. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.

  18. Efficacy and Optimization of Palivizumab Injection Regimens Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalizations in children, accounting for more than 90 000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. For children who are at risk for severe RSV infections, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends immunoprophylaxis with a series of up to 5 injections of the antibody palivizumab administered monthly, beginning on November 1 of each year. However, many practitioners initiate injections at the onset of RSV season as indicated by local surveillance. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of current regimens for palivizumab injections across different cities and to design an optimized regimen. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a mathematical modeling study of the risk for hospitalization due to RSV infection. The model accounted for the pharmacokinetics of the antibody, the timing of the injections, and seasonal patterns of RSV, including geographic and year-to-year variability. We used the model to estimate the efficacy of current regimens, including the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation, and to design a more effective injection regimen, the optimized fixed start (OFS), which uses city-specific initiation dates. Participants were the approximately 700 000 individuals who had specimens tested for RSV by National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System laboratories in 18 US cities from July 1, 1994, through June 30, 2011 (a total of 725 741 tests). INTERVENTIONS Different palivizumab injection regimens. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was reduction in hospitalizations due to RSV infections. The secondary measures were cost (number of palivizumab doses) and duration of protection (in days). RESULTS The American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended 5-injection regimen is expected to reduce hospitalization risk by a median of 2.7% (range, −2.2% to 6.1%) compared with the conventional regimen based on RSV

  19. [Levofloxacin prophylaxis in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Carena, Alberto A; Jorge, Laura; Bonvehí, Pablo; Temporiti, Elena; Zárate, Mariela S; Herrera, Fabián

    2016-01-01

    Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations. Of 946 episodes here included, 821 presented high risk febrile neutropenia. A total of 264 cases (27.9%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis. This group consisted of a higher proportion of high risk febrile neutropenia (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) and patients that had received an hematopoietic stem cell transplant (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) compared to those who didn't receive prophylaxis. Those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis presented a similar frequency of clinically diagnosed but a lower proportion of microbiologically documented infections (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012) than those who didn't receive prophylaxis. The episodes of bacteremia that occurred in the first group were more frequently caused by multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) and by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (19% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). The group that received prophylaxis had a lower proportion of adequate empirical antibiotic treatment (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009), with similar outcomes in both groups. We suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be stopped whenever there is a rise in the frequency of MDRB infections in this population.

  20. Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Dara A.; Baeten, Jared M.; McCoy, Connor O.; Weis, Julie F.; Peterson, Dylan; Mbara, Gerald; Donnell, Deborah; Thomas, Katherine K.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Frenkel, Lisa; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly R.; Celum, Connie; Overbaugh, Julie; Matsen, Frederick A.; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Coombs, Robert W.; Frenkel, Lisa; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Lingappa, Jairam; McElrath, M. Juliana; Fife, Kenneth; Were, Edwin; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Ndase, Patrick; Katabira, Elly; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig; Wangisi, Jonathan; Campbell, James; Tappero, Jordan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Mugo, Nelly Rwamba; Campbell, James; Tappero, Jordan; Wangisi, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) or TDF alone reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Understanding the risk of antiretroviral resistance selected by PrEP during breakthrough infections is important because of the risk of treatment failure during subsequent antiretroviral use. Methods. Within the largest randomized trial of FTC/TDF versus TDF as PrEP, plasma samples were tested for HIV with resistance mutations associated with FTC (K65R and M184IV) and TDF (K65R and K70E), using 454 sequencing. Results. Of 121 HIV seroconverters, 25 received FTC/TDF, 38 received TDF, and 58 received placebo. Plasma drug levels in 26 individuals indicated PrEP use during or after HIV acquisition, of which 5 had virus with resistance mutations associated with their PrEP regimen. Among those with PrEP drug detected during infection, resistance was more frequent in the FTC/TDF arm (4 of 7 [57%]), compared with the TDF arm (1 of 19 [5.3%]; P = .01), owing to the FTC-associated mutation M184IV. Of these cases, 3 had unrecognized acute infection at PrEP randomization, and 2 were HIV negative at enrollment. Conclusions. These results suggest that resistance selected by PrEP is rare but can occur both with PrEP initiation during acute seronegative HIV infection and in PrEP breakthrough infections and that FTC is associated with a greater frequency of resistance mutations than TDF. PMID:25587020

  1. Retrospective Multicenter Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis in Korean Children with Congenital Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Young; Jung, Se Yong; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Gi Beom; Kim, Young-Hwue; Shim, Woo Sup; Kang, I-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We conducted a review of current data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis with palivizumab, in Korean children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). In 2009, the Korean guideline for RSV prophylaxis had established up to five shots monthly per RSV season, only for children <1 year of age with hemodynamic significance CHD (HS-CHD). Subjects and Methods During the RSV seasons in 2009-2015, we performed a retrospective review of data for 466 infants with CHD, examined at six centers in Korea. Results Infants received an average of 3.7±1.9 (range, 1-10) injections during the RSV season. Fifty-seven HS-CHD patients (12.2%) were hospitalized with breakthrough RSV bronchiolitis, with a recurrence in three patients, one year after the initial check-up. Among patients with simple CHD, only five (1.1%) patients received one additional dose postoperatively, as per the limitations set by the Korean guideline. Among the 30 deaths (6.4%), five (1.1%) were attributed to RSV infection; three to simple CHD, one to Tetralogy of Fallot, and one to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Of the three HCM patients that exceeded guidelines for RSV prophylaxis, two (66.6%) were hospitalized, and one died of RSV infection (33.3%). Conclusion In accordance to the Korean guideline, minimal injections of palivizumab were administered to patients having HS-CHD

  2. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  3. Attitudes toward Infection Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Diorio, Caroline; Tomlinson, Deborah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Regier, Dean A.; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Background The risks and benefits of infection prophylaxis are uncertain in children with cancer and thus, preferences should be considered in decision making. The purpose of this report was to describe the attitudes of parents, children and healthcare professionals to infection prophylaxis in pediatric oncology. Methods The study was completed in three phases: 1) An initial qualitative pilot to identify the main attributes influencing the decision to use infection prophylaxis, which were then incorporated into a discrete choice experiment; 2) A think aloud during the discrete choice experiment in which preferences for infection prophylaxis were elicited quantitatively; and 3) In-depth follow up interviews. Interviews were recorded verbatim and analyzed using an iterative, thematic analysis. Final themes were selected using a consensus approach. Results A total of 35 parents, 22 children and 28 healthcare professionals participated. All three groups suggested that the most important factor influencing their decision making was the effect of prophylaxis on reducing the chance of death. Themes of importance to the three groups included antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medications, the financial impact of outpatient prophylaxis and the route and schedule of administration. Conclusion Effect of prophylaxis on risk of death was a key factor in decision making. Other identified factors were antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medication, financial impact and administration details. Better understanding of factors driving decision making for infection prophylaxis will help facilitate future implementation of prophylactic regiments. PMID:23112849

  4. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatric OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines Care for Disaster Displaced HIV-Infected Patients Guidelines on Care for HIV-Infected Residents Displaced from Disaster Areas Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) ...

  5. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is at Risk for HIV? Related Topics on AIDS.gov Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Additional Resources CDC ... Prevent HIV Infection Last revised: 09/21/2015 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  6. [Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Vilar-Compte, Diana; García-Pasquel, María José

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing surgical site infections has been demonstrated. Its utility is recognized for clean-contaminated procedures and some clean surgeries. Prophylactic antibiotics are used as intended to cover the most common germs in the surgical site; first and second generation cephalosporins are the most used. For optimal prophylaxis, an antibiotic with a targeted spectrum should be administered at sufficiently high concentrations in serum, tissue, and the surgical wound during the time that the incision is open and risk of bacterial contamination. The infusion of the first dose of antimicrobial should begin within 60 min before surgical incision and should be discontinued within 24 h after the end of surgery The prolonged use of antibiotic prophylaxis leads to emergence of bacterial resistance and high costs. The principles of antimicrobial prophylaxis in cancer surgery are the same as those described for general surgery; it is recommended to follow and comply with the standard criteria. In mastectomies and clean head and neck surgery there are specific recommendations that differ from non-cancer surgery. In the case of very extensive surgeries, such as pelvic surgery or bone surgery with reconstruction, extension of antibiotics for 48-72 h should be considered.

  7. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiwu; Wang, Qian; Jia, Ran; Xia, Shuai; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Xu, Wei; Xu, Jin; Du, Lanying; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML)-modified human serum albumin (HSA), designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries. PMID:25690799

  8. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation without fluconazole and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, D; Kreil, S; Nolte, F; Reinwald, M; Hofmann, W-K; Klein, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone (FQ) and fluconazole prophylaxis is recommended for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). However, due to an uncertain scientific basis and the increasing emergence of resistant germs, this policy should be questioned. Therefore, FQ and fluconazole prophylaxis was omitted in alloHCT at our center. In this retrospective analysis, all consecutive patients (n = 63) who underwent first alloHCT at our institution from September 2010 to September 2013 were included. Patients neither received FQ nor fluconazole prophylaxis. Day 100 mortality, incidence of febrile neutropenia, bacterial infections, and invasive fungal diseases (IFD) were assessed. Sixteen patients who started conditioning under antimicrobial treatment/prophylaxis due to pre-existing neutropenia (3/16), IFD (12/16), or aortic valve replacement (1/16) were excluded from the analysis. Finally, 47 patients were transplanted without prophylaxis as intended. Day 100 mortality was 9 %. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 62 % (29/47); 17/47 patients (36 %) experienced a blood stream infection (BSI) with detection of Gram-positive bacteria in 14 patients, Gram-negative bacteria in five patients, and candida in one patient, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria; 12/21 isolated Gram-positive and 3/6 Gram-negative bacteria were FQ resistant. In 21 % (10/47) of the patients, IFD (1x proven, 1x probable, and 8x possible) were diagnosed. To conclude, all three criteria, day 100 mortality, the incidence of IFD, and BSI, are in the range of published data for patients transplanted with FQ and fluconazole prophylaxis. These data demonstrate that alloHCT is feasible without FQ and fluconazole prophylaxis.

  9. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

  10. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile.

  11. Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Yingbo; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Yingying; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Sherwood, Margaret E; Baer, David G; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model. A bioluminescent clinical isolate of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was obtained. The susceptibility of A. baumannii to blue light (415 nm)-inactivation was compared in vitro to that of human keratinocytes. Repeated cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacterial by blue light were performed to investigate the potential resistance development of A. baumannii to blue light. A mouse model of third degree burn infected with A. baumannii was developed. A single exposure of blue light was initiated 30 minutes after bacterial inoculation to inactivate A. baumannii in mouse burns. It was found that the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain was significantly more susceptible than keratinocytes to blue light inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light-induced ultrastructural damage in A. baumannii cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that endogenous porphyrins exist in A. baumannii cells. Blue light at an exposure of 55.8 J/cm(2) significantly reduced the bacterial burden in mouse burns. No resistance development to blue light inactivation was observed in A. baumannii after 10 cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacteria. No significant DNA damage was detected in mouse skin by means of a skin TUNEL assay after a blue light exposure of 195 J/cm(2).

  12. Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-00-1-0495 TITLE: Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mary Ann Kosir, M.D...NUMBER Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAM D1 7-00-1-0495 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...perioperative training for lymphedema assessment and protection. The hypothesis is that structured perioperative training in lymphedema protection will

  13. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  14. Bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Carrión, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is a disease resulting from the association of morphological alterations of the heart and bacteraemia originating from different sources that at times can be indiscernible (infectious endocarditis). It is classified on the basis of the morphological alteration involved, depending on the clinical manifestations and course of illness, which varies according to the causative microorganism and host conditions (for example, it is characteristic in I.V. drug users). The most common microorganisms involved are: Streptococcus viridans (55%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Enterococcus (6%) and HACEK bacteria (corresponding to the initials: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella), although on occasions it can also be caused by fungi. The oral microbiological flora plays a very important role in the aetiopathogenesis of BE, given that the condition may be of oral or dental origin. This paper will deal with the prevention of said bacteraemia. Prophylaxis will be undertaken using amoxicillin or clindamycin according to action protocols, with special emphasis placed on oral hygiene in patients with structural defects of the heart.

  15. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statements--Modified recommendations for use of palivizumab for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    Palivizumab was licensed in June 1998 by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients who are at increased risk of severe disease. Safety and efficacy have been established for infants born at or before 35 weeks' gestation with or without chronic lung disease of prematurity and for infants and children with hemodynamically significant heart disease. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a policy statement on the use of palivizumab in November 1998 (American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 1998;102[5]:1211-1216) and revised it in December 2003 (American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 2003;112[6 pt 1]:1442-1446), and an AAP technical report on palivizumab was published in 2003 (Meissner HC, Long SS; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 2003;112[6 pt 1]:1447-1452). On the basis of the availability of additional data regarding seasonality of RSV disease as well as the limitations in available data on risk factors for identifying children who are at increased risk of serious RSV lower respiratory tract disease, AAP recommendations for immunoprophylaxis have been updated in an effort to ensure optimal balance of benefit and cost from this expensive intervention. This statement updates and replaces the 2003 AAP statement and the 2006 Red Book and is consistent with the 2009 Red Book recommendations.

  16. Antibiotic prophylaxis in open inguinal hernia repair: a literature review and summary of current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Makarewicz, Wojciech; Ropel, Jerzy; Bobowicz, Maciej; Kąkol, Michał; Śmietański, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    More than 1 million inguinal hernia repairs are performed in Europe and the US annually. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is not required in clean, elective procedures, the routine use of implants (90% of inguinal hernia repairs are performed with mesh) makes the topic controversial. The European Hernia Society does not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for elective inguinal hernia repairs. However, the latest randomized controlled trial, published by Mazaki et al., indicates that the use of prophylaxis is effective for the prevention of surgical site infection. Unnecessary prophylaxis contributes to the development of bacterial resistance and significantly increases healthcare costs. This review documents clinical trials on inguinal hernia repairs with mesh and summarizes the current knowledge. It also tries to solve certain problems, namely: what constitutes a real risk factor, late-onset infection, and how the “surgical environment” impacts on the need to use antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:27829934

  17. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Dellamonica, P; Bernard, E

    1994-01-01

    In elective colorectal surgery, the benefit of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is well established, with a reduction in wound infection rate to less than 10%. The antimicrobial agent used has to be active against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens such as Escheria coli and Bacteriodes fragilis. The efficacy of three schemes of administration: oral and/or parenteral prophylaxis associated with a mechanical preparation, has been demonstrated. Oral antibiotic administration is current practice in USA; the most widely used oral regimen is the combination of erythromycin and neomycin given the day before surgery. Parenteral prophylaxis with a cephalosporin active against Bacteriodes fragilis such as cefoxitin and cefotetan, is preferred in Europe. The issue of whether a systemic prophylaxis should be added to the oral regimen or not has not yet been resolved. However it seems that the association should be proposed in various situations: patients with a high risk factors score (rectal resection and operations lasting more than three hours), patients with incomplete mechanical preparation, delay of the onset of surgery after the last oral dose.

  18. Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perioperative Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-00-1-0495 TITLE: Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing...REPORT DATE 01-09-2006 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 aug 2000 –1 aug 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Lymphedema ...purpose is to evaluate perioperative training for lymphedema assessment and protection. The hypothesis is that structured perioperative training in

  19. Peripheral Polyneuropathy and Mefloquine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Alexander C.; Sandroni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a woman who developed a peripheral polyneuropathy shortly after completing 4 weekly doses of mefloquine hydrochloride (250 mg) malaria prophylaxis. Although mefloquine-related central nervous system neuropathy is well described in the literature, peripheral polyneuropathy similar to this case has been documented only once before, to our knowledge. PMID:22144435

  20. [Prophylaxis of malaria].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M; Caumes, E; Danis, M

    1992-01-01

    The prevention of malaria is based on chemoprophylaxis and protection against the vector. Nocturnal mosquito bites can be avoided by individual and collective measures, while chemoprophylaxis involves the use of various agents according to the place and duration of stay. Three endemic zones can be defined on the basis of chemoresistance. Chloroquine, proguanil and mefloquine are the three drugs used in this setting, the latter being contraindicated for pregnant women and children. Travellers making long stays in areas of low-level chemoresistance and short stays in areas of high-level resistance and for whom mefloquine is contraindicated are advised to take antimalarial drugs at the first signs of potentially malarial fever when medical care is unavailable. Quinine, halofantrine and mefloquine are used for the curative treatment of malaria in areas of chloroquine resistance.

  1. Current therapies and prophylaxis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, R

    1994-09-01

    Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease. Although not commonplace in the United States, malaria cases are occurring more frequently due to an influx of military personnel returning from duty in malarious areas, increased numbers of immigrants, and tourist and business travel to endemic areas. Careful history taking and proper laboratory diagnosis are essential in detecting malaria. Malaria should be considered in the differential diagnosis with any fever of unknown origin. Due to the increase in chloroquine resistant P. falciparum malaria worldwide it behooves the clinician to keep abreast of current therapies in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one of the best resources for up-to-date recommended therapies.

  2. Prophylaxis for the International Traveller

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Travellers should know as much as possible about the quality of food and drink in the areas of travel, and be prepared with safety measures if necessary. Routine immunization should be up to date; cholera and yellow fever vaccinations are required for travel to certain areas. Such prophylaxis should be sought, ideally, several months before departure. Resurgences of malaria are occurring in areas where the disease had previously been controlled, making prophylaxis essential for travel to endemic areas. Other mild disorders may be treated with medication appropriate to the type of travel and area. Patients may appreciate cautionary advice about behavior, to lessen the likelihood of physical or social harm. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21274123

  3. Antifungal Prophylaxis in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent significant complications in patients with hematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may be important in this setting, but most antifungal drugs have demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. Antifungal prophylaxis in hematological patients is currently regarded as the gold standard in situations with a high risk of infection, such as acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, various scientific societies have established a series of recommendations for antifungal prophylaxis based on prospective studies performed with different drugs. However, the prescription of each agent must be personalized, adapting its administration to the characteristics of individual patients and taking into account possible interactions with concomitant medication. PMID:27648203

  4. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment. PMID:27047885

  5. Hepatitis B reactivation and timing for prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    It is known that immunotherapy and cancer chemotherapy may cause hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers and inactive chronic hepatitis B patients. Guidelines recommend antiviral prophylaxis regardless of HBV DNA levels to prevent reactivation. We read from the article written by Liu et al that Lamivudine was given inadequate time for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:25717269

  6. Preexposure Prophylaxis and Patient Centeredness

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Jackson, Skyler D.; Marcus, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis has transformed HIV prevention, becoming widespread in communities of gay and bisexual men in the developed world in a short time. There is a broad concern that preexposure prophylaxis will discourage condom use among gay men (i.e., “risk compensation”). This commentary argues for broadening the focus on gay men’s health beyond sexual health to address the holistic health and well-being of gay men. Gay men may benefit from being offered candid, nonjudgmental health promotion/HIV prevention messages not requiring condom use for anal sex. Lessons can be drawn from the family planning movement, which has undergone a similar shift in focus. The principle of patient centeredness supports such a shift in gay men’s health toward the goal of providing men with the knowledge to evaluate various prevention approaches according to the specifics of their life circumstances and health needs. Bringing more nuance to discussions of sexual risk and sexual pleasure could facilitate more universally healthy attitudes regarding sex among gay men, in turn enabling healthier decisions more compatible with men’s own values and preferences. PMID:27387042

  7. [Antibiotic prophylaxis before kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Robles, N R; Gallego, E; Anaya, F; Franco, A; Valderrábano, F

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis was evaluated in the immediate postoperative period of renal transplantation (RT). Before RT, the patients were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) cefotaxime (intravenous infusion of 1 g one hour before the operation). 2) Ceftriaxone (1 g i.v. given in a similar way). 3) Control (without antibiotics). Patients who required antibiotic therapy during the first 3 postoperative weeks were excluded. 20 recipients of cadaveric renal grafts were included in each group. There were 39 males and 21 females with a mean age of 39.9 years. One patient from the cefotaxime group (5%), 2 from the ceftriaxone group (10%) and 2 from the control group (10%) developed infection of the surgical wound, all due to grampositive organisms. 19 patients had urinary tract infections: 7 from the control group (35%), 7 from the cefotaxime group (35%), and 5 from the ceftriaxone group (25%). The development of wound infection was not correlated with urea, creatinine, hemoglobin or total protein levels, or with urinary tract infection or fistula, diabetes or fever. The mean packed red cell volume of the patients who developed wound infection was 24.7 +/- 1.2 vs 28.6 +/- 6.6 in those who did not (p less than 0.01). All patients with visible hematoma and 3 of 10 with perirenal blood collection had wound infection. It was concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis for renal transplantation was useless in our patients.

  8. [Malaria prophylaxis; advice for the individual traveller. The Working Group for Malaria Prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    1998-04-18

    Recently, the Dutch Working Group on Malaria Prophylaxis produced new national guidelines. The new approach takes the risk of malaria and of serious morbidity or mortality for the individual traveller as its point of departure. In large areas in the tropics, there is no malaria risk. In some areas with limited risk, proguanil is still an effective chemoprophylactic (mainly in Central America, the Near East, Central Asia and parts of Indonesia). However, multiple-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum necessitates the use of mefloquine, despite disturbing side effects in some people, in Sub-Saharan Africa, major parts of South East Asia and the Amazone basin of South America. If mefloquine is contraindicated, alternatives advised are the combination of proguanil and chloroquine or (in South East Asia) doxycycline. For visits to transmission areas lasting 7 days or less, alternative prophylactic measures may be acceptable, but only if the traveller after the visit has easy access to adequate medical facilities. When exposure lasts not more than two nights, use of a mosquito net, repellents and protective clothing without chemoprophylaxis is acceptable, provided the traveller is well informed. To take along pocket treatment is only advised for some journeys lasting more than one month to areas with multiple-drug resistant falciparum malaria. When mefloquine prophylaxis is used, such stand-by treatment is only advocated for a few countries in South East Asia; when mefloquine cannot be given, also for other areas. The type of pocket treatment recommended depends on the chemoprophylaxis used and on whether contraindications exist. Drugs that can be used are: halofantrine (if no contraindications exist and an ECG shows no prolongation of the QT interval) or quinine, either alone (in pregnancy) or combined with doxycycline or clindamycine (the latter for children < 8 years). With the new individual approach advice may differ for different persons visiting similar tropical

  9. Clinical consequences and cost of limiting use of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis: example of coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, G.; Goldie, S. J.; Platt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Routine us of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis is discouraged, principally to minimize microbial resistance to it. However, outcomes and costs of this recommendation have not been assessed. We used decision-analytic models to compare clinical results and cost-effectiveness of no prophylaxis, cefazolin, and vancomycin, in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In the base case, vancomycin resulted in 7% fewer surgical site infections and 1% lower all-cause mortality and saved $117 per procedure, compared with cefazolin. Cefazolin, in turn, resulted in substantially fewer infections and deaths and lower costs than no prophylaxis. We conclude that perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin is usually more effective and less expensive than cefazolin. Data on vancomycin's impact on resistance are needed to quantify the trade-off between individual patients' improved clinical outcomes and lower costs and the future long-term consequences to society. PMID:11747694

  10. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J.; Morgan, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Sergio; Rodrigo, Juan P; Sánchez, Rafael; López, Fernando; Díaz, Juan P; Suárez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 80s, numerous clinical trials have shown a significant reduction in the incidence of infections in clean-contaminated upper respiratory tract surgery, due to perioperative use of antibiotics; however, there is no consensus about the best antibiotic protocol. Moreover, there are no universally accepted guidelines about flap reconstructive procedures. In otological and rhinological surgery, tonsillectomy, cochlear implant and laryngo-pharyngeal laser surgery, the use of antibiotics frequently depends on institutional or personal preferences rather than the evidence available. We reviewed clinical trials on different otorhinolaryngological procedures, assessing choice of antibiotic, length of treatment and administration route. There are no clinical trials for laryngo-pharyngeal laser surgery. Nor are there clinical trials on implant cochlear surgery or neurosurgical clean-contaminated procedures, but in these circumstances, antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended.

  12. Migraine headache prophylaxis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2014-01-01

    Migraine headache is estimated to affect up to 28 percent of adolescents, most of whom are female. Chronic migraine in this population has been associated with reduced quality of life and academic disruption due to missed school days. Historically, migraine headache was treated episodically as it occurred. In March 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an existing medication, topiramate (Topamax®), for migraine prophylaxis in adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17. This is the first FDA approval of a drug for migraine prevention in this population. There are several possible adverse effects of taking topiramate, some potentially serious, so adequate education for adolescents and their families on all the potential benefits and risks is imperative.

  13. Duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive

    2003-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is indicated while in the hospital after major surgery. There is evidence that the prevalence of asymptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, detected by routine venography after major orthopedic surgery, is lower at hospital discharge in patients who have received 10 days rather than 5 days of prophylaxis. This observation supports the current American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommendation for a minimum of 7 to 10 days of prophylaxis after hip and knee replacement, even if patients are discharged from the hospital within 7 days of surgery. As risk of VTE persists for up to 3 months after surgery, patients at high risk for postoperative VTE may benefit from extended prophylaxis (eg, an additional 3 weeks after the first 7 to 10 days). Extended prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reduces the frequency of postdischarge VTE by approximately two thirds after hip replacement; however, the resultant absolute reduction in the frequency of fatal pulmonary embolism is small (ie, estimated at 1 per 2,500 patients). Indirect evidence suggests that, compared with LMWH, efficacy of extended prophylaxis after hip replacement is greater with fondaparinux, similar with warfarin, and less with aspirin. Extended prophylaxis is expected to be of less benefit after knee than after hip replacement. In keeping with current ACCP recommendations, at a minimum, extended prophylaxis should be used after major orthopedic surgery in patients who have additional risk factors for VTE (eg, previous VTE, cancer). If anticoagulant drug therapy is stopped after 7 to 10 days, an additional month of prophylaxis with aspirin should be considered.

  14. Pharmacological prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism.

    PubMed

    Flute, P T

    1976-02-07

    The pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is briefly discussed as a basis for the understanding of preventive measures used in this condition. Prophylaxis in venous thrombosis is then reviewed with emphasis on pharmacological treatment, and more particularly on heparin.

  15. Guideline for Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bağhaki, Sema; Soybir, Gürsel Remzi; Soran, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) published the 2012/2013 edition of the book entitled “Best Practices for Hospital & Health-System Pharmacy: Position and Guidance Documents of ASHP” with Bruce Hawkins as the editor. (ISSN: 15558975). Pages 582–667 of this book contain the section: “Therapeutic Guidelines on Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgery”. This section includes current clinical developments, evidence and recommendations on the application of standard and effective antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult and pediatric patients, and has significant differences compared to the previous 1999 edition. On pages 632–633, antimicrobial prophylaxis in breast and plastic surgery practice is addressed in detail. This article contains a summary of the recommendations made in ASHP 2012/2013 Report regarding the antimicrobial prophylaxis in breast and plastic surgery applications.

  16. Cefixime for the prophylaxis of urinary tract infections in children with malformative uropathies: an open study.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, G; Zampogna, S; Ielapi, V; Defilippo, R G; Defilippo, V; Cristofaro, G; Galiano, R; Capillo, S; Madonna, L; Cifalà, S; Ferro, V; Rubino, R

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are often associated with urinary anomalies. An appropriate pharmacologic treatment may prevent, or may at least limit, any kidney damage due to pyelonephritis. The antibiotic prophylaxis plays a role as significant as early surgical therapy, taking into consideration also the present limitative trend for a softer therapeutic regimen. In the past few years a greater bacterial resistance has emerged against some commonly administered antibiotics. Cefixime (3rd generation cephalosporin) has been used on a wide series of patients suffering from urinary infections associated with urinary tract anomalies. A few significative results emerge from the present study. In conclusion, cefixime's effectiveness long-term prophylaxis of urinary infections associated with anomalies.

  17. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia: a patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, L H; Kars, M C; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M; Peters, M; Schuurmans, M J; Fischer, K

    2015-09-01

    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to prophylactic treatment, from a patients' perspective. To develop a grounded theory, a qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was performed to understand experiences, perceptions and beliefs concerning adherence to prophylaxis. From two Dutch treatment centres, 21 adults with haemophilia using prophylaxis were interviewed. Patients were asked how they experience their task to administer prophylaxis and how they adhere to this. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed in an iterative process, leading to the development of the grounded theory. Adherence was determined by the position of prophylaxis in life. The position of prophylaxis was determined by the perception of prophylaxis and the ability to exert prophylaxis. Patients' perception was influenced by two main factors: acceptance of haemophilia and feeling/fearing symptoms. The ability to exert prophylaxis was influenced by understanding haemophilia and prophylaxis and planning/infusion skills. The combination of different perceptions and skills led to four main positions of prophylaxis in life: (i) prophylaxis integrated in life, (ii) prophylaxis according to doctors' advice, struggling with irregular situations, (iii) prophylaxis is too much to handle, (iv) prophylaxis is a confrontation with illness. The adherence level gradually decreased from position 1 to 4. This information can be used to design tailored interventions to promote adherence.

  18. Is endocarditis prophylaxis for dental procedures necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Kathryn A; Wilson, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose is to address whether antimicrobial prophylaxis is necessary before certain dental procedures for patients at increased risk for acquiring infective endocarditis (IE). Methods We reviewed recommendations for IE prophylaxis made by the American Heart Association (AHA) from 1995 to the present time. We also compared and contrasted the current recommendations from the AHA, European Society of Cardiology (ESC), United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and a consortium of French organisations. We further reviewed recent papers that have observed the incidence of IE since these current recommendations were published. Results Beginning in the 1990s, questions were raised about the advisability of using antimicrobial prophylaxis before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. Various groups in Europe and the US were increasingly aware that there were not any clinical trials showing the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such prophylaxis. In the early to mid-2000s, the AHA, ESC and French consortium published guidelines recommending restriction of prophylaxis before dental procedures to patients with highest risk for developing IE and/or the highest risk for an adverse outcome from IE. The NICE guidelines eliminated recommendations for prophylaxis before dental procedures. Studies published after these changes were instituted have generally shown that the incidence of IE has not changed, although two recent reports have observed some increased incidence (but not necessarily related to an antecedent dental procedure). Conclusion A multi-national randomised controlled clinical trial that would include individuals from both developed and developing countries around the world is needed to ultimately define whether there is a role for antibiotic prophylaxis administered before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. PMID:28321267

  19. Treatment and prophylaxis of melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dance, David

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is being recognised with increasing frequency and is probably more common than currently appreciated. Treatment recommendations are based on a series of clinical trials conducted in Thailand over the past 25 years. Treatment is usually divided into two phases: in the first, or acute phase, parenteral drugs are given for ≥10 days with the aim of preventing death from overwhelming sepsis; in the second, or eradication phase, oral drugs are given, usually to complete a total of 20 weeks, with the aim of preventing relapse. Specific treatment for individual patients needs to be tailored according to clinical manifestations and response, and there remain many unanswered questions. Some patients with very mild infections can probably be cured by oral agents alone. Ceftazidime is the mainstay of acute-phase treatment, with carbapenems reserved for severe infections or treatment failures and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) as second-line therapy. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is preferred for the eradication phase, with the alternative of co-amoxiclav. In addition, the best available supportive care is needed, along with drainage of abscesses whenever possible. Treatment for melioidosis is unaffordable for many in endemic areas of the developing world, but the relative costs have reduced over the past decade. Unfortunately there is no likelihood of any new or cheaper options becoming available in the immediate future. Recommendations for prophylaxis following exposure to B. pseudomallei have been made, but the evidence suggests that they would probably only delay rather than prevent the development of infection. PMID:24613038

  20. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  1. HIV postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L; Brown, M A

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease have prompted health care providers to reexamine recommendations for prophylaxis of HIV infection. Parallels with occupational exposure through mucous membrane tissues spur consideration of HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault for several reasons. In both instances, exposure occurs at a single point in time and is unlikely to recur. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not make definitive recommendations regarding postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault, the reality is that as clinicians, we face situations in which we must consider treatment for prevention of HIV disease after sexual assault. Guidelines for treatment and how to create and implement a policy to ensure the best outcomes, and provide a high quality of patient care with the New York State guidelines as a model, are discussed.

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien CM; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    (48 trials, 5758 participants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), microbiologically documented infection (53 trials, 6383 participants; RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.62) and other indicators of infection. There were no significant differences between quinolone prophylaxis and TMP-SMZ prophylaxis with regard to death from all causes or infection, however, quinolone prophylaxis was associated with fewer side effects leading to discontinuation (seven trials, 850 participants; RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.87) and less resistance to the drugs thereafter (six trials, 366 participants; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.74). Authors’ conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic patients significantly reduced all-cause mortality. In our review, the most significant reduction in mortality was observed in trials assessing prophylaxis with quinolones. The benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis outweighed the harm such as adverse effects and the development of resistance since all-cause mortality was reduced. As most trials in our review were of patients with haematologic cancer, we strongly recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for these patients, preferably with a quinolone. Prophylaxis may also be considered for patients with solid tumours or lymphoma. PMID:22258955

  3. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial. PMID:27092529

  4. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of primary inguinal hernias using prolene hernia system: a randomized prospective double-blind control trial.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Jayant, M; Norbu, C

    2008-04-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is being commonly used in mesh repair of inguinal hernia but its role has been questioned in a recent Cochrane analysis performed in 2003. Routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of inguinal hernia can lead to bacterial resistance and increase in cost. In a present double-blind placebo controlled trial involving 120 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair using prolene hernia system, we did not find any benefit of the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in terms of wound infection rate.

  5. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. Ciprofloxacin versus colistin prophylaxis during neutropenia in acute myeloid leukemia: two parallel patient cohorts treated in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Pohlen, Michele; Marx, Julia; Mellmann, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Mesters, Rolf M.; Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Schliemann, Christoph; Lenz, Georg; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Büchner, Thomas; Krug, Utz; Stelljes, Matthias; Karch, Helge; Peters, Georg; Gerth, Hans U.; Görlich, Dennis; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk for bacterial infections during therapy-related neutropenia. However, the use of specific antibiotic regimens for prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic acute myeloid leukemia patients is controversial. We report a retrospective evaluation of 172 acute myeloid leukemia patients who received 322 courses of myelosuppressive chemotherapy and had an expected duration of neutropenia of more than seven days. The patients were allocated to antibiotic prophylaxis groups and treated with colistin or ciprofloxacin through 2 different hematologic services at our hospital, as available. The infection rate was reduced from 88.6% to 74.2% through antibiotic prophylaxis (vs. without prophylaxis; P=0.04). A comparison of both antibiotic drugs revealed a trend towards fewer infections associated with ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (69.2% vs. 79.5% in the colistin group; P=0.07), as determined by univariate analysis. This result was confirmed through multivariate analysis (OR: 0.475, 95%CI: 0.236–0.958; P=0.041). The prophylactic agents did not differ with regard to the microbiological findings (P=0.6, not significant). Of note, the use of ciprofloxacin was significantly associated with an increased rate of infections with pathogens that are resistant to the antibiotic used for prophylaxis (79.5% vs. 9.5% in the colistin group; P<0.0001). The risk factors for higher infection rates were the presence of a central venous catheter (P<0.0001), mucositis grade III/IV (P=0.0039), and induction/relapse courses (vs. consolidation; P<0.0001). In conclusion, ciprofloxacin prophylaxis appears to be of particular benefit during induction and relapse chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. To prevent and control drug resistance, it may be safely replaced by colistin during consolidation cycles of acute myeloid leukemia therapy. PMID:27470601

  11. Adjunctive Azithromycin Prophylaxis for Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tita, Alan T.N.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Boggess, Kim; Saade, George; Longo, Sherri; Clark, Erin; Esplin, Sean; Cleary, Kirsten; Wapner, Ron; Letson, Kellett; Owens, Michelle; Abramovici, Adi; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Cutter, Gary; Andrews, William

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. METHODS In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture. We randomly assigned 1019 to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin and 994 to receive placebo. All the women were also scheduled to receive standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, or other infection occurring within 6 weeks. RESULTS The primary outcome occurred in 62 women (6.1%) who received azithromycin and in 119 (12.0%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.68; P<0.001). There were significant differences between the azithromycin group and the placebo group in rates of endometritis (3.8% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.02), wound infection (2.4% vs. 6.6%, P<0.001), and serious maternal adverse events (1.5% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.03). There was no significant between-group difference in a secondary neonatal composite outcome that included neonatal death and serious neonatal complications (14.3% vs. 13.6%, P = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS Among women undergoing nonelective cesarean delivery who were all receiving standard antibiotic prophylaxis, extended-spectrum prophylaxis with adjunctive azithromycin was more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of postoperative infection. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; C/SOAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01235546.) PMID:27682034

  12. Adjunctive Azithromycin Prophylaxis for Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Tita, Alan T N; Szychowski, Jeff M; Boggess, Kim; Saade, George; Longo, Sherri; Clark, Erin; Esplin, Sean; Cleary, Kirsten; Wapner, Ron; Letson, Kellett; Owens, Michelle; Abramovici, Adi; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Cutter, Gary; Andrews, William

    2016-09-29

    Background The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. Methods In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture. We randomly assigned 1019 to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin and 994 to receive placebo. All the women were also scheduled to receive standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, or other infection occurring within 6 weeks. Results The primary outcome occurred in 62 women (6.1%) who received azithromycin and in 119 (12.0%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.68; P<0.001). There were significant differences between the azithromycin group and the placebo group in rates of endometritis (3.8% vs. 6.1%, P=0.02), wound infection (2.4% vs. 6.6%, P<0.001), and serious maternal adverse events (1.5% vs. 2.9%, P=0.03). There was no significant between-group difference in a secondary neonatal composite outcome that included neonatal death and serious neonatal complications (14.3% vs. 13.6%, P=0.63). Conclusions Among women undergoing nonelective cesarean delivery who were all receiving standard antibiotic prophylaxis, extended-spectrum prophylaxis with adjunctive azithromycin was more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of postoperative infection. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; C/SOAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01235546 .).

  13. A quantitative approach to recommendations on malaria prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Pappaioanou, M.; Lobel, H. O.; Campbell, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for malaria prophylaxis, a quantitative method is needed to balance the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections against the toxicity of antimalarial drugs. Using decision analysis, we estimated the expected mortality associated with three alternative regimens of prophylactic drugs for visitors to three areas with different risks of infection with chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. The model used took into account the risks of malaria and of adverse reactions to antimalarial drugs. Estimates of the parameters used in the analysis were based on observations made on U.S. travellers. Reducing the risk of malaria infection was found to have a far greater impact on lowering the expected mortality than that of increasing the chemoprophylactic efficacy of the drugs used, thereby emphasizing the need for travellers to use anti-mosquito measures in malarious areas. The analytical method described can be used to define optimal malaria prevention strategies. PMID:3048761

  14. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds.

  15. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0098 TITLE: Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Eckhard R. Podack...1. REPORT DATE October 2014 2. REPORT TYPE ANNUAL 3. DATES COVERED 30 SEPT 2013 – 29 SEPT 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Secreted HSP Vaccine for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Proposed vaccine principle relies on secreted gp96-Ig chaperoning PfCSP and PfAMA1 sporozoite proteins that are efficiently

  16. [Prophylaxis of purulent complications in mechanical ileus].

    PubMed

    Tamm, T I; Nepomnyashchiy, V V; Shakalova, E A; Dvornik, I A

    2015-03-01

    In experiment, while simulating an acute ileus, the possibility of antibacterial preparations for prophylaxis of purulent--septic complications was studied. There was established, that while progressing purulent intestinal inflammation its wall already in 12 h losses a capacity to cumulate penicillines and aminoglycosides. In a phlegmon-like changed intestine during 48 h cephalosporins and fluorochinolons are accumulated in bactericidal concentration, making a destruction of intestinal wall and occurrence of purulent peritonitis by 6-12 h slower.

  17. Prophylaxis of endemic goitre in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Stacpoole, Herbert H.

    1953-01-01

    The results of a survey carried out in eight States of Mexico are discussed by the author. The administrative, budgetary, and psychological difficulties encountered when attempting goitre prophylaxis by means of iodized salt are outlined. The author examines the efficacy of iodized sweets given to 50,000 schoolchildren in the Federal District and in the State of Morelos. Recent experiments in Mexico with iodated salt confirm previous statements concerning its stability. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13094516

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary in clean surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasan, G Z; Saleh, F M; Hossain, M Z; Amin, M R; Siddiqui, T H; Islam, M D; Chakraborty, S

    2013-04-01

    A significant number of paediatric surgical patients undergone clean surgical procedures. Most of the paediatric surgeon use perioperative prophylactic antibiotic in this clean procedure because of undue fear of infection in their mind. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics have an effect to prevent post operative wound infection in clean operation in paediatric surgical patients. This study was conducted in the paediatric surgery department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and some private clinics of Dhaka city from January 2009 to December 2009. Two hundred patients who were undergone clean elective surgical procedure on day case basis were included in this study. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B). The patients of Group A were given intransverse Cephradine 30 minutes before incision and then oral Cephradine was advised postoperatively for 7 days. The patients of Group B were not given any perioperative antibiotic. All the patients of both groups were advised to come on 3rd, 6th and 10th postoperative day for examination of wound. In Group A (With chemo prophylaxis), five patients (5%) developed postoperative wound infection and in Group B (without chemo prophylaxis), three patients (3%) developed postoperative wound infection. Thus the rate of postoperative wound infection is slightly more in patients with chemo prophylaxis but it was not statistically significant by chi-square test. Based on the result of this study, it may be concluded that the antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in clean surgery in paediatric age group.

  19. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Kayvon; Hyman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Patients who undergo colorectal surgery are at a substantially higher risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) than their general surgery counterparts. The incidence of DVT in colorectal surgery patients who do not receive prophylaxis is approximately 30%; a four-fold increase exists in the incidence of pulmonary embolism. The precise reasons for the increased risk are uncertain; likely, contributing factors are the need for pelvic dissection, patient positioning (eg, use of stirrups), and indications for surgery (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer). Despite the clear evidence that supports the safety and efficacy of DVT prophylaxis, appropriate preventive measures are frequently not used. Heparin preparations and mechanical compression in combination likely represents the most appropriate prophylactic regimen in these high-risk patients. Standard heparin appears to be as effective as low-molecular-weight heparin and considerably less costly. In the presence of relatively poor adherence to consensus guidelines for prophylaxis, critical pathways or electronic alerts may be useful to facilitate compliance with appropriate preventive measures.

  20. Anticoagulant prophylaxis for placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A

    2011-02-01

    Thrombophilias are not yet established as a cause of the placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age and placental abruption). A thrombophilia may be only one of many factors that lead to development of these complications. Our recent large systematic review of prospective cohort studies highlight that the association between thrombophilia and placenta mediated pregnancy complications is far from proven. The small step of previously describing an association in case control studies has led a large number of clinicians and opinion leaders to take the large leap of accepting this relationship as being causal and potentially treatable with anticoagulant interventions. Furthermore, while data in women with prior severe pre-eclpamsia, abruption and small for gestational age births without thrombophilia suggests some promise for anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent complications in subsequent pregnancies in these women, in the absence of large well done and generalisable "no intervention" controlled studies adopting anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent these complications is premature. The absence of strong evidence, coupled with the small potential for harm from anticoagulant prophylaxis suggests that these drugs should be considered experimental in thrombophilic and non-thrombophilic women with prior placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

  1. Self-assessment of striae gravidarum prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Małgorzata; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Striae are the most frequently occurring pathology of connective tissue during pregnancy. According to the statistical data, 70–90% of women suffer from striae gravidarum. Aim To assess effectiveness of topical products and massage used by pregnant women in striae gravidarum prophylaxis. Material and methods The questionnaire study was conducted among 299 women who were maximum 6 months after delivery at term. The questionnaire included questions concerning age, occurrence of striae gravidarum during pregnancy, their location, week of gestation when the lesions appeared and used striae prophylaxis as well as its effectiveness in respondents’ opinion. Results Analysis of the correlation between striae gravidarum occurrence and use of different types of cosmetics showed that this kind of prophylaxis is effective when applied at least twice a day (63.7% vs. 77.6%). No correlation between the type of cosmetics and presence of striae was observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions Use of prophylactic measures like skin emollients and oils with the appropriate frequency significantly reduces the risk of striae gravidarum occurrence. PMID:26755911

  2. Systematic Review of the Literature and Evidence-Based Recommendations for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Trauma: Results from an Italian Consensus of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniele; Chieregato, Arturo; Langer, Martin; Viaggi, Bruno; Cingolani, Emiliano; Malacarne, Paolo; Mengoli, Francesca; Nardi, Giuseppe; Nascimben, Ennio; Riccioni, Luigi; Turriziani, Ilaria; Volpi, Annalisa; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prophylaxis is frequently administered in severe trauma. However, the risk of selecting resistant bacteria, a major issue especially in critical care environments, has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of the present study was to provide guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis for four different trauma-related clinical conditions, taking into account the risks of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection, thus innovating previous guidelines in the field. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for studies comparing antibiotic prophylaxis to controls (placebo or no antibiotic administration) in four clinical traumatic conditions that were selected on the basis of the traumatic event frequency and/or infection severity. The selected studies focused on the prevention of early ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in comatose patients with traumatic brain injury, of meningitis in severe basilar skull fractures, of wound infections in long-bone open fractures. Since no placebo-controlled study was available for deep surgical site-infections prevention in abdominal trauma with enteric contamination, we compared 24-hour and 5-day antibiotic prophylaxis policies. A separate specific research focused on the question of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection caused by antibiotic prophylaxis, an issue not adequately investigated by the selected studies. Randomised trials, reviews, meta-analyses, observational studies were included. Data extraction was carried out by one author according to a predefined protocol, using an electronic form. The strength of evidence was stratified and recommendations were given according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Results Uncertain evidence deserving further studies was found for two-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for early VAP prevention in comatose patients. In the other cases the risk of resistant-bacteria selection caused by antibiotic administration

  3. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Benjamin; Rajjoub, Lamise; Mansour, Tamer; Chen, Tony; Mumtaz, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with orbital fracture prevent orbital infection. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Participants: All patients diagnosed with orbital fracture between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2014 at The George Washington University Hospital and Clinics. Main Outcome Measures: Development of orbital infection. Results: One hundred seventy-two patients with orbital fracture met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. No orbital infections were documented. Twenty subjects (12%) received no prophylactic antibiotic, and two (1%) received only one dose of antibiotics pre-operatively for surgery. For primary antibiotic, 136 subjects (79%) received oral antibiotics, and 14 (8%) received intravenous (IV) antibiotics (excluding cefazolin). Cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most prescribed oral antibiotics that are equally effective. Five-to-seven day courses of antibiotics had no increased infections compared to ten-to-fourteen day courses. Calculated boundaries for effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics ranged from a Number Needed to Treat (NNT) of 75 to a Number Needed to Harm (NNH) of 198. Conclusion: Antibiotics for prevention of orbital infection in patients with orbital fractures have become widely used. Coordination between trauma teams and specialists is needed to prevent patient overmedication and antibiotic resistance. Should antibiotics be used, shorter courses and avoidance of broad spectrum agents are recommended. Additional studies are needed.

  4. Antibiotic prophylaxis and reflux: critical review and assessment

    PubMed Central

    Baquerizo, Bernarda Viteri

    2014-01-01

    The use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) was critical in the evolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) from a condition in which surgery was the standard of treatment to its becoming a medically managed condition. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of VUR has been challenged in recent years, and significant confusion exists as to its clinical value. This review summarizes the critical factors in the history, use, and investigation of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR. This review provides suggestions for assessing the potential clinical utility of prophylaxis. PMID:25580258

  5. Safety of Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-Based Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K.; Baeten, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel HIV prevention strategy for individuals at increased sexual risk for HIV infection. For any biomedical prevention intervention, the bar for tolerating adverse effects in healthy persons is high compared to therapeutic interventions. Areas covered We provide a concise summary of the clinical safety of TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis with focus on TDF-related effects on tolerability and side effects, kidney function, bone density, HIV resistance, sexual and reproductive health. The evidence base for this review is derived from a literature search of both randomized and observational studies evaluating efficacy and safety of TDF-based PrEP, TDF alone or in combination with emtricitabine, identified from PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases, clinicaltrials.gov and major HIV conferences. Expert opinion TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis is a potent intervention against HIV acquisition when taken which is generally safe and well tolerated. The risk of the small, non-progressive, and reversible decline in glomerular filtration rate and bone mineral density as well as the potential selection for drug resistance associated with PrEP are outweighed, at the population level and broadly for individuals, by PrEP’s substantial reduction in the risk of HIV infection. PMID:26634852

  6. Primary antifungal prophylaxis in acute myeloblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome--still an open question?

    PubMed

    Rüping, Maria J G T; Vehreschild, Jörg J; Cornely, Oliver A

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we aim to compare different early treatment strategies of invasive fungal diseases in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Three treatment approaches--prophylactic, empiric, and preemptive treatment--are subject to continuous discussion among physicians treating patients at risk. Considering the available clinical basis of evidence, we opt for antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole 200 mg tid po as our primary prophylactic strategy, while the employment of preemptive treatment should be delayed until more accurate diagnostic tools become available. In addition to antifungal prophylaxis, empiric treatment with caspofungin or L-AmB may be administered to patients with fever resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and without radiographic findings typical of invasive fungal disease.

  7. Prevention of infections in nursing homes: antibiotic prophylaxis versus infection control and antimicrobial stewardship measures.

    PubMed

    Giannella, Maddalena; Tedeschi, Sara; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the lack of structural and human resources for implementing more effective and safe preventive procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis is often used to prevent infections in nursing homes. However, if data on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in nursing homes are null, there is a plenty of evidence that the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in this setting is associated with a high rate of colonization and infection with multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs), and of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Here, we have reviewed the infection epidemiology, the burden of MDROs and CDI, the antibiotic use and some potential infection preventive measures in nursing homes, pointing up the peculiarities of this setting and the absolute need of a more prudential use of antimicrobials.

  8. Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Glaubius, Robert L.; Parikh, Urvi M.; Hood, Greg; Penrose, Kerri J.; Bendavid, Eran; Mellors, John W.; Abbas, Ume L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods. We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP. Results. Pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up modestly increases the proportion of prevalent drug-resistant infections, from 33% to ≤37%. The change in the number of prevalent drug-resistant infections depends on the interplay between PrEP factors (coverage, efficacy, delivery reliability, and scale-up strategy) and the level of cross-resistance between PrEP and ART. An optimistic scenario of 70% effective RPV PrEP (90% efficacious and 80% reliable delivery), among women aged 20–29 years, prevents 17% of cumulative infections over 10 years while decreasing prevalent resistance; however, prevention decreases and resistance increases with more conservative assumptions. Uncertainty analysis assuming 40%–70% cross-resistance prevalence predicts an increase in prevalent resistance unless PrEP's effectiveness exceeds 90%. Conclusions. Prioritized scale-up of injectable PrEP among women in KwaZulu-Natal could reduce HIV infections, but suboptimal effectiveness could promote the spread of drug resistance. PMID:27703992

  9. Variation in seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ostahowski, Paige J; Kannan, Nithya; Wainwright, Mark S; Qiu, Qian; Mink, Richard B; Groner, Jonathan I; Bell, Michael J; Giza, Christopher C; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Boyle, Linda Ng; Mitchell, Pamela H; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic seizure is a major complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in seizure prophylaxis in select pediatric trauma centers. The authors hypothesized that there would be wide variation in seizure prophylaxis selection and use, within and between pediatric trauma centers. METHODS In this retrospective multicenter cohort study including 5 regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers, the authors examined data from 236 children (age < 18 years) with severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800.0-801.9, 803.0-804.9, 850.0-854.1, 959.01, 950.1-950.3, 995.55, maximum head Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) who received tracheal intubation for ≥ 48 hours in the ICU between 2007 and 2011. RESULTS Of 236 patients, 187 (79%) received seizure prophylaxis. In 2 of the 5 centers, 100% of the patients received seizure prophylaxis medication. Use of seizure prophylaxis was associated with younger patient age (p < 0.001), inflicted TBI (p < 0.001), subdural hematoma (p = 0.02), cerebral infarction (p < 0.001), and use of electroencephalography (p = 0.023), but not higher Injury Severity Score. In 63% cases in which seizure prophylaxis was used, the patients were given the first medication within 24 hours of injury, and 50% of the patients received the first dose in the prehospital or emergency department setting. Initial seizure prophylaxis was most commonly with fosphenytoin (47%), followed by phenytoin (40%). CONCLUSIONS While fosphenytoin was the most commonly used medication for seizure prophylaxis, there was large variation within and between trauma centers with respect to timing and choice of seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric TBI. The heterogeneity in seizure prophylaxis use may explain the previously observed lack of relationship between seizure prophylaxis and outcomes.

  10. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and reconstructive ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Carlin, W V; Lesser, T H; John, D G; Fielder, C; Carrick, D G; Thomas, P L; Hill, S

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports a multicentre, controlled, blind, prospective, randomized study into the use of prophylactic systemic antibiotics in myringoplasty surgery. Seventy-one individuals were clinically and bacteriologically assessed both preoperatively, and for a period of 8 weeks postoperatively. The results showed that antibiotic prophylaxis did not eradicate bacterial pathogens already present in preoperative ears, nor did it prevent their development during the postoperative period. The observation that an ear was wet or dry gave no indication of the actual presence or absence of pathogenic organisms.

