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Sample records for resists palivizumab prophylaxis

  1. Eligibility for palivizumab prophylaxis in a cohort of children with severe bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Piedra, Pedro A; Dunn, Michelle B; Clark, Sunday; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) updated their recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis for children who are at high risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. To investigate the potential impact of the more restrictive 2014 criteria on the eligibility for palivizumab prophylaxis, we applied the 2012 and 2014 AAP recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis to a multicenter cohort of 2207 US children hospitalized for bronchiolitis. According to the 2012 AAP recommendations, 215 children (9.7%) were eligible for palivizumab prophylaxis, while 140 children (6.3%) would have been eligible based on the 2014 updated recommendations (34.9% relative decrease; 95%CI: 28.5-41.7%). The decrease was largely driven by the restriction of eligibility to preterm infants with gestational age <29 weeks. Further development of and refinement of cost-effective approaches for the prevention of severe RSV infection are needed. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Palivizumab prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus disease in 2000-2001: results from The Palivizumab Outcomes Registry.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Curt; Guillermin, Judith; Habersang, Rolf; Nicholes, Peggy; Chawla, Vijay; Kelly, Tammy; Fishbein, Judith; McRae, Patty; Goessler, Mary; Gatti, Antoinette; Calcagno, John A; Eki, Cheryl; Harris, Kristen A; Joyave, Joseph; McFarland, Kathy; Protter, Paul; Sullivan, Mary; Stanford, Allan; Lovett, Nancy; Ortiz, Marisol; Rojas, Sharon; Cyrus, Scott; Cyrus, Janell; Cohen, Stuart; Buchin, Debbie; Riordan, Linda; Zuniga, Monica; Shah, Rupa; Minard, Carmen; Quintin, Arden; Douglas, Glenda; van Houten, John; Freutner, Sharyn; Chartrand, Stephen; Nowatzke, Patsy; Romero, Jose; Rhodes, Torunn; Benoit, Michelle; Walter, Emmanuel; Walker, Leslie; DeBonnett, Laurie; Cross, Mia; Free, Teresa; Martin, Sharman; Shank, Karen; Guedes, Ben; Atkinson, Lee Ann; Halpin, George J; Rouse, Kathy; Hand, Ivan; Geiss, Donna; Marshall, James R; Burleson, Lois; Boland, Jim; Seybold, Kelsey; Hunter, Vicki; Unfer, Susan; Schmucker, Jackie; Gley, Margaret; Marcus, Michael; Thompson, Patricia; Milla, Paulino; Young, Connie; Zanni, Robert; Zinno, Virginia; Fetter-Zarzeka, Alexandra; Busey, Amanda; Sokunbi, Modupe A; Airington, Sherrie; Richard, Nancy; Muraligopal, Vellore; Lewis, Stephanie; Weber, F Thomas; Giordano, Beverly P; Linehan, Denise; Roach, Jane; Davis, Randle; Rzepka, Andrew A; Booth, Teri; Smeltzer, David; Walsh, Jeanne; Arispe, Emilio; Rowley, Rhonda; Bolling, Christopher; Botts, Tanya; Haskett, Kateri; Raby, Deana; Batiz, Evelyn; Gelfand, Andrew; Farrell, Lynn; Butler, Stephen; Colby, Linda; Schochet, Peter; Bentler, Julie; Hirsch, David; Wilkinson, Lisa; Aaronson, Allen; Bennett, Eleanora; Wingate, Julie; Quinn, Dawn; Komendowski, Katherine; Deckard, Marcia; Frogel, Michael; Nerwen, Cliff; Copenhaver, Steven; Prater, Michele; Wolsztein, Jacob; Mackey, Kristine; Benbow, Marshall; Naranjo, Marisela; Hensley, Sandra; Hayes, Cindy; Sadeghi, Hossein; Lawson, Sally May; McCall, Mark; Combs, Karla; Ledbetter, Joel; Sarnosky, Karen; Swafford, Cathy; Speer, Michael; Barton, Wendy J; Mink, J W; Lemm, Dianne; Hudak, Mark; Case, Elizabeth; Rowen, Judith; Fuentes, Sandra; Pane, Carly; Richardson, Leslie; Chavarria, Cesar; Cassino, Deanne; Ghaffari, Kourosh; Carroll, Carol; Lee, Haesoon; Guclu, Lydia; Johnson, Christopher; Blum, Valerie; Boron, Marnie L; Sorrentino, Mark; Hirsch, Robert L; Van Veldhuisen, Paul C; Smith, Carol

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the Registry was to characterize the population of infants receiving prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease by describing the patterns and scope of usage of palivizumab in a cross section of US infants. RSV hospitalization outcomes were also described. The Palivizumab (Synagis, MedImmune, Inc., 25 West Watkins Mill Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878) Outcomes Registry was a prospective multicenter survey conducted at 63 sites. Demographics, injection history, and RSV hospitalization outcomes were collected on 2,116 infants receiving palivizumab. Infants were enrolled in the Registry between September 1, 2000-March 1, 2001, at the time of their first injection. Infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation accounted for 47% of infants enrolled, and those between 32-35 weeks accounted for 45%; approximately 8% were greater than 35 weeks of gestation. Lower RSV hospitalization rates were observed in infants who had greater adherence to regularly scheduled injections. Nearly one-half of all hospitalizations occurred within the first and second injection intervals, suggesting the importance of early RSV protection. The confirmed RSV hospitalization rate of all infants in the Registry was 2.9%; the rate was 5.8% in infants with chronic lung disease of infancy, and 2.1% in premature infants without chronic lung disease. In conclusion, these data support the continued effectiveness of palivizumab prophylaxis for severe RSV lower respiratory tract disease in a large cohort of high-risk infants from geographically diverse pediatric offices and clinics. The Palivizumab Outcomes Registry provides an opportunity to assess palivizumab utilization and clinical effectiveness in the US.

  3. Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for the use of palivizumab prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first published in a policy statement in 1998. Guidance initially was based on the result from a single randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 1996-1997 describing an overall reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 10.6% among placebo recipients to 4.8% among children who received prophylaxis. The results of a second randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children with hemodynamically significant heart disease were published in 2003 and revealed a reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 9.7% in control subjects to 5.3% among prophylaxis recipients. Because no additional controlled trials regarding efficacy were published, AAP guidance has been updated periodically to reflect the most recent literature regarding children at greatest risk of severe disease. Since the last update in 2012, new data have become available regarding the seasonality of RSV circulation, palivizumab pharmacokinetics, the changing incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, the effects of gestational age and other risk factors on RSV hospitalization rates, the mortality of children hospitalized with RSV infection, and the effect of prophylaxis on wheezing and palivizumab-resistant RSV isolates. These data enable further refinement of AAP guidance to most clearly focus on those children at greatest risk.

  4. Effect of palivizumab prophylaxis on subsequent recurrent wheezing in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kenji; Nishima, Sankei; Simões, Eric A F

    2013-11-01

    Palivizumab effectively prevents severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in preterm infants. Our objective was to test whether palivizumab prophylaxis given to preterm infants during the first RSV season reduces the incidence of subsequent recurrent wheezing up to 3 years of life. We conducted an observational prospective multicenter (52 registered hospitals in Japan) case-control study in preterm infants with a gestational age between 33 and 35 weeks followed for 3 years. During the 2007-2008 RSV season, the decision to administer palivizumab was made based on standard medical practice. In April 2008, 52 hospitals were recruited. Study participants were prospectively followed to the age of 3 years. Parents of study subjects reported the infants' physician's assessment of recurrent wheezing, used a report card and a novel mobile phone-based reporting system by using the Internet. The primary end point was the incidence of physician-diagnosed recurrent wheezing. Of 444 preterm infants enrolled, 349 received palivizumab during the first 6 months of life and 95 infants did not. Physician-diagnosed recurrent wheezing was observed in 6.4% and 18.9% of infants in the treated and untreated groups, respectively (P < .001). This difference remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors of recurrent wheezing (P < .001). Palivizumab prophylaxis administered to preterm infants 33 to 35 weeks' gestational age is associated with a significantly lower incidence of recurrent wheezing during the first 3 years of life.

  5. Palivizumab prophylaxis: does it have any influence on the growth and development of the infants?

    PubMed

    Tavsu, Ismail; Gursoy, Tugba; Dirman, Sukriye; Erbil, Nazan; Ovali, Fahri

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the rehospitalization rates of premature infants who received palivizumab prophylaxis and its influence on the growth and development of these infants. Infants with a gestational age of less than 32 weeks were randomized to receive prophylaxis with palivizumab (study group) or nothing (control group). Nasal swab samples were obtained monthly in all cases and also in case of infection and hospitalization. At the corrected age of 18 months Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD) was administered to all patients and anthropometric indices were evaluated. The study was completed with 39 infants in the study group and 40 infants in the control group. Incidence of hospitalization due to respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) was found to be significantly lower in the study group both at the year of prophylaxis and in the following year (p = 0.001, odds ratio 1.32 [1.11-1.57]). There were no significant differences in terms of anthropometric indices or GMCD tests between the groups at the corrected age of 18 months. Palivizumab reduced the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations due to RSV both in the year of prophylaxis and in the following year. However, this decrease did not have any impact on the development of infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Respiratory infections in children up to two years of age on prophylaxis with palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744

  7. Recommendations for the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus in infants with congenital cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tulloh, Robert; Marsh, Michael; Blackburn, Michael; Casey, Frank; Lenney, Warren; Weller, Peter; Keeton, Barry R

    2003-10-01

    New data are emerging on the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis against infection with the respiratory syncytial virus in infants with congenital cardiac disease. Following a 4-year multicentre randomised trial, it was shown that prophylactic injections with palivizumab were effective and safe for such children. Prophylaxis consists of 5, monthly, intramuscular injections of palivizumab, at a dose of 15 mg/kg, given during the season for infection with the respiratory syncytial virus. Timing is at the discretion of the physician, depending on the onset of the season locally. It is suggested that, in the United Kingdom, this should be commenced in mid-September. To help clinicians to identify appropriate candidates for palivizumab, a working group of the British Paediatric Cardiac Association has developed recommendations. Infants, namely those under 1 year old, with congenital cardiac disease likely to benefit from prophylaxis include those with haemodynamically significant lesions, particularly increased pulmonary blood flow with or without cyanosis; pulmonary venous congestion, pulmonary hypertension or long-term pulmonary complications, residual haemodynamic abnormalities following medical or surgical intervention (patients who have undergone cardiopulmonary bypass should receive an injection as soon as they are medically stable), cardiomyopathy requiring treatment, and congenital cardiac disease likely to need hospital admission for medical or surgical intervention during the season of infection with the virus. Prophylaxis with palivizumab may also be indicated, at the discretion of the physician, in some children with complex cardiac disease over the age of 1 year. Children less likely to benefit from prophylaxis are those with haemodynamically insignificant disease, or those with lesions adequately corrected by medical or surgical intervention.

  8. Respiratory-related hospitalizations following prophylaxis in the Canadian registry for palivizumab (2005-2012) compared to other international registries.

    PubMed

    Paes, Bosco; Mitchell, Ian; Li, Abby; Harimoto, Tetsuhiro; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occurs commonly in infants aged ≤2 years, and severe infection results in hospitalization with accompanying morbidity and mortality. Palivizumab has been available for prophylaxis for the past 15 years. Prospective data on patients who received palivizumab from 2005 to 2012 has been assembled in the Canadian registry (CARESS) to document utilization, compliance, and health outcomes in both hospital and community settings. Long-term data is necessary to evaluate the impact of palivizumab on the incidence of RSV infections, minimize healthcare resources, and identify which infant subpopulations are receiving prophylaxis. A database search was also conducted for similar information from published registries, and hospitalization rates were compared to results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs).Overall hospitalization rates (percent; range) for respiratory-related illnesses and RSV-specific infection in infants who meet standard indications for prophylaxis were 6.6 (3.3-7.7) and 1.55 (0.3-2.06), respectively, in CARESS, which closely aligns with registry data from 4 other countries, despite the former comprising the largest cohort of complex patients internationally. Overall RSV-related hospitalization rates were lower across registries compared to equivalent patients in RCTs. Registry data provides valuable information regarding real-world experience with palivizumab, while facilitating the genesis of new research themes.

  9. Respiratory-Related Hospitalizations following Prophylaxis in the Canadian Registry for Palivizumab (2005–2012) Compared to Other International Registries

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occurs commonly in infants aged ≤2 years, and severe infection results in hospitalization with accompanying morbidity and mortality. Palivizumab has been available for prophylaxis for the past 15 years. Prospective data on patients who received palivizumab from 2005 to 2012 has been assembled in the Canadian registry (CARESS) to document utilization, compliance, and health outcomes in both hospital and community settings. Long-term data is necessary to evaluate the impact of palivizumab on the incidence of RSV infections, minimize healthcare resources, and identify which infant subpopulations are receiving prophylaxis. A database search was also conducted for similar information from published registries, and hospitalization rates were compared to results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs).Overall hospitalization rates (percent; range) for respiratory-related illnesses and RSV-specific infection in infants who meet standard indications for prophylaxis were 6.6 (3.3–7.7) and 1.55 (0.3–2.06), respectively, in CARESS, which closely aligns with registry data from 4 other countries, despite the former comprising the largest cohort of complex patients internationally. Overall RSV-related hospitalization rates were lower across registries compared to equivalent patients in RCTs. Registry data provides valuable information regarding real-world experience with palivizumab, while facilitating the genesis of new research themes. PMID:23861694

  10. Economic results of a palivizumab seasonal prophylaxis using a cohorting software and vial sharing.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Elio; Coppolino, Salvatore; Federico, Febronia; Fulia, Francesco

    2010-07-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus is the most important pathogen in lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. In high-risk populations it may develop severe, sometimes fatal, lower respiratory tract infections. A proportion of these infants require admission to intensive care units due to the severity of the condition and the level of care needed. Furthermore, we must consider the possible increased risk of asthma following RSV infection in infancy. The aim of this work is to show how we strictly coordinated, during the 2008-2009 RSV season, the delivery of prophylaxis while minimising drug cost through vial sharing and cohorting infants with a software performed through Visual Basic programming system. By using this method we have been able to obtain a saving of the 29.2% compared to the theoretical amount. No infant requested hospitalisation for a RSV infection. Such a model ensures all patients to receive appropriate immunization and thus positively influencing the cost-benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. We hope that our model of care delivery will be of use to other hospitals.

  11. One-year observational study of palivizumab prophylaxis on infants at risk for respiratory syncytial virus infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Leandro Martin; Bugarin, Gabriela; Arias, Juan Carlos; Barajas Rangel, Jairo Israel; Serra, Maria Elina; Vain, Nestor

    This study aims to describe real world palivizumab use and effectiveness in high-risk Latin American infants and young children. Prospective, multicenter observational study with infants at risk for severe RSV infection who received palivizumab according to routine clinical practice. Subjects were followed for one year with monthly visits after the first dose of palivizumab. An infant was considered adherent if receiving all the expected injections or five or fewer injections within appropriate inter-dose intervals. Annual incidence rates and risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) hospitalization were determined through Poisson regression models (α=0.05). The study enrolled 458 children from seven countries in Latin America, from February 2011 to September 2012. The majority (98%) were born <36 weeks gestation. Overall, patients received 83.7% of their expected injections and 86.7% completed one year of follow-up. Of the 61 LRTI hospitalizations, 12 episodes were due to RSV infection. The RSV-associated hospitalization rate was 2.9 per 100 patient-years. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was identified as an independent risk factor for LRTI hospitalization. A total of 1165 adverse events were recorded during one year of follow-up. One hundred and two patients (22.3%) had a total of 135 serious adverse events, but no events were considered to be related to palivizumab. The rate of RSV hospitalization in high-risk infants in Latin America was low and aligned with those observed in randomized control trials and observational studies. Palivizumab prophylaxis appeared effective and had a good safety profile in this population. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative study of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in premature infants within the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS).

    PubMed

    Paes, B; Mitchell, I; Li, A; Lanctôt, K L

    2012-10-01

    We examined the dosing regimens, compliance, and outcomes of premature infants who received palivizumab within the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Infants receiving ≥1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2011 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons were recruited across 30 sites. Respiratory illness events were captured monthly. Infants ≤32 completed weeks gestational age (GA) (Group 1) were compared to 33-35 completed weeks GA infants (Group 2) following prophylaxis. In total, 6,654 patients were analyzed (Group 1, n = 5,183; Group 2, n = 1,471). The mean GA was 29.9 ± 2.9 versus 34.2 ± 2.2 weeks for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group differences were significant (all p-values <0.05) for the following: proportion of males, Caucasians, siblings, multiple births, maternal smoking, smoking during pregnancy, household smokers, >5 household individuals, birth weight, and enrolment age. Overall, infants received 92.6 % of expected injections. Group 1 received significantly more injections, but a greater proportion of Group 2 received injections within recommended intervals. The hospitalization rates were similar for Groups 1 and 2 for respiratory illness (4.7 % vs. 3.7 %, p = 0.1) and RSV (1.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.3). Neither the time to first respiratory illness [hazard ratio = 0.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.2, p = 0.5] nor to first RSV hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95 % CI 0.8-2.2, p = 0.3) were different. Compliance with RSV prophylaxis is high. Despite the higher number of palivizumab doses in infants ≤32 completed weeks GA, the two groups' respiratory illness and RSV-positive hospitalization rates were similar.

  13. The cost-effectiveness of palivizumab for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in premature infants with a gestational age of 32-35 weeks: a Canadian-based analysis .

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, Krista L; Masoud, Shababa T; Paes, Bosco A; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Chiu, Aaron; Hui, Charles; Francis, Philip L; Oh, Paul I

    2008-11-01

    Prophylactic therapy with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been shown to reduce the number of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalizations in preterm infants, including those in the 32-35 weeks' gestational age (GA) subgroup. The cost-effectiveness of this therapy in Canada is unknown. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab as respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in premature infants born at 32-35 weeks' GA. A decision analytic model was designed to compare both direct and indirect medical costs and benefits of prophylaxis in this subgroup of premature infants. Sensitivity analyses were performed to ascertain the robustness of the model for five point estimates: mortality rate, discounting rates, health-utility values, degree of vial-sharing and administration costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was also conducted. Canadian publicly funded health-care system (Ministry of Health payer perspective) for base-case analysis. Societal perspective, accounting for future lost productivity, was adopted for a secondary analysis. Canadian infants born at 32-35 weeks' GA without chronic lung disease. Palivizumab prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis. Expected costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per life-year gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) using 2007 Canadian dollars. The expected costs were higher for palivizumab prophylaxis as compared with no prophylaxis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the base-case scenario was $20 924 per QALY after discounting, which is considered cost-effective in Canada. When the uncertainty of the input parameter assumptions was tested through sensitivity analyses assessing several data sources for five key parameters, no substantial differences were found from the base-case results. The PSA indicated a 0.99 probability that the ICER for palivizumab was less than $50 000/QALY. Sub-analyses that varied the number of risk factors

  14. [Update of recommendations on the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis in RSV infections].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2015-03-01

    The Standards Committee of the Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo) considers that the new document from the American Academy of Pediatrics, including recommendations for palivizumab use to prevent serious infections produced by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), provides no new scientific evidence which would justify the modification of the current recommendations of the SENeo. However, some adjustments to the criteria of the existing recommendations are proposed to reduce the cost of the drug by its correct and judicious management.

  15. Partial palivizumab prophylaxis and increased risk of hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus in a Medicaid population: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Krilov, Leonard R; Masaquel, Anthony S; Weiner, Leonard B; Smith, David M; Wade, Sally W; Mahadevia, Parthiv J

    2014-10-13

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is common among young children insured through Medicaid in the United States. Complete and timely dosing with palivizumab is associated with lower risk of RSV-related hospitalizations, but up to 60% of infants who receive palivizumab in Medicaid population do not receive full prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of partial palivizumab prophylaxis with the risk of RSV hospitalization among high-risk Medicaid-insured infants. Claims data from 12 states during 6 RSV seasons (October 1st to April 30th in the first year of life in 2003-2009) were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were birth hospital discharge before October 1st, continuous insurance eligibility from birth through April 30th, ≥ one palivizumab administration from August 1st to end of season, and high-risk status (≤34 weeks gestational age or chronic lung disease of prematurity [CLDP] or hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease [CHD]). Fully prophylaxed infants received the first palivizumab dose by November 30th with no gaps >35 days up to the first RSV-related hospitalization or end of follow-up. All other infants were categorized as partially prophylaxed. Of the 8,443 high-risk infants evaluated, 67% (5,615) received partial prophylaxis. Partially prophylaxed infants were more likely to have RSV-related hospitalization than fully prophylaxed infants (11.7% versus 7.9%, p< 0.001). RSV-related hospitalization rates ranged from 8.5% to 24.8% in premature, CHD, and CLDP infants with partial prophylaxis. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression showed that partially prophylaxed infants had a 21% greater odds of hospitalization compared with fully prophylaxed infants (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.34). RSV-related hospitalization rates were significantly higher in high-risk Medicaid infants with partial palivizumab prophylaxis compared with fully prophylaxed infants. These

  16. Palivizumab prophylaxis during nosocomial outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit: predicting effectiveness with an artificial neural network model.

    PubMed

    Saadah, Loai M; Chedid, Fares D; Sohail, Muhammad R; Nazzal, Yazied M; Al Kaabi, Mohammed R; Rahmani, Aiman Y

    2014-03-01

    To identify subgroups of premature infants who may benefit from palivizumab prophylaxis during nosocomial outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Retrospective analysis using an artificial intelligence model. Level IIIB, 35-bed, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at a tertiary care hospital in the United Arab Emirates. One hundred seventy six premature infants, born at a gestational age of 22-34 weeks, and hospitalized during four RSV outbreaks that occurred between April 2005 and July 2007. We collected demographic and clinical data for each patient by using a standardized form. Input data consisted of seven categoric and continuous variables each. We trained, tested, and validated artificial neural networks for three outcomes of interest: mortality, days of supplemental oxygen, and length of NICU stay after the index case was identified. We compared variable impacts and performed reassignments with live predictions to evaluate the effect of palivizumab. Of the 176 infants, 31 (17.6%) received palivizumab during the outbreaks. All neural network configurations converged within 4 seconds in less than 400 training cycles. Infants who received palivizumab required supplemental oxygen for a shorter duration compared with controls (105.2 ± 7.2 days vs 113.2 ± 10.4 days, p=0.003). This benefit was statistically significant in male infants whose birth weight was less than 0.7 kg and who had hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Length of NICU stay after identification of the index case and mortality were independent of palivizumab use. Palivizumab may be an effective intervention during nosocomial outbreaks of RSV in a subgroup of extremely low-birth-weight male infants with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Comparing First- and Second-year Palivizumab Prophylaxis in Patients With Hemodynamically Significant Congenital Heart Disease in the CARESS Database (2005-2015).

    PubMed

    Li, Abby; Wang, Daniel Y; Lanctôt, Krista L; Mitchell, Ian; Paes, Bosco A

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH) rates in children <2 years of age with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HSCHD) are 2- to 4-fold higher compared with healthy term infants. Pediatric recommendations differ as to whether palivizumab is beneficial beyond 1 year of age. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist in respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH in HSCHD infants receiving palivizumab during the first year versus second year of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab. The Canadian Registry of Palivizumab is a prospective database of infants who received ≥1 dose of palivizumab in 32 hospitals from 2005 to 2015. Demographic data were collected at enrollment and RIH events recorded monthly. Infants <24 months of age with HSCHD were recruited. Of 1909 HSCHD infants, 1380 (72.3%) in the first year (mean age, 4.2 months) and 529 (27.7%) in the second year of life (mean age, 17.8 months) received prophylaxis. Baseline demographics for day-care attendance, multiple births, enrollment age and weight differed between the groups (all P < 0.05). Additionally, second year infants had a more complicated neonatal course, with significantly longer length of stay (51.2 vs. 24.9 days) compared with those in the first year. The RIH and RSVH rates in the first year were 11.2% and 2.3% and in the second year were 10.6% and 1.7%. Cox regression analysis showed similar hazard for RIH [hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 0.7-4.6; P = 0.18] and RSVH [hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-16.5; P = 0.52]. Infants in the first and second year of life had a similar RSVH hazard. These findings suggest that infants in the second year with HSCHD, who remain unstable, are equally at risk for RSVH and merit prophylaxis.

  18. [The efficiency (cost-effectiveness) of palivizumab as prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus infection in premature infants with a gestational age of 32-35 weeks in Spain].

    PubMed

    Lázaro y de Mercado, P; Figueras Aloy, J; Doménech Martínez, E; Echániz Urcelay, I; Closa Monasterolo, R; Wood Wood, M A; Fitch Warner, K

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the efficiency (cost-effectiveness) of palivizumab in preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in premature infants with a gestational age of 32-35 weeks (GA 32-35) and two or more risk factors (RF) in Spain. decision tree model using data from the scientific literature and the FLIP I and FLIP II studies (cohort of 326 infants with GA 32-35 and two or more RF who received palivizumab) sponsored by the Spanish Society of Neonatology. Main effectiveness measure: quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. the national health service (NHS), which includes direct costs (administration of palivizumab and hospital admissions), and the societal perspective, which also includes indirect costs (the child's future lost productivity). Discount: 3 % annually for effectiveness and indirect costs. Sensitivity analysis: construction of 37 scenarios modifying variables related to effectiveness and costs. Prophylaxis with palivizumab in premature infants with GA 32-35 and two or more RF produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 13,849 euro/QALY from the NHS perspective, and an ICER of 4,605 euro/QALY from the societal perspective. In the sensitivity analysis, from the NHS perspective the ICER ranged from 5,351 euro/QALY (most favorable scenario) to 23,276 euro/QALY (least favorable scenario). Palivizumab is a cost-effective therapy as prophylaxis against RSV in infants with GA 32-35 and two or more RF. Its use is efficient from the NHS perspective, since the cost of a QALY, even in the least favorable scenarios, is lower than the threshold of 30,000 Euro/QALY considered socially acceptable in Spain.

  19. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  20. Evaluation of a novel web-based prior approval application for palivizumab prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus in a state Medicaid program.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Kristin; Pfeiffenberger, Trista; Jacobson Vann, Julie; O'Brien, Timothy; Sampson, Charlene; Wegner, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Recent disproportionate increases in use of specialty medications, such as palivizumab (Synagis), compared with steady utilization of traditional medication use, have prompted complex utilization management strategies that require frequent evaluation to facilitate cost-effectiveness while preserving patient access. Clinical criteria utilized by North Carolina (NC) Medicaid for use of palivizumab for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis are consistent with the most recent guidelines published in the Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Prior to the 2011-2012 RSV season, prior approval (PA) requests were submitted by facsimile using the NC Medicaid Synagis PA form. A web-based PA application, which includes automatic approval capability, monthly dose prompts to providers, and a standardized dose projection formula, was developed for the 2011-2012 RSV season. To evaluate the timeliness of palivizumab coverage determination, compliance with palivizumab prophylaxis regimen, and the accuracy of the dose projection formula achieved with this novel web-based PA application for palivizumab prophylaxis in NC Medicaid recipients. A historically controlled retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all palivizumab PA submissions and supporting documentation from the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 RSV seasons were retrospectively reviewed for date and time of original submission and final coverage determination. Submissions from the 2011-2012 season were also retrospectively reviewed for number of doses approved, number of doses administered, date of administration of each dose, and actual dosage administered. These data were used to evaluate compliance and the projected versus actual beneficiary weight and dose to assess the accuracy of the dose projection formula. Submissions lacking required information were excluded. Time from PA submission to coverage determination was compared between seasons using a 2-sample t-test. The proportion of

  1. Comparing First- and Second-Year Palivizumab Prophylaxis in Patients with Hemodynamically Significant Congenital Heart Disease in the CARESS Database (2005-2015).

    PubMed

    Li, Abby; Wang, Daniel Y; Lanctôt, Krista L; Mitchell, Ian; Paes, Bosco A

    2016-10-06

    Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH) rates in children less than <2 years of age with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HSCHD) are 2-4 fold higher compared with healthy term infants. Pediatric recommendations differ as to whether palivizumab is beneficial beyond 1 year of age. The objective was to determine whether differences exist in respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH in HSCHD infants receiving palivizumab during the first year versus second year of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). CARESS is a prospective database of infants who received ≥1 dose of palivizumab in 32 hospitals from 2005-2015. Demographic data were collected at enrollment and RIH events recorded monthly. Infants <24 months with HSCHD were recruited. Of 1909 HSCHD infants, 1380 (72.3%) in the first year (mean age 4.2 months) and 529 (27.7%) in the second year of life (mean age 17.8 months) received prophylaxis. Baseline demographics for daycare attendance, multiple births, enrollment age and weight differed between the groups (all p<0.05). Additionally, second year infants had a more complicated neonatal course, with significantly longer length of stay (51.2 versus 24.9 days) compared with those in the first year. The RIH and RSVH rates in the first year and second year were 11.2%; 10.6% and 2.3%; 1.7% respectively. Cox regression analysis showed similar hazard for RIH (Hazard ratio: 1.9, 95%CI 0.7-4.6, p=0.18) and RSVH (Hazard ratio: 2.0, 95%CI 0.2-16.5, p=0.52). Infants in the first and second year of life had a similar RSVH hazard. These findings suggest that infants in the second year with HSCHD, who remain unstable, are equally at risk for RSVH and merit prophylaxis.

  2. Apnea with RSV infection in three infants receiving palivizumab.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Michael Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The present report describes three infants receiving palivizumab prophylaxis who presented with apnea associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. All three were found to be RSV positive but had mild bronchiolitis courses. Even though palivizumab has been shown to be an effective prophylaxis in preventing RSV bronchiolitis hospitalizations, its effect on apnea is unknown. The cases presented raise the concern that apnea associated with RSV must still be considered in infants who receive proper prophylaxis with palivizumab. Also, if palivizumab is found to be ineffective in preventing apnea, clinical management of these patients could be altered.

  3. Palivizumab prophylaxis in infants with cystic fibrosis does not delay first isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Buchs, Clélia; Dalphin, Marie-Laure; Sanchez, Stéphane; Perceval, Marie; Coutier, Laurianne; Mainguy, Catherine; Kassaï-Koupaï, Behrouz; Reix, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections may worsen cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and favor Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) or Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) acquisition, which is of particular importance in the youngest patients. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of PVZ on microbiological outcomes in young children with CF. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare these outcomes in children who systematically received PVZ (PVZ+; n = 40) or not (PVZ-; n = 140). One case was matched with at least three same-gender controls born the same year and month. Median (range) age at first Pa isolation was not statistically different between PVZ- (12.3 [3.8-32.6] months) and PVZ+ (10.4 [1.2-33.0] months; p = 0.953) patients. A similar trend was found for Sa (PVZ+: 6.4 [2.0-59.0] months; PVZ-: 3.8 [0.1-74.1] months; p = 0.191). The proportion of Pa isolations by 3 years of age did not differ between groups (PVZ+ 40% vs. PVZ- 41.4%), but this proportion was higher for Sa in the PVZ+ group (97%) than in the PVZ- group (85%; p = 0.001). Healthcare consumption and growth outcomes did not significantly differ between groups. Systematic PVZ use did not delay key pathogen acquisition in young children with CF. What is known: • Palivizumab is the only available monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus infection. • Whether or not it is useful in infants with cystic fibrosis remains controversial. What is new: • Palivizumab does not delay key pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) first isolation in young children with cystic fibrosis. • Palivizumab does not reduce healthcare consumption or improve growth during the first 3 years of life of young children with cystic fibrosis.

  4. Preventing RSV bronchiolitis in vulnerable infants: the role of palivizumab.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2009-09-01

    As the vast majority of infants tolerate infection with the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] well and can be managed in the home, most should not be considered for RSV prophylaxis with palivizumab. However, there exists a subset of vulnerable infants in whom the consequences of RSV infection are greater, with an increased likelihood of intensive care admission and mechanical ventilation. These include children born extremely preterm with chronic neonatal lung disease and infants with haemodynamically significant cardiac disease in whom there exists level II evidence to suggest that palivizumab may reduce their risk of acquiring RSV by approximately 50%. The use of palivizumab varies considerably across the world, based largely on economic considerations. This article reviews the strategies developed to fight RSV infection, the evidence for the use of palivizumab and suggests a reasonable approach clinically and economically to the use of palivizumab, proposing its use selectively in the most vulnerable infants during the first six months of life.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of palivizumab in premature infants without chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Nahed O; Sorbero, Melony E S; Hall, Caroline B; Stevens, Timothy P; Dick, Andrew W

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab as respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in premature infants without chronic lung disease and to evaluate the impact on cost-effectiveness of a potential reduction in risk of asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection among infants receiving palivizumab. Two decision analytic models were designed, one with and the other without accounting for increased risk of asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection. A hypothetical community or university hospital. Hypothetical cohorts of infants without chronic lung disease born at 26 to 32 weeks' gestation. Palivizumab prophylaxis vs no prophylaxis. Expected costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year. The expected costs were higher for palivizumab prophylaxis as compared with no prophylaxis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were high for all gestations and are not considered cost-effective by today's standards (<$200 000 per quality-adjusted life-year). Both models were sensitive to variation in the cost of palivizumab. The model that included asthma was sensitive to variation in quality of life for children with asthma. In instances where asthma was considered severe with profound worsening in quality of life compared with life without asthma, some infants had an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year that was less than $200 000. Our model supports implementing more restrictive guidelines for palivizumab prophylaxis. Palivizumab was cost-effective for some infants in an analysis that accounted for increased risk of severe asthma following respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  6. Clinical Decision Support and Palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, A.; Michel, J.; Localio, A.R.; Karavite, D.; Song, L.; Ramos, M.J.; Fiks, A.G.; Lorch, S.; Grundmeier, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Palivizumab can reduce hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but many eligible infants fail to receive the full 5-dose series. The efficacy of clinical decision support (CDS) in fostering palivizumab receipt has not been studied. We sought a comprehensive solution for identifying eligible patients and addressing barriers to palivizumab administration. Methods We developed workflow and CDS tools targeting patient identification and palivizumab administration. We randomized 10 practices to receive palivizumab-focused CDS and 10 to receive comprehensive CDS for premature infants in a 3-year longitudinal cluster-randomized trial with 2 baseline and 1 intervention RSV seasons. Results There were 356 children eligible to receive palivizumab, with 194 in the palivizumab-focused group and 162 in the comprehensive CDS group. The proportion of doses administered to children in the palivizumab-focused intervention group increased from 68.4% and 65.5% in the two baseline seasons to 84.7% in the intervention season. In the comprehensive intervention group, proportions of doses administered declined during the baseline seasons (from 71.9% to 62.4%) with partial recovery to 67.9% during the intervention season. The palivizumab-focused group improved by 19.2 percentage points in the intervention season compared to the prior baseline season (p < 0.001), while the comprehensive intervention group only improved 5.5 percentage points (p = 0.288). The difference in change between study groups was significant (p = 0.05). Conclusions Workflow and CDS tools integrated in an EHR may increase the administration of palivizumab. The support focused on palivizumab, rather than comprehensive intervention, was more effective at improving palivizumab administration. PMID:26767069

  7. Short- and Long-term Pulmonary Outcome of Palivizumab in Children Born Extremely Prematurely.

    PubMed

    Prais, Dario; Kaplan, Eytan; Klinger, Gil; Mussaffi, Huda; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Bar-Yishay, Ephraim; Stafler, Patrick; Steuer, Guy; Sirota, Lea; Blau, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Palivizumab reduces the severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection in premature infants, but whether there is a protective effect beyond the preschool age is unknown. This study sought to assess the short- and long-term effects of palivizumab immunization on respiratory morbidity and pulmonary function at school age in children born extremely prematurely. Infants born before 29 weeks' gestation in 2000 to 2003 were assessed at school age by parental questionnaire, hospital chart review, and lung function tests. Children born immediately before the introduction of routine palivizumab prophylaxis were compared with age-matched children who received palivizumab prophylaxis during the first respiratory syncytial virus season. Sixty-three children with a mean age 8.9 years were included: 30 had received palivizumab and 33 had not (control subjects). The groups were similar in terms of gestational age, birth weight, need for mechanical ventilation, and oxygen supplementation. Fifty-three percent of the palivizumab group, compared with 39% of the control group, had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P = .14). Wheezing occurred in the first 2 years of life in 27% of the palivizumab group and in 70% of control subjects (P = .008); respective hospitalization rates were 33% and 70% (P = .001). At school age, rates of hyperresponsiveness (provocative concentration leading to a 20% fall in FEV1 < 1 mg/mL) were 33% and 48%, respectively (P = .38). Spirometry, lung volumes, diffusion, and exhaled nitric oxide were within normal limits, with no significant differences between groups. Palivizumab prophylaxis was associated with reduced wheezing episodes and hospitalizations during the first 2 years of life in children born extremely prematurely. However, it did not affect pulmonary outcome at school age. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost effectiveness of palivizumab in children with congenital heart disease in Germany.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Mark; Lebmeier, Maximilian; Wittenberg, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    To assess the cost effectiveness of palivizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody, used as prevention against severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalisation, in infants with haemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (CHD) in the German healthcare setting. A decision-tree model was used to estimate the cost effectiveness of palivizumab for a hypothetical cohort of patients. The analysis was based on a lifetime follow-up period in order to capture the impact of palivizumab on long-term morbidity and mortality resulting from an RSV infection. Data sources included published literature, the palivizumab pivotal trials, official price/tariff lists and national population statistics. The study was conducted from the perspective of society (primary analysis) and the healthcare purchaser (secondary analysis). From the societal perspective, use of palivizumab results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €2,615 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) without discounting, which increases to €9,529/QALY after discounting. From the perspective of the German healthcare purchaser, use of palivizumab results in an ICER of €4,576/QALY without discounting, which increases to €16,673/QALY after discounting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. The study is limited by a number of conservative assumptions. It was assumed that palivizumab only affects the occurrence of RSV hospitalisation and does not influence the severity of the RSV infection. Another assumption was that international clinical trial data and data on utilities could be applied to the German healthcare setting. This analysis showed that palivizumab represents a cost-effective means of prophylaxis against severe RSV infection requiring hospitalisation in infants with haemodynamically significant CHD.

  9. Palivizumab use in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Kingston, S; Murphy, B P

    2010-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Palivizumab is an immunoprophylactic agent for RSV prevention in preterm infants and those with neonatal chronic lung disease. This study examines its use across neonatal units in Ireland. A questionnaire was administered to one Consultant Neonatologist or Paediatrician in each of the 20 maternity centres in Ireland about their guidelines for Palivizumab administration. There is variation in administration of Palivizumab with little consistency found between protocols reported in terms of age and presence of chronic lung disease. Ten centres have in house protocols, 3 centres use the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) guidelines, 2 centres prefer the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) guidelines and 3 centres do not have a set protocol. Four participants felt its use has impacted on hospital admissions and 61% believe its use is cost effective. The budgetary implication for immunoprophylaxis with Palivizumab in Ireland is estimated at 1.5 to 2 million euros annually. Given current pharmacoeconomic constraints there is a need to implement a national protocol on RSV immunoprophylaxis.

  10. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  11. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization.

  12. Posaconazole prophylaxis in experimental azole-resistant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of posaconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates. Using a neutropenic murine model of pulmonary infection, posaconazole prophylaxis was evaluated using three isogenic clinical isolates, with posaconazole MICs of 0.063 mg/liter (wild type), 0.5 mg/liter (F219I mutation), and 16 mg/liter. A fourth isolate harboring TR34/L98H (MIC of 0.5 mg/liter) was also tested. Posaconazole prophylaxis was effective in A. fumigatus with posaconazole MICs of ≤0.5 mg/liter, where 100% survival was reached. However, breakthrough infection was observed in mice infected with the isolate for which the posaconazole MIC was >16 mg/liter.

  13. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective.

    PubMed

    Homaira, Nusrat; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Thomas L; Jaffe, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  14. Acyclovir prophylaxis predisposes to antiviral-resistant recurrent herpetic keratitis.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Monique; van de Vijver, David A M C; van Loenen, Freek B; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Remeijer, Lies; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2013-11-01

    Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK). Frequencies of ACV(R) viruses were determined in 169 corneal HSV-1 isolates from 78 rHK patients with a history of stromal disease. The isolates' ACV susceptibility profiles were correlated with clinical parameters to identify risk factors predisposing to ACV(R) rHK. Corneal HSV-1 isolates with >28% ACV(R) viruses were defined as ACV(R) isolates. Forty-four isolates (26%) were ACV-resistant. Multivariate analyses identified long-term ACV prophylaxis (≥12 months) (odds ratio [OR] 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-8.87) and recurrence duration of ≥45 days (OR 2.23; 95% CI, 1.02-4.87), indicative of ACV-refractory disease, as independent risk factors for ACV(R) isolates. Moreover, a corneal ACV(R) isolate was a risk factor for ACV-refractory disease (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.06-4.89). The data suggest that long-term ACV prophylaxis predisposes to ACV-refractory disease due to the emergence of corneal ACV(R) HSV-1. ACV-susceptibility testing is warranted during follow-up of rHK patients.

  15. [Chemoprophylaxis with palivizumab in Andalusia (Spain). Results of the 2000-2001 respiratory syncytial virus epidemic].

    PubMed

    2002-04-01

    To assess the hospitalization rate for bronchiolitis in newborns treated with palivizumab in Andalusia. We performed a prospective study of 283 neonates and infants who received prophylaxis with palivizumab in Andalusia during the 2000-2001 bronchiolitis epidemic. We also performed a descriptive study of hospitalization for bronchiolitis, classifying patients according to gestational age and whether they had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Most (86.9 %) of the treated patients were born before week 32 of gestation (63 % before week 30) and 38.4 % developed BPD. A total of 10.6 % of palivizumab-treated newborns were hospitalized for bronchiolitis, of which 3.9 % was caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (4.8 % of patients with BDP and 3.5 % of those without BPD were RSV-positive). Compared with preterm neonates born in weeks 31 or 32 of gestation, palivizumab-treated newborns born before week 31 showed a higher hospitalization rate for bronchiolitis (13.3 % vs 6.3 %; p < 0.05) and that for RSV was three times higher (5.0 % vs 1.6 %; p < 0.05). Age at admission was 5.8 3.2 months. Length of hospital stay was shorter in RSV-positive patients with bronchiolitis (6.7 vs 7.6 days; p > 0.10). Admission to the intensive care unit was required in 0.7 % of patients and in 50 % of those who were RSV-positive. Adverse effects were observed in 5.1 % of palivizumab-treated patients. The marked differences in the perinatal antecedents of patients receiving immunoprophylaxis may explain the variations in the efficacy of palivizumab reported in available studies.

  16. Effectiveness of palivizumab in children with childhood interstitial lung disease: The French experience.

    PubMed

    Drummond, David; Thumerelle, Caroline; Reix, Philippe; Fayon, Michael; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Mahloul, Malika; Habouria, Delphine; Delacourt, Christophe; Hadchouel, Alice

    2016-07-01

    There is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab in children with childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effectiveness of palivizumab for decreasing the rate of RSV-related hospitalizations in children under the age of 24 months with chILD treated with corticosteroids. A retrospective national study was conducted in France. Patients born between 2007 and 2013, diagnosed with chILD and on corticosteroid treatment were identified through the French online database for pediatric interstitial lung disease (Respirare(®) ). Data were collected for the etiology and severity of chILD, risk factors and preventive measures for bronchiolitis, palivizumab immunoprophylaxis, and hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and RSV-bronchiolitis. We included and evaluated 24 children during their first two RSV seasons, corresponding to 36 patient-seasons. The observed rate of RSV-related hospitalization (305/1000 patient-seasons), and the median length of stay (7 days), were higher than those for the general population. RSV-related hospitalization rates did not differ significantly between children with and without palivizumab prophylaxis (5/16 vs. 4/18, respectively, P = 0.70). Children with chILD on corticosteroid treatment are at high risk of hospitalization for RSV-bronchiolitis, which tends to be more severe in these children than in the general population. The effectiveness of palivizumab prophylaxis in this population remains to be demonstrated. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:688-695. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Echinocandin Resistance, Susceptibility Testing and Prophylaxis: Implications for Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, David S.

    2014-01-01

    become drug tolerant and can form stable drug resistant FKS mutations with continued drug exposure. A major concern for resistance detection is that classical broth microdilution techniques show significant variability among clinical microbiology laboratories for certain echinocandin drugs and Candida species. The consequence is that susceptible strains are misclassified according to established clinical breakpoints, and this has led to confusion in the field. Clinical factors that appear to promote echinocandin resistance include the expanding use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy and prophylaxis. Furthermore, host reservoirs such as biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract or intra-abdominal infections can seed development of resistant organisms during therapy. A fundamental understanding of the primary molecular resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors that promote resistance emergence, is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:25255923

  18. Epidemiologic analysis: Prophylaxis and multidrug-resistance in surgery.

    PubMed

    Solís-Téllez, H; Mondragón-Pinzón, E E; Ramírez-Marino, M; Espinoza-López, F R; Domínguez-Sosa, F; Rubio-Suarez, J F; Romero-Morelos, R D

    Surgical site infection is defined as an infection related to the surgical procedure in the area of manipulation occurring within the first 30 postoperative days. The diagnostic criteria include: purulent drainage, isolation of microorganisms, and signs of infection. To describe the epidemiologic characteristics and differences among the types of prophylactic regimens associated with hospital-acquired infections at the general surgery service of a tertiary care hospital. The electronic case records of patients that underwent general surgery at a tertiary care hospital within the time frame of January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 were reviewed. A convenience sample of 728 patients was established and divided into the following groups: Group 1: n=728 for the epidemiologic study; Group 2: n=638 for the evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis; and Group 3: n=50 for the evaluation of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains in the intensive care unit. The statistical analysis was carried out with the SPSS 19 program, using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test. A total of 728 procedures were performed (65.9% were elective surgeries). Three hundred twelve of the patients were males and 416 were females. Only 3.98% of the patients complied with the recommended antimicrobial prophylaxis, and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were found in the intensive care unit. A single prophylactic dose is effective, but adherence to this recommendation was not adequate. The prophylactic guidelines are not strictly adhered to in our environment. There was a significant association between the development of nosocomial infections from multidrug-resistant germs and admission to the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV, transmitted drug resistance, and the paradox of preexposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Supervie, Virginie; García-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Blower, Sally

    2010-01-01

    The administration of antiretrovirals before HIV exposure to prevent infection (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis; PrEP) is under evaluation in clinical trials. Because PrEP is based on antiretrovirals, there is considerable concern that it could substantially increase transmitted resistance, particularly in resource-rich countries. Here we use a mathematical model to predict the effect of PrEP interventions on the HIV epidemic in the men-who-have-sex-with-men community in San Francisco. The model is calibrated using Monte Carlo filtering and analyzed by constructing nonlinear response hypersurfaces. We predict PrEP interventions could substantially reduce transmission but significantly increase the proportion of new infections caused by resistant strains. Two mechanisms can cause this increase. If risk compensation occurs, the proportion increases due to increasing transmission of resistant strains and decreasing transmission of wild-type strains. If risk behavior remains stable, the increase occurs because of reduced transmission of resistant strains coupled with an even greater reduction in transmission of wild-type strains. We define this as the paradox of PrEP (i.e., resistance appears to be increasing, but is actually decreasing). We determine this paradox is likely to occur if the efficacy of PrEP regimens against wild-type strains is greater than 30% and the relative efficacy against resistant strains is greater than 0.2 but less than the efficacy against wild-type. Our modeling shows, if risk behavior increases, that it is a valid concern that PrEP could significantly increase transmitted resistance. However, if risk behavior remains stable, we find the concern is unfounded and PrEP interventions are likely to decrease transmitted resistance. PMID:20616092

  20. Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: what impact on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery?

    PubMed

    Kirby, A; Santoni, N

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis, introduced in the 1940s, brought in an era of relatively safe colorectal surgery. This was achieved in part due to the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Since then, Enterobacteriaceae have become increasingly resistant to the antibiotics commonly used for prophylaxis. The impact of being colonized preoperatively with resistant Enterobacteriaceae on the efficacy of colorectal SSI prophylaxis, if any, is unknown. It is also difficult to predict the likely impact of resistance as the exposure‒response relationships have not been determined for antibiotic surgical prophylaxis. Neither is it known which test for resistance to use; the importance of the concentration of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon, the ability of different species of Enterobacteriaceae to cause SSIs, and the comparative ability of minimum inhibitory concentration or presence of a resistance mechanism in predicting SSI risk have yet to be established. Clinical research is urgently needed to answer these questions.

  1. Lack of Doxycycline Antimalarial Prophylaxis Impact on Staphylococcus aureus Tetracycline Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L.; Zera, Wendy C.; Yu, Xin; Li, Ping; Tribble, David R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2016-01-01

    There is concern that susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to tetracyclines may decrease due to use of antimalarial prophylaxis (doxycycline). We examined characteristics related to tetracycline resistance, including doxycycline exposure, in S. aureus isolates collected via admission surveillance swabs and inpatient clinical cultures from United States military personnel injured during deployment (June 2009-January 2012). Tetracycline class resistance was determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first S. aureus isolate from 168 patients were analyzed, of which 38 (23%) isolates were resistant to tetracyclines (class). Tetracycline-resistant isolates had a higher proportion of resistance to clindamycin (p=0.019) compared to susceptible isolates. There was no significant difference in tetracycline resistance between isolates collected from patients with and without antimalarial prophylaxis; however, significantly more isolates had tet(M) resistance genes in the doxycycline exposure group (p=0.031). Despite 55% of the patients receiving doxycycline as antimalarial prophylaxis, there was no association with resistance to tetracyclines. PMID:27460426

  2. Lack of doxycycline antimalarial prophylaxis impact on Staphylococcus aureus tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed

    Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L; Zera, Wendy C; Yu, Xin; Li, Ping; Tribble, David R; Murray, Clinton K

    2016-10-01

    There is concern that susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to tetracyclines may decrease due to use of antimalarial prophylaxis (doxycycline). We examined characteristics related to tetracycline resistance, including doxycycline exposure, in S. aureus isolates collected via admission surveillance swabs and inpatient clinical cultures from United States military personnel injured during deployment (June 2009-January 2012). Tetracycline class resistance was determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first S. aureus isolate from 168 patients were analyzed, of which 38 (23%) isolates were resistant to tetracyclines (class). Tetracycline-resistant isolates had a higher proportion of resistance to clindamycin (P=0.019) compared to susceptible isolates. There was no significant difference in tetracycline resistance between isolates collected from patients with and without antimalarial prophylaxis; however, significantly more isolates had tet(M) resistance genes in the doxycycline exposure group (P=0.031). Despite 55% of the patients receiving doxycycline as antimalarial prophylaxis, there was no association with resistance to tetracyclines.