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Smaill, Fiona M; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is cesarean section. Routine prophylaxis with antibiotics may reduce this risk and should be assessed in terms of benefits and harms. Objectives To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics compared with no prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (May 2009). Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effects of prophylactic antibiotics versus no treatment in women undergoing cesarean section. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified 86 studies involving over 13,000 women. Prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of febrile morbidity (average risk ratio (RR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.51, 50 studies, 8141 women), wound infection (average RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.48, 77 studies, 11,961 women), endometritis (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.42, 79 studies, 12,142 women) and serious maternal infectious complications (RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.48, 31 studies, 5047 women). No conclusions can be made about other maternal adverse effects from these studies (RR 2.43; 95% CI 1.00 to 5.90, 13 studies, 2131 women). None of the 86 studies reported infant adverse outcomes and in particular there was no assessment of infant oral thrush. There was no systematic collection of data on bacterial drug resistance. The findings were similar whether the cesarean section was elective or non elective, and whether the antibiotic was given before or after umbilical cord clamping. Overall, the methodological quality of the trials was unclear and in only a few studies was it obvious that potential other sources of bias had been

  12. Local antimicrobial administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Huiras, Paul; Logan, Jill K; Papadopoulos, Stella; Whitney, Dana

    2012-11-01

    Despite a lack of consensus guidelines, local antibiotic administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections is used during many surgical procedures. The rationale behind this practice is to provide high antibiotic concentrations at the site of surgery while minimizing systemic exposure and adverse effects. Local antibiotic administration for surgical site prophylaxis has inherent limitations in that antibiotics are applied after the incision is made, rather than the current standard for surgical site prophylaxis that recommends providing adequate antibiotic concentrations at the site before the incision. The efficacy and safety of local application of antibiotics for surgical site prophylaxis have been assessed in different types of surgery with a variety of antibiotic agents and methods of application. We identified 22 prospective, randomized, controlled trials that evaluated local application of antibiotics for surgical site prophylaxis. These trials were subsequently divided and analyzed based on the type of surgical procedure: dermatologic, orthopedic, abdominal, colorectal, and cardiothoracic. Methods of local application analyzed included irrigations, powders, ointments, pastes, beads, sponges, and fleeces. Overall, there is a significant lack of level I evidence supporting this practice for any of the surgical genres evaluated. In addition, the literature spans several decades, and changes in surgical procedures, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, and microbial flora make conclusions difficult to determine. Based on available data, the efficacy of local antibiotic administration for the prophylaxis of surgical site infections remains uncertain, and recommendations supporting this practice for surgical site prophylaxis cannot be made.

  13. Antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis for anthrax: adverse events and adherence.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Colin W; Soriano-Gabarro, Montse; Zell, Elizabeth R; Hayslett, James; Lukacs, Susan; Goldstein, Susan; Factor, Stephanie; Jones, Joshua; Ridzon, Renee; Williams, Ian; Rosenstein, Nancy

    2002-10-01

    We collected data during postexposure antimicrobial prophylaxis campaigns and from a prophylaxis program evaluation 60 days after start of antimicrobial prophylaxis involving persons from six U.S. sites where Bacillus anthracis exposures occurred. Adverse events associated with antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent anthrax were commonly reported, but hospitalizations and serious adverse events as defined by Food and Drug Administration criteria were rare. Overall adherence during 60 days of antimicrobial prophylaxis was poor (44%), ranging from 21% of persons exposed in the Morgan postal facility in New York City to 64% of persons exposed at the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, D.C. Adherence was highest among participants in an investigational new drug protocol to receive additional antibiotics with or without anthrax vaccine--a likely surrogate for anthrax risk perception. Adherence of <60 days was not consistently associated with adverse events.

  14. Supplementary iron dose in pregnancy anemia prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Reddaiah, V P; Raj, P P; Ramachandran, K; Nath, L M; Sood, S K; Madan, N; Rusia, U

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimum dose of supplemental iron for prophylaxis against pregnancy anemia. One hundred and ten pregnant women were randomly allocated to three groups: Group A receiving equivalent of 60 mg, group B 120 mg and Group C 240 mg, elemental iron as ferrous sulphate daily; the content of folic acid was constant in all the three groups (0.5 mg). These women had at least consumed 90 tablets in 100 +/- 10 days. Blood was drawn at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Fifty percent were anemic (less than 11 g/100 ml). The hemoglobin levels rose similarly in all groups and the differences were statistically not significant. Fifty-six percent had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin value less than 12 micrograms/l) at the beginning of the study. Following therapy a statistically significant increase in iron stores was observed in group B and C as compared to group A. The difference between group B and C was not significant. The side effects increased with increasing doses of iron; 32.4%, 40.3% and 72% in group A, B and C respectively. Based on these findings, the authors advocate that optimum dose of iron should be 120 mg instead of 60 mg as is currently being used in the National Nutritional Anemia Prophylaxis Programme.

  15. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after hospital discharge: transition to preventive care.

    PubMed

    Kaatz, Scott; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2011-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the common clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE), are among the most preventable complications of hospitalized patients. However, survey data repeatedly show poor rates of compliance with guideline-based preventive strategies. This has led the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to deny reimbursement for hospital readmission for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Multiple strategies and national initiatives have been developed to improve rates of VTE prophylaxis during hospitalization; however, most VTE occurs in the outpatient setting. Epidemiologic data suggest that recent surgery or hospitalization is a strong risk factor for the development of VTE and that this risk may persist for up to 6 months. These observations call into question whether VTE prophylaxis should be administered only during hospitalization or if this preventive strategy should be continued after hospital discharge. Many of the randomized trials showing efficacy of VTE prophylaxis have used longer durations of prophylaxis than are typical for current length of hospital stay, highlighting the issue of how long the duration of prophylaxis should be. Several patient groups have undergone formal testing to evaluate the risks and benefits of extended-duration VTE prophylaxis, but this issue is less clear for other categories of patients. Although there is clear consensus that most hospitalized patients should receive VTE prophylaxis, there is uncertainty about whether to continue VTE prophylaxis in the immediate post-hospital period or for an extended duration. The transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a key event in the coordination of continuity of care, but VTE-specific care transition guidance is limited. In this article, we review the evidence for both standard- and extended-duration VTE prophylaxis and discuss the difficulties in effectively maintaining VTE

  16. Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Navarro-Vela, Ana Maria; Deray, Raffy; Vigilato, Marco; Ertl, Hildegund; Durrheim, David; Rees, Helen; Nel, Louis H; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Briggs, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost–effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. Methods We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016. We reviewed field data from pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns in Peru and the Philippines. Findings Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic in children and adults, also when co-administered with routine childhood vaccinations and the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. The evidence available indicates that shorter regimens and regimens involving fewer doses are safe and immunogenic and that booster intervals could be extended up to 10 years. The few studies on cost suggest that, at current vaccine and delivery costs, pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns would not be cost-effective in most situations. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has been advocated for high-risk populations, only Peru and the Philippines have implemented appropriate national programmes. In the future, accelerated regimens and novel vaccines could simplify delivery and increase affordability. Conclusion Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis is safe and immunogenic and should be considered: (i) where access to postexposure prophylaxis is limited or delayed; (ii) where the risk of exposure is high and may go unrecognized; and (iii) where controlling rabies in the animal reservoir is difficult. Pre-exposure prophylaxis should not distract from canine vaccination efforts, provision of postexposure prophylaxis or education to increase rabies awareness in local communities. PMID:28250534

  17. Discontinuation of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis (AP) in Children With Spina Bifida: A Case Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Couloures, Kevin G; Anderson, Michael; Machiorlatti, Michael; Marsenic, Olivera; Opas, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI’s but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. Objectives Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods Case series analysis of pediatric spina bifida clinic patients where routine antimicrobial prophylaxis was replaced by clean-catch catheterization and daily bowel regimen (ST). Retrospective chart review of 67 children (mean entry age: 24 months, median age: 4 months; 32 Males, 35 Females) enrolled between 1986 - 2004. Mean follow-up was 128.6 months (range 3 - 257 months). Asymptomatic and symptomatic UTI incidences were noted on AP and ST protocols. Creatinine clearance at study entry and follow-up was calculated by the age appropriate method. A multivariable regression model with delta Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) as the dependent variable, independent sample t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum were performed with SAS v. 9.2. Results The mean number of infections while on AP was 8.7 (95% CI 5.72, 11.68) and was 1.0 on ST (95% CI 0.48, 1.43). 5 infections on the AP protocol required intravenous (IV) antibiotics due to resistance to oral therapy, but none on ST. Comparing change in GFR between both protocols (AP vs. ST) found a significant difference in the change of GFR by treatment protocol. Conclusions AP did not prevent UTIs and resulted in more resistant organisms requiring IV antibiotics. Discontinuing AP allowed the return of susceptibility to oral antimicrobials and significantly improved GFR in those children who had previously been on AP. Adherence to a catheterization regimen with prompt treatment of symptomatic UTI conserved renal function and prevented selection of resistant

  18. Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in lung transplant recipients on long-term azole antifungal prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pearlie P; Kennedy, Cassie C; Hathcock, Matthew A; Kremers, Walter K; Razonable, Raymund R

    2015-04-01

    Lung transplant recipients (LTR) at our institution receive prolonged and mostly lifelong azole antifungal (AF) prophylaxis. The impact of this prophylactic strategy on the epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is unknown. This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the medical records of all adult LTR from January 2002 to December 2011. Overall, 16.5% (15 of 91) of patients who underwent lung transplantation during this time period developed IFI. Nineteen IFI episodes were identified (eight proven, 11 probable), 89% (17 of 19) of which developed during AF prophylaxis. LTR with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were more likely to develop IFI (HR: 4.29; 95% CI: 1.15-15.91; p = 0.03). A higher hazard of mortality was observed among those who developed IFI, although this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.58-4.05]; p = 0.27). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common cause of IFI (45%), with pulmonary parenchyma being the most common site of infection. None of our patients developed disseminated invasive aspergillosis, cryptococcal or endemic fungal infections. IFI continue to occur in LTR, and the eradication of IFI appears to be challenging even with prolonged prophylaxis. Azole resistance is uncommon despite prolonged AF exposure.

  19. Evidence for extended prophylaxis in the setting of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Dobesh, Paul P

    2004-07-01

    Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery represent one of the highest risk groups for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Evidence shows that this risk extends beyond the period in which the patient is hospitalized, especially for patients undergoing hip surgery. Clinical trials have shown that extended prophylaxis with the low-molecular-weight heparins is effective in reducing the rate of total VTE, and a meta-analysis demonstrated a reduction in symptomatic VTE with extended prophylaxis after total hip replacement surgery. Based on these results, the American College of Chest Physicians gives a grade 2A recommendation for the use of extended prophylaxis after orthopedic surgery. Until recently, data evaluating the role of prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery were limited. Subsequently, a novel anticoagulant, fondaparinux, demonstrated significant benefit in these patients and has become the first and only agent approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery Despite the limitations of the older trials, their findings supported the need to evaluate extended prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. In the first well-conducted trial of extended prophylaxis for hip fracture surgery, fondaparinux provided impressive results in reducing total and symptomatic VTE. The results of this trial have once again led to fondaparinux being the first and only agent to be granted FDA approval for the indication of extended prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

  20. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis of mixed infections during hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Moroni, M; Baccolo, M; Cavalli, G; Belloni, C; Ferrari, N; Sartor, V

    1979-01-01

    Surgical procedures on contaminated tissues, such as hysterectomy with opened vagina, are frequently followed by local or systemic infections. It seems that a prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is not justified because of possible induction of resistant mutants or dysmicrobisms. The administration of antibiotics only in a short pre- and postsurgical period appears to be more rational. We have carried out a controlled clinical trial with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of this prophylactic practice. One hundred forty-five patients submitted to vaginal and two hundred seventy-five to abdominal hysterectomy entered this study (started September 1977). All patients received local nitrofurantoin treatment and were then subdivided into four randomized groups: control group, groups treated with thiamphenicol, cephazolin, thiamphenicol plus cephazolin, respectively. Each antibiotic was administered in the dose of 1 gm one hour before and five and 12 hours after surgery. Antibiotics were chosen taking into consideration the usual vaginal microbial flora, notoriously mixed (aerobic and anaerobic). The three treated groups presented a significant decrease in the incidence and severity of infectious complications. The use of antibiotics in the postoperative period resulted in significantly reduced morbidity in the treated groups. Thiamphenicol appears to be the most effective drug. Bacteriological studies showed that local treatment of the vagina decreased the bacteria charge, but never brought about sterilization.

  1. Secondary prophylaxis for esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Tejedor, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Combination therapy with beta-blockers and endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the standard prophylaxis of esophageal variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis. Beta-blockers are the backbone of combination therapy, since their benefit extend to other complications of portal hypertension. EBL carries the risk of post-banding ulcer bleeding, which explains why overall rebleeding is reduced when beta-blockers are added to EBL, and not when EBL is added to beta-blockers. TIPS is the rescue treatment, but it could be considered as first choice in patients that first bleed while on beta-blockers, those with contraindications to beta-blockers or with refractory ascites, and those with fundal varices.

  2. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D

    1981-08-13

    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  3. [Aerosinusitis: part 1: Fundamentals, pathophysiology and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Kühnel, T; Graf, J; Hosemann, W

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of aerosinusitis stems from the high number of flight passengers and the impaired fitness for work of the flight personnel. The frontal sinus is more frequently affected than the maxillary sinus and the condition generally occurs during descent. Sinonasal diseases and anatomic variations leading to obstruction of paranasal sinus ventilation favor the development of aerosinusitis. This Continuing Medical Education (CME) article is based on selective literature searches of the PubMed database (search terms: "aerosinusitis", "barosinusitis", "barotrauma" AND "sinus", "barotrauma" AND "sinusitis", "sinusitis" AND "flying" OR "aviator"). Additionally, currently available monographs and further articles that could be identified based on the publication reviews were also included. Part 1 presents the pathophysiology, symptoms, risk factors, epidemiology and prophylaxis of aerosinusitis. In part 2, diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment will be discussed.

  4. Prophylaxis therapy in haemophilia A: current situation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lucía, J F; Aznar, J A; Abad-Franch, L; Escuin, R R; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Pérez, R; Batlle, J; Balda, I; Alperovich, G; Parra, R

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Epidemiological Study in Haemophilia carried out in 2006 enrolled 2400 patients [2081-86.7% with haemophilia A (HA) and 319-13.3% with haemophilia B]; 465 of them (19.4%) were on prophylaxis. These rates were higher in patients with severe haemophilia (45.4%) and severe paediatric cases (72.5%). On the basis of information recorded in this study, we analysed the current situation of prophylaxis therapy administered to patients with HA in Spain, as well as their orthopaedic status. Prophylaxis was used in 399 (19.2%) patients with HA; such prophylaxis was primary (PP) in 20.3% and secondary (SP) in 75.9% of cases. Among severe HA patients, 313 (45.9%) were on prophylaxis (22.3% on PP and 74.7% on SP). Taking into account the patients' age, 34.7% of severe HA adults were on prophylaxis (6% PP and 92.1% SP), whereas 71.5% of severe HA paediatric patients (40.5% PP and 55.4% SP) received this kind of treatment. Established haemophilic arthropathy (EHA) was detected in 142 from 313 severe HA patients (45.3%) on prophylaxis, but only in 2.9% of patients under PP vs. 59% of patients receiving SP. There was no EHA in adult severe HA patient on PP, whereas 70.4% on SP had joint damage (P < 0.00001). Among paediatric severe HA patients, EHA was detected in 3.3% under PP and 37.8% under SP (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, our data suggest that an early initiation of prophylaxis avoids EHA in the long-term in patients with severe HA. We should emphasize the early onset of prophylaxis regimens.

  5. Protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children in rural Uganda: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Homsy, Jaco; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Wanzira, Humphrey; Kakuru, Abel; Bigira, Victor; Kalamya, Julius; Vora, Neil; Kublin, James; Kamya, Moses R; Dorsey, Grant; Tappero, Jordan W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children (uninfected children born to HIV infected mothers) in Africa. Design Non-blinded randomised control trial Setting Tororo district, rural Uganda, an area of high malaria transmission intensity Participants 203 breastfeeding HIV exposed infants enrolled between 6 weeks and 9 months of age Intervention Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis from enrolment until cessation of breast feeding and confirmation of negative HIV status. All children who remained HIV uninfected (n=185) were then randomised to stop co-trimoxazole prophylaxis immediately or continue co-trimoxazole until 2 years old. Main outcome measure Incidence of malaria, calculated as the number of antimalarial treatments per person year. Results The incidence of malaria and prevalence of genotypic mutations associated with antifolate resistance were high throughout the study. Among the 98 infants randomised to continue co-trimoxazole, 299 malaria cases occurred in 92.28 person years (incidence 3.24 cases/person year). Among the 87 infants randomised to stop co-trimoxazole, 400 malaria cases occurred in 71.81 person years (5.57 cases/person year). Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis yielded a 39% reduction in malaria incidence, after adjustment for age at randomisation (incidence rate ratio 0.61 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.81), P=0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of complicated malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, hospitalisations, or deaths between the two treatment arms. Conclusions Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was moderately protective against malaria in HIV exposed infants when continued beyond the period of HIV exposure despite the high prevalence of Plasmodium genotypes associated with antifolate resistance. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00527800 PMID:21454456

  6. [Experience with the development of vaccinal prophylaxis in Perm Province].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T M; Fel'dblium, I V; Komkov, B D; Skovorodin, A N; Deviatkov, M Iu; Sarmometov, E V; Perminova, O A; Vorozhtsova, T N

    1999-01-01

    The results of the introduction of the system of epidemiological surveillance on vaccinal prophylaxis on the territory of Perm Province are presented. This system has permitted the realization of the principles of the regional tactics of immunization, while following the unified strategy acting on the territory of the Russian Federation. The optimization of the organizational foundations of vaccinal prophylaxis has made it possible to maintain the morbidity rates if infections, controlled by means of specific prophylaxis, on the levels below the average figures for the Federation and to preserve more stable tendencies to their decrease.

  7. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended.

  8. Visual Attention in Children With Migraine: The Importance of Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Villa, Thaís Rodrigues; Agessi, Larissa M; Moutran, Andréa R C; Gabbai, Alberto A; Carvalho, Deusvenir de S

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the visual attention performance of children newly diagnosed with migraine, children undergoing migraine prophylaxis, and a healthy control group. Eighty-two children aged 8 to 12 years were divided into 3 groups: untreated migraine (n = 30), migraine prophylaxis (n = 22), and control (n = 30). All were subjected to a visual attention assessment with the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Letter-Cancellation Test, and the Brazilian Visual Attention Test 3rd edition. Although performance in attention tasks was within the normal range in all groups, children with untreated migraine performed significantly worse in some visual attention tests than did the control children or children undergoing migraine prophylaxis. The migraine prophylaxis group performed as well as the control group. The deregulation of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of migraine might induce visual attention deficits, but an effective prophylactic treatment might reverse migraine symptoms.

  9. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, William F.; Ackerman, Gary E.; Zoellner, Cindy L.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62%) were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier PMID:20706678

  10. Deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism: prophylaxis, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    Thoracic surgery patients should be regarded at high risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, or low-dose unfractionated heparin or fondaparinux (Arixtra) is therefore strongly recommended. Pharmacologic prophylaxis should be extended to 4 weeks after major cancer surgery. Pulmonary embolism should be always managed with anticoagulation, in addition to thrombolytic therapy, in patients presenting with cardiogenic shock or persistent arterial hypotension.

  11. Conformity with guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sagert, G; Austin, T W; Bombassaro, A M; Parbtani, A

    1994-10-01

    The extent to which prescribed antimicrobial prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis conformed with American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines was determined and the frequency of nonconformity with specific elements of the guidelines was evaluated. Patients with conditions defined by AHA as placing them at risk for developing endocarditis were identified through medical records for a four-year period at an 850-bed hospital. Data about the procedures they underwent and prophylaxis prescribed were compared with the AHA guidelines. Conformity with the guidelines was evaluated according to whether prophylaxis was recommended, optional, or unnecessary; nonconformity with specific elements of the guidelines (indication, choice of antimicrobial, dose, dosage interval, timing, and duration) was also evaluated. The following variables were evaluated for possible association with nonconformity to the guidelines: patient's age and sex, penicillin allergy, use of a consultant, and whether the procedure was the first performed in the patient after identification of the cardiac condition. Of the 131 cases analyzed, 29 (22%) involved prophylaxis that conformed with the AHA guidelines. Conformity with the guidelines was significantly lower when prophylaxis was recommended or optional than when it was unnecessary. Nonconformity was most common with the following elements: indication, choice of antimicrobial, and dose. Recommended prophylaxis was given more often in children than in adults and more often before first procedures than before subsequent procedures. More of the regimens prescribed for children exceeded the recommended duration than those prescribed for adults. Unnecessary prophylaxis was given more often when a consultant was involved than when no consultant was involved. In hospitalized patients, conformity with AHA guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis against endocarditis was low.

  12. Cytomegalovirus Hyper Immunoglobulin for CMV Prophylaxis in Thoracic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rea, Federico; Potena, Luciano; Yonan, Nizar; Wagner, Florian; Calabrese, Fiorella

    2016-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection negatively influences both short- and long-term outcomes after cardiothoracic transplantation. In heart transplantation, registry analyses have shown that CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) with or without virostatic prophylaxis is associated with a significant reduction in mortality and graft loss versus no prophylaxis, particularly in high-risk donor (D)+/recipient (R)- transplants. Randomized comparative trials are lacking but retrospective data suggest that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis may reduce rates of CMV-related events after heart transplantation, including the incidence of acute rejection or chronic allograft vasculopathy. However, available data consistently indicate that when CMVIG is used, it should be administered with concomitant antiviral therapy, and that evidence concerning preemptive management with CMVIG is limited, but promising. In lung transplantation, CMVIG should again only be used with concomitant antiviral therapy. Retrospective studies have shown convincing evidence that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis lowers CMV endpoints and mortality. The current balance of evidence suggests that CMVIG prophylaxis reduces the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, but a controlled trial is awaited. Overall, the relatively limited current data set suggests that prophylaxis with CMVIG in combination with antiviral therapy appears effective in D+/R- heart transplant patients, whereas in lung transplantation, addition of CMVIG in recipients of a CMV-positive graft may offer an advantage in terms of CMV infection and disease.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole prophylaxis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzi, Gloria; Yilmaz, Musa; Kantarjian, Hagop; Borthakur, Gautam; Konopleva, Marina; Jabbour, Elias; Brown, Yolanda; Pierce, Sherry; Cortes, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis is routinely given to patients with hematologic malignancies at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI), yet breakthrough IFI may still occur. Posaconazole emerged as an excellent alternative for fungal prophylaxis in high-risk patients. There is limited data about pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of posaconazole when given as prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. We recruited 20 adult patients for prospective, open label trial of posaconazole given as a prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing induction chemotherapy or first salvage therapy. The median age of all patients was 65 years and received prophylaxis for a median of 38 days (range: 5-42 days).Ten patients (50%) completed 42 days on posaconazole prophylaxis. Median plasma posaconazole levels showed no statistical difference across gender, body surface area, patients developing IFI, and patients acquiring grade 3 or 4 elevation of liver enzymes. However, there was an overall trend for higher trough concentrations among patients with no IFI than those with IFI. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole varies from patient to patient, and AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy who never develop IFI tend to have higher plasma concentrations after oral administration of posaconazole.

  14. [Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite].

    PubMed

    Patey, O

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks. The transmission depends on several factors, especially on the duration of the tick's presence in the host body (the nymph which is smaller than the adults and thus less visible, is in this case the most frequently involved) and on whether the tick is infected or not. The interpretation of results in the few available studies is made difficult by the lack of information obtained (due to difficulty to collect information and examination costs). The comparison is made even more difficult by the difference between Borrelia ticks species in various regions. Today, the best methods are preventive: protective clothing, tick repellents, checking and removal of ticks after a journey in an endemic zone, and in case of tick bite, regular examination of the bite site during the following weeks in order to initiate an early curative treatment if ECM is diagnosed. The currently available data seems to be insufficient to suggest systematic antimicrobial prophylaxis in case of tick bite.

  15. Drug-coated balloons for restenosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Speck, U; Scheller, B; Hamm, B

    2014-04-01

    Drug-coated balloons for restenosis prophylaxis provide a high local drug concentration with minimal or no systemic adverse effects. Their development was both delayed and facilitated by the introduction of drug-eluting stents: delayed because sustained release kinetics from stent platforms seemed to be essential and facilitated because prior experience with stents allowed selection of testing methods and drugs. Currently, a variety of drug-coated balloons are available, basically consisting of a coating containing paclitaxel at a dose of about 3 µg/mm² balloon surface, and different additives influencing the adherence and release of the drug, e. g., contrast agent, urea, or various amphiphilic compounds. The drug is almost completely released during a single inflation of 30 - 60 seconds. Studies in animals and several independent randomized clinical trials in coronary and peripheral arteries demonstrate effective reduction of neointimal proliferation, restenosis, and revascularization persisting for at least 2 years or 5 years according to one study in coronary arteries. Drug-coated balloons are preferably used for treating coronary in-stent restenosis and de novo and restenotic lesions in peripheral vessels. No coating-related adverse events have been observed in clinical trials. Persistent efficacy may be explained by the long residence time of paclitaxel in tissue or inhibition of an essential first step in the chain of events leading to neointimal proliferation.

  16. Prophylaxis of migraine in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    While it has been established that headaches in the pediatric age group are relatively common, the characterization of headache disorders and their treatment in this group has historically been limited. Due to the paucity of controlled studies on prophylaxis of the primary headache disorders in children, the diagnosis of migraine often rests on criteria similar to those used in adults. Data from adult studies are often extrapolated and applied to the pediatric patient. Although it appears that many prophylactic agents are safe, well tolerated and efficacious in children, currently only topiramate is FDA-approved for use in patients 12 years and over. As a result, despite often experiencing significant disability, many children who present to their physician with migraines do not receive preventive therapy. One-third of adolescents meet the criteria for warranting prophylactic therapy, yet few are offered a preventative medication. Moreover, controlled clinical trials investigating the use of both abortive and prophylactic medications in children have suffered from high placebo response rates. A diverse group of medications are used to prevent migraine attacks, including antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines and antihypertensive agents, yet there still remains a serious lack of controlled studies on the pharmacological treatment of pediatric migraine.

  17. Primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors : guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Krause, S W; Maschmeyer, G; Schiel, X; von Lilienfeld-Toal, M

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial infections are the most common cause for treatment-related mortality in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the use of antibacterial prophylaxis against bacteria and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in neutropenic cancer patients and offer guidance towards the choice of drug. A literature search was performed to screen all articles published between September 2000 and January 2012 on antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic cancer patients. The authors assembled original reports and meta-analysis from the literature and drew conclusions, which were discussed and approved in a consensus conference of the Infectious Disease Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (AGIHO). Antibacterial prophylaxis has led to a reduction of febrile events and infections. A significant reduction of overall mortality could only be shown in a meta-analysis. Fluoroquinolones are preferred for antibacterial and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP prophylaxis. Due to serious concerns about an increase of resistant pathogens, only patients at high risk of severe infections should be considered for antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factors of individual patients and local resistance patterns must be taken into account. Risk factors, choice of drug for antibacterial and PCP prophylaxis and concerns regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics are discussed in the review.

  18. Results of a venous thromboembolism prophylaxis program for hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Krokoscz, Daniella Vianna C; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; Furtado, Ilka Spinola; Mattar, Jorge; de Souza e Sá, Marcia Martiniano; de Lira, Antonio Carlos Onofre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of preventable death in hospitalized patients. However, existing prophylaxis guidelines are rarely followed. Objective The aim of the study was to present and discuss implementation strategies and the results of a VTE prophylaxis program for medical and surgical patients admitted to a large general hospital. Patients and methods This prospective observational study was conducted to describe the strategy used to implement a VTE prophylaxis program in hospitalized medical and surgical patients and to analyze the results in terms of the risk assessment rate within the first 24 hours after admission, adequacy of the prophylaxis prescription, and prevalence of VTE in the discharge records before and after program implementation. We used the Mantel–Haenszel chi-square test for the linear trend of the data analysis and set the significance level to P<0.05. Results With the support of an institutional VTE prophylaxis committee, a multiple-strategy approach was used in the implementation of the protocol, which included continuing education, complete data recording using computerized systems, and continuous auditing of and feedback to the medical staff and multidisciplinary teams. Approximately 90% of patients were evaluated within the first 24 hours after admission, and no significant difference in this percentage was observed among the years analyzed. A progressive increase in adherence to protocol recommendations, from 63.8% in 2010 to 75.0% in 2014 (P<0.001), was noted. The prevalence of symptomatic VTE in the discharge records of patients decreased from 2.03% in 2009 to 1.69% in 2014 (P=0.033). Conclusion The implementation of a VTE prophylaxis program targeting adult patients admitted to a large hospital employing a multiple-strategy approach achieved high rates of risk assessment within 24 hours of admission, improved the adherence to prophylaxis recommendations in high-risk patients, and reduced the

  19. [Pattern of injuries and prophylaxis in paragliding].

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Hesse, B; Blatter, G; Schmidtler, B; Muhr, G

    2000-06-01

    This study will present trends and recommendations to increase active and passive safety in paragliding on the basis of current state-of-the-art equipment and typical patterns of injury. This German-Swiss teamwork presents data of 55 male and 9 female patients treated after paragliding accidents between 1994 to 1998 respectively 1996 to 1998. 43.7% of the pilots presented with multiple injuries, 62.5% suffered spinal fractures and 18.8% pelvic fractures. 28.4% of the injured pilots were admitted with injuries of the lower extremities mainly affecting the tarsus or the ankle joint. Only three patients with single injuries could be treated in an ambulatory setting. 54.0% of the injuries left the patients with lasting functional residues and complaints. Main causes of accidents were either pilot error in handling the paraglider or general lack of awareness about potential risk factors. 46.0% of injuries occurred during landing, 42.9% of injuries during the flight and another 11.1% of injuries during starting procedures. With noticeable enhanced performance sails of the beginners and intermediate level are increasingly popular. Protective helmets and sturdy footwear reaching above the ankle joint are indispensable pieces of equipment. The use of protective gloves is highly recommended. Back protection devices of the new generation provide the best passive prophylaxis for the pilot against pelvic and spinal cord injuries. This area hold the most promise for increasing safety and reducing risk of injury in future, apart from using beginners and intermediate wings. After acquisition of the pilot license performance and security training provide the best preparing to master unforeseeable situations.

  20. National Practice in Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Aydan; Karasoy, Durdu; Kurt, Halil; Baskan, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although breast cancer surgery is regarded as a “clean” surgery, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are higher than expected. There is no consensus regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective breast surgery. The nationwide survey was conducted to determine the trend of antibiotic prophylaxis in breast cancer among Turkish surgeons. Methods The survey was sent to surgeons who are member of Turkish Surgical Association (TSA) via e-mail from TSA web address. A 15 item web-based survey consisted of surgeon demographics and the use of prophylactic antibiotic in patients with risk factors related to SSI. Results The number of completed questionnaires was 245. The most common antibiotic used was first generation of cephalosporins. A majority of respondents indicated that prophylaxis was preferred in patients with high risk of SSI including preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, older age, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, immediate reconstruction (P < 0.05). However, the use of drain did not significantly influence antibiotic prophylaxis (P = 0.091). Conclusions The use of prophylactic antibiotic was strongly dependent on the presence of some risk factors; however, the variation in current practice regarding antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrated a lack of its effect on preventing SSI after breast cancer surgery. PMID:24400029

  1. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECISTECTOMY: IS IT WORTH DOING?

    PubMed Central

    PASSOS, Márcio Alexandre Terra; PORTARI-FILHO, Pedro Eder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has very low risk for infectious complications, ranging the infection rate from 0.4% to 1.1%. Many surgeons still use routine antibiotic prophylaxis Aim: Evaluate the real impact of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies in low risk patients. Method: Prospective, randomized and double-blind study. Were evaluated 100 patients that underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy divided in two groups: group A (n=50), patients that received prophylaxis using intravenous Cephazolin (2 g) during anesthetic induction and group B (n=50), patients that didn't receive any antibiotic prophylaxis. The outcome evaluated were infeccious complications at surgical site. The patients were reviewed seven and 30 days after surgery. Results: There was incidence of 2% in infection complications in group A and 2% in group B. There was no statistical significant difference of infectious complications (p=0,05) between the groups. The groups were homogeneous and comparable. Conclusion: The use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in low risk patients doesn't provide any significant benefit in the decrease of surgical wound infection. PMID:27759780

  2. Prophylaxis of migraine: general principles and patient acceptance

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Domenico; Tepper, Stewart J

    2008-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological condition with episodic exacerbations. Migraine is highly prevalent, and associated with significant pain, disability, and diminished quality of life. Migraine management is an important health care issue. Migraine management includes avoidance of trigger factors, lifestyle modifications, non-pharmacological therapies, and medications. Pharmacological treatment is traditionally divided into acute or symptomatic treatment, and preventive treatment or prophylaxis. Many migraine patients can be treated using only acute treatment. Patients with severe and/or frequent migraines require long-term preventive therapy. Prophylaxis requires daily administration of anti-migraine compounds with potential adverse events or contraindications, and may also interfere with other concurrent conditions and treatments. These problems may induce patients to reject the idea of a preventive treatment, leading to poor patient adherence. This paper reviews the main factors influencing patient acceptance of anti-migraine prophylaxis, providing practical suggestions to enhance patient willingness to accept pharmacological anti-migraine preventive therapy. We also provide information about the main clinical characteristics of migraine, and their negative consequences. The circumstances warranting prophylaxis in migraine patients as well as the main characteristics of the compounds currently used in migraine prophylaxis will also be briefly discussed, focusing on those aspects which can enhance patient acceptance and adherence. PMID:19337456

  3. Comparison of sublingual therapeutic vaccine with antibiotics for the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Gómez, María F.; Padilla-Fernández, Bárbara; García-Cenador, María B.; Virseda-Rodríguez, Álvaro J.; Martín-García, Isidoro; Sánchez-Escudero, Alfonso; Vicente-Arroyo, Manuel J.; Mirón-Canelo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical impact of a prophylactic treatment with sublingual immunostimulation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) with the use of antibiotics. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study evaluating the medical records of 669 women with rUTIs; 339 had a 6-month prophylaxis with antibiotics and 360 a 3-month prophylaxis with a sublingual bacterial preparation (MV 140-Uromune®). The time frame after the prophylaxis-period until the appearance of a new infection (assessed by uroculture) was scored and followed during 1 year. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number needed to treat (NNT) were also calculated. Results: All patients treated with antibiotics experienced a new UTI during the scoring period of 12 months, being 19 days the median number of days free of UTIs (range 5–300). In the group treated with the bacterial preparation, 35 (9.7%) patients experienced an UTI in the same period. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the accumulated survival (disease-free time) between both groups were significant different (P < 0.0001). The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 90.28% (87.18–93.38) and the number needed to treat (NNT) 1.1 (1.1–1.1). Conclusions: These results suggest that the treatment with this bacterial preparation significantly reduces the incidence of rUTIs, arising as an effective strategy to reduce the frequency of rUTIs. It reduces antibiotic consumption, matching the current recommendations due to the raise of antimicrobial resistance. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, clinical trials are needed to establish, more accurately, the clinical impact of this bacterial preparation in patients with rUTIs. PMID:26090341

  4. Role of vaccinations and prophylaxis in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Despoina; Tsoulas, Christos; Tragiannidis, Athanassios; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2015-04-01

    Targeted strategies for reducing the increased risk of infection in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases include vaccinations as well as antibiotic prophylaxis in selected patients. However, there are still issues under debate: Is vaccination in patients with rheumatic diseases immunogenic? Is it safe? What is the impact of immunosuppressive drugs on vaccine immunogenicity and safety? Does vaccination cause disease flares? In which cases is prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii required? This review addresses these important questions to which clinicians and researchers still do not have definite answers. The first part includes immunization recommendations and reviews current data on vaccine efficacy and safety in patients with rheumatic diseases. The second part discusses prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia.

  5. Considerations in individualizing prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Valentino, L A

    2014-09-01

    Prophylaxis is considered optimal care for children and adults with severe haemophilia A because of its proven ability to reduce joint and other bleeding episodes. However, a 'one size fits all' approach to prophylaxis is not ideal, potentially leading to over-treatment in some individuals and under-treatment in others. Moreover, a generic plan fails to take into account a patient's lifestyle and personal preferences. This article reviews the factors contributing to bleeding risk and joint damage and uses case studies to illustrate how these contributors can be weighed to individualize the prophylactic regimen, thereby increasing the likelihood of therapeutic success.

  6. Ventilator-associated pneumonias in children (II)--prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shmilev, Tonyo I; Yankov, Ivan V

    2012-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection among children treated in intensive care units. The risk factors for developing this condition are generated by the patient's bedside conditions, the equipment used and the specific treatment administered to the child. Prophylaxis of VAP should necessarily include all measures that have been proven to be efficient in this respect such as rigorous hygiene control of hands and protective clothing of attending staff, changing breathing circuits of ventilators only if they malfunction or if they are visibly contaminated, preference of orotracheal intubation (instead of nasotracheal intubation) and use of endotracheal tubes with dorsal lumens to allow respiratory secretions to drain, and introduction of a uniform approach to patient care and staff training. Prophylaxis of the microbial colonization in children by antibiotics does not reduce the incidence of VAP-causing poly-resistant bacteria. Therapeutic management includes early initiation of broad spectrum empirical antibiotic therapy, the right choice of antibiotic requiring regular monitoring and good knowledge of the antibiotics sensitivity of the most common microbial isolates in the ward.

  7. Additive effects of exogenous IL-12 supplementation and antibiotic treatment in infection prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Brandon M; Lindsey, Brock A; Clovis, Nina B; Smith, E Suzanne; Hobbs, Gerald R; Hubbard, David F; Emery, Sanford E; Barnett, John B; Li, Bingyun

    2012-02-01

    The increasing clinical incidence and host risk of open fracture-associated infections, as well as the reduced effectiveness of conventional antibiotics to treat such infections, have driven the development of new therapies for the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. We investigated percutaneous supplementation of a natural cytokine (i.e., interleukin 12p70 or IL-12) at an open fracture site to reduce open fracture-associated infections. We also determined the efficacy of the combination therapy of IL-12 and conventional antibiotic therapy in the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. An open femur fracture infection model was produced by direct inoculation of a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus after creating a femur fracture using rats. The animals were assigned to one of four groups: no drug administration, percutaneous supplementation of IL-12, intraperitoneal administration of the antibiotic ampicillin, or percutaneous IL-12 in combination with intraperitoneal ampicillin. Animals were euthanized at postoperative days 6, 10, 14, and 21. Percutaneous IL-12 led to a reduction in infection at postoperative days 6 and 10. For the first time, exogenous IL-12 was found to have additive effects in the prevention of infection when combined with conventional treatment (i.e., antibiotic therapy). Combination therapy of ampicillin and IL-12 substantially reduced the infection rate at postoperative day 6 and also decreased the time needed for complete inhibition of infection. Therefore, exogenous IL-12, providing a mechanism of protection independent of antibiotic resistance, complements the routine use of antibiotics.

  8. Faecal shedding of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in horses receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Damborg, Peter; Marskar, Peter; Baptiste, Keith E; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-27

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the occurrence and genetic background of faecal Escherichia coli resistant to cefotaxime (CTX) in horses receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after admission to a veterinary teaching hospital. The ten horses enrolled in the study were treated with cefquinome either alone (n=4) or in combination with metronidazole (n=3) or other antimicrobial agents (n=3). CTX-resistant coliforms in faeces collected before, during and after treatment were quantified on selective MacConkey agar supplemented with CTX, and a colony isolated randomly from each positive sample was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and by PCR detection and sequencing of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) and bla(CMY). All horses were negative for CTX-resistant coliforms at admission but became positive within the first three days of treatment. The average faecal densities of CTX-resistant coliforms increased significantly following antimicrobial prophylaxis (P<0.001). Genetic characterization of 29 faecal isolates revealed that this effect was due to proliferation of E. coli producing either CTX-M-1 (n=28) or CTX-M-14 (n=1). Five CTX-M-1 isolates produced additional β-lactamases (TEM-1, CMY-34 and the novel variant CMY-53). Shedding of CTX-M-producing E. coli appeared intermittent in four horses and persisted two weeks after antimicrobial treatments in five of six patients tested after discharge from hospital. Nosocomial transmission was suggested by finding five identical CTX-M-1-producing E. coli pulsotypes in multiple horses. The originality of the study lies in the unanticipated high frequency and genetic diversity of CTX-M-producing E. coli observed in the faecal flora of hospitalized patients receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  9. Hospital-Based First Responder Mass Prophylaxis Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Have you ever had any of the following medical conditions? Asthma/Emphysema/ COPD Yes No Diabetes...prophylaxis is a costly venture that includes regulatory, personal privacy considerations, and a strict adherence to medical guidelines, but the result of not

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adult and child patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F.; Al-Shinaiber, Rafif M.; Al-Baijan, Refal S.; Al-Balawi, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dentists’ knowledge regarding the prevention of infective endocarditis in Saudi Arabia and their implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in March 2014, 801 dentists who practice in different regions of Saudi Arabia completed a questionnaire regarding the need for antibiotic prophylaxis for specific cardiac conditions and specific dental procedures, prophylaxis regimens in adults and children, and recommendations for patients on chronic antibiotics, and in dental emergencies. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests, and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total knowledge level regarding antibiotic prophylaxis among all participants was 52.2%, with a significant difference between dentists who graduated before and after 2007. Comparing the level of knowledge among different dental specialists, surgeons and periodontists had the highest level of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the drug of choice by 63.9% of the participants. Conclusion: This study emphasized the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the guidelines in the students’ curriculum, as well as for strategic placement of the guidelines in locations throughout dental clinics. PMID:25935175

  11. Rationale for a randomized controlled trial comparing two prophylaxis regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A: the Hemophilia Adult Prophylaxis Trial.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2011-10-01

    A major goal of comprehensive hemophilia care is to prevent occurrence of bleeds by prophylaxis or regular preventive factor, one or more times weekly. Although prophylaxis is effective in reducing bleeding and joint damage in children, whether it is necessary to continue into adulthood is not known. The purpose of this article is to describe a Phase III randomized controlled trial to evaluate prophylaxis comparing two dose regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A. I hypothesize that adults with mature cartilage and joints are less susceptible to joint bleeds and joint damage, and that once-weekly recombinant factor VIII prophylaxis, with up to two rescue doses per week, is as effective as thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing bleeding frequency, but less costly and more acceptable, with higher quality of life. The ultimate goal of this project is to determine whether once-weekly prophylaxis is any worse than thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing joint bleeding frequency, while potentially utilizing less factor, at lower cost, leading to a better quality of life. This is an innovative concept, as it challenges the current paradigm of thrice-weekly prophylaxis in adults, which is based on dosing in children. Furthermore, this trial will assess interdose thrombin generation, a novel tissue factor-based assay of hemostasis, to determine if individualized thrombin generation can predict more individualized prophylaxis dosing, which would be practice changing.

  12. Dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations in Pneumocystis and sulfa resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina; Atzori, Chiara; Benfield, Thomas; Miller, Robert; Rabodonirina, Meja; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik

    2004-10-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of illness and death in HIV-infected persons. Sulfa drugs, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and dapsone are mainstays of PCP treatment and prophylaxis. While prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of PCP, its use has raised concerns about development of resistant organisms. The inability to culture human Pneumocystis, Pneumocystis jirovecii, in a standardized culture system prevents routine susceptibility testing and detection of drug resistance. In other microorganisms, sulfa drug resistance has resulted from specific point mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Similar mutations have been observed in P. jirovecii. Studies have consistently demonstrated a significant association between the use of sulfa drugs for PCP prophylaxis and DHPS gene mutations. Whether these mutations confer resistance to TMP-SMX or dapsone plus trimethoprim for PCP treatment remains unclear. We review studies of DHPS mutations in P. jirovecii and summarize the evidence for resistance to sulfamethoxazole and dapsone.

  13. Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase gene of human-derived Pneumocystis carinii isolates from Italy are infrequent but correlate with prior sulfa prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Kovacs, Joseph A; Cargnel, Antonietta; Valerio, Antonella; Fantoni, Giovanna; Atzori, Chiara

    2002-05-15

    Mutations in the human-derived Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene have been reported with increasing frequency and have been linked to prior sulfa prophylaxis and possible emergence of sulfa resistance. This study was done to examine the prevalence and clinical significance of P. carinii DHPS mutations in Italian patients. A previously described single-strand conformation polymorphism technique was used to identify P. carinii DHPS mutations in 107 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Overall prevalence (8%) was low compared with that in other reports. Mutations were observed in 19% (6/31) of patients exposed to sulfa prophylaxis, compared with 4% (3/76) of patients not exposed to sulfa prophylaxis (P=.017). No significant association was observed between the presence of DHPS mutations and mortality, CD4 cell count, or demographic factors. The study confirms the association between DHPS mutations and prior sulfa prophylaxis and shows that the prevalence of DHPS mutations in an Italian patient population is lower than that in other populations.

  14. Antibiotic prophylaxis may not be necessary in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Lorenz; Sammer, Ulla; Walter, Matthias; Knüpfer, Stephanie C.; Schneider, Marc P.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Tornic, Jure; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) present with chronic bacteriuria. In these patients, antibiotic prophylaxis has been widely recommended since bacteriuria might impair treatment efficacy and cause urinary tract infections (UTI) but the evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an antibiotic prophylaxis is needed in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Between 06/2012 and 12/2014, a consecutive series of 154 patients undergoing a total of 273 treatment cycles were prospectively evaluated. Before treatment urine samples were collected, patients with no clinical signs for UTI underwent onabotulinumtoxinA injections, no antibiotic prophylaxis was given. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found in 73% (200/273 treatments). Following treatment, UTI occurred in 5% (9/200) and 7% (5/73) of patients with and without bacteriuria, respectively. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections were clinically and urodynamically successful in 70% (192/273). There was no association between bacteriuria and treatment-related adverse events (odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.23–1.81, p = 0.4) nor between bacteriuria and therapy failure (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.43–1.43, p = 0.4). Thus, we conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis needs to be critically reconsidered in patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections, especially taking into account the alarming antibiotic resistance worldwide. PMID:27616488

  15. [Classical dengue transmission dynamics involving mechanical control and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Restrepo, Leonardo D; Vergaño-Salazar, Juan G; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever transmission dynamics were studied in an endemic region considering the use of preventative measures and mechanical control in reducing transmission of the disease. A system of ordinary differential equations was proposed, describing the dynamics and their evolution as determined by numerical simulation. Different mechanical control and prophylaxis strategies were compared to the situation without control. The basic reproduction number R₀ was determined R₀ to show that if R₀ > 1 there would be a risk of an epidemic and otherwise the disease would have low impact levels. The basic reproduction number helps determine the dynamics' future pattern and contrast the results so obtained with those obtained numerically. It was concluded that although prophylaxis and mechanical control alone provide effective results in controlling the disease, if both controls are combined then infection levels become significantly reduced. Around 60 % mechanical control and prevention levels are needed to provide suitable results in controlling dengue outbreaks.

  16. Phototoxic reaction associated with Malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) antimalarial prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Aymeric; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Jeanmougin, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Phototoxic reaction has not been reported previously as an adverse reaction to the combination of atovaquone and proguanil (AP) (Malarone) used for antimalarial prophylaxis and therapy. We report here a 32-year-old patient treated with AP who presented with clinical manifestations of photosensitivity. AP-induced phototoxicity in this patient was further supported by phototesting. Malarone is not known to photosensitize and render the skin more susceptible to severe sunburn-like reactions. That it may do so, as in this case, is of importance especially as this drug is used predominantly by those travelling to sunnier climes. A notification of potential phototoxic effects of AP should be published for the choice of prophylaxis made by tourists traveling in malarial areas.

  17. Antifungal prophylaxis following reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kami, M; Murashige, N; Tanaka, Y; Narimatsu, H

    2006-12-01

    Reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) has been developed to be a novel curative option for advanced hematologic diseases. Its minimal toxicity allows for transplantation in patients with advanced age or with organ dysfunction. Young patients without comorbidity can undergo RIST as outpatients. However, fungal infection remains an important complication in RIST. Given the poor prognosis of fungal infection, prophylaxis is critical in its management. The prophylactic strategy is recently changing with the development of RIST. Hospital equipment is important for fungal prophylaxis; however, the median day for the development of fungal infection is day 100, when most RIST patients are followed as outpatients. The focus of fungal management after RIST needs to shift from in-hospital equipment to oral antifungals. Various antifungals have recently been developed and introduced for clinical use. A major change in antifungal management will probably occur within several years.

  18. Posaconazole: Use in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nina M; Grim, Shellee A; Lynch, Joseph P

    2015-10-01

    Posaconazole, a fluorinated triazole antifungal drug, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for (1) prophylaxis against Aspergillus and Candida infections in immunocompromised patients at high risk for these infections and (2) oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), including cases refractory to fluconazole and/or itraconazole. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved posaconazole for (1) treatment of aspergillosis, fusariosis, chromoblastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other azoles or amphotericin B; (2) first-line therapy for OPC for severe disease or in those unlikely to respond to topical therapy; and (3) prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk hematologic patients and stem cell transplant recipients. In addition to approved indications, posaconazole has been used with success as salvage therapy for invasive mold infections and endemic mycoses in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other antifungal agents, and as prophylaxis or salvage therapy in children, for whom indications are more limited owing to a paucity of data. Posaconazole has potent in vitro activity against a broad range of fungi and molds, including Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, filamentous fungi, and endemic mycoses including coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis. Importantly, posaconazole is much more active than other azoles against many Mucorales species and the combination of posaconazole with other antifungal agents may be synergistic. Hence, posaconazole is a potential candidate as a single or combination agent for difficult-to-treat fungal infections. Posaconazole has an excellent safety profile; to date, serious side effects are rare, even with prolonged use. However, newer posaconazole formulations achieve higher blood levels and it remains to be seen whether this may lead to an increase in the rate of adverse effects. Currently, posaconazole is used predominantly

  19. Anti-Viral Prophylaxis Target Product Profile Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-24

    pertain to vaccine development. The prophylaxis candidates will be used to prophylax patients who have been exposed to the pathogen, and are asymptomatic...FDA. uring exposure and for seven ro h laxis days after last exposure requency of therapy Once every six weeks Oral or topical, fast disintegrating...administration: • Objective: modeled from influenza (oseltamavir); • Threshold modeled from hepatitis A, rabies (immune serum globulin, rabies immune

  20. Current evidence of antifungal prophylaxis and therapy in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Giacchino, Mareva; Milano, Giuseppe Maria; Carraro, Francesca; Bezzio, Stefania; Pegoraro, Anna; Aversa, Franco; Cesaro, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an important complication in pediatric haematological and oncological patients who undergo intensive chemotherapy for leukemia, solid tumour at advanced stage or relapsed, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of IFI is lower than bacterial infection but mortality rate remains high. This review is designed to help paediatric oncologists in choosing the appropriate anti-fungal strategy and agents for prophylaxis, empirical, pre-emptive and specific therapy on the basis of published evidence. PMID:21647279

  1. Current evidence of antifungal prophylaxis and therapy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Giacchino, Mareva; Milano, Giuseppe Maria; Carraro, Francesca; Bezzio, Stefania; Pegoraro, Anna; Aversa, Franco; Cesaro, Simone

    2011-02-24

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an important complication in pediatric haematological and oncological patients who undergo intensive chemotherapy for leukemia, solid tumour at advanced stage or relapsed, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of IFI is lower than bacterial infection but mortality rate remains high. This review is designed to help paediatric oncologists in choosing the appropriate anti-fungal strategy and agents for prophylaxis, empirical, pre-emptive and specific therapy on the basis of published evidence.

  2. [Perioperative metronidazole-prophylaxis for cesarian section (author's transl].

    PubMed

    Gerstner, G; Kofler, E; Huber, J

    1980-12-01

    A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 103 patients undergoing cesarian section to assess the efficacy of prophylactic, intravenously administered Metronidazole on the infectious morbidity. A group of 53 patients with perioperative Metronidazol-prophylaxis was compared to a similar controll-group without prophylaxis. Bacteriologic swabs were taken from the cervix pre- and postoperatively, using anaerobic transport media. Prophylactic Metronidazole reduced postoperative fever of more than 38 degrees C on two subsequent days from 60% in the controll-group to 30,2% in the Metronidazole-group (p less than 0,01) wound infections were reduced from 18% without to 5,7% with prophylaxis (p less than 0,05) and Endometritis from 30% without to 13,2% with prophylaxis (p less than 0,05). An additional antibiotic therapy was necessary in 44% of the cases in the controllgroup, compared to 24,5% of the cases in the Metronidazolegroup (p less than 0,05). The mean duration of hospitalisation was reduced from 12,1 +/- 3,2 days in the controll-group to 11,2 +/- 2,1 in the Metronidazole-group (p less than 0,01). Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the servical swabs in 60% preoperatively, with a still increasing incidence to 72% postoperatively, compared to 7% in the Metronidazole-group. Our results suggest, that prophylactic, intravenously administered Metronidazol reduces the infectious morbidity following cesarian section due to the reduction of the anaerobic flora at the female genital-tract.

  3. Prophylaxis in von Willebrand Disease: Coming of Age?

    PubMed

    Saccullo, Giorgia; Makris, Mike

    2016-07-01

    Although in most cases von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a mild disorder, a subgroup of patients experience frequent bleeding. In contrast to severe hemophilia in which prophylaxis is the accepted standard of care, this is less frequently used in VWD. Most type 1 VWD patients can be adequately managed with episodic desmopressin and tranexamic acid. In patients with more severe disease, especially those with type 3 VWD, joint bleeds, epistaxis, menorrhagia, and gastrointestinal bleeding are problematic and usually require treatment with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII (VWF/FVIII) concentrate. While in the past these patients were managed with on-demand VWF/FVIII concentrate, several recent reports have demonstrated the value of prophylactic treatment. Despite some uncertainties about the economic impact of treatment of severe VWD, prophylaxis with VWF concentrate should now be considered as the standard of care for the more severe end of the spectrum of affected individuals. The recent introduction of recombinant VWF concentrate is likely to improve the acceptability of prophylaxis in VWD.