  3. The cost effectiveness of palivizumab in congenital heart disease: a review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Hussman, J M; Lanctôt, K L; Paes, B

    2013-01-01

    To review and summarize the literature concerning the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab compared to no prophylaxis in infants and young children with congenital heart disease (CHD). A systematic literature search (MEDLINE to March 2012, limited to English language) identified studies that examined the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab in CHD populations. The quality of each study was assigned a quality score of 1-100 based on the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Ten studies were identified through the search strategy, of which four principally addressed the research question and six additional articles examined CHD in conjunction with other high-risk indications for palivizumab in their economic analyses. QHES for the studies ranged from 58-100, with a median score of 93 (76 for principal articles, 94 for secondary analyses). Cost-utility analyses, which evaluated costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), showed favorable results in five analyses (range $10,329-$16,648 per QALY), while the other two suggested no cost-effectiveness ($146,061 and $169,971 per QALY). Of three cost-effectiveness analyses, which assessed costs per hospital admission prevented (HAP), two concluded that the drug was not cost-effective ($16,216/day of hospitalization prevented and $868,296/HAP), while one did not interpret the final result ($43,561/HAP). Significant variance exists across study characteristics, analytic models utilized, duration of RSV seasons assessed, primary outcome measures evaluated, sensitivity analyses conducted, and other model assumptions. Further, it was difficult to obtain true CHD-based quality scores for the studies that analyzed more than one indication. The findings of this review currently remain inconclusive. Although a favorable trend was identified in the cost-utility analyses, additional rigorously conducted studies are necessary to better estimate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab for CHD infants in clinical practice.

  4. [Recommendations for the use of palivizumab in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in late preterm infants (32(1) to 35(0) weeks of gestation)].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2010-08-01

    Late preterm infants (32(1) to 35(0) weeks gestation) aged less than 6 months at start of RSV station or discharged during this time may benefit from RSV monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab) administration to decrease the rates of RSV hospitalization. The Spanish Society of Neonatology considers, based on FLIP2 results in Spain, that palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended if the "2 major risk factors" are present (chronological age less than 10 weeks at start of RSV season or being born during its first 10 weeks; sibling of school age or attending day-care assistance). Palivizumab is also recommended when "1 major risk factor and the 2 minor risk factors" are present. Minor risk factors are: mother smoking during pregnancy and being a male.

  5. [Recommendations for palivizumab use. Update 2015].

    PubMed

    Fernández Jonusas, Silvia; Albas Maubett, Deleys; Satragno, Daniela; Cattaino, Adriana; Martin Alonso, Margarita; Rubio, Cecilia; Nieto, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    This recommendation updates the Argentinean Pediatrics' Neonatal Committee (CEFEN) ones published in 2007. The respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent agent for lower respiratory infection. Tiny premature, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and significant hemodynamic congenital heart disease babies are the most vulnerable populations. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus used in the cold season. These recommendations are based on the scientific review of the literature published up to date. We reinforce the importance of general prevention measures like hand hygiene and family education among others. During the predominant season of respiratory syncytial virus in our country (April to September) a monthly dose of intramuscular 15 mg/kg of palivizumab is recommended. The safety and effectiveness has been proved as well as a reduction in the hospitalizations rates. In addition, epidemiological data of previous years are provided here.

  6. Vancomycin prophylaxis and emerging resistance: are ophthalmologists the villains? The heroes?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Y J

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether the routine use of vancomycin prophylaxis in elective cataract surgery promotes emerging resistance and provides effective protection against post-operative endophthalmitis. Critical review of the current scientific and clinical literature was undertaken including appropriate statistical analyses of published data. Public health concerns for emergent vancomycin-resistant life-threatening "super bugs" are legitimate. Evaluation of the risk factors that are known to promote emerging vancomycin resistance (sick patients, hospital intensive care unit setting, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal infections, prolonged systemic therapy, sub-therapeutic dosing, indwelling intravascular and drainage catheters, total kilogram usage and agricultural use) suggest that ophthalmic usage in routine cataract surgery is unlikely to be a significant factor in promoting emerging worldwide resistance. Clinical and scientific studies purporting to prove the value of vancomycin prophylaxis in cataract surgery contain substantial biases and design flaws that seriously undermine their validity. Issues of potential intraocular toxicity, increased costs, absence of medical-legal protection, and compliance with current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Academy of Ophthalmology guidelines (in hospital) mitigate against this practice. Ophthalmologists who use vancomycin prophylaxis in routine cataract surgery are neither the villains nor heroes according to my interpretation of the currently available scientific data. Personal conscience and an ongoing critical review of the literature should guide each ophthalmologist's choice in this controversy.

  7. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Risks of Cholera Prophylaxis for United Nations Peacekeepers.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Amber; Lewnard, Joseph A; Pitzer, Virginia E; Cohen, Ted

    2017-08-01

    More than 5 years after a United Nations peacekeeping battalion introduced cholera to Haiti, over 150,000 peacekeepers continue to be deployed annually from countries where cholera is endemic. The United Nations has thus far declined to provide antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers, a policy based largely on concerns that the risks of drug resistance generation and spread would outweigh the potential benefits of preventing future cholera importations. In this study, we sought to better understand the relative benefits and risks of cholera chemoprophylaxis for peacekeepers in terms of antibiotic resistance. Using a stochastic model to quantify the potential impact of chemoprophylaxis on importation and transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive Vibrio cholerae, we found that chemoprophylaxis would decrease the probability of cholera importation but would increase the expected number of drug-resistant infections if an importation event were to occur. Despite this potential increase, we found that at least 10 drug-sensitive infections would likely be averted per excess drug-resistant infection under a wide range of assumptions about the underlying prevalence of drug resistance and risk of acquired resistance. Given these findings, policymakers should reconsider whether the potential resistance risks of providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers are sufficient to outweigh the anticipated benefits. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde chlangiopancreatography increases the detection rate of drug-resistant bacteria in bile.

    PubMed

    Minami, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Ishigaki, Takashi; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-09-01

    No consensus has yet been reached regarding the utility of antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, there has been little discussion of potential adverse effects of antibiotic use. This study investigated the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis on overall levels of bacterial infiltration of the biliary tract and the prevalence of drug-resistance among that population. Ninety-three patients, from whom intraoperative bile samples were collected after performing ERCP, were assigned to either an antibiotic-prophylaxis group (AP, n = 58) or a no-antibiotic-prophylaxis group (NAP, n = 35). Detection rates of biliary bacteria and antibiotic resistance were determined for each group. Multivariate analysis was also performed to identify risk factors for the development of drug-resistant biliary bacteria. The bile contamination rate was 37.1% for the NAP group and 55.2% for the AP group (P = 0.09). Drug-resistant bacteria were found in 5.7% of the NAP group and 29.3% of the AP group (P = 0.006). Biliary drainage and antibiotic prophylaxis for ERCP were identified as risk factors for the presence of drug-resistant bacteria. Administration of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to ERCP can be a risk factor for the selection of drug-resistant bacteria in the biliary tract. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  10. The incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy--are fluoroquinolones still effective prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Joseph; Teper, Ervin; Ferrandino, Michael; Macchia, Richard J; Blank, William; Grunberger, Ivan; Colon, Ivan

    2008-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been shown to decrease infective complications after prostate biopsy. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging. We quantified contemporary rates of infective complications and the incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. We retrospectively evaluated the records of 1,273 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at New York Harbor Veterans Affairs Hospital from January 2004 to December 2006. Patients received levofloxacin or gatifloxacin. Using the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system we reviewed all patient visits within 1 month after prostate biopsy. Visits were queried for infective symptoms. Positive cultures were evaluated for resistance patterns. The annual and overall incidence of infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistant infections was calculated. Of 1,273 patients 31 (2.4%) presented with infective symptoms after biopsy. The overall incidence of fluoroquinolone resistant infections was 1.2% (15 cases). When stratified by year, there were statistically significant increases in the incidence of infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistance from 2004 to 2006. Of the positive cultures those from 89% of patients yielded Escherichia coli and 90% were fluoroquinolone resistant. Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli were also resistant to gentamicin in 22% of cases, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in 44%, piperacillin in 72% and ampicillin in 94%. However, 100% sensitivity was demonstrated for amikacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Fluoroquinolones are still effective as antibiotic prophylaxis for prostate biopsies but there is an increase in infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistance. When patients present with post-prostate biopsy infective symptoms, almost 50% are associated with fluoroquinolone resistant pathogens. Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone, ceftazidime or amikacin should be initiated until culture specific therapy can

  11. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  12. Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Resistance in Surgical Site Infection After Immediate Tissue Expander Reconstruction of the Breast.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Meghan C; Chu, Carrie K; Duggal, Claire S; Losken, Albert; Carlson, Grant W

    2016-11-01

    A recent survey of plastic surgeons showed that the majority prescribed prophylactic antibiotics after hospital discharge for breast reconstruction. There is no clinical evidence that this practice reduces surgical site infection (SSI) after immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction. Furthermore, multiple studies have suggested that current antibiotic choices may not be appropriately covering the causative organisms of SSI. An institutional breast reconstruction database from January 2005 to December 2011 was queried to identify patients undergoing immediate tissue expander reconstruction of the breast. The bacteriology of the infection, prophylactic and empiric antibiotic use, and antibiotic sensitivities were analyzed. In 557 cases of immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction performed in 378 patients, SSIs were diagnosed in 50 (9.0%) cases. Two hundred patients were given oral antibiotics at discharge; 178 did not receive antibiotics. Surgical site infection developed in 12.0% of patients given oral antibiotics and in 13.5% of those not receiving antibiotics (P = 0.67). Wound culture data were obtained in 34 SSIs. Twenty-nine had positive cultures. The most common offending organisms were methicillin-sensitive (11) and methicillin-resistant (6) Staphylococcus aureus. Despite increased use of postoperative prophylaxis over the years, SSI incidence remained unchanged. However, trends toward increased resistance of SSI organisms to the preoperative and postoperative prophylaxis agents were observed. When first-generation cephalosporins were used as prophylaxis, SSI organisms showed resistance rates of 20.5% (preoperative cefazolin) and 54.5% (postoperative cephalexin). Administration of extended prophylactic antibiotics does not reduce overall risk of SSI after expander-based breast reconstruction but may influence antibiotic resistance patterns when infections occur. The organisms most commonly responsible for SSI are often resistant to cefazolin.

  13. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Bates, John T; Keefer, Christopher J; Slaughter, James C; Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R; Crowe, James E

    2014-04-01

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (Kon) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (Koff) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced Kon with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased Kon found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants.

  14. Antiretroviral prophylaxis of perinatal HIV-1 transmission and the potential impact of antiretroviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Monica; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Mofenson, Lynne M

    2002-06-01

    Since 1994, trials of zidovudine, zidovudine and lamivudine, and nevirapine have demonstrated that these antiretroviral drugs can substantially reduce the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. With reductions in drug price, identification of simple, effective antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission, and an increasing international commitment to support health care infrastructure, antiretrovirals for both perinatal HIV-1 prevention and HIV-1 treatment will likely become more widely available to HIV-1-infected persons in resource-limited countries. In the United States, widespread antiretroviral usage has been associated with increased antiretroviral drug resistance. This raises concern that drug resistance may reduce the effectiveness of perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as well as therapeutic intervention strategies. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about resistance and risk of perinatal HIV transmission, assess the interaction between antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission, and discuss implications for current global prevention and treatment strategies.

  15. Supraphysiological doses of L-thyroxine in the maintenance treatment of prophylaxis-resistant affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Berghöfer, Anne; Bschor, Tom; Baumgartner, Andreas; Kiesslinger, Ursula; Hellweg, Rainer; Adli, Mazda; Baethge, Christopher; Müller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno

    2002-10-01

    This prospective open-label study examined the efficacy of adjunctive supraphysiological doses of L-thyroxine (T(4)) in the maintenance treatment of prophylaxis-resistant affective disorder. Twenty-one (16 women, 5 men) of 25 patients enrolled consecutively over an 8-year period on the basis of their status of prophylaxis resistance (defined as two or more failures to standard prophylactic trials) participated for more than four months in the study and were eligible for the intention-to-treat analysis. The mean length of adjunctive treatment with T(4) was 51.4 +/- 21.7 months. The mean T(4) dose at study end was 378.6 +/- 90.2 micro g/d. The number of episodes and hospitalizations, and the morbidity indices during the time of prophylactic T(4) treatment, were compared with those measured for the same length of time before the start of T(4) treatment (mirror-image method). On the Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder scale (CGI-BP, Change from Worst Phase of Illness), eleven subjects (52.4%) were rated as "very much improved", four (19%) as "much improved", two (9.5%) as "minimally improved" and four (19%) as "no change." The mean total number of recurrences (8.6 before T(4) treatment vs. 2.8 during T(4) treatment; p =.004), the number of hospitalizations (3.1 vs. 1.9; p =.026) and the Morbidity Index (MI(Total) = 0.71 vs. MI(Total) = 0.28; p <.001) significantly declined during T(4) treatment. Subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 13) benefited more from the T4 treatment intervention than did subjects with unipolar major depressive disorder (n = 4) and schizoaffective disorder (n = 4). In conclusion, adjunctive treatment with L-thyroxine in supraphysiological doses may be an effective strategy in the maintenance treatment of patients with prophylaxis-resistant affective disorders.

  16. Routine Ertapenem Prophylaxis for Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy does Not Select for Carbapenem Resistant Organisms: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Page, Matthew J; McLachlan, Alice G; Studd, Rodney C; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2017-03-10

    Sepsis after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is an increasing problem in this era of rising antibiotic resistance. Although ertapenem prophylaxis has proved effective at our institution to reduce this, it has raised local and regional antimicrobial stewardship concerns. We investigated the possible selective effect of single dose ertapenem prophylaxis on fecal colonization with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Patients underwent a rectal swab prior to receiving prebiopsy ertapenem prophylaxis. A second swab was obtained at followup 4 to 6 weeks later. Swabs were screened for carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae using an enhanced CDC (Centers for Disease Control) method. Prebiopsy swabs were also screened for extended spectrum β-lactamase producing and ciprofloxacin resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Patients were monitored for post-biopsy sepsis. A total of 326 patients were enrolled in the study. At baseline 6.4% and 9.0% of patients had colonization with extended spectrum β-lactamase producing and ciprofloxacin resistant Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae were not detected at baseline or followup in any patients. Colonization with nonfermentative organisms with intrinsic ertapenem resistance was detected in 29.4% of patients at baseline and followup (p = 1.0). Three cases (0.9%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) of probable post-biopsy sepsis were identified during the study period. None was bacteremic or required intensive care unit admission. Single dose ertapenem prophylaxis did not appear to have a significant selective effect on fecal colonization with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae or other ertapenem resistant gram-negative organisms in this outpatient group. It is highly effective prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. In the right setting ertapenem may represent a useful prophylactic option to prevent post-transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy sepsis. Copyright © 2017

  17. Induction of antimalaria immunity by pyrimethamine prophylaxis during exposure to sporozoites is curtailed by parasite resistance.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Johannes; Borrmann, Steffen; Matuschewski, Kai

    2011-06-01

    Each year, infections with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum kill 1 million people, mostly children in Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) reduces the incidence of malaria and aims to prevent mortality in infants, children, and pregnant women. There is contradictory evidence as to whether this strategy may generate additional protection against reinfection beyond the limited duration of the intervention. Previous work established that ablation of either liver-stage maturation or subsequent life cycle conversion by causal prophylactic drugs elicits protective immune responses against reinfections when drugs are no longer present. Here we show in the rodent malaria model that pyrimethamine, a component of SP, inhibits liver-stage development in vitro and in vivo, confirming the causal prophylactic activity of pyrimethamine. Repeated exposure to high doses of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites during pyrimethamine prophylaxis induced complete protection in C57BL/6 mice against challenge with high doses of sporozoites delivered intravenously 35 to 199 days later. Immunizations by infectious mosquito bites induced limited, inoculation-dependent protection against subsequent challenge by infected mosquito bites but provided partial protection against experimental cerebral malaria. Short-term pyrimethamine prophylaxis during intravenous transmission of sporozoites from a pyrimethamine-resistant strain delayed, but did not prevent, blood-stage infection. Our data provide a rationale for the notion of sustained protective efficacy of IPT based on the capacity of arrested, drug-sensitive liver-stage and/or suppressed blood-stage parasites to mount lasting protection.

  18. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  19. The impact of the recent AAP changes in palivizumab authorization on RSV-induced bronchiolitis severity and incidence.

    PubMed

    Capizzi, Antonino; Silvestri, Michela; Orsi, Andrea; Cutrera, Renato; Rossi, Giovanni A; Sacco, Oliviero

    2017-08-14

    Following the most recent modification by the American Academy of Pediatrics, based on American studies on RSV epidemiology, the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) decided to limit the total financial coverage of the palivizumab prescription by the National Health Service only to the < 29 wGA group and age ≤ 12 months at the beginning of the RSV epidemic season. However, the vulnerability of otherwise healthy premature infants ≥ 29 wGA has been demonstrated in Italian analyses. We retrospectively reviewed records from children ≤ 1 years of age admitted for RSV-induced ALRI at the Gaslini Hospital, over three consecutive RSV epidemic seasons (RES) (2014-2017). We found that the prescription limitation on RSV immunoprophylaxis in preterms was associated in the 2016-2017 RES with: a) a high proportion of admission for the < 36 wGA infants, the great majority born at 33- < 36 wGA and a chronological age of < 6 months; b) a high proportion of preterms treated with high flow nasal cannula ventilation. These results strongly point to a need to reevaluate the role of palivizumab prophylaxis in the >= 29 wGA subpopulation when specific risk factors are present.

  20. The influence of antibiotic prophylaxis on bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections in children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Sebastiaan Hermanus Johannes; Dieleman, Jeanne; van der Bruggen, Tjomme; Kimpen, Jan; de Jong-de Vos van Steenwijk, Catharine; Zegers, Bas

    2017-01-12

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an increasingly threatening consequence of antimicrobial exposure for many decades now. In urinary tract infections (UTIs), antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) increases bacterial resistance. We studied the resistance patterns of positive urinary cultures in spina bifida children on clean intermittent catheterization, both continuing and stopping AP. In a cohort of 176 spina bifida patients, 88 continued and 88 stopped using AP. During 18 months, a fortnightly catheterized urine sample for bacterial pathogens was cultured. UTIs and significant bacteriuria (SBU) were defined as a positive culture with a single species of bacteria, respectively with and without clinical symptoms and leukocyturia. We compared the percentage of resistance to commonly used antibiotics in the isolated bacteria in both groups. In a total of 4917 cultures, 713 (14.5%) had a positive monoculture, 54.3% of which were Escherichia coli. In the group stopping AP, the resistance percentage to antibiotics in UTI / SBU bacteria was lower than in the group remaining on AP, even when excluding the administered prophylaxis. Stopping antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary tract infections is associated with reduced bacterial resistance to antibiotics in children with spina bifida. ISRCTN ISRCTN56278131 . Registered 20 December 2005.

  1. HIV-1 Drug Resistance in the iPrEx Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liegler, Teri; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Bentley, L. Gordon; Atchison, Robert; Schmidt, Timothy; Javier, Jacqueline; Mehrotra, Megha; Eden, Christopher; Glidden, David V.; McMahan, Vanessa; Anderson, Peter L.; Li, Peilin; Wong, Joseph K.; Buchbinder, Susan; Guanira, Juan V.; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The iPrEx study demonstrated that combination oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women. Selection for drug resistance could offset PrEP benefits. Methods. Phenotypic and genotypic clinical resistance assays characterized major drug resistant mutations. Minor variants with FTC/TDF mutations K65R, K70E, M184V/I were measured using 454 deep sequencing and a novel allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) diagnostic tolerant to sequence heterogeneity. Results. Control of primer-binding site heterogeneity resulted in improved accuracy of minor variant measurements by AS-PCR. Of the 48 on-study infections randomized to FTC/TDF, none showed FTC/TDF mutations by clinical assays despite detectable drug levels in 8 participants. Two randomized to FTC/TDF had minor variant M184I detected at 0.53% by AS-PCR or 0.75% by deep sequencing, only 1 of which had low but detectable drug levels. Among those with acute infection at randomization to FTC/TDF, M184V or I mutations that were predominant at seroconversion waned to background levels within 24 weeks after discontinuing drug. Conclusions. Drug resistance was rare in iPrEx on-study FTC/TDF-randomized seroconverters, and only as low-frequency minor variants. FTC resistance among those initiating PrEP with acute infection waned rapidly after drug discontinuation. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00458393. PMID:24740633

  2. HIV-1 drug resistance in the iPrEx preexposure prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Liegler, Teri; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Bentley, L Gordon; Atchison, Robert; Schmidt, Timothy; Javier, Jacqueline; Mehrotra, Megha; Eden, Christopher; Glidden, David V; McMahan, Vanessa; Anderson, Peter L; Li, Peilin; Wong, Joseph K; Buchbinder, Susan; Guanira, Juan V; Grant, Robert M

    2014-10-15

    The iPrEx study demonstrated that combination oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women. Selection for drug resistance could offset PrEP benefits. Phenotypic and genotypic clinical resistance assays characterized major drug resistant mutations. Minor variants with FTC/TDF mutations K65R, K70E, M184V/I were measured using 454 deep sequencing and a novel allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) diagnostic tolerant to sequence heterogeneity. Control of primer-binding site heterogeneity resulted in improved accuracy of minor variant measurements by AS-PCR. Of the 48 on-study infections randomized to FTC/TDF, none showed FTC/TDF mutations by clinical assays despite detectable drug levels in 8 participants. Two randomized to FTC/TDF had minor variant M184I detected at 0.53% by AS-PCR or 0.75% by deep sequencing, only 1 of which had low but detectable drug levels. Among those with acute infection at randomization to FTC/TDF, M184V or I mutations that were predominant at seroconversion waned to background levels within 24 weeks after discontinuing drug. Drug resistance was rare in iPrEx on-study FTC/TDF-randomized seroconverters, and only as low-frequency minor variants. FTC resistance among those initiating PrEP with acute infection waned rapidly after drug discontinuation. Clinical Trials Registration.NCT00458393. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in infants in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection that is highly prevalent in infants. Severe cases of RSV infection require hospitalisation; this is most likely to occur in infant populations at high risk. The study assesses the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab versus no prophylaxis in infants at high risk of hospitalisation with RSV in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods A decision tree model was developed to reflect the clinical pathway of infants at high risk of severe RSV infection who receive either prophylaxis with palivizumab or no prophylaxis. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the degree of uncertainty surrounding the results. A threshold analysis considered the impact of clinical and environmental risk factors on the cost-effectiveness in the subgroup of preterm infants 33–35 weeks gestational age (wGA). Results Prophylaxis with palivizumab compared with no prophylaxis is associated with the following ICERs; £33,216 for infants with congenital heart disease; £19,168 for infants with chronic lung disease; £3,845 for preterm infants < 29 wGA; £30,205 for preterm infants 29–32 wGA; and £99,056 for preterm infants 33–35 wGA. One-way sensitivity analysis suggests that these results are highly sensitive to the input data. Threshold analysis in the preterm 33–35 wGA subgroup demonstrates that an adjusted RSV-hospitalisation baseline risk of 17.94% or higher would result in an ICER below the £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Discussion Palivizumab is cost-effective compared to no prophylaxis in the United Kingdom in many of the subgroups considered, showing that palivizumab would be a cost-effective use of National Health Service resources. PMID:23919494

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in infants in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Anthony; Filipovic, Ivana; Gooch, Katherine; Büsch, Katharina

    2013-08-06

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection that is highly prevalent in infants. Severe cases of RSV infection require hospitalisation; this is most likely to occur in infant populations at high risk. The study assesses the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab versus no prophylaxis in infants at high risk of hospitalisation with RSV in the United Kingdom (UK). A decision tree model was developed to reflect the clinical pathway of infants at high risk of severe RSV infection who receive either prophylaxis with palivizumab or no prophylaxis. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the degree of uncertainty surrounding the results. A threshold analysis considered the impact of clinical and environmental risk factors on the cost-effectiveness in the subgroup of preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (wGA). Prophylaxis with palivizumab compared with no prophylaxis is associated with the following ICERs; £33,216 for infants with congenital heart disease; £19,168 for infants with chronic lung disease; £3,845 for preterm infants < 29 wGA; £30,205 for preterm infants 29-32 wGA; and £99,056 for preterm infants 33-35 wGA. One-way sensitivity analysis suggests that these results are highly sensitive to the input data. Threshold analysis in the preterm 33-35 wGA subgroup demonstrates that an adjusted RSV-hospitalisation baseline risk of 17.94% or higher would result in an ICER below the £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Palivizumab is cost-effective compared to no prophylaxis in the United Kingdom in many of the subgroups considered, showing that palivizumab would be a cost-effective use of National Health Service resources.

  5. Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Douglas S; Eamsila, Chirapa; Sasiprapha, Theerayuth; Sangkharomya, Suebpong; Khaewsathien, Pradith; Supakalin, Panpaka; Tang, Douglas B; Jarasrumgsichol, Phongsak; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Edstein, Michael D; Rieckmann, Karl H; Brewer, Thomas G

    2004-10-15

    We assessed monthly doses of tafenoquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 205 Thai soldiers received either a loading dose of tafenoquine 400 mg (base) daily for 3 days, followed by single monthly 400-mg doses (n = 104), or placebo (n = 101), for up to 5 consecutive months. In volunteers completing follow-up (96 tafenoquine and 91 placebo recipients), there were 22 P. vivax, 8 P. falciparum, and 1 mixed infection. All infections except 1 P. vivax occurred in placebo recipients, giving tafenoquine a protective efficacy of 97% for all malaria (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%), 96% for P. vivax malaria (95% CI, 76%-99%), and 100% for P. falciparum malaria (95% CI, 60%-100%). Monthly tafenoquine was safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in preventing P. vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in Thai soldiers during 6 months of prophylaxis. Copyright 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America

  6. Modeling dynamic interactions between pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions & treatment programs: predicting HIV transmission & resistance

    PubMed Central

    Supervie, Virginie; Barrett, Meagan; Kahn, James S.; Musuka, Godfrey; Moeti, Themba Lebogang; Busang, Lesogo; Blower, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection. Consequently, PrEP may soon be used for epidemic control. We model the dynamic interactions that will occur between treatment programs and potential PrEP interventions in resource-constrained countries. We determine the consequences for HIV transmission and drug resistance. We use response hypersurface modeling to predict the effect of PrEP on decreasing transmission as a function of effectiveness, adherence and coverage. We predict PrEP will increase need for second-line therapies (SLT) for treatment-naïve individuals, but could significantly decrease need for SLT for treatment-experienced individuals. If the rollout of PrEP is carefully planned it could increase the sustainability of treatment programs. If not, need for SLT could increase and the sustainability of treatment programs could be compromised. Our results show the optimal strategy for rolling out PrEP in resource-constrained countries is to begin around the “worst” treatment programs. PMID:22355700

  7. Modeling dynamic interactions between pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions & treatment programs: predicting HIV transmission & resistance.

    PubMed

    Supervie, Virginie; Barrett, Meagan; Kahn, James S; Musuka, Godfrey; Moeti, Themba Lebogang; Busang, Lesego; Busang, Lesogo; Blower, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection. Consequently, PrEP may soon be used for epidemic control. We model the dynamic interactions that will occur between treatment programs and potential PrEP interventions in resource-constrained countries. We determine the consequences for HIV transmission and drug resistance. We use response hypersurface modeling to predict the effect of PrEP on decreasing transmission as a function of effectiveness, adherence and coverage. We predict PrEP will increase need for second-line therapies (SLT) for treatment-naïve individuals, but could significantly decrease need for SLT for treatment-experienced individuals. If the rollout of PrEP is carefully planned it could increase the sustainability of treatment programs. If not, need for SLT could increase and the sustainability of treatment programs could be compromised. Our results show the optimal strategy for rolling out PrEP in resource-constrained countries is to begin around the "worst" treatment programs.

  8. Prophylaxis of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Malaria prevention in travelers to endemic areas remains dependent principally on chemoprophylaxis. Although malaria chemoprophylaxis refers to all malaria species, a distinction should be drawn between falciparum malaria prophylaxis and the prophylaxis of the relapsing malaria species (vivax & ovale). While the emergence of drug resistant strains, as well as the costs and adverse reactions to medications, complicate falciparum prophylaxis use, there are virtually no drugs available for vivax prophylaxis, beside of primaquine. Based on traveler’s malaria data, a revised recommendation for using chemoprophylaxis in low risk areas should be considered. PMID:22811794

  9. RP 59500 prophylaxis of experimental endocarditis due to erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant isogenic pairs of viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    L'Hériteau, F; Entenza, J M; Lacassin, F; Leport, C; Glauser, M P; Moreillon, P

    1995-01-01

    RP 59500 is a new injectable streptogramin composed of two synergistic components (quinupristin and dalfopristin) which are active against a number of erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant gram-positive bacteria. The following experiments investigate the ability of RP 59500 to prevent experimental endocarditis due to either of two erythromycin-susceptible streptococcal isolates or their constitutively erythromycin-resistant Tn916 delta E transconjugants. RP 59500 had low MICs (0.125 to 0.5 mg/liter) for all four test organisms and was substantially bactericidal in vitro. Rats with catheter-induced aortic vegetations were given single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis 30 to 60 min before bacterial inoculation through a computerized pump system which permitted the simulation of drug kinetics for humans produced by either 7 mg of RP 59500 per kg of body weight or 1 g of vancomycin. Single-dose RP 59500 prophylaxis successfully prevented endocarditis due to both the erythromycin-susceptible parent strains and their erythromycin-resistant derivatives in rats challenged with the minimal inoculum infecting 90% of controls. In addition, RP 59500 also prevented infection in animals challenged with fivefold-larger inocula of the erythromycin-susceptible parent strains. Vancomycin successfully prevented endocarditis due to any of the four test organisms. These results underline the in vivo efficacy of RP 59500 against both erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant streptococci. Such good results against the resistant strains would not be expected with erythromycin or clindamycin, which are the standard macrolidelincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics used for endocarditis prophylaxis in humans. An oral form of RP 59500 which might advantageously replace some of the older prophylactic regimens is currently being developed. PMID:7492079

  10. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-06-08

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  11. Effect of Prophylactic Palivizumab on Admission Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Former Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Mi; Seo, Hyun Joo; Choi, Seo Heui; Jung, Yu Jin; Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Sung, Se In; Shim, Jae Won; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon; Hwang, Jong Hee; Lee, Jang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Kim, Eun Sun; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Shin; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of prophylactic palivizumab on hospitalization secondary to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (RSVhospitalization) in former very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study also sought to identify the risk factors of RSVhospitalizationin this particular infant population. A prospective observational study was conducted between September 2007 and April 2008 in seven Korean hospitals. Children with a history of very low birth weight, a diagnosis of BPD and who were <2 yr old at the onset of the RSV season were included in this study. Palivizumab injections were administered monthly for a maximum of five months during the RSV season. RSVhospitalization rates were reviewed, and RSVhospitalization rates between subgroups were categorized by gestational age, birth weight, and duration of ventilator care. A total of 90 subjects completed the follow-up interviews. The mean gestational age at birth was 26.1±1.7 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 889.4±222.2 g. The incidence of RSVhospitalization in the study population was 8.9% (8/90), and the mean hospital stay was 11.0±5.5 days, including one death. There were no statistically significant differences in the patients' demographic characteristics or risk factors for RSV hospitalization. When subgroup analyses were conducted, there were still no statistically significant differences. The administration of palivizumab prophylaxis during the entire RSV season is important in VLBWI with BPD, regardless of their gestational age and birth weight, or previous ventilator dependency.

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: Combined Impact on HIV Transmission and Drug Resistance in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Ume L.; Glaubius, Robert; Mubayi, Anuj; Hood, Gregory; Mellors, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with overlapping and nonoverlapping antiretrovirals (ARVs) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and drug resistance is unknown. Methods. A detailed mathematical model was used to simulate the epidemiological impact of ART alone, PrEP alone, and combined ART + PrEP in South Africa. Results. ART alone initiated at a CD4 lymphocyte cell count <200 cells/µL (80% coverage and 96% effectiveness) prevents 20% of HIV infections over 10 years but increases drug resistance prevalence to 6.6%. PrEP alone (30% coverage and 75% effectiveness) also prevents 21% of infections but with lower resistance prevalence of 0.5%. The ratio of cumulative infections prevented to prevalent drug-resistant cases after 10 years is 7-fold higher for PrEP than for ART. Combined ART + PrEP with overlapping ARVs prevents 35% of infections but increases resistance prevalence to 8.2%, whereas ART + PrEP with nonoverlapping ARVs prevents slightly more infections (37%) and reduces resistance prevalence to 7.2%. Conclusions. Combined ART + PrEP is likely to prevent more HIV infections than either strategy alone, but with higher prevalence of drug resistance. ART is predicted to contribute more to resistance than is PrEP. Optimizing both ART and PrEP effectiveness and delivery are the keys to preventing HIV transmission and drug resistance. PMID:23570850

  13. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adults.

    PubMed

    Enzler, Mark J; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement, and bite wounds. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for various surgical procedures to prevent surgical site infections. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be bactericidal, nontoxic, inexpensive, and active against the typical pathogens that can cause surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be administered within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short duration to decrease toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost.

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis--the story so far.

    PubMed

    Simoes, E A F; Groothuis, J R

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious pathogen that infects nearly all children by the age of 2 years. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide among certain high-risk paediatric populations. Therapy is sub-optimal for RSV, thus treatment focuses on ameliorating symptoms. Since discovery of the virus in the 1950s, efforts have been ongoing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. These efforts have met with serious obstacles. Passive immunoprophylaxis presents a viable alternative to active immunization. In 1998, the genetically engineered humanized monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) was granted FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for prophylaxis of high-risk children in the United States; EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) approval followed in 1999 for Europe. It is now approved in over 45 countries worldwide. Palivizumab was shown to significantly reduce RSV-related hospitalizations in North America and Europe with few adverse effects. Clinical trial and outcomes data documenting experience with palivizumab to date continue to extend the initial safety and efficacy observations.

  15. First versus second year respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis in chronic lung disease (2005-2015).

    PubMed

    Wang, Daniel Y; Li, Abby; Paes, Bosco; Mitchell, Ian; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-03-01

    Children aged <2 years with chronic lung disease (CLD) have a 10-fold higher risk for respiratory syncytial virus-positive hospitalization (RSVH) compared to healthy term infants. Based on the updated position statements, we compared respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH risks in CLD children who received palivizumab during the first year (FY) versus second year (SY) of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Demographic data were collected at enrolment and RIH events recorded monthly from 2005 to 2015. Eight hundred forty-seven FY and 450 SY children with CLD were identified. SY children had a lower gestational age (27 versus 29 weeks) and required more days of respiratory support (64 versus 43), oxygen therapy (108 versus 55), and length of stay (118 versus 73) during the neonatal course compared to FY children; all p < 0.0005. RIH rates were 12.2 (FY) and 18.2 (SY), and RSVH rates were 2.3 (FY) and 3.9 (SY). Cox regression showed similar hazards for both RIH (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.6-1.6, p = 0.812) and RSVH (hazard ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.4-2.9, p = 0.920). SY and FY children had similar risks for RIH and RSVH. The findings imply that SY children with CLD are correctly selected for palivizumab based on neonatal illness severity and merit prophylaxis. What is Known: • Children with chronic lung disease have a 10-fold higher risk for RSV-positive hospitalization in comparison to healthy term infants and commonly receive palivizumab prophylaxis as a preventative measure against serious RSV-related lower respiratory tract infections. • The American Academy of Pediatrics [ 2 ] and the Canadian Paediatric Society [ 30 ] have recently modified their recommendations for RSV prophylaxis in children with chronic lung disease, limiting palivizumab to either those <32 weeks gestation or those in the first year of life who are oxygen dependent or require medical therapy for the treatment of their condition. What is New:

  16. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mensa, José; Trilla, Antoni; Cainzos, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery refers to a very brief course of an antimicrobial agent initiated just before the start of the procedure. The efficacy of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection at the site of surgery (incisional superficial, incisional deep, or organ/space infection) has been demonstrated for many surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the majority of studies centering on the quality of preoperative prophylaxis have found that a high percentage of the antimicrobials used are inappropriate for this purpose. This work discusses the scientific basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis, provides general recommendations for its correct use and specific recommendations for various types of surgery. The guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis are based on results from well-designed studies, whenever possible. These guidelines are focussed on reducing the incidence of infection at the surgical site while minimizing the contribution of preoperative administration of antimicrobials to the development of bacterial resistance.

  17. Cost effectiveness of a protocol using palivizumab in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gago, Yolanda; Lombardero-Pin, Marina; Ortega de la Cruz, Casilda; Maciuniak, Pablo A; Díez Del Pino, Alicia

    2017-03-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo principal fue evaluar el coste-efectividad del protocolo de uso de palivizumab en prematuros instaurado por consenso en nuestro hospital comparándolo con el basado en las recomendaciones de diferentes sociedades científicas. Como objetivo secundario se analizaron los factores de riesgo y gravedad de los pacientes hospitalizados atendiendo al protocolo establecido en nuestro centro.Material y métodos: El periodo de estudio fue de cuatro temporadas con el protocolo ampliado (datos retrospectivos) frente a dos con el protocolo restringido o consensuado (datos prospectivos). La perspectiva del estudio fue la del sistema sanitario, incluyendo los costes de hospitalización y del palivizumab en nuestro centro. El cálculo de la efectividad se determinó con la tasa de ingresos de pacientes prematuros estratificados por semanas de edad gestacional: < de 29, <32 y <35. Para el análisis de los factores de riesgo y gravedad en pacientes ingresados en las temporadas con el nuevo protocolo se recogen, de forma prospectiva, datos clínicos y factores ambientales y sociales. Resultados: En los estratos de edad gestacional <29 y <32 no se demostró una mayor efectividad del protocolo ampliado frente al consensuado. Solamente se objetivó una mayor efectividad para EG<35 en los datos acumulados y al comparar las temporadas 08/09 con la 12/13 y 13/14 para datos individuales. Este estrato lleva asociado un cociente coste eficacia incremental de 53.250,07 € (rango: 14.793,39 € a 90.446,47 € para los datos individuales y 50.525,53 € (28.688,22 € a 211.575,65 €) para los acumulados. La instauración de este protocolo en nuestro centro supuso un ahorro medio por temporada de 169.911,51 €. Se constata una relación coste-efectividad adecuada del protocolo ampliado si el coste del palivizumab por paciente fuese menor de 1.206,67 € (calculados para el máximo aprovechamiento del vial) y para una tasa de hospitalizaci

  18. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in intestinal flora of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy - possible shift in biopsy prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Juszczak, Kajetan; Prondzinska, Małgorzata; Kędzierska, Anna; Szwajkert-Sobiecka, Hanna; Drewa, Tomasz

    2017-06-30

    Infection of prostate gland following biopsy is common complication. Most common pathogen is E.coli. Since fluorochinolones are commonly prescribed as prophylaxis, infection caused by E.coli leads to complicated infections, especially due to fluoroquinolone-resistant species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E.coli species in rectal swabs of patients undergoing prostate biopsy and to define appropriate antimicrobial agent as prostate biopsy prophylaxis. Rectal swabs were collected in 159 patients undergoing prostate biopsy. The identification of E.coli was performed using the BBL Crystal E/NF identification (ID) System. In the rectal swab of 112/159 patients E.coli was found. In 47/159 cases after incubation, the microbiological evaluation showed no E.coli in these swabs. Defining the specific resistance to microbiological agents, we obtained that E.coli resistant to ciprofloxacin was found in 40 out of 112 patients (50.9%). Resistance to I and II generation of cephalosporin were found in 7%, and 5%, respectively. In 40 out of 112 (35.7%) E.coli resistant to trimetoprim/sulfametoksazol was reported. E.coli resistant to amoxicillin with clavulonian acid and ampicillin was found in 16 out of 112 (14.28%), and in 67 out of 112 patients (59.8%), respectively. In all cases with fluoroquinolone-resistant E.coli species positive rectal swabs I generation of cephalosporin seems to be a best choice for prostate biopsy prophylaxis. Moreover, II generation of cephalosporin should be considered for treatment of the eventual subsequent infection. The evaluation of rectal swabs before prostate biopsy is crucial in determining targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  19. Receipt of palivizumab before birth hospitalization discharge among preterm infants in the United States.

    PubMed

    La Gamma, Edmund F; Kumar, Veena R; Wadhawan, Rajan; Ye, Sherry; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Ycas, Joseph; Ambrose, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine predischarge palivizumab receipt prevalence among infants ≤ 36 weeks' gestational age. This retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge records from the Premier Perspective database (Premier Inc., Charlotte, NC) of infants ≤ 36 weeks' gestational age who were discharged home after birth hospitalization during the November-March respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive statistics were performed and logistic regression was employed to identify differences in categorical variables. Among infants ≤ 36 weeks' gestational age discharged home during the RSV seasons, 21.4 to 27.0% had a record of palivizumab receipt before discharge. Among infants ≤ 30 weeks' gestational age, palivizumab receipt was 82.3 to 88.8%. Receipt varied considerably at the hospital level, from 0 to 100%. This study improves our understanding of characteristics associated with predischarge palivizumab administration. The identified gaps in recommended care can help inform future implementation of palivizumab and other interventions to help improve the health of high-risk preterm infants in the United States. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Causative organisms in revision total hip & knee arthroplasty for infection: Increasing multi-antibiotic resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and the implications for antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Malhas, A M; Lawton, R; Reidy, M; Nathwani, D; Clift, B A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing resistance among post-operative Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) infections have been reported. We present our experience changing resistance patterns. We examined microbiological results from hip and knee revisions from 2001 to 2010 and compared resistance to all Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and CNS cultured from regional pan-speciality sources, in order to examine the patterns of antibiotic resistance. 72 revisions in 67 patients were included. The most common organisms were SA (36%) and CNS (35%). Resistance to methicillin was 72% for CNS versus 20% for SA and resistance to gentamicin was 40% for CNS versus 4% for SA. Among all regional (background pan-speciality) cultures SA resistance to methicillin fell from 32% to 16% from 2006 to 10 with no change in gentamicin resistance at 3%. During the same period resistance of CNS to methicillin and gentamicin increased from 63% to 70% and 32%-47% respectively. Resistance of CNS to both methicillin and gentamicin is higher than with SA and appears to be increasing. At least 32% of CNS and 4% of SA from infected TKRs/THRs were resistant to our current prophylaxis regime. These changing patterns of resistance may have implications for future antibiotic prophylaxis regimes. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ottoline, Ana Carolina Xavier; Tomita, Shiro; Marques, Marise da Penha Costa; Felix, Felippe; Ferraiolo, Priscila Novaes; Laurindo, Roberta Silveira Santos

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: Antibiotic prophylaxis aims to prevent infection of surgical sites before contamination or infection occurs. Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis does not enhance the prevention of surgical infection and is associated with higher rates of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This review of the literature concerning antibiotic prophylaxis, with an emphasis on otolaryngologic surgery, aims to develop a guide for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery in order to reduce the numbers of complications stemming from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. PMID:25991999

  2. Potential burden of antibiotic resistance on surgery and cancer chemotherapy antibiotic prophylaxis in the USA: a literature review and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Teillant, Aude; Gandra, Sumanth; Barter, Devra; Morgan, Daniel J; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-12-01

    The declining efficacy of existing antibiotics potentially jeopardises outcomes in patients undergoing medical procedures. We investigated the potential consequences of increases in antibiotic resistance on the ten most common surgical procedures and immunosuppressing cancer chemotherapies that rely on antibiotic prophylaxis in the USA. We searched the published scientific literature and identified meta-analyses and reviews of randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials (allocation done on the basis of a pseudo-random sequence-eg, odd/even hospital number or date of birth, alternation) to estimate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing infections and infection-related deaths after surgical procedures and immunosuppressing cancer chemotherapy. We varied the identified effect sizes under different scenarios of reduction in the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis (10%, 30%, 70%, and 100% reductions) and estimated the additional number of infections and infection-related deaths per year in the USA for each scenario. We estimated the percentage of pathogens causing infections after these procedures that are resistant to standard prophylactic antibiotics in the USA. We estimate that between 38·7% and 50·9% of pathogens causing surgical site infections and 26·8% of pathogens causing infections after chemotherapy are resistant to standard prophylactic antibiotics in the USA. A 30% reduction in the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for these procedures would result in 120,000 additional surgical site infections and infections after chemotherapy per year in the USA (ranging from 40,000 for a 10% reduction in efficacy to 280,000 for a 70% reduction in efficacy), and 6300 infection-related deaths (range: 2100 for a 10% reduction in efficacy, to 15,000 for a 70% reduction). We estimated that every year, 13,120 infections (42%) after prostate biopsy are attributable to resistance to fluoroquinolones in the USA. Increasing antibiotic

  3. Medical utilization associated with palivizumab compliance in a commercial and managed medicaid health plan.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Jocelyn L; Daw, Jessica R; Coley, Kim C; Rayburg, Renee

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization in infants. Palivizumab is currently the only available agent for prevention of RSV infection in high-risk infants. This high-cost injectable requires monthly dosing during the RSV season. Compliance with the injection schedule is important in the prevention of RSV infection and respiratory complications. Managed care organizations have an interest in the relationship between compliance with the palivizumab dosing schedule and respiratory-related medical outcomes such as emergency room (ER) visits, physician office visits, and hospitalizations. To evaluate respiratory-related medical outcomes and cost for infants who were prescribed and received palivizumab in accordance with the dosing schedule recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in 2006 versus those who did not. A retrospective claims analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between compliance with the palivizumab dosing schedule and respiratory-related medical visits and costs in a western Pennsylvania managed care organization composed of approximately 307,000 commercial and 92,000 Medicaid members. De-identified pharmacy and medical claims data were extracted for infants (0-24 months) who met prior authorization criteria and who received at least 1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2007 RSV season (October 15, 2006, to April 15, 2007). Patient compliance was based on (a) starting palivizumab on time, (b) receiving the expected number of injections, and (c) no more than a 37-day gap between palivizumab claims. Medical utilization (physician office visits, ER visits, and hospital admissions) was analyzed by comparing medical services (with respiratory-related ICD-9-CM codes) for the compliant versus noncompliant groups. Net health plan costs (after subtraction of member cost share) were compared for compliant versus noncompliant groups for (a) palivizumab-only pharmacy

  4. A Dual-Action Approach to Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer: Prophylaxis to Ensure Therapeutic Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    RU486 ( Mifepristone ) is now FDA-approved. We were the first to discover that this anti-progestine inhibited production of glycolipids,6 and one goal in...Senchenkov A, Cabot MC. Ceramide toxicity and metabolism differ in wild-type and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Int J Oncol 15:535-540, 1999. APPENDICES None. 8

  5. Discovery of a Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Greater In Vivo Protection than the Murine Precursor of Palivizumab.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Lu-Ting; Cao, Jian-Li; Sun, Yong-Peng; McLellan, Jason S; Graham, Barney S; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2017-08-01

    Palivizumab, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes antigenic site II on both the prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein, is the only prophylactic agent approved for use for the treatment of RSV infection. However, its relatively low neutralizing potency and high cost have limited its use to a restricted population of infants at high risk of severe disease. Previously, we isolated a high-potency neutralizing antibody, 5C4, that specifically recognizes antigenic site Ø at the apex of the pre-F protein trimer. We compared in vitro and in vivo the potency and protective efficacy of 5C4 and the murine precursor of palivizumab, antibody 1129. Both antibodies were synthesized on identical murine backbones as either an IgG1 or IgG2a subclass and evaluated for binding to multiple F protein conformations, in vitro inhibition of RSV infection and propagation, and protective efficacy in mice. Although 1129 and 5C4 had similar pre-F protein binding affinities, the 5C4 neutralizing activity was nearly 50-fold greater than that of 1129 in vitro In BALB/c mice, 5C4 reduced the peak titers of RSV 1,000-fold more than 1129 did in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data indicate that antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø are more efficacious at preventing RSV infection than antibodies specific for antigenic site II. Our data also suggest that site Ø-specific antibodies may be useful for the prevention or treatment of RSV infection and support the use of the pre-F protein as a vaccine antigen.IMPORTANCE There is no vaccine yet available to prevent RSV infection. The use of the licensed antibody palivizumab, which recognizes site II on both the pre-F and post-F proteins, is restricted to prophylaxis in neonates at high risk of severe RSV disease. Recommendations for using passive immunization in the general population or for therapy in immunocompromised persons with

  6. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.

  7. Efficacy and Optimization of Palivizumab Injection Regimens Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalizations in children, accounting for more than 90 000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. For children who are at risk for severe RSV infections, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends immunoprophylaxis with a series of up to 5 injections of the antibody palivizumab administered monthly, beginning on November 1 of each year. However, many practitioners initiate injections at the onset of RSV season as indicated by local surveillance. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of current regimens for palivizumab injections across different cities and to design an optimized regimen. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a mathematical modeling study of the risk for hospitalization due to RSV infection. The model accounted for the pharmacokinetics of the antibody, the timing of the injections, and seasonal patterns of RSV, including geographic and year-to-year variability. We used the model to estimate the efficacy of current regimens, including the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation, and to design a more effective injection regimen, the optimized fixed start (OFS), which uses city-specific initiation dates. Participants were the approximately 700 000 individuals who had specimens tested for RSV by National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System laboratories in 18 US cities from July 1, 1994, through June 30, 2011 (a total of 725 741 tests). INTERVENTIONS Different palivizumab injection regimens. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was reduction in hospitalizations due to RSV infections. The secondary measures were cost (number of palivizumab doses) and duration of protection (in days). RESULTS The American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended 5-injection regimen is expected to reduce hospitalization risk by a median of 2.7% (range, −2.2% to 6.1%) compared with the conventional regimen based on RSV

  8. Changes during travel in the composition and antibiotic resistance pattern of the intestinal Enterobacteriaceae flora: results from a study of mecillinam prophylaxis against travellers' diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gaarslev, K; Stenderup, J

    1985-01-01

    A randomized double-blind study was carried out in a group of Danish students visiting Mexico for 2 weeks to investigate the efficacy of mecillinam when given orally in preventing travellers' diarrhoea. The subjects took either 200 mg mecillinam daily as a single dose or placebo for 14 days. Nine (56%) out of 16 taking placebo and 3 (19%) out of 16 taking mecillinam developed travellers' diarrhoea (p less than 0.05). The pathogenic aetiology was not ascertained. A complete change in the Enterobacteriaceae flora took place during travel. A highly antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae flora was acquired in Mexico in subjects on mecillinam prophylaxis as well as on placebo. Selection of mecillinam-resistant bacteria was minimal.