  4. Current practice of antibiotic prophylaxis during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Macano, Caw; Griffiths, E A; Vohra, R S

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Current guidelines do not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite this, there is wide variation in antibiotic prophylaxis during cholecystectomy in population-based studies. The aim of this survey was to establish the current rationale for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A short questionnaire was designed and disseminated across collaborators for a population-based study investigating outcomes following cholecystectomy and via the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, Researchgate and Surginet membership. RESULTS Responses were received from 234 people; 50.9% had no written policy for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in elective cholecystectomy; 5.6% never used antibiotics, while 30.8% always did and 63.7% selectively used antibiotics. Contamination with bile, stones and pus were scenarios in which antibiotics were most commonly used in selective practices to reduce infective complications. Interestingly, 87% of respondents would be happy to participate in a trial investigating the effectiveness of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. CONCLUSIONS The disparity between current practice and guidelines appears to arise because of a lack of evidence to show that antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. This question needs to addressed before practice will change.

  5. Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W R; Richie, T L; Fryauff, D J; Picarima, H; Ohrt, C; Tang, D; Braitman, D; Murphy, G S; Widjaja, H; Tjitra, E; Ganjar, A; Jones, T R; Basri, H; Berman, J

    1999-01-01

    New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis with teicoplanin on alternate days reduces rate of viridans sepsis and febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Boztug, Heidrun; Mühlegger, Nora; Pötschger, Ulrike; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Peters, Christina; Mann, Georg; Dworzak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis. Fifty pediatric patients underwent 199 evaluable chemotherapy cycles. Viridans sepsis occurred after none of 98 cycles with prophylactic administration of teicoplanin/vancomycin in comparison to 12 cases of viridans sepsis among 79 cycles without systemic antibacterial prophylaxis (0 vs. 15 %, p < 0.0001). In addition, there were significantly fewer episodes of febrile neutropenia in the teicoplanin/vancomycin group (44 % vs. no prophylaxis 82 %, p < 0.0001). Severity of infection seemed to be worse when no antibiotic prophylaxis had been administered with a higher rate of intensive care unit treatment (0/98, 0 %, vs. 4/79, 5 %, p = 0.038). So far, no increase of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates in surveillance cultures was noticed. Antibiotic prophylaxis with teicoplanin (or vancomycin) appears safe and feasible and resulted in eradication of viridans sepsis and decreased incidence of febrile neutropenia in pediatric AML patients. The possibility to administer teicoplanin on alternate days on an outpatient basis or at home could contribute to patient's quality of life and decrease health care costs.

  7. Pursuing Paradoxical Proconvulsant Prophylaxis for Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Caren; Morgan, Robert J.; Soltesz, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Summary There are essentially two potential treatment options for any acquired disorder: symptomatic or prophylactic. For acquired epilepsies which follow a variety of different brain insults, there remains a complete lack of prophylactic treatment options while at the same time these epilepsies are notoriously resistant to symptomatic treatments with antiepileptic drugs once they have emerged. The development of prophylactic strategies is, however, logistically challenging, both for basic researchers and clinicians. Nevertheless, cannabinoid-targeting drugs provide a very interesting example of a system within the CNS that can have very different acute and long-term effects on hyperexcitability and seizures. In this review, we outline research on cannabinoids suggesting that while cannabinoid antagonists are acutely pro-convulsant, they may have beneficial effects on long-term hyperexcitability following brain insults of multiple etiologies, making them promising candidates for further investigation as prophylactics against acquired epilepsy. We then discuss some of the implications of this finding on future attempts at prophylactic treatments, specifically, the very short window within which prevention may be possible, the possibility that traditional anticonvulsants may interfere with prophylactic strategies, and the importance of moving beyond anticonvulsants—even to proconvulsants—to find the ideal preventative strategy for acquired epilepsy. PMID:19552655

  8. Do estrogen and alendronate improve metaphyseal fracture healing when applied as osteoporosis prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Hoerster, Ann Kristin; Sehmisch, Stephan; Malcherek, Marie Christin; Rack, Thomas; Tezval, Mohammed; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is accompanied by predominantly metaphyseal fractures with a delayed and qualitatively reduced healing process. This study addressed the question of whether fracture healing in the context of osteoporosis prophylaxis is improved with estrogen (E) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six ovariectomized and 12 sham-operated 12-week-old rats received soy-free (osteoporotic C, sham), E-, or ALN- supplemented diets. After 10 weeks, a metaphyseal tibia osteotomy and standardized T-plate fixation were performed. After a 5-week healing process, the fracture callus was evaluated qualitatively by biomechanical bending test and quantitatively in microradiographic sections. The time course of callus formation was examined using fluorochrome-labeled histological sections. Administration of E improved the biomechanical properties of callus (stiffness [N/mm]: sham: 110.2 + or - 76.07, C: 41.28 + or - 33.70, E: 85.72 + or - 47.24, ALN: 72.07 + or - 34.68). The resistance to microfracturing seen in E-treated animals was significantly enhanced and even superior to sham (yield load [N] sham: 27.44 + or - 9.72, C: 21.04 + or - 12.47, E: 42.85 + or - 13.74(Delta), ALN: 25.28 + or - 6.4(.)) (* P < 0.05 vs. sham group, (Delta) P < 0.05 vs. C group, (*) P < 0.05 vs. E group). Trabecular bone in particular was improved, indicating the presence of physiological endosteal bridging (Tr.Dn [%] sham: 10.53 + or - 18.9, C: 1.01 + or - 0.14, E: 24.13 + or - 34.09(Delta), ALN: 3.99 + or - 8.3(.)). ALN did not help bone healing, as shown by mechanical tests. Compared to the C group, statistically, ALN did not show worse properties. The induction of callus formation under ALN treatment was slightly delayed (Tt.Cl [mm(2)] sham: 3.68 + or - 0.66, C: 3.44 + or - 0.42, E: 3.69 + or - 0.58, ALN: 3.06 + or - 0.56). Osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture healing was qualitatively and quantitatively improved by E prophylaxis. The process of fracture healing occurred nearly physiologically (shamlike

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral urological surgeries: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alsaywid, Basim S; Smith, Grahame H H

    2013-04-01

    The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection and bacteremia (sepsis) following endoscopic urologic procedures is a controversial topic. Evidence in the literature revealed that urological instrumentation is associated with increased incidence of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the risk of urinary tract infection in patients who had transurethral urological surgeries. We have selected all RCTs of adult population who underwent all different types of transurethral urological surgery, including cystoscopy, transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, and received prophylactic antibiotics or placebo/no treatment. At first, more than 3000 references were identified and reviewed; of which 42 studies with a total of 7496 patients were included in the final analysis. All those trials were analyzing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo/no treatment, and they were significantly favoring antibiotic use in reducing all outcomes, including bacteriuria (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46, P < 0.0001) with moderate heterogeneity detected (I(2) 48%), symptomatic UTI (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.51, P < 0.0001) with no significant heterogeneity was detected (I(2)= 17%), bacteremia (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.82, P < 0.0001) with no noted heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%), and fever ≥38.5 Celsius (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73, P = 0.003); also, there was no noted heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). However, using antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of low grade temperature (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11, P = 0.20) or in moderate grade temperature (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.48, P = 0.89). Antibiotic prophylaxis appears to be an effective intervention in preventing urinary tract infections and its sequels following transurethral urological surgeries in patients with preoperative sterile urine.

  10. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    İNAN, Nurten; İNAN, Levent E.; COŞKUN, Özlem; TUNÇ, Tuğba; İLHAN, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Methods Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. Results The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis. PMID:28360765

  11. Selection and characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus escape mutants resistant to a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Lorena; Frabasile, Sandra; Candia, Claudia; Pittini, Alvaro; Farina, Natalia; Melero, José Antonio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-06-01

    A human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralization escape mutant was obtained after 56 serial passages in the presence of a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this escape mutant virus revealed two amino acid substitutions: Asn268Ile and Val533Met. When this virus was allowed to grow in the absence of the anti-F polyclonal serum, only the mutation Asn268Ile was stably maintained. Both the double and single escape mutant viruses lost reactivity with mAbs belonging to antigenic site II of the fusion protein of RSV. Mutation Asn268Ile has already been reported in RS viruses that are resistant to mAbs 47F and 11 and palivizumab (PZ). We have thus identified a novel mutation (Val533Met) in the transmembrane domain of the F protein that was selected under immune pressure.

  12. No recurrence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia after solid organ transplantation regardless of secondary prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tark; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Yu-Mi; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Kim, Sung-Han; Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Sang-Oh

    2012-11-01

    There are no data on the efficacy of secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia after solid organ transplantation. Therefore, we investigated the rate of recurrence of Pneumocystis pneumonia after solid organ transplantation in a retrospective cohort study. Between 2005 and 2011, a total of 41 recipients recovered from Pneumocystis pneumonia. Of these, 22 (53.7%) received secondary prophylaxis. None of the 41 recipients experienced recurrence of Pneumocystis pneumonia during the follow-up, regardless of secondary prophylaxis.

  13. Evaluation of azithromycin, trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin as prophylaxis for experimental murine melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dermot J; Sefton, Armine M; Brooks, Timothy J G; Laws, Thomas R; Simpson, Andrew J H; Atkins, Helen S

    2010-07-01

    The efficacies of the azalide azithromycin and the fluoroquinolones trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of infection with high or low challenge doses of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain 576 were assessed in an experimental mouse model. Trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin afforded significant levels of protection, whereas azithromycin was ineffective and potentially detrimental. Overall, the data suggest that some fluoroquinolones may have potential utility in prophylaxis of melioidosis and suggest that azithromycin would not be effective in prophylaxis of B. pseudomallei infection.

  14. Discontinuing early prophylaxis in severe haemophilia leads to deterioration of joint status despite low bleeding rates.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, Annelies; Foppen, Wouter; De Kleijn, Piet; Mauser-Bunschoten, Evelien P; Roosendaal, Goris; van Galen, Karin P M; Schutgens, Roger E G; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Fischer, Kathelijn

    2016-05-02

    Prophylaxis is the recommended treatment for children with severe haemophilia A, but whether prophylaxis should be continued in adulthood is still under debate. Previous studies with limited follow-up have suggested that some patients may be able to stop prophylaxis in adulthood, while maintaining good joint health. This single-centre observational cohort study examined patients with severe haemophilia A born 1970-1988 without inhibitor development, and assessed the long-term consequences of discontinuing prophylaxis. Patient-initiated changes in prophylaxis, including all switches to on-demand treatment lasting a minimum of two consecutive weeks, were recorded from the time self-infusion began until the last evaluation. Sixty-six patients were evaluated at a median age of 32.4 years: 26 % of patients had stopped prophylaxis for a median of 10 years, 15 % had interrupted prophylaxis and 59 % had continued prophylaxis. Annual joint bleeding rate (AJBR), Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS-2.1; 0-124 points), radiological Pettersson score (0-78 points) and Haemophilia Activities List score (HAL; 100-0 points) were compared between patients who stopped and patients who continued prophylaxis. Although self-reported bleeding rates and functional limitations were similar in both groups (AJBR: 1.5 vs 1.2 and HAL: 84 vs 84 for those who stopped and continued prophylaxis, respectively), objective assessment of joint status showed increased arthropathy after 10 years of on-demand treatment in patients who stopped prophylaxis compared with those who continued (HJHS: 23 vs. 14 and Pettersson: 16 vs 5, respectively; P< 0.01). These results support continuation of long-term prophylaxis in adults and demonstrate the need for objective monitoring of joint status.

  15. Universal fungal prophylaxis and risk of coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant recipients living in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Allon; Carey, Elizabeth J; Blair, Janis E

    2015-03-01

    Recipients of liver transplantation (LT) are at increased risk for symptomatic coccidioidomycosis, primarily because of chronic immunosuppression and impaired cellular immunity. Unfortunately, no consensus exists regarding optimal posttransplant prophylaxis. In a prior study at our institution, we observed both de novo and recurrent coccidioidomycosis despite targeted antifungal prophylaxis. In response, in February 2011, we instituted a universal prophylaxis program consisting of fluconazole (200 mg daily) for the first posttransplant year. In the current study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LT between the initiation of universal prophylaxis and July 11, 2013. Patients receiving a second transplant or dual-organ transplant and those who died or did not have follow-up in the 12-month post-LT period were excluded. Data from the universal prophylaxis cohort were compared with previously published data from the targeted prophylaxis era. Of the 160 patients undergoing LT during the study period, 143 met criteria for data analysis. When compared with the 349 patients in the targeted prophylaxis cohort, patients in the universal prophylaxis group were older and had higher rates of pre-LT coccidioidomycosis, asymptomatic coccidioidal seropositivity, posttransplant diabetes mellitus, and renal insufficiency. Fluconazole-related toxicity occurred in 13 of the universal prophylaxis patients, 7 of whom were required to discontinue use of the medication. Coccidioidomycosis developed in 10 of the 391 patients (2.6%) in the targeted prophylaxis cohort and in none of the patients in the universal prophylaxis group (P = 0.04). These data strongly support the use of a 1-year antifungal prophylaxis regimen for LT recipients in endemic regions.

  16. [Contemporary view on the role of bacteriophages in evolution of nosocomial strains and prophylaxis of healthcare associated infections].

    PubMed

    Zueva, L P; Aslanov, B I; Akimkin, V G

    2014-01-01

    One of the actual problems of contemporary healthcare are healthcare associated infections (HAI). An important aspect of study of HAI problem is the study of evolution of hospital strains causing HAI. The knowledge accumulated to date in the field of bacteria genetics gives evidence on the significant role of phages in the mechanism of virulence obtaining by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. The studies of the authors of this article show that bacteriophages may play a significant role in the formation of virulent properties in hospital conditions that in different hospitals with participation of phages form virulent and antibiotic resistant hospital strains of HAI causative agents. At the same time bacteriophages are effective means for HAI therapy and prophylaxis. Under the condition of mass and irrational use of antibiotics, HAI causative agents form multiple resistance to the existing antibacterial preparations. In this regard bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents become especially actual. To date in Russian and foreign literature considerable material has been accumulated that shows high effectiveness of bacteriophages under the conditions of rational use. The aim of this review is to evaluate contemporary achievements in the field of study of bacteriophage role in evolution of hospital strains and therapy and prophylaxis of healthcare associated infections.

  17. Micafungin: a review of its use in the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2012-11-12

    Intravenous micafungin (Mycamine®; Fungard®), an echinocandin, is approved in the EU for the treatment of adult (aged ≥ 16 years) and paediatric patients with invasive candidiasis and for the treatment of adult patients with oesophageal candidiasis. It is also approved in the EU as prophylactic treatment to prevent Candida infections in adult and paediatric patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) or patients who are expected to have neutropenia for ≥ 10 days. This article reviews the therapeutic use of micafungin for the treatment and prophylaxis of Candida infections in adult and paediatric patients, focusing on approved indications in Europe, and briefly discusses the pharmacology of the drug. Micafungin shows very good in vitro activity against clinically relevant isolates of Candida spp., with a low propensity to be associated with the emergence of resistant isolates. The drug has a convenient once-daily dosage regimen and is associated with relatively few drug-drug interactions. In large, multinational trials in adult and/or paediatric patients with invasive candidiasis, micafungin was noninferior to intravenous caspofungin or liposomal amphotericin B. In similarly designed trials in adult patients with oesophageal candidiasis, treatment with micafungin was noninferior to that with intravenous fluconazole or caspofungin. As prophylactic treatment in adult and paediatric patients who had undergone HSCT, micafungin was superior to fluconazole therapy and noninferior to oral itraconazole in large, multicentre trials. Micafungin was generally well tolerated by participants in these clinical trials, given the severe morbidity of the underlying conditions of patients, with a similar tolerability profile to caspofungin and, in general, to fluconazole. It was better tolerated than liposomal amphotericin B or oral itraconazole. Thus, micafungin is a valuable first-line or alternative option to other antifungal agents for the management of

  18. Fatal Breakthrough Mucormycosis in an Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Patient while on Posaconazole Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyun Seon; Bae, Myoung Nam; Kim, Jihye; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Lee, Kwan Yong; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-03-01

    Posaconazole is a new oral triazole with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Posaconazole has also shown a significant advantage of preventing invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole or itraconazole in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Indeed, posaconazole has been commonly used for antifungal prophylaxis in patients undergoing remission induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We experienced a case of fatal mucormycosis despite posaconazole prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fatal breakthrough mucormycosis in a patient receiving posaconazole prophylaxis during remission induction chemotherapy in Korea. This case demonstrated that breakthrough fungal infection can occurs in patients receiving posaconazole prophylaxis because of its limited activity against some mucorales.

  19. Adherence To Malaria Prophylaxis Among Peace Corps Volunteers in the Africa Region, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Keren Z.; Tan, Kathrine R.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although malaria can be prevented with prophylaxis, it is diagnosed in over 100 Africa-region Peace Corps Volunteers annually. This suggests that prophylaxis non-adherence is a problem in these non-immune travelers. Methods We investigated Volunteers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prophylaxis using an internet-based survey during August 19–September 30, 2013. Adherence was defined as taking doxycycline or atovaquone-proguanil daily, or taking mefloquine doses no more than 8 days apart. Results The survey was sent to 3,248 Volunteers. Of 781 whose responses were analyzed, 514 (73%) reported adherence to prophylaxis. The most common reasons for non-adherence were forgetting (n=530, 90%); fear of long-term adverse effects (LTAEs; n=316, 54%); and experiencing adverse events that Volunteers attributed to prophylaxis (n=297, 51%). Two hundred fourteen (27%) Volunteers reported not worrying about malaria. On multivariate analysis controlling for sex and experiencing adverse events Volunteers attributed to prophylaxis, the factor most strongly associated with non-adherence was being prescribed mefloquine (OR 5.4, 95% confidence interval 3.2–9.0). Conclusions We found moderate adherence and a prevailing fear of LTAEs among Volunteers. Strategies to improve prophylaxis adherence may include medication reminders, increasing education about prophylaxis safety and malaria risk, and promoting prompt management of prophylaxis side effects. PMID:25534297

  20. 77 FR 10748 - Scientific Information Request on Mechanical Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... effectiveness and safety of pharmacologic and mechanical strategies to prevent VTE in patients having bariatric surgery? Question 7 What is the comparative effectiveness and safety of pharmacologic prophylaxis...

  1. Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-02-01

    This review focuses on free-living amoebae, widely distributed in soil and water, causing opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections in humans: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. Diseases include primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (N. fowleri), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, cutaneous and nasopharyngeal infections (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, S. diploidea), and amoebic keratitis (Acanthamoeba spp). Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, and Naegleria have been repeatedly isolated; S. diploidea has been reported only once, from a brain infection. Antimicrobial therapy for these infections is generally empirical and patient recovery often problematic. N. fowleri is highly sensitive to the antifungal agent amphotericin B, but delay in diagnosis and the fulminant nature of the disease result in few survivors. Encephalitis and other infections caused by Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have been treated, more or less successfully, with antimicrobial combinations including sterol-targeting azoles (clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole), pentamidine isethionate, 5-fluorocytosine, and sulfadiazine. The use of drug combinations addresses resistance patterns that may exist or develop during treatment, ensuring that at least one of the drugs may be effective against the amoebae. Favorable drug interactions (additive or synergistic) are another potential benefit. In vitro drug testing of clinical isolates points up strain and species differences in sensitivity, so that no single drug can be assumed effective against all amoebae. Another complication is risk of activation of dormant cysts that form in situ in Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia infections, and which can lead to patient relapse following apparently effective treatment. This is particularly true in Acanthamoeba keratitis, a non-opportunistic infection of the cornea, which responds well to treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate and

  2. Molecular Characterization of Mefloquine Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-22

    prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant malaria and has recently received FDA approval for use in the U.S. In nature, it is clear from previous studies...calmodazolium and chlorpromazine ref. 9). Each of these agents was able to restore the Imefloquine sensitivity to the resistant clone MEF-2.4 but less so to

  3. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila cellulitis following leech therapy.

    PubMed

    Giltner, Carmen L; Bobenchik, April M; Uslan, Daniel Z; Deville, Jaime G; Humphries, Romney M

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection.

  4. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M.; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection. PMID:23363826

  5. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients.

  6. Roughness of human enamel surface submitted to different prophylaxis methods.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Gisela Muassab; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Fava, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate alterations in the surface roughness and micromorphology of human enamel submitted to three prophylaxis methods. Sixty-nine caries-free molars with exposed labial surfaces were divided into three groups. Group I was treated with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and a mixture of water and pumice; group II with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and prophylaxis paste Herjos-F (Vigodent S/A Indústria e Comércio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); and group III with sodium bicarbonate spray Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante Indústrias Médico Odontológicas Ltda, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). All procedures were performed by the same operator for 10 s, and samples were rinsed and stored in distilled water Pre and post-treatment surface evaluation was completed using a surface profilometer (Perthometer S8P, Marh, Perthen, Germany) in 54 samples. In addition, the other samples were coated with gold and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this study were statistically analyzed with the paired t-test (Student), the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Dunn (5%) test. The sodium bicarbonate spray led to significantly rougher surfaces than the pumice paste. The use of prophylaxis paste showed no statistically significant difference when compared with the other methods. Based on SEM analysis, the sodium bicarbonate spray presented an irregular surface with granular material and erosions. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there was an increased enamel surface roughness when teeth were treated with sodium bicarbonate spray when compared with teeth treated with pumice paste.

  7. Thromboembolic Complications and Prophylaxis Patterns in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of colorectal surgery, but its incidence is unclear in the era of VTE prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of and risk factors associated with thromboembolic complications and contemporary VTE prophylaxis patterns following colorectal surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective data from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) linked to a statewide hospital discharge database. At 52 Washington State SCOAP hospitals, participants included consecutive patients undergoing colorectal surgery between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Venous thromboembolism complications in-hospital and up to 90 days after surgery. RESULTS Among 16 120 patients (mean age, 61.4 years; 54.5% female), the use of perioperative and in-hospital VTE chemoprophylaxis increased significantly from 31.6% to 86.4% and from 59.6% to 91.4%, respectively, by 2011 (P < .001 for trend for both). Overall, 10.6% (1399 of 13 230) were discharged on a chemoprophylaxis regimen. The incidence of VTE was 2.2% (360 of 16 120). Patients undergoing abdominal operations had higher rates of 90-day VTE compared with patients having pelvic operations (2.5% [246 of 9702] vs 1.8% [114 of 6413], P = .001). Those having an operation for cancer had a similar incidence of 90-day VTE compared with those having an operation for nonmalignant processes (2.1% [128 of 6213] vs 2.3% [232 of 9902], P = .24). On adjusted analysis, older age, nonelective surgery, history of VTE, and operations for inflammatory disease were associated with increased risk of 90-day VTE (P < .05 for all). There was no significant decrease in VTE over time. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Venous thromboembolism rates are low and largely unchanged despite increases in perioperative and postoperative prophylaxis. These data should be considered in developing future guidelines. PMID:26060977

  8. Nonadherence to Primary Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Heffelfinger, James D.; Voetsch, Andrew C.; Nakamura, Glenn V.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; McNaghten, A. D.; Huang, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the effectiveness of prophylaxis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) continues to be the most common serious opportunistic infection among HIV-infected persons. We describe factors associated with nonadherence to primary PCP prophylaxis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 2000–2004 data from the Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) project, a cross-sectional interview project of HIV-infected persons ≥18 years conducted in 18 states. We limited the analysis to persons who denied having prior PCP, reported having a current prescription to prevent PCP, and answered the question “In the past 30 days, how often were you able to take the PCP medication(s) exactly the way your doctor told you to take them?” We used multivariable logistic regression to describe factors associated with nonadherence. Of 1,666 subjects prescribed PCP prophylaxis, 305 (18.3%) were nonadherent. Persons were more likely to be nonadherent if they reported using marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–2.4), non-injection drugs other than marijuana (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), or injection drugs (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3–4.1) in the past year; their mental health was “not good” for ≥1 day during the past month (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.2); their most recent CD4 count was <200 cells/μL (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2); or taking ART usually (aOR = 9.6, 95% CI = 6.7–13.7) or sometimes/rarely/never (aOR = 18.4, 95% CI = 11.1–30.4), compared with always, as prescribed. Conclusion/Significance Providers should inquire about and promote strategies to improve adherence to PCP prophylaxis, particularly among persons who use illicit drugs, have mental health issues, and who are not compliant with ART to reduce the occurrence of PCP. PMID:19319199

  9. Acute Pharmacological DVT Prophylaxis after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Casha, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed to address pertinent clinical questions regarding deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Deep vein thromboses are a common occurrence following SCI. Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) within 72 h of injury is recommended to minimize the occurrence of DVT. Furthermore, when surgical intervention is required, LMWH should be held the morning of surgery, and resumed within 24 h post-operatively. PMID:20795870

  10. From prophylaxis to atomic cocktail: circulation of radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a history of iodine. To trace the trajectory of this element, goiter is used as a guideline for the articulation of a historical account, as a representation of thyroid disorders and of the spaces of knowledge and practices related to iodine. Iodine's journey from goiter treatment and prophylaxis in the late interwar period took on a new course after WWII by including the element's radioactive isotopes. I intend to show how the introduction of radioiodine contributed to stabilize the epistemic role of iodine, in both its non-radioactive and radioactive form, in thyroid gland studies and in the treatment of its disorders.

  11. 75 FR 32490 - Issues in the Development of Medical Products for the Prophylaxis and/or Treatment of Acute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Prophylaxis and/or Treatment of Acute Antibody Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients; Public... prophylaxis and/or treatment of acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant recipients....

  12. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  13. Pneumocystis carinii mutations associated with sulfa and sulfone prophylaxis failures in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W; Meshnick, S; Kazanjian, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mutations in two amino acid positions of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene are significantly more common in immunocompromised patients with P. carinii pneumonia who fail sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis. This paper reviews the studies that suggest that these mutations may be responsible for some failures of prophylaxis in P. carinii.

  14. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis.

  15. Maximizing appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical patients: an update from LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City.

    PubMed

    Burke, J P

    2001-09-01

    Errors in antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical patients remain one of the most frequent types of medication errors in hospitals. Failure to administer the first dose of antimicrobial prophylaxis within the 2-h window of time before incision is associated with 2- to 6-fold increases in rates of surgical site infection. Optimal use of antimicrobial prophylaxis includes proper case selection; use of appropriate agents; proper dosing, route of administration, timing, and duration; and intraoperative dosing when appropriate. Effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis also requires monitoring of and feedback on patterns of use. Programs to improve antimicrobial prophylaxis should be multidisciplinary and should aim to improve use of medications, not simply to change physician practice patterns. The LDS Hospital experience demonstrates the clinical and financial benefits of such a program and also shows the pitfalls of and great difficulties associated with changing systems of care.

  16. Preliminary consultation on preferred product characteristics of benzathine penicillin G for secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Boyd, Ben J; Colquhoun, Samantha; Currie, Bart J; Engel, Mark; Kado, Joseph; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sullivan, Mark; Saxena, Anita; Sheel, Meru; Steer, Andrew; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Zühlke, Liesl; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatic fever is caused by an abnormal immune reaction to group A streptococcal infection. Secondary prophylaxis with antibiotics is recommended for people after their initial episode of rheumatic fever to prevent recurrent group A streptococcal infections, recurrences of rheumatic fever and progression to rheumatic heart disease. This secondary prophylaxis must be maintained for at least a decade after the last episode of rheumatic fever. Benzathine penicillin G is the first line antibiotic for secondary prophylaxis, delivered intramuscularly every 2 to 4 weeks. However, adherence to recommended secondary prophylaxis regimens is a global challenge. This paper outlines a consultation with global experts in rheumatic heart disease on the characteristics of benzathine penicillin G formulations which could be changed to improve adherence with secondary prophylaxis. Characteristics included dose interval, pain, administration mechanism, cold chain independence and cost. A sample target product profile for reformulated benzathine penicillin G is presented.

  17. Long term outcome of prophylaxis for febrile convulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, F U; Paerregaard, A; Andersen, R; Andresen, J

    1996-01-01

    A cohort of 289 children with febrile convulsions who had been randomised in early childhood to either intermittent prophylaxis (diazepam at fever) or no prophylaxis (diazepam at seizures) was followed up 12 years later. The study focused on the occurrence of epilepsy and on neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic achievements in the cohort. At follow up the two groups were of almost identical age (14.0 v 14.1 years), body weight (58.2 v 57.2 kg), height (168.2 v 167.7 cm), and head circumference (55.9 v 56.2 cm). The occurrence of epilepsy (0.7% v 0.8%), neurological examination, fine and gross motor development on the Stott motor test, intellectual performance on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children verbal IQ (105 v 105), performance IQ (114 v 111), and full scale IQ (110 v 108), cognitive abilities on a neuropsychological test battery, including short and long term, auditory and visual memory, visuomotor tempo, computer reaction time, reading test, and scholastic achievement were also very similar. Children with simple and complex febrile convulsions had the same benign outcome. The long term prognosis in terms of subsequent epilepsy, neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic ability was not influenced by the type of treatment applied in early childhood. Preventing new febrile convulsions appears no better in the long run than abbreviating them. PMID:8660037

  18. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-04-15

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3-4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

  19. [SELENIUM EFFICIENCY IN PROPHYLAXIS AND COMPLEX TREATMENT OF DIFFUSE GOITER].

    PubMed

    Osadtsiv, O I; Kravchenko, V I; Andrusyshyna, I M

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of the combined prophylaxis and treatment of a diffuse goiter by preparations of sele- nium and iodine at 54 patients--men at the age of 41-50 years with the diagnosis of a diffuse goiter of 1st and 2nd degree was investigated. The diagnosis of a diffuse goiter was based on palpatory and ultrasonic research of the thyroid gland, which volume was compared with a body surface area. All surveyed have been divided into three groups. Patients of the first group accepted preparations of selenium and the iodine throughout three months, the second group--iodine preparations, in control group only dynamic supervision was spent. Thyroid gland volume at men who constantly used iodated salt and had no palpatory signs of a goiter was also measured for control. In the group which members accepted selenium and iodine preparations, at 11,8 % of patients was noted reduction of thyroid volume to normal and was revealed more expressed reduction of thyroid volume (for 2.15 sm3/M2 ± 0.07 sm3/M2), than at monotherapy by iodine preparations (for 0.92 sm3/M2 ± 0.17 sm3/M2). The conclusion was made that it is possible to recommend selenium preparations in a dose of 100 mkg a day together with preparations of iodine for prophylaxis and treatment of a diffuse goiter in conditions of the combined insufficiency in consumption of selenium and light deficiency of iodine.

  20. Pharmacologic Considerations for Preexposure Prophylaxis in Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Reirden, Daniel; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC)–based preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not focused on transgendered women who are at disproportionate risk of HIV acquisition. Concerns exist for drug interactions between cross-sex therapy (estradiol, progestins, and spironolactone) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine. This review assessed the experimental and theoretical risk for such drug interactions. It was found that none of these medications are implicated as major perpetrators of drug interactions, and the classes use different metabolic pathways for clearance, suggesting a low likelihood for interactions in either direction. Subanalyses of transgender women in Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative suggested PrEP efficacy if adherence was high. Nevertheless, several research gaps were identified, particularly the need for controlled interaction studies in transgendered women, including effects on renal clearance, intracellular tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate in target cells, as well as hormone effects on HIV susceptibility and immunity. PrEP should continue to be offered to transgender women while additional research is planned or pending. PMID:27429188

  1. Migraine prophylaxis, ischemic depolarizations and stroke outcomes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yalcin, Nilufer; Yu, Esther Sori; Daneshmand, Ali; Wei, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Can, Anil; Sengul, Buse; Ferrari, Michel D.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Ayata, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Migraine with aura is an established stroke risk factor, and excitatory mechanisms such as spreading depression are implicated in the pathogenesis of both migraine and stroke. Spontaneous spreading depression waves originate within the peri-infarct tissue and exacerbate the metabolic mismatch during focal cerebral ischemia. Genetically enhanced spreading depression susceptibility facilitates anoxic depolarizations and peri-infarct spreading depressions and accelerates infarct growth, suggesting that susceptibility to spreading depression is a critical determinant of vulnerability to ischemic injury. Because chronic treatment with migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses spreading depression susceptibility, we tested whether migraine prophylaxis can also suppress ischemic depolarizations and improve stroke outcome. Methods We measured the cortical susceptibility to spreading depression and ischemic depolarizations, and determined tissue and neurological outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion in wild type and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 knock-in mice treated with vehicle, topiramate or lamotrigine daily for 7 weeks or as a single dose shortly before testing. Results Chronic treatment with topiramate or lamotrigine reduces the susceptibility to KCl- or electrical stimulation-induced spreading depressions as well as ischemic depolarizations in both wild-type and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice. Consequently, both tissue and neurological outcomes are improved. Notably, treatment with a single dose of either drug is ineffective. Conclusions These data underscore the importance of hyperexcitability as a mechanism for increased stroke risk in migraineurs, and suggest that migraine prophylaxis may not only prevent migraine attacks but also protect migraineurs against ischemic injury. PMID:25424478

  2. Cost analyses of extended prophylaxis with enoxaparin after hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R J; Dunsworth, G A

    2000-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic complications occur in 50% to 70% of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty if no prophylactic regimen is used. Because enoxaparin and warfarin are useful for extended outpatient prophylaxis, the objective of this study was to determine which of these agents is most cost effective in preventing venous thromboembolic complications. A decision tree analysis was developed to simulate a hypothetical cohort of patients with total hip arthroplasty. The analysis considered home health care services to perform monitoring and compliance verification. Accounting for prophylactic failures and treatment complications, results showed that enoxaparin maintained a cost effective advantage over warfarin for extended prophylaxis in the time after discharge and total hip arthroplasty ranging from 19 to 31 days after the patient was discharged from the hospital. The duration of cost effectiveness of enoxaparin was reduced to 14 to 17 days when home care services were excluded. These results indicated that approximately 3 weeks of outpatient therapy with enoxaparin is cost effective. With the cornerstone of managed care being cost efficiency in the provision of quality care, this conclusion warrants the development of integrated care strategies for the patient having orthopaedic surgery to achieve cost effective patient management.

  3. A New Approach to the Prophylaxis of Cyclic Vomiting: Topiramate

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Oya B; Sezer, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate and propranolol in preventing pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome. Methods A retrospective medical-record review of patients who underwent prophylaxis after receiving a diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome was performed. Patients who completed at least 12 months of treatment were included in the analysis. Responder rate, and adverse-event rates were also calculated from all patients. Response to treatment was assessed as the total number of vomiting attacks per year. Patients in whom the frequency of vomiting attack reduced greater or equal to 50% were defined as responders, and the remaining patients were classified as nonresponders. Results A total of 38 patients who were treated prophylactically with either topiramate (16 patients) or propranolol (22 patients) were identified. Fifty-nine percent of the patients in the propranolol group and 81% of the patients in the topiramate group reported freedom from attacks. A decrease of more than 50% in attacks per year occurred in 23% of patients in the propranolol group and 13% of patients in the topiramate group. The responder rates were 81% for propranolol group and 94% for topiramate group (P = 0.001). Despite minor adverse effects (drowsiness, nervousness, and dizziness) observed in a few patients, the adverse event rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.240). Conclusions The efficacy of topiramate was superior to propranolol for the prophylaxis of pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome. PMID:27302967

  4. The economics of hemodialysis catheter-related infection prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kosa, S Daisy; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with the highest morbidity, mortality, and cost of all types of hemodialysis vascular access. CVC-related infection drives much of the cost associated with CVC use. The magnitude of the cost associated with CVC-related infection varies depending on the type and severity of that infection; however, estimates of the total direct and indirect costs associated with hospitalizations due to hemodialysis CVC-related infections range from 17,000 USD to 32,000 USD per episode. Thus, it is critically important, to not only have effective strategies to limit CVC-related infection but also evaluate whether these strategies are an efficient use of resources. Prophylactic strategies can be considered economically efficient only if the value of its implementation and the corresponding drop in infection rate offer greater value than standard care. The optimal CVC-related infection prophylaxis strategy should work to limit infection risk with minimal risk, inconvenience, and discomfort to the patient, and at minimal cost. The aim of this review was to examine the clinical and economic impact of some commonly described interventions used for CVC infection prophylaxis.

  5. A national audit of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vasireddy, A; Nehra, D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic surgeons in Great Britain and Ireland were surveyed to assess their use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This followed a Cochrane review that found no evidence to support the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in routine cases. Methods Data were collected on routine use of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and how that was influenced by factors such as bile spillage, patient co-morbidities and surgeons’ experience. An online questionnaire was sent to 450 laparoscopic surgeons in December 2011. Results Data were received from 111 surgeons (87 consultants) representing over 7,000 cases per year. In routine cases without bile spillage, 64% of respondents gave no antibiotics and 36% gave a single dose. In cases with bile spillage, 11% gave no antibiotics. However, 80% gave one dose and 7% gave three doses. Co-amoxiclav was used by 75% of surgeons. Surgeons are more likely to give antibiotics when patients have risk factors for infective endocarditis. Conclusions This study suggests over 20,000 doses of antibiotics and over £100,000 could be saved annually if surgeons modified their practice to follow current guidelines. PMID:24992423

  6. Practice patterns in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in thoracic surgery: a comprehensive Canadian Delphi survey

    PubMed Central

    Agzarian, John; Linkins, Lori-Ann; Schneider, Laura; Hanna, Waël C.; Finley, Christian J.; Schieman, Colin; De Perrot, Marc; Crowther, Mark; Douketis, James

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) after resection of thoracic malignancies can reach 15%, but prophylaxis guidelines are yet to be established. We aimed to survey Canadian practitioners regarding perioperative risk factors for VTE, impact of those factors on extended prophylaxis selection, type of preferred prophylaxis, and timing of initiation and duration of thromboprophylaxis. Methods A modified Delphi survey was undertaken over three rounds with thoracic surgeons, thoracic anesthesiologists and thrombosis experts across Canada. Participants were asked to rate each parameter on a ten-point scale. Agreement was determined a priori as an item reaching a coefficient of variation of ≤30% (0.3), with the item then discontinued from later rounds. Results In total, 72, 57 and 50 respondents participated in three consecutive rounds, respectively. Consensus was reached on previous VTE, age, cancer diagnosis, thrombophilia, poor mobilization, extended resections, and pre-operative chemotherapy as risk factors. Consensus on risk factors impacting extended prophylaxis decisions was achieved on cancer diagnosis, obesity, previous VTE and poor mobilization. With respect to perioperative prophylaxis, once daily low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the only parameter that demonstrated agreement as a common practice pattern. No agreement was achieved regarding the role of mechanical prophylaxis, unfractionated heparin (UFH) or timing of initiation of peri-operative treatment. VTE prophylaxis until discharge reached agreement but there was substantial variability regarding the role of extended prophylaxis. Conclusions There is agreement between Canadian clinicians treating patients with thoracic malignancies regarding most risk factors for VTE, but there is no agreement on timing of initiation of prophylaxis, the agents used or factors mandating usage of extended prophylaxis. PMID:28203409

  7. Iranian Low-dose Escalating Prophylaxis Regimen in Children with Severe Hemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Peyman; Sadeghi, Elham; Tara, S Zahra; Habibpanah, Behnaz; Hantooshzadeh, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Establishing an appropriate prophylaxis regimen for children with hemophilia is a critical challenge in developing countries. Barriers including availability and affordability, catheter-related complications, and inhibitor development risks have led to the introduction of new tailored prophylaxis regimens in different countries. This study emphasizes on the benefits of the Iranian low-dose escalating prophylaxis regimen in a Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Center in Iran. Referred patients with hemophilia less than 15 years of age, who were subject to prophylaxis regimen, are studied retrospectively. A once-weekly prophylaxis regimen of 25 IU/kg was started for the patients primarily. Their prophylaxis regimen was changed to 25 IU/kg twice a week and then 3 times a week when they experienced 3 joint bleedings, 4 soft tissue bleedings, or a 1 life-threatening bleed without a specific trauma history. Overall, 25 patients with severe hemophilia and at least 6-month history of on-demand (OD) treatment were studied. A mean of 1754 IU/kg/yr of coagulation factors, used for OD and prophylaxis purposes, was sufficient to decrease the mean annual bleeding rate (ABR) to 1.86 after prophylaxis. It also reduced the mean hospitalization days and the mean number of target joints to 0.24 and 0.16, respectively. Overall, 19 (76%) patients were continuing their once-weekly regimen at the end of the follow-up. None of the patients needed 3-times-a-week regimen or central venous catheterization and none developed inhibitors in the follow-up. Benefits of the Iranian low-dose escalating prophylaxis regimen prove equal to some of the previous 3-times-a-week prophylaxis regimens in reducing the ABR and hospitalizations.

  8. Antimicrobial delivery systems for local infection prophylaxis in orthopedic- and trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    ter Boo, Gert-Jan A; Grijpma, Dirk W; Moriarty, Thomas F; Richards, Robert G; Eglin, David

    2015-06-01

    Infectious complications occur in a minor but significant portion of the patients undergoing joint replacement surgery or fracture fixation, particularly those with severe open fractures, those undergoing revision arthroplasty or those at elevated risk because of poor health status. Once established, infections are difficult to eradicate, especially in the case of bacterial biofilm formation on implanted hardware. Local antibiotic carriers offer the prospect of controlled delivery of antibiotics directly in target tissues and implant, without inducing toxicity in non-target organs. Polymeric carriers have been developed to optimize the release and targeting of antibiotics. Passive polymeric carriers release antibiotics by diffusion and/or upon degradation, while active polymeric carriers release their antibiotics upon stimuli provided by bacterial pathogens. Additionally, some polymeric carriers gelate in-situ in response to physiological stimuli to form a depot for antibiotic release. As antibiotic resistance has become a major issue, also other anti-infectives such as silver and antimicrobial peptides have been incorporated in research. Currently, several antibiotic loaded biomaterials for local infection prophylaxis are available for use in the clinic. Here we review their advantages and limitations and provide an overview of new materials emerging that may overcome these limitations.

  9. Vectored ImmunoProphylaxis Protects Humanized Mice from Mucosal HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Alejandro B.; Ouyang, Yong; Hong, Christin M.; Chen, Joyce; Nguyen, Steven M.; Rao, Dinesh S.; An, Dong Sung; Baltimore, David

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of new HIV infections result from relatively inefficient transmission1,2 of the virus across mucosal surfaces during sexual intercourse3. A consequence of this inefficiency is that small numbers of transmitted founder viruses initiate most heterosexual infections4. This natural bottleneck to transmission has stimulated efforts to develop interventions aimed at blocking this step of the infection process5. Despite the promise of this strategy, clinical trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis have had limited degrees of success in humans, due in part to lack of adherence to the recommended pre-exposure treatment regimens6,7. In contrast, a number of existing vaccines elicit systemic immunity that protects against mucosal infections, such as the vaccines for influenza8 and HPV9. We recently demonstrated the ability of vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) to prevent intravenous transmission of HIV using broadly neutralizing antibodies10. Here we demonstrate that VIP is capable of protecting humanized mice from intravenous as well as vaginal challenge with diverse viral strains, despite repeated exposures. Moreover, animals receiving VIP that expresses a modified VRC07 antibody were completely resistant to repetitive intravaginal challenge by a heterosexually transmitted founder HIV strain11, suggesting that VIP may be effective in preventing vaginal transmission of HIV between humans. PMID:24509526

  10. Periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: benefits, risks, and challenges to implementation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Lynn T; Baeten, Jared M; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R

    2013-01-01

    HIV-serodiscordant couples face complicated choices between fulfilling reproductive desire and risking HIV transmission to their partners and children. Sexual HIV transmission can be dramatically reduced through artificial insemination and sperm washing, however most couples cannot access these resources. We propose that periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could offer an important, complementary therapy to harm reduction counseling programs that aim to decrease HIV transmission for couples who choose to conceive. In this paper we describe the potential benefits of periconception PrEP and define critical points of clarification prior to implementation of PrEP as part of a reproductive health program. We consider sexual transmission risk, current risk reduction options, PrEP efficacy, cost, adherence, resistance, fetal toxicity, and impact of PrEP counseling on entry into health services. We address PrEP in the context of other periconception HIV prevention strategies, including antiretroviral treatment of the HIV-infected partner. We conclude that, should PrEP prove safe and efficacious in ongoing trials, periconception PrEP may offer a useful approach to minimize risk of HIV transmission for individuals of reproductive age in HIV-endemic countries. PMID:20679759

  11. Adaptive innate immunity? Responsive-mode prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Yannick; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2003-01-01

    A primary infection by a parasite may indicate a higher risk of being reinfected in the near future (since infection may indicate that enemies are becoming more abundant). Acquired immunity does not exist in invertebrates despite the fact that they also face increased risks of reinfection following primary exposure. However, when subjected to immune insult, insects can produce immune responses that persist for long enough to provide prophylaxis. Because these immune responses are costly, persistence must be maintained through a selective advantage. We tested for the possibility that these long-lasting immune responses provided increased resistance to later infections by experimentally mimicking a primary immune insult (pre-challenge) in larvae of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) prior to early or late exposure to spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. We found that pre-challenged larvae produced a long-lasting antimicrobial response, which provided a survival benefit when the larvae were exposed to fungal infection. These results suggest that the observed response is functionally "adaptive". PMID:14667338

  12. Prophylaxis against malaria for travellers from the United Kingdom. Malaria Reference Laboratory and the Ross Institute.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D

    1993-01-01

    To provide revised guidance on malaria prevention for the medical advisers of travellers from the United Kingdom going overseas to malarious areas, a committee of those most involved in giving advice and with specialist expertise in the United Kingdom agreed a policy document. There is a need for all travellers to be aware of the risk of malaria and to take measures to avoid being bitten by anopheline mosquitos, especially at night. Chemoprophylaxis is recommended also for most malarious areas. In view of the increasing prevalence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine and proguanil, mefloquine is added to the list of recommended drugs for more areas than in the past, and is the preferred chemoprophylactic for east and central Africa. Chloroquine with proguanil continues to be widely appropriate. Detailed recommendations are given for each country. Travellers out of reach of prompt medical assistance are advised to carry treatment doses of a standby drug: halofantrine, Fansidar, or quinine. The need for full compliance with any regimen is emphasised. No prophylaxis is totally effective. Malaria must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any fever in someone who has visited an endemic area within the past year. PMID:8499856

  13. Pre-exposure prophylaxis in Southern Africa: feasible or not?

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Willem Daniel François; Cowan, Frances; Black, Vivian; Rebe, Kevin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Southern and Eastern Africa bear the brunt of the AIDS epidemic, and current prevention interventions remain inadequate. Antiretroviral-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is gaining momentum as an effective prevention intervention. Discussion Discussions have been started on how this strategy could be employed in Africa such that the populations most in need can be reached urgently for the greatest impact. This requires the selection of specific risk groups and service environments in which PrEP can be distributed safely and cost effectively while being mindful of any ethical issues. Conclusions Given the need for an integrated public health approach to this, a number of potential populations and opportunities for PrEP distribution exist and are discussed in this commentary. PMID:26198344

  14. Treatment and Prophylaxis in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Sotoudeh, Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in early life. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment prevent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria and end stage renal disease. A computerized search of MEDLINE, Embase and other databases was done to find the latest results about the treatment and prevention in pediatric UTI. Randomized control trials, systematic reviews and original articles were assessed. Search terms were “UTI, treatment, prophylaxis, prevention, and children”. All children with complicated or simple UTI were included in our search study from neonatal period to late childhood and medical aspects of treatment were reviewed. Recently, treatment approaches have been changed by simplification of drug administration. Oral treatment is recommended especially in older infants and children instead of strict intravenous treatment and patient admission. In addition, prophylactic treatment becomes easier and limited to certain cases. In this article, we review the recent information and approaches in this setting. PMID:21448397

  15. Indications of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental practice- Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, C; Padmanabhan, TV

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection. Special care needs to be addressed to patients with organ transplants, poorly controlled diabetes and pregnancy. Antibiotics should be used only as an adjunct to dental treatment and never alone as the first line of care. The present paper reviews the indications of antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:23570007

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis at IBadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, Samuel A; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2010-01-01

    HIV infection from occupational and nonoccupational exposures can be prevented through risk assessment and management with antiretroviral drug therapy (ART). This study sought to examine the pattern of presentation and outcome of clients who were given postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A retrospective review of case notes of clients presenting for HIV PEP from January 2005 to December 2006 was carried out. A total of 48 clients with a mean age of 27.9 +/- 12.3 years underwent PEP during the period under review. Rape constituted 50% of reasons for PEP, while needle pricks and blood splash into mucous membranes constituted 25% each. Among those who received therapy, 10 (23.8%) could not complete drug therapy because of side effects. Although no client was HIV positive after the recommended 6 months of follow-up, 8 (16.7%) clients did not complete attendance to the clinic during the period.

  17. Assessment of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Neurological Patients with Restricted Mobility – VTE-NEURO Study

    PubMed Central

    BAJENARU, Ovidiu; ANTOCHI, Florina; BALASA, Rodica; BURAGA, Ioan; PATRICHI, Sanda; SIMU, Mihaela; SZABOLCS, Szatmari; TIU, Cristina; ZAHARIA, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the data of a medical registry which evaluated if the physicians assess VTE risk in stroke patients, during hospitalization period and at hospital discharge and if the thromboprophylaxis is used according to National Guidelines for VTE Prophylaxis. 884 patients with acute ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between June 2010 and December 2011, from 62 centers, 51.4% male and 48.6% female with mean age 70.07 years (68.25 years in the male group and 71.92 years in the female one). There were two co-primary endpoints: the percentage of patients at risk for VTE at hospital admission assessed by the physician, and the percentage of patients with risk factors for VTE that persist at hospital discharge from the total number of patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke. The secondary endpoints were: the percentage of hospitalized patients receiving prophylaxis according to the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis from the total number of patients at risk of VTE, the percentage of hospitalized patients with VTE risk receiving recommendation for thromboprophylaxis at discharge, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized patients, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis at discharge. Results: 879 (99.4%) of the total number of patients at risk of VTE have received prophylaxis during hospitalization. The most frequently types of prophylaxis used during hospitalisation were LMWH in 96.3% of the patients and mechanic method in 16.6% that were in accordance with the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis recommendations. Conclusions: There is a clear improvement in both assessment and thromprophylaxis recommendation in acute stroke patients with restricted mobility at VTE risk and in our country. LMWH is preferred to unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this high-risk patient population in view of its better clinical benefits to risk ratio and convenience of once daily administration. PMID:25553119

  18. Is prophylaxis required for delivery in women with factor VII deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa M.; Morton, Colleen T.; Reding, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Factor VII (fVII) deficiency is a rare congenital bleeding disorder in which fVII activity level and bleeding tendency do not completely correlate. Pregnancy and delivery present a significant hemostatic challenge to women with fVII deficiency. Treatment with recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) carries a thrombotic risk and the literature is unclear whether prophylaxis is necessary prior to delivery. Aim To define management, hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications of pregnant women with fVII deficiency through a systematic review. Methods Medical databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched using “factor VII deficiency” and “pregnancy” or “surgery.” Overall 34 articles, 4 abstracts, and 3 institutional cases were reviewed. Results Literature from 1953–2011 reported 94 live births from 62 women with fVII deficiency. The median fVII activity was 5.5%. Hemostatic prophylaxis was used in 32% of deliveries. Without prophylaxis, 40 vaginal deliveries and 16 cesarean sections were completed. The odds of receiving prophylaxis were 2.9 times higher in women undergoing cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. Post-partum hemorrhage occurred in 10% of deliveries with prophylaxis and 13% of deliveries without prophylaxis. The fVII level did not significantly differ between women who did and did not receive prophylaxis. Conclusion We present the only systematic review of the management of pregnancy in fVII deficient women. No difference in post-partum hemorrhage was seen in deliveries with and without prophylaxis. Therefore we recommend that rfVIIa be available in the case of hemorrhage or surgical intervention, but not as mandatory prophylaxis. PMID:23607277

  19. Targeting viral dsRNA for antiviral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Zhou; Liu, Yang; Yan, Zhen; Fan, Daiming; Alexander, Alice; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds)RNA in the infected cells is a trait shared by most if not all viruses. While humans have developed variable immune responses, viruses have also developed countermeasures to defeat dsRNA-induced antiviral strategies. Thus, we proposed a broad antiviral strategy to antagonize the countermeasures of viruses and bypass the dsRNA-induced signals that are readily defeated by viruses. By rewiring the dsRNA-binding proteins in the dsRNA complex and reconnecting them to apoptosis signaling, we created several dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiters, termed dsCAREs, to bypass dsRNA-induced antiviral signals that would otherwise be targeted by viruses. Adenovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus, representing viruses of the dsDNA and negative-stranded RNA viral groups, were used to infect HEK293 cells. The dsCARE chimera was added in medium to evaluate its antiviral activity. The truncated dsCAREs were used as controls. We demonstrate that dsCARE suppresses viral infection starting at 0.1 μg/ml and reaches the peak at 2 μg/ml. The EC50 was ∼0.2 μg/ml. However, it had an undetectable effect on uninfected cells. Further data show that both dsRNA binding and apoptosis activation of dsCARE are essential for its antiviral activity. We conclude that dsRNA is a practical virus-associated molecular pattern that can be targeted for broad and rapid antiviral prophylaxis.—Fei, Z., Liu, Y., Yan, Z., Fan, D., Alexander, A., Yang, J.-H. Targeting viral dsRNA for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:19880628

  20. Topical azithromycin or ofloxacin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis after intravitreal injection

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Sararols, Laura; Arias, Lluis; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Bassaganyas, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of patients who have undergone intravitreal injections has increased enormously in recent years, but a consensus is still lacking on prophylaxis for endophthalmitis. The aim of this prospective, observational study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of azithromycin eye drops versus ofloxacin eye drops. Methods The study was conducted in five hospitals in Spain and included all patients undergoing intravitreal injections of triamcinolone, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or pegaptanib over one year. Patients received azithromycin 15 mg/g eye drops (twice daily on the day prior to injection and for another 2 days) or ofloxacin 3 mg/g eye drops (every 6 hours on the day prior to injection and for another 7 days). Results In the azithromycin group, there were 4045 injections in 972 eyes of 701 patients. In the ofloxacin group, there were 4151 injections in 944 eyes of 682 patients. There were two cases of endophthalmitis (0.049%) in the azithromycin group and five (0.12%) in the ofloxacin group. The odds ratio of presenting with endophthalmitis in the ofloxacin group compared with the azithromycin group was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–3.72, P < 0.001). There were two cases of noninfectious uveitis after triamcinolone injection in the azithromycin group (0.049%) and two (0.048%) in the ofloxacin group; no significant differences were observed (odds ratio 0.902, 95% CI 0.622–1.407, P = 0.407). Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in 12 cases in the azithromycin group and none in the ofloxacin group. Conclusion The risk of endophthalmitis was significantly greater with ofloxacin than with azithromycin. These findings provide a valuable addition to the ever-increasing pool of information on endophthalmitis prophylaxis after intravitreal injection, although further large-scale studies are required to provide definitive conclusions. PMID:23109798

  1. Is DVT prophylaxis overemphasized? A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kosir, M A; Kozol, R A; Perales, A; McGee, K; Beleski, K; Lange, P; Dahn, M

    1996-02-01

    This study was designed to prospectively evaluate a previously published prognostic index for predicting deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in general surgical patients with conventional prophylaxis. Patients undergoing procedures of at least 1 hr duration (abdominal, thoracic, head and neck, inguinal) requiring general or spinal anesthetic were prospectively randomized into the following groups: Group 1, sequential pneumatic compression devices during surgery and 2 days postoperatively; Group 2, subcutaneous heparin (5000 U q 12 hr) starting 1 hr before surgery and for 7 days postop; Group 3, control group. All patients underwent duplex evaluation of bilateral lower extremity deep venous systems preoperatively and on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 30. In addition, a previously developed predictive DVT incidence indicator, the prognostic index (PI), was calculated for each patient. A total of 137 patients were entered into the study with 29 removed for patient/staff reasons. There were no differences in PI among the three groups at the 0.05 level (ANOVA). The distribution of risk factors for DVT including increased age, body size, hemoglobin (Hb), and colorectal procedures were distributed evenly among the groups. Additional factors such as diabetes, COPD, PVD, immobilization, and cancer were also evenly distributed among the groups. The PI predicted a 20% incidence of DVT. For Groups 1 (n = 25), 2 (n = 38), and 3 (n = 45) no DVTs were detected over the 30 days of study. During the study period, 8 DVTs were detected by duplex evaluation in general surgical patients not in the study (1.5%). In conclusion, in a prospective randomized study using sequential pneumatic compression devices, subcutaneous heparin or no prophylaxis in matched general surgical patients at moderate to high risk for thromboembolism, no DVTs occurred for up to 30 days. Furthermore, neither a PI nor other factors associated with DVT accurately predicted the incidence of DVT in this patient population.