  9. [Levofloxacin prophylaxis in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Carena, Alberto A; Jorge, Laura; Bonvehí, Pablo; Temporiti, Elena; Zárate, Mariela S; Herrera, Fabián

    2016-01-01

    Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations. Of 946 episodes here included, 821 presented high risk febrile neutropenia. A total of 264 cases (27.9%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis. This group consisted of a higher proportion of high risk febrile neutropenia (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) and patients that had received an hematopoietic stem cell transplant (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) compared to those who didn't receive prophylaxis. Those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis presented a similar frequency of clinically diagnosed but a lower proportion of microbiologically documented infections (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012) than those who didn't receive prophylaxis. The episodes of bacteremia that occurred in the first group were more frequently caused by multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) and by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (19% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). The group that received prophylaxis had a lower proportion of adequate empirical antibiotic treatment (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009), with similar outcomes in both groups. We suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be stopped whenever there is a rise in the frequency of MDRB infections in this population.

  10. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli in intestinal flora of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy--should we reassess our practices for antibiotic prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Steensels, D; Slabbaert, K; De Wever, L; Vermeersch, P; Van Poppel, H; Verhaegen, J

    2012-06-01

    Although the estimate of the incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB) is low, fluoroquinolone-resistant infections after prostate biopsy are being increasingly noted. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains before TRUSPB and at evaluating potential predisposing risk factors. The incidence of sepsis after prostate biopsy was determined, and our routine practice for antibiotic prophylaxis for TRUSPB was evaluated. A prospective study was conducted in 342 consecutive patients undergoing prostate biopsy between December 2009 and July 2010. Before TRUSPB, a rectal swab was cultured. The correlation between the presence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and plausible risk factors was investigated by the use of a questionnaire. Of the 236 patients included, 22.0% (52/236) harboured ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains. The use of fluoroquinolones in the 6 months before biopsy was associated with an increased risk of faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains (p <0.01). Faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains was an important risk factor for infectious complications after TRUSPB (p <0.01). In conclusion, a significant number of patients have faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains (22.0%) before TRUSPB. The use of fluoroquinolones in the previous 6 months before biopsy is a risk factor for faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and for infectious complications after TRUSPB. Hence, the universal administration of fluoroquinolones should be reconsidered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. A single-center evaluation of the risk for colonization or bacteremia with piperacillin-tazobactam- and cefepime-resistant bacteria in patients with acute leukemia receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A D; Heil, E L; Patel, N K; Duffy, A; Gilmore, S

    2016-04-01

    Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis is indicated to prevent neutropenic fever in patients with acute leukemia. However, fluoroquinolone use has been associated with development of multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing gram-negative bacilli. Due to a presumed risk of multi-drug resistance associated with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, patients admitted to our hospital with neutropenic fever receive empiric carbapenem therapy until cultures are negative for 72 h or identification of an organism. Our study seeks to identify the incidence of multi-drug-resistant organism colonization and bacteremia among patients who receive fluoroquinolone prophylaxis and to evaluate duration of empiric carbapenem therapy. A retrospective review of adult patients with acute leukemia receiving a fluoroquinolone as outpatient infection prophylaxis, admitted to our tertiary cancer center for treatment of neutropenic fever was completed. Surveillance and blood cultures were reviewed for antibiotic resistance. Duration of empiric carbapenem therapy was reviewed. One hundred patients and 177 admissions for neutropenic fever were included. Six patients harbored a piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant organism found during routine surveillance. Among these patients, two bacteremias were identified, one of which was a piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant organism. Five bacteremias were identified among 83 patients with negative surveillance cultures. Among the bloodstream infections, five organisms isolated were fluoroquinolone resistant. No cefepime-resistant organism was isolated on surveillance or bloodstream cultures. Adherence to the institution guideline of narrowing antibiotics after 72 h of negative cultures occurred in only 13% of neutropenic fever cases. The average duration of carbapenem therapy in 177 neutropenic fever episodes was 4.4 days. Our findings show that among our patient population, there is a low risk of bacteremia with a

  12. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Nagao

    2004-02-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is widely performed in any surgical procedures to prevent postoperative infections. However, we have neither double-blind placebo-controlled studies nor sufficient surveillance of postoperative infections that are common in Europe and the United States, and therefore there is little convincing scientific basis accounting for the validity of this therapy. In addition, prophylactic agent is still uncovered by medical insurance despite the persistent arguments as to its necessity. To establish the guidelines in our own country, a greater deal of evidence needs to be accumulated. Strategies for antimicrobial prophylaxis should be determined based on the types of possible postoperative infections and the classifications of operations according to contamination levels in individual operative fields. This process may involve the precise selection of prophylactic agents for suspected contaminating bacterial species in each operative organ and their administration regimens suitable for the individual surgery. Upon selection of prophylactic agents for postoperative infections, various conditions should be considered: e.g., susceptibility, resistance, blood concentrations, urinary excretion, transition into body fluid and tissues, and adverse reactions. The first and second generations of cephem and cephamycin derivatives can be the first choice, but the use of various other antibacterial agents may be necessary for resistant bacterial strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). Cyclic therapy based on penicillins (including mixtures), cephems (including cephamycins) and phosphomycins also seems useful for such resistant strains. At present, there is only limited evidence supporting the importance of prophylactic agents. Controlled trials employing well-designed protocols that endure scientific criticism must be done with due consideration for medical economics.

  13. Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Dara A.; Baeten, Jared M.; McCoy, Connor O.; Weis, Julie F.; Peterson, Dylan; Mbara, Gerald; Donnell, Deborah; Thomas, Katherine K.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Frenkel, Lisa; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly R.; Celum, Connie; Overbaugh, Julie; Matsen, Frederick A.; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Coombs, Robert W.; Frenkel, Lisa; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Lingappa, Jairam; McElrath, M. Juliana; Fife, Kenneth; Were, Edwin; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Ndase, Patrick; Katabira, Elly; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig; Wangisi, Jonathan; Campbell, James; Tappero, Jordan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Mugo, Nelly Rwamba; Campbell, James; Tappero, Jordan; Wangisi, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) or TDF alone reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Understanding the risk of antiretroviral resistance selected by PrEP during breakthrough infections is important because of the risk of treatment failure during subsequent antiretroviral use. Methods. Within the largest randomized trial of FTC/TDF versus TDF as PrEP, plasma samples were tested for HIV with resistance mutations associated with FTC (K65R and M184IV) and TDF (K65R and K70E), using 454 sequencing. Results. Of 121 HIV seroconverters, 25 received FTC/TDF, 38 received TDF, and 58 received placebo. Plasma drug levels in 26 individuals indicated PrEP use during or after HIV acquisition, of which 5 had virus with resistance mutations associated with their PrEP regimen. Among those with PrEP drug detected during infection, resistance was more frequent in the FTC/TDF arm (4 of 7 [57%]), compared with the TDF arm (1 of 19 [5.3%]; P = .01), owing to the FTC-associated mutation M184IV. Of these cases, 3 had unrecognized acute infection at PrEP randomization, and 2 were HIV negative at enrollment. Conclusions. These results suggest that resistance selected by PrEP is rare but can occur both with PrEP initiation during acute seronegative HIV infection and in PrEP breakthrough infections and that FTC is associated with a greater frequency of resistance mutations than TDF. PMID:25587020

  14. Retrospective Multicenter Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis in Korean Children with Congenital Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Young; Jung, Se Yong; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Gi Beom; Kim, Young-Hwue; Shim, Woo Sup; Kang, I-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We conducted a review of current data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis with palivizumab, in Korean children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). In 2009, the Korean guideline for RSV prophylaxis had established up to five shots monthly per RSV season, only for children <1 year of age with hemodynamic significance CHD (HS-CHD). Subjects and Methods During the RSV seasons in 2009-2015, we performed a retrospective review of data for 466 infants with CHD, examined at six centers in Korea. Results Infants received an average of 3.7±1.9 (range, 1-10) injections during the RSV season. Fifty-seven HS-CHD patients (12.2%) were hospitalized with breakthrough RSV bronchiolitis, with a recurrence in three patients, one year after the initial check-up. Among patients with simple CHD, only five (1.1%) patients received one additional dose postoperatively, as per the limitations set by the Korean guideline. Among the 30 deaths (6.4%), five (1.1%) were attributed to RSV infection; three to simple CHD, one to Tetralogy of Fallot, and one to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Of the three HCM patients that exceeded guidelines for RSV prophylaxis, two (66.6%) were hospitalized, and one died of RSV infection (33.3%). Conclusion In accordance to the Korean guideline, minimal injections of palivizumab were administered to patients having HS-CHD

  15. A bundle that includes active surveillance, contact precaution for carriers, and cefazolin-based antimicrobial prophylaxis prevents methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in clean orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideki; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Shigemi, Akari; Orita, Michiyo; Nakagawa, Aya; Nozima, Satoko; Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Komiya, Setsuro; Tokuda, Koichi; Nishi, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause of orthopedic surgical site infections (SSIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a bundle approach in the prevention of orthopedic MRSA SSIs. MRSA active surveillance and decolonization were performed preoperatively at our institution from July 2004 until 2007. In January 2008, a bundle approach comprising contact precautions for MRSA-positive patients and cefazolin-based antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) stewardship was implemented. Data on the prevalence of MRSA SSIs, antimicrobial use density, duration of AMP, and the use of an alcohol antiseptic agent (L/1,000 patient-days) were evaluated during 2 periods: July 2004-December 2007 (period A) and January 2008-December 2012 (period B). The MRSA SSI rate during period B (0.97%; 19 out of 1,966) was significantly lower than that during period A (2.17%; 29 out of 1,333; P = .003). The infection rate correlated negatively with both the cefazolin antimicrobial use density (r = -0.76; P = .0002) and the use of an alcohol antiseptic agent (r = -0.68; P = .002). An infection-prevention bundle consisting of contact precautions for carriers and AMP stewardship in addition to active surveillance was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of orthopedic MRSA SSIs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of in-feed Chlortetracycline prophylaxis in beef cattle on levels of 10 antimicrobial resistance genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The majority of antimicrobial products used in food-animal production are administered in-feed to control or prevent disease. These uses are controversial since it has been argued that they have contributed to increased occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Beef cattle are suscep...

  17. Poxvirus interleukin-4 expression overcomes inherent resistance and vaccine-induced immunity: pathogenesis, prophylaxis, and antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhai; Bellone, Clifford J; Schriewer, Jill; Owens, Gelita; Fredrickson, Torgny; Parker, Scott; Buller, R Mark L

    2011-01-20

    In 2001, Jackson et al. reported that murine IL-4 expression by a recombinant ectromelia virus caused enhanced morbidity and lethality in resistant C57BL/6 mice as well as overcame protective immune memory responses. To achieve a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon and to assess a variety of countermeasures, we constructed a series of ECTV recombinants encoding murine IL-4 under the control of promoters of different strengths and temporal regulation. We showed that the ECTV-IL-4 recombinant expressing the highest level of IL-4 was uniformly lethal for C57BL/6 mice even when previously immunized. The lethality of the ECTV-IL-4 recombinants resulted from virus-expressed IL-4 signaling through the IL-4 receptor but was not due to IL-4 toxicity. A number of treatment approaches were evaluated against the most virulent IL-4 encoding virus. The most efficacious therapy was a combination of two antiviral drugs (CMX001(®) and ST-246(®)) that have different mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Poxvirus interleukin-4 expression overcomes inherent resistance and vaccine-induced immunity: Pathogenesis, prophylaxis and antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nanhai; Bellone, Clifford J.; Schriewer, Jill; Owens, Gelita; Fredrickson, Torgny; Parker, Scott; Buller, R. Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Jackson et al. reported that murine IL-4 expression by a recombinant ectromelia virus caused enhanced morbidity and lethality in resistant C57BL/6 mice as well as overcame protective immune memory responses. To achieve a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon, and to asses a variety of countermeasures, we constructed a series of ECTV recombinants encoding murine IL-4 under the control of promoters of different strengths and temporal regulation. We showed that the ECTV-IL-4 recombinant expressing the highest level of IL-4 was uniformly lethal for C57BL/6 mice even when previously immunized. The lethality of the ECTV-IL-4 recombinants resulted from virus-expressed IL-4 signaling through the IL-4 receptor, but was not due to IL-4 toxicity. A number of treatment approaches were evaluated against the most virulent IL-4 encoding virus. The most efficacious therapy was a combination of two antiviral drugs (CMX001® and ST-246®) that have different mechanisms of action. PMID:21071055

  19. Impact of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis upon the intestinal microbiota and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in vaginally delivered full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Milani, Christian; Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Alaez, Lidia; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-08-08

    Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Antibiotics are among the drugs most frequently used in early life, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP), present in over 30% of deliveries, being the most frequent source of exposure. However, our knowledge on the effects of IAP on the microbiota establishment is still limited. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of IAP investigating a cohort of 40 full-term vaginally delivered infants born after an uncomplicated pregnancy, 18 of which were born from mothers receiving IAP. Fecal samples were collected at 2, 10, 30, and 90 days of age. We analyzed the composition of the fecal microbiota during the first 3 months of life by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantified fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. The presence of genes for resistance to antibiotics was determined by PCR in the samples from 1-month-old infants. Our results showed an altered pattern of intestinal microbiota establishment in IAP infants during the first weeks of life, with lower relative proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes and increased of Preoteobacteria and Firmicutes. A delay in the increase on the levels of acetate was observed in IAP infants. The analyses of specific antibiotic resistance genes showed a higher occurrence of some β-lactamase coding genes in infants whose mothers received IAP. Our results indicate an effect of IAP on the establishing early microbiota during the first months of life, which represent a key moment for the development of the microbiota

  20. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Greenfield, Saul P; Mattoo, Tej K; Keren, Ron; Mathews, Ranjiv; Pohl, Hans G; Kropp, Bradley P; Skoog, Steven J; Nelson, Caleb P; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Chesney, Russell W; Carpenter, Myra A

    2014-06-19

    Children with febrile urinary tract infection commonly have vesicoureteral reflux. Because trial results have been limited and inconsistent, the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent recurrences in children with reflux remains controversial. In this 2-year, multisite, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving 607 children with vesicoureteral reflux that was diagnosed after a first or second febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection, we evaluated the efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in preventing recurrences (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes were renal scarring, treatment failure (a composite of recurrences and scarring), and antimicrobial resistance. Recurrent urinary tract infection developed in 39 of 302 children who received prophylaxis as compared with 72 of 305 children who received placebo (relative risk, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.78). Prophylaxis reduced the risk of recurrences by 50% (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.74) and was particularly effective in children whose index infection was febrile (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.64) and in those with baseline bladder and bowel dysfunction (hazard ratio, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.58). The occurrence of renal scarring did not differ significantly between the prophylaxis and placebo groups (11.9% and 10.2%, respectively). Among 87 children with a first recurrence caused by Escherichia coli, the proportion of isolates that were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 63% in the prophylaxis group and 19% in the placebo group. Among children with vesicoureteral reflux after urinary tract infection, antimicrobial prophylaxis was associated with a substantially reduced risk of recurrence but not of renal scarring. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; RIVUR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00405704.).

  1. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R T

    1981-11-01

    This review examines the principles and practice of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery. Such prophylaxis is required to decrease the frequency of postoperative infection in most patients with clean-contaminated and contaminated wounds, to prevent infrequent but devastating infection of prostheses in cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery and to prevent endocarditis in noncardiac surgery in patients who have valvular heart disease. Prophylaxis should begin before operation; it is usually unnecessary afterwards. The antibiotic may be given topically or parenterally. The latter is more certain, but oral prophylaxis in bowel surgery may offer additional protection by reducing colonic flora, and topical wound and peritoneal antibiotics may be augment protective antibiotic levels at those sites. Antibiotics, such as the cephalosporin cefazolin (but not cephalothin), which penetrate blood and tissues rapidly and for prolonged periods, afford excellent prophylaxis at most sites. But for prophylaxis in colonic surgery, antibiotics directed against Bacteroides fragilis may be superior, and to prevent endocarditis in noncardiac surgery, vancomycin or a combination of penicillin and an aminoglycoside is best.

  3. Attitudes toward Infection Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Diorio, Caroline; Tomlinson, Deborah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Regier, Dean A.; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Background The risks and benefits of infection prophylaxis are uncertain in children with cancer and thus, preferences should be considered in decision making. The purpose of this report was to describe the attitudes of parents, children and healthcare professionals to infection prophylaxis in pediatric oncology. Methods The study was completed in three phases: 1) An initial qualitative pilot to identify the main attributes influencing the decision to use infection prophylaxis, which were then incorporated into a discrete choice experiment; 2) A think aloud during the discrete choice experiment in which preferences for infection prophylaxis were elicited quantitatively; and 3) In-depth follow up interviews. Interviews were recorded verbatim and analyzed using an iterative, thematic analysis. Final themes were selected using a consensus approach. Results A total of 35 parents, 22 children and 28 healthcare professionals participated. All three groups suggested that the most important factor influencing their decision making was the effect of prophylaxis on reducing the chance of death. Themes of importance to the three groups included antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medications, the financial impact of outpatient prophylaxis and the route and schedule of administration. Conclusion Effect of prophylaxis on risk of death was a key factor in decision making. Other identified factors were antimicrobial resistance, side effects of medication, financial impact and administration details. Better understanding of factors driving decision making for infection prophylaxis will help facilitate future implementation of prophylactic regiments. PMID:23112849

  4. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatric OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines Care for Disaster Displaced HIV-Infected Patients Guidelines on Care for HIV-Infected Residents Displaced from Disaster Areas Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) ...

  5. Malaria prophylaxis and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Calleri, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Malaria prophylaxis recommendations issued by different health authorities in Europe are inhomogeneous, and so is the opinion of experts, but a general trend towards reducing its use is evident, and prescribers apparently adhere more easily to more restrictive recommendations. A new Italian guideline has been produced, looking both at scientific evidence (data on malaria risk and drugs' side effects) and at the opinion of experts (surveys and previously issued recommendations). Collecting data on imported malaria, stating a clear methodology and introduce a discussion at international level should be the next goals in order to homogenise recommendations for malaria prophylaxis in Europe.

  6. EMLA cream and nitrous oxide to alleviate pain induced by palivizumab (Synagis) intramuscular injections in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Biran, Valérie; Lenclen, Richard; Epaud, Ralph; Cimerman, Patricia; Thibault, Pascale; Annequin, Daniel; Gold, Francis; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2008-06-01

    Palivizumab (Synagis [Abbot Laboratories, Kent, United Kingdom]) is recommended for the prevention of severe lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in infants at high risk. These injections are very painful, and currently the use of analgesics is not systematic. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of EMLA with premixed 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen, used alone or combined with EMLA, for pain alleviation during palivizumab injections. This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study included children who were younger than 24 months. Each child randomly received during the first 3 monthly injections 3 different analgesic interventions: (1) EMLA: application of EMLA plus air inhalation; (2) nitrous oxide/oxygen: inhalation of 50/50 nitrous oxide/oxygen plus application of a placebo cream; and (3) nitrous oxide/oxygen plus EMLA: inhalation of 50/50 nitrous oxide/oxygen plus application of EMLA. Each child was his or her own control. Procedural pain was assessed through videotapes with the Modified Behavioral Pain Scale. The procedure itself was subdivided in 2 periods: (1) injection and (2) recovery (first 30 seconds after the removal of the needle). Modified Behavioral Pain Scale scores over time (injection and recovery periods) and among treatments were compared by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifty-five children were included. Mean +/- SD Modified Behavioral Pain Scale pain scores for EMLA, nitrous oxide/oxygen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen plus EMLA were, respectively, 9.3 +/- 1.0, 8.8 +/- 1.2, and 8.2 +/- 1.8 during the injection and 7.8 +/- 1.7, 7.4 +/- 1.9, and 6.9 +/- 2.4 during the recovery period. A significant time and treatment effect in favor of the combined nitrous oxide/oxygen plus EMLA was observed. The administration of 50/50 nitrous oxide/oxygen to infants and young children is effective in decreasing the pain associated with palivizumab intramuscular injections. The combined nitrous oxide

  7. [Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Vilar-Compte, Diana; García-Pasquel, María José

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing surgical site infections has been demonstrated. Its utility is recognized for clean-contaminated procedures and some clean surgeries. Prophylactic antibiotics are used as intended to cover the most common germs in the surgical site; first and second generation cephalosporins are the most used. For optimal prophylaxis, an antibiotic with a targeted spectrum should be administered at sufficiently high concentrations in serum, tissue, and the surgical wound during the time that the incision is open and risk of bacterial contamination. The infusion of the first dose of antimicrobial should begin within 60 min before surgical incision and should be discontinued within 24 h after the end of surgery The prolonged use of antibiotic prophylaxis leads to emergence of bacterial resistance and high costs. The principles of antimicrobial prophylaxis in cancer surgery are the same as those described for general surgery; it is recommended to follow and comply with the standard criteria. In mastectomies and clean head and neck surgery there are specific recommendations that differ from non-cancer surgery. In the case of very extensive surgeries, such as pelvic surgery or bone surgery with reconstruction, extension of antibiotics for 48-72 h should be considered.

  8. Comparison of 454 Ultra-Deep Sequencing and Allele-Specific Real-Time PCR with Regard to the Detection of Emerging Drug-Resistant Minor HIV-1 Variants after Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Vertical Transmission.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Kunz, Andrea; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Theuring, Stefanie; Bannert, Norbert; Sewangi, Julius; Mbezi, Paulina; Dugange, Festo; Harms, Gundel; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant HIV-infected women were screened for the development of HIV-1 drug resistance after implementation of a triple-antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis as recommended by the WHO in 2006. The study offered the opportunity to compare amplicon-based 454 ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) and allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) for the detection of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Plasma samples from 34 Tanzanian women were previously analysed by ASPCR for key resistance mutations in the viral RT selected by AZT, 3TC, and NVP (K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, T215Y/F). In this study, the RT region of the same samples was investigated by amplicon-based UDS for resistance mutations using the 454 GS FLX System. Drug-resistant HIV-variants were identified in 69% (20/29) of women by UDS and in 45% (13/29) by ASPCR. The absolute number of resistance mutations identified by UDS was twice that identified by ASPCR (45 vs 24). By UDS 14 of 24 ASPCR-detected resistance mutations were identified at the same position. The overall concordance between UDS and ASPCR was 61.0% (25/41). The proportions of variants quantified by UDS were approximately 2-3 times lower than by ASPCR. Amplicon generation from samples with viral loads below 20,000 copies/ml failed more frequently by UDS compared to ASPCR (limit of detection = 650 copies/ml), resulting in missing or insufficient sequence coverage. Both methods can provide useful information about drug-resistant minor HIV-1 variants. ASPCR has a higher sensitivity than UDS, but is restricted to single resistance mutations. In contrast, UDS is limited by its requirement for high viral loads to achieve sufficient sequence coverage, but the sequence information reveals the complete resistance patterns within the genomic region analysed. Improvements to the UDS limit of detection are in progress, and UDS could then facilitate monitoring of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 quasispecies.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for elective hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga; Mourad, Selma; Marjoribanks, Jane; Calis, Karim A; Jordan, Vanessa

    2017-06-18

    Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic. To determine the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in women undergoing elective hysterectomy. We searched electronic databases to November 2016 (including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), as well as clinical trials registers, conference abstracts, and reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing use of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotics as prophylaxis in women undergoing elective hysterectomy. We used Cochrane standard methodological procedures. We included in this review 37 RCTs, which performed 20 comparisons of various antibiotics versus placebo and versus one another (6079 women). The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate. The main limitations of study findings were risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods, imprecision due to small samples and low event rates, and inadequate reporting of adverse effects. Any antibiotic versus placebo Vaginal hysterectomyModerate-quality evidence shows that women who received antibiotic prophylaxis had fewer total postoperative infections (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.40; five RCTs, N = 610; I(2) = 85%), less urinary tract infection (UTI) (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.77; eight RCTs, N = 1790; I(2) = 44%), fewer pelvic infections (RR 0

  10. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiwu; Wang, Qian; Jia, Ran; Xia, Shuai; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Xu, Wei; Xu, Jin; Du, Lanying; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML)-modified human serum albumin (HSA), designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries. PMID:25690799

  11. Fluconazole prophylaxis in preterm infants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rios, Juliana Ferreira da Silva; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Corrêa, Luísa Petri; Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro

    This article aims to review the use of antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous fluconazole in premature newborns and the occurrence of Invasive Candidiasis. This is a systematic review with search at databases: PubMed, Capes Portal, Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde)/Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The keywords used were: "Antifungal", "Candida" "Fluconazole prophylaxis" and "Preterm infants". Invasive Candidiasis was evaluated in all the twelve items. In eleven of them, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups receiving prophylactic fluconazole, with lower frequency of Invasive Candidiasis, compared to placebo or no prophylaxis group. Colonization by Candida species was also evaluated in five studies; four of them presented statistically lower proportion of colonization in patients with Fluconazole prophylaxis, compared to placebo or no drugs. In one study, there was a significant difference, favoring the use of fluconazole, and reduction of death. Studies indicate the effectiveness of prophylaxis with fluconazole, with reduction in the incidence of colonization and invasive fungal disease. The benefits of prophylaxis should be evaluated considering the incidence of candidiasis in the unit, the mortality associated with candidiasis, the safety and toxicity of short and long-term medication, and the potential for development of resistant pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model: implications for prophylaxis and treatment of combat-related wound infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Yingbo; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Yingying; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Sherwood, Margaret E; Baer, David G; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong

    2014-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model. A bioluminescent clinical isolate of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was obtained. The susceptibility of A. baumannii to blue light (415 nm)-inactivation was compared in vitro to that of human keratinocytes. Repeated cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacterial by blue light were performed to investigate the potential resistance development of A. baumannii to blue light. A mouse model of third degree burn infected with A. baumannii was developed. A single exposure of blue light was initiated 30 minutes after bacterial inoculation to inactivate A. baumannii in mouse burns. It was found that the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain was significantly more susceptible than keratinocytes to blue light inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light-induced ultrastructural damage in A. baumannii cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that endogenous porphyrins exist in A. baumannii cells. Blue light at an exposure of 55.8 J/cm(2) significantly reduced the bacterial burden in mouse burns. No resistance development to blue light inactivation was observed in A. baumannii after 10 cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacteria. No significant DNA damage was detected in mouse skin by means of a skin TUNEL assay after a blue light exposure of 195 J/cm(2).

  13. Antimicrobial Blue Light Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in a Mouse Burn Model: Implications for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Combat-related Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Yingbo; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Yingying; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Baer, David G.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Dai, Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model. A bioluminescent clinical isolate of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was obtained. The susceptibility of A. baumannii to blue light (415 nm)–inactivation was compared in vitro to that of human keratinocytes. Repeated cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacterial by blue light were performed to investigate the potential resistance development of A. baumannii to blue light. A mouse model of third degree burn infected with A. baumannii was developed. A single exposure of blue light was initiated 30 minutes after bacterial inoculation to inactivate A. baumannii in mouse burns. It was found that the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain was significantly more susceptible than keratinocytes to blue light inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light–induced ultrastructural damage in A. baumannii cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that endogenous porphyrins exist in A. baumannii cells. Blue light at an exposure of 55.8 J/cm2 significantly reduced the bacterial burden in mouse burns. No resistance development to blue light inactivation was observed in A. baumannii after 10 cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacteria. No significant DNA damage was detected in mouse skin by means of a skin TUNEL assay after a blue light exposure of 195 J/cm2. PMID:24381206

  14. Palivizumab: The Effects of Prophylactic Immunization on the Occurrence of Infections Caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marjana Jerkovic; Brzica, Jerko; Grgic, Ivana

    2017-09-01

    Aim The aim of this research is to analyze the characteristics of children immunized during immunization season, and their readmission to hospital due to infections of the respiratory tract in the period from 2008 to 2016. Method The retrospective cohort study included 101 children. The test group consists of infants who met the strict criteria for immunization. The national guidance was determined on the basis of earlier research and recommendations by the AAP. All the children who had been readmitted for hospitalization were quickly tested for RSV. Results Of this total, 47 children were preterm children (46.5%), 43 (42.5%) were children with CHD, and 11 (11%) exhibited other individual risk factors (gestational age 33-34 weeks, neurological disorders, respiratory anomalies, multi-organ anomalies). 25 (24%) patients of the immunized study population readmitted the ward due to respiratory infections. Of these, 50% were under the age of 6 months and were treated for less than a week on average. Upon readmission, a quick test to diagnose for RSV infections was conducted, which was negative for all of the previously immunized children. Conclusion Palivizumab represents an effective prevention to avoid RSV infections, that significantly contributes to mortality for children at risk, especially in developing countries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation without fluconazole and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, D; Kreil, S; Nolte, F; Reinwald, M; Hofmann, W-K; Klein, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone (FQ) and fluconazole prophylaxis is recommended for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). However, due to an uncertain scientific basis and the increasing emergence of resistant germs, this policy should be questioned. Therefore, FQ and fluconazole prophylaxis was omitted in alloHCT at our center. In this retrospective analysis, all consecutive patients (n = 63) who underwent first alloHCT at our institution from September 2010 to September 2013 were included. Patients neither received FQ nor fluconazole prophylaxis. Day 100 mortality, incidence of febrile neutropenia, bacterial infections, and invasive fungal diseases (IFD) were assessed. Sixteen patients who started conditioning under antimicrobial treatment/prophylaxis due to pre-existing neutropenia (3/16), IFD (12/16), or aortic valve replacement (1/16) were excluded from the analysis. Finally, 47 patients were transplanted without prophylaxis as intended. Day 100 mortality was 9 %. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 62 % (29/47); 17/47 patients (36 %) experienced a blood stream infection (BSI) with detection of Gram-positive bacteria in 14 patients, Gram-negative bacteria in five patients, and candida in one patient, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria; 12/21 isolated Gram-positive and 3/6 Gram-negative bacteria were FQ resistant. In 21 % (10/47) of the patients, IFD (1x proven, 1x probable, and 8x possible) were diagnosed. To conclude, all three criteria, day 100 mortality, the incidence of IFD, and BSI, are in the range of published data for patients transplanted with FQ and fluconazole prophylaxis. These data demonstrate that alloHCT is feasible without FQ and fluconazole prophylaxis.

  16. Retrospective analysis of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Simondsen, Katherine A; Reed, Michael P; Mably, Mary S; Zhang, Yang; Longo, Walter L

    2013-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant are at a high risk for infection-related mortality in the immediate post-transplantation phase. Prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone is now recommended to reduce this risk with the stipulation that surveillance for increased fluoroquinolone resistance Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea be conducted. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 48 patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and received a fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis and 48 patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant who did not receive a fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis. All patients received the same standard antifungal, antiviral and anti-pneumocystis prophylaxis. Patients receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis had a lower incidence of febrile neutropenia than those not receiving prophylaxis, though the difference was not found to be statistically significant (83% vs. 67%, p = 0.098). Similar non-significant improvements in the number of positive cultures recovered during an episode of febrile neutropenia and antimicrobial days were noted. No significant increase in fluoroquinolone resistance, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, or in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections were noted. Our single institution experience with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients supports continuation of this practice. Expansion to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients may be appropriate based on guideline recommendations and our institution-specific experience with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.

  17. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile.

  18. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

  19. "Targeted" prophylaxis: Impact of rectal swab culture-directed prophylaxis on infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhjot; Kumar, Ashish; Yadav, Siddharth; Prakash, Lok; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Kumar, Rajeev; Kapil, Arti; Dogra, Prem Nath

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance among patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the impact of rectal swab culture-directed antibiotic prophylaxis on postbiopsy infectious complications. We prospectively analyzed all patients undergoing TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from April 2013 to February 2015. Antibiotic prophylaxis was tailored to the results of rectal swab cultures. If the organism was fluoroquinolone-sensitive, oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg with tinidazole 600 mg was prescribed. If the organism was fluoroquinolone-resistant, then a culture-directed antibiotic was prescribed. In both cases the antibiotic was continued for 3 days. All patients were followed for 14 days after biopsy to record infectious complications. A total of 247 patients were included, and Escherichia coli was isolated on rectal swab cultures in 99.5% of the patients. Of these, 41.7% harbored fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. Piperacillin/tazobactam was the most common culture-directed antibiotic prescribed (59.3%), with amoxicillin/clavulanic being the second most common (25.5%) for the fluoroquinolone-resistant group. Only 2 patients (0.9%) developed postbiopsy fever and none had sepsis. Colonization of rectal flora with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli was seen in 40% of men undergoing prostate biopsy. Targeted prophylaxis, which uses the results of prebiopsy rectal swab culture to direct antibiotic prophylaxis, results in low rates of postbiopsy infections.

  20. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statements--Modified recommendations for use of palivizumab for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    Palivizumab was licensed in June 1998 by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients who are at increased risk of severe disease. Safety and efficacy have been established for infants born at or before 35 weeks' gestation with or without chronic lung disease of prematurity and for infants and children with hemodynamically significant heart disease. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a policy statement on the use of palivizumab in November 1998 (American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 1998;102[5]:1211-1216) and revised it in December 2003 (American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 2003;112[6 pt 1]:1442-1446), and an AAP technical report on palivizumab was published in 2003 (Meissner HC, Long SS; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Pediatrics. 2003;112[6 pt 1]:1447-1452). On the basis of the availability of additional data regarding seasonality of RSV disease as well as the limitations in available data on risk factors for identifying children who are at increased risk of serious RSV lower respiratory tract disease, AAP recommendations for immunoprophylaxis have been updated in an effort to ensure optimal balance of benefit and cost from this expensive intervention. This statement updates and replaces the 2003 AAP statement and the 2006 Red Book and is consistent with the 2009 Red Book recommendations.

  1. Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-00-1-0495 TITLE: Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mary Ann Kosir, M.D...NUMBER Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAM D1 7-00-1-0495 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...perioperative training for lymphedema assessment and protection. The hypothesis is that structured perioperative training in lymphedema protection will

  2. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  3. Bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Carrión, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is a disease resulting from the association of morphological alterations of the heart and bacteraemia originating from different sources that at times can be indiscernible (infectious endocarditis). It is classified on the basis of the morphological alteration involved, depending on the clinical manifestations and course of illness, which varies according to the causative microorganism and host conditions (for example, it is characteristic in I.V. drug users). The most common microorganisms involved are: Streptococcus viridans (55%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Enterococcus (6%) and HACEK bacteria (corresponding to the initials: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella), although on occasions it can also be caused by fungi. The oral microbiological flora plays a very important role in the aetiopathogenesis of BE, given that the condition may be of oral or dental origin. This paper will deal with the prevention of said bacteraemia. Prophylaxis will be undertaken using amoxicillin or clindamycin according to action protocols, with special emphasis placed on oral hygiene in patients with structural defects of the heart.

  4. Trends and perspectives of the biological prophylaxis of silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Katsnelson, B.A.; Polzik, E.V.; Morosova, K.I.; Privalova, L.I.; Kochneva, M.Y.; Kislitsina, N.S. ); Kasantsev, V.S. )

    1989-07-01

    Based on earlier paper in this journal, as well as on new data concerning factors predetermining individual susceptibility to silicosis, the authors propose a comprehensive system of recommendations aimed at increasing the working populations's resistance against the harmful action of silica dust. These recommendations consider, on one hand, the criteria of possible selection for employment in dusty industries of individuals who do not possess characteristics making them especially sensitive to this harmful action (collective biological prophylaxis), and on the other hand, the influences that could diminish such sensitivity (individual biological prophylaxis). Some ethical and practical problems of the biological prophylaxis of occupational diseases and a mathematical approach to predicting its effectiveness are also discussed.

  5. Trends and perspectives of the biological prophylaxis of silicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Katsnelson, B A; Polzik, E V; Morosova, K I; Privalova, L I; Kochneva MYu; Kislitsina, N S; Kasantsev, V S

    1989-01-01

    Based on earlier paper in this journal, as well as on new data concerning factors predetermining individual susceptibility to silicosis, we propose a comprehensive system of recommendations aimed at increasing the working population's resistance against the harmful action of silica dust. These recommendations consider, on one hand, the criteria of possible selection for employment in dusty industries of individuals who do not possess characteristics making them especially sensitive to this harmful action (collective biological prophylaxis), and on the other hand, the influences that could diminish such sensitivity (individual biological prophylaxis). Some ethical and practical problems of the biological prophylaxis of occupational diseases and a mathematical approach to predicting its effectiveness are also discussed. PMID:2676501

  6. Military aviators, special operations forces, and causal malaria prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James A

    2003-12-01

    U.S. military aviators are currently restricted to the use of chloroquine or doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Ground forces are allowed the additional option of taking mefloquine. These medications are begun before deployment, must be taken for 4 weeks after leaving the malarious area, and primaquine must be added to the regimen the last 2 of those 4 weeks. Compliance with this regimen is often poor, especially in populations who travel abroad frequently for short periods of time. Causal malaria prophylaxis offers potential benefits of decreased length of postdeployment regimens and obviates the need for a second medication for terminal prophylaxis. Potential obstacles include adverse drug reactions, cost, and rapid development of resistance to new medications by Plasmodium species, which should be weighed against the risks to health and mission success in each deployment.

  7. Lack of efficacy of pyrimethamine prophylaxis in pregnant Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Nahlen, B L; Akintunde, A; Alakija, T; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Ogunbode, O; Edungbola, L D; Adetoro, O; Breman, J G

    1989-10-07

    To evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine on the blood stage (suppressive prophylaxis) and liver stage (causal prophylaxis) of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women, in vivo and in vitro field studies were conducted in Ilorin, Nigeria, from Jan 1 to June 30, 1988. For pregnant women with P falciparum infections who received 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly for suppressive prophylaxis, 67% (59/88) of in vivo and 60% (6/10) of in vitro tests showed pyrimethamine resistance. A second group of parasitaemic and parasite-free pregnant women was enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine as a primary tissue schizonticide; after receiving a curative dose of chloroquine (25 mg/kg), half the women were given 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly and half received no prophylaxis. Parasitologic failure rates did not differ between the pyrimethamine-treated (8/34) and the control (11/37) groups during the 16-week follow-up. Thus, pyrimethamine is not effective for suppressive or causal prophylaxis in pregnant women in Ilorin.

  8. Acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Manheimer, Eric; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R

    2009-01-21

    Acupuncture is often used for migraine prophylaxis but its effectiveness is still controversial. This review (along with a companion review on 'Acupuncture for tension-type headache') represents an updated version of a Cochrane review originally published in Issue 1, 2001, of The Cochrane Library. To investigate whether acupuncture is a) more effective than no prophylactic treatment/routine care only; b) more effective than 'sham' (placebo) acupuncture; and c) as effective as other interventions in reducing headache frequency in patients with migraine. The Cochrane Pain, Palliative & Supportive Care Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field Trials Register were searched to January 2008. We included randomized trials with a post-randomization observation period of at least 8 weeks that compared the clinical effects of an acupuncture intervention with a control (no prophylactic treatment or routine care only), a sham acupuncture intervention or another intervention in patients with migraine. Two reviewers checked eligibility; extracted information on patients, interventions, methods and results; and assessed risk of bias and quality of the acupuncture intervention. Outcomes extracted included response (outcome of primary interest), migraine attacks, migraine days, headache days and analgesic use. Pooled effect size estimates were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-two trials with 4419 participants (mean 201, median 42, range 27 to 1715) met the inclusion criteria. Six trials (including two large trials with 401 and 1715 patients) compared acupuncture to no prophylactic treatment or routine care only. After 3 to 4 months patients receiving acupuncture had higher response rates and fewer headaches. The only study with long-term follow up saw no evidence that effects dissipated up to 9 months after cessation of treatment. Fourteen trials compared a 'true' acupuncture intervention with a variety of sham

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis in open inguinal hernia repair: a literature review and summary of current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Makarewicz, Wojciech; Ropel, Jerzy; Bobowicz, Maciej; Kąkol, Michał; Śmietański, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    More than 1 million inguinal hernia repairs are performed in Europe and the US annually. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is not required in clean, elective procedures, the routine use of implants (90% of inguinal hernia repairs are performed with mesh) makes the topic controversial. The European Hernia Society does not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for elective inguinal hernia repairs. However, the latest randomized controlled trial, published by Mazaki et al., indicates that the use of prophylaxis is effective for the prevention of surgical site infection. Unnecessary prophylaxis contributes to the development of bacterial resistance and significantly increases healthcare costs. This review documents clinical trials on inguinal hernia repairs with mesh and summarizes the current knowledge. It also tries to solve certain problems, namely: what constitutes a real risk factor, late-onset infection, and how the “surgical environment” impacts on the need to use antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:27829934

  10. Prophylaxis of human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Weeratunga, Praveen; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2017-09-26

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, and is associated with clinically significant infection in immunocompromised individuals. Vertical transmission during pregnancy can manifest as congenital toxoplasmosis in the neonate, and can have serious consequences. This review aims to describe the modalities for prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis in susceptible populations, and focuses on the following: (1) prophylaxis of congenital toxoplasmosis; (2) prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis in patients with HIV/AIDS; and (3) prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Targeted vs Empirical Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Sepsis from Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; Kim, William; Moskowitz, Dena; Szabo, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    We compared the effectiveness of targeted prophylaxis to the effectiveness of empirical prophylaxis for preventing sepsis after transrectal prostate biopsy using a retrospective multicenter quality improvement study. A total of 13 Kaiser Permanente urology departments participated in a 1-year retrospective analysis of a quality improvement study. In the targeted prophylaxis group rectal cultures were performed before transrectal prostate biopsy and antibiotic sensitivities of Escherichia coli were used to guide the selection of a single agent antibiotic for prophylaxis. Cultures were plated on 10 μg/ml ciprofloxacin infused MacConkey agar at a central laboratory. Urologists using empirical prophylaxis continued the usual regimen of ciprofloxacin monotherapy prophylaxis but sometimes added an additional prophylactic antibiotic. The primary outcome of post-biopsy sepsis was compiled by a search of the electronic medical record for the appropriate ICD-9 codes. A total of 5,355 prostate biopsy procedures were performed between May 1, 2013 and April 30, 2014. Targeted prophylaxis was used in 1,802 procedures (34%) and empirical prophylaxis was used in 3,553 (66%). The overall incidence of post-biopsy sepsis was 0.52% (28 of 5,355 cases). The incidence of sepsis was 0.44% (8 of 1,802 cases) in the targeted prophylaxis group and 0.56% (20 of 3,553) in the empirical prophylaxis group (p = 0.568). The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli on rectal culture was 25% (444 of 1,802 cases). Seven of the 8 patients (88%) on targeted prophylaxis in whom sepsis developed used a prophylactic antibiotic to which the bacteria causing post-biopsy sepsis were sensitive. The targeted prophylaxis protocol enabled physicians to avoid using more than 1 broad-spectrum empirical antibiotic while simultaneously achieving an overall rate of sepsis similar to the rate seen with empirical prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  12. Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perioperative Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-00-1-0495 TITLE: Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing...REPORT DATE 01-09-2006 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 aug 2000 –1 aug 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Lymphedema ...purpose is to evaluate perioperative training for lymphedema assessment and protection. The hypothesis is that structured perioperative training in

  13. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Dellamonica, P; Bernard, E

    1994-01-01

    In elective colorectal surgery, the benefit of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is well established, with a reduction in wound infection rate to less than 10%. The antimicrobial agent used has to be active against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens such as Escheria coli and Bacteriodes fragilis. The efficacy of three schemes of administration: oral and/or parenteral prophylaxis associated with a mechanical preparation, has been demonstrated. Oral antibiotic administration is current practice in USA; the most widely used oral regimen is the combination of erythromycin and neomycin given the day before surgery. Parenteral prophylaxis with a cephalosporin active against Bacteriodes fragilis such as cefoxitin and cefotetan, is preferred in Europe. The issue of whether a systemic prophylaxis should be added to the oral regimen or not has not yet been resolved. However it seems that the association should be proposed in various situations: patients with a high risk factors score (rectal resection and operations lasting more than three hours), patients with incomplete mechanical preparation, delay of the onset of surgery after the last oral dose.

  14. Peripheral Polyneuropathy and Mefloquine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Alexander C.; Sandroni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a woman who developed a peripheral polyneuropathy shortly after completing 4 weekly doses of mefloquine hydrochloride (250 mg) malaria prophylaxis. Although mefloquine-related central nervous system neuropathy is well described in the literature, peripheral polyneuropathy similar to this case has been documented only once before, to our knowledge. PMID:22144435

  15. [Prophylaxis of malaria].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M; Caumes, E; Danis, M

    1992-01-01

    The prevention of malaria is based on chemoprophylaxis and protection against the vector. Nocturnal mosquito bites can be avoided by individual and collective measures, while chemoprophylaxis involves the use of various agents according to the place and duration of stay. Three endemic zones can be defined on the basis of chemoresistance. Chloroquine, proguanil and mefloquine are the three drugs used in this setting, the latter being contraindicated for pregnant women and children. Travellers making long stays in areas of low-level chemoresistance and short stays in areas of high-level resistance and for whom mefloquine is contraindicated are advised to take antimalarial drugs at the first signs of potentially malarial fever when medical care is unavailable. Quinine, halofantrine and mefloquine are used for the curative treatment of malaria in areas of chloroquine resistance.

  16. Current therapies and prophylaxis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, R

    1994-09-01

    Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease. Although not commonplace in the United States, malaria cases are occurring more frequently due to an influx of military personnel returning from duty in malarious areas, increased numbers of immigrants, and tourist and business travel to endemic areas. Careful history taking and proper laboratory diagnosis are essential in detecting malaria. Malaria should be considered in the differential diagnosis with any fever of unknown origin. Due to the increase in chloroquine resistant P. falciparum malaria worldwide it behooves the clinician to keep abreast of current therapies in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one of the best resources for up-to-date recommended therapies.

  17. [Surgical site infections: antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Asensio, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are very common, and represent more than 20% of all hospital-acquired infections. SSIs are associated with a higher mortality, as well as to an extended hospital stay and costs, depending on the surgical procedure and type of SSI. Advances in control practices for these infections include improvement in operating room ventilation, sterilization methods, barriers, and surgical techniques, as well as in surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. For the latter, the antimicrobial agent should: be active against the most common pathogens, be administered in an appropriate dosage and in a time frame to ensure serum and tissue concentrations over the period of potential contamination, be safe, and be administered over the shortest effective time period to minimize adverse events, development of resistances, and cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylaxis for the International Traveller

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Travellers should know as much as possible about the quality of food and drink in the areas of travel, and be prepared with safety measures if necessary. Routine immunization should be up to date; cholera and yellow fever vaccinations are required for travel to certain areas. Such prophylaxis should be sought, ideally, several months before departure. Resurgences of malaria are occurring in areas where the disease had previously been controlled, making prophylaxis essential for travel to endemic areas. Other mild disorders may be treated with medication appropriate to the type of travel and area. Patients may appreciate cautionary advice about behavior, to lessen the likelihood of physical or social harm. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21274123

  19. Antifungal Prophylaxis in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent significant complications in patients with hematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may be important in this setting, but most antifungal drugs have demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. Antifungal prophylaxis in hematological patients is currently regarded as the gold standard in situations with a high risk of infection, such as acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, various scientific societies have established a series of recommendations for antifungal prophylaxis based on prospective studies performed with different drugs. However, the prescription of each agent must be personalized, adapting its administration to the characteristics of individual patients and taking into account possible interactions with concomitant medication. PMID:27648203

  20. Antibiotic prophylaxis for abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Mele, G; Loizzi, P; Greco, P; Gargano, G; Varcaccio Garofalo, G; Belsanti, A

    1988-01-01

    Three different regimens of antibiotic treatment have been employed in order to evaluate their efficacy as a profilaxis for abdominal hysterectomy. Two short term administrations (Cephtriaxone and Cephamandole plus Tobramycine) and a conventional full dose treatment (Cephazoline) have been compared over a group of homogeneous patients. No significant differences, except a reduction in postoperative time spent in hospital, have been found among the groups. A reduction in urinary tract infection has also been reported with a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.

  1. [Problem of influenza prophylaxis by vaccines].

    PubMed

    Gendon, Iu Z; Vasiliev, Iu M

    2011-01-01

    Scientific data is presented and problems of influenza prophylaxis in various age groups are discussed. Influenza prophylaxis in neonates is possible by inducing maternal antibodies, this dictates the necessity of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Problems of influenza prophylaxis are most pressing in the group of children from 6 months to 2 years of age. More effective vaccines that do not cause adverse reactions are necessary for the children of this age group. Influenza prophylaxis in healthy working adults is most important for reducing economical impact during influenza epidemics. Influenza prophylaxis in the elderly is reasonable by using novel and more effective vaccines with adjuvants. The optimal method for influenza prophylaxis in the population in general is mass vaccination of children (80%), when, besides the induction of protection in children, influenza morbidity may decrease up to 80% in the other age groups of unvaccinated population.

  2. An economic model for the prevention of MRSA infections after surgery: non-glycopeptide or glycopeptide antibiotic prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Elliott, Rachel A; Weatherly, Helen L A; Hawkins, Neil S; Cranny, Gillian; Chambers, Duncan; Myers, Lindsey; Eastwood, Alison; Sculpher, Mark J

    2010-02-01

    Surgical site infection is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The multiresistant strains (MRSA) are resistant to most antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. Our aim was to explore whether there is a threshold of MRSA prevalence at which switching to routine glycopeptide-based antibiotic prophylaxis becomes cost-effective. An indicative model was designed to explore the cost-effectiveness of vancomycin, cephalosporin or a combination, in patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty. If the MRSA infection rate is equal to or above 0.25% and the rate of other infections with cephalosporin prophylaxis is equal to or above 0.2%, use of the combination antibiotic prophylaxis is optimal. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of interventions for MRSA prevention is complex due to uncertainty around resistance and effectiveness of glycopeptides. The indicative model provides a framework for evaluation. More work is needed to understand the impact of antibiotic resistance over time in these currently effective antibiotics.

  3. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades.