  2. Fosfomycin Addition to Poly(D,L-Lactide) Coating Does Not Affect Prophylaxis Efficacy in Rat Implant-Related Infection Model, But That of Gentamicin Does

    PubMed Central

    Yorukoglu, Ali Cagdas; Kaleli, Ilknur; Bir, Ferda

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin is the preferred antimicrobial agent used in implant coating for the prevention of implant-related infections (IRI). However, the present heavy local and systemic administration of gentamicin can lead to increased resistance, which has made its future use uncertain, together with related preventive technologies. Fosfomycin is an alternative antimicrobial agent that lacks the cross-resistance presented by other classes of antibiotics. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis of 10% fosfomycin-containing poly(D,L-lactide) (PDL) coated K-wires in a rat IRI model and compared it with uncoated (Control 1), PDL-coated (Control 2), and 10% gentamicin-containing PDL-coated groups with a single layer of coating. Stainless steel K-wires were implanted and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300) suspensions (103 CFU/10 μl) were injected into a cavity in the left tibiae. Thereafter, K-wires were removed and cultured in tryptic soy broth and then 5% sheep blood agar mediums. Sliced sections were removed from the tibiae, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and semi-quantitatively evaluated with X-rays. The addition of fosfomycin into PDL did not affect the X-ray and histopathological evaluation scores; however, the addition of gentamicin lowered them. The addition of gentamicin showed a protective effect after the 28th day of X-ray evaluations. PDL-only coating provided no protection, while adding fosfomycin to PDL offered a 20% level protection and adding gentamicin offered 80%. Furthermore, there were 103 CFU level growths in the gentamicin-added group, while the other groups had 105. Thus, the addition of fosfomycin to PDL does not affect the efficacy of prophylaxis, but the addition of gentamicin does. We therefore do not advise the use of fosfomycin as a single antimicrobial agent in coating for IRI prophylaxis. PMID:27806071

  3. [Prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements: more than just an illusion?].

    PubMed

    Merkle, W

    2014-11-01

    Prophylaxis of tumors of the prostate gland is theoretically simple but what makes it difficult is that no appropriate test methods are available. The topic of prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements remains difficult as there are still no really certain data. The psychological aspect of wanting and being able to actively contribute to success of a therapy oneself, is absolutely not an aspect to be ignored to accept such dietary supplements. There are also studies which show that a certain helpful effect seems to be present. From these considerations the question arises whether cancer prophylaxis could be developed from this. This article presents the state of the art in early 2014.

  4. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Japan: Context of Use and Directions for Future Research and Action.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Takeda, Makiko

    2017-02-01

    Biomedical HIV prevention strategies are playing an increasingly prominent role in addressing HIV epidemics globally, but little is known about their use in Japan, where persistent HIV disparities and a recently stable, but not declining, national epidemic indicate the need for evolving approaches. We conducted an ethnographic study to determine the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use and to identify directions for future research and action in Japan. We used data from observational fieldwork in the Kansai region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (n = 178 persons observed), qualitative interviews (n = 32), documents and web-based data sources (n = 321), and email correspondences (n = 9) in the period 2013-2016. Drug approvals by Japan's regulatory agencies, insurance coverage for medications, and policies by healthcare institutions and government agencies were the main factors affecting PrEP and PEP legality, use, and awareness. Awareness and the observable presence of PrEP and PEP were very limited, particularly at the community level. PrEP and PEP held appeal for Japanese scientists and activists, and for study participants who represented various other stakeholder groups; however, significant concerns prevented open endorsements. Japanese health officials should prioritize a national discussion, weigh empirical evidence, and strongly consider formal approval of antiretroviral (ARV) medications for use in PrEP and both occupational and nonoccupational PEP. Once approved, social marketing campaigns can be used to advertise widely and increase awareness. Future research would benefit from theoretical grounding in a diffusion of innovations framework. These findings can inform current and future ARV-based prevention strategies at a critical time in the international conversation.

  5. A biodegradable gentamicin-hydroxyapatite-coating for infection prophylaxis in cementless hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Neut, D; Dijkstra, R J; Thompson, J I; Kavanagh, C; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    2015-01-02

    A degradable, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), gentamicin-loaded prophylactic coating for hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated cementless hip prostheses is developed with similar antibacterial efficacy as offered by gentamicin-loaded cements for fixing traditional, cemented prostheses in bone. We describe the development pathway, from in vitro investigation of antibiotic release and antibacterial properties of this PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating in different in vitro models to an evaluation of its efficacy in preventing implant-related infection in rabbits. Bone in-growth in the absence and presence of the coating was investigated in a canine model. The PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating showed high-burst release, with antibacterial efficacy in agar-assays completely disappearing after 4 days, minimising risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant staphylococci were killed by the antibiotic-loaded coating, in a simulated prosthesis-related interfacial gap. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coatings prevented growth of bioluminescent staphylococci around a miniature-stem mounted in bacterially contaminated agar, as observed using bio-optical imaging. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins inserted in bacterially contaminated medullary canals in rabbits caused a statistically significant reduction in infection rates compared to HA-coated pins without gentamicin. Bone ingrowth to PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins, in condylar defects of Beagle dogs was not impaired by the presence of the degradable, gentamicin-loaded coating. In conclusion, the PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating constitutes an effective strategy for infection prophylaxis in cementless prostheses.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of HIV Type 1 Prophylaxis Failure Revealed by Single-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Blair, Lily; Chen, Yalu; Learn, Gerald; Pfafferott, Katja; John, Mina; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Mallal, Simon; Shaw, George M.; Bar, Katharine J.

    2013-01-01

    Trials of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) pre- and postexposure prophylaxis show promise. Here, we describe a novel strategy for deciphering mechanisms of prophylaxis failure that could improve therapeutic outcomes. A healthcare worker began antiretroviral prophylaxis immediately after a high-risk needlestick injury but nonetheless became viremic 11 weeks later. Single-genome sequencing of plasma viral RNA identified 15 drug susceptible transmitted/founder HIV genomes responsible for productive infection. Sequences emanating from these genomes exhibited extremely low diversity, suggesting virus sequestration as opposed to low-level replication as the cause of breakthrough infection. Identification of transmitted/founder viruses allows for genome-wide assessment of molecular mechanisms of prophylaxis failure. PMID:24023257

  7. Molecular mechanisms of HIV type 1 prophylaxis failure revealed by single-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Blair, Lily; Chen, Yalu; Learn, Gerald; Pfafferott, Katja; John, Mina; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Hahn, Beatrice H; Mallal, Simon; Shaw, George M; Bar, Katharine J

    2013-11-15

    Trials of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) pre- and postexposure prophylaxis show promise. Here, we describe a novel strategy for deciphering mechanisms of prophylaxis failure that could improve therapeutic outcomes. A healthcare worker began antiretroviral prophylaxis immediately after a high-risk needlestick injury but nonetheless became viremic 11 weeks later. Single-genome sequencing of plasma viral RNA identified 15 drug susceptible transmitted/founder HIV genomes responsible for productive infection. Sequences emanating from these genomes exhibited extremely low diversity, suggesting virus sequestration as opposed to low-level replication as the cause of breakthrough infection. Identification of transmitted/founder viruses allows for genome-wide assessment of molecular mechanisms of prophylaxis failure.

  8. Glyburide - Novel Prophylaxis and Effective Treatment for Blast-Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    determine the safety of the SUR1 blocker , glyburide (glibenclamide), as it might be used as prophylaxis against blast-TBI. During the 4th year of...We completed evaluation of the prophylaxis treatment with SUR1 blocker , glyburide in the neurobehavioral outcome after blast-TBI (Obj. 1d, c...APP ( Beta -amyloid precursor protein) 64 qPCR Casp 3 (caspase 3) 28 Tissue hemoglobin detection SP1 (ischemic, hypoxic marker) 7 ED1

  9. Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Survey of Korean Knee Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide information on the actual status and prevailing trend of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in South Korea. Materials and Methods The Korean Knee Society (KKS) developed a questionnaire with 6 clinical questions on VTE. The questionnaire was distributed to all members of KKS by both postal and online mail. Participants were asked to supply details on their specialty and to select methods of prophylaxis they employ. Of the total members of KKS, 27.9% participated in the survey. Results The percentage of surgeons who routinely performed prophylaxis for VTE was 60.4%; 19.4% performed prophylaxis depending on the patient's health condition; and the remaining 20.2% never implemented prophylaxis after surgery. The common prophylactic methods among the responders were compression stocking (72.9%), pneumatic leg compression (63.3%), perioral direct factor Xa inhibitor (46.9%), and low-molecular-weight heparin (39.5%). For the respondents who did not perform prophylaxis, the main reason (51.5%) was the low risk of postoperative VTE considering the low incidences in Asians. Conclusions The present study involving members of the KKS will help to comprehend the actual status of VTE prevention in South Korea. The results of this study may be useful to design VTE guidelines appropriate for Koreans in the future. PMID:27595074

  10. Novel concepts: emerging data and the role of extended prophylaxis following hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Dobesh, Paul P

    2003-11-15

    The typical duration of hospitalization following major knee and hip surgeries may not provide adequate time for effective prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) when inpatient therapy only is administered. Results from a clinical trial that extended the duration of VTE prophylaxis after hip fracture surgery are reviewed. The risk of VTE after major knee and hip arthroplasty has been demonstrated to extend into the outpatient period. Although extending the duration of VTE prophylaxis has been demonstrated to decrease the incidence of VTE following total hip replacement, no randomized, double-blinded assessment had demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy following hip fracture surgery. A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to assess prolonged prophylaxis of VTE in patients undergoing surgery for fracture of the upper third of the femur. Patients received an initial 7 +/- 1 day open period of treatment with subcutaneous fondaparinux (2.5 mg once daily); 656 patients were subsequently randomized to receive a 21 +/- 2-day double-blind treatment period of either the same fondaparinux regimen or placebo. Fondaparinux treatment produced statistically significant reductions in the incidence of all VTE events (1.4% compared with placebo 35.0%); prolonged prophylaxis was associated with a 96% relative risk reduction for VTE (p < 0.001). Also, no differences were observed in the incidence of other major endpoints such as bleeding or death. These results indicate that extended prophylaxis with fondaparinux significantly reduces the risk of VTE without increasing the risk of major bleeding.

  11. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of prenatal hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan C.; Koyle, Martin A.; Braga, Luis H.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) has traditionally been offered for children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) or those at risk, including children diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis (HN) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, indications for antibiotic prophylaxis are controversial, data on who should benefit from this therapy is conflicting and, thus, guidelines are unable to provide conclusive recommendations. In the setting of prenatal HN, although randomized trials are currently underway, most evidence is derived from low- to moderate-quality observational studies. Although there is no benefit in those with low-grade HN, a systematic review of the available studies showed that high-grade HN patients on prophylaxis experienced fewer infections with an estimated number needed to treat of 7. On the other hand, there are eight randomized trials that have investigated the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of VUR. Although four of the studies have demonstrated some value of prophylaxis and the other four have not, meta-analysis has shown an overall benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing infections. The observed differences are likely due to different inclusion criteria and study heterogeneity. Although generalizing results of meta-analyses to all children is tempting, an individualized approach, by determining which patients best behave like those of the included studies, is recommended. PMID:28265311

  12. Posaconazole prophylaxis--impact on incidence of invasive fungal disease and antifungal treatment in haematological patients.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa; Ostermann, Julia; Rieger, Heidi; Ostermann, Helmut; Rieger, Christina Theresa

    2013-11-01

    Since two large-scale, randomised studies on posaconazole prophylaxis have demonstrated a clear benefit for patients at high risk for contracting invasive fungal disease (IFD), posaconazole prophylaxis has been adopted as standard of care for this patient collective. Several years on from implementation at our institution, we wanted to evaluate its impact on the incidence and use of empirical antifungal therapy in a real-life setting. We analysed retrospectively incidence and severity of IFD in high-risk patients with prophylaxis, using a historical cohort as comparator. A total of 200 patients had either received the extended spectrum triazole posaconazole in prophylactic dosage of 200 mg tid or empirical antifungal therapy. Disease events were analysed by application of the revised EORTC/MSG definitions for IFD. Before posaconazole prophylaxis, we recorded 57/100 cases of IFD which was reduced to 28/100 with prophylaxis. The empirical use of antifungal drugs was reduced to 41% from 91% in the non-prophylaxis cohort. Furthermore, we observed a shift in the categorisation of IFD according to EORTC/MSG criteria. Our data suggest that posaconazole was effective in reducing the rate and probability of invasive fungal disease in high-risk patients.

  13. Prophylaxis of bleeding episodes in patients with von Willebrand’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Augusto B.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with severe forms of von Willebrand’s disease (VWD) may have frequent haemarthroses, especially when factor VIII (FVIII) levels are below 10 U/dL, so that some of them develop target joints like patients with severe haemophilia A. Some patients have recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, often without lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, and need treatment every day or every other day. Finally, there are children who have epistaxis frequently and severely enough to cause anaemia. In these frequent and severe bleeders, the optimal therapy may be secondary long-term prophylaxis with von Willebrand factor (VWF)/FVIII concentrates rather than on-demand treatment on the occasion of bleeding episodes. The largest experience on such prophylaxis in VWD has been in Sweden in 35 patients with severe forms of VWD. Long-term prophylaxis was also implemented in a cohort of Italian patients with VWD: prophylaxis was used in seven patients with types 3 (n=1), 2A (n=4), 2M (n=1) and type 1 (n=1) VWD because of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeds and in four patients with type 3 VWD because of joint bleeds. Prophylaxis prevented bleeding completely in eight patients and largely reduced hospitalisation for blood transfusions in the remaining three. The cost-effectiveness of these prophylaxis regimens versus on-demand therapy will now be investigated in one large international study. PMID:19105507

  14. Atovaquone for Prophylaxis of Toxoplasmosis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mendorf, Alexander; Klyuchnikov, Evgeny; Langebrake, Claudia; Rohde, Holger; Ayuk, Francis; Regier, Marc; Christopeit, Maximilian; Zabelina, Tatjana; Bacher, Adelbert; Stübig, Thomas; Wolschke, Christine; Bacher, Ulrike; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis and infections by other opportunistic agents such as Pneumocystis jirovecii constitute life-threatening risks for patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been well established for post-transplant toxoplasmosis and pneumocystis prophylaxis, but treatment may be limited due to toxicity. We explored atovaquone as an alternative and compared it with TMP-SMX regarding toxicity and efficacy during the first 100 days after transplantation in 155 consecutive adult stem cell recipients. Eight patients with a prior history of TMP-SMX intolerance received atovaquone as first-line prophylaxis. TMP-SMX was used for 141 patients as first-line strategy, but 13 patients (9.2%) were later switched to atovaquone due to TMP-SMX toxicity or gastrointestinal symptoms. No active toxoplasmosis or active P. jirovecii infection developed under continued prophylaxis with either TMP-SMX or atovaquone. However, for reasons of TMP-SMX and/or atovaquone toxicity, 7 patients were unable to tolerate any efficacious toxoplasmosis prophylaxis and therefore obtained inhalative pentamidine as P. jirovecii prophylaxis but no toxoplasmosis prophylaxis. Importantly, 2 of these patients developed severe toxoplasmosis. In summary, atovaquone appears as a valid alternative for at least some post-transplant patients who cannot tolerate TMP-SMX. This should be further confirmed by multicenter trials.

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: ethical care in the era of revised guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bach, David S

    Beginning in 1955, the American Heart Association recommended antibiotic prophylaxis among patients with certain structural heart diseases to decrease the likelihood of infective endocarditis (IE) following dental procedures. Over the ensuing 52 years, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines were revised to address gastrointestinal and genitourinary procedures and to modify the assessment of relative risks and specific regimens for prophylaxis. Throughout the various revisions, prophylaxis was recommended for individuals who were at increased risk of developing IE based on best evidence and consensus opinion, albeit in the absence of randomized controlled trials. In 2007, the AHA published a revised guideline statement dramatically restricting its recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis against IE. In 2008, these views were incorporated in an ACC/AHA guideline update on the management of patients with heart valve disease. The revisions represent a dramatic shift in terms of the patients for whom antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended and the procedures for which it is recommended. What is striking about the new guidelines is that the change in recommendations was based not on new data, but on a change in philosophy despite the lack of new data. To some degree, the arguments for and against antibiotic prophylaxis become those of philosophy, ethics, and the role of evidence-based medicine. This manuscript attempts to briefly examine those arguments and discuss why the revised guidelines may fail to respect the ethical principles of beneficence and patient autonomy.

  16. Comparison of Chemical and Mechanical Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism in Nonsurgical Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaspard, Dany; Vito, Karen; Schorr, Christa; Hunter, Krystal; Gerber, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Thromboembolic events are major causes of morbidity, and prevention is important. We aimed to compare chemical prophylaxis (CP) and mechanical prophylaxis (MP) as methods of prevention in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the Cooper University Hospital ICU between 2002 and 2010. Patients on one modality of prophylaxis throughout their stay were included. The CP group comprised 329 patients and the MP group 419 patients. The primary outcome was incidence of thromboembolic events. Results. Acuity measured by APACHE II score was comparable between the two groups (p = 0.215). Univariate analysis showed 1 DVT/no PEs in the CP group and 12 DVTs/1 PE in the MP group (p = 0.005). Overall mortality was 34.3% and 50.6%, respectively. ICU LOS was similar. Hospital LOS was shorter in the MP group. Multivariate analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of events in the MP prophylaxis group (odds ratio 9.9). After excluding patients admitted for bleeding in both groups, repeat analysis showed again increased events in the MP group (odds ratio 2.9) but this result did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. Chemical methods for DVT/PE prophylaxis seem superior to mechanical prophylaxis in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation and should be used when possible. PMID:26682067

  17. Ciprofloxacin criteria in antimicrobial prophylaxis and bladder cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gurtowska, Natalia; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Drewa, Tomasz

    2010-10-01

    Oral ciprofloxacin might achieve higher concentration in urine than in serum; theoretically, this drug might act as an anticancer drug against bladder cancer cells. Among fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin is distinguished by strong inhibition of topoisomerase II. A good correlation between cytotoxic activity of ciprofloxacin toward eukaryotic cells and its ability to induce the cleavable complexes topoisomerase II-DNA has been demonstrated. These data provide a basis for supposing that ciprofloxacin may act as anticancer drug. The efforts of evaluating ciprofloxacin's influence on human bladder cell lines have been shown by many authors. The cells were exposed to ciprofloxacin at various concentrations that are attainable in the urine after oral drug administration. Antiproliferative potential of the ciprofloxacin against human bladder cells varies according to drug concentration and time of incubation. It seems that ciprofloxacin can act as an anticancer drug in eukaryotic cells. Low urine pH can enhance the antitumor effect of ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin enhances the effect of action of doxorubicin and epirubicin, which are used to prevent bladder cancer recurrence after transurethral resection of superficial bladder cancer. We think that ciprofloxacin might be used for antibacterial prophylaxis and as an anticancer agent in patients with superficial bladder cancer. This idea must be checked in future placebo controlled trials.

  18. Effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination as post-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Ignasi; Planas, Caritat; Godoy, Pere; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; Martínez, Ana; Sala, Maria Rosa; Minguell, Sofia; Torner, Nuria; Jané, Mireia; Domínguez, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis A (HA) has been a vaccine-preventable disease since 1995. In Catalonia, a universal combined hepatitis A+B vaccination program of preadolescents was initiated at the end of 1998. However, outbreaks are reported each year and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine or immunoglobulin (IG) is recommended to avoid cases. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of HAV vaccine and IG in preventing hepatitis A cases in susceptible exposed people. A retrospective cohort study of contacts of HA cases involved in outbreaks reported in Catalonia between January 2006 and December 2012 was made. The rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HA in susceptible contacts receiving HAV or IG versus those without PEP were calculated. There were 3550 exposed persons in the outbreaks studied: 2381 received one dose of HAV vaccine (Hepatitis A or hepatitis A+B), 190 received IG, and 611 received no PEP. 368 exposed subjects received one dose of HAV vaccine and IG simultaneously and were excluded from the study. The effectiveness of PEP was 97.6% (95% CI 96.2-98.6) for HAV vaccine and 98.3% (95% CI 91.3-99.9) for IG; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.36). The elevated effectiveness of HAV vaccination for PEP in HA outbreaks, similar to that of IG, and the long-term protection of active immunization, supports the preferential use of vaccination to avoid secondary cases.

  19. Acetazolamide in vestibular migraine prophylaxis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Çelebisoy, Neşe; Gökçay, Figen; Karahan, Ceyda; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazlı, Tayfun; Karapolat, Hale; Köse, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to check the efficacy of acetazolamide in the prophylaxis of vestibular migraine (VM). Treatment options in VM are mainly based on migraine guidelines. We tried to assess the efficacy of acetazolamide in these patients depending on clinical similarities with episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine responding to the drug. This is a retrospective cohort study. Among 50 patients with VM and prescribed acetazolamide 500 mg/day, 39 patients were studied as five had been lost on follow-up and six had stopped taking the drug due to side effects. Vertigo and headache frequency determined by number of attacks per month, and the severity determined by visual analog scales measured in centimeters from 0 to 10 were collected from the records. Initial reported figures for frequency and severity were compared with the results gathered after 3 months of treatment. The results were compared. Acetazolamide was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of vertigo and headache attacks and this effect was more prominent for vertigo frequency and severity.

  20. [Abdominal cavity adhesions. Some issues of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, V V

    2010-07-01

    The abdominal cavity adhesions (ACA) constitute frequent consequence of various abdominal cavity diseases and traumas and frequent cause of the abdominal adhesive disease and its complications. In spite of the known pathogenesis of ACA, the surgeons had failed throughout the decades of years to find out the measures and methods of its prophylaxis. There are several causes of such a situation and the main of them is that ACA in its origin constitutes a philogenetically developed defense biologic reaction of organism. Because of the fact, that an organism constitutes the self-regulated biological system, any external inputs (including the treatment), directed on qualitative or quantitative signs of these reactions, meet systemic counteraction and become annihilated. The forced overcome of such a counteraction may cause the development of severe systemic disorders in organism. The only prophylactic measures against ACA, which were already tested throughout the time, are the tactical and technical methods, promoting the reduction of severity of morphological changes in peritoneum and abdominal organs, thus causing reduction of natural reaction of organism. When the adhesions formation is inevitable it is necessary to apply surgical methods of governing such a process, and omentoparietopexy may constitutes one of such methods.

  1. Use of quinocide in treatment and prophylaxis of vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lysenko, A. Y.

    1960-01-01

    The discovery of antimalarial properties of derivatives of 8-aminoquinolines which combine high activity against the tissue stages of the malaria parasite with satisfactory tolerance by man can be said to have marked the final stage in the search for a radical cure of vivax malaria. Since its synthesis in the USSR in 1952, quinocide—an 8-aminoquinoline drug—has been subjected by Soviet workers to intensive research, an outline of which is presented in this paper. The results of their investigations, which ranged from laboratory and clinical studies of tolerance to the drug, through small-scale trials of its parasiticidal activity, to large-scale studies on the effectiveness of its mass administration are very encouraging. Both for anti-relapse treatment and for pre-epidemic prophylaxis, a short (10- or 14-day) course of quinocide proved as effective as a lengthy course of acriquine with plasmocide. Side-effects were infrequent, and most of those that occurred were transient and did not necessitate the suspension of treatment. It is suggested that the mass administration of quinocide would, in certain cases, be a useful adjunct to insecticidal measures in the clearance of malaria foci. PMID:14419205

  2. Aerosinusitis: pathophysiology, prophylaxis, and management in passengers and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, K Christopher; Rajapaksa, Suresh; Wormald, Peter-John

    2008-01-01

    Patients presenting before flight with an upper respiratory infection are at risk for aerosinusitis. Prophylaxis of this condition consists of an oral decongestant before flight and nasal decongestant spray during the flight just prior to descent. Evaluation of the patient presenting with aerosinusitis consists of a careful physical exam with emphasis on diagnosing treatable nasal and sinus pathology. Categorization of the patient into the Weissman classification is important for determining prognostic factors for recovery. Management of this condition is based on the Weissman stage. Stage I or II lesions are generally treated conservatively with a 1-wk course of topical sprays, analgesics, a tapering course of steroids, and oral decongestants. Use of antibiotics is reserved for those cases initiated by bacterial sinusitis. Additionally, antihistamines are reserved for cases where allergies were the inciting cause. Stage III lesions are rarely seen in civilian air travelers due to the relatively low fluctuations in ambient air pressure. Aircrew that suffer Stage III aerosinusitis are at risk for recurrent sinus barotrauma that may require an expertly performed functional endoscopic sinus surgery to successfully manage it.

  3. Defining the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis care continuum

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy S.; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew; Patel, Rupa; Chan, Philip A.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy. There is little scientific consensus about how to measure PrEP program implementation progress. We draw on several years of experience in implementing PrEP programs and propose a PrEP continuum of care that includes: (1) identifying individuals at highest risk for contracting HIV, (2) increasing HIV risk awareness among those individuals, (3) enhancing PrEP awareness, (4) facilitating PrEP access, (5) linking to PrEP care, (6) prescribing PrEP, (7) initiating PrEP, (8) adhering to PrEP, and (9) retaining individuals in PrEP care. We also propose four distinct categories of PrEP retention in care that include being: (1) indicated for PrEP and retained in PrEP care, (2) indicated for PrEP and not retained in PrEP care, (3) no longer indicated for PrEP, and (4) lost to follow-up for PrEP care. This continuum of PrEP care creates a framework that researchers and practitioners can use to measure PrEP awareness, uptake, adherence, and retention. Understanding each point along the proposed continuum of PrEP care is critical for developing effective PrEP interventions and for measuring public health progress in PrEP program implementation. PMID:28060019

  4. Host-based Prophylaxis Successfully Targets Liver Stage Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Alyse N; Kain, Heather S; Abdullahi, Marian; Arang, Nadia; Austin, Laura S; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Billman, Zachary P; Hume, Jen C C; Murphy, Sean C; Kappe, Stefan H I; Kaushansky, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating malaria parasites during the asymptomatic but obligate liver stages (LSs) of infection would stop disease and subsequent transmission. Unfortunately, only a single licensed drug that targets all LSs, Primaquine, is available. Targeting host proteins might significantly expand the repertoire of prophylactic drugs against malaria. Here, we demonstrate that both Bcl-2 inhibitors and P53 agonists dramatically reduce LS burden in a mouse malaria model in vitro and in vivo by altering the activity of key hepatocyte factors on which the parasite relies. Bcl-2 inhibitors act primarily by inducing apoptosis in infected hepatocytes, whereas P53 agonists eliminate parasites in an apoptosis-independent fashion. In combination, Bcl-2 inhibitors and P53 agonists act synergistically to delay, and in some cases completely prevent, the onset of blood stage disease. Both families of drugs are highly effective at doses that do not cause substantial hepatocyte cell death in vitro or liver damage in vivo. P53 agonists and Bcl-2 inhibitors were also effective when administered to humanized mice infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Our data demonstrate that host-based prophylaxis could be developed into an effective intervention strategy that eliminates LS parasites before the onset of clinical disease and thus opens a new avenue to prevent malaria. PMID:25648263

  5. Nonoccupational Postexposure Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prophylaxis: Acceptance Following Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Draughon, Jessica E.; Hauda, William E.; Price, Bonnie; Sheridan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for HIV following sexual assault may decrease the likelihood of HIV transmission. Objective The purpose of this exploratory chart review study was to examine factors associated with patients accepting postsexual assault nPEP at three forensic nurse examiner programs in urban settings. Methods Forensic nursing charts of patients presenting for acute, sexual assault care were reviewed as part of a mixed-methods study. Results Patients assaulted by more than one or an unknown number of assailants were over 12 times more likely to accept the offer of nPEP (aOR 12.66; 95%CI [2.77, 57.82]). In cases where no condom was used (aOR = 8.57; 95%CI [1.59, 46.10]), or when any injury to the anus or genitalia was noted (aOR = 4.10; 95%CI [1.57, 10.75]), patients were more likely to accept nPEP. Patients with any injury to the face or head were less likely to initiate nPEP (aOR = 0.32; 95%CI [0.11, 0.97]). Discussion This study is an important first step in understanding factors associated with nPEP acceptance after sexual assault. PMID:26657480

  6. Animal Bites and Rabies Prophylaxis in Rural Children: Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Shah, Ankit; Hazra, Avijit; Ray, Somosri; Dhar, Goutam; Biswas, Rupa; Sabui, Tapas Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Dibyendu; Chatterjee, Kaushani; Kundu, Chanchal; Sarkar, Sumantra

    2016-01-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to study clinicoepidemiological profile of potentially rabid animal bite cases from rural India. Total of 308 children (median age 6 years) admitted to hospital, were recruited over 1 year and followed up till completion of antirabies vaccine course. Dog was the commonest (77.27%) offending animal. Of the exposures, 66.88% were scratches, 88.96% were unprovoked and 27.27% were categorized as Class III. The median times to wound toileting and reporting to health facility were 1 and 6 h, respectively. Majority received prompt PEP in hospital, and RIG was administered in 34.55% of Class II and 90.48% of Class III exposures. Compared with their older counterparts, children aged <5 years suffered more bites on face and trunk and more Class III exposures. The rabies prophylaxis scenario is encouraging, when compared with earlier studies, but there are gaps to be addressed. PMID:26510700

  7. Goitre studies in Tasmania. 16 Years' prophylaxis with iodide.

    PubMed

    Clements, F W; Gibson, H B; Howeler-Coy, J F

    1968-01-01

    The results of 16 years' prophylaxis against endemic goiter among children in Tasmania are given. A survey carried out in 1949 showed a relatively high prevalence of endemic goiter among children in most parts of the island, and in 1950, distribution of tablets containing 10 mg of potassium iodide to all school children was commenced. This distribution was gradually stopped during 1966 as legislation made it possible to add potassium iodate to all bread baked on the island. Periodic surveys showed that the prevalence of endemic goiter has fallen significantly but has not vanished entirely. Seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence found in some regions of the island decreased at the same time. Histopathological studies on goitrous tissue and iodine estimations on body fluids confirmed that the goiter in Tasmania is typical of endemic goiter, which is usually attributed to iodine deficiency. The effect of the treatment of established goiters in adolescent girls with thyroxine is described, as are results of the studies of the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide, a property which may be genetically linked to a predisposition to goiter. (author's) (summary in ENG).

  8. Individualized prophylaxis for optimizing hemophilia care: can we apply this to both developed and developing nations?

    PubMed

    Poon, Man-Chiu; Lee, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis is considered optimal care for hemophilia patients to prevent bleeding and to preserve joint function thereby improving quality of life (QoL). The evidence for prophylaxis is irrefutable and is the standard of care in developed nations. Prophylaxis can be further individualized to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. Individualization is best accomplished taking into account the bleeding phenotype, physical activity/lifestyle, joint status, and pharmacokinetic handling of specific clotting factor concentrates, all of which vary among individuals. Patient acceptance should also be considered. Assessment tools (e.g. joint status imaging and function studies/scores, QoL) for determining and monitoring risk factors and outcome, as well as population PK profiling have been developed to assist the individualization process. The determinants of optimal prophylaxis include (1) factor dose/dosing frequency, hence, cost/affordability (2) bleeding triggers (physical activity/lifestyle, chronic arthropathy and synovitis) and (3) bleeding rates. Altering one determinant results in adjustment of the other two. Thus, the trough level to protect from spontaneous bleeding can be increased in patients who have greater bleeding risks; and prophylaxis to achieve zero joint bleeds is achievable through optimal individualization. Prophylaxis in economically constrained nations is limited by the ill-affordability of clotting factor concentrates. However, at least 5 studies on children and adults from Thailand, China and India have shown superiority of low dose (~5-10 IU kg(-1) 2-3× per week) prophylaxis over episodic treatment in terms of bleed reduction, and quality of life, with improved physical activity, independent functioning, school attendance and community participation. In these nations, the prophylaxis goals should be for improved QoL rather than "zero bleeds" and perfect joints. Prophylaxis can still be individualized to affordability. Higher protective

  9. Rhabdomyolysis Following Initiation of Posaconazole Use for Antifungal Prophylaxis in a Patient With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mody, Mayur D; Ravindranathan, Deepak; Gill, Harpaul S; Kota, Vamsi K

    2017-01-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used medication for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia. Despite clinical data that show that posaconazole is superior to other antifungal prophylaxis medications, posaconazole is known to have many side effects and drug-drug interactions. We present a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis after being started on posaconazole for prophylaxis in the setting of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

  10. Rhabdomyolysis Following Initiation of Posaconazole Use for Antifungal Prophylaxis in a Patient With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Mayur D.; Ravindranathan, Deepak; Gill, Harpaul S.; Kota, Vamsi K.

    2017-01-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used medication for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute leukemia, such as acute myeloid leukemia. Despite clinical data that show that posaconazole is superior to other antifungal prophylaxis medications, posaconazole is known to have many side effects and drug-drug interactions. We present a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis after being started on posaconazole for prophylaxis in the setting of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:28203579

  11. Rational Basis for Optimizing Short and Long-term Hepatitis B Virus Prophylaxis Post Liver Transplantation: Role of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bruno; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Nevens, Frederik; Samuel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antiviral therapy using newer nucleos(t)ide analogues with lower resistance rates, such as entecavir or tenofovir, suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, improve liver function in patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis, and delay or obviate the need for liver transplantation in some patients. After liver transplantation, the combination of long-term antiviral and low-dose hepatitis B Immune globulin (HBIG) can effectively prevent HBV recurrence in greater than 90% of transplant recipients. Some forms of HBV prophylaxis need to be continued indefinitely after transplantation but, in patients with a low-risk of HBV recurrence (i.e., HBV DNA levels undetectable before transplantation), it is possible to discontinue HBIG and maintain only long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) therapy. A more cautious approach is necessary for those patients with high pretransplant HBV DNA levels, those with limited antiviral options if HBV recurrence occurs (i.e., HIV or hepatitis D virus coinfection, preexisting drug resistance), those with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, and those at risk of noncompliance with antiviral therapy. In this group, HBIG-free prophylaxis cannot be recommended. PMID:26038873

  12. Rational Basis for Optimizing Short and Long-term Hepatitis B Virus Prophylaxis Post Liver Transplantation: Role of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin.

    PubMed

    Roche, Bruno; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Nevens, Frederik; Samuel, Didier

    2015-07-01

    Antiviral therapy using newer nucleos(t)ide analogues with lower resistance rates, such as entecavir or tenofovir, suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, improve liver function in patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis, and delay or obviate the need for liver transplantation in some patients. After liver transplantation, the combination of long-term antiviral and low-dose hepatitis B Immune globulin (HBIG) can effectively prevent HBV recurrence in greater than 90% of transplant recipients. Some forms of HBV prophylaxis need to be continued indefinitely after transplantation but, in patients with a low-risk of HBV recurrence (i.e., HBV DNA levels undetectable before transplantation), it is possible to discontinue HBIG and maintain only long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) therapy. A more cautious approach is necessary for those patients with high pretransplant HBV DNA levels, those with limited antiviral options if HBV recurrence occurs (i.e., HIV or hepatitis D virus coinfection, preexisting drug resistance), those with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, and those at risk of noncompliance with antiviral therapy. In this group, HBIG-free prophylaxis cannot be recommended.

  13. Principles of antidote pharmacology: an update on prophylaxis, post-exposure treatment recommendations and research initiatives for biological agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, S; Liu, CQ; Tran, H; Gubala, A; Gauci, P; McAllister, J; Vo, T

    2010-01-01

    The use of biological agents has generally been confined to military-led conflicts. However, there has been an increase in non-state-based terrorism, including the use of asymmetric warfare, such as biological agents in the past few decades. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to consider strategies for preventing and preparing for attacks by insurgents, such as the development of pre- and post-exposure medical countermeasures. There are a wide range of prophylactics and treatments being investigated to combat the effects of biological agents. These include antibiotics (for both conventional and unconventional use), antibodies, anti-virals, immunomodulators, nucleic acids (analogues, antisense, ribozymes and DNAzymes), bacteriophage therapy and micro-encapsulation. While vaccines are commercially available for the prevention of anthrax, cholera, plague, Q fever and smallpox, there are no licensed vaccines available for use in the case of botulinum toxins, viral encephalitis, melioidosis or ricin. Antibiotics are still recommended as the mainstay treatment following exposure to anthrax, plague, Q fever and melioidosis. Anti-toxin therapy and anti-virals may be used in the case of botulinum toxins or smallpox respectively. However, supportive care is the only, or mainstay, post-exposure treatment for cholera, viral encephalitis and ricin – a recommendation that has not changed in decades. Indeed, with the difficulty that antibiotic resistance poses, the development and further evaluation of techniques and atypical pharmaceuticals are fundamental to the development of prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment options. The aim of this review is to present an update on prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment recommendations and research initiatives for biological agents in the open literature from 2007 to 2009. PMID:20860656

  14. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children.

  15. Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children

    PubMed Central

    VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  16. The Johns Hopkins Venous Thromboembolism Collaborative: Multidisciplinary team approach to achieve perfect prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Lau, Brandyn D; Hobson, Deborah B; Kraus, Peggy S; Shermock, Kenneth M; Shaffer, Dauryne L; Popoola, Victor O; Aboagye, Jonathan K; Farrow, Norma A; Horn, Paula J; Shihab, Hasan M; Pronovost, Peter J; Haut, Elliott R

    2016-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of preventable harm in hospitalized patients. The critical steps in delivery of optimal VTE prevention care include (1) assessment of VTE and bleeding risk for each patient, (2) prescription of risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis, (3) administration of risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis in a patient-centered manner, and (4) continuously monitoring outcomes to identify new opportunities for learning and performance improvement. To ensure that every hospitalized patient receives VTE prophylaxis consistent with their individual risk level and personal care preferences, we organized a multidisciplinary task force, the Johns Hopkins VTE Collaborative. To achieve the goal of perfect prophylaxis for every patient, we developed evidence-based, specialty-specific computerized clinical decision support VTE prophylaxis order sets that assist providers in ordering risk-appropriate VTE prevention. We developed novel strategies to improve provider VTE prevention ordering practices including face-to-face performance reviews, pay for performance, and provider VTE scorecards. When we discovered that prescription of risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis does not ensure its administration, our multidisciplinary research team conducted in-depth surveys of patients, nurses, and physicians to design a multidisciplinary patient-centered educational intervention to eliminate missed doses of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis that has been funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We expect that the studies currently underway will bring us closer to the goal of perfect VTE prevention care for every patient. Our learning journey to eliminate harm from VTE can be applied to other types of harm. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S8-S14. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Prophylaxis and antibiotic therapy in management protocols of patients treated with oral and intravenous bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Bejarano, Elena-Beatriz; Serrera-Figallo, María-Ángeles; Gutiérrez-Corrales, Aida; Romero-Ruiz, Manuel-María; Castillo-de-Oyagüe, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) linked to bisphosphonate treatment has specific characteristics that render its therapeutic management challenging for clinicians. Poor response to standard treatment makes it essential to take special precautions when treating this type of disease; therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis and/or antibiotic therapy have been proposed as effective and helpful tools in these situations. Objectives This article seeks to assess published evidence in order to evaluate the different protocols used for antibiotic prophylaxis and/or antibiotic therapy in the general context of patients treated with bisphosphonates. Material and Methods A literature review of the last 10 years was carried out in PubMed using the following keywords: “antibiotic prophylaxis and osteonecrosis,” “bisphosphonates AND osteonecrosis AND dental management,” “bisphosphonate AND osteonecrosis AND antibiotic prophylaxis AND oral surgery.” A total of 188 articles were obtained, of which 18 were ultimately selected. Results and Discussion In patients treated with oral and intravenous bisphosphonates without chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw, antibiotic prophylaxis prior to oral surgery is an important tool to avoid osteonecrosis and promote healing of the affected area. If the patient previously exhibited chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis after tooth extraction, antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated to prevent recurrent osteonecrosis and promote healing of the extraction site. If chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis is already present, antibiotic therapy is a vital part of conservative management to reduce the symptomatology of MRONJ and keep it from worsening. Finally, a lack of clinical data and randomized controlled trials makes it difficult to choose the most appropriate protocol for the various clinical situations studied. Key words:Bisphosphonates, antibiotic prophylaxis, maxillary osteonecrosis, antibiotic treatment. PMID

  18. Implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vitoria, Marco; Granich, Reuben; Banda, Mazuwa; Fox, Mayada Youssef; Gilks, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure progress in implementing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) policy recommendations, identify barriers to the development of national policies and pinpoint challenges to implementation. Methods In 2007 we conducted by e-mail a cross-sectional survey of World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS programme officers in 69 selected countries having a high burden of infection with HIV or HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB). The specially-designed, self-administered questionnaire contained items covering national policies for CTXp and IPT in people living with HIV, current level of implementation and barriers to developing or implementing these policies. Findings The 41 (59%) respondent countries, representing all WHO regions, comprised 85% of the global burden of HIV-associated TB and 82% of the global burden of HIV infection. Thirty-eight countries (93%) had an established national policy for CTXp, but only 66% of them (25/38) had achieved nationwide implementation. For IPT, 21 of 41 countries (51%) had a national policy but only 28% of them (6/21) had achieved nationwide implementation. Despite significant progress in the development of CTXp policy, the limited availability of co-trimoxazole for this indication and inadequate systems to manage drug supply impeded nationwide implementation. Inadequate intensified tuberculosis case-finding and concerns regarding isoniazid resistance were challenges to the development and implementation of national IPT policies. Conclusion Despite progress in implementing WHO-recommended CTXp and IPT policies, these interventions remain underused. Urgent steps are required to facilitate the development and implementation of these policies. PMID:20431788

  19. Echinocandin Resistance in Candida.

    PubMed

    Perlin, David S

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important infection concern for patients with underlying immunosuppression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient care, but therapeutic choices are limited due to few drug classes. Antifungal resistance, especially among Candida species, aggravates the problem. The echinocandin drugs (micafungin, anidulafungin, and caspofungin) are the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. They target the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a major cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failure involves acquisition of resistance, although it is a rare event among most Candida species. However, in some settings, higher-level resistance has been reported among Candida glabrata, which is also frequently resistant to azole drugs, resulting in difficult-to-treat multidrug-resistant strains. The mechanism of echinocandin resistance involves amino acid changes in "hot spot" regions of FKS-encoded subunits of glucan synthase, which decreases the sensitivity of enzyme to drug, resulting in higher minimum inhibitory concentration values. The cellular processes promoting the formation of resistant FKS strains involve complex stress response pathways that yield a variety of adaptive compensatory genetic responses. Standardized broth microdilution techniques can be used to distinguish FKS mutant strains from wild type, but testing C. glabrata with caspofungin should be approached cautiously. Finally, clinical factors that promote echinocandin resistance include prophylaxis, host reservoirs including biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract, and intra-abdominal infections. An understanding of clinical and molecular factors that promote echinocandin resistance is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance.

  20. AIDS Vaccines and Preexposure Prophylaxis: Is Synergy Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances; Gilmour, Jill; McDermott, Adrian B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Anzala, Omu; Mutua, Gaudensia; Sanders, Eduard J.; Koff, Wayne; Berkley, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract While the long-term goal is to develop highly effective AIDS vaccines, first generation vaccines may be only partially effective. Other HIV prevention modalities such as preexposure prophylaxis with antiretrovirals (PrEP) may have limited efficacy as well. The combined administration of vaccine and PrEP (VAXPREP), however, may have a synergistic effect leading to an overall benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual effects. We propose two test-of-concept trial designs for an AIDS vaccine plus oral or topical ARV. In one design, evidence that PrEP reduces the risk of HIV acquisition is assumed to justify offering it to all participants. A two-arm study comparing PrEP alone to VAXPREP is proposed in which 30 to 60 incident infections are observed to assess the additional benefit of vaccination on risk of infection and setpoint viral load. The demonstrated superiority of VAXPREP does not imply vaccine alone is efficacious. Similarly, the lack of superiority does not imply vaccine alone is ineffective, as antagonism could exist between vaccine and PrEP. In the other design, PrEP is assumed not to be in general use. A 2 × 2 factorial design is proposed in which high-risk individuals are randomized to one of four arms: placebo vaccine given with placebo PrEP, placebo vaccine given with PrEP, vaccine given with placebo PrEP, or VAXPREP. Between 60 and 210 infections are required to detect a benefit of vaccination with or without PrEP on risk of HIV acquisition or setpoint viral load, with fewer infections needed when synergy is present. PMID:21043994

  1. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis during cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Gugino; Cimino; Wactawski-Wende

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To compare single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis (cefotetan 1 g vs cefoxitin 2 g) in various subpopulations based upon risk factors for postsurgical infection following cesarean section.Methods: Patients undergoing cesarean section from April 1993 through March 1994 were included in a retrospective analysis if either of the above antibiotics were administered, surgery was non-emergent, gestational age was less than 32 weeks, absence of fever or prior antibiotics therapy within 72 hours, and no history of organ transplantation or HIV. Cases classified as high risk for infection: IDDM, obesity, autoimmune disease, sickle cell disease, or corticosteroid use. Cases classified as high risk for endometritis (any 2 factors): labor >12 hours, >4 vaginal examinations, ruptured membranes >9 hours, and internal fetal monitor. Cases were separated into 4 groups: elective vs non-elective, low vs high surgical risk. A chi(2) analysis was used to test for differences in infection rates between groups (P <.05).Results: Of 1383 cesarean sections, 385 met criteria for inclusion. Non-elective cases accounted for 77% of cases. Postsurgical infection rate was greater in non-elective cases, 7.4%, vs elective cases, 3.0% (P =.056) as was the rate of endometritis (3.2% vs 1.2%, P =.185). No differences were noted based on antibiotic regimen. Postsurgical infection rate was greater for 28 cases at high risk for both surgical infection and endometritis (17.9%) when compared to all 357 other cases (4.5%), P =.003. No difference was noted for endometritis. Of the 28 cases 28.6% of patients treated with cefoxitin and 7.1% of cases treated with cefotetan developed postsurgical infection (P =.13).Conclusion: Overall cefoxitin and cefotetan provided equivalent clinical outcome. A small subset of patients with multiple risk factors for infection may benefit from cefotetan.

  2. Transgender Women in Clinical Trials of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sevelius, Jae M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Aguilar, Jana Villayzan; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Deutsch, Madeline B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Lessons were learned with trans women who participated (as volunteers and investigators) in trials of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Trans women are not men. Compared with men who have sex with men, trans women trial participants were more likely to be involved with transactional sex, had more sexual partners, and were less likely to have PrEP medications detected in blood. Trans women define themselves differently in different cultures. One best practice is to ask at least 2 gender questions: sex assigned at birth and current gender. More information is needed to fully situate PrEP efficacy for trans women, including analysis of drug–drug interactions between PrEP medications and feminizing hormones and PrEP drug penetration into neovaginal tissues. Including trans women in studies is helpful only if their participation is specifically reported, as could occur in a table of baseline characteristics of the enrolled cohort. Gender-affirming care is important to foster appropriate uptake and use of PrEP. Such care includes use of preferred pronouns and names, safety to use the bathroom of choice, and access to gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery. The consistent finding that PrEP works when taken across diverse populations having diverse practices related to gender, sexual intercourse, and hormone use provides a basis for offering PrEP to people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV although some subgroups may not have been fully represented in trials. Nonetheless, specific PrEP implementation science for trans women (and men) is essential to develop best practices for PrEP delivery and use. PMID:27429187

  3. Prophylaxis of early ventricular fibrillation by inhibition of acylcarnitine accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Corr, P B; Creer, M H; Yamada, K A; Saffitz, J E; Sobel, B E

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxia in isolated myocytes results in accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCA) in sarcolemma. Inhibition of carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I) with sodium 2-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-pentyl]-oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA) prevents both the accumulation of LCA in the sarcolemma and the initial electrophysiologic derangements associated with hypoxia. Another amphiphilic metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), accumulates in the ischemic heart in vivo, in part because of inhibition of its catabolism by accumulating LCA. It induces electrophysiologic alterations in vitro analogous to early changes induced by ischemia in vivo. The present study was performed to determine whether POCA could prevent accumulation of both LCA and LPC induced by ischemia in vivo and if so, whether attenuation of early arrhythmogenesis would result. LAD coronary artery occlusions were induced for 5 min in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Coronary occlusion in untreated control animals elicited prompt, threefold increases of LCA (73 +/- 8 to 286 +/- 60 pmol/mg protein) and twofold increase of LPC (3.3 +/- 0.4 to 7.5 +/- 0.9 nmol/mg protein) selectively in the ischemic zone, associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurring within the 5-min interval before acquisition of myocardial samples in 64% of the animals. POCA prevented the increase of both LCA and LPC. It also prevented the early occurrence of VT or VF (within 5 min of occlusion) in all animals studied. The antiarrhythmic effect of POCA was not attributable to favorable hemodynamic changes or to changes in myocardial perfusion measured with radiolabeled microspheres. Thus, inhibition of CAT-I effectively reduced the incidence of lethal arrhythmias induced early after the onset of ischemia. Accordingly, pharmacologic inhibition of this enzyme provides a promising approach for prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death, that typically occurs very soon after the onset of acute ischemia, in man. PMID:2921326

  4. Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli) may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM) and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential mechanisms, impact on gut

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPHYLAXIS METHODS ON SOUND AND DEMINERALIZED ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Abdo, Ruy César Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of professional plaque control for caries prevention, this study comprised an in vitro evaluation of wear by two prophylaxis methods (sodium bicarbonate jet – Profident and pumice and brush) on sound bovine enamel and with artificial carious lesions. Sixty enamel fragments were employed (4x4mm), which were divided into 4 groups: GI – 15 sound blocks treated with pumice and brush; GII – 15 sound blocks treated with Profident; GIII – 15 demineralized blocks treated with pumice and brush, and GIV – 15 demineralized blocks treated with Profident. In the fragments of Groups III and IV, artificial carious lesions were simulated by immersion in 0.05M acetic acid solution 50% saturated with bovine enamel powder at 37oC for 16h. The specimens were submitted to the prophylactic treatments for 10 seconds. Wear analysis was performed by profilometer and revealed the following results: 0.91μm – GI; 0.42μm – GII; 1.6μm – GIII, and 0.94μm – GIV. The two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) revealed significant difference between all groups. Scanning electron microscopy images were employed to illustrate the wear pattern, with observation of larger alteration on the demineralized enamel surface (GIII; GIV), round-shaped wear on GI and GIII and blasted aspect on GII and GIV. The study indicated that the demineralized enamel presented more wear than the sound enamel, and the brush led to larger wear when compared to Profident. PMID:19089042

  6. Transgender Women in Clinical Trials of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robert M; Sevelius, Jae M; Guanira, Juan V; Aguilar, Jana Villayzan; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-08-15

    Lessons were learned with trans women who participated (as volunteers and investigators) in trials of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Trans women are not men. Compared with men who have sex with men, trans women trial participants were more likely to be involved with transactional sex, had more sexual partners, and were less likely to have PrEP medications detected in blood. Trans women define themselves differently in different cultures. One best practice is to ask at least 2 gender questions: sex assigned at birth and current gender. More information is needed to fully situate PrEP efficacy for trans women, including analysis of drug-drug interactions between PrEP medications and feminizing hormones and PrEP drug penetration into neovaginal tissues. Including trans women in studies is helpful only if their participation is specifically reported, as could occur in a table of baseline characteristics of the enrolled cohort. Gender-affirming care is important to foster appropriate uptake and use of PrEP. Such care includes use of preferred pronouns and names, safety to use the bathroom of choice, and access to gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery. The consistent finding that PrEP works when taken across diverse populations having diverse practices related to gender, sexual intercourse, and hormone use provides a basis for offering PrEP to people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV although some subgroups may not have been fully represented in trials. Nonetheless, specific PrEP implementation science for trans women (and men) is essential to develop best practices for PrEP delivery and use.