  4. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment. PMID:27047885

  5. Hepatitis B reactivation and timing for prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    It is known that immunotherapy and cancer chemotherapy may cause hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers and inactive chronic hepatitis B patients. Guidelines recommend antiviral prophylaxis regardless of HBV DNA levels to prevent reactivation. We read from the article written by Liu et al that Lamivudine was given inadequate time for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:25717269

  6. [Malaria prophylaxis; advice for the individual traveller. The Working Group for Malaria Prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    1998-04-18

    Recently, the Dutch Working Group on Malaria Prophylaxis produced new national guidelines. The new approach takes the risk of malaria and of serious morbidity or mortality for the individual traveller as its point of departure. In large areas in the tropics, there is no malaria risk. In some areas with limited risk, proguanil is still an effective chemoprophylactic (mainly in Central America, the Near East, Central Asia and parts of Indonesia). However, multiple-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum necessitates the use of mefloquine, despite disturbing side effects in some people, in Sub-Saharan Africa, major parts of South East Asia and the Amazone basin of South America. If mefloquine is contraindicated, alternatives advised are the combination of proguanil and chloroquine or (in South East Asia) doxycycline. For visits to transmission areas lasting 7 days or less, alternative prophylactic measures may be acceptable, but only if the traveller after the visit has easy access to adequate medical facilities. When exposure lasts not more than two nights, use of a mosquito net, repellents and protective clothing without chemoprophylaxis is acceptable, provided the traveller is well informed. To take along pocket treatment is only advised for some journeys lasting more than one month to areas with multiple-drug resistant falciparum malaria. When mefloquine prophylaxis is used, such stand-by treatment is only advocated for a few countries in South East Asia; when mefloquine cannot be given, also for other areas. The type of pocket treatment recommended depends on the chemoprophylaxis used and on whether contraindications exist. Drugs that can be used are: halofantrine (if no contraindications exist and an ECG shows no prolongation of the QT interval) or quinine, either alone (in pregnancy) or combined with doxycycline or clindamycine (the latter for children < 8 years). With the new individual approach advice may differ for different persons visiting similar tropical

  7. [Antibiotic prophylaxis before kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Robles, N R; Gallego, E; Anaya, F; Franco, A; Valderrábano, F

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis was evaluated in the immediate postoperative period of renal transplantation (RT). Before RT, the patients were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) cefotaxime (intravenous infusion of 1 g one hour before the operation). 2) Ceftriaxone (1 g i.v. given in a similar way). 3) Control (without antibiotics). Patients who required antibiotic therapy during the first 3 postoperative weeks were excluded. 20 recipients of cadaveric renal grafts were included in each group. There were 39 males and 21 females with a mean age of 39.9 years. One patient from the cefotaxime group (5%), 2 from the ceftriaxone group (10%) and 2 from the control group (10%) developed infection of the surgical wound, all due to grampositive organisms. 19 patients had urinary tract infections: 7 from the control group (35%), 7 from the cefotaxime group (35%), and 5 from the ceftriaxone group (25%). The development of wound infection was not correlated with urea, creatinine, hemoglobin or total protein levels, or with urinary tract infection or fistula, diabetes or fever. The mean packed red cell volume of the patients who developed wound infection was 24.7 +/- 1.2 vs 28.6 +/- 6.6 in those who did not (p less than 0.01). All patients with visible hematoma and 3 of 10 with perirenal blood collection had wound infection. It was concluded that antibiotic prophylaxis for renal transplantation was useless in our patients.

  8. Preexposure Prophylaxis and Patient Centeredness

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Jackson, Skyler D.; Marcus, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis has transformed HIV prevention, becoming widespread in communities of gay and bisexual men in the developed world in a short time. There is a broad concern that preexposure prophylaxis will discourage condom use among gay men (i.e., “risk compensation”). This commentary argues for broadening the focus on gay men’s health beyond sexual health to address the holistic health and well-being of gay men. Gay men may benefit from being offered candid, nonjudgmental health promotion/HIV prevention messages not requiring condom use for anal sex. Lessons can be drawn from the family planning movement, which has undergone a similar shift in focus. The principle of patient centeredness supports such a shift in gay men’s health toward the goal of providing men with the knowledge to evaluate various prevention approaches according to the specifics of their life circumstances and health needs. Bringing more nuance to discussions of sexual risk and sexual pleasure could facilitate more universally healthy attitudes regarding sex among gay men, in turn enabling healthier decisions more compatible with men’s own values and preferences. PMID:27387042

  9. Antimicrobial prophylaxis during Hirudo medicinalis therapy: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kruer, Rachel M; Barton, Cassie A; Roberti, Gregory; Gilbert, Brian; McMillian, Wesley D

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are indicated for salvage of tissue flaps, grafts, or replants when venous congestion threatens tissue viability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic antimicrobial agents in patients who received medicinal leech therapy. A multicenter retrospective cohort study of all adult patients between January 1, 2010, and February 28, 2013, who received medicinal leech therapy was conducted. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was documented in 54 (91.5%) of the included patients, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ceftriaxone in 33 (61.1%), 18 (33.3%), 2 (3.7%), and 2 (3.7%) patients, respectively. Surgical site infection (SSI) was found in seven (11.9%) patients, all of whom received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Aeromonas spp. was isolated in four infections, and all isolates were resistant to the chosen prophylactic agent. The SSI incidence was similar between antimicrobial prophylaxis agents. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin appear equally effective at preventing leech-associated infections. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Clinical consequences and cost of limiting use of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis: example of coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, G.; Goldie, S. J.; Platt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Routine us of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis is discouraged, principally to minimize microbial resistance to it. However, outcomes and costs of this recommendation have not been assessed. We used decision-analytic models to compare clinical results and cost-effectiveness of no prophylaxis, cefazolin, and vancomycin, in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In the base case, vancomycin resulted in 7% fewer surgical site infections and 1% lower all-cause mortality and saved $117 per procedure, compared with cefazolin. Cefazolin, in turn, resulted in substantially fewer infections and deaths and lower costs than no prophylaxis. We conclude that perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin is usually more effective and less expensive than cefazolin. Data on vancomycin's impact on resistance are needed to quantify the trade-off between individual patients' improved clinical outcomes and lower costs and the future long-term consequences to society. PMID:11747694

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J.; Morgan, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663

  12. Migraine headache prophylaxis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2014-01-01

    Migraine headache is estimated to affect up to 28 percent of adolescents, most of whom are female. Chronic migraine in this population has been associated with reduced quality of life and academic disruption due to missed school days. Historically, migraine headache was treated episodically as it occurred. In March 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an existing medication, topiramate (Topamax®), for migraine prophylaxis in adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17. This is the first FDA approval of a drug for migraine prevention in this population. There are several possible adverse effects of taking topiramate, some potentially serious, so adequate education for adolescents and their families on all the potential benefits and risks is imperative.

  13. Antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Sergio; Rodrigo, Juan P; Sánchez, Rafael; López, Fernando; Díaz, Juan P; Suárez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 80s, numerous clinical trials have shown a significant reduction in the incidence of infections in clean-contaminated upper respiratory tract surgery, due to perioperative use of antibiotics; however, there is no consensus about the best antibiotic protocol. Moreover, there are no universally accepted guidelines about flap reconstructive procedures. In otological and rhinological surgery, tonsillectomy, cochlear implant and laryngo-pharyngeal laser surgery, the use of antibiotics frequently depends on institutional or personal preferences rather than the evidence available. We reviewed clinical trials on different otorhinolaryngological procedures, assessing choice of antibiotic, length of treatment and administration route. There are no clinical trials for laryngo-pharyngeal laser surgery. Nor are there clinical trials on implant cochlear surgery or neurosurgical clean-contaminated procedures, but in these circumstances, antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended.

  14. Duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive

    2003-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is indicated while in the hospital after major surgery. There is evidence that the prevalence of asymptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, detected by routine venography after major orthopedic surgery, is lower at hospital discharge in patients who have received 10 days rather than 5 days of prophylaxis. This observation supports the current American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommendation for a minimum of 7 to 10 days of prophylaxis after hip and knee replacement, even if patients are discharged from the hospital within 7 days of surgery. As risk of VTE persists for up to 3 months after surgery, patients at high risk for postoperative VTE may benefit from extended prophylaxis (eg, an additional 3 weeks after the first 7 to 10 days). Extended prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reduces the frequency of postdischarge VTE by approximately two thirds after hip replacement; however, the resultant absolute reduction in the frequency of fatal pulmonary embolism is small (ie, estimated at 1 per 2,500 patients). Indirect evidence suggests that, compared with LMWH, efficacy of extended prophylaxis after hip replacement is greater with fondaparinux, similar with warfarin, and less with aspirin. Extended prophylaxis is expected to be of less benefit after knee than after hip replacement. In keeping with current ACCP recommendations, at a minimum, extended prophylaxis should be used after major orthopedic surgery in patients who have additional risk factors for VTE (eg, previous VTE, cancer). If anticoagulant drug therapy is stopped after 7 to 10 days, an additional month of prophylaxis with aspirin should be considered.

  15. Emicizumab Prophylaxis in Hemophilia A with Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Johannes; Mahlangu, Johnny N; Kim, Benjamin; Schmitt, Christophe; Callaghan, Michael U; Young, Guy; Santagostino, Elena; Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca; Negrier, Claude; Kessler, Craig; Valente, Nancy; Asikanius, Elina; Levy, Gallia G; Windyga, Jerzy; Shima, Midori

    2017-08-31

    Emicizumab (ACE910) bridges activated factor IX and factor X to restore the function of activated factor VIII, which is deficient in persons with hemophilia A. This phase 3, multicenter trial assessed once-weekly subcutaneous emicizumab prophylaxis in persons with hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. We enrolled participants who were 12 years of age or older. Those who had previously received episodic treatment with bypassing agents were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to emicizumab prophylaxis (group A) or no prophylaxis (group B). The primary end point was the difference in bleeding rates between group A and group B. Participants who had previously received prophylactic treatment with bypassing agents received emicizumab prophylaxis in group C. A total of 109 male participants with hemophilia A with inhibitors were enrolled. The annualized bleeding rate was 2.9 events (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 5.0) among participants who were randomly assigned to emicizumab prophylaxis (group A, 35 participants) versus 23.3 events (95% CI, 12.3 to 43.9) among those assigned to no prophylaxis (group B, 18 participants), representing a significant difference of 87% in favor of emicizumab prophylaxis (P<0.001). A total of 22 participants in group A (63%) had zero bleeding events, as compared with 1 participant (6%) in group B. Among 24 participants in group C who had participated in a noninterventional study, emicizumab prophylaxis resulted in a bleeding rate that was significantly lower by 79% than the rate with previous bypassing-agent prophylaxis (P<0.001). Overall, 198 adverse events were reported in 103 participants receiving emicizumab prophylaxis; the most frequent events were injection-site reactions (in 15% of participants). Thrombotic microangiopathy and thrombosis were reported in 2 participants each (in the primary analysis) who had received multiple infusions of activated prothrombin complex concentrate for breakthrough bleeding. No antidrug antibodies

  16. An antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol using rectal swab cultures for transrectal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Summers, Stephen J; Patel, Darshan P; Hamilton, Blake D; Presson, Angela P; Fisher, Mark A; Lowrance, William T; Southwick, Andrew W

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the benefit of an antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol using rectal swab cultures in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy in our Veterans Affairs population. Between June 1, 2013, and June 1, 2014, we implemented an antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol using rectal swab cultures on selective media containing ciprofloxacin for all men scheduled for TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Data from 2759 patients from Jan 1, 2006 to May 31, 2013, before protocol implementation served as historical controls. Patients with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-susceptible organisms received FQ monotherapy, while those with FQ-resistant organisms received targeted prophylaxis. Our objective was to compare the rate of infectious complications 30 days after prostate biopsy before and after implementation of our antimicrobial protocol. One hundred and sixty-seven patients received rectal swab cultures using our protocol. Seventeen (14 %) patients had FQ-resistant positive cultures. Patients with positive FQ-resistant culture results were more likely to have had a history of previous prostate biopsy and a positive urine culture in the last 12 months (p = 0.032, p = 0.018, respectively). The average annual infectious complication rate within 30 days of biopsy was reduced from 2.8 to 0.6 % before and after implementation of our antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol using rectal swab cultures, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.13). An antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol using rectal culture swabs is a viable option for prevention of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy infectious complications. After implementation of an antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol, we observed a nonsignificant decrease in the rate of post-biopsy infectious complications when compared to historical controls.

  17. Pharmacological prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism.

    PubMed

    Flute, P T

    1976-02-07

    The pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is briefly discussed as a basis for the understanding of preventive measures used in this condition. Prophylaxis in venous thrombosis is then reviewed with emphasis on pharmacological treatment, and more particularly on heparin.

  18. Guideline for Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bağhaki, Sema; Soybir, Gürsel Remzi; Soran, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) published the 2012/2013 edition of the book entitled “Best Practices for Hospital & Health-System Pharmacy: Position and Guidance Documents of ASHP” with Bruce Hawkins as the editor. (ISSN: 15558975). Pages 582–667 of this book contain the section: “Therapeutic Guidelines on Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgery”. This section includes current clinical developments, evidence and recommendations on the application of standard and effective antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult and pediatric patients, and has significant differences compared to the previous 1999 edition. On pages 632–633, antimicrobial prophylaxis in breast and plastic surgery practice is addressed in detail. This article contains a summary of the recommendations made in ASHP 2012/2013 Report regarding the antimicrobial prophylaxis in breast and plastic surgery applications.

  19. Cefixime for the prophylaxis of urinary tract infections in children with malformative uropathies: an open study.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, G; Zampogna, S; Ielapi, V; Defilippo, R G; Defilippo, V; Cristofaro, G; Galiano, R; Capillo, S; Madonna, L; Cifalà, S; Ferro, V; Rubino, R

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are often associated with urinary anomalies. An appropriate pharmacologic treatment may prevent, or may at least limit, any kidney damage due to pyelonephritis. The antibiotic prophylaxis plays a role as significant as early surgical therapy, taking into consideration also the present limitative trend for a softer therapeutic regimen. In the past few years a greater bacterial resistance has emerged against some commonly administered antibiotics. Cefixime (3rd generation cephalosporin) has been used on a wide series of patients suffering from urinary infections associated with urinary tract anomalies. A few significative results emerge from the present study. In conclusion, cefixime's effectiveness long-term prophylaxis of urinary infections associated with anomalies.

  20. [Sepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis in stereotaxic neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Padrón-Sánchez, A; Ochoa-Zaldivar, L; López-Flores, G; García-Maeso, I; Barnés-Domínguez, J A; Reconde-Suárez, D

    Stereotaxic surgery is becoming increasingly important because of the possibility of approaching the deep zones of the brain with less risk. It is in daily use in cerebral tumours and in the functional surgery of Parkinson's disease. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is controversial, although in many centres, including ours, all patients receive it. To study the pre-operative clinical characteristics analysing the antibiotic prophylaxis used, septic complications seen and their management. In this study we included 93 patients with neurosurgical disorders operated on using a stereotaxic approach in the Neurosurgical Department of the Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurologica (Cuba) during 1997 and 1998, in which antibiotic prophylaxis was used and septic patients detected. The variables studied included age, sex, neurological disorders, surgical operations done and the antibiotic used for prophylaxis. We analysed the test of clinical criteria for sepsis in all patients. We found that a greater number of patients operated on had had functional surgery, which showed its importance as an alternative surgical method in Parkinson's disease. There was satisfactory use of antibiotic prophylaxis with a reduction in the rate of nosocomial infection; most infections were seen in the lower respiratory tract. These results support the hypothesis of use of antibiotic prophylaxis in stereotaxic surgery to achieve a reduction in intra-hospital infections in surgical patients.

  1. WITHDRAWN: Propranolol for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Linde, Klaus; Rossnagel, Karin

    2017-02-17

    Propranolol is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for migraine prophylaxis. We aimed to determine whether there is evidence that propranolol is more effective than placebo and as effective as other drugs for the interval (prophylactic) treatment of patients with migraine. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE/PubMed (1966 to May 2003) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 2, 2003), and by screening bibliographies of reviews and identified articles. We included randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials of at least 4 weeks duration comparing clinical effects of propranolol with placebo or another drug in adult migraine sufferers. Two reviewers extracted information on patients, methods, interventions, outcomes measured, and results using a pre-tested form. Study quality was assessed using two checklists (Jadad scale and Delphi list). Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures and insufficient reporting of the data, only selective quantitative meta-analyses were performed. As far as possible, effect size estimates were calculated for single trials. In addition, results were summarised descriptively and by a vote count among the reviewers. A total of 58 trials with 5072 participants met the inclusion criteria. The 58 selected trials included 26 comparisons with placebo and 47 comparisons with other drugs. The methodological quality of the majority of trials was unsatisfactory. The principal shortcomings were high dropout rates and insufficient reporting and handling of this problem in the analysis. Overall, the 26 placebo-controlled trials showed clear short-term effects of propranolol over placebo. Due to the lack of studies with long-term follow up, it is unclear whether these effects are stable after stopping propranolol. The 47 comparisons with calcium antagonists, other beta-blockers, and a variety of other drugs did not yield any clear-cut differences. Sample size was, however, insufficient in

  2. 24 weeks of valganciclovir prophylaxis in children after renal transplantation: a 4-year experience.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F; Gutman, Julie; Hymes, Leonard C; Leong, Traci; Hilinski, Joseph A

    2011-01-27

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection after solid-organ transplant. Valganciclovir prophylaxis significantly reduces disease, but limited data are available on its use in children. Recently, an increase in delayed-onset CMV disease has been noted with some arguing that longer prophylaxis may decrease late-onset disease. Single-center, retrospective analysis of pediatric renal transplant patients receiving 24 weeks valganciclovir prophylaxis (15 mg/kg/day, maximum 900 mg/day) from January 2004 to December 2008, aiming to measure the incidence of CMV disease and toxicity of valganciclovir. We enrolled 111 patients, 60% males, 46% African Americans, and median age at transplant 14.5 years (range 1.4-20.4 years). Sixty-nine percent of donors and 44% of recipients were seropositive pretransplant. Median duration of valganciclovir use was 5.9 months (range 0.5-24 months). CMV viremia and disease occurred in 27% and 4.5%, respectively. All patients with disease presented after prophylaxis ended and all were D+/R-. Thymoglobulin use (P = 0.04) and positive donor CMV status (P = 0.02) were associated with a higher risk of CMV viremia. Twenty-four percent had hematologic toxicity directly associated with valganciclovir. Valganciclovir use in children was effective as prophylaxis against CMV disease; no children at our institution developed disease while on therapy. Our regimen of 24 weeks of prophylaxis was associated with a lower rate of late-onset disease than previous reports with 12-week regimens. Further controlled studies should be considered to compare longer versus shorter periods of prophylaxis and dose reductions and their impact on prevention of late-onset disease, resistance, cost, and toxicity.

  3. 24 Weeks of Valganciclovir Prophylaxis in Children After Renal Transplantation: A 4-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F.; Gutman, Julie; Hymes, Leonard C.; Leong, Traci; Hilinski, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection after solid-organ transplant. Valganciclovir prophylaxis significantly reduces disease, but limited data are available on its use in children. Recently, an increase in delayed-onset CMV disease has been noted with some arguing that longer prophylaxis may decrease late-onset disease. Methods Single-center, retrospective analysis of pediatric renal transplant patients receiving 24 weeks valganciclovir prophylaxis (15 mg/kg/day, maximum 900 mg/day) from January 2004 to December 2008, aiming to measure the incidence of CMV disease and toxicity of valganciclovir. Results We enrolled 111 patients, 60% males, 46% African Americans, and median age at transplant 14.5 years (range 1.4–20.4 years). Sixty-nine percent of donors and 44% of recipients were seropositive pretransplant. Median duration of valganciclovir use was 5.9 months (range 0.5–24 months). CMV viremia and disease occurred in 27% and 4.5%, respectively. All patients with disease presented after prophylaxis ended and all were D+/R−. Thymoglobulin use (P=0.04) and positive donor CMV status (P=0.02) were associated with a higher risk of CMV viremia. Twenty-four percent had hematologic toxicity directly associated with valganciclovir. Conclusions Valganciclovir use in children was effective as prophylaxis against CMV disease; no children at our institution developed disease while on therapy. Our regimen of 24 weeks of prophylaxis was associated with a lower rate of late-onset disease than previous reports with 12-week regimens. Further controlled studies should be considered to compare longer versus shorter periods of prophylaxis and dose reductions and their impact on prevention of late-onset disease, resistance, cost, and toxicity. PMID:21076375

  4. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  5. LITHIUM PROPHYLAXIS IN AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Devi, S. Parvathi; Sugumar, A.; Srinivasan, V.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Out of 108 patients on the rolls in the Lithium clinic, Madurai Medical College and Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, India, 47 patients suffering from affective disorders receiving lithium continuously for more than three years were analysed with a view to study the recurrences. Thirteen suffered no relapses while on lithium while nineteen experienced them while on lithium. Four were free from recurrences after lithium was withdrawn- Seven defaulted but suffered recurrences while in four the drug was withdrawn and in both the groups remission was achieved with re-administration of lithium. The study reveals that lithium besides averting the recurrences can reduce the frequency, number, duration, intensity of episodes and improve the amenability to drugs. Among the symptoms, suicidal ideas and behaviour and insight were found to be influenced favourably by lithium. Among the factors that help favourable response to lithium were a positive family history of affective disorder, in the first degree relatives and lesser frequency and number of episodes in the pre-lithium period. A reappraisal of the natural history of the illness is called for in the light of lithium prophylaxis of manic depressive psychosis. PMID:21965880

  6. Considerations for antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Veve, Michael P; Davis, Susan L; Williams, Amy M; McKinnon, John E; Ghanem, Tamer A

    2017-09-21

    Peri/post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (POABP) has become standard practice for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction, but few data exist on optimal POABP regimens. Current surgical prophylaxis guideline recommendations fail to account for the complexity of microvascular reconstruction relative to other head and neck procedures, specifically regarding wound classification and antibiotic duration. Selection of POABP spectrum is also controversial, and must balance the choice between too narrow, risking subsequent infection, or too broad, and possible unwanted effects (e.g. antibiotic resistance, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea). POABP regimens should retain activity against bacteria expected to colonize the upper respiratory/salivary tracts, which include Gram-positive organisms and facultative anaerobes. However, Gram-negative bacilli also contribute to SSI in this setting. POABP doses should be optimized in order to achieve therapeutic tissue concentrations at the surgical site. Antibiotics targeted towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not warranted for all patients. Prolonged POABP durations have shown no differences in SSI when compared to short POABP durations, but prolonged durations provide unnecessarily antibiotic exposure and risk for adverse effects. Given the lack of standardization behind antibiotic POABP in this setting and the potential for poor patient outcomes, this practice necessitates an additional focus of surgeons and antimicrobial stewardship programs. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of POABP evidence and discuss pertinent clinical implications of appropriate use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Unravelling adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia: a patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, L H; Kars, M C; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, M; Peters, M; Schuurmans, M J; Fischer, K

    2015-09-01

    Given the lifelong therapy in haemophilia patients, insight in non-adherence behaviour from a patient perspective is important to understand patients' difficulties with the following treatment recommendations. The aim of this study was to clarify the process underlying adherence (behaviour) to prophylactic treatment, from a patients' perspective. To develop a grounded theory, a qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was performed to understand experiences, perceptions and beliefs concerning adherence to prophylaxis. From two Dutch treatment centres, 21 adults with haemophilia using prophylaxis were interviewed. Patients were asked how they experience their task to administer prophylaxis and how they adhere to this. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed in an iterative process, leading to the development of the grounded theory. Adherence was determined by the position of prophylaxis in life. The position of prophylaxis was determined by the perception of prophylaxis and the ability to exert prophylaxis. Patients' perception was influenced by two main factors: acceptance of haemophilia and feeling/fearing symptoms. The ability to exert prophylaxis was influenced by understanding haemophilia and prophylaxis and planning/infusion skills. The combination of different perceptions and skills led to four main positions of prophylaxis in life: (i) prophylaxis integrated in life, (ii) prophylaxis according to doctors' advice, struggling with irregular situations, (iii) prophylaxis is too much to handle, (iv) prophylaxis is a confrontation with illness. The adherence level gradually decreased from position 1 to 4. This information can be used to design tailored interventions to promote adherence.

  8. Is endocarditis prophylaxis for dental procedures necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Kathryn A; Wilson, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose is to address whether antimicrobial prophylaxis is necessary before certain dental procedures for patients at increased risk for acquiring infective endocarditis (IE). Methods We reviewed recommendations for IE prophylaxis made by the American Heart Association (AHA) from 1995 to the present time. We also compared and contrasted the current recommendations from the AHA, European Society of Cardiology (ESC), United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and a consortium of French organisations. We further reviewed recent papers that have observed the incidence of IE since these current recommendations were published. Results Beginning in the 1990s, questions were raised about the advisability of using antimicrobial prophylaxis before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. Various groups in Europe and the US were increasingly aware that there were not any clinical trials showing the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such prophylaxis. In the early to mid-2000s, the AHA, ESC and French consortium published guidelines recommending restriction of prophylaxis before dental procedures to patients with highest risk for developing IE and/or the highest risk for an adverse outcome from IE. The NICE guidelines eliminated recommendations for prophylaxis before dental procedures. Studies published after these changes were instituted have generally shown that the incidence of IE has not changed, although two recent reports have observed some increased incidence (but not necessarily related to an antecedent dental procedure). Conclusion A multi-national randomised controlled clinical trial that would include individuals from both developed and developing countries around the world is needed to ultimately define whether there is a role for antibiotic prophylaxis administered before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. PMID:28321267

  9. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in caesarean section delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ronghua; Lin, Lin; Wang, Dujuan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is used routinely for pre-, intra- and post-operative caesarean section. One of the most important risk factors for postpartum infection is caesarean delivery. Caesarean section shows a higher incidence of infection than vaginal delivery. It is complicated by surgical site infections, endometritis or urinary tract infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the usage of antimicrobials in women undergoing caesarean section at a Tertiary Care Hospital. A prospective study was conducted in 100 women during the period of February 2013 to August 2013 in the inpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Data collected included the age of the patient, gravidity, and type of caesarean section, which was analyzed for the nature and number of antimicrobials prescribed, duration of treatment, polypharmacy, fixed-dose combinations, generic/brand names used and failure of prophylaxis. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was administered to the patients. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial was a combination of ceftriaxone and sulbactam. Of 100 patients, 87% were aged 20–35 years. The highest proportion of patients were primigravida 72%. Elective procedure was carried out in 38%, the remaining were emergency C-section in whom intra- and post-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis was given for a duration of 7 days. In total, 27% of patients were reported with infection even after the antimicrobial prophylaxis. In conclusion, pre-operative prophylaxis was given in the early rupture of membranes. Fixed-dose combinations were preferred. Incidence of infection even after antimicrobial prophylaxis was reported due to pre-existing infection, debilitating disease or prolonged rupture of membranes. Patients with recurrent infection were shifted to amoxicillin and clavulinic acid combination. Drugs were prescribed only by brand names which is of concern. PMID:27446303

  10. Cleaning effectiveness of implant prophylaxis instruments.

    PubMed

    Schmage, Petra; Kahili, Fisnik; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Scorziello, Thomas M; Platzer, Ursula; Pfeiffer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning effectiveness of implant prophylaxis instruments on polished and acid-etched implant surfaces. Biofilm layers of Streptococcus mutans were grown on a total of 80 titanium disks; 40 disks were polished and 40 were acid-etched. Five disks of each surface were cleaned using each of seven implant prophylaxis instruments: (1) manual plastic curette, (2) manual carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) curette, (3) sonic-driven prophylaxis brush, (4) rotating rubber cup with prophylaxis paste, (5) sonic-driven polyether ether ketone (PEEK) plastic tip, (6) ultrasonic-driven PEEK plastic tip, and (7) air polishing with amino acid (glycine) powder. Ten disks (five of each surface type) served as controls. After cleaning, the surfaces with remaining bacteria were assessed by light microscopy. Statistical analyses of the results were performed with one-way and two-way analyses of variance with Bonferroni-Dunn multiple comparisons post hoc analysis (α = .05). The cleaning effectiveness of the plastic curette was significantly lower than those of all machine-driven instruments on the polished surface. Significantly lower cleaning effectiveness occurred with the CFRP curette compared to the prophylaxis brush and to both oscillating PEEK plastic tips on the polished surface. The rubber cup provided less cleaning effectiveness compared to the ultrasonic PEEK plastic tip and air polishing on the acid-etched surface. Superior results, with less than 4% of the biofilm remaining, were obtained for both oscillating PEEK plastic tips and air polishing on both implant surfaces. The cleaning ability of the prophylaxis brush, rubber cup, and ultrasonic PEEK plastic tip differed significantly between both surface structures. Cleaning effectiveness, ie, less than 4% of the biofilm remaining, was not observed with all tested implant prophylaxis instruments. The cleaning ability of the devices depended on the implant surface structure.