  7. Parsonage-Turner syndrome following post-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘Parsonage-Turner syndrome’ (PTS) is a rare but distinct disorder with an abrupt onset of shoulder pain, followed by weakness and atrophy of the upper extremity musculature, and a slow recovery requiring months to years. To our best knowledge, this is the first case describing symptoms and signs of PTS following the administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen against possible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian man presented with pain and unilateral scapular winging following PEP against possible HIV and HBV infection. Although atrophy and weakness were observed for the right supraspinatus muscle, a full range of motion was achievable. Neurological examination, plain radiography of the right shoulder and electromyography showed no additional abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with post-vaccination PTS and treated non-operatively. During the following 15 months the scapular winging receded and full muscle strength was regained. Conclusion Parsonage-Turner syndrome is a rare clinical diagnosis. The precise pathophysiological mechanism of PTS remains unclear, but it seems to involve an interaction between genetic predisposition, mechanical vulnerability and an autoimmune trigger. An immunological event, such as – in this case – a vaccination as part of PEP treatment, can trigger the onset of PTS. The clinical presentation is distinctive with acute severe pain followed by patchy paresis, atrophy and sensory symptoms that persist for months to years. No currently available tests can provide a definite confirmation or exclusion of PTS. Routine blood examination, electromyography (EMG), and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serve mainly to exclude other disorders. The recovery can be quite lengthy, non-operative treatment is the accepted practice. Supplementary administration of oral prednisolone could shorten the

  8. [Successful discontinuation of antifungal secondary prophylaxis in AIDS-related cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Helou, S H; López Daneri, G; Robles, A M; Arechavala, A I; Bianchi, M H

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory data of 22 patients with AIDS related cryptococcosis who were able to interrupt antifungal secondary prophylaxis after HAART administration, are presented. They were 14 males and 8 females, between 15 and 50 years old (X: 34 years old). All patients presented fever and severe deterioration of their general health status, and 19 exhibited a meningeal syndrome. At the start of antifungal treatment, 59% of the cases presented < 50 CD4+ cells/microl, the median viral burden was 134,804 RNA copies/ml and the median titer of serum cryptococcal antigen was 1/3,000. Amphotericin B by intravenous route, (0.7 mg/kg/day) or fluconazole (600 to 800 mg/day) were given as a treatment of the initial episode, up to CSF cultures negativization. Oral fluconazole (200 mg/day) or intravenous amphotericin B, 50 mg twice a week, were given as a secondary prophylaxis. The secondary prophylaxis was interrupted when the patients had received HAART for an average lapse of 19 months (6 to 36 months) and the median CD4+ cell count was 249/microl. The follow up after secondary prophylaxis discontinuation lasted for a median lapse of 22 months. These data seem to show that secondary prophylaxis is not necessary when the patient are clinically asymptomatic and the CD4+ cell counts are above 150/microl.

  9. Effect of pumice prophylaxis on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lindauer, S J; Browning, H; Shroff, B; Marshall, F; Anderson, R H; Moon, P C

    1997-06-01

    Pumice prophylaxis has long been accepted as a prerequisite for achieving adequate enamel etching during orthodontic bonding procedures. Three methods were used in this study to examine the effects of pumice prophylaxis on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets: (1) shear bond strength of brackets that were bonded to extracted premolars after surface preparation procedures, which either included or did not include prior pumice prophylaxis, was evaluated; (2) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface characteristics of teeth that had been etched with and without prior pumice prophylaxis; and (3) rate of bracket failure in patients who had had brackets bonded with and without prior pumice prophylaxis was recorded during an average treatment time of 18 months. No significant differences were noted in bond strength, general etched enamel surface characteristics, or bracket retention rates. Some specific differences, however, were noted on SEM in localized areas of the etched enamel surfaces, although these did not appear to affect the bond strength or bracket retention rates ultimately attained.

  10. Voriconazole versus itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis following allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marks, David I; Pagliuca, Antonio; Kibbler, Christopher C; Glasmacher, Axel; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Kantecki, Michal; Miller, Paul JS; Ribaud, Patricia; Schlamm, Haran T; Solano, Carlos; Cook, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis for allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplant (alloHCT) recipients should prevent invasive mould and yeast infections (IFIs) and be well tolerated. This prospective, randomized, open-label, multicentre study compared the efficacy and safety of voriconazole (234 patients) versus itraconazole (255 patients) in alloHCT recipients. The primary composite endpoint, success of prophylaxis, incorporated ability to tolerate study drug for ≥100 d (with ≤14 d interruption) with survival to day 180 without proven/probable IFI. Success of prophylaxis was significantly higher with voriconazole than itraconazole (48·7% vs. 33·2%, P <0·01); more voriconazole patients tolerated prophylaxis for 100 d (53·6% vs. 39·0%, P<0·01; median total duration 96 vs. 68 d). The most common (>10%) treatment-related adverse events were vomiting (16·6%), nausea (15·8%) and diarrhoea (10·4%) for itraconazole, and hepatotoxicity/liver function abnormality (12·9%) for voriconazole. More itraconazole patients received other systemic antifungals (41·9% vs. 29·9%, P<0·01). There was no difference in incidence of proven/probable IFI (1·3% vs. 2·1%) or survival to day 180 (81·9% vs. 80·9%) for voriconazole and itraconazole respectively. Voriconazole was superior to itraconazole as antifungal prophylaxis after alloHCT, based on differences in the primary composite endpoint. Voriconazole could be given for significantly longer durations, with less need for other systemic antifungals. PMID:21880032

  11. Pneumococcal septicemia despite pneumococcal vaccine and prescription of penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, G R; Smith, S J

    1986-05-01

    Although polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine and prophylactic penicillin are used to prevent overwhelming Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia in infants and young children with sickle cell anemia, infection rates remain high. We have reviewed our seven-year experience with a regimen of twice daily oral penicillin V potassium prophylaxis in 88 affected children. The median age at the start of prophylaxis was 10 months, and the median duration of prophylaxis was 29 months (range, three months to seven years). The total period of observation of patients who were prescribed penicillin was 248 person-years. Most patients also received one or two doses of polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine. Despite penicillin prophylaxis and pneumococcal vaccine, eight episodes of S pneumoniae septicemia have occurred and three have been fatal. Four episodes were in children older than 3 years. Suboptimal compliance with the prescribed oral penicillin regimen was usually apparent. With one possible exception, the infections occurred when penicillin had not been taken during the previous 24 hours. The S pneumoniae septicemia rate in this patient population, 3.2 per 100 person-years, is somewhat less than that described in previous reports of children not receiving penicillin but is still unacceptably high. Vigorous advocacy of a penicillin prophylaxis regimen does not eliminate the risk of pneumococcal septicema in this patient population.

  12. What do women know about breast cancer prophylaxis and a healthy style of life?

    PubMed Central

    Sielska, Jolanta; Matecka, Monika; Dąbrowska, Eliza; Jakubek, Ewa; Urbaniak, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing women's knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis and find out the sources of the knowledge. Background In the Greater Poland region, breast cancer has been the most frequently detected tumour for years. The percentage of breast cancer cases has increased by 31% in the last decade. Materials and methods The study encompassed 337 women aged 40–59 who participated in the mammographic examinations. An original research tool was used which assessed the level of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis, the knowledge of health-oriented behaviour in this regard and the influence of the medical personnel on women's education. Results Age is a factor diversifying the knowledge of the breast self-examination method. Doctors and nurses were rarely indicated as a source of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis. The subjects presented a high level of knowledge of the factors increasing the risk of developing cancer. Conclusions A correlation between the level of education and the knowledge of one's own breast to a degree which enables a woman to detect even a slight change was observed. Vital findings also concern the sources of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis. The results of the studies indicated little informative support on the part of the medical personnel; therefore, one should call for supplementing training courses for doctors and nurses focusing on the issues of prophylaxis, including the method of breast self-examination. PMID:26549989

  13. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a survey of Canadian orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Michael; Anderson, David R.; Nagpal, Seema; O’Brien, Bernie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the pharmacologic and physical modalities used by orthopedic surgeons in Canada to prevent venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Design Mail survey sent to all members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association. Setting A nation-wide study. Methods A total of 828 questionnaires, designed to identify the type and frequency of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism that were used after hip and knee arthroplasty were mailed to orthopedic surgeons. Outcome measures Demographic data and the frequency and type of thromboprophylaxis. Results Of the 828 surveys mailed 445 (54%) were returned, and 397 were included in this analysis. Of the respondents, 97% used prophylaxis routinely for patients who undergo total hip or knee arthroplasty. Three of the 397 (0.8%) did not use any method of prophylaxis. Warfarin was the most common agent used (46%), followed by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (36%). Combination therapy with both mechanical and pharmacologic methods were used in 39% of patients. Objective screening tests were not frequently performed before discharge. Extended prophylaxis beyond the duration of hospitalization was used by 36% of physicians. Conclusion Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with warfarin or LMWH has become standard care after total hip or knee arthroplasty in Canada. PMID:10593248

  14. Primary prophylaxis of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV patients in French Guiana: arguments for cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Vantilcke, Vincent; Blanchet, Denis; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Histoplasmosis is the first cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related deaths in French Guiana. Cohort data were used to determine whether primary prophylaxis with 100 mg itraconazole for patients with CD4 counts < 150/mm(3) was cost-effective with different scenarios. For a scenario where 12% of patients died, 60% were aware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and adherence was only 50%, primary prophylaxis would prevent 1 death and 9 cases of histoplasmosis for a cost of 36,792 Euros per averted death, 1,533 per life-year saved, 4,415 Euros per averted case, when only counting the costs of itraconazole prophylaxis. Taking into account the total costs of hospitalization showed that primary prophylaxis would allow a savings of 185,178 Euros per year. Even in a scenario of low adherence, primary prophylaxis would be cost-effective in French Guiana, and presumably in the rest of the Guianas and the Amazon.

  15. Central nervous system prophylaxis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Khan, Nadia; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Kizilbash, Sani Haider; Barta, Stefan K

    2016-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a relatively uncommon manifestation; with most cases of CNS involvement occuring during relapse after primary therapy. CNS dissemination typically occurs early in the disease course and is most likely present subclinically at the time of diagnosis in many patients who later relapse in the CNS. CNS relapse in these patients is associated with poor outcomes. Based on a CNS relapse rate of 5% in DLBCL and weighing the benefits against the toxicities, universal application of CNS prophylaxis is not justified. The introduction of rituximab has significantly reduced the incidence of CNS relapse in DLBCL. Different studies have employed other agents for CNS prophylaxis, such as intrathecal chemotherapy and high-dose systemic agents with sufficient CNS penetration. If CNS prophylaxis is to be given, it should be preferably administered during primary chemotherapy. However, there is no strong evidence that supports any single approach for CNS prophylaxis. In this review, we outline different strategies of administering CNS prophylaxis in DLBCL patients reported in literature and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

  16. [Prophylaxis and health promotion--whether and for whom they provide profit?].

    PubMed

    Szozda, Ryszard J

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this article is employee and his family, employer, the state in all aspects and health as a profit and a lack of health as a loss. Healthy employee brings a profit to himself, to the employer and to the state. Up to these times nobody has thought about the health value. Work is a commodity. Prophylaxis and health promotion are work. Health can be sold as each commodity. Prophylaxis and health promotion incur expenses but they must be compared with illness results expenses (including immeasurable ones). Having analysed the literature the author claims that the thesis is right so it means that the effects of prophylaxis and health promotion determine the profit to employees and their families, to employers and to the state--which means to all of us.

  17. Pneumocystis pneumonia in a non-HIV patient on chronic corticosteroid therapy: a question of prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Michael J; Jalota, Leena; Lloyd, Benjamin J

    2013-03-01

    A man in his late 50s with a history of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis presented with fever and mild dyspnoea. He was HIV-negative and had been on corticosteroids as immunosuppression for 6 months prior to tapering them off 1 week before presentation. He was not taking prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. After unsuccessful treatment for community-acquired pneumonia, his condition worsened and he required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Full respiratory workup including bronchoscopy revealed P jirovecii as a source for the patient's infection. He was treated successfully with a 21-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole  and eventually weaned off the ventilator. He has had no complications to date. In our review of this case and the existing literature, we believe that proper utilisation of prophylaxis for pneumocystis pneumonia may have prevented our patient's transfer to intensive care unit. In our article, we discuss this issue and explore current evidence for prophylaxis.

  18. Estimates of utility weights in hemophilia: implications for cost-utility analysis of clotting factor prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Scott D; Chaugule, Shraddha S; Hay, Joel W

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of preference-weighted health outcomes or health state utilities are needed to assess improvements in health in terms of quality-adjusted life-years. Gains in quality-adjusted life-years are used to assess the cost–effectiveness of prophylactic use of clotting factor compared with on-demand treatment among people with hemophilia, a congenital bleeding disorder. Published estimates of health utilities for people with hemophilia vary, contributing to uncertainty in the estimates of cost–effectiveness of prophylaxis. Challenges in estimating utility weights for the purpose of evaluating hemophilia treatment include selection bias in observational data, difficulty in adjusting for predictors of health-related quality of life and lack of preference-based data comparing adults with lifetime or primary prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis living within the same country and healthcare system. PMID:25585817

  19. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Prophylaxis and treatment controversies.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Daniel Kl

    2012-04-24

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it carries a high mortality. Prophylaxis for hepatic VOD is commonly given to transplant recipients from the start of conditioning through the early weeks of transplant. However, high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials is scarce with small sample sizes and the trials yielded conflicting results. Although various treatment options for hepatic VOD are available, most have not undergone stringent evaluation with randomized controlled trial and therefore it remains uncertain which treatment offers real benefit. It remains controversial whether VOD prophylaxis should be given, which prophylactic therapy should be given, who should receive prophylaxis, and what treatment should be offered once VOD is established.

  20. An audit of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in the prophylaxis of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

    PubMed

    Illingworth, Clare; Timmons, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    This paper reports a prospective audit, against an existing baseline standard, for intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in the prophylaxis of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This was done via a structured questionnaire, using the methodology of total population sampling, encapsulating all theatre staff within one NHS trust. With regards to the standard, performance is good, as IPC is DVT prophylaxis of choice in the perioperative area and is used frequently on most patients. The findings of the audit do, however, highlight the need for appropriate local DVT risk assessment guidelines, essential to ensure that prophylaxis is administered to the correct at risk groups, as prevention may be unjustified in low risk groups and possibly inappropriate for the same regimen to be used for all patients.

  1. Heterotopic ossification: Pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Tracy A.; Gobezie, Reuben; Mamon, Harvey J. . E-mail: hmamon@partners.org

    2006-08-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a benign condition of abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. HO is frequently asymptomatic, though when it is more severe it typically manifests as decreased range of motion at a nearby joint. HO has been recognized to occur in three distinct contexts-trauma, neurologic injury, and genetic abnormalities. The etiology of HO is incompletely understood. A posited theory is that HO results from the presence of osteoprogenitor cells pathologically induced by an imbalance in local or systemic factors. Individuals at high risk for HO development frequently undergo prophylaxis to prevent HO formation. The two most commonly employed modalities for prophylaxis are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and radiation therapy. This review discusses HO pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis.

  2. Editorial Commentary: The Efficacy of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs for Prophylaxis of Heterotopic Ossification in Hip Arthroscopy--Do We Treat Patients or X-rays?

    PubMed

    Miller, G Klaud

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of 5 series comparing the incidence of heterotopic ossification after hip arthroscopy with and without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug prophylaxis showed a statistically significant improvement with the use of prophylaxis.

  3. Effectiveness and outcome predictors of long-term lithium prophylaxis in unipolar major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baethge, Christopher; Gruschka, Philipp; Smolka, Michael N.; Berghöfer, Anne; Bschor, Tom; Müller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno; Bauer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of lithium prophylaxis in unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify predictors of outcome including comedication. Methods In this long-term naturalistic study, clinical data from 55 patients with MDD (DSM-III-R) were collected prospectively in an outpatient clinic specializing in the treatment of affective disorders. Outcome measures Change in hospital admission rate (number and duration) during prophylaxis compared with the period before prophylaxis, Morbidity-Index during prophylaxis and time to first recurrence after initiation of lithium treatment. Results During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years, a significant decline in the number of days spent in hospital (p < 0.001; 52 d/yr less; 95; CI 31–73 d) and a low Morbidity-Index (mean 0.07) was observed. Only in 6 patients did medication have to be changed because of side-effects (n = 4) or a lack of efficacy (n = 2). None of the independent variables we analyzed proved to be important in predicting the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. Comedication was necessary in 21 patients. The overall outcome of their prophylactic treatment, however, did not differ from the group that did not receive comedication in the symptom-free intervals. Conclusions The results of this study, with its long observation period and the inclusion of comedication as a confounding variable, indicate that lithium is a potent prophylactic agent for unipolar MDD in a naturalistic setting. In contrast to the findings of others, age was not associated with the outcome of prophylaxis, and latency did not predict outcome. Contrary to doubts that have been raised in recent years with regard to the effectiveness of lithium in everyday clinical practice, lithium appears to be a safe and potent alternative to antidepressants. PMID:14517579

  4. Cost effectiveness of venous thromboembolism pharmacological prophylaxis in total hip and knee replacement: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Alok; Chuang, Warren; Radhakrishnan, Nila; Smith, Kenneth J; Berlowitz, Dan; Segal, Jodi B; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Total hip and knee replacements (THR and TKR) are high-risk settings for venous thromboembolism (VTE). This review summarizes the cost effectiveness of VTE prophylaxis regimens for THR and TKR. We searched MEDLINE (January 1997 to October 2009), EMBASE (January 1997 to June 2009) and the UK NHS Economic Evaluation Database (1997 to October 2009). We analysed recent cost-effectiveness studies examining five categories of comparisons: (i) anticoagulants (warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or fondaparinux) versus acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin); (ii) LMWH versus warfarin; (iii) fondaparinux versus LMWH; (iv) comparisons with new oral anticoagulants; and (v) extended-duration (> or =3 weeks) versus short-duration (<3 weeks) prophylaxis. We abstracted information on cost and effectiveness for each prophylaxis regimen in order to calculate an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Because of variations in effectiveness units reported and horizon length analysed, we calculated two cost-effectiveness ratios, one for the number of symptomatic VTE events avoided at 90 days and the other for QALYs at the 1-year mark or beyond. Our search identified 33 studies with 67 comparisons. After standardization, comparisons between LMWH and warfarin were inconclusive, whereas fondaparinux dominated LMWH in nearly every comparison. The latter results were derived from radiographic VTE rates. Extended-duration prophylaxis after THR was generally cost effective. Small numbers prohibit conclusions about aspirin, new oral anticoagulants or extended-duration prophylaxis after TKR. Fondaparinux after both THR and TKR and extended-duration LMWH after THR appear to be cost-effective prophylaxis regimens. Small numbers for other comparisons and absence of trials reporting symptomatic endpoints prohibit comprehensive conclusions.

  5. Standard or extended-duration prophylaxis in medical patients? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Stark, J E; Smith, W J

    2011-10-01

    Acutely ill medical patients are at significant risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboprophylaxis can substantially reduce the incidence of VTE, but to be optimally effective must consist of the correct choice of agent, at an appropriate dose, and for sufficient duration. Increasing evidence suggests that VTE risk persists beyond the standard period of prophylaxis. Although there is evidence that extended-duration prophylaxis is beneficial in preventing late VTE complications in high-risk surgical patients, few data exist in medical patients. The recent EXCLAIM study demonstrated that, subsequent to a standard prophylaxis regimen of 10 ± 4 days with enoxaparin 40 mg once daily, extended-duration prophylaxis (28 ± 4 days) with enoxaparin reduced total VTE events compared with placebo: 2.5% versus 4.0%; (absolute risk difference -1.53%; 95.8% confidence interval [CI] -2.54 to -0.52), with parallel increases in major bleeding rates (0.8% vs. 0.3%; absolute risk difference 0.51%; 95% CI 0.12-0.89%). The reduction in total VTE was principally driven by a decrease in symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis (absolute risk difference -0.60%; 95.8% CI -1.00 to -0.19%). Favorable benefit-to-risk ratios were observed in certain high-risk patient groups: level 1 immobility, women, and age >75 years. In addition to their underlying medical condition, medical patients often have multiple risk factors, placing them at sustained risk of VTE. Extended-duration prophylaxis might be most relevant in such patients. The development of appropriate risk assessment tools could help identify medical patients at greatest risk of late VTE events who might benefit most from extended-duration prophylaxis.

  6. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2016-05-22

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  7. [Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury].

    PubMed

    Silva, Vinícius Trindade Gomes da; Iglesio, Ricardo; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Siqueira, Mario Gilberto; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O risco de trombose venosa profunda encontra-se aumentado em doentes vítimas de traumatismo cranioencefálico, mas a profilaxia da trombose venosa profunda se confronta com o possível risco de piora de lesões hemorrágicas relacionados ao traumatismo cranioencefálico. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão crítica do tema e propomos um protocolo de profilaxia para estes doentes.Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, e Scielo de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2014 com a expressão de busca âÄúdeep venous thrombosis and prophylaxis and traumatic brain injuryâÄù. Foram encontrados 44 artigos usando os termos MeSH definidos. Destes foram selecionados 23 artigos, usando como critérios: publicação em inglês ou português, fase aguda do traumatismo cranioencefálico moderado e grave, profilaxia mecânica não invasiva ou química.Resultados: O traumatismo cranioencefálico é um fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda e tromboembolismo pulmonar. A chance de trombose venosa profunda é 2,59 vezes maior em doentes com traumatismo cranioencefálico. A prevalência de trombose venosa profunda e embolia pulmonar em doentes que sofreram traumatismo cranioencefálico é de 20%, podendo atingir 30% dos doentes em alguns estudos.Discussão e Conclusão: As diversas formas de traumatismo de forma isolada constituem fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda e tromboembolismo pulmonar. Ensaios clínicos são necessários para estabelecer a eficácia da profilaxia e o melhor momento de iniciar medicação para trombose venosa profunda em doentes com traumatismo craniencefálico.

  8. Lack of extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in high-risk patients undergoing major orthopaedic or major cancer surgery. Electronic Assessment of VTE Prophylaxis in High-Risk Surgical Patients at Discharge from Swiss Hospitals (ESSENTIAL).

    PubMed

    Kalka, Christoph; Spirk, David; Siebenrock, Klaus-Arno; Metzger, Urs; Tuor, Philipp; Sterzing, Daniel; Oehy, Kurt; Wondberg, Daniela; Mouhsine, El Yazid; Gautier, Emanuel; Kucher, Nils

    2009-07-01

    Extended pharmacological venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis beyond discharge is recommended for patients undergoing high-risk surgery. We prospectively investigated prophylaxis in 1,046 consecutive patients undergoing major orthopaedic (70%) or major cancer surgery (30%) in 14 Swiss hospitals. Appropriate in-hospital prophylaxis was used in 1,003 (96%) patients. At discharge, 638 (61%) patients received prescription for extended pharmacological prophylaxis: 564 (77%) after orthopaedic surgery, and 74 (23%) after cancer surgery (p < 0.001). Patients with knee replacement (94%), hip replacement (81%), major trauma (80%), and curative arthroscopy (73%) had the highest prescription rates for extended VTE prophylaxis; the lowest rates were found in patients undergoing major surgery for thoracic (7%), gastrointestinal (19%), and hepatobiliary (33%) cancer. The median duration of prescribed extended prophylaxis was longer in patients with orthopaedic surgery (32 days, interquartile range 14-40 days) than in patients with cancer surgery (23 days, interquartile range 11-30 days; p<0.001). Among the 278 patients with an extended prophylaxis order after hip replacement, knee replacement, or hip fracture surgery, 120 (43%) received a prescription for at least 35 days, and among the 74 patients with an extended prophylaxis order after major cancer surgery, 20 (27%) received a prescription for at least 28 days. In conclusion, approximately one quarter of the patients with major orthopaedic surgery and more than three quarters of the patients with major cancer surgery did not receive prescription for extended VTE prophylaxis. Future effort should focus on the improvement of extended VTE prophylaxis, particularly in patients undergoing major cancer surgery.

  9. Evaluation of azithromycin, trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin as prophylaxis against experimental murine Brucella melitensis infection.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Helen S; Spencer, Stephen; Brew, Simon D; Jenner, Dominic C; Sefton, Armine M; MacMillan, Alastair P; Brooks, Timothy J G; Simpson, Andrew J H

    2010-07-01

    The prophylactic potential of the azalide azithromycin as well as the fluoroquinolones trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin was assessed for the control of infection with Brucella melitensis in an experimental mouse model, determined by reduction in splenic bacterial burden. Trovafloxacin showed limited protective efficacy when administered 2h following a low-dose B. melitensis challenge, whereas grepafloxacin was ineffective. In comparison, azithromycin provided significant control of infection both following low- and high-dose challenges. Overall, the data confirm the potential utility of azithromycin in the prophylaxis of brucellosis and suggest that neither trovafloxacin nor grepafloxacin would likely be valuable for post-exposure prophylaxis of Brucella infection.

  10. Methemoglobinemia in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Receiving Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy G; Carroll, Megan G

    2016-07-18

    BACKGROUND Methemoglobinemia due to the administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim has been documented in a series of case reports. However, all of these reports are on adult patients, and all patients received at least daily administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for the treatment of active or suspected infection. CASE REPORT Herein we report the development of methemoglobinemia in a pediatric patient receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim three times weekly for the prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS The clinician should always consider sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, even when administered for opportunistic infection prophylaxis at reduced doses and intervals, as a possible cause of methemoglobinemia.

  11. Is selective prenatal iron prophylaxis better than routine prophylaxis: final results of a trial (PROFEG) in Maputo, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Elina; Nwaru, Bright I; Salomé, Graca; Parkkali, Saara; Abacassamo, Fatima; Augusto, Orvalho; Cliff, Julie; Regushevskaya, Elena; Dgedge, Martinho; Sousa, Cesar; Chilundo, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare routine versus selective (ie, screening and treatment for anaemia) prenatal iron prophylaxis in a malaria-endemic and HIV-prevalent setting, an extended analysis including previously missing data. Design A pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting 2 health centres in Maputo, Mozambique. Participants Pregnant women (≥18 years old; non-high-risk pregnancy) were randomly allocated to routine iron (n=2184) and selective iron (n=2142) groups. Interventions In the routine group, women received 60 mg ferrous sulfate plus 400 μg folic acid daily. In the selective group, women received 1 mg of folic acid daily and haemoglobin (Hb) screening at each visit; with low Hb (cut-off 9 g/dL) treatment (120 mg+800 μg of folic acid daily) for a month. Outcome measures Primary outcomes: preterm birth, low birth weight; secondary outcomes: self-reported malaria, labour complications, caesarean section, perinatal death, woman's death. Nurses collected pregnancy data. Birth data were abstracted from hospital records for 52% of women and traced using various methods and linked with probabilistic matching for 24%. Women's deaths were collected from death registers. Results Birth data were available for 3301 (76%) of the women. Outcomes were similar in the two groups: preterm births (27.1% in the selective vs 25.3% in the routine group), low birthweight infants (11.0% vs 11.7%), perinatal deaths (2.4% vs 2.4%) and caesarean sections (4.0% vs 4.5%). Women's deaths during pregnancy or <42 days postpartum were more common in the selective group (0.8% among the two best matched women) than in the routine group (0.4%). Extra deaths could not be explained by the cause of death, Hb level or HIV status at recruitment. Conclusions Birth outcomes were similar in the two iron groups. There might have been more women's deaths in the selective iron group, but it is unclear whether this was due to the intervention, other factors or chance finding

  12. Influenza treatment and prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Amanda; Holodniy, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus is a pathogen that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas vaccination is important for prevention of disease, given its limitations, antiviral therapy is at the forefront of treatment and also plays a role in prevention. Currently, two classes of antiviral medications, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors, are approved for treatment. Given the resistance patterns of circulating influenza, adamantanes are not recommended. Within the US, two neuraminidase inhibitors are currently approved for both treatment and prevention, while worldwide there are four available. In this review, we will briefly discuss the epidemiology and pathology of influenza and then discuss neuraminidase inhibitors: their mechanism of action, resistance, development, and future applications. PMID:24277988

  13. Thrombin generation and low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in pregnant women with thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Selmeczi, Anna; Roach, Rachel E J; Móré, Csaba; Batta, Zoltán; Hársfalvi, Jolán; van der Bom, Johanna G; Boda, Zoltán; Oláh, Zsolt

    2015-02-01

    Pregnancy is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, especially in the presence of thrombophilia. However, there is no consensus on the optimal approach for thromboprophylaxis in this population. Recent evidence suggests that thrombin generation correlates with the overall procoagulant state of the plasma. Our aim was to evaluate thrombin generation in a prospective cohort of thrombophilic pregnant women, and investigate the effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis in pregnancy. Women with severe (n=8), mild (n=47) and no (n=15) thrombophilia were followed throughout their pregnancies. Thrombin generation was evaluated in each trimester as well as five days and eight weeks postpartum (as a reference category). In women undergoing LMWH prophylaxis, thrombin generation and anti-Factor-Xa activity were measured just before and 4 hours after administration (peak effect). Thrombin generation was determined using Technothrombin TGA assay system. For the analysis, median peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were used. Peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were increased during pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant state with the highest results in the severe thrombophilia group. In women receiving LMWH prophylaxis a decrease was observed in thrombin generation at peak effect but over the progression of pregnancy the extent of this decrease reduced in a stepwise fashion. Our results show that thrombin generation demonstrates the hypercoagulable state in thrombophilic pregnancies. In addition, we found the effect of LMWH prophylaxis to progressively decrease with advancing stages of pregnancy.

  14. Low molecular weight heparins as extended prophylaxis against recurrent thrombosis in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engman, Cocav A; Zacharski, Leo R

    2008-08-01

    Cancer has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). Thromboprophylaxis reduces the incidence of VTE in patients with cancer; however, active cancer places patients at high risk for recurrent VTE, necessitating extended prophylactic regimens. Extended prophylaxis in patients with cancer can be problematic because of increased risk for bleeding. Oral anticoagulants, such as warfarin, have been the standard of care for extended prophylaxis, but maintaining a clinically effective level of anticoagulation can be difficult because of a wide range of drug interactions, a narrow therapeutic window, and an increased risk of bleeding complications, particularly in patients with cancer. Recent evidence indicates that long-term prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) is an effective and safe alternative to oral anticoagulation in patients with VTE and cancer, reducing the risk for recurrent VTE by up to 52%. LMWHs can also be seen as cost-effective for long-term prophylaxis, because higher drug acquisition costs are offset by the potential for reduced hospital stays, reduced need for coagulation monitoring, and fewer bleeding complications. Some studies suggest that LMWHs may also have direct antitumor effects and improve survival rates, most notably in patients with non-metastatic disease. Further clinical research is needed to evaluate the potential survival benefits of LMWH therapy in patients with cancer.

  15. Streptococcus mutans infective endocarditis complicated by vertebral discitis following dental treatment without antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sujata; Bowler, Ian C J W; Bunch, Christopher; Prendergast, Bernard; Webster, Daniel P

    2010-10-01

    We report what we believe is the first reported case of Streptococcus mutans endocarditis complicated by vertebral discitis. The case is particularly interesting and topical as it occurred in a patient with pre-existing cardiac valvular disease who had recently had a dental procedure without antibiotic prophylaxis following a dramatic shift in the UK guidelines.

  16. Pneumocystis carinii mutations are associated with duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis exposure in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Kazanjian, P; Armstrong, W; Hossler, P A; Burman, W; Richardson, J; Lee, C H; Crane, L; Katz, J; Meshnick, S R

    2000-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether Pneumocystis carinii dyhydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) are affected by duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis and influence response to sulfa or sulfone therapy. The P. carinii DHPS genes from 97 AIDS patients with PCP between 1991 and 1999 from 4 medical centers were amplified, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequenced. Mutations were observed in 76% of isolates from patients exposed to sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis compared with 23% of isolates from patients not exposed (P=.001). Duration of prophylaxis increased the risk of mutations (relative risk [RR] for each exposure month, 1.06; P=.02). Twenty-eight percent of patients with mutations failed sulfa or sulfone treatment; mutations increased the risk of sulfa or sulfone treatment failure (RR, 2.1; P=0.01). Thus, an increased duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis increases the chance of developing a P. carinii mutation. The majority of patients with mutations respond to sulfa or sulfone therapy.

  17. [Prophylaxis of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: new oral anticoagulants and left atrial appendage closure].

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Kelm, Malte; Bode, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Thrombo-embolic prophylaxis is a key element within the therapy of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter. Besides new oral anticoagulants the concept of left atrial appendage occlusion has approved to be a good alternative option, especially in patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  18. Efficacy of clarithromycin versus that of clindamycin for single-dose prophylaxis of experimental streptococcal endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Vermot, D; Entenza, J M; Vouillamoz, J; Glauser, M P; Moreillon, P

    1996-01-01

    Clarithromycin is compared with clindamycin for single-dose prophylaxis of streptococcal endocarditis in rats. Human-like kinetics of the two antibiotics prevented endocarditis in animals challenged with both small and large amounts of bacterial inocula. Clarithromycin was marginally superior to clindamycin against small amounts of inocula. Clarithromycin may be considered for endocarditis chemoprophylaxis in human. PMID:8851620

  19. Prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin - review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Major progress for the management of invasive aspergillosis has come from the introduction of new antifungals since the late 1990s. Although mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains as high as 30-50%. Backbone of management are prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungals for reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Randomized trials have been undertaken for the prophylaxis as well as treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the last two decades. Posaconazole is recommended for prophylaxis against aspergillosis in patients treated for acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or patients with graft versus host disease after allogeneic transplantation. Efficacy has been shown for first-line therapy of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. Gastrointestinal resorption for the azoles posaconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole differ considerably. While oral voriconazole resportion is reduced when taken with food, posaconazole has to be taken with fatty food for optimal intestinal resorption. Beside all advances in the management of invasive aspergillosis important questions remain unresolved. This article reviews the current state of prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis and points out clinicians unmet needs. PMID:21486728

  20. Treatment of febrile neutropenia and prophylaxis in hematologic malignancies: a critical review and update.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Paola; Villalon, Lucia; Losa, Juan E; Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis.

  1. Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia and Prophylaxis in Hematologic Malignancies: A Critical Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Paola; Villalon, Lucia; Losa, Juan E.; Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis. PMID:25525436

  2. Absence of VOD in paediatric thalassaemic HSCT recipients using defibrotide prophylaxis and intravenous Busulphan.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Barbara; Chiesa, Robert; Evangelio, Costanza; Biffi, Alessandra; Roccia, Tito; Frugnoli, Ilaria; Biral, Erika; Noè, Anna; Fossati, Marco; Finizio, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Napolitano, Sara; Ferrua, Francesca; Soliman, Clara; Ciceri, Fabio; Roncarolo, Maria G; Marktel, Sarah

    2009-11-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a common complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with reported incidences of 5-40% in children. Recently, defibrotide (DF) has been successfully used as prophylaxis and treatment of VOD. This study reports data on 63 human leucocyte antigen-matched HSCT performed in 57 children affected by beta thalassemia at very high risk for developing VOD (liver fibrosis, iron overload, hepatitis C virus infections, busulphan-based conditioning, methotraexate + ciclosporine). All patients received a busulphan-based conditioning regimen, either orally (four HSCT) or intravenously (59 HSCT). All patients received oral DF (40 mg/kg per day, final dose) as VOD prophylaxis from median day -9 to median day +29. In order to overcome the lack of oral paediatric formulations, a galenic formulation was administered. DF was well tolerated. Only one patient fulfilled Seattle Criteria for VOD diagnosis. This patient had discontinued DF 6 d prior to VOD onset, due to high risk of haemorrhage. We concluded that oral defibrotide prophylaxis and i.v. busulphan safely abated VOD incidence in high-risk patients who had undergone HSCT. A galenic preparation of oral DF also permits this treatment in low-weight patients. Costs of DF prophylaxis are acceptable considering the reduced incidence of VOD.

  3. Neuropsychological sequelae of central nervous system prophylaxis in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Said, J.A.; Waters, B.G.; Cousens, P.; Stevens, M.M.

    1989-04-01

    We assessed neuropsychologically 106 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had all received cranial irradiation for the prevention of central nervous system (CNS) leukemia 1-13 years previously. Children were assessed for adverse late effects of their therapy, using age-appropriate Wechsler measures of overall intellectual ability and supplementary tests. Forty-five siblings near in age to the patients were tested as controls. The patients who had had the most intensive central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis were found to have a WISC-R Full Scale IQ 17 points lower than the sibling control group. Performance IQ was more affected than verbal IQ. The patients were more easily distracted and less able to concentrate. The severity of the aftereffects was related to younger age at the time of CNS prophylaxis and to a higher dose of cranial irradiation but not to time since CNS prophylaxis. CNS prophylaxis using a combination of cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate has lowered the incidence of CNS relapse in childhood ALL but is associated with considerable long-term morbidity in survivors.

  4. Prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Karthaus, M

    2011-04-28

    Major progress for the management of invasive aspergillosis has come from the introduction of new antifungals since the late 1990s. Although mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains as high as 30-50%. Backbone of management are prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungals for reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Randomized trials have been undertaken for the prophylaxis as well as treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the last two decades. Posaconazole is recommended for prophylaxis against aspergillosis in patients treated for acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or patients with graft versus host disease after allogeneic transplantation. Efficacy has been shown for first-line therapy of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. Gastrointestinal resorption for the azoles posaconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole differ considerably. While oral voriconazole resportion is reduced when taken with food, posaconazole has to be taken with fatty food for optimal intestinal resorption. Beside all advances in the management of invasive aspergillosis important questions remain unresolved. This article reviews the current state of prophylaxis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis and points out clinicians unmet needs.

  5. Risk-assessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients

    PubMed Central

    T Rocha, Ana; F Paiva, Edison; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo; Milani, Rodolfo; Cavalheiro-Filho, Cyrillo; H Maffei, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical patients is high, but risk assessment is rarely performed because there is not yet a good method to identify candidates for prophylaxis. Purpose To perform a systematic review about VTE risk factors (RFs) in hospitalized medical patients and generate recommendations (RECs) for prophylaxis that can be implemented into practice. Data sources A multidisciplinary group of experts from 12 Brazilian Medical Societies searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, and LILACS. Study selection Two experts independently classified the evidence for each RF by its scientific quality in a standardized manner. A risk-assessment algorithm was created based on the results of the review. Data synthesis Several VTE RFs have enough evidence to support RECs for prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients (eg, increasing age, heart failure, and stroke). Other factors are considered adjuncts of risk (eg, varices, obesity, and infections). According to the algorithm, hospitalized medical patients ≥40 years-old with decreased mobility, and ≥1 RFs should receive chemoprophylaxis with heparin, provided they don’t have contraindications. High prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight-heparin must be administered and maintained for 6–14 days. Conclusions A multidisciplinary group generated evidence-based RECs and an easy-to-use algorithm to facilitate VTE prophylaxis in medical patients. PMID:17969384

  6. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis for hospitalized medical patients, current status and strategies to improve

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razeq, Hikmat

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising life-threatening pulmonary embolism (PE) and its precursor deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), is commonly encountered problem. Although most patients survive DVT, they often develop serious and costly long-term complications. Both unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins significantly reduce the incidence of VTE and its associated complications. Despite the evidence demonstrating significant benefit of VTE prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients, several registries have shown significant underutilization. This underutilization indicates the need for educational and audit programs in order to increase the number of medical patients receiving appropriate prophylaxis. Many health advocacy groups and policy makers are paying more attention to VTE prophylaxis; the National Quality Forum and the Joint Commission recently endorsed strict VTE risk assessment evaluation for each patient upon admission and regularly thereafter. In the article, all major studies addressing this issue in medical patients have been reviewed from the PubMed. The current status of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients is addressed and some improvement strategies are discussed. PMID:20981179

  7. Prophylaxis against Organophosphorous Nerve Agents - State of the Art (profylaxe tegen organofosfaat zenuwgassen - stand van zaken)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    exposure studies an exponent of the LD5 0 value is mostly used. For carbamate (prophylaxis) dosages the level of AChE inhibition is used. However, the most...residues essential for human paraoxonase (PONI) arylesterase/organophosphatase activities. Biochemistry 38, 2816-2825, 1999. Keeler JR, Hurst CG

  8. Comparison of flunarizine and topiramate for the prophylaxis of pediatric migraines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hunmin; Byun, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jon Soo; Lim, Byung Chan; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Hwang, Hee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate and flunarizine for the prophylaxis of pediatric migraines. A retrospective medical-record review of patients who underwent prophylaxis after receiving a diagnosis of migraine with aura and without aura was performed. Only patients who completed at least 3 months of treatment were included in the analysis. Response to treatment was assessed as the total number of headache days/month. Patients with more than 50% reduction in headache days/month were classified as responders. Responder rate, retention rate, and adverse-event rates were also calculated from all patients who started on the prophylaxis. Further analyses were performed using different patient groups with a cut-off age of 12 years. The responder rate was 80% (89/111 patients) for flunarizine and 81% (122/150 patients) for topiramate, based on a comparison among 261 patients. The retention rate was 67% for flunarizine and 63% for topiramate and the adverse-event rate was 6% for flunarizine and 10% for topiramate. The responder rate, the retention rate, and the adverse-event rate were not significantly different between flunarizine and topiramate. These findings were concordant between the preadolescent (6-12 years old) and adolescent (13-18 years old) groups. The efficacy and tolerability of topiramate were not inferior to those of flunarizine for the prophylaxis of pediatric migraines. These findings were observed in preadolescent and adolescent patients.

  9. Community-based, nurse-led post-exposure prophylaxis: results and implications.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Patrick; MacPherson, Paul; Roy, Marie; Orser, Lauren

    2017-04-01

    HIV medications can be used as post-exposure prophylaxis to efficaciously prevent an HIV-negative person who has come into contact with HIV from becoming HIV-positive. Traditionally, these medications have been available in emergency departments, which have constituted a barrier for the members of many minority groups who are greatly affected by HIV transmission (i.e. gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, and persons who use injection drugs). From 5 September 2013 through 4 September 2015, we sought to increase the use of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis by having registered nurses provide these medications, when indicated, in community clinics in Ottawa, Canada. We undertook a chart review of patients who accessed services for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in this period. Over the two years of data collection, 112 persons requested HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and 64% (n = 72) initiated these medications. Most (93%, or n = 67, of the 72 initiations) were among men, with 88% (n = 59) of these men reporting same sex sexual partners. Among these 58 men, 31% (n = 18) had sexual contact with other men known to be HIV-positive. Among women (n = 8), five initiated post-exposure prophylaxis: three after needle-sharing contact or sexual contact with a male partner who reportedly shared needles, and two after unprotected vaginal sex with a male partner known to be HIV-positive. Overall, no one was diagnosed with HIV at the four-month HIV testing follow-up, although six persons were diagnosed with HIV from the baseline HIV testing, and an additional four were diagnosed with HIV during routine HIV testing one year after completing post-exposure prophylaxis. In total, nine persons in our sample were thus diagnosed with HIV during the study period, which accounted for 9.4% (n = 10 of 106) of all reported HIV diagnoses in Ottawa during this time. We conclude that nurse-initiated HIV post-exposure prophylaxis can be an effective way to provide

  10. [WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies using Japanese rabies vaccine].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Naoki; Takayama, Naohide; Suganuma, Akihiko

    2008-09-01

    After severe exposure to suspected rabid animal, WHO recommends a complete vaccine series using a potent effective vaccine that meets WHO criteria, and administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). RIG is not available globally, and is not marketed in Japan. If pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies is given, RIG is unnecessary even after severe exposure. It is thus important to give pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies to people who plan to go to rabies-endemic areas. In Japan, pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies consists of 3 doses of cell-culture rabies vaccine. The first two doses are given 4 weeks apart, and the third dose is given 6-12 months after the first dose, all of which are injected subcutaneously (standard regimen). People who plan to travel abroad to rabies-endemic areas may know of their destinations only 1 or 2 months in advance at best. Therefore, it is virtually impossible to complete the 3 dose regimen for rabies in Japan. Pre-exposure prophylaxis recommended by WHO consists of 3 doses given intramuscularly on days 0, 7, and 28, making it possible to complete pre-exposure prophylaxis in one month. This WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis using Japanese cell-cultured rabies vaccine (PCEC-K) has not been studied, so we elected to fill the gap using PCEC-K, administered based on the WHO recommendation and examined its efficacy and safety. Subjects were 26 healthy volunteers with no previous rabies vaccination giving oral and written consent. Vaccine was administered on days 0, 7, and 28, and rabies antibody levels were tested on days 7, 28, and 42. On day 7, every antibody level was negative. On day 28, antibody levels were between 0.7-3.5 EU/ mL, with the exception of 3 cases still negative. On day 42, all cases, including the 3 negative cases, exceeded 1.6 EU/mL, providing sufficient protection against rabies. This result was not inferior compared to the standard regimen. Local adverse effects such as erythema and pain were noted, but none were

  11. Adherence to secondary prophylaxis and disease recurrence in 536 Brazilian children with rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 15 million people worldwide have rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease due to RF. Secondary prophylaxis is a critical cost-effective intervention for preventing morbidity and mortality related to RF. Ensuring adequate adherence to secondary prophylaxis for RF is a challenging task. This study aimed to describe the rates of recurrent episodes of RF, quantify adherence to secondary prophylaxis, and examine the effects of medication adherence to the rates of RF in a cohort of Brazilian children and adolescents with RF. Methods This retrospective study took place in the Pediatric Rheumatology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care hospital (Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and included patients with a diagnosis of RF from 1985 to 2005. Results 536 patients with RF comprised the study sample. Recurrent episodes of RF occurred in 88 of 536 patients (16.5%). Patients with a recurrent episode of RF were younger (p < 0.0001), more frequently males (p = 0.003), and less adherent (p < 0.0001) to secondary prophylaxis than patients without RF recurrence. Non-adherence to medication at any time during follow-up was detected in 35% of patients. Rates of non-adherence were higher in the group of patients that were lost to follow-up (42%) than in the group of patients still in follow-up (32%) (p = 0.027). Appointment frequency was inadequate in 10% of patients. Higher rates of inadequate appointment frequency were observed among patients who were eventually lost to follow-up (14.5%) than in patients who were successfully followed-up (8%) (p = 0.022). 180 patients (33.5%) were lost to follow up at some point in time. Conclusions We recommend implementation of a registry, and a system of active search of missing patients in every service responsible for the follow-up of RF patients. Measures to increase adherence to secondary prophylaxis need to be implemented formally, once non-adherence to secondary

  12. Multi-drug resistant E.coli urosepsis in physicians following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies--three cases including one death.

    PubMed

    Carlson, William H; Bell, David G; Lawen, Joseph G; Rendon, Ricardo A

    2010-04-01

    Three male physicians underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for elevated prostate-specific antigen levels or irregular digital rectal exam findings. All three of these patients developed urosepsis secondary to multi-drug resistant organisms despite antibiotic prophylaxis. There are increasing reports of infectious complications following prostate biopsy caused by multi-drug resistant organisms. These cases highlight the potentially lethal risks to healthcare workers who are more likely to harbor multi-drug resistant organisms than the general population. Further research into preoperative assessment and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis in all potentially high risk patients is warranted.

  13. [How to implement a guideline from theory to practice: the example of the venous thromboembolism prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Edison F; Rocha, Ana T C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to discuss the existing barriers for the dissemination of medical guidelines, and to present strategies that facilitate the adaptation of the recommendations into clinical practice. The literature shows that it usually takes several years until new scientific evidence is adopted in current practice, even when there is obvious impact in patients' morbidity and mortality. There are some examples where more than thirty years have elapsed since the first case reports about the use of a effective therapy were published until its utilization became routine. That is the case of fibrinolysis for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Some of the main barriers for the implementation of new recommendations are: the lack of knowledge of a new guideline, personal resistance to changes, uncertainty about the efficacy of the proposed recommendation, fear of potential side-effects, difficulties in remembering the recommendations, inexistence of institutional policies reinforcing the recommendation and even economical restrains. In order to overcome these barriers a strategy that involves a program with multiple tools is always the best. That must include the implementation of easy-to-use algorithms, continuous medical education materials and lectures, electronic or paper alerts, tools to facilitate evaluation and prescription, and periodic audits to show results to the practitioners involved in the process. It is also fundamental that the medical societies involved with the specific medical issue support the program for its scientific and ethical soundness. The creation of multidisciplinary committees in each institution and the inclusion of opinion leaders that have pro-active and lasting attitudes are the key-points for the program's success. In this manuscript we use as an example the implementation of a guideline for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, but the concepts described here can be easily applied to any other guideline

  14. Intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii/jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis in pediatric transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Abigail; Hemmelgarn, Trina; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Teusink, Ashley

    2015-05-01

    SMX/TMP is the current gold standard for prophylaxis against PCP in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Currently, there are several second-line options for prophylaxis but many, including intravenous (IV) pentamidine, have not been reported to be as effective or as safe as SMX/TMP in the pediatric transplant population. This study is to determine the efficacy and safety of IV pentamidine in preventing PCP in pediatric transplant patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate all transplant patients that received at least one dose of IV pentamidine from January 2010 to July 2013. The primary outcome, IV pentamidine efficacy, was evaluated by the incidence of PCP diagnosis for 28 days after the last dose of IV pentamidine if patient was transitioned to another agent for PCP prophylaxis. Patients on IV pentamidine for entire course of PCP prophylaxis were followed at least six months after discontinuation of IV pentamidine. The safety of IV pentamidine was assessed by the incidence of adverse events leading to pentamidine discontinuation. All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. All transplant patients at CCHMC who had received IV pentamidine were reviewed, and 333 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall incidence of PCP was found to be 0.3% for pediatric transplant patients on pentamidine. Pentamidine was found to be safe, and the incidence of adverse events leading to discontinuation was 6% with the most common reason being tachycardia 2.1%. IV pentamidine is safe and effective as PCP prophylaxis in pediatric transplant patients with a PCP breakthrough rate of 0.3% (1 of 333 patients), and only 20 adverse events led to discontinuation. We recommend that IV pentamidine be considered as a second-line option in pediatric transplant patients who cannot tolerate SMX/TMP.

  15. Veno-occlusive disease prophylaxis with fresh frozen plasma and heparin in bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Batsis, Ioannis; Yannaki, Evangelia; Kaloyannidis, Panayotis; Sakellari, Ioanna; Smias, Christos; Georgoulis, Ioannis; Fassas, Athanasios; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles

    2006-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) contains natural anticoagulants, such as antithrombin (AT) and Protein C (Prot-C). We hypothesized that FFP given in addition to heparin, could potentially replace the consumption of endogenous anticoagulants occurring during conditioning and moreover, corrected AT levels could augment heparin's anticoagulant function. This could therefore result in an effective anti-VOD prophylaxis. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the incidence of hepatic VOD in 403 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMTs) comparing 2 prophylactic regimens and no prophylaxis. Patients received no prophylaxis (70/403), heparin-only (27/403) or heparin+2FFP daily during conditioning (306/403). VOD was significantly lower in the heparin+FFP group (5.9%) compared to heparin (20%) and no prophylaxis group (15.7%) [p<0.01]. Day 8 AT and Prot-C levels, were lower in the VOD- compared to the non-VOD group (AT: 69+/-26% vs. 89+/-19%, Prot-C:68+/-26% vs. 91+/-29%, respectively, p=0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for developing VOD were: the administration of >2 hepato-nephrotoxic drugs, previous history of hepatitis B or C and number of BMT. Multivariate analysis in a subset of 198 patients (all having recorded AT, Prot-C), demonstrated as VOD-related factors, the low day 8 Prot-C, number of BMT>1 and prior abdominal radiotherapy. Our study implies that FFP during conditioning, in addition to heparin, potentially has an anti-VOD prophylactic effect, presumably by minimizing the drop of natural anticoagulants around day 8. In order to evaluate if there truely is a beneficial effect of heparin+FFP in VOD prophylaxis, we have initiated a prospective randomized trial.

  16. Prophylaxis on gout flares after the initiation of urate-lowering therapy: a retrospective research

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Li, Yao; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety associated with treatment available to prevent an acute attack of gout when initiating a urate-lowering therapy (ULT). We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed with gout and treated with ULT during the period from January 2000 to January 2014. They were divided into three groups, 75 patients without prophylaxis treatment, 103 patients treated with etoricoxib, and 129 patients with colchicine treatment. Both demographic and clinical characteristics associated with gout were analyzed. At baseline, demographic and clinical characteristics were generally similar in three groups. SU target level was achieved in 49.3% of the patients without prophylaxis treatment, 66.4% in the etoricoxib group and 65.1% in colchicine group, respectively. During the first 16 weeks, patients without prophylaxis treatment exhibited higher flare rates than patients in other two groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between patients in etoricoxib group and colchicine group. In the 16-24 weeks, the proportion of patients who reported flares were all decreased similarly in three groups. The mean number of acute gout flares per patient and gout flare days per patient was significantly higher in patients without prophylaxis treatment than patients in other groups. The mean number of acute gout flares was lower (4.2±2.3 vs 3.2±1.8) in patients with etoricoxib treatment than that in patients with colchicine treatment. Gout flare days per patient were significantly higher in patients without prophylaxis treatment. Compared to colchicine group, gout flare days per patient in etoricoxib were lower (1.2±0.5 vs 2.6±0.6). In term of AEs, patients receiving colchicine had higher rates of gastrointestinal AEs than those who received etoricoxib. In summary, our survey revealed that etoricoxib was more effective and safe than colchicine in preventing acute attack during ULT. PMID:26885092

  17. Antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplantation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, J D W; Morris, P J; Knight, S R

    2014-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients, but the need and best agent for prophylaxis is uncertain. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials comparing regimens for antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients. Direct comparisons were made between treatments using random-effects meta-analysis and a Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed for the primary end point of proven IFI. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria, reporting comparisons of fluconazole, liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB), itraconazole, micafungin and placebo. Overall, antifungal prophylaxis reduced the rate of proven IFI (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003), suspected or proven IFI (OR 0.40, CI 0.25-0.66, p = 0.0003) and mortality due to IFI (OR 0.32, CI 0.10-0.83, p = 0.02) when compared to placebo. All-cause mortality was not significantly affected. There was no difference in risk of adverse events requiring cessation of prophylaxis (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.48-2.55, p = 0.81). In the network meta-analysis an equivalent reduction in the rate of IFI was seen with fluconazole (OR 0.21, CI 0.06-0.57) and L-AmB (OR 0.21, CI 0.05-0.71) compared with placebo. Routine prophylaxis with fluconazole or L-AmB reduces the incidence of IFI following liver transplantation, and the available evidence suggests that the two are equivalent in efficacy.

  18. Hepatitis B-related serological events in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and efficacy of lamivudine prophylaxis against reactivation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok; Punatar, Sachin; Gawande, Jayant; Bagal, Bhausaheb; Mathew, Libin; Bhat, Vivek; Kannan, Sadhana; Khattry, Navin

    2016-09-01

    Reactivation of remote hepatitis B infection (RHBI) is an important cause of morbidity in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients. We analyzed the prevalence of RHBI in 205 patients who underwent HCT in our centre, serological events related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and role of lamivudine prophylaxis in HCT patients with RHBI. The prevalence of RHBI was 14% (28/205 patients). Of these 28 patients, 15 received lamivudine prophylaxis (14 anti-HBcIgG positive and 1 only anti-HBs positive) while 13 did not receive lamivudine prophylaxis (12 anti-HBs positive and 1 anti-HBcIgG positive). None in prophylaxis group developed HBV reactivation while 12 of 13 in no-prophylaxis group reactivated (P < 0.001). The rate of HBV reactivation was 10% (21/205 patients), which included 9 patients with no evidence of RHBI pre-transplant. We conclude that lamivudine prophylaxis protects against HBV reactivation in HCT patients with evidence of RHBI. Lamivudine prophylaxis should be used not only in patients with anti-HBcIgG positivity but also in those with isolated anti-HBs positivity pre-transplant given the high rate of HBV reactivation in these patients. HBV serology cannot identify all cases with RHBI and therefore does not preclude HBV reactivation post-transplant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of animal and human strains of Enterobacteriaceae in Greece.

    PubMed

    Burriel, A R; Mastoraki, F; Kritas, S

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred sixty two strains of Enterobacteriaceae from animal and human sources where intermixing and/or spreading is possible were examined for their resistance to 15 antimicrobials frequently used in animal prophylaxis and metaphylaxis. The antimicrobials with the highest proportion of resistant strains from animal sources were amoxicillin 25 mg, colistin sulphate 25 mg, erythromycin 5 mg, penicillin G 10 mg and spectinomycin 10 mg. The same with isolates from human sources where ampicillin 10 mg, amoxicillin 25 mg, colistin sulphate 25 mg, erythromycin 5 mg, neomycin 10 mg, penicillin G 10 mg and spectinomycin 10 mg. Human isolates were resistant to more antimicrobials than animal isolates. Common a high proportion of isolates from both sources were resistant to some antimicrobials. Systematic and better distributed information is needed to address the epidemiological role of veterinary treatment, prophylaxis and metaphylaxis in antimicrobial resistance in Greece.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hyman M; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM. Here, we discuss STIs as a driver of HIV transmission risk among MSM, and the potential opportunities and challenges for STI control afforded by expanded PrEP implementation among high-risk MSM.

  1. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Romanengo, Marta; Tagliabue, Claudia; Centenari, Chiara; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Lundin, Rebecca; Giaquinto, Carlo; Galli, Luisa; Guarino, Alfredo; Esposito, Susanna; Sharland, Mike; Versporten, Ann; Goossens, Herman; Nicolini, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children’s hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. Methods A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. Results The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for

  2. Correlation of antibiotic prophylaxis and difficulty of extraction with postoperative inflammatory complications in the lower third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Do, H S; Lim, J H; Jang, H S; Rim, J S; Kwon, J J; Lee, E S

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlation among antibiotic prophylaxis, difficulty of extraction, and postoperative complications in the removal of lower 3rd molars. A total of 1222 such extractions in 890 patients between January 2010 and January 2012 were analysed retrospectively. The difficulty of extraction measured by Pederson's index, antibiotic prophylaxis with cefditoren, and postoperative complications were recorded. The difficulty of extraction was significantly associated with postoperative complications (p=0.03). There were no significant associations between antibiotic prophylaxis and postoperative complications in groups of equal difficulty ("easy" group (class I) p=1.00; "moderate" group (class II) p=1.00; and "difficult" group (class III) p=0.65). There was a small but insignificant increase in the number of dry sockets and infections in class III cases. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative inflammatory complications is unnecessary for extraction of 3rd molars.

  3. The challenges of multi-drug-resistance in hepatology.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Bert, Frédéric; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global public health security problem that needs coordinated approaches at regional, national and international levels. Antibiotic overuse and the failure of control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria in the healthcare environment have led to an alarming increase in the number of infections caused by resistant bacteria, organisms that resist many (multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant strains), if not all (pan-drug-resistant bacteria) currently available antibiotics. While Gram-positive cocci resistance (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci) shows a heterogeneous geographical distribution, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have become pandemic worldwide and endemic in some parts of the world, respectively. Moreover, currently available therapeutic options for resistant bacteria are very limited, with very few new agents in development. Antimicrobial resistance is especially relevant in decompensated cirrhosis. Firstly, cirrhotic patients are highly susceptible to develop infections caused by resistant bacteria as risk factors of multiresistance concentrate in this population (mainly repeated hospitalizations and antibiotic exposure). Secondly, inappropriate empirical antibiotic schedules easily translate into increased morbidity (acute kidney injury, acute-on-chronic liver failure, septic shock) and hospital mortality in advanced cirrhosis. Therefore, hepatologists must face nowadays a complex clinical scenario that requires new empirical antibiotic strategies that may further spread resistance. Global, regional and local preventive measures should therefore be implemented to combat antimicrobial resistance in cirrhosis including the restriction of antibiotic prophylaxis to high-risk populations, investigation on non-antibiotic prophylaxis, stewardship programs on adequate antibiotic

  4. Clinical effectiveness of itraconazole as antifungal prophylaxis in AML patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Keighley, C L; Manii, P; Larsen, S R; van Hal, S

    2017-02-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis regimens vary between centres, informed by local epidemiology and antifungal stewardship practices. The advantages of itraconazole over posaconazole prophylaxis include maintaining the utility of azole therapy for suspected breakthrough invasive fungal infection (bIFI). We examined the effectiveness and tolerability of itraconazole as prophylaxis in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. We sought to determine the rate of probable and proven bIFI in the context of itraconazole prophylaxis in a real-life setting. Eighty-four patients corresponded to 175 episodes of primary antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole solution (200 mg twice daily) as prophylaxis supported by a dedicated clinical pharmacist during induction, re-induction and consolidation chemotherapy for AML between January 2010 and January 2014. Assessment of clinical course included blinded review of all radiology scans. Episodes of bIFI were categorised according to consensus criteria. A low rate of bIFI (6/175, 3.4 %) occurred with the use of itraconazole. Tolerance was excellent with adverse events consisting predominantly of deranged liver function tests reported in 7/175 (4 %). Therapeutic drug monitoring performed at clinicians' discretion demonstrated appropriate levels in 12/14 (86 %). Persisting fever and suspicion of invasive fungal infection (IFI) led to empiric antifungal therapy with voriconazole or caspofungin in 33/175 episodes (19 %), ceased after a median of 5 days following investigation in 16/175 (9 %). In this setting, itraconazole is effective and well-tolerated as prophylaxis. An additional benefit was seen in empiric therapy of suspected bIFI with amphotericin formulations kept in reserve. Local epidemiology is vital in guiding prophylaxis strategy.

  5. A clinical decision support system for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis at a general hospital in a middle-income country *,**

    PubMed Central

    Fuzinatto, Fernanda; de Waldemar, Fernando Starosta; Wajner, André; Elias, Cesar Al Alam; Fernandez, Juliana Fernándes; Hopf, João Luiz de Souza; Barreto, Sergio Saldanha Menna

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact that implementing a combination of a computer-based clinical decision support system and a program of training seminars has on the use of appropriate prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two phases (prior to and after the implementation of the new VTE prophylaxis protocol) in order to evaluate the impact that the combined strategy had on the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis. The study was conducted at Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, a general hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. We included clinical and surgical patients over 18 years of age who were hospitalized for ≥ 48 h. The pre-implementation and post-implementation phase samples comprised 262 and 261 patients, respectively. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the two samples were similar, including the distribution of patients by risk level. Comparing the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods, we found that the overall use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased from 46.2% to 57.9% (p = 0.01). Looking at specific patient populations, we observed that the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased more dramatically among cancer patients (from 18.1% to 44.1%; p = 0.002) and among patients with three or more risk factors (from 25.0% to 42.9%; p = 0.008), two populations that benefit most from prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to increase the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis in economically constrained settings through the use of a computerized protocol adhered to by trained professionals. The underutilization of prophylaxis continues to be a major problem, indicative of the need for ongoing improvement in the quality of inpatient care. PMID:23670498

  6. Effects of coagulation factor concentrate prophylaxis in moderate and severe hemophilia A patients at a single hemophilia center in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Byung Suk; Choi, Jun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate prophylactic treatment effects in Korean patients with severe hemophilia A. Methods A prospective study of 32 severe hemophilia A patients was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Review Board at the Eulji University Hospital. Two patients received primary prophylaxis; whereas, the other 30 patients were divided into 2 groups-secondary prophylaxis (n=15) and on-demand (n=15)-on the basis of their consent for secondary prophylaxis. A 20-25 IU/kg dose of factor VIII concentrate was administered to the primary and secondary prophylaxis group patients every 3 days for 1 year. The prophylactic effect was evaluated by observing changes in the Pettersson scores, annual number of total and joint bleeds, and factor VIII consumption for 1 year. Results No moderate or severe bleeding was observed, and the Pettersson scores remained unchanged during the prophylaxis period in the patients who received primary prophylactic treatment. After the treatment was changed from on-demand to secondary prophylaxis, the annual number of total and joint bleeds in the secondary prophylaxis group decreased by 64.4%±13.0% and 70.0%±15.2%, respectively. The average increase in Pettersson scores within 1 year was 0.5±0.8 and 1.3±1.1 in the secondary prophylaxis and on-demand groups, respectively. Prophylactic effects were also observed in patients >17 years who had nearly the same initial Pettersson scores. Conclusion Intermediate-dose prophylactic treatment may delay hemarthropathy progression and prevent its occurrence in Korean severe hemophilia A patients. PMID:23908669

  7. Factor VIII prophylaxis for adult patients with severe haemophilia A: results of a US survey of attitudes and practices.

    PubMed

    Walsh, C E; Valentino, L A

    2009-09-01

    The emergence of a population of relatively healthy adults with severe haemophilia A presents a unique challenge for haemophilia care in the 21st century. Understanding how best to continue, restart, initiate or modify prophylaxis in younger and older adult patients is essential to optimizing their care. To elucidate practice and outcome data, a survey was sent to 23 US hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs); 10 centers responded, providing data concerning up to 145 adults (mean age of 34 years). Forty-eight patients (33%) were on regular prophylaxis when first seen at the HTC; the prophylactic regimen was modified for 22/48 (46%), often because of breakthrough bleeding. Five of 21 patients (24%) for whom data were available discontinued prophylaxis. Three of those five patients (60%) experienced increased bleeding episodes and the other two (40%) subsequently resumed regular prophylactic infusions because of the increased bleeding. Of the 77 patients not initially receiving prophylaxis for whom data were available, prophylaxis was started or resumed in all. The prophylactic regimen was modified in 57/77 patients (74%) at some point during treatment, often because of breakthrough bleeding. Of the 55 patients whose prophylactic regimens were modified for whom data were available, 22 (40%) discontinued prophylaxis. Thirteen of 20 patients (65%) for whom data were available experienced an increase in bleeding episodes and 7/18 patients (39%) who had discontinued prophylaxis and for whom data were available subsequently resumed regular prophylactic infusions because of bleeding. These findings suggest that prophylaxis prevents bleeding in adults with severe haemophilia A and that discontinuation of the prophylactic regimen is associated with increased bleeding events.

  8. Workshop on Treatment of and Postexposure Prophylaxis for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei Infection, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Garges, Susan; Aurigemma, Rosemarie; Baccam, Prasith; Blaney, David D.; Cheng, Allen C.; Currie, Bart J.; Dance, David; Gee, Jay E.; Larsen, Joseph; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Morrow, Meredith G.; Norton, Robert; O’Mara, Elizabeth; Peacock, Sharon J.; Pesik, Nicki; Rogers, L. Paige; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Tan, Gladys; Tan, Patrick; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Smith, Theresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options. PMID:23171644

  9. Wound infection during the Yom Kippur war: observations concerning antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, R S; Berger, S A; Yekutiel, P

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-eight episodes of wound associated infection were identified among 624 consecutively admitted battlefield casualties. Ninety-one per cent of infections occurred during the administration of antibiotic therapy or prophylaxis and 65% were associated with the use of multiple antibacterial agents. Gram negative bacillary and mixed microbial infection predominated and were found to increase in relative incidence after the second day of hospitalization. Appropriate therapy, based on disc sensitivity testing, was administered in only 33% of infectious episodes. The practice of antibiotic wound prophylaxis may contribute to the incidence and nature of infection in battlefield wounds. Problems unique to the handling of battlefield wounded are discussed in comparing the present data with those of other war associated and civilian studies. PMID:167666

  10. Transdermal clonidine in the prophylaxis of episodic cluster headache: an open study.

    PubMed

    Leone, M; Attanasio, A; Grazzi, L; Libro, G; D'Amico, D; Moschiano, F; Bussone, G

    1997-10-01

    Transdermal clonidine has recently been reported to be efficacious in the prophylaxis of cluster headache. A 2-week course of transdermal clonidine (5 mg the first week, 7.5 mg the second week) preceded by a 5-day run-in period, was administered to 16 patients with episodic cluster headache in an active cluster period. In 5 patients, the painful attacks disappeared after the seventh day of treatment. For the group as a whole, no significant variations in headache frequency, pain intensity, or attack duration were observed between the run-in period and the first and second weeks of treatment (ANOVA). Further studies are necessary to clarify the effectiveness of transdermal clonidine in the prophylaxis of episodic cluster headache.

  11. A double blind controlled study of propranolol and cyproheptadine in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Rao, B S; Das, D G; Taraknath, V R; Sarma, Y

    2000-09-01

    Role of propranolol and cyproheptadine in the prophylaxis of migraine was studied in a controlled double blind trial. Two hundred fifty-nine patients were divided into four groups. Each group was either given a placebo, cyproheptadine, propranolol or a combination of the latter two drugs. The patients were followed for a period of three months. Significant relief in frequency, duration and severity from migranous attacks was seen in all drug treated groups over placebo. Significant correlation in response was seen in frequency, duration and severity in all the groups which received drugs. Statistically more significant relief was seen in cyproheptadine and propranolol treated group as compared to individual drug treated groups. In cyproheptadine and propranolol treated groups, the dropout rate was lower and associated symptoms were better relieved than in other groups. The study shows efficacy of combination of cyproheptadine and propranolol in migraine prophylaxis.

  12. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in colon surgery: cefazolin (Kefzol- ornidazole (Tiberal) versus cephazolin-placebo].

    PubMed

    Zuber, M; Dürig, M; Neff, U; Laffer, U

    1989-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, double-blind and controlled clinical trial of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis with Cefazolin and Ornidazol (CO) versus Cefazolin and Placebo (CP) was carried out consecutively in 100 patients undergoing elective, colorectal surgery. The incidence of wound infection in the CP-group was 20% (n = 10) and in the CO-group 8% (n = 4) (p less than 0.10 ns). The reduction of anaerobic bacterias from 20% (n = 10) in the CP-group to 0% (n = 0) (CO) was significant (a1 = 0.0139; a2 = 0.0277 s, Fischer's exact test). The time of hospitalization was reduced from 20.3 days (CP) to 16.7 days (CO) (p less than 0.05 s). The agent for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery is to cover the spectrum of anaerobic bacterias.

  13. [The role of the vaccine prophylaxis of cervical cancer among female military personnel].

    PubMed

    Shmidt, A A; Alieva, M T; Ivanova, L V; Molchanov, O V

    2015-06-01

    The authors presented results of the study concerning human papillomavirus infecting of military students of higher military educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. In the Center for Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Kirov Military-Medical Academy was performed a dynamic examination of 478 female cadets aged 17-25. The high level of high-risk HPV viruses was revealed during the examination what proves the necessity of prophylaxis enhancing with the aim to prevent gynecological diseases and reproductive health promotion. The main ways of cervical cancer prophylaxis are health education, in-depth medical examination of women with the aim to reveal and treat gynecological diseases (this medical examination should be carried out twice a year), primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination.

  14. Postoperative hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis associated with intracameral vancomycin prophylaxis during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew A; Lenci, Lucas T; Reddy, Chittaranjan V; Russell, Stephen R

    2016-11-01

    We present the case of a 75-year-old man who had uneventful cataract surgery and administration of intracameral vancomycin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis, followed by the same procedure in the fellow eye 1 week later. The patient subsequently developed bilateral hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis, resulting in profound vision loss in both eyes. A second case of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis previously reported from our institution is summarized. That case was characterized by a far milder course, with rapid resolution of vision loss. The 2 cases illustrate the broad range of toxicity potentially associated with intracameral vancomycin, suggest that bilateral administration results in a worse prognosis, and indicate that this disorder may be underrecognized due to the potential for a mild course. We recommend that intracameral vancomycin not be used for endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  15. A review of nanotechnological approaches for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Date, Abhijit A.; Destache, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful treatment and control of HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges of 21st century. More than 33 million individuals are infected with HIV worldwide and more than 2 million new cases of HIV infection have been reported. The situation demands development of effective prevention strategies to control the pandemic of AIDS. Due to lack of availability of an effective HIV vaccine, antiretroviral drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics like siRNA have been explored for HIV prophylaxis. Clinical trials shave shown that antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir and emtricitabine can offer some degree of HIV prevention. However, complete prevention of HIV infection has not been achieved yet. Nanotechnology has brought a paradigm shift in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of many diseases. The current review discusses potential of various nanocarriers such as dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, lipid nanocarriers, drug nanocrystals, inorganic nanocarriers and nanofibers in improving efficacy of various modalities available for HIV prophylaxis. PMID:23726227

  16. Reduced intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantion for MDS using tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryotaro; Palmer, Joycelynne M.; O'Donnell, Margaret R.; Stiller, Tracey; Thomas, Sandra H.; Chao, Joseph; Alvarnas, Joseph; Parker, Pablo M.; Pullarkat, Vinod; Maegawa, Rodrigo; Stein, Anthony S.; Snyder, David S.; Bhatia, Ravi; Chang, Karen; Wang, Shirong; Cai, Ji-Lian; Senitzer, David; Forman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a consecutive series of 59 patients with MDS who underwent reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RI-HSCT) with fludarabine/melphalan conditioning and tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis. Two-year OS, EFS, and relapse incidences were 75.1%, 65.2%, and 20.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 100 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 3.4%, 8.5%, and 10.5%, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 35.4%; grade III-IV was 18.6%. Forty of 55 evaluable patients developed chronic GVHD, 35 extensive grade. This RI-HSCT protocol produces encouraging outcomes in MDS patients, and tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis may contribute to that promising result. PMID:22677229

  17. Randomized clinical trial of short-term antibiotic prophylaxis in 750 patients undergoing vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A; Baccolo, M; Privitera, G; Ortisi, G; Sartor, V; Gritti, P; Bongetta, R; Moroni, M; Mangioni, C

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out a controlled, prospective, randomized study with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of a short-term antibiotic prophylaxis on patients undergoing simple total hysterectomy. 750 patients entered the trial, starting in September 1977, 260 underwent vaginal hysterectomy, 490 abdominal hysterectomy. The patients were subdivided randomly into four groups, which were homogeneous in number, age, weight, associated disease, indication for surgery and hormonal status: control group, without treatment; prophylaxis with Cefazolin; prophylaxis with Thiamphenicol; prophylaxis with Cefazolin plus Thiamphenicol. Each antibiotic was administered parenterally, at the dose of 1 g, 1 hour before surgery, and 5 and 12 hours later. Postoperative infectious morbidity was evaluated according to febrile morbidity, the need for antibiotic therapy during the postoperative period and the length of postoperative hospitalization. The incidence and severity of febrile morbidity was significantly reduced in the three groups of patients who received prophylaxis. The use of antibiotics in the postoperative period resulted significantly reduced and the period of hospitalization was shorter for the groups with prophylaxis than for the control group.

  18. Short-Course Postexposure Antibiotic Prophylaxis Combined with Vaccination Protects Against Experimental Inhalational Anthrax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-16

    rhesus macaques were exposed to 1,600 LD50 of spores by aerosol. Both groups were given cipro - floxacin by orogastric tube twice daily for 14 days...days of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, once the antibiotics were discontinued, only four of nine animals (44%) in the cipro - f loxacin-only group...difference in survival between the ciprofloxacin-only vs. cipro - floxacin-plus-vaccine groups would be statistically significant in all cases. The overall

  19. [Complications of distraction-compression osteogenesis and their prophylaxis--a clinical report].

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, W; Morasiewicz, L; Krawczyk, A; Uher, T

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a historical overview of various classifications of distraction osteogenesis complications. Paley's classification as well as the authors' own classification also presented. Basing on the authors' own 10 year experiences with the Ilizarov method, selected complications at different stages of diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation are presented. The most effective forms of prophylaxis are presented, with special attention given to the surgeon's own experience with the Ilizarov method.

  20. [The PROMET study: Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in at-risk patients hospitalized in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Guermaz, R; Belhamidi, S; Amarni, A

    2015-07-01

    PROMET is an observational study aimed to assess the management of patients at venous thromboembolism risk in the Algerian hospitals and to evaluate the proportion of at-risk patients treated with an adequate prophylaxis. Following the ENDORSE study achieved five years before with a similar protocol, PROMET included 435hospitalized patients (229 in medical units and 206 in surgical units). Compared to the ENDORSE results, the PROMET data reflect progress in the management of venous thromboembolism: 73.3% of at-risk patients received prophylaxis (57.6% of medical patients and 90.8% of surgical patients). In 93.1% of cases, this prophylaxis was provided by a low molecular weight heparin, mainly at the dose of one injection per day. In medical population, the prescription was triggered by long-term immobilization (P=0.01; OR=5.8 95%CI [1.5-23.0]), associated risk factors (P=0.025; OR=4.13 [1.2-14.2]) and the cause of hospitalization (P=0.056). In surgical departments, the therapeutic decision depended on the nature of the surgical intervention and was influenced by the presence of a contraindication for prophylaxis (P<0.001; OR=0.02 [0.00-0.14]) or a high hemorrhagic risk (P<0.001; OR=0.02). The assessment and management of thromboembolic risk were in accordance with ACCP recommendations for surgical patients. However efforts are needed for medical patients for whom the risk is underestimated and insufficiently supported. Unlike surgery where procedures are well established, there are real difficulties in medicine to define the at-risk patients who will benefit from thromboprophylaxis. The process of preventive treatment (particularly the optimal duration) needs to be clarified.

  1. Should patients with hip joint prosthesis receive antibiotic prophylaxis before dental treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Snorrason, Finnur; Lingaas, Egil

    2010-01-01

    The safety committee of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) recommended in 2009 that clinicians should consider antibiotic prophylaxis for all patients with total joint replacement before any invasive procedure that may cause bacteremia. This has aroused confusion and anger among dentists asking for the evidence. The present review deals with different aspects of the rationale for this recommendation giving attention to views both in favor of and against it. PMID:21523226

  2. Neonatal Prophylaxis: Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Haemorrhage and Neonatal Ophthalmia

    PubMed Central

    JUG DOŠLER, Anita; PETROČNIK, Petra; MIVŠEK, Ana Polona; ZAKŠEK, Teja; SKUBIC, Metka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore two aspects of neonatal prophylaxis: the application of the vitamin K injection to the newborns and the prophylaxis against chlamydial and gonococcal eye infections, comparing Slovenian and Croatian practices. Methods A causal non-experimental method of quantitative empirical approach was used. The data was collected by means of predesigned questionnaires. The questionnaires were sent to 14 Slovenian and 32 Croatian birth hospitals. The data was analysed with descriptive statistics and the Kullback test. Results Vitamin K is applied to all newborns in 9 (out of 14) Slovene and 22 (out of 32) Croatian birth hospitals that returned the questionnaire. The prophylaxis against chlamydial gonococcal eye infections is applied to all newborns in 9 Slovene and 16 Croatian birth hospitals that offered answers to the questionnaire. The majority of Slovene and Croatian birth hospitals perform these procedures in the first hour after birth. The majority of Slovene birth hospitals still apply vitamin K in the gluteal muscle, whereas the majority of Croatian birth hospitals usually use the thigh as an injection site. In Slovenia, 1 % Targesin is used for the prophylaxis against chlamydial and gonococcal eye infections, whereas in Croatia the prevailing medicine is Erythromycin. Conclusions The possibility of oral vitamin K application should be offered to parents, and pain management in practice should be discussed. The form of written informed consent could be offered to parents. Health professionals should provide intimacy and exclude routine procedures in the first couple of hours after birth. However, more research is needed as delayed administration might be related to lower efficacy and, as a consequence of that, the safety of newborns is questionable. PMID:27646726

  3. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean-contaminated head and neck oncologic surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Busch, C-J; Knecht, R; Münscher, A; Matern, J; Dalchow, C; Lörincz, B B

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly used in head and neck oncologic surgery, due to the clean-contaminated nature of these procedures. There is a wide variety in the use of prophylactic antibiotics regarding the duration of application and the choice of agent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term or long-term antibiotic prophylaxis has an impact on the development of head and neck surgical wound infection (SWI). Retrospective chart review was carried out in 418 clean-contaminated head and neck surgical oncology cases at our department. More than 50 variables including tumour type and stage, type of surgical treatment, co-morbidities, duration and choice of antibiotic prophylaxis, and the incidence of SWI were analysed. Following descriptive data analysis, Chi square test by Pearson and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Fifty-eight of the 418 patients (13.9 %) developed SWI. Patients with advanced disease and tracheotomy showed a significantly higher rate of SWI than those with early stage disease and without tracheotomy (p = 0.012 and p = 0.00017, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the SWI rates in the short term and long term treatment groups (14.6 and 13.2 %, respectively; p = 0.689). Diabetes and body weight were not found to be risk factors for SWI. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decrease in SWI in the entire cohort of patients undergoing clean-contaminated major head and neck oncologic surgery. Our data confirmed the extent of surgery and tracheotomy as being risk factors for postoperative SWI.

  4. Air pollution and its influence on vegetation: Causes - Effects - Prophylaxis and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dassler, H.G.; Bortitz, S.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents a survey about air pollution from power stations, industry, traffic and other anthroponegic sources together with its effects on vegetation. It provides information on chronic and acute effects of air pollution in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry (including soil and animals), on symptoms of damage, immission tolerance, bioindication, methods of air and plant analysis and especially on prophylaxis and therapy in air polluted areas and on landscape planning.

  5. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis. PMID:26517701

  6. [A project of the Ministry of Health for iodine prophylaxis in Italy: Salt in food for the prophylaxis of iodine deficiency and the prevention of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Marabelli, R; Guidarelli, L; Copparoni, R

    1998-01-01

    A main goal to achieve in order to reduce the incidence of wrong nutritional habit associated diseases, according to the engagement taken on the FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition 1992 is the eradication of the endemic goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders. Iodine nutritional lack is, in Italy, a heavy public health problem; above 10% of population (about 5 million) has to bear thyroid troubles and in many of the Italian regions such a kind of pathology may involve more than 20% of scholastic population. All these disorders could be completely eradicated by means of a continuous and generalized iodine prophylaxis, as it has already been verified in several European countries. The most effective way to ensure the correct daily intake of iodine is the substitution of the usual cooking salt by iodine enriched salt; salt is in fact eaten by everybody at daily rates ungoverned by economical factors as it is a low cost product. Due to the heavy social relevance of this problem, an educational campaign is going on, from the Italian Ministry of Health "Salt in food for iodine deficiency disorder prophylaxis and hypertension prevention". The purpose is to achieve, by means of a unique message based on salt, a double goal in terms of public health: eradicating endemic goitre and preventing hypertension (reducing the salt global intake to less than 6 g/day).

  7. Is ribavirin prophylaxis effective for nosocomial transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever?

    PubMed

    Guner, Rahmet; Hasanoglu, Imran; Tasyaran, Mehmet Akin; Yapar, Derya; Keske, Siran; Guven, Tumer; Yilmaz, Gul Ruhsar

    2014-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease that is transmitted primarily through contact with ticks. Nosocomial cases and outbreaks of CCHF have been reported from many countries. Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of exposure to CCHF. In our study, we evaluated seven HCWs' exposure to confirmed CCHF patients' infected blood and body fluids and prophylactic efficacy of the ribavirin on nosocomial transmission of CCHF retrospectively. Between 2007 and 2013, 150 CCHF cases were admitted to our clinic. During the follow-up of these patients, four doctors and three nurses had contact with infected blood and body fluids through needle stick injury, contact of skin and mucosal surfaces, and probable aerosolization. All of the index cases' diagnoses of CCHF were confirmed during the contact. Ribavirin prophylaxis was administered within 0.5-1 h in six out of seven cases. All of these cases' CCHF virus PCR results were negative. One physician had no contact with infected blood or body fluid, so ribavirin prophylaxis was not administered. The physician developed CCHF and diagnosis was confirmed. Although efficacy of ribavirin for prophylaxis is not clear and very few data exist on prophylactic usage of ribavirin, lack of clinical manifestations in our cases that were given ribavirin compared with the developed clinical manifestations in the physician may be explained by the prophylactic efficacy of the ribavirin.

  8. A randomized trial of dexamethasone and acetazolamide for acute mountain sickness prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Larson, E B; Strickland, D

    1987-12-01

    Forty-seven climbers participated in a double-blind, randomized trial comparing acetazolamide 250 mg, dexamethasone 4 mg, and placebo every eight hours as prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness during rapid, active ascent of Mount Rainier (elevation 4,392 m). Forty-two subjects (89.4 percent) achieved the summit in an average of 34.5 hours after leaving sea level. At the summit or high point attained above base camp, the group taking dexamethasone reported less headache, tiredness, dizziness, nausea, clumsiness, and a greater sense of feeling refreshed (p less than or equal to 0.05). In addition, they reported fewer problems of runny nose and feeling cold, symptoms unrelated to acute mountain sickness. The acetazolamide group differed significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) from other groups at low elevations (1,300 to 1,600 m), in that they experienced more feelings of nausea and tiredness, and they were less refreshed. These drug side effects probably obscured the previously established prophylactic effects of acetazolamide for acute mountain sickness. Separate analysis of an acetazolamide subgroup that did not experience side effects at low elevations revealed a prophylactic effect of acetazolamide similar in magnitude to the dexamethasone effect but lacking the euphoric effects of dexamethasone. This study demonstrates that prophylaxis with dexamethasone can reduce the symptoms associated with acute mountain sickness during active ascent and that acetazolamide can cause side effects that may limit its effectiveness as prophylaxis against the disease.

  9. Oral Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing High DoseTherapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tabarraee, Mahdi; Tavakoli-Ardakani, Maria; Mehdizadeh, Mahshid; Ghadiani, Mojtaba; Rezvani, Hamid; Hajifathali, Abbas; khamsi, Samiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is usually used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but its use in Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation (ASCT) is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis in ASCT. To identify the efficacy of ciprofloxacin on the incidence of neutropenic fever and its complications, 72 patients that had been admitted to Taleghani Hospital for ASCT between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated in our study. Oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg every 12 h was administered to 30 patients on the same day of high dose chemotherapy until the first febrile episode or until the recovery of neutropenia and the results were analyzed and compared with the historical control group 42 other transplanted patients who had not previously received ciprofloxacin. The incidence of neutropenic fever was 80% with no difference between the two groups. But in ciprofloxacin group, duration of fever (1.7 days VS 3.5 days P=0.017), hospitalization due to stem cell transfusion (18.2 days VS 12.2 days p=0.03), incidence of bacteremia 3.3 % VS 33.3%, p=0.002) and platelet recovery (13.9 VS 17.7 days= 0.035) and platelet transfusions (P=0.04) were significantly lower than the control group no side effects and no delay in. Based on this study oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis is rational, efficacious and economic in ASCT. PMID:28228813

  10. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant.

  11. Budget impact analysis of CYP2C19-guided voriconazole prophylaxis in AML

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Neil T.; Bell, Gillian C.; Quilitz, Rod E.; Greene, John N.; McLeod, Howard L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of proactive, CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole prophylaxis in AML. Methods An Excel-based model was created to project the cost of treating a simulated cohort of severely neutropenic AML patients undergoing antifungal prophylaxis. The model compares (i) standard prophylactic dosing with voriconazole and (ii) CYP2C19 genotyping of all AML patients to guide voriconazole dosing and prescribing. Results Based on the model, genotype-guided dosing of voriconazole conservatively spares 2.3 patients per year from invasive fungal infections. Implementing proactive genotyping of all AML patients in a simulated 100 patient cohort is expected to save a total of $41467 or $415 per patient. Conclusions The model, based on the robust literature of clinical and economic data, predicts that proactive genotype-guided voriconazole prophylaxis is likely to yield modest cost savings while improving patient outcomes. The primary driver of savings is the avoidance of expensive antifungal treatment and extended hospital stays, costing $30 952 per patient, in patients succumbing to fungal infection. PMID:26233624

  12. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of > 50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with > 99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-α; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. From the Clinical Editor Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. PMID:25791815

  13. Adverse Reactions to Chloroquine and Amodiaquine as Used for Malaria Prophylaxis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wittes, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the published material on adverse reactions to chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (ADQ) as used for anti-malarial chemophrophylaxis. Dermatologic reactions, including pruritus and photosensitivity, appear to be rather common. Ophthalmologic reactions include difficulty in visual accommodation, corneal deposits, and retinopathy, the last a serious condition that is reversible in its early stage by drug withdrawal, and that generally will not occur with less than four years of weekly CQ use. Neuromyopathy is a rare and serious reaction that may develop idiosyncratically after a small cumulative dose; it, too, is reversible by drug withdrawal. Seizures, syndromes of involuntary movements, psychosis, and ototoxicity have been reported occasionally. Fatal toxic overdoses may occur, especially following accidental ingestion by children. ADQ should not be used for anti-malarial prophylaxis because of associated agranulocytosis. Rabies vaccine given intradermally is less effective for pre-exposure prophylaxis while the patient is taking CQ. Care should be taken when prescribing prophylactic CQ to patients with heart block. In spite of its adverse effects, however, CQ is generally an extremely safe drug. Cq prophylaxis is recommended for pregnant women in CQ-sensitive malarial areas. PMID:21264010

  14. Prenatal prophylaxis of hyaline membrane disease with prednisolone: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Wauer, R R; Hengst, P; Grauel, E L

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prophylaxis of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) with prenatal steroids from the viewpoint of neonatology. In 397 preterm infants of 27-35 week gestation the prenatal prophylaxis of HMD with prednisolone (200-300 mg over 48-72 h) significantly reduced the HMD morbidity and mortality rate (0-7th day of life), especially in newborns under 33-week gestation. HMD was not detected if a 48-h interval lay between the end of prednisolone application and birth. There was no influence on the severity and the lethality of HMD. The 29-day mortality rate in the prednisolone group (14.6%) corresponded more or less to that of the control group (16%). In the prednisolone group the increase in late mortality rate was due to a significantly higher number of late serious infections. The time interval between the rupture of the membranes and birth did not influence the infection rate and HMD frequency. At this time we cannot recommend a general prenatal glucocorticoid prophylaxis of HMD in cases of threatened preterm labor.

  15. Bacteriophages for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry and pigs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P; Gyles, C L; Huff, W E; Ojha, S; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Donoghue, A M

    2008-12-01

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications of phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indicate that phage therapy is potentially useful in virulent Salmonella and E. coli infections in chickens, calves and pigs, and in control of the food-borne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens and E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. However, more rigorous and comprehensive research is required to determine the true potential of phage therapy. Particular challenges include the selection and characterization of phages, practical modes of administration, and development of formulations that maintain the viability of phages for administration. Also, meaningful evaluation of phage therapy will require animal studies that closely represent the intended use, and will include thorough investigation of the emergence and characteristics of phage resistant bacteria. As well, effective use will require understanding the ecology and dynamics of the endemic and therapeutic phages and their interactions with target bacteria in the farm environment. In the event that the potential of phage therapy is realized, adoption will depend on its efficacy and complementarity relative to other interventions. Another potential challenge will be regulatory approval.

  16. Adherence to Prophylaxis in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Haemophilia: A Quantitative Study with Patients

    PubMed Central

    Troop, Nick A.; Sullivan, Keith R.; Hart, Daniel P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in one of the blood coagulation factors. For people affected by severe haemophilia, the deficiency can cause spontaneous internal bleeding. Most young people with severe haemophilia in the UK follow a preventative treatment regimen (prophylaxis) consisting of several intravenous injections of factor concentrate each week. There is good evidence that prophylaxis reduces bleeds whilst also improving quality of life. However, levels of adherence among young people with haemophilia reported in the existing literature vary widely and are predominately based on estimations made by healthcare professionals and parents. Additionally, drivers of (non)adherence among young people specifically have not been evidenced. Aim to assess self-reported adherence among young people with haemophilia, provide evidence of psychosocial predictors of adherence, and to establish the associations between non-adherence and number of bleeds and hospital visits. Methods 91 participants were recruited during outpatient appointments in 13 haemophilia centres across England and Wales, and invited to complete a questionnaire assessing self-reported adherence (VERITAS-Pro), Haemophilia-related pain and impact of pain, Illness Perceptions, Beliefs about Medications, Self-efficacy, Outcome expectations, Positive and Negative Affect, and Social support. Number of hospital visits and bleeds during the previous six months were collected from medical files. Results Of 78 participants with complete data, just 18% had scores indicating non-adherence. Psychosocial predictors differed between intentional (skipping) and un-intentional (forgetting) non-adherence. Overall, however, better adherence was reported where participants perceived the need for prophylaxis was greater than their concern over taking it as well as having a positive expectancy of its effectiveness, good social support and a stronger emotional reaction to

  17. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and the early postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Tooher, Rebecca; Gates, Simon; Dowswell, Therese; Davis, Lucy-Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolic disease (TED), although rare, is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, hence methods of prophylaxis are often used for women at risk. This may include women delivered by caesarean section, those with a personal or family history of TED and women with inherited or acquired thrombophilias (conditions that predispose people to thrombosis). Many methods of prophylaxis carry a risk of side effects, and as the risk of TED is low, it is possible that the benefits of thromboprophylaxis may be outweighed by harm. Current guidelines for clinical practice are based on expert opinion only, rather than high quality evidence from randomised trials. Objectives To determine the effects of thromboprophylaxis in women who are pregnant or have recently delivered and are at increased risk of TED on the incidence of venous TED and side effects of treatment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (May 2009). Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing one method of thromboprophylaxis with placebo or no treatment, and randomised trials comparing two (or more) methods of thromboprophylaxis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently and resolved any discrepancies by discussion. Main results Sixteen trials met the inclusion criteria but only 13 trials, involving 1774 women, examining a range of methods of thromboprophylaxis, contributed data for the outcomes of interest. Four of them compared methods of antenatal prophylaxis: low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) (two studies), and heparin versus no treatment (two studies). Eight studies assessed postnatal prophylaxis after caesarean section; one compared hydroxyethyl starch with unfractionated heparin; four compared heparin with placebo; and the other three compared UFH with LMWH. One study examined prophylaxis in the postnatal period. The small number of statistically

  18. Efficacy of prophylaxis and genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with severe Factor X deficiency in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M; Vafafar, A; Haghpanah, S; Payandeh, M; Eshghi, P; Hoofar, H; Afrasiabi, A; Gerdabi, J; Ardeshiri, R; Menegatti, M; Peyvandi, F

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of regular prophylaxis with a Factor X (FX) concentrate for patients with severe FXD in Iran and to assess the correlation of the genotype and phenotype in these patients. Ten patients with severe FXD (FX activity <1%) were enrolled and characterized during 2010-2011. Prophylaxis with 20 IU FX P Behring per kg body weight was administered once a week. FX levels, were monitored at baseline, 15 and 30 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after starting prophylaxis. All patients were followed for 1 year. The mean age of the patients was 15 ± 7.8 years (age range of: 6-27 years). One patient had anaphylactic reaction after the first infusion, and the treatment was stopped. During one-year follow-up after starting prophylaxis, no bleeding symptoms occurred in any patient who tolerated and remained on the prophylaxis programme and all of them had a FX level of 1% or above. The maximum level of FX activity has been observed at 15 min after starting prophylaxis. A level of 1.5-3.5% was detected after 96 h. Homozygous mutations p.Arg40Thr (Arg-1Thr), p.Gly51Arg and p.Glu69Lys were detected in patients with intracranial haemorrhage. In our patients, significant decrease in symptoms without any complication after administration of FX, was demonstrated in all except one patient who had an anaphylactic reaction. It seems that the dose of 20 IU kg(-1) could be probably the best choice for patients with severe FXD, who require regular prophylaxis.

  19. Infections associated with medical devices: pathogenesis, management and prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    von Eiff, Christof; Jansen, Bernd; Kohnen, Wolfgang; Becker, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    hygiene and aseptic techniques are aspects of particular interest. Furthermore, all steps in the pathogenesis of biofilm formation may represent targets against which prevention strategies may be directed. Alteration of the foreign body material surface may lead to a change in specific and nonspecific interactions with micro-organisms and, thus, to a reduced microbial adherence. Medical devices made out of a material that would be antiadhesive or at least colonisation resistant would be the most suitable candidates to avoid colonisation and subsequent infection. Another concept for the prevention of FBRIs involves the impregnation of devices with various substances such as antibacterials, antiseptics and/or metals. Finally, further studies are needed to translate the knowledge on the mechanisms of biofilm formation into applicable therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  20. Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

  1. Mechanisms of echinocandin antifungal drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections due to Candida and Aspergillus species cause extensive morbidity and mortality, especially among immunosuppressed patients, and antifungal therapy is critical to patient management. Yet only a few drug classes are available to treat invasive fungal diseases, and this problem is compounded by the emergence of antifungal resistance. Echinocandin drugs are the preferred choice to treat candidiasis. They are the first cell wall–active agents and target the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which catalyzes the biosynthesis of β-1,3-glucan, a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures occur rarely among common Candida species, with the exception of Candida glabrata, which are frequently multidrug resistant. Echinocandin resistance in susceptible species is always acquired during therapy. The mechanism of resistance involves amino acid changes in hot-spot regions of Fks subunits of glucan synthase, which decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug. Cellular stress response pathways lead to drug adaptation, which promote the formation of resistant fks strains. Clinical factors promoting echinocandin resistance include empiric therapy, prophylaxis, gastrointestinal reservoirs, and intra-abdominal infections. A better understanding of the echinocandin resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors promoting resistance, will promote more effective strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:26190298

  2. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. Methods The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms. HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants. The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and

  3. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Instrumented Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Comparative Analysis of 24-Hour and 72-Hour Dosages

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vineet Thomas; Ravichandran, Mirunalini; Achimuthu, Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To compare the efficacy of 24-hour and 72-hour antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). Overview of Literature Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical practice has become a universally accepted protocol for minimizing postoperative complications related to infections. Although prophylaxis is an accepted practice, a debate exists with regard to the antibiotic type and its administration duration for various surgical procedures. Methods Our institute is a tertiary care hospital with more than 100 spinal surgeries per year for various spine disorders in the department of orthopedics. We conducted this prospective study in our department from June 2012 to January 2015. A total of 326 patients were enrolled in this study, with 156 patients in the 72-hour antibiotic prophylaxis group (group A) and 170 patients in the 24-hour group (group B). Cefazolin was the antibiotic used in both groups. Two surgeons were involved in conducting all the spinal procedures. Our study compared SSIs among patients undergoing instrumented spinal fusion. Results The overall rate of SSIs was 1.8% with no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusions The 24-hour antimicrobial prophylaxis is as effective as the 72-hour dosage in instrumented spinal fusion surgery. PMID:27994776

  4. Risk profile of female sex workers who participate in a routine penicillin prophylaxis programme in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Valleroy, L A; Kuntjoro, T M; Kamboji, A; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; St Louis, M E

    1998-12-01

    We conducted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence survey of 1867 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia, some of whom reported participation in a routine penicillin prophylaxis programme. In Surabaya, 34% of female sex workers had received a prophylactic penicillin injection programme from the government within 28 days. Sex workers who had received routine prophylaxis injection were more likely to be less educated, to work in brothel complexes, and to have more customers per week than other sex workers. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis were higher among sex workers who received the routine penicillin treatment than among those who had not received antibiotic treatment in the last 28 days. However, after adjustment for age, education, fee per sex act, number of customers, and condom use in the previous 7 days, only trichomoniasis was still significantly different (adjusted odds ratio of 3.2). High-risk women were more likely to participate in the routine penicillin prophylaxis programme. The lack of a demonstrable individual-level protection from this prophylaxis treatment programme in this cross-sectional study appears due to differential uptake of penicillin prophylaxis by women at higher presumptive risk for STD. Randomized clinical trials and mathematical modelling, together with observational data such as presented here, all can contribute to optimal understanding of a complex intervention like mass chemoprophylaxis for STD among female sex workers.

  5. Offering HIV prophylaxis to people who have been sexually assaulted: 16 months' experience in a sexual assault service.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, E R; Comay, S E; McGregor, M; Ducceschi, S

    2000-03-07

    The sexual assault service, operated by the Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia in partnership with the Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Department, started offering HIV prophylaxis in November 1996 to patients presenting to the emergency department after a sexual assault. In the first 16 months of the program a total of 258 people were seen by the service, of whom 71 accepted the offer of HIV prophylaxis. Only 29 continued with the drug treatment after receiving the initial 5-day starter pack, and only 8 completed the full 4-week treatment regmen and returned for their final follow-up visit. Patients at highest risk for HIV infection (those who had penetration by an assailant known to be HIV positive or at high risk for HIV infection [men who have sex with men, injection drug users]) were more likely to accept prophylaxis and more likely to complete the treatment than those at lower risk. Compliance and follow-up were the main problems with implementing this service. Service providers found it difficult to give the information about HIV prophylaxis to traumatized patients. After this program evaluation, the service changed its policy to offer HIV prophylaxis only to people at high risk of HIV infection. This targeting of services is expected to make the service providers' jobs easier and to make the program more cost-effective while still protecting sexual assault victims against HIV infection.

  6. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.

  7. A comparison of traditional vs. Canadian tailored prophylaxis dosing of prophylactic factor infusions in children with haemophilia A and B in a single hemophilia treatment center.

    PubMed

    Dodd, C; Watts, R G

    2012-07-01

    Prophylactic infusion of clotting factor concentrates is a developing standard of care for individuals with haemophilia. The ideal schedule and techniques of prophylactic infusions remain incompletely defined. Our aim was to determine the optimal techniques and schedules for factor prophylaxis in paediatric patients. A retrospective electronic medical record review of all children treated with prophylactic factor infusions in a single Haemophilia Treatment Center was conducted. Comparison of traditional vs. Canadian dosing regimens and primary vs. secondary prophylaxis was made. Failure of prophylaxis was defined as the first serious bleed. A total of 58 children were identified for review. Five cases were excluded (four due to high titre inhibitors and one due to repeated non-compliance), thus there were 53 total cases: 46 with severe haemophilia, 2 with moderate haemophilia, 5 with mild haemophilia, 44 with haemophilia A and 9 with haemophilia B; 32 Traditional dosing and 21 Canadian dosing regimens. Patients on primary prophylaxis had a decreased failure rate (25%) compared to children treated with secondary prophylaxis (67%) regardless of technique of prophylaxis. When compared to a 'Traditional' factor prophylaxis schedule, the 'Canadian' tailored prophylaxis protocol was comparable with the exception of a decreased use of implanted venous devices in the 'Canadian' group. Ongoing bleeding (primarily joint bleeds) occurs with all prophylactic regimens. The lowest incidence of treatment failure was noted in children who began primary prophylaxis at a young age and before initial joint bleeds. Primary prophylaxis is superior to secondary prophylaxis regardless of dosing regimen. Traditional and Canadian dosing regimens were equivalent in outcome when measured over several years of follow-up.

  8. Future therapeutic directions for factor Xa inhibition in the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Turpie, Alexander G G

    2003-11-15

    The targeted mechanism of factor Xa inhibition has been studied extensively, initially as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the orthopedic surgical setting. Future therapeutic directions for selective factor Xa inhibition in the management of other thrombotic diseases are discussed. Thromboembolic diseases can occur in the venous or arterial sides of the circulatory system. Factor Xa inhibition is a targeted approach to anticoagulation that resulted from significant advances in our understanding of the coagulation cascade. The factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux has been studied extensively in the orthopedic surgical setting for the prophylaxis of VTE. Current investigations that are under way or completed evaluate the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the management of various thrombotic diseases. The future development of fondaparinux resides primarily in three therapeutic areas: prevention of VTE, treatment of VTE, and treatment of acute coronary syndromes. For the prevention of VTE, fondaparinux has been studied as extended prophylaxis following hip fracture surgery (PENTHIFRA Plus), for use in high-risk abdominal surgical patients (PEGASUS and APOLLO), and for use in medical patients (ARTEMIS). Studies evaluating fondaparinux for the treatment of VTE are part of the large MATISSE clinical program (MATISSE DVT and MATISSE PE). Fondaparinux was investigated in phase 2 studies for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, including acute ST-segment myocardial infarction (PENTALYSE) and unstable angina (PENTUA). Encouraging data from these trials are the basis for phase 3 programs in this area (MICHELANGELO). The orthopedic prophylactic and nonorthopedic clinical programs for fondaparinux in the management of thrombosis support the concept that targeted inhibition of coagulation is an effective advance in antithrombotic therapy.

  9. Appropriateness of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Neonatal Group B Streptococcus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Aida; Larosa, Elisabetta; Pileggi, Claudia; Pavia, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated. It was considered adequate when performed with a recommended antibiotic at least four hours prior to delivery. The cohort included 902 women. Among those who had performed rectal and vaginal swabs (or recto-vaginal swabs), results were available in 86.9% of vaginal swabs and in 87.1% of rectal swabs and GBS was detected in 59.8% of vaginal swabs and in 71% of rectal swabs. 49.2% women had indication for GBS prophylaxis. Among these, 91.1% received an antibiotic during labor. Totally appropriate IAP was performed in 36.3% deliveries, an inappropriate antibiotic was administered in 10.4% women, the remaining 45.3% women received partially appropriate IAP; of these, 15.5% had received antibiotics through an inappropriate route of administration, 18.2% an inappropriate dosage regimen. Overall, 27.5% women received intrapartum ampicillin with inappropriate timing. Multivariate analysis showed that totally appropriate prophylaxis was significantly more likely in women who had no previous live birth, who had vaginal delivery, and a positive result at antenatal GBS screening. Despite satisfactory GBS screening implementation, there is still a substantial gap between optimal and actual IAP. We hypothesize that the complexity of the CDC guidelines may partially explain this shortcoming. Future efforts will include initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to evidence-based prevention practices. PMID

  10. Lymphocyte proliferative response and subset profiles during extended periods of chloroquine or primaquine prophylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Fryauff, D J; Richards, A L; Baird, J K; Richie, T L; Mouzin, E; Tjitra, E; Sutamihardja, M A; Ratiwayanto, S; Hadiputranto, H; Larasati, R P; Pudjoprawoto, N; Subianto, B; Hoffman, S L

    1996-01-01

    Immune suppression and disturbances of normal leukocyte populations are side effects attributed to many antimalarial drugs and were concerns during a recent year-long placebo-controlled trial that compared daily primaquine (0.5 mg of base per kg of body weight per day) with weekly chloroquine (300 mg of base one time per week) for malaria prophylaxis. The study took place in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, from July 1994 to August 1995 and enrolled 129 Javanese men with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase function. Tests for lymphocyte function and subset composition were conducted blindly on a cross-section of subjects during weeks 10 (n = 42) and 48 (n = 72) of supervised prophylaxis. Lymphocyte function, measured as the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a panel of mitogens (pokeweed mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and concanavalin A) and antigens (purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Clostridium tetani toxoid) and expressed as a stimulation index, allowed for statistical comparison between groups and sampling times. The lymphocyte subset composition for each group and time point was based on flow cytometry profiling, and the results were expressed as the mean percentages of CD3 (total T cells), CD19 (total B cells), CD4+ (T-helper and inducer cells), and CD8+ (T suppressor and cytotoxic cells), CD3/CD16+ CD56 (natural killer cells), CD3/anti-HLA-DR (activated T cells) cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were statistically comparable among the placebo, primaquine, and chloroquine groups at both time points, although the primaquine group was distinguished by having repeatedly greater proportions of subjects with high ( > 3.0) stimulation indices. The lymphocyte subset profiles of these groups at both time points were also similar and undistorted relative to those of healthy reference populations matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. The results provide quantitative support for the safety of

  11. Primary venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Minh; John, Sonia; Casanegra, Ana I.; Rathbun, Suman; Mansfield, Aaron; Stoner, Julie A.; Tafur, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death among outpatient chemotherapy patients. However the VTE preventive measures for outpatients are not widely advocated. We did a meta-analysis to evaluate the outpatient VTE prevention's effectiveness and safety. We searched electronic databases until the end of December 2012 and reviewed the abstracts and manuscripts following the PRISMA guidelines. Occurrence of first VTE event was the efficacy outcome. The safety end point was major bleeding. We calculated Q statistic and a homogeneity formal test. The odds ratio (OR) estimates were pooled by using the Mantel–Haenszel fixed-effects method in the absence of heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using the R META package). We identified 1,485 articles and reviewed 37 articles based on initial screening. The number of patients included in 11 selected trials was 7,805. The odds of VTE was lower in the prophylaxis group (OR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.45–0.71) and improved when heparin-based prevention was analyzed (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.41–0.70). We found strong prevention among patients with lung cancer (OR 0.46; 95 % CI 0.29–0.74) and pancreatic cancer (OR 0.33; 95 % CI 0.16–0.67). Major bleeding events were frequent in the intervention group (OR 1.65; 95 % CI 1.12–2.44). Thromboprophylaxis reduced VTE episodes. The VTE events were reduced by 47 % in heparin-based prophylaxis trials compared to placebo. The patients receiving heparin-based prophylaxis had a 60 % increase in bleeding events. Improving risk stratification tools to personalize prevention strategies may enhance the VTE prevention applicability in cancer patients. PMID:24233387

  12. Early Gut Microbiota Perturbations Following Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R. Paul; Biavati, Bruno; Corvaglia, Luigi T.; Faldella, Giacomo; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The faecal microbiota composition of infants born to mothers receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin against group B Streptococcus was compared with that of control infants, at day 7 and 30 of life. Recruited newborns were both exclusive breastfed and mixed fed, in order to also study the effect of dietary factors on the microbiota composition. Massive parallel sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR analysis were performed. Antibiotic prophylaxis caused the most marked changes on the microbiota in breastfed infants, mainly resulting in a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, compared with control infants (52% vs. 14%, p = 0.044) and mixed-fed infants (52% vs. 16%, p = 0.13 NS) at day 7 and in a lower bacterial diversity compared to mixed-fed infants and controls. Bifidobacteria were also particularly vulnerable and abundances were reduced in breastfed (p = 0.001) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated groups compared to non-treated groups. Reductions in bifidobacteria in antibiotic treated infants were also confirmed by qPCR. By day 30, the bifidobacterial population recovered and abundances significantly increased in both breastfed (p = 0.025) and mixed-fed (p = 0.013) antibiotic treated groups, whereas Enterobacteriaceae abundances remained highest in the breastfed antibiotic treated group (44%), compared with control infants (16%) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated group (28%). This study has therefore demonstrated the short term consequences of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on the infant faecal microbial population, particularly in that of breastfed infants. PMID:27332552

  13. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Anthrax in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Beigi, Richard H.; Zotti, Marianne E.; Hutchings, Yalonda; Bower, William A.; Treadwell, Tracee A.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the safety and pharmacokinetics of antibiotics recommended for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment in pregnant women. Data Sources Articles were identified in the PUBMED database from inception through December 2012 by searching the keywords ([“pregnancy]” and [generic antibiotic name]). Additionally, hand searches of references from REPROTOX, TERIS, review articles and Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation were performed. Methods of Study Selection Articles included in the review contain primary data related to the safety and pharmacokinetics among pregnant women of five antibiotics recommended for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin), and of nine additional antibiotics recommended as part of the treatment regimen (penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, clindamycin, meropenem, doripenem, rifampin, chloramphenicol, or vancomycin). Tabulation, Integration and Results The PUBMED search identified 3850 articles for review. Reference hand searching yielded nine additional articles. In total, 112 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions Overall, safety and pharmacokinetic information is limited for these antibiotics. Although small increases in risks for certain anomalies have been observed with some antibiotics recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax, the absolute risk of these antibiotics appears low. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with anthrax, antibiotics should be dosed appropriately to ensure that antibiotic levels can be achieved and sustained. Dosing adjustments may be necessary for the beta lactam antibiotics and the fluoroquinolones to achieve therapeutic levels in pregnant women. Data indicate that the beta lactam antibiotics, the fluoroquinolones, and, to a lesser extent, clindamycin enter the fetal compartment, an important consideration in the treatment of anthrax, as these antibiotics may provide

  14. Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed for Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ionin, Boris; Hopkins, Robert J.; Pleune, Brett; Sivko, Gloria S.; Reid, Frances M.; Clement, Kristin H.; Rudge, Thomas L.; Stark, Gregory V.; Innes, Alison; Sari, Suha; Guina, Tina; Howard, Cris; Smith, Jeffrey; Swoboda, M. Lisa; Vert-Wong, Ekaterina; Johnson, Virginia; Nabors, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobials administered postexposure can reduce the incidence or progression of anthrax disease, but they do not protect against the disease resulting from the germination of spores that may remain in the body after cessation of the antimicrobial regimen. Such additional protection may be achieved by postexposure vaccination; however, no anthrax vaccine is licensed for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). In a rabbit PEP study, animals were subjected to lethal challenge with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores and then were treated with levofloxacin with or without concomitant intramuscular (i.m.) vaccination with anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (BioThrax; Emergent BioDefense Operations Lansing LLC, Lansing, MI), administered twice, 1 week apart. A significant increase in survival rates was observed among vaccinated animals compared to those treated with antibiotic alone. In preexposure prophylaxis studies in rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHPs), animals received two i.m. vaccinations 1 month apart and were challenged with aerosolized anthrax spores at day 70. Prechallenge toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) titers correlated with animal survival postchallenge and provided the means for deriving an antibody titer associated with a specific probability of survival in animals. In a clinical immunogenicity study, 82% of the subjects met or exceeded the prechallenge TNA value that was associated with a 70% probability of survival in rabbits and 88% probability of survival in NHPs, which was estimated based on the results of animal preexposure prophylaxis studies. The animal data provide initial information on protective antibody levels for anthrax, as well as support previous findings regarding the ability of AVA to provide added protection to B. anthracis-infected animals compared to antimicrobial treatment alone. PMID:23658392

  15. Appropriateness of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Neonatal Group B Streptococcus Disease.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Aida; Larosa, Elisabetta; Pileggi, Claudia; Pavia, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated. It was considered adequate when performed with a recommended antibiotic at least four hours prior to delivery. The cohort included 902 women. Among those who had performed rectal and vaginal swabs (or recto-vaginal swabs), results were available in 86.9% of vaginal swabs and in 87.1% of rectal swabs and GBS was detected in 59.8% of vaginal swabs and in 71% of rectal swabs. 49.2% women had indication for GBS prophylaxis. Among these, 91.1% received an antibiotic during labor. Totally appropriate IAP was performed in 36.3% deliveries, an inappropriate antibiotic was administered in 10.4% women, the remaining 45.3% women received partially appropriate IAP; of these, 15.5% had received antibiotics through an inappropriate route of administration, 18.2% an inappropriate dosage regimen. Overall, 27.5% women received intrapartum ampicillin with inappropriate timing. Multivariate analysis showed that totally appropriate prophylaxis was significantly more likely in women who had no previous live birth, who had vaginal delivery, and a positive result at antenatal GBS screening. Despite satisfactory GBS screening implementation, there is still a substantial gap between optimal and actual IAP. We hypothesize that the complexity of the CDC guidelines may partially explain this shortcoming. Future efforts will include initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to evidence-based prevention practices.

  16. Persistent risk of HBV reactivation despite extensive lamivudine prophylaxis in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients who are anti-HBc-positive or HBV-negative recipients with an anti-HBc-positive donor.

    PubMed

    Cerva, C; Colagrossi, L; Maffongelli, G; Salpini, R; Di Carlo, D; Malagnino, V; Battisti, A; Ricciardi, A; Pollicita, M; Bianchi, A; Picardi, A; Cudillo, L; Cerretti, R; De Angelis, G; Cantonetti, M; Andreoni, M; Perno, C F; Arcese, W; Svicher, V; Sarmati, L

    2016-11-01

    The overall rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation was evaluated in a population of 373 haematological stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients treated with lamivudine (LMV) if they were anti-HBc-positive/HBV-DNA-negative recipients or if they were HBV-negative recipients with an anti-HBc-positive donor. The incidence of HBV reactivation was calculated in two groups of autologous (auto) or allogeneic (allo) HSCT patients who were stratified according to their HBV serostatus. The former group included 57 cases: 10 auto-HSCT and 27 allo-HSCT anti-HBc-positive recipients, two auto-HSCT and three allo-HSCT inactive carriers, and 15 allo-HSCT recipients with an anti-HBc-positive donor. Forty-seven (82.4%) patients in this group received LMV prophylaxis (the median (interquartile range, IQR) of LMV treatment was 30 (20-38) months). The second group consisted of 320 anti-HBc-negative auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT recipients with anti-HBc-negative donors. None of these patients received any prophylaxis. Two patients in the first group and two in the second group experienced reactivation of HBV infection, with an incidence of 3.5% (95% CI 0.4-12.1%) and 0.6% (95% CI 0.1-2.2%), respectively. Only one out of four reactivated patients was LMV-treated. The cumulative probability of HBV reactivation at 6 years from HSCT was 15.8% (95% CI 15.2-16.4%). Three of four viral isolates obtained from the HBV-reactivated patients harboured mutations in the immune-active HBsAg-region. In a HSCT population carefully evaluated for HBV prophylaxis, a risk of HBV reactivation persisted in the group of patients who were not LMV-treated. Only one LMV-treated patient experienced reactivation of HBV with a resistant HBV isolate.

  17. Bacteriophage therapy: a potential solution for the antibiotic resistance crisis.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Zhabiz; Bagasra, Omar; Pace, Donald Gene

    2014-02-13

    The emergence of multiple drug-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. One of the possible replacement options for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. Phage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of drug-resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages have played an important role in the expansion of molecular biology and have been used as antibacterial agents since 1966. In this review, we describe a brief history of bacteriophages and clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents in this regard.

  18. Commentary on Inhaled 239PuO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis against Lung Cancer?

    DOE PAGES

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer.

  19. Perspective for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer: An Immunological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marjorie; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mirandola, Leonardo; Tonroy, Catherine; Tedjarati, Sean S.; Davis, Nicole; D’Cunha, Nicholas; Tijani, Lukman; Hardwick, Fred; Nguyen, Diane; Kast, W. Martin; Cobos, Everardo

    2014-01-01

    As the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines have been a major step in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. An estimated 490,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. Increasing knowledge of the HPV role in the etiology of cervical cancer has led to the development and introduction of HPV-based vaccines for active immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Immunotherapies directed at preventing HPV-persistent infections. These vaccines are already accessible for prophylaxis and in the near future, they will be available for the treatment of preexisting HPV-related neoplastic lesions. PMID:22251005

  20. Elemental diets in the prophylaxis and therapy for intestinal lesions: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Bounous, G.

    1989-05-01

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiologic substances in the intestinal milieu prompted the use of an elemental semihydrolyzed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. Elemental diets have been used in the management of a variety of digestive diseases. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteropathy and in the therapy for delayed radiation enteropathy and Crohn's disease.90 references.

  1. Three-day regimen of oseltamivir for postexposure prophylaxis of influenza in wards.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Oyamada, R; Nasuhara, Y; Yamada, T; Miyamoto, T; Imai, S; Akizawa, K; Fukumoto, T; Iwasaki, S; Iijima, H; Ono, K

    2016-10-01

    Inpatients who had been in close contact with patients with influenza were given oseltamivir [75mg capsules once daily for adults or 2mg/kg (maximum of 75mg) once daily for children] for three days as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The index patients with influenza were prescribed a neuraminidase inhibitor and were discharged immediately or transferred to isolation rooms. The protective efficacy of oseltamivir for three days was 93% overall [95% confidence interval (CI) 53-99%; P=0.023] and 94% for influenza A (95% CI 61-99%; P=0.017), which is comparable to that of seven- to 10-day regimens of oseltamivir as PEP.

  2. [ANALYSIS OF THE INTRAOPERATIVE PROPHYLAXIS EFFICACY OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY ADHESIVE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Yevtushenko, D A

    2015-09-01

    Results of treatment of 152 patients, operated on for various diseases of the abdominal cavity, were analyzed. In 72 of them (the main group) intraoperatively a Defensal was used as an antiadhesive barrier preparation for the abdominal adhesions prophylaxis, and in 80 (a comparison group)--antiadhesive measures were not conducted. Application of antiadhesive sterile solution have promoted a reduction of period, which is necessary for the gut motor-evacuation function restoration--by 1.5 days, stationary treatment--by 2.5 days, postoperative morbidity rate--in 2.7 times.

  3. The effect of prophylaxis method on microtensile bond strength of indirect restorations to dentin.

    PubMed

    Soares, C J; Pereira, J C; Souza, S J B; Menezes, M S; Armstrong, S R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different materials used for dentin prophylaxis on the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of adhesively cemented indirect composite restorations. Sixty bovine incisors had the buccal surface ground with wet #600-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper to obtain a flat exposed superficial dentin and were submitted to different prophylaxis protocols, as follows: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HydP); 0.12% chlorhexidine (Chlo); sodium bicarbonate jet (SodB); 50-μm aluminum oxide air abrasion (AirA); pumice paste (PumP), and control group-water spray (Cont). After prophylaxis protocols a resin composite block (3.0 mm × 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm) was adhesively cemented using dual resin cement (Rely X ARC). After 24 hours of water storage, specimens were serially sectioned perpendicular to the bonded interface into 1-mm-thick slices. Each specimen was trimmed with a diamond bur to an hourglass shape with a cross-sectional area of approximately 1.0 mm(2) at the bonded area. Specimens were tested (μTBS) at 0.5 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the effects of prophylaxis techniques on dentin. Bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and failure mode by Fisher test (α=0.05). μTBS data, means (SD), were (different superscripted letters indicate statistically significant differences): AirA, 25.2 (7.2)(a); PumP, 24.1 (7.8)(a); Chlo, 21.5 (5.6)(a); Cont, 20.6 (8.1)(a); HydP(,) 15.5 (7.6)(b); and SodB(,) 11.5 (4.4)(c). The use of aluminum oxide air abrasion, pumice paste, and chlorhexidine before acid etching did not significantly affect μTBS to dentin; however, the use of hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate jet significantly reduced μTBS.

  4. Proton Pump Inhibitor Prophylaxis After Gastric Bypass Does Not Cause Hypomagnesemia.

    PubMed

    Boerlage, Thomas C C; van Hees, Charlotte L E; Huitema, Alwin D R; Lauw, Fanny N

    2016-03-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesemia is currently a major topic. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are generally prescribed PPI prophylaxis after surgery. We investigated the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in our bariatric population. We reviewed the files of 1000 postoperative patients for serum magnesium level during PPI use. We found only five cases of hypomagnesemia, none of which was evidently related to PPI use. We conclude that the risk of hypomagnesemia during 1 year of prophylactic PPI use after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is minimal and laboratory screening is probably not necessary.

  5. A multicenter survey of heparin prophylaxis practice in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Margaret; da Cruz, Eduardo; Koehler, Julianne; Kaufman, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Heparin prophylaxis (HP) is commonly used for prevention of central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications among pediatric intensivists, yet efficacy of this therapy is unknown. We conducted a survey of pediatric intensivists and their experiences with HP. A total of 96 responses were received. Almost half of the respondents regularly used HP in patients with CVCs, yet most were unsure of its benefit. The majority of respondents claimed to experience no adverse effects; the complications that were reported to occur were related to bleeding or suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Overall, participants felt CVC-associated HP was safe in pediatric critical illness, while acknowledging the paucity of compelling data.

  6. [Natural fluorides. The distinction between technically produced and naturally occurring fluorides in caries prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Newesely, H

    1977-06-01

    In the controversial discussion of the bio-availability of fluoride in caries prophylaxis by fluoridation, fluorides coming from the geochemical circulation to the biochemical circulation are sometimes differentiated from synthetic fluorides introduced into fluoride medication. The question as to whether such a differentiation is essential can be answered from the physical-chemical point of view. This requires a wide field of scientific research starting with geochemistry and the knowledge of fluoride deposits, sedimentology, hydrology, technology of inorganic and organic fluorine compounds, thermodynamics of dissolved fluorides, up to biocrystallography and biochemistry of fluorine.

  7. [Secondary anticoagulant prophylaxis with low molecular heparins or oral anticoagulants and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Przedlacki, J; Hajduk, B; Tomkowski, W; Fijałkowska, A; Ostrowski, K; Torbicki, A

    2000-11-01

    A broad spectrum of indications for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) requires an assessment of side effects especially during prolonged administration. There are common risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and osteoporosis; heparin is "the drug of choice" for VTE treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of treatment and prophylaxis with LMWH (enoxaparine sodium) and oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol) for bone structure. Material consists of in- and outpatients. 49 densitometries were performed in 31 patients (in 15 cases double examination). We observed a decrease of bone mineral density in comparison to the initial examination in most cases: mean change of bone mass for examined areas was 3.05%.

  8. Recurrent cellulitis with benzathine penicillin prophylaxis is associated with diabetes and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Huhtala, H; Aromaa, A; Vuopio, J; Hannula-Jouppi, K; Kere, J; Syrjänen, J

    2013-03-01

    Risk factors for recurrent cellulitis were assessed in a case-control study including 398 patients receiving prophylactic treatment with benzathine penicillin and 8,005 controls derived from a national population-based health survey. In the multivariate analysis, psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.69], other chronic dermatoses (OR 4.14), diabetes (OR 1.65), increasing body mass index (OR 1.17), increasing age (OR 1.06) and history of previous tonsillectomy (OR 6.82) were independently associated with recurrent cellulitis. Forty percent of the patients reported a cellulitis recurrence, despite ongoing benzathine penicillin prophylaxis. The role of previous tonsillectomy in recurrent cellulitis needs further evaluation.

  9. Commentary on Inhaled 239PUO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis Against Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. PMID:26675366

  10. Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis following sexual assault in industrialized low-HIV-prevalence countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Sheridan, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Although available for over a decade, use of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) remains controversial in the United States. There are concerns over sexual assault survivors' adherence, or lack thereof, leading to increased costs without an appreciable decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This review examines and synthesizes the available literature from the past 10 years to determine the true rates of provision and adherence to nPEP regimens in sexual assault survivors in low HIV prevalence, industrialized nations. Findings suggest that further prospective research is necessary to better understand the process of post-assault nPEP evaluation and subsequent follow-up and adherence.

  11. [Risk and prophylaxis acute pancreatitis while enteral tube feeding in patients operated for destructive cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Zhurikhina, A V; Kitiashvili, I Z; Kutukov, V V; Kondrashova, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Determined by risk and method of prophylaxis of acute pancreatitis in the postoperative enteral tube feeding in patients with destructive cholecystitis, analyzed levels of a-amylase in blood serum and clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis in 135 operated patients. It was established that the use of nasoduodenal access is more likely to cause the elevated level of serum amylase (p<0,05) and more incidence of sings of acute pancreatitis in contrast to nasoduodenal tube placement. For the prevention of acute pancreatitis with enteral tube feeding is preferred mode designed using nasoduodenal access.

  12. Prophylaxis and therapy of viral infections in pediatric patients treated for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Licciardello, Maria; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Infections are still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in pediatric cancer patients. Most of the febrile episodes in immunocompromised patients are classified as a fever of unknown origin (FUO) while bacteria are the more frequent causes of documented infections. Viral infections are also feared during chemotherapy but less data are available on their incidence and morbidity. We reviewed the literature on incidence, morbidity, and mortality of viral infections in children undergoing chemotherapy and discussed the evidence concerning the prophylaxis and the therapy. PMID:21647278

  13. Prophylaxis and therapy of viral infections in pediatric patients treated for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Maria; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone

    2011-02-24

    Infections are still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in pediatric cancer patients. Most of the febrile episodes in immunocompromised patients are classified as a fever of unknown origin (FUO) while bacteria are the more frequent causes of documented infections. Viral infections are also feared during chemotherapy but less data are available on their incidence and morbidity. We reviewed the literature on incidence, morbidity, and mortality of viral infections in children undergoing chemotherapy and discussed the evidence concerning the prophylaxis and the therapy.

  14. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1: the role of neonatal and infant prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Stacey A; Appelgren, Kristie E; Kourtis, Athena P

    2015-02-01

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is one of the great public health successes of the past 20 years. Much concerted research efforts and dedicated work have led to the achievement of very low rates of PMTCT of HIV in settings that can implement optimal prophylaxis. Though several implementation challenges remain, global elimination of pediatric HIV infection seems now more than ever to be an attainable goal. Often overlooked, the role of prophylaxis of the newborn is nevertheless a very important component of PMTCT. In this paper, we focus on the role of neonatal and infant prophylaxis, discuss mechanisms of protection, and present the clinical trial-generated evidence that led to the current recommendations for preventing infections in breastfed and non-breastfed infants. PMTCT of HIV should not end at birth; a continuum of care extending postpartum and postnatally is required to minimize the risk of new pediatric HIV infections.

  15. Secondary prophylaxis with recombinant activated factor VII improves health-related quality of life of haemophilia patients with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W K; Ebbesen, L S; Konkle, B A; Auerswald, G K-H; Roberts, H R; Weatherall, J; Ferran, J-M; Ljung, R C R

    2008-05-01

    Haemophilia patients with inhibitors characteristically have impaired joint function and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This analysis examined whether secondary prophylaxis with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) improves HRQoL vs. conventional on-demand therapy in patients with haemophilia with inhibitors and frequent bleeds. After a 3-month preprophylaxis period, 22 patients received daily rFVIIa prophylaxis (90 or 270 microg kg(-1)) for 3 months, followed by 3 months' postprophylaxis. Days of hospitalization, absence from school/work and mobility aids requirements were recorded. HRQoL was assessed by EuroQoL (EQ-5D) questionnaire, visual analogue scale (VAS), derived Time to Trade-Off (TTO) scores and Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). rFVIIa prophylaxis significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced bleeding frequency vs. prior on-demand therapy. Hospitalization (5.9% vs. 13.5%; P = 0.0026) and absenteeism from school/work (16.7% vs. 38.7%; P = 0.0127) decreased during prophylaxis; these effects tended to be maintained during postprophylaxis. HRQoL (evaluated by EQ-5D) tended to improve during and after rFVIIa prophylaxis. Notably, pain decreased and mobility increased in 40.9% and 27.3% of patients, respectively, at the end of the postprophylaxis period vs. preprophylaxis. Median VAS score increased from 66 to 73 (P = 0.048), and TTO scores suggested better HRQoL (0.62 vs. 0.76; P = 0.054) during postprophylaxis than preprophylaxis. Small to moderate changes in effect sizes were reported for VAS and TTO scores. Median QALYs were 0.68 (VAS) and 0.73 (TTO). Reductions in bleeding frequency with secondary rFVIIa prophylaxis were associated with improved HRQoL vs. on-demand therapy.

  16. Lithium prophylaxis during pregnancy and the postpartum period in women with lithium-responsive bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gianluca; Albert, Umberto; Di Salvo, Gabriele; Scatà, Manuela; Todros, Tullia; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lithium prophylaxis during the peripartum period in women with lithium-responsive bipolar I disorder. Seventeen lithium-treated patients were selected and underwent preconception counseling that included both a psychiatric and an obstetric evaluation. Treatment was continued with flexible-doses of lithium combined with supportive psychotherapy throughout the pregnancy and the postpartum period. The results support the prophylaxis efficacy of lithium in lithium-responder bipolar women who have a high risk of severe peripartum recurrences.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of extended prophylaxis with fondaparinux compared with low molecular weight heparin against venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, Jonas; Bergqvist, David; Jönsson, Bengt

    2007-12-01

    A model was developed to estimate costs and clinical effectiveness of fondaparinux compared with enoxaparin after hip fracture surgery in Sweden. Outcomes and costs of venous thromboembolism (VTE)-related care from a health care perspective were incorporated, with symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, recurrent VTE, post-thrombotic syndrome, major haemorrhage and all-cause death being included. Event probabilities were derived from fondaparinux clinical trial data and published data. VTE-related resource use and associated costs as well as costs of prophylaxis were based on local Swedish data. Extended prophylaxis with fondaparinux could avoid an additional 28 symptomatic VTE per 1,000 patients compared with extended prophylaxis with enoxaparin in hip fracture surgery patients. Although the prophylaxis costs were higher in the fondaparinux group, these were offset by the lower costs associated with treating fewer VTE, which thus indicates that extended fondaparinux prophylaxis is the dominant alternative when compared with enoxaparin in hip fracture surgery.

  18. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  19. Acupuncture as prophylaxis for menstrual-related migraine: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Menstrual-related migraine is a common form of migraine affecting >50% of female migraineurs. Acupuncture may be a choice for menstrual-related migraine, when pharmacological prophylaxis is not suitable. However, the efficacy of acupuncture has not been confirmed. We design and perform a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture compared with naproxen in menstrual-related migraine patients. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 184 participants will be randomly assigned to two different groups. Participants will receive verum acupuncture and placebo medicine in the treatment group, while participants in the control group will be treated with sham acupuncture and medicine (Naproxen Sustained Release Tablets). All treatments will be given for 3 months (menstrual cycles). The primary outcome measures are the change of migraine days inside the menstrual cycle and the proportion of responders (defined as the proportion of patients with at least a 50% reduction in the number of menstrual migraine days). The secondary outcome measures are the change of migraine days outside the menstrual cycle, duration of migraine attack, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and intake of acute medication. The assessment will be made at baseline (before treatment), 3 months (menstrual cycles), and 4 months (menstrual cycles) after the first acupuncture session. Discussion The results of this trial will be helpful to supply the efficacy of acupuncture for menstrual-related migraine prophylaxis. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN57133712 PMID:24195839

  20. Antiretrovirals for Primary HIV Prevention: The Current Status of Pre- and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Jain, Sachin; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the 2 million HIV infections that occur globally each year, there is a need to optimize strategies that integrate biomedical and behavioral approaches to HIV prevention. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) immediately after acute high-risk exposures and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for those who engage in recurrent high-risk behaviors are promising bio-behavioral approaches to decreasing HIV transmission. Guidelines have recommended PEP for occupational and non-occupational exposures for over 15 years, but uptake of PEP has been limited, partly as a result of insufficient awareness of this intervention among persons at highest risk for acquiring HIV. However, since the publication of large randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of PrEP, and the dissemination of guidelines endorsing its use, there is a renewed focus on bio-behavioral prevention. Numerous studies have recently assessed the acceptability of bio-behavioral prevention programs among diverse populations or described experiences implementing these programs in “real-world” settings. As research and clinical data informing optimal utilization of PEP and PrEP are rapidly accumulating, this review provides a timely summary of recent progress in bio-behavioral prevention. By contextualizing the most noteworthy recent findings regarding PEP and PrEP, this review seeks to inform successful implementation of these promising prevention approaches. PMID:25600106

  1. Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Werth, Sebastian; Halbritter, Kai; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS) represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy. PMID:22547932

  2. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  3. Surgical prophylaxis with gentamicin and acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teerakanok, Jirapat; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Karukote, Amputch; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background Gentamicin has been increasingly used instead of cephalosporins for surgical prophylaxis in an attempt to reduce the rate of “Clostridium difficile” infection. There are limited data regarding nephrotoxicity related to gentamicin in these patients. Methods We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in gentamicin-containing surgical prophylactic regimens, compared to regimens without gentamicin, in several types of surgery. Electronic searches were performed using PubMed and Embase, including terms for “AKI, gentamicin, and surgical prophylaxis” with and without MeSH/EMTREE functions. Statistical analysis was then performed using a random-effect model; risk ratios (RR), risk differences (RD) and heterogeneity (I2) were calculated. Funnel plot was used for assessment of publication bias. Results Eleven studies with fifteen cohorts with 18,354 patients were included in the analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to surgery type. We have found that antibiotic prophylaxis with gentamicin containing regimen has significant risk for developing postoperative AKI in orthopedic surgery (RR 2.99; 95% CI: 1.84, 4.88). The results were inconclusive in other types of surgery. Funnel plot indicates potential publication bias. Conclusions Gentamicin-induced AKI is significant in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Physicians should consider risks and benefits of using this regimen in individual patients. PMID:28361065

  4. [Effectiveness of a homeopathic prophylaxis for bovine mastitis during dry-off and parturition].

    PubMed

    Notz, C; Hässig, M

    2013-07-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a homeopathic dry cow prophylaxis in a randomized, placebo controlled case-control field trial. The study was conducted in 24 Brown Swiss farms in the Engadine (Swiss mountain region). The effect of the used homeopathic substances were combined with antibiotics in justified cases. At drying off and in the 3rd and 5th week of lactation the udders were clinically examined and quarter milk samples were taken for bacteriological and cytological analysis. In addition, milk recording data of the first 6 milk testing were included in the evaluations. The used homeopathic prophylaxis at drying off did not show any effect in the incidence of dry cow mastitis and mastitis in the first 120 days of lactation. However, at day 21 post partum significantly fewer animals in the verum group showed a bacteriological finding of a major pathogen, but more animals in this group suffered from a secretion disorder. It has been shown that at the 6th milk test pp significantly more animals of the verum group had a somatic cell count below 100'000 cells/ml than the control group.

  5. Use of Guideline-Based Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Women Undergoing Gynecologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Hassan, Khalid; Ananth, Cande V.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Burke, William M.; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine guideline-based use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients who underwent gynecologic surgery. Methods We identified women who underwent gynecologic surgery between 2003–2010. Procedures were stratified as antibiotic-appropriate (abdominal, vaginal, or laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy) or antibiotic-inappropriate (oophorectomy, cystectomy, tubal ligation, dilation and curettage, myomectomy, and tubal ligation). Antibiotic use was examined using hierarchical regression models. Results Among 545,332 women who underwent procedures for which antibiotics were recommended, 87.1% received appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis, 2.3% received non-guideline recommended antibiotics, and 10.6% received no prophylaxis. Use of antibiotics increased from 88.0% in 2003 to 90.7% in 2010 (P<0.001). After excluding patients with infectious complications, 26.7% of women received antibiotics more than 24 hours after surgery. Among 491,071, who had operations in which antibiotics were not recommended, antibiotics were administered to 197,226 (40.2%) women. Use of nonguideline based antibiotics also increased over time from 33.4% in 2003 to 43.7% in 2010 (P<0.001). Year of diagnosis, surgeon and hospital procedural volume, and area of residence were the strongest predictors of guideline-based and non-guideline-based antibiotic use. Conclusion Although use of antibiotics is high for women who should receive antibiotics, antibiotics are increasingly being administered to women for whom the drugs are of unproven benefit. PMID:24201674

  6. [Effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) on thrombosis prophylaxis: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Ottilia; Eicher, Manuela

    2006-06-01

    Despite changes in patient demographics and short-ened length of hospital stay deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains a major health care problem which may lead to a variety of other high risk complications. Current treatment guidelines focus on preventive measures. Beside drug therapy, physical measures executed by nursing professionals exist, the outcomes of which are discussed controversially. Based on 25 studies that were found in MEDLINE and the Cochrane library, this systematic literature review identifies the effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) on thrombosis prophylaxis. In almost all medical settings IPC contributes to a significant reduction of the incidence of DVT. At the same time, IPC has minimal negative side effects and is also cost effective. Correct application of IPC and patient compliance are essential to achieve its effectiveness. An increased awareness within the healthcare team in identifying the risk for and implementing measures against DVT is needed. Guidelines need to be developed in order to improve the effectiveness of thrombosis prophylaxis with the implementation of IPC.

  7. Immediate postoperative digitalization in the prophylaxis of supraventricular arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Csicsko, J F; Schatzlein, M H; King, R D

    1981-03-01

    Regimens of acute preoperative digitalization have been evaluated previously in the prophylaxis of supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) following coronary artery bypass operations, with equivocal results. This study assesses the effectiveness of immediate postoperative digitalization on the incidence of arrhythmias in 407 consecutive patients recovering from myocardial revascularization. In 137 patients treated by our regimen, which begins digitalization within 4 hours postoperatively, the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias was 2%, while the corresponding figure for 270 untreated patients was 15%. Digitalization reduced the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmias significantly (p less than 0.01), whereas death, ventricular ectopy, and infarction rates were similar in the two groups. The few patients who did have supraventricular arrhythmias while receiving prophylactic digoxin were no more easily treated than patients in the undigitalized group. The timing of administration of digoxin for SVT prophylaxis may be more important than previously recognized. Immediately postoperative digitalization, theoretically preferable to preoperative regimens, is a safe, effective way to reduce the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmias following myocardial revascularization.

  8. Rice-based oral antibody fragment prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; ρlvarez, Beatriz; Mejima, Mio; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuko; Kurokawa, Shiho; Kuroda, Masaharu; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Nochi, Tomonori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Aladin, Farah; Marcotte, Harold; Frenken, Leon G.J.; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Hammarström, Lennart; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections. PMID:23925294

  9. Efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B for prophylaxis of acute or reactivation models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Christopher; Menotti, Jean; Meneceur, Pascale; Choukri, Firas; Sulahian, Annie; Garin, Yves J-F; Derouin, Francis

    2013-05-01

    The efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis for prevention of invasive aspergillosis (IA) may depend on whether IA results from recent inhalation of spores or reactivation of latent colonisation. Compare the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for prophylaxis in acute and reactivation models of IA. In the acute model, mice immunosuppressed from day 0 were challenged at day 3 with an aerosol of Aspergillus fumigatus. LAmB (15 mg kg(-1) ) was administered at day 0 or at challenge. In the reactivation model, naïve mice exposed to A. fumigatus remained untreated until clearance of spores from the lungs, then immunosuppressed to induce reactivation. A single LAmB dose was administered at start of immunosuppression. In the acute model, a single administration of LAmB at start of immunosuppression was not effective, but an additional administration resulted in a significant decrease in lung fungal burden (P < 0.05 vs. controls). A significant prophylactic efficacy was observed when LAmB was administered once at challenge (P < 0.01). In the reactivation model, a single LAmB administration at start of immunosuppression significantly reduced both reactivation rate and fungal burden vs. controls (P < 0.01). Our results show that the conditions under which IA develop and timing of administration of LAmB were determinant variables for prophylactic efficacy.

  10. Modelling the evolution of HIV-1 virulence in response to imperfect therapy and prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R M; Mideo, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    Average HIV-1 virulence appears to have evolved in different directions in different host populations since antiretroviral therapy first became available, and models predict that HIV drugs can select for either higher or lower virulence, depending on how treatment is administered. However, HIV virulence evolution in response to "leaky" therapy (treatment that imperfectly suppresses viral replication) and the use of preventive drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis) has not been explored. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that higher virulence can evolve when antiretroviral therapy is imperfectly effective and that this evolution erodes some of the long-term clinical and epidemiological benefits of HIV treatment. The introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis greatly reduces infection prevalence, but can further amplify virulence evolution when it, too, is leaky. Increasing the uptake rate of these imperfect interventions increases selection for higher virulence and can lead to counterintuitive increases in infection prevalence in some scenarios. Although populations almost always fare better with access to interventions than without, untreated individuals could experience particularly poor clinical outcomes when virulence evolves. These findings predict that antiretroviral drugs may have underappreciated evolutionary consequences, but that maximizing drug efficacy can prevent this evolutionary response. We suggest that HIV virulence evolution should be closely monitored as access to interventions continues to improve.

  11. Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Werth, Sebastian; Halbritter, Kai; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been accepted as the "gold standard" for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS) represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy.

  12. Prophylaxis and therapy of influenza pneumonia in mice by intratracheal instillation of monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study on passive immunity dealt principally with the following topics: pathogenesis of the pneumonia produced by influenza virus (PR8) in CF-1 mice; the distribution and retention of monoclonal antibody instilled intratracheally (IT) into the lung; and prophylaxis and therapy of influenza pneumonia using specific monoclonal antibody (IgG 2a/k anti-HA). The fate of a single 50 ul bolus of antibody instilled IT was determined by monitoring the activity of /sup 125/I-labelled monoclonal IgG in the lungs and by lavage recovery of functional antibody.Antibody was demonstrated in high concentrations for the first 3 days and was present in the lungs for a period of 7 days. For prophylaxis several trials indicated that monoclonal antibody provided significant protection from lethal effects of the virus. Antibody given to clinically ill mice on day 3 produced a highly significant reduction in mortality (P < 0.001) when compared to control mice. The treatment reversed the weight loss and apparently arrested the development of lesions in most of the mice within 2 days following antibody administration.

  13. Pharmacologic Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critical Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite the frequency and morbidity of venous thromboembolism (VTE) development after traumatic brain injury (TBI), no national standard of care exists to guide TBI caregivers for the use of prophylactic anticoagulation. Fears of iatrogenic propagation of intracranial hemorrhage patterns have led to a dearth of research in this field, and it is only relatively recently that studies dedicated to this question have been performed. These have generally been limited to retrospective and/or observational studies in which patients are classified in a binary fashion as having the presence or absence of intracranial blood. This methodology does not account for the fact that smaller injury patterns stabilize more rapidly, and thus may be able to safely tolerate earlier initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation than larger injury patterns. This review seeks to critically assess the literature on this question by examining the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis in the setting of elective craniotomy (as this is the closest model available from which to extrapolate) and after TBI. In doing so, we critique studies that approach TBI as a homogenous or a heterogenous study population. Finally, we propose our own theoretical protocol which stratifies patients into low, moderate, and high risk for the likelihood of natural progression of their hemorrhage pattern, and which allows one to tailor a unique VTE prophylaxis regimen to each individual arm. PMID:22651698

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J T; Kaiser, B A; Long, S S; Schulman, S L; Deforest, A; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV), the most significant infectious cause of morbidity following renal transplantation, may be a greater problem for children than for adults due to their relative lack of experience with this virus. Therefore, we prospectively gave Gammagard as prophylaxis to CMV-negative children who received CMV-positive allografts and compared the results to our experience with similar high-risk recipients transplanted prior to our use of intravenous immunoglobulin G (IvIgG). Symptomatic CMV disease developed in 17% of the IvIgG recipients as compared with 71% of the untreated patients (p = 0.01). The CMV infections that did occur in IvIgG recipients developed significantly later than in untreated children (median time of onset after transplantation 2.60 vs. 1.35 months; p < 0.05) and generally were less severe, although 1 IvIgG recipient died despite prophylaxis. IvIgG administration did not affect the frequency of rejection or graft or patient survival. We conclude that IvIgG administration to high-risk pediatric renal transplant recipients may protect against posttransplantation CMV disease and may lessen the severity of infections that do develop in patients who receive it.

  15. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Carlos; Melendez, Johanna; Chan, Philip A.; Nunn, Amy C.; Powderly, William; Goodenberger, Katherine; Liu, Jingxia; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. Results Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were

  16. Tolerability of up to 200 days of prophylaxis with valganciclovir oral solution and/or film-coated tablets in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of cytomegalovirus disease.

    PubMed

    Varela-Fascinetto, G; Benchimol, C; Reyes-Acevedo, R; Genevray, M; Bradley, D; Ives, J; Silva, H T

    2017-02-01

    This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21.4%). There were fewer AEs during days 101-228 vs days 1-100. Twenty-seven patients (48.2%) had treatment-related AEs during valganciclovir treatment, most commonly leukopenia (21.4%), neutropenia (19.6%), anemia (7.1%), and tremor (5.4%). Treatment-related serious AEs were reported for nine patients (16.1%) and six withdrew due to AEs. Viremia was centrally confirmed in 10 patients; there was no confirmed CMV disease. One patient tested positive for a resistance mutation (UL97 L595F). Biopsy-proven acute rejection occurred in six patients (10.7%), but no graft loss or deaths occurred. In conclusion, up to 200 days of valganciclovir prophylaxis in pediatric kidney allograft recipients showed a safety profile consistent with that established in adult transplant patients.

  17. Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Danys, Irena

    1991-01-01

    While the pathophysiology of recurrent migraine remains elusive, effective treatment for the prevention of attacks is available. Pharmacologic agents are useful adjuncts to a therapeutic approach that includes abundant patient education, rigorous follow up by the treating physician, and a commitment by both patient and physician to work out an individualized solution over time. PMID:21234086

  18. Impact of different oseltamivir regimens on treating influenza A virus infection and resistance emergence: insights from a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Canini, Laetitia; Conway, Jessica M; Perelson, Alan S; Carrat, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have proven oseltamivir to be efficient in reducing influenza viral titer and symptom intensity. However, the usefulness of oseltamivir can be compromised by the emergence and spread of drug-resistant virus. The selective pressure exerted by different oseltamivir therapy regimens have received little attention. Combining models of drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, viral kinetics and symptom dynamics, we explored the efficacy of oseltamivir in reducing both symptoms (symptom efficacy) and viral load (virological efficacy). We simulated samples of 1000 subjects using previously estimated between-subject variability in viral and symptom dynamic parameters to describe the observed heterogeneity in a patient population. We simulated random mutations conferring resistance to oseltamivir. We explored the effect of therapy initiation time, dose, intake frequency and therapy duration on influenza infection, illness dynamics, and emergence of viral resistance. Symptom and virological efficacies were strongly associated with therapy initiation time. The proportion of subjects shedding resistant virus was 27-fold higher when prophylaxis was initiated during the incubation period compared with no treatment. It fell to below 1% when treatment was initiated after symptom onset for twice-a-day intakes. Lower doses and prophylaxis regimens led to lower efficacies and increased risk of resistance emergence. We conclude that prophylaxis initiated during the incubation period is the main factor leading to resistance emergence.

  19. [Prophylaxis in hemophilia: situation analysis and call-to-action in Latin America. A report from the GLAITH group].

    PubMed

    Mijares, Mercedes Elena; De Sánchez, Apsara Boadas

    2015-09-01

    Prophylactic treatment in the management of hemophilia has been a crucial factor in improving the prognosis and quality of life for people with hemophilia (PCH). However, it is not globally implemented. In Latin America it is difficult to assess the status of PCH and the its management does not conform to ideal standards. The GLAITH group discussed the problem in Latin America. A survey of its members and its findings were discussed at a meeting in Bogota in May 2013. Proportions of hemophilia A and B were 75-90% and 10-25% respectively. Severe hemophilia represents 26-55% of cases. A high percentage of PCH have hemophilic arthropathy. The general care and specific treatments of PCH vary by country, only 50-60% of the treatment is covered and in 85-95% of the cases are performed on an on- demand basis. Just 5-15% receives prophylaxis, most of them secondary. Few countries have a national program or homogeneous records. Finally the GLAITH group proceeded to develop a conclusion and call to action for the region where the following points are recommended: the establishment of a unified Latin American registry; prospective cost-effectiveness studies and evaluation criteria related to secondary prophylaxis; comparative studies of quality of life with and without prophylaxis in the region; promotion of individualization of treatment and, the increase of primary and secondary prophylaxis globally in Latin America.

  20. Density-dependent prophylaxis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. C.

    2012-06-01

    The density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis predicts that individuals at high density will invest more resources into immune defence than individuals at lower densities as a counter-measure to density-dependent pathogen transmission rates. Evidence has been found for this hypothesis in insects, but not in a non-arthropod taxon. To investigate this hypothesis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, density treatments were set up over 21 days, and pathogen infection was simulated with bacterial injection. Five immune responses: amoebocyte count, amoebocyte viability, lysosomal membrane integrity, respiratory burst and peroxidase activity were all upregulated at high density. These results demonstrate that immune investment shows phenotypic plasticity with adult population density in agreement with the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis. Here I show that the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis is neither dependent on larval density nor restricted to insects, and hence may potentially have important consequences on disease dynamics in any species with widely fluctuating population densities. This is the first demonstration of the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis outside arthropods.

  1. Is Aerosolized Pentamidine for Pneumocystis Pneumonia Prophylaxis in Renal Transplant Recipients Not as Safe as We Might Think?

    PubMed

    Macesic, N; Urbancic, K; Ierino, F; Grayson, M L

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks ofPneumocystispneumonia have been described in renal transplant recipients. Aerosolized pentamidine is frequently used for prophylaxis in this setting. We report our experience with aerosolized pentamidine use in 56 renal transplant recipients. We found high rates of adverse reactions in patients with chronic respiratory disease.

  2. The influential roles of antibiotics prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after initial endoscopic treatments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Chieh; Tai, Wei-Chen; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2014-01-01

    The influential roles of antibiotic prophylaxis on cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding are still not well documented. The purpose of this study is to clarify these influential roles and to identify the risk factors associated with rebleeding, bacterial infection and in-hospital mortality. A cross-sectional, chart review study was conducted on 210 cirrhotic patients with acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage who underwent therapeutic endoscopic procedures. Patients were divided into group A (with prophylactic intravenous ceftriaxone, n = 74) and group B (without antibiotics, n = 136). The outcomes were length of hospital days, prevention of infection, rebleeding rate and in-hospital mortality. Our results showed that more patients suffered from rebleeding and infection in group B than group A (31.6% vs. 5.4%; p<0.001 and 25% vs. 10.8%; p = 0.014 respectively). The risk factors for rebleeding were active alcoholism, unit of blood transfusion, Rockall score, model for end-stage liver disease score and antibiotic prophylaxis. The risk factors for infection were active alcoholism, Child-Pugh C, Rockall score and antibiotic prophylaxis. Rockall score was the predictive factor for in-hospital mortality. In conclusions, antibiotic prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients after endoscopic interventions for acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage reduced infections and rebleeding rate but not in-hospital mortality. Rockall score was the predictive factor of in-hospital mortality.

  3. Shielding of the Hip Prosthesis During Radiation Therapy for Heterotopic Ossification is Associated with Increased Failure of Prophylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Tracy A.; Gaccione, Peter; Gobezie, Reuben; Mamon, Harvey J. . E-mail: hmamon@partners.org

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently administered to prevent heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increased risk of HO after RT prophylaxis with shielding of the THA components. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of THA patients undergoing RT prophylaxis of HO at Brigham and Women's Hospital between June 1994 and February 2004. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the relationships of all variables to failure of RT prophylaxis. Results: A total of 137 patients were identified and 84 were eligible for analysis (61%). The median RT dose was 750 cGy in one fraction, and the median follow-up was 24 months. Eight of 40 unshielded patients (20%) developed any progression of HO compared with 21 of 44 shielded patients (48%) (p = 0.009). Brooker Grade III-IV HO developed in 5% of unshielded and 18% of shielded patients (p 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed shielding (p = 0.02) and THA for prosthesis infection (p = 0.03) to be significant predictors of RT failure, with a trend toward an increasing risk of HO progression with age (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in the prosthesis failure rates between shielded and unshielded patients. Conclusions: A significantly increased risk of failure of RT prophylaxis for HO was noted in those receiving shielding of the hip prosthesis. Shielding did not appear to reduce the risk of prosthesis failure.

  4. 76 FR 20689 - Guidance for Industry on Influenza: Developing Drugs for Treatment and/or Prophylaxis; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Influenza: Developing Drugs for Treatment and/or Prophylaxis; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for...

  5. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Gynecologic Procedures prior to and during the Utilization of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Anne P.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Hobeika, Elie; Elias, Rony T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased steadily. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of ART-related procedures such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), saline infusion sonography (SIS), hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, oocyte retrieval, and embryo transfer (ET). While performing these procedures, the abdomen, upper vagina, and endocervix are breached, leading to the possibility of seeding pelvic structures with microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis is therefore important to prevent or treat any procedure-related infections. After careful review of the published literature, it is evident that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is generally not recommended for the majority of ART-related procedures. For transcervical procedures such as HSG, SIS, hysteroscopy, ET, and chromotubation, patients at risk for pelvic infections should be screened and treated prior to the procedure. Patients with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or dilated fallopian tubes are at high risk for postprocedural infections and should be given antibiotic prophylaxis during procedures such as HSG, SIS, or chromotubation. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended prior to oocyte retrieval in patients with a history of endometriosis, PID, ruptured appendicitis, or multiple prior pelvic surgeries. PMID:27047692

  6. Beyond stopping the bleed: short-term episodic prophylaxis with recombinant activated factor FVII in haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Šalek, Silva Zupančić; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Dolan, Gerry; Duffy, Anne; Hermans, Cedric; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Santagostino, Elena; Lambert, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Preventing haemarthroses and arthropathy is a major challenge in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors, as treatment options are limited. One potential strategy is short-term episodic prophylaxis, which extends bypassing agent therapy beyond the resolution of bleeding to include the post-bleed inflammatory phase. At the 13th Zürich Haemophilia Forum, an expert panel reviewed the rationale behind this strategy, explored its current use with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and considered treatment monitoring and optimisation. Two protocols are currently used for short-term episodic prophylaxis, both of which stipulate on-demand rFVIIa until resolution of bleeding, followed by daily dosing for ≥3 days to prevent re-bleeds. Short-term episodic prophylaxis should be individualised to optimise outcomes, perhaps through early treatment initiation or by combining rFVIIa with other treatments (e.g. factor VIII, tranexamic acid). Encouraging treatment compliance can also improve outcomes. Additionally, there is a need to develop objective clinical outcome measures, biomarkers and imaging protocols that can monitor treatment outcomes and joint disease in patients with inhibitors. A proactive approach incorporating a systematic package of care is needed. Currently, short-term episodic prophylaxis with rFVIIa may be an alternative treatment option to on-demand treatment for patients with inhibitors. PMID:26674816

  7. The effect of migraine prophylaxis on migraine-related resource use and productivity.

    PubMed

    Láinez, Miguel J A

    2009-09-01

    In the US, it is estimated that up to 10% of men and 25% of women, particularly those aged 25-55 years, experience debilitating migraines, such that the condition presents an enormous economic burden for patients, health systems, employers and society. Migraine headache is a particularly prevalent condition associated with major reductions in patients' quality of life. From a payer perspective, the implementation of relevant programmes of migraine prophylaxis is highly desirable. Consistent evidence exists, from several randomized, controlled studies, of the efficacy of amitriptyline, divalproex sodium, propranolol, timolol and topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. Considering resource utilization, various studies suggest that migraine prophylaxis with antiepileptics, antidepressants, beta-blockers or calcium channel antagonists markedly reduces triptan use and visits to physician offices and emergency departments (EDs), without compromising quality of care or treatment outcomes. Over recent years, the effects of topiramate in reducing resource utilization in patients with migraine have been relatively widely studied. In US claims database analyses involving >4000 patients with migraine, topiramate significantly reduced triptan use by up to 20% in the 12-month period after starting treatment. Reductions were also noted in the numbers of ED visits, diagnostic procedures, hospital admissions and migraine-related hospitalization days. These long-term benefits of topiramate manifested without any increase in overall headache-related costs. Furthermore, in detailed modelling analyses based on UK and US data, topiramate-induced savings in acute medical services were estimated to offset about one-quarter of the monthly per patient cost of the topiramate regimen, which was shown to be a dominant cost-effective intervention relative to no preventive therapy: cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as pound 5728 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) [2005 costings] and $US10

  8. Living related liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related liver disease without hepatitis B immune globulin prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subash; Goyal, Neerav; Taneja, Sunil; Kumar, Ajay

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is routinely used in liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. With potent oral antivirals, HBIG may not be required. We conducted a prospective trial to evaluate living related liver transplantation (LRLT) without HBIG. Eighty-nine patients with HBV-related liver disease underwent LRLT between January 2005 and January 2012. All donors were vaccinated with the HBV vaccine. All patients were given oral antivirals for HBV before transplantation. Patients with HBV DNA levels ≤ 2000 IU/mL were not given HBIG, and patients with HBV DNA levels > 2000 IU/mL were given HBIG. Recurrence was defined as HBV DNA positivity 6 months after transplantation. Seventy-five of the 89 patients who underwent LRLT for HBV-related liver disease were not given HBIG. Nineteen patients received a combination of lamivudine and adefovir, 42 received entecavir, 12 received tenofovir, and 2 received a combination of entecavir and tenofovir. At the last follow-up (median = 21 months, range = 1-83 months), all patients were HBV DNA-negative. Sixty-six patients cleared hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 19 patients formed antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). The cumulative probabilities of clearing HBsAg were 90% and 92% at 1 and 2 years after transplantation, respectively. Nine patients were HBsAg-positive with undetectable DNA at the last follow-up. The recurrence rate in our series was 8% (6/75). Five of these 6 patients had stopped taking oral antivirals, and 1 had entecavir resistance. All recurrences were salvaged with changes in the oral antivirals. The actuarial probability of survival in this cohort was 73.7% at 83 months. There was no mortality due to HBV recurrence. In conclusion, HBV prophylaxis with oral antivirals and without HBIG is safe and effective in LRLT. A majority of the patients will clear HBsAg, and some will develop anti-HBs antibodies.

  9. Resistance-Resistant Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    New antibiotics are needed because as drug resistance is increasing, the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. Here, we discuss six possible approaches to develop ‘resistance-resistant’ antibiotics. First, multi-target inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy due to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, re-purposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multi-target therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and in some cases suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored, in otherwise drug resistant organisms. PMID:25458541

  10. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolone-resistant mycobacterial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Meyer, Jay J; Espandar, Ladan

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of mycobacterial keratitis resistant to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with fourth-generation fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. While receiving moxifloxacin post LASIK, the patient was diagnosed with moxifloxacin-resistant Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis. Culture susceptibilities revealed isolates resistant to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, and treatment with topical amikacin and clarithromycin with oral doxycycline and clarithromycin along with flap amputation was necessary to control the infection. This case demonstrates the potential limitations in the coverage of these antibiotic agents.

  11. Efficacy of extended thrombo-prophylaxis in major abdominal surgery: what does the evidence show? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bottaro, Federico Jorge; Elizondo, Maria Cristina; Doti, Carlos; Bruetman, Julio Enrique; Perez Moreno, Pablo Diego; Bullorsky, Eduardo Oscar; Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication following major abdominal surgery. The use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) to prevent thrombotic events in these patients is a common and well documented practice. However, there is some controversy surrounding the duration of the prophylaxis, as it has been suggested that the risk persists for several weeks after surgery. The objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically review the clinical studies that compared safety and efficacy of extended use of LMWH (for three to four weeks after surgery) versus conventional in-hospital prophylaxis. An electronic data base search was performed. Only randomized, controlled studies were eligible. Data on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), VTE and bleeding were extracted. Only three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The indication for surgery was neoplastic disease in 70.6% (780/1104) of patients. The administration of extended LMWH prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of VTE, 5.93% (23/388) versus 13.6% (55/405), RR 0.44 (CI 95% 0.28 - 0.7); DVT 5.93% (23/388) versus 12.9% (52/402), RR 0.46 (CI 95% 0.29 - 0.74); proximal DVT 1% (4/388) versus 4.72% (19/402), RR 0.24 (CI 95% 0.09 - 0.67). We found no significant difference in major or minor bleeding between the two groups: 3.85% (21/545) in the extended thrombo-prophylaxis (ETP) group versus 3.48% (19/559) in the conventional prophylaxis group; RR 1.12 (CI 95% 0.61 - 2.06). There was no heterogeneity between the studies. We conclude that ETP with LMWH should be considered as a safe and useful strategy to prevent VTE in high-risk major abdominal surgery.

  12. Barriers to innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment: A causal analysis of insights from key opinion leaders and literature.

    PubMed

    van de Burgwal, L H M; Neevel, A M G; Pittens, C A C M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rupprecht, C E; Claassen, E

    2017-03-20

    Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). As such, the lag of innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment cannot be explained by limited return on investment alone. Strategies countering rabies-specific innovation barriers are important for the acceleration of innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment. Barriers throughout society, science, business development and market domains were identified through literature review and 23 semi-structured interviews with key opinion leaders worldwide. A subsequent root cause analysis revealed causal relations between innovation barriers and a limited set of root causes. Finally, prioritization by experts indicated their relative importance. Root causes, which are fundamental to barriers, were aggregated into four types: market and commercial, stakeholder collaboration, public health and awareness, and disease trajectory. These were found in all domains of the innovation process and thus are relevant for all stakeholders. This study identifies barriers that were not previously described in this specific context, for example the competition for funding between medical and veterinary approaches. The results stress the existence of barriers beyond the limited return on investment and thereby explain why innovation in human rabies medication is lagging behind NTDs with a lower burden of disease. A re-orientation on the full spectrum of barriers that hinder innovation in

  13. Treatment cost development of patients undergoing remission induction chemotherapy: a pharmacoeconomic analysis before and after introduction of posaconazole prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Sebastian M; Cornely, Oliver A; Vehreschild, Maria J G T; Glossmann, Jan; Kochanek, Matthias; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Hallek, Michael; Vehreschild, Jörg J

    2014-02-01

    Prior clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness of posaconazole in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal diseases in high-risk patients. Controversy exists about the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We performed an analysis comparing the direct costs of posaconazole prophylaxis against polyene mouthwash (thrush) prophylaxis in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). Data of AML patients receiving remission-induction chemotherapy were extracted from the CoCoNut (Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients) database to compare hospital costs of patients before (2003-2005) and after (2006-2008) introduction of posaconazole prophylaxis. Treatment on general ward, intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation, diagnostic procedures, and all anti-infectives were calculated. Patient groups were well matched according to age, gender and duration of neutropenia. The mean costs per patient in the posaconazole group (n = 76) and the polyene mouthwash group (n = 81) were €21 040 (95% confidence interval (CI): €18 204-€23 876) and €23 169 (95% CI: €19 402-€26 937) per patient. Antifungal treatment costs were €4580 (95% CI: €3678-€5482) and €4019 (95% CI: €2825-€5214). Duration on the ICU was 2582 (95% CI: 984.1-4181.7) and 5517 (95% CI: 2206-8827.3) min. In our hospital, primary antifungal prophylaxis by posaconazole was cost-effective. There was a trend towards cost savings, which was primarily caused by a shorter overall length of stay and the less frequent ICU treatment.

  14. [Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of central nervous system involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pilar; Berenguer, Juan; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2010-09-18

    With the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the incidence of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has declined. HAART has also modified the clinical manifestations of these tumors, with a lower frequency of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently, the frequency of meningeal involvement at the time of diagnosis of NHL in HIV-infected patients varies between 3% and 5%. These figures are similar to those observed among immunocompetent hosts. The diagnosis of meningeal lymphoma relies in clinical findings, imaging techniques, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. Flow cytometry is a diagnostic technique with a higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional cytology for the diagnosis of meningeal lymphoma. However, flow cytometry is not yet considered to be the gold standard for this purpose. Until recently, most experts recommended neuromeningeal prophylaxis for all HIV-infected patients with aggressive NHL. However, at present this prophylaxis is recommended only in patients with higher risk of CNS relapse according to different sites of involvement, stage and histological subtype. There are different regimens of prophylaxis and treatment for meningeal lymphoma. The drugs most commonly used for this purpose are methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside. However, there are other alternatives such as liposomal cytosine arabinoside that requires fewer spinal taps for drug administration and whose results are very promising. In summary, in the context of an effective HAART, HIV infected patients with NHL have a frequency of CNS involvement by lymphoma similar to that found among immunocompetent hosts. Consequently, indications and regimens for CNS prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with NHL should not be different than those employed in the general population. Universal CNS prophylaxis should be reserved for the few patients unable to receive an

  15. Joining the patient on the path to customized prophylaxis: one hemophilia team explores the tools of engagement

    PubMed Central

    Gue, Deborah; Squire, Sandra; McIntosh, Kam; Bartholomew, Claude; Summers, Nicole; Sun, Haowei; Yang, Ming; Jackson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between hemophilia team interventions and achievement of optimal clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated. The British Columbia Hemophilia Adult Team has previously reported results of a comprehensive approach to individualize prophylaxis that has resulted in substantially reduced bleeding rates. In order to facilitate knowledge exchange and potential replication, it was important to gain a thorough understanding of the team’s approach. Methods A focus group of the British Columbia Hemophilia Adult Team was conducted to identify specific roles and processes that might be contributing to the prophylaxis regimen outcomes in this clinic. The focus group consisted of two workshops; one to describe the individual and collective roles of the clinic team in providing clinical care and guiding patients toward individualized prophylaxis; and the other to describe the patient journey from initial contact through reaching a successful engagement with the clinic. Results Analysis of the results revealed team roles and processes that underpinned a shared decision-making relationship with the patient with a particular focus on supporting the patient’s autonomy. Within this relationship, team focus shifts away from “adherence” toward the process whereby patients design and implement prophylaxis regimens resulting in reduction or elimination of bleeding episodes. Limitations Using the current methodology, it is not possible to demonstrate a causal link between specific team processes and improved bleeding rates in patients. Conclusion Through the active support of patient autonomy in all aspects of decisions related to hemophilia management, the British Columbia Hemophilia Adult Team approach de-emphasizes “adherence” as the primary goal, and focuses on a prophylaxis plan that is customized by the patient and aligned with his priorities. Adoption of this comprehensive team approach facilitates shared goals between the patient and the team

  16. A comparison of lamivudine vs entecavir for prophylaxis of hepatitis B virus reactivation in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: a single-institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Shang, J; Wang, H; Sun, J; Fan, Z; Huang, F; Zhang, Y; Jiang, Q; Dai, M; Xu, N; Lin, R; Liu, Q

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of lamivudine vs entecavir in the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV surface Ag (HBsAg)-positive patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A total of 216 consecutive patients were enrolled and retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 119 received lamivudine and 97 received entecavir. The median treatment duration to complete virological response in patients with baseline HBV-DNA levels >10(5) copies/mL was 2.0 months in the entecavir group, significantly shorter than that of the lamivudine group. After a median follow-up of 24 months post transplantation, the cumulative incidence rates of HBV reactivation at 6, 12 and 24 months following transplantation were 3.0%, 7.0% and 24.0% in the lamivudine group, and 0%, 0% and 2.0% in the entecavir group, respectively. In addition, entecavir treatment was associated with lower cumulative incidence rates of severe hepatitis caused by HBV reactivation. Mutations leading to drug resistance were detected in 25 patients in the lamivudine group and in only one patient in the entecavir group. Our data indicate that compared with lamivudine, entecavir has more potent antiviral efficacy and may be a better choice for prophylaxis of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive allo-HSCT recipients.

  17. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in long-distance travelers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad M.; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Alaklabi, Ali; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Alomi, Yousef A.; Baik, Mohammad Al; Aldahan, Salah; Schünemann, Holger; Brozek, Jan; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Darzi, Andrea J.; Waziry, Reem; Akl, Elie A.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a preventable disease. Long distant travelers are prone to variable degree to develop VTE. However, the low risk of developing VTE among long-distance travelers and which travelers should receive VTE prophylaxis, and what prophylactic measures should be used led us to develop these guidelines. These clinical practice guidelines are the result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia involving an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society). The McMaster University Guideline working group provided the methodological support. The expert panel identified 5 common questions related to the thromboprophylaxis in long-distance travelers. The corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. PMID:28042639

  18. [HIV positive pregnant women who do not follow the prenatal prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Cechim, Petrolina Libana; Perdomini, Fernanda Rosa Indriunas; Quaresma, Lisiane Moitin

    2007-01-01

    This is an exploratory study based on a qualitative approach. The objective was to investigate why HIV positive pregnant women do not follow the treatment which is recommended by the Health Ministry during the prenatal period. The individuals participating of this investigation were seven HIV positive women who, during their pregnancy, did not follow the prophylaxis treatment currently recommended. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. Categories based on what these individuals reported were then stipulated and the results showed that women are in a vulnerable position regarding the negotiation of safe sex with their partners. Moreover, low social and economical conditions and lack of affection lead women to become victims of HIV/AIDS.

  19. World Health Organization Guidelines on Postexposure Prophylaxis for HIV: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-06-01

    The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) developed recommendations for PEP irrespective of exposure source in recognition of the need to simplify eligibility assessment and prescribing practices. Traditionally, separate PEP guidelines have been developed according to exposure type, with difference guidelines for occupational exposure, nonoccupational exposure, and sexual assault. Recognizing the need to improve uptake and completion rates for PEP, the WHO 2014 guideline does not differentiate between exposure sources, but rather provides recommendations across all exposures. Recommendations for simplifying prescribing approaches and supporting adherence are also provided. In translating this guidance into national PEP guidelines, countries are encouraged to consider the need to provide PEP in a way that maximizes uptake and completion rates.

  20. Anti-prion antibodies for prophylaxis following prion exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Einar M; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Ruliang; Scholtzova, Henrieta; Kascsak, Richard J; Kascsak, Regina; Carp, Richard; Meeker, Harry C; Frangione, Blas; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2003-01-23

    Prion disease is characterized by a conformational change of the normal form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) to the scrapie-associated form (PrP(Sc)). Since the emergence of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease a potentially large human population is at risk for developing prion disease. Currently, no effective treatment or form of post-exposure prophylaxis is available for prion disease. We recently showed that active immunization with recombinant PrP prolongs the incubation period of scrapie. Here we show that anti-PrP antibodies following prion exposure are effective at increasing the incubation period of the infection. Stimulation of the immune system is an important therapeutic target for the prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative illnesses characterized by abnormal protein conformation.

  1. A clinical investigation of the effects of omission of pumice prophylaxis on band and bond failure.

    PubMed

    Barry, G R

    1995-08-01

    One hundred and twelve first molar bands and 614 directly bonded brackets on incisor, canine, and premolar teeth were included in a clinical trail to investigate the importance of omission of pumice prophylaxis at the time of banding and bonding, on their possible subsequent failure. Half of the sample were selected for the non-pumiced test groups using a random number allocation method, the remaining pumiced teeth acting as control groups. Two etch times were used for the direct bonding part of the study, 15 and 60 seconds, with non-pumiced test and pumiced control groups included within both etch-time groups. Results showed no statistical difference in the failure rate of attachments in either test or control groups during the course of treatment. The different etch times had no significant effects in the direct bonding part of the study.

  2. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection: a new prevention paradigm?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández, Javier; Martínez Sesmero, José Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis" (PrEP) has been recently developed as a prevention strategy which involves the administration of drugs to non-infected individuals who present high exposure or susceptibility to HIV. Although this use is not approved in our country, several guidelines recommend PrEP as a prevention option in adult MSM, heterosexual men and women, and users of parenteral drugs at risk of acquiring the infection. This article presents the characteristics that an ideal agent to be used as PrEP should meet, recent efficacy published data and barriers for the implementation of this new strategy. On the other hand, the role of hospital pharmacists will be discussed.

  3. [Neuroimmunocorrection therapy for the prophylaxis of infectious complications in acute stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin has been used for the prophylaxis of clinical pneumonia development in the early stage of acute stroke in a group of 140 patients with heavy clinical course of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). All patients in the test and control groups received the basal anti-AIS therapy and antibacterial drugs (IV-generation cephalosporins) in case of pneumonia development. The efficacy of cerebrolysin administration was evaluated both on the clinical scale (NIH-NINDS, CPIS, SIRS immonograms) and using laboratory indices. It is established that the proposed neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin decreases the frequency of the clinical pneumonia development. A relationship between the pneumonia onset rate and the focus localization in limbico-diencephalic part of the brain is established. The use of cerebrolysin decreases lethality, normalizes the impaired immunity indices, accelerates the restoration of violated neural functions, suppresses pneumonia development, restores the level of albumin, and normalizes the laboratory indices of inflammatory syndrome.

  4. Special considerations for prophylaxis for and treatment of anthrax in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Zotti, Marianne E; Creanga, Andreea A; Misegades, Lara K; Wako, Etobssie; Treadwell, Tracee A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Jamieson, Denise J

    2014-02-01

    In August 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, convened a meeting of national subject matter experts to review key clinical elements of anthrax prevention and treatment for pregnant, postpartum, and lactating (P/PP/L) women. National experts in infectious disease, obstetrics, maternal fetal medicine, neonatology, pediatrics, and pharmacy attended the meeting, as did representatives from professional organizations and national, federal, state, and local agencies. The meeting addressed general principles of prevention and treatment for P/PP/L women, vaccines, antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment, clinical considerations and critical care issues, antitoxin, delivery concerns, infection control measures, and communication. The purpose of this meeting summary is to provide updated clinical information to health care providers and public health professionals caring for P/PP/L women in the setting of a bioterrorist event involving anthrax.

  5. Pathophysiology of sepsis and recent patents on the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of powerful antibiotics and intensive care unit, sepsis is still life threatening and the mortality rate remains unchanged for the past three decades. Recent prospective trials with biological response modifiers have shown a modest clinical benefit. The pathological basis of sepsis is initially an excessive inflammatory response against invading pathogens, leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Evidence reveals that a variety of inflammatory mediators orchestrate the intense inflammation through complicated cellular interactions. More recent data indicate that most septic patients survive this stage and then subjected to an immunoparalysis phase, termed compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS), which is more fatal than the initial phase. Sepsis is a complicated clinical syndrome with multiple physiologic and immunologic abnormalities. In this review, we summarize the recent understandings of the pathophysiology of sepsis, and introduce recent patents on diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis for sepsis.

  6. Community Federally Qualified Health Centers as Homes for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis: Perspectives from South Florida.

    PubMed

    Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Jones, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV has the potential to reduce HIV incidence in highly affected areas. The Southeastern United States is disproportionately impacted by HIV, and 3 counties in South Florida have the highest incidence of new HIV infections in the United States. This study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and uptake of PrEP in South Florida. Focus groups consisting of providers, administrators, and case managers at HIV-servicing community health centers and federally qualified health centers in South Florida reported broad support but low implementation of PrEP. Generally, participants indicated that the centers were appropriate locations for implementation. However, practical concerns and perceived limitations due to financial, insurance, and immigration status of those who would potentially benefit from the intervention were widely reported. Addressing provider concerns appears necessary for successful expansion of PrEP implementation in highly impacted areas such as South Florida.

  7. A validated measure of adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Natalie A; Kronenberger, William G; Hampton, Kisha C; Bloom, Ellen M; Rampersad, Angeli G; Roberson, Christopher P; Shapiro, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prophylaxis is a mainstay in sickle cell disease management. However, adherence is estimated at only 66%. This study aimed to develop and validate a Sickle Cell Antibiotic Adherence Level Evaluation (SCAALE) to promote systematic and detailed adherence evaluation. Methods A 28-item questionnaire was created, covering seven adherence areas. General Adherence Ratings from the parent and one health care provider and medication possession ratios were obtained as validation measures. Results Internal consistency was very good to excellent for the total SCAALE (α=0.89) and four of the seven subscales. Correlations between SCAALE scores and validation measures were strong for the total SCAALE and five of the seven subscales. Conclusion The SCAALE provides a detailed, quantitative, multidimensional, and global measurement of adherence and can promote clinical care and research. PMID:27354768

  8. Should we add beta-blockers to band ligation for secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Petre; Faúndez, Jorge; Candia, Roberto

    2017-02-23

    Cirrhotic patients who have had an episode of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices are at high risk of rebleeding, despite treatment with endoscopic variceal ligation. Adding beta-blockers could reduce this risk, but it is associated with adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified seven systematic reviews including 21 randomized controlled trials addressing the question of this article. We extracted data, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the addition of beta-blockers to endoscopic variceal ligation as secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding reduces the risk of rebleeding, but probably does not lead to any difference in terms of mortality. Even though it is associated to frequent adverse effects, these would be mild and generally do not lead to discontinuation of treatment.

  9. Rivaroxaban Versus Enoxaparin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Charters, Michael A; Frisch, Nicholas B; Wessell, Nolan M; Dobson, Christopher; Les, Clifford M; Silverton, Craig D

    2015-07-01

    The oral Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban (Xarelto) has been the pharmacologic agent used for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after primary hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) at our institution since February 2012. The purpose of our study was to compare rates of VTE and major bleeding between rivaroxaban and our previous protocol of enoxaparin after THA/TKA. A retrospective cohort study was performed including 2406 consecutive patients at our institution between 1/1/11 and 9/30/13. Patients who did not have unilateral primary THA/TKA or who received other anticoagulants were excluded. Of the 1762 patients included, 1113 patients (63.2%) received enoxaparin and 649 patients (36.8%) received rivaroxaban. This study found no demonstrable differences between these two anticoagulants in rates of VTE, infection, reoperation, transfusion, or major bleeding. Therapeutic, Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with a new mobile device after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Recent comparison (SAFE study) of a mobile, synchronized compression device and low-molecular-weight heparin for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism showed similar efficacy but significant differences in major bleeding. A model was constructed to evaluate any difference in cost-effectiveness between the 2 therapies incorporating rates and probabilities of major bleeding from the SAFE study with published costs for treating those adverse events. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of each therapy was performed and applied to hypothetical patient populations representative of annual health system volume. The model showed a cost-effectiveness advantage of the compression device resulting in a savings of more than $3.69 million in a 10 000-patient cohort. The result was primarily driven by a decrease in the amount of major bleeding, which requires significant health care resources to treat.

  11. Australian Dental Research Fund Trebitsch Scholarship. Efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis in bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Quirk, P C; Osborne, P J; Walsh, L J

    1995-08-01

    Oral candidal infection is a common problem in bone marrow transplantation. This prospective study compared the effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis with topical antifungals (nystatin and amphotericin B suspensions) versus oral fluconazole in 196 patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Oral candidosis occurred frequently in the group receiving topical antifungals (61/113, 54%), but was rare in the group receiving fluconazole (6/83, 7%). The difference in efficacy between the two groups was highly significant (p < 0.00001). There was no difference in the incidence of suspected systemic fungal infection between the two groups. While nausea was a problem with antifungal suspensions, no significant adverse reactions to fluconazole occurred. Because of greater efficacy in preventing oral candidosis and better patient tolerance, oral fluconazole is preferred to antifungal suspensions for prophylactic use in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

  12. Provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis to child rape victims in South Africa: HIV status and delayed reporting.

    PubMed

    Collings, Steven J

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 780 South African child victims of rape (girls under the age of 18 years; age M= 10.5 yr., SD=4.8), 10% did not qualify for antiretroviral prophylaxis because HIV status at presentation was positive and a further 34.1% did not qualify because the rape was reported more than 72 hours after the alleged offense. Regression analyses indicated that child rape victims who reported that they had been sexually active prior to the rape constitute a particularly high risk group for HIV infection and suggest primary and secondary prevention programs should be designed to decrease sexual activity among children and to encourage more immediate reporting of rape among younger children, children who are not sexually active, and children who are incestuously abused.

  13. Rare problems with RhD immunoglobulin for postnatal prophylaxis after large fetomaternal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unusually large fetomaternal haemorrhage in a RhD- patient; of symptomatic non-sustained haemolysis of fetal red cells in the maternal circulation with infusion of intravenous high-dose RhD immunoglobulin; and of a failure to prevent RhD alloimmunisation. The haemolytic reaction is not previously reported in this patient group and we suggest would be limited to patients where the number of fetal red cells in the circulation is high. We advocate caution in treatment and spaced dosing of RhD immunoglobulin where the required dose is high, and refer readers to the WinRhoSDF™ RhD immunoglobulin product information for their updated dosing recommendations. There is a need for better understanding of pathophysiology and RhD immunoglobulin effects, to further reduce alloimmunisation rates, and we support the reporting of prophylaxis failures to haemovigilance programmes as is in place in the United Kingdom. PMID:27512480

  14. Health education policy 1916-1926: venereal disease and the prophylaxis dilemma.

    PubMed

    Towers, B A

    1980-01-01

    This paper seeks to account for the development of a public health education policy with respect to venereal disease during the period 1916-1926. Two competing pressure groups, the National Council for Combatting Venereal Disease and the Society for the Prevention of Venereal Disease, defended opposing programmes; the one based on moral education (NCCVD) and the other (SPVD) on medical prophylaxis. Many of the interests represented by the groups and the political dimensions that they took, were influenced by factors only very tangentially connected to health education. Any account of the development of policy in this field needs placing in the context of the early history of nineteenth-century anti-vice crusades; the role of the Army Medical Corps during the 1914-18 war; and the bureaucratic protectionism of the Ministry of Health personnel.

  15. Activity of Topical Antimicrobial Agents Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    both the prophylaxis and treatment of burn wound infections [18]. Agents such as silver sulfadiazine , silver nitrate, mupirocin, honey, mafenide...include emerging resistance of staphylococci to mupirocin and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to silver sulfadiazine (Table 1) [9,18–21]. Prior studies...administered routinely peri-operatively and various topical antimicrobials are used to include silver sulfadiazine , mafe- nide acetate, silver nitrate

  16. Safety of apixaban for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: the evidence to date.

    PubMed

    Trkulja, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting. Apixaban displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties: simple twice-daily dosing, low inter- and intrasubject variability, dose and time linearity, and multiple elimination pathways not critically dependent on either renal or metabolic mechanisms. An extensive nonclinical program and the overall clinical development program (all approved and tested indications) provided no signal that would indicate any particular specific safety concern related to apixaban apart from the increased risk of bleeding. With regard to the approved VTE indications, safety (and efficacy) was assessed in five large pivotal Phase III trials. In comparison to currently recommended standard treatments, apixaban shows superior efficacy, while at the same time no excess risk of bleeding in patients undergoing total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty. In treatment of VTE, apixaban shows noninferior efficacy and a reduced risk of bleeding, whereas in extended prophylaxis it reduced the risk of VTE/VTE-related deaths, with no increased risk of relevant bleedings in comparison to placebo. Documented clinical experience with apixaban in daily practice is currently sparse. However, its use is progressively increasing, and there has been no signal so far that would materially change the perception of its safety profile as defined in the premarketing trials.

  17. Very early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after blunt solid organ injury is safe

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick B.; Sothilingam, Niroshan; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Batey, Brandon; Moffat, Brad; Gray, Daryl K.; Parry, Neil G.; Vogt, Kelly N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal timing of initiating low–molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in patients who have undergone nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt solid organ injuries (SOIs) remains controversial. We describe the safety of early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis among patients undergoing NOM of blunt SOIs. Methods We retrospectively studied severely injured adults who sustained blunt SOI without significant intracranial hemorrhage and underwent an initial NOM at a Canadian lead trauma hospital between 2010 and 2014. Safety was assessed based on failure of NOM, defined as the need for operative intervention, in patients who received early (< 48 h) or late LMWH (≥48 h, or early discharge [< 72 h] without LMWH). Results We included 162 patients in our analysis. Most were men (69%), and the average age was 42 ± 18 years. The median injury severity score was 17, and splenic injuries were most common (97 [60%], median grade 2), followed by liver (57 [35%], median grade 2) and kidney injuries (31 [19%], median grade 1). Combined injuries were present in 14% of patients. A total of 78 (48%) patients received early LMWH, while 84 (52%) received late LMWH. The groups differed only in percent of high-grade splenic injury (14% v. 32%). Overall 2% of patients failed NOM, none after receiving LMWH. Semielective angiography was performed in 23 (14%) patients. The overall rate of confirmed VTE on imaging was 1.9%. Conclusion Early initiation of medical thromboembolic prophylaxis appears safe in select patients with isolated SOI following blunt trauma. A prospective multicentre study is warranted. PMID:26820318

  18. Evaluation of sulfonamide detoxification pathways in haematologic malignancy patients prior to intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Abouraya, Mahmoud; Sacco, James C; Kahl, Brad S; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Patients with haematologic malignancies have a reportedly high incidence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) hypersensitivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether deficiencies in sulfonamide detoxification pathways, to include glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AA), and cytochrome b5 (b5) and cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R), were prevalent in these patients. A secondary pilot objective was to determine whether the incidence of drug hypersensitivity following intermittent trimethoprim-SMX (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis approached that reported for high dose daily regimens. METHODS Forty adult patients with haematologic malignancies (HM) and 35 healthy adults were studied; an additional 13 HM patients taking ascorbate supplements (HM-AA) were also evaluated. Twenty-two of 40 HM patients were prescribed and were compliant with TMP-SMX 960 mg three to four times weekly. RESULTS There were no significant differences between HM and healthy groups in plasma AA (median 37.2 µmvs. 33.9 µm) or red blood cell GSH (1.9 mmvs. 1.8 mm). However, plasma AA was correlated significantly with leucocyte b5/b5R reduction (r = 0.39, P = 0.002). Deficient b5/b5R activities were not found in HM patients. In fact, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or myeloma had significantly higher median activities (80.7 µmol mg–1 min−1) than controls (18.9 µmol mg–1 min−1, P = 0.008). After 3–4 weeks of treatment, no patients developed SMX-specific T cells and only one patient developed rash. CONCLUSIONS Deficiencies of blood antioxidants and b5/b5R reduction were not found in this population with haematologic malignancies, and the development of skin rash and drug-specific T cells appeared to be uncommon with intermittent TMP-SMX prophylaxis. PMID:21204907

  19. Teicoplanin versus vancomycin for prophylaxis of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Entenza, J M; Calandra, T; Moosmann, Y; Malinverni, R; Glauser, M P

    1992-01-01

    Teicoplanin was compared with vancomycin for the prophylaxis of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis in rats. Single intravenous doses of teicoplanin (7 mg/kg of body weight) or vancomycin (15 mg/kg) were given 30 min before bacterial challenge. Two strains of E. faecalis (309 and 1209) isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested. Bacterial inocula ranged from 10(4) (i.e., the inoculum infecting 90% of the control rats [ID90]) to 10(7) CFU/ml. The MICs and MBCs of teicoplanin and vancomycin were, respectively, 0.25 to greater than 128 mg/liter and 2 to greater than 128 mg/liter for strain 309 and 0.5 to greater than 128 mg/liter and 0.5 to greater than 128 mg/liter for strain 1209. Vancomycin prevented endocarditis only in 60% (strain 309) and in 87% (strain 1209) of rats challenged with the smallest bacterial-inoculum size (ID90), whereas teicoplanin prevented endocarditis in 100% of rats challenged with the same inoculum (strain 309; P = 0.05), in 87% of rats challenged with 10 times the ID90 (strain 309; P = 0.02), and in 95% of rats challenged with 100 times the ID90 (strain 1209; P = 0.0003). The combination of teicoplanin plus gentamicin (4 mg/kg) extended the protection to inocula 100 times the ID90 (strain 309; 96% of sterile animals) and 1,000 times the ID90 (strain 1209; 100% of sterile animals). Prevention of endocarditis was likely to be due to a prolonged inhibition of bacterial growth by sustained levels of teicoplanin in serum and not to bacterial killing. Indeed, teicoplanin did not exhibit any bactericidal activity either in vitro (time-kill curves) or in vivo (serum bactericidal activity). Teicoplanin proved to be superior to vancomycin in the prophylaxis of experimental E. faecalis endocarditis in rats. PMID:1416824

  20. [Randomized clinical trial of two malaria prophylaxis regimens for pregnant women in Faladie, Mali].

    PubMed

    Diallo, M; Dabo, C A T; Saye, R; Yattara, O; Diarra, M A; Kayentao, K; Ongoiba, A; Sangho, H; Doumbo, O

    2007-10-01

    From June 2003 to May 2004 we carried out a comparative study of two malaria prophylaxis regimens for pregnant women. The purpose was to compare the efficacy of two regimens using chloroquine (CQ) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) during pregnancy and delivery in a village located in an endemic area of Mali. The study was carried out in Faladié (District of Kati) located 80 km from Bamako. Prophylaxis was administered during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (except the 9th month for SP). A total of 301 pregnant women were enrolled including 150 in the CQ group and 151 in the SP group. At the onset of the study, the two groups were comparable with regard to socio-demographic and malaria factors. At the time of delivery, malaria infection was reduced by 43.3% in the CQ group (P < 10-6), and by 79.1% in the SP group (p < 10-6). The anemia rate was reduced by 57.5% in the CQ group (Ch2 of McNemar = 0.017), and by 74.8% in the SP group (Ch2 of McNeamar = 0.025). The incidence of placental infection was 20.6 % in the CQ group versus 8.3 % in the SP group (p = 4.10-3). Overall 16.7% of newborns presented low birth weight at delivery including 70.4% in the CQ group. The findings of this study suggest that intermittent presumptive treatment using SP is more effective than intermittent presumptive treatment using CQ in protecting both the mother and newborn against intra-uterine malaria transmission and its consequences.

  1. Antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole in pediatric patients with neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Döring, M; Eikemeier, M; Cabanillas Stanchi, K M; Hartmann, U; Ebinger, M; Schwarze, C-P; Schulz, A; Handgretinger, R; Müller, I

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric patients with hemato-oncological malignancies and neutropenia resulting from chemotherapy have a high risk of acquiring invasive fungal infections. Oral antifungal prophylaxis with azoles, such as fluconazole or itraconazole, is preferentially used in pediatric patients after chemotherapy. During this retrospective analysis, posaconazole was administered based on favorable results from studies in adult patients with neutropenia and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Retrospectively, safety, feasibility, and initial data on the efficacy of posaconazole were compared to fluconazole and itraconazole in pediatric and adolescent patients during neutropenia. Ninety-three pediatric patients with hemato-oncological malignancies with a median age of 12 years (range 9 months to 17.7 years) that had prolonged neutropenia (>5 days) after chemotherapy or due to their underlying disease, and who received fluconazole, itraconazole, or posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis, were analyzed in this retrospective single-center survey. The incidence of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients was low under each of the azoles. One case of proven aspergillosis occurred in each group. In addition, there were a few cases of possible invasive fungal infection under fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2). However, no such cases were observed under posaconazole. The rates of potentially clinical drug-related adverse events were higher in the fluconazole (n = 4) and itraconazole (n = 5) groups compared to patients receiving posaconazole (n = 3). Posaconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole are comparably effective in preventing invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients. Defining dose recommendations in these patients requires larger studies.

  2. Safety of apixaban for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Trkulja, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting. Apixaban displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties: simple twice-daily dosing, low inter- and intrasubject variability, dose and time linearity, and multiple elimination pathways not critically dependent on either renal or metabolic mechanisms. An extensive nonclinical program and the overall clinical development program (all approved and tested indications) provided no signal that would indicate any particular specific safety concern related to apixaban apart from the increased risk of bleeding. With regard to the approved VTE indications, safety (and efficacy) was assessed in five large pivotal Phase III trials. In comparison to currently recommended standard treatments, apixaban shows superior efficacy, while at the same time no excess risk of bleeding in patients undergoing total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty. In treatment of VTE, apixaban shows noninferior efficacy and a reduced risk of bleeding, whereas in extended prophylaxis it reduced the risk of VTE/VTE-related deaths, with no increased risk of relevant bleedings in comparison to placebo. Documented clinical experience with apixaban in daily practice is currently sparse. However, its use is progressively increasing, and there has been no signal so far that would materially change the perception of its safety profile as defined in the premarketing trials. PMID:26937206

  3. Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis: preoperative versus postoperative initiation in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Hull, R D; Pineo, G F; MacIsaac, S

    2001-01-01

    Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs. 15.3%, P = .023). In addition to the pre/postsurgical debate, proximity of initiation of low-molecular-weight heparin in relation to surgery is an issue of critical importance. Recent studies revealed that beginning therapy immediately within 2 h preoperatively or 6 h postoperatively dramatically decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. An investigation of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis initiated 2 h before elective hip surgery or approximately 6 h after surgery compared with warfarin sodium revealed that total and proximal deep-vein thrombosis rates were reduced in patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin compared with warfarin. The frequencies of deep-vein thrombosis for patients receiving preoperative and postoperative dalteparin vs. warfarin for all deep-vein thrombosis were 36 of 337 (10.7%, P < .001) and 44 of 336 (13.1%, P < .001) vs. 81 of 338 (24.0%); and for proximal deep-vein thrombosis were 3 of 354 (0.8%, P = .035) and 3 of 358 (0.8%, P = .033) vs. 11 of 363 (3.0%). Relative risk reductions for the dalteparin groups vs. warfarin ranged from 45% to 72%. In this case, low-molecular-weight heparin administered in close proximity to surgery provided superior efficacy over warfarin. Major bleeding was significantly increased with the preoperative regimen but not the postoperative regimen.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Long-Acting Tenofovir Alafenamide (GS-7340) Subdermal Implant for HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Miller, Christine S.; Fanter, Rob; Yang, Flora; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Beliveau, Martin; Moss, John A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Oral or topical daily administration of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-1-negative individuals in vulnerable populations is a promising strategy for HIV-1 prevention. Adherence to the dosing regimen has emerged as a critical factor determining efficacy outcomes of clinical trials. Because adherence to therapy is inversely related to the dosing period, sustained release or long-acting ARV formulations hold significant promise for increasing the effectiveness of HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by reducing dosing frequency. A novel, subdermal implant delivering the potent prodrug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) with controlled, sustained, zero-order (linear) release characteristics is described. A candidate device delivering TAF at 0.92 mg day−1 in vitro was evaluated in beagle dogs over 40 days for pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety. No adverse events related to treatment with the test article were noted during the course of the study, and no significant, unusual abnormalities were observed. The implant maintained a low systemic exposure to TAF (median, 0.85 ng ml−1; interquartile range [IQR], 0.60 to 1.50 ng ml−1) and tenofovir (TFV; median, 15.0 ng ml−1; IQR, 8.8 to 23.3 ng ml−1), the product of in vivo TAF hydrolysis. High concentrations (median, 512 fmol/106 cells over the first 35 days) of the pharmacologically active metabolite, TFV diphosphate, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at levels over 30 times higher than those associated with HIV-1 PrEP efficacy in humans. Our report on the first sustained-release nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for systemic delivery demonstrates a successful proof of principle and holds significant promise as a candidate for HIV-1 prophylaxis in vulnerable populations. PMID:25896688

  5. Is extended preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for high-risk patients necessary before percutaneous nephrolithotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Alyssa M.; Bauman, Tyler M.; Larson, Jeffrey A.; Vetter, Joel M.; Benway, Brian M.; Desai, Alana C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to compare the rate of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) between patients who received 7, 2, or 0 days of preoperative antibiotics. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed a series of consecutive PCNLs performed at our institution. Patients with infected preoperative urine cultures were excluded. High-risk patients were defined as those with a history of previous urinary tract infection (UTI), hydronephrosis, or stone size ≥2 cm. Patients were treated with 7, 2, or 0 days of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis prior to PCNL. All patients received a single preoperative dose of antibiotics within 60 minutes of the start of surgery. Fisher exact test was used to compare the rate of SIRS by preoperative antibiotic length. Results Of the 292 patients identified, 138 (47.3%) had sterile urine and met high-risk criteria, of which 27 (19.6%), 39 (28.3%), and 72 (52.2%) received 7, 2, and 0 days of preoperative antibiotics, respectively. The 3 groups were similar in age, sex, and duration of surgery (p>0.05). There was no difference in the rate of SIRS between the groups, with 1 of 27 (3.7%), 2 of 39 (5.1%) and 3 of 72 patients (4.2%) meeting criteria in the 7, 2, and 0 days antibiotic groups (p=~1). Conclusions Extended preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis was not found to reduce the risk of SIRS after PCNL in our institutional experience of high-risk patients. For these patients, a single preoperative dose of antibiotics is sufficient. PMID:27847915

  6. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting tenofovir alafenamide (GS-7340) subdermal implant for HIV prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Miller, Christine S; Fanter, Rob; Yang, Flora; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Beliveau, Martin; Moss, John A; Smith, Thomas J; Baum, Marc M

    2015-07-01

    Oral or topical daily administration of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-1-negative individuals in vulnerable populations is a promising strategy for HIV-1 prevention. Adherence to the dosing regimen has emerged as a critical factor determining efficacy outcomes of clinical trials. Because adherence to therapy is inversely related to the dosing period, sustained release or long-acting ARV formulations hold significant promise for increasing the effectiveness of HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by reducing dosing frequency. A novel, subdermal implant delivering the potent prodrug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) with controlled, sustained, zero-order (linear) release characteristics is described. A candidate device delivering TAF at 0.92 mg day(-1) in vitro was evaluated in beagle dogs over 40 days for pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety. No adverse events related to treatment with the test article were noted during the course of the study, and no significant, unusual abnormalities were observed. The implant maintained a low systemic exposure to TAF (median, 0.85 ng ml(-1); interquartile range [IQR], 0.60 to 1.50 ng ml(-1)) and tenofovir (TFV; median, 15.0 ng ml(-1); IQR, 8.8 to 23.3 ng ml(-1)), the product of in vivo TAF hydrolysis. High concentrations (median, 512 fmol/10(6) cells over the first 35 days) of the pharmacologically active metabolite, TFV diphosphate, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at levels over 30 times higher than those associated with HIV-1 PrEP efficacy in humans. Our report on the first sustained-release nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for systemic delivery demonstrates a successful proof of principle and holds significant promise as a candidate for HIV-1 prophylaxis in vulnerable populations.

  7. Incidence and clinical characteristics of thyroid carcinoma after iodine prophylaxis in an endemic goiter country.

    PubMed

    Bacher-Stier, C; Riccabona, G; Tötsch, M; Kemmler, G; Oberaigner, W; Moncayo, R

    1997-10-01

    Iodized salt prophylaxis has been performed in Austria since 1963. Through this approach, mean urinary iodine excretion has been normalized to 144+/-23.5 microg/g creatinine per day. Thus Tyrol is no longer an endemic goiter area. We have analyzed the impact of iodized salt prophylaxis on thyroid cancer (TC) comparing data from the early 1960s with those corresponding to the period 1986 to 1995, when iodine supply was normalized. The study included 439 patients from Tyrol and Southern Tyrol. The incidence of TC in Tyrol has risen during the past decades from 3.07 between in 1957 and 1970 to 7.8 between 1990 and 1994 (CR/100000/year). We observed a rise in the percentage of differentiated adenocarcinomas (56% to 91.5%) with a predominance of papillary TC (54.4%) along with a decrease of anaplastic TC. In addition to these histological features, a shift to less advanced TNM stages, eg, T1-3, N0-1a, M0, was obvious, increasing from 29% to 72.2%, whereas advanced tumors, ie, T4 or N1b or M1, decreased from 71% to 28%. These changes have significantly improved prognosis. The current 5-year survival rate is 90.7% as compared with a rate of 73% in the 1960s; the values for 7-year survival are 89% and 48%, respectively. The marked effects of age, tumor stages, and histology on prognosis were confirmed with the Kaplan-Meier method. We conclude that together with normalization of iodine supply in an endemic goiter region the epidemiological profile of TC has changed. Even though the incidence of TC has risen, prognosis has significantly improved due to a shift towards differentiated forms of TC that are diagnosed at earlier stages.

  8. Adherence to prophylaxis and quality of life in children and adolescents with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    García-Dasí, M; Aznar, J A; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Altisent, C; Bonanad, S; Mingot, E; Lucía, F; Giménez, F; López, M Fernanda; Marco, P; Pérez, R; Fernández, M Á; Paloma, M J; Galmes, B; Herrero, S; García-Talavera, J A

    2015-07-01

    Treatment adherence in adolescents with chronic diseases is around 50%, and failure is more common in preventive therapy. In haemophilia, contradictory results are reported by the published studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate adherence with factor VIII (FVIII) prophylaxis in Spanish patients with severe haemophilia A between age 6 and 20 years. Data were collected retrosp-ectively in the previous 2 years. The primary endpoint was the absolute adherence index (AAI), and the endpoints were related to clinical status, age, prophylaxis regimen, responsibility for factor administration and quality of life (QoL), assessed by the Haemo-QoL questionnaires. A total of 78 patients from 14 Spanish hospitals were recruited. Adherence ranged between -64.4 and 66.7 (mean -3.08). No differences were observed between children and adolescents (7.11 vs. 6.39; P = 0.809). A statistically significant association (P < 0.010) between infra adherent group and target joint was found, as was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.010) between the number of bleeding episodes experienced by the adherent group (mean 1.4) and by infra adherents (mean 4.5). There was no significant difference between AAI and prophylactic regimen (6.35 vs. 6.96, P = 0.848), neither between AAI and the person responsible for factor administration (5.57 vs. 8.79, P = 0.326). The Haemo-QoL scores (8-12 years) were related to adherence level (P < 0.05). Adherence was approximately ideal and patients perceived a high QoL. Because of the repercussions for compliance, it is essential to work during puberty on emotional and self-acceptance aspects of the disease, as well as coping, and the patient's family, school and health team relationships.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  10. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  11. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  12. Predictive modeling of the outcomes of chemotherapy-induced (febrile) neutropenia prophylaxis with biosimilar filgrastim (MONITOR-GCSF study)

    PubMed Central

    Aapro, M.; Ludwig, H.; Bokemeyer, C.; Gascón, P.; Boccadoro, M.; Denhaerynck, K.; Krendyukov, A.; Gorray, M.; MacDonald, K.; Abraham, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk models of chemotherapy-induced (CIN) and febrile neutropenia (FN) have to date focused on determinants measured at the start of chemotherapy. We extended this static approach with a dynamic approach of CIN/FN risk modeling at the start of each cycle. Design We applied predictive modeling using multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of CIN/FN episodes and related hospitalizations and chemotherapy disturbances (CIN/FN consequences) in analyses at the patient (‘ever’ during the whole period of chemotherapy) and cycle-level (during a given chemotherapy cycle). Statistical dependence of cycle data being ‘nested’ under patients was managed using generalized estimation equations. Predictive performance of each model was evaluated using bootstrapped c concordance statistics. Results Static patient-level risk models of ‘ever’ experiencing CIN/FN adverse events and consequences during a planned chemotherapy regimen included predictors related to history, risk factors, and prophylaxis initiation and intensity. Dynamic cycle-level risk models of experiencing CIN/FN adverse events and consequences in an upcoming cycle included predictors related to history, risk factors, and prophylaxis initiation and intensity; as well as prophylaxis duration, CIN/FN in prior cycle, and treatment center characteristics. Conclusion(s) These ‘real-world evidence’ models provide clinicians with the ability to anticipate CIN/FN adverse events and their consequences at the start of a chemotherapy line (static models); and, innovatively, to assess risk of CIN/FN adverse events and their consequences at the start of each cycle (dynamic models). This enables individualized patient treatment and is consistent with the EORTC recommendation to re-appraise CIN/FN risk at the start of each cycle. Prophylaxis intensity (under-, correctly-, or over-prophylacted relative to current EORTC guidelines) is a major determinant. Under-prophylaxis is clinically

  13. A patient-centric, Internet-based application for the data management of a multi-centre respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis program.

    PubMed

    Barton, Paul; Bracht, Marianne; Cranis, Marilyn; O'Doherty, Brenda; Dennis, Marguerite; James, Andrew; O'Brien, Karel

    2007-10-11

    The success of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis programs is partially dependent upon meticulous tracking of at risk infants, and excellent data management. We designed and built an integrated, shared, user-driven but infant-centric data management application that enables an infants healthcare provider to determine an infants RSV prophylaxis status throughout the RSV season. The security and confidentiality of each infants information is protected by rigorous integrity constraints that have been integrated into the database schema.

  14. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  15. A survey on hematology-oncology pediatric AIEOP centers: prophylaxis, empirical therapy and nursing prevention procedures of infectious complications.

    PubMed

    Livadiotti, Susanna; Milano, Giuseppe Maria; Serra, Annalisa; Folgori, Laura; Jenkner, Alessandro; Castagnola, Elio; Cesaro, Simone; Rossi, Mario R; Barone, Angelica; Zanazzo, Giulio; Nesi, Francesca; Licciardello, Maria; De Santis, Raffaella; Ziino, Ottavio; Cellini, Monica; Porta, Fulvio; Caselli, Desiree; Pontrelli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A nationwide questionnaire-based survey was designed to evaluate the management and prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients admitted to hematology-oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant units. Of the 34 participating centers, 40 and 63%, respectively, continue to prescribe antibacterial and antimycotic prophylaxis in low-risk subjects and 78 and 94% in transplant patients. Approximately half of the centers prescribe a combination antibiotic regimen as first-line therapy in low-risk patients and up to 81% in high-risk patients. When initial empirical therapy fails after seven days, 63% of the centers add empirical antimycotic therapy in low-and 81% in high-risk patients. Overall management varies significantly across centers. Preventive nursing procedures are in accordance with international guidelines. This survey is the first to focus on prescribing practices in children with cancer and could help to implement practice guidelines.

  16. Dihydropteroate synthase mutations in Pneumocystis pneumonia: impact of applying different definitions of prophylaxis, mortality endpoints and mutant in a single cohort.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Christina; Subramanian, Anuradha; Chi, Amy; Crothers, Kristina; Meshnick, Steven R; Taylor, Steve M; Beard, Charles B; Jarlsberg, Leah G; Lawrence, Gena G; Avery, Melissa; Swartzman, Alexandra; Fong, Serena; Roth, Brenna; Huang, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations are well-reported. Although sulfa prophylaxis generally is associated with DHPS mutant infection, whether mutant infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes is less clear. The differing definitions of sulfa prophylaxis and the different mortality endpoints used in these studies may be one explanation for the conflicting study results. Applying different definitions of prophylaxis, mortality endpoints and DHPS mutant to 301 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia, we demonstrate that prophylaxis, irrespective of definition, increased the risk of infection with pure mutant (any prophylaxis: AOR 4.00, 95% CI: 1.83-8.76, P < 0.001) but not mixed genotypes (any prophylaxis: AOR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.26-2.36, P = 0.65). However, infection with mutant DHPS, irrespective of definition, was not associated with increased mortality (all-cause or PCP death) at the three time-intervals examined (all P > 0.05). Future studies should standardize key variables associated with DHPS mutant infection as well as examine DHPS mutant subtypes (pure mutant vs. mixed infections) - perhaps even individual DHPS mutant genotypes - so that data can be pooled to better address this issue.

  17. Perinatal acquisition of drug-resistant HIV-1 infection: mechanisms and long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Delaugerre, Constance; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stephane; Warszawski, Josiane; Cornet, Dorine; Dollfus, Catherine; Schneider, Veronique; Burgard, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Tubiana, Roland; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary-HIV-1-infection in newborns that occurs under antiretroviral prophylaxis that is a high risk of drug-resistance acquisition. We examine the frequency and the mechanisms of resistance acquisition at the time of infection in newborns. Patients and Methods We studied HIV-1-infected infants born between 01 January 1997 and 31 December 2004 and enrolled in the ANRS-EPF cohort. HIV-1-RNA and HIV-1-DNA samples obtained perinatally from the newborn and mother were subjected to population-based and clonal analyses of drug resistance. If positive, serial samples were obtained from the child for resistance testing. Results Ninety-two HIV-1-infected infants were born during the study period. Samples were obtained from 32 mother-child pairs and from another 28 newborns. Drug resistance was detected in 12 newborns (20%): drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was seen in 10 cases, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in two cases, and protease inhibitors in one case. For 9 children, the detection of the same resistance mutations in mothers' samples (6 among 10 available) and in newborn lymphocytes (6/8) suggests that the newborn was initially infected by a drug-resistant strain. Resistance variants were either transmitted from mother-to-child or selected during subsequent temporal exposure under suboptimal perinatal prophylaxis. Follow-up studies of the infants showed that the resistance pattern remained stable over time, regardless of antiretroviral therapy, suggesting the early cellular archiving of resistant viruses. The absence of resistance in the mother of the other three children (3/10) and neonatal lymphocytes (2/8) suggests that the newborns were infected by a wild-type strain without long-term persistence of resistance when suboptimal prophylaxis was stopped. Conclusion This study confirms the importance of early resistance genotyping of HIV-1-infected newborns. In most cases (75%), drug resistance was archived in

  18. The LONFLIT4-VENORUTON study: a randomized trial prophylaxis of flight-edema in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Geroulakos, George; Acerbi, Giovanni; Candiani, Carlo; Griffin, Maura; Bavera, Peter; Dugall, Mark; Brandolini, Rossella; Di Renzo, Andrea; Ricci, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo; Winford, Michelle; Golden, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Venoruton on the development of flight edema in normal subjects travelling in economy in long-haul flights (8-9 hours). Edema is a relevant aspect of long-haul flights affecting both venous patients and normal subjects. Edema and flight microangiopathy were studied in a group of 164 subjects randomized (after informed consent) into two groups to evaluate prophylaxis in 8- to 9-hour flights. The treatment group received Venoruton (hydroxyethyl rutosides) 1 g twice daily for 3 days (2 days before the flight and the day of the flight). The control group received comparable placebo. Edema was evaluated with a composite edema score based on the edema tester, on the measurements of ankle circumference, volume measurements, subjective swelling, and on a discomfort score. Items 1, 4, and 5 are based on an analogue scale line (1 to 10) directly defined by the subjects before and after the flights. Of the included subjects, 151 completed the study. Dropouts were due to poor compliance, travelling, or connection problems. Age and gender distribution were comparable in the two groups as were risk factor distributions. The level of edema at inclusion was comparable in the two groups of subjects. After the flight there was an average score of 6.7 (SD 1.7) in the control group, while in the Venoruton group the score was on average 3 (SD 1.1) (p < 0.05). In the control group 77% of the subjects had an evident increase in ankle circumference and volume, which was clearly visible at inspection and associated with discomfort. In the Venoruton group, edema was clearly present only in 8% of subjects (associated with discomfort rated between 3 and 6 on the analogue scale line) and it was mild, not associated with symptoms. Therefore the control of flight edema with Venoruton was clear both considering parametric data (circumference and volume) and non-parametric (analogue scale lines) measurements. The combined evaluation of the edema score

  19. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John; Lyraraki, Efrossyni

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup −5} to 837.4 × 10{sup −5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup −5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup −5} and 110.3 × 10{sup −5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup −5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the

  20. Review of existing prophylaxis programs for 3880 first graders from Rhineland Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Pistorius, A; Frey, S; Krahwinkel, Th; Willershausen, B

    2003-02-21

    A large study amongst 6-7 years old children was conducted in one of the German Federal States to evaluate the success of presently existing prophylaxis programs and to determine groups at high risk for dental caries. - A total of 3880 children (1844 girls and 2036 boys) received a dental exam while in first grade in the year 2000. 37.8% (n = 1465) of the students lived in a larger city (approximately 200000 inhabitants), 62.2% (n = 2415) of the students came from rural areas. The proportion of foreign children, mainly from Serbia, Croatia and Turkey, amounted to a total of 19.1% (n = 741). All children were cared for as part of a group dental prophylaxis program in their respective schools and were examined under the protocol of the dmf-t/DMF-T index. 53.4% (n = 2073) of the students had a naturally healthy dentition, with the percentage of boys (55.5%, n = 1129) being higher than that of girls (51.2%, n = 944). The percentage of the caries-free dentitions in the rural population was 56.1% (n = 1163) whereas the percentage amongst the urban students was 43.9% (n = 910). The percentage of naturally healthy dentitions was 60.8% (n = 1909) amongst German children, and their foreign classmates had 21.9% (n = 162) caries-free dentitions. 37.6% (n = 1459) of all children had carious lesions; the foreign children had carious defects in 69.7% (n = 517) of the cases and the German students in 30.1% (n = 944). 8.8% of all first graders surveyed had fully treated healthy dentitions. - Although the goal of the WHO to obtain caries-free dentitions amongst 5-6 year olds in 50% of the cases has been met in the year 2000, this study showed clearly that oral health was significantly worse for the majority of foreign children compared to the German school children.

  1. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on candidiasis and mortality in premature infants: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel K.; Hudak, Mark L.; Duara, Shahnaz; Randolph, David A.; Bidegain, Margarita; Mundakel, Gratias T.; Natarajan, Girija; Burchfield, David J.; White, Robert D.; Shattuck, Karen E.; Neu, Natalie; Bendel, Catherine M.; Kim, M. Roger; Finer, Neil N.; Stewart, Dan L.; Arrieta, Antonio C.; Wade, Kelly C.; Kaufman, David A.; Manzoni, Paolo; Prather, Kristi O.; Testoni, Daniela; Berezny, Katherine Y.; Smith, P. Brian

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Invasive candidiasis in premature infants causes mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces candidiasis, but its effect on mortality and the safety of fluconazole is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in preventing death or invasive candidiasis in extremely low-birth-weight infants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This study was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole in premature infants. Infants weighing less than 750 g at birth (N = 361) from 32 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States were randomly assigned to receive either fluconazole or placebo twice weekly for 42 days. Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months corrected age for neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study was conducted between November 2008 and February 2013. INTERVENTIONS Fluconazole (6 mg/kg of body weight) or placebo. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was a composite of death or definite or probable invasive candidiasis prior to study day 49 (1 w