  11. Treatment and prophylaxis of melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dance, David

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is being recognised with increasing frequency and is probably more common than currently appreciated. Treatment recommendations are based on a series of clinical trials conducted in Thailand over the past 25 years. Treatment is usually divided into two phases: in the first, or acute phase, parenteral drugs are given for ≥10 days with the aim of preventing death from overwhelming sepsis; in the second, or eradication phase, oral drugs are given, usually to complete a total of 20 weeks, with the aim of preventing relapse. Specific treatment for individual patients needs to be tailored according to clinical manifestations and response, and there remain many unanswered questions. Some patients with very mild infections can probably be cured by oral agents alone. Ceftazidime is the mainstay of acute-phase treatment, with carbapenems reserved for severe infections or treatment failures and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) as second-line therapy. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is preferred for the eradication phase, with the alternative of co-amoxiclav. In addition, the best available supportive care is needed, along with drainage of abscesses whenever possible. Treatment for melioidosis is unaffordable for many in endemic areas of the developing world, but the relative costs have reduced over the past decade. Unfortunately there is no likelihood of any new or cheaper options becoming available in the immediate future. Recommendations for prophylaxis following exposure to B. pseudomallei have been made, but the evidence suggests that they would probably only delay rather than prevent the development of infection. PMID:24613038

  12. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  13. HIV postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L; Brown, M A

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease have prompted health care providers to reexamine recommendations for prophylaxis of HIV infection. Parallels with occupational exposure through mucous membrane tissues spur consideration of HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault for several reasons. In both instances, exposure occurs at a single point in time and is unlikely to recur. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not make definitive recommendations regarding postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault, the reality is that as clinicians, we face situations in which we must consider treatment for prevention of HIV disease after sexual assault. Guidelines for treatment and how to create and implement a policy to ensure the best outcomes, and provide a high quality of patient care with the New York State guidelines as a model, are discussed.

  14. Microbiological aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical profile of prosthetic joint infections: are current antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines effective?

    PubMed

    Peel, Trisha N; Cheng, Allen C; Buising, Kirsty L; Choong, Peter F M

    2012-05-01

    Prosthetic joint infections remain a major complication of arthroplasty. At present, local and international guidelines recommend cefazolin as a surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. This retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008) investigated the epidemiology and microbiological etiology of prosthetic joint infections. There were 163 cases of prosthetic joint infection identified. From a review of the microbiological culture results, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 45% of infections. In addition, polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving Gram-negative bacilli and enterococcal species, were common (36%). The majority (88%) of patients received cefazolin as an antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. In 63% of patients in this cohort, the microorganisms subsequently obtained were not susceptible to the antibiotic prophylaxis administered. The results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing reviews of the local ecology of prosthetic joint infection, demonstrating that the spectrum of pathogens involved is broad. The results should inform empirical antibiotic therapy. This report also provokes discussion about infection control strategies, including changing surgical antibiotic prophylaxis to a combination of glycopeptide and cefazolin, to reduce the incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien CM; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    (48 trials, 5758 participants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), microbiologically documented infection (53 trials, 6383 participants; RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.62) and other indicators of infection. There were no significant differences between quinolone prophylaxis and TMP-SMZ prophylaxis with regard to death from all causes or infection, however, quinolone prophylaxis was associated with fewer side effects leading to discontinuation (seven trials, 850 participants; RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.87) and less resistance to the drugs thereafter (six trials, 366 participants; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.74). Authors’ conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic patients significantly reduced all-cause mortality. In our review, the most significant reduction in mortality was observed in trials assessing prophylaxis with quinolones. The benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis outweighed the harm such as adverse effects and the development of resistance since all-cause mortality was reduced. As most trials in our review were of patients with haematologic cancer, we strongly recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for these patients, preferably with a quinolone. Prophylaxis may also be considered for patients with solid tumours or lymphoma. PMID:22258955

  16. HIV-1 drug resistance emergence among breastfeeding infants born to HIV-infected mothers during a single-arm trial of triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Clement; Weidle, Paul J; Nafisa, Lillian; Lwamba, Humphrey M; Okonji, Jully; Anyango, Emily; Bondo, Philip; Masaba, Rose; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Nkengasong, John N; Thigpen, Michael C; Thomas, Timothy

    2011-03-01

    Nevirapine and lamivudine given to mothers are transmitted to infants via breastfeeding in quantities sufficient to have biologic effects on the virus; this may lead to an increased risk of a breastfed infant's development of resistance to maternal antiretrovirals. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS), a single-arm open-label prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) trial, assessed the safety and efficacy of zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir given to HIV-infected women from 34 wk gestation through 6 mo of breastfeeding. Here, we present findings from a KiBS trial secondary analysis that evaluated the emergence of maternal ARV-associated resistance among 32 HIV-infected breastfed infants. All infants in the cohort were tested for HIV infection using DNA PCR at multiple study visits during the 24 mo of the study, and plasma RNA viral load for all HIV-PCR-positive infants was evaluated retrospectively. Specimens from mothers and infants with viral load >1,000 copies/ml were tested for HIV drug resistance mutations. Overall, 32 infants were HIV infected by 24 mo of age, and of this group, 24 (75%) infants were HIV infected by 6 mo of age. Of the 24 infants infected by 6 mo, nine were born to mothers on a nelfinavir-based regimen, whereas the remaining 15 were born to mothers on a nevirapine-based regimen. All infants were also given single-dose nevirapine within 48 hours of birth. We detected genotypic resistance mutations in none of eight infants who were HIV-PCR positive by 2 wk of age (specimens from six infants were not amplifiable), for 30% (6/20) at 6 wk, 63% (14/22) positive at 14 wk, and 67% (16/24) at 6 mo post partum. Among the 16 infants with resistance mutations by 6 mo post partum, the common mutations were M184V and K103N, conferring resistance to lamivudine and nevirapine, respectively. Genotypic resistance was detected among 9/9 (100%) and 7/15 (47%) infected infants whose mothers were on nelfinavir and

  17. Hepatitis B and inflammatory bowel disease: role of antiviral prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    López-Serrano, Pilar; Pérez-Calle, Jose Lázaro; Sánchez-Tembleque, Maria Dolores

    2013-03-07

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a very common infection worldwide. Its reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppression has been widely described as being associated with significant morbidity and mortality unless anti-viral prophylaxis is administered. Treatment in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients has changed in recent years and immunosuppression and biological therapies are now used more frequently than before. Although current studies have reported an incidence of hepatitis B in inflammatory bowel disease patients similar to that in the general population, associated liver damage remains an important concern in this setting. Liver dysfunction may manifest in several ways, from a subtle change in serum aminotransferase levels to fulminant liver failure and death. Patients undergoing double immunosuppression are at a higher risk, and reactivation usually occurs after more than one year of treatment. As preventive measures, all IBD patients should be screened for HBV markers at diagnosis and those who are positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen should receive antiviral prophylaxis before undergoing immunosuppression in order to avoid HBV reactivation. Tenofovir/entecavir are preferred to lamivudine as nucleos(t)ide analogues due to their better resistance profile. In patients with occult or resolved HBV, viral reactivation does not appear to be a relevant issue and regular DNA determination is recommended during immunosuppression therapy. Consensus guidelines on this topic have been published in recent years. The prevention and management of HBV infection in IBD patients is addressed in this review in order to address practical recommendations.

  18. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial. PMID:27092529

  19. Surgeons' adherence to guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis - a review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ru Shing; Chong, Chee Ping

    2012-01-01

    Surgical site infections are the most common nosocomial infection among surgical patients. Patients who experience surgical site infections are associated with prolonged hospital stay, rehospitalisation, increased morbidity and mortality, and costs. Consequently, surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP), which is a very brief course of antibiotic given just before the surgery, has been introduced to prevent the occurrence of surgical site infections. The efficacy of SAP depends on several factors, including selection of appropriate antibiotic, timing of administration, dosage, duration of prophylaxis and route of administration. In many institutions around the globe, evidence-based guidelines have been developed to advance the proper use of SAP. This paper aims to review the studies on surgeons' adherence to SAP guidelines and factors influencing their adherence. A wide variation of overall compliance towards SAP guidelines was noted, ranging from 0% to 71.9%. The misuses of prophylactic antibiotics are commonly seen, particularly inappropriate choice and prolonged duration of administration. Lack of awareness of the available SAP guidelines, influence of initial training, personal preference and influence from colleagues were among the factors which hindered the surgeons' adherence to SAP guidelines. Immediate actions are needed to improve the adherence rate as inappropriate use of SAP can lead to the emergence of a strain of resistant bacteria resulting in a number of costs to the healthcare system. Corrective measures to improve SAP adherence include development of guidelines, education and effective dissemination of guidelines to targeted surgeons and routine audit of antibiotic utilisation by a dedicated infection control team.

  20. Compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at an Australian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Friedman, N Deborah; Styles, Kaylene; Gray, Ann M; Low, Jillian; Athan, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is one practice proven to prevent surgical site infections. Compliance of SAP choice, timing, and duration with guidelines was assessed utilizing prospectively collected surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance data from January 2008 through September 2010. Antibiotic choice was adequate or optimal in 97% of cardiac and orthopedic joint replacement procedures and 89% of colorectal procedures. In 6% to 8% of surgical procedures, SAP was not administered within 1 hour of the incision. SAP was continued beyond 24 hours in 20% of cardiac operations and 13% of colorectal procedures. Numerous combinations of antibiotics were used for prophylaxis, including ticarcillin/clavulanic acid in 67% of colorectal procedures. Many choices were not in keeping with both local and international recommendations. Deep SSI rates for cardiac procedures were above the state aggregate rate in 2010 only, whereas SSI rates for colorectal surgery were in excess of the state aggregate rate for all quarters. Antimicrobial-resistance data indicate a gradual increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria. In cardiac and colorectal surgery, the optimal choice of SAP is seldom administered, and duration of SAP is excessively long. More education and communication are required to improve these practices. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of primary inguinal hernias using prolene hernia system: a randomized prospective double-blind control trial.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Jayant, M; Norbu, C

    2008-04-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is being commonly used in mesh repair of inguinal hernia but its role has been questioned in a recent Cochrane analysis performed in 2003. Routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in mesh repair of inguinal hernia can lead to bacterial resistance and increase in cost. In a present double-blind placebo controlled trial involving 120 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair using prolene hernia system, we did not find any benefit of the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in terms of wound infection rate.

  2. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... agent and the user applies it to the teeth to remove debris. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. Patient powered prophylaxis: A 12-month study of individualized prophylaxis in adults with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haowei Linda; McIntosh, Kam A; Squire, Sandra J; Yang, Ming; Bartholomew, Claude; Gue, Deb S; Camp, Pat G; Jackson, Shannon C

    2017-08-29

    Adults with severe haemophilia A (SHA) may experience breakthrough bleeds despite standard weight-based FVIII prophylaxis three times weekly. Individualized prophylaxis has evolved to optimize patient outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a standardized approach to individualized prophylaxis on annualized bleeding rates (ABR), factor utilization, physical activity and quality of life in adults with SHA. In this prospective cohort study, patients with baseline FVIII:C <2% and ABR >3 on weight-based prophylaxis received a standardized approach to individualized prophylaxis. Changes in ABR, annualized FVIII consumption and adherence from the 12-month prestudy and 12-month intervention period were compared. Changes in Haemo-QoL-A total score, Physical Functioning (PF) subscale and physical activity level measured by accelerometry were also examined. Eighteen patients participated (median age 26 years). Individualized prophylaxis decreased total bleeds in the population by 69% and traumatic bleeds by 73%. The median ABR decreased from 7.5 to 2 (P<.001). Annualized factor consumption increased by 7.3%, as a result of 66% reduction in factor utilization for treatment of bleeds and 25% increase in factor utilization for prophylaxis. Adherence scores for frequency and dosing did not change. There was a significant increase in the Haemo-QoL-A total score (P=.02) and PF score (P=.01) from baseline to 4 months but no change in physical activity. Patients with SHA who switched from standard to individualized prophylaxis show reduced ABR and increased FVIII consumption, and also improved their health-related quality of life. The mechanism is independent of adherence to prescribed prophylactic regimen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ciprofloxacin versus colistin prophylaxis during neutropenia in acute myeloid leukemia: two parallel patient cohorts treated in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Pohlen, Michele; Marx, Julia; Mellmann, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Mesters, Rolf M.; Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Schliemann, Christoph; Lenz, Georg; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Büchner, Thomas; Krug, Utz; Stelljes, Matthias; Karch, Helge; Peters, Georg; Gerth, Hans U.; Görlich, Dennis; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk for bacterial infections during therapy-related neutropenia. However, the use of specific antibiotic regimens for prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic acute myeloid leukemia patients is controversial. We report a retrospective evaluation of 172 acute myeloid leukemia patients who received 322 courses of myelosuppressive chemotherapy and had an expected duration of neutropenia of more than seven days. The patients were allocated to antibiotic prophylaxis groups and treated with colistin or ciprofloxacin through 2 different hematologic services at our hospital, as available. The infection rate was reduced from 88.6% to 74.2% through antibiotic prophylaxis (vs. without prophylaxis; P=0.04). A comparison of both antibiotic drugs revealed a trend towards fewer infections associated with ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (69.2% vs. 79.5% in the colistin group; P=0.07), as determined by univariate analysis. This result was confirmed through multivariate analysis (OR: 0.475, 95%CI: 0.236–0.958; P=0.041). The prophylactic agents did not differ with regard to the microbiological findings (P=0.6, not significant). Of note, the use of ciprofloxacin was significantly associated with an increased rate of infections with pathogens that are resistant to the antibiotic used for prophylaxis (79.5% vs. 9.5% in the colistin group; P<0.0001). The risk factors for higher infection rates were the presence of a central venous catheter (P<0.0001), mucositis grade III/IV (P=0.0039), and induction/relapse courses (vs. consolidation; P<0.0001). In conclusion, ciprofloxacin prophylaxis appears to be of particular benefit during induction and relapse chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. To prevent and control drug resistance, it may be safely replaced by colistin during consolidation cycles of acute myeloid leukemia therapy. PMID:27470601

  9. Adjunctive Azithromycin Prophylaxis for Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tita, Alan T.N.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Boggess, Kim; Saade, George; Longo, Sherri; Clark, Erin; Esplin, Sean; Cleary, Kirsten; Wapner, Ron; Letson, Kellett; Owens, Michelle; Abramovici, Adi; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Cutter, Gary; Andrews, William

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. METHODS In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture. We randomly assigned 1019 to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin and 994 to receive placebo. All the women were also scheduled to receive standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, or other infection occurring within 6 weeks. RESULTS The primary outcome occurred in 62 women (6.1%) who received azithromycin and in 119 (12.0%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.68; P<0.001). There were significant differences between the azithromycin group and the placebo group in rates of endometritis (3.8% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.02), wound infection (2.4% vs. 6.6%, P<0.001), and serious maternal adverse events (1.5% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.03). There was no significant between-group difference in a secondary neonatal composite outcome that included neonatal death and serious neonatal complications (14.3% vs. 13.6%, P = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS Among women undergoing nonelective cesarean delivery who were all receiving standard antibiotic prophylaxis, extended-spectrum prophylaxis with adjunctive azithromycin was more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of postoperative infection. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; C/SOAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01235546.) PMID:27682034

  10. Adjunctive Azithromycin Prophylaxis for Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Tita, Alan T N; Szychowski, Jeff M; Boggess, Kim; Saade, George; Longo, Sherri; Clark, Erin; Esplin, Sean; Cleary, Kirsten; Wapner, Ron; Letson, Kellett; Owens, Michelle; Abramovici, Adi; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Cutter, Gary; Andrews, William

    2016-09-29

    The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture. We randomly assigned 1019 to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin and 994 to receive placebo. All the women were also scheduled to receive standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, or other infection occurring within 6 weeks. The primary outcome occurred in 62 women (6.1%) who received azithromycin and in 119 (12.0%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.68; P<0.001). There were significant differences between the azithromycin group and the placebo group in rates of endometritis (3.8% vs. 6.1%, P=0.02), wound infection (2.4% vs. 6.6%, P<0.001), and serious maternal adverse events (1.5% vs. 2.9%, P=0.03). There was no significant between-group difference in a secondary neonatal composite outcome that included neonatal death and serious neonatal complications (14.3% vs. 13.6%, P=0.63). Among women undergoing nonelective cesarean delivery who were all receiving standard antibiotic prophylaxis, extended-spectrum prophylaxis with adjunctive azithromycin was more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of postoperative infection. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; C/SOAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01235546 .).

  11. A quantitative approach to recommendations on malaria prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Pappaioanou, M.; Lobel, H. O.; Campbell, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for malaria prophylaxis, a quantitative method is needed to balance the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections against the toxicity of antimalarial drugs. Using decision analysis, we estimated the expected mortality associated with three alternative regimens of prophylactic drugs for visitors to three areas with different risks of infection with chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. The model used took into account the risks of malaria and of adverse reactions to antimalarial drugs. Estimates of the parameters used in the analysis were based on observations made on U.S. travellers. Reducing the risk of malaria infection was found to have a far greater impact on lowering the expected mortality than that of increasing the chemoprophylactic efficacy of the drugs used, thereby emphasizing the need for travellers to use anti-mosquito measures in malarious areas. The analytical method described can be used to define optimal malaria prevention strategies. PMID:3048761

  12. Prophylaxis of hepatitis B infection in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karin L.; Kotton, Camille N.; Hertl, Martin; Markmann, James F.; Cosimi, A. Benedict; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from organ donors with HBV markers to recipients along with reactivation of HBV during immunosuppression following transplantation have fallen significantly with the advent of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and effective antiviral therapy. Although the availability of potent antiviral agents and HBIg has highly impacted the survival rate of HBV-infected patients after transplantation, the high cost associated with this practice represents a major financial burden. The availability of potent antivirals with high genetic barrier to resistance and minimal side effects have made it possible to recommend an HBIg-free prophylactic regimen in selected patients with low viral burden prior to transplant. Significant developments over the last two decades in the understanding and treatment of HBV infection necessitate a re-appraisal of the guidelines for prophylaxis of HBV infection in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:23814610

  13. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial meningitis: overuse and uncertain efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, N; Gunnell, D J; Dunn, C; Beswick, T; Hill, A; Ley, B

    1995-12-01

    There is little evidence supporting the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing secondary cases of bacterial meningitis, and recent guidance extended the use of prophylactic antibiotics amongst children who attend pre-school groups. We examined the volume of rifampicin prescribed, and that recommended to contacts of cases of meningococcal and Hib meningitis in Somerset over a three-year period using case note records of the Consultant for Communicable Disease Control (CCDC) and PACT data. There was evidence of excessive prescribing over and above that recommended by the CCDC. Excessive prescribing increases the chance of serious drug side effects and the development of antibiotic resistance. It is suggested that both meningitis contacts and information about early symptoms of meningitis, as well as an explanation of the rationale behind the prescribing of antibiotic prophylaxis to contacts. This may reduce the likelihood of unnecessary prescribing and subsequent complications.

  14. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis of bacterial infections in pediatric oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Simon, A; Fleischhack, G; Marklein, G; Ritter, J

    2001-09-01

    Bacterial infections are still a major challenge in the treatment of pediatric cancer patients. Considering the evidence in the literature and published consensus opinions of experts the following strategies of antibacterial chemoprophylaxis (ABCP) in pediatric cancer patients can be recommended (or not recommended): Accompanying the implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (or a Rickham-reservoir) ABCP is recommended, until prospective controlled studies including pediatric cancer patients have investigated this issue. In bone marrow or stem cell transplant recipients, the prophylactic administration of penicillin should be considered, if severe oral mucositis is a common adverse event in cancer departments with high rates of penicillin-susceptible strains of Streptococcus viridans. Prospective surveillance of resistant bacterial pathogens should be an indispensable tool of quality control in pediatric oncology departments. The risk of infection with antimicrobial-resistant isolates should be balanced against the real benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in every instance. ABCP should neither be given during implantation nor during prolonged usage to prevent bacterial infection of a central venous access device (unproven efficacy and potential hazards of Vancomycin-resistant gram-positive infections). The oral administration of non-absorbable ABCP or Trimetoprim-Sufomethoxazole is not recommended for the prevention of bacterial infections (unproven efficacy) and no recommendation can be given for the oral ABCP with chinolones (lacking data, risk of antimicrobial resistance).

  15. Appropriate VTE prophylaxis is associated with lower direct medical costs.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alpesh; Hussein, Mohamed; Battleman, David; Lin, Jay; Stemkowski, Stephen; Merli, Geno J

    2010-11-01

    To calculate and compare the direct medical costs of guideline-recommended prophylaxis with prophylaxis that does not fully adhere with guideline recommendations in a large, real-world population. Discharge records were retrieved from the US Premier Perspective™ database (January 2003-December 2003) for patients aged≥40 years with a primary diagnosis of cancer, chronic heart failure, lung disease, or severe infectious disease who received some form of thromboprophylaxis. Univariate analysis and multivariate regression modeling were performed to compare direct medical costs between discharges who received appropriate prophylaxis (correct type, dose, and duration based on sixth edition American College of Chest Physicians [ACCP] recommendations) and partial prophylaxis (not in full accordance with ACCP recommendations). Market segmentation analysis was used to compare costs stratified by hospital and patient characteristics. Of the 683 005 discharges included, 148,171 (21.7%) received appropriate prophylaxis and 534,834 (78.3%) received partial prophylaxis. The total direct unadjusted costs were $15,439 in the appropriate prophylaxis group and $17,763 in the partial prophylaxis group. After adjustment, mean adjusted total costs per discharge were lower for those receiving appropriate prophylaxis ($11,713; 95% confidence interval [CI], $11,675-$11,753) compared with partial prophylaxis ($13,369; 95% CI, $13,332-$13 406; P<0.01). Appropriate prophylaxis appeared to be associated with numerically lower unadjusted costs than partial prophylaxis, regardless of hospital size, rural/urban location, teaching status, and patient age and gender. This large, real-world analysis suggests that appropriate prophylaxis, in adherence with ACCP guidelines, is potentially cost-saving compared with partial prophylaxis in at-risk medical patients.

  16. Surgical prophylaxis: the evolution of guidelines in an era of cost containment.

    PubMed

    Akalin, H Erdal

    2002-01-01

    Postoperative infections account for a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections, are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and place a large burden upon the inpatient healthcare budget. Prophylaxis is desirable and is based on a combination of preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and postoperative wound care. There is considerable evidence that antibiotics are used excessively and inappropriately in the prevention and treatment of hospital-acquired infections, including surgical-site infections. In the case of the latter, timing of prophylaxis is crucial to success yet antibiotics are often administered at the wrong time or for too long a period, with implications for the cost of patient care. Several studies have shown that the local implementation of practice guidelines can yield significant improvements in antibiotic use and the cost of surgical prophylaxis. More rational use of antibiotics is likely to benefit the treatment of future surgical patients by reducing the pressure to select for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  17. Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Nava, Leticia A; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Solà, Ivan; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2013-06-06

    Infection of burn wounds is a serious problem because it can delay healing, increase scarring and invasive infection may result in the death of the patient. Antibiotic prophylaxis is one of several interventions that may prevent burn wound infection and protect the burned patient from invasive infections. To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection. In January 2013 we searched the Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE - In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (2013); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL and reference lists of relevant articles. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of BWI. Quasi-randomised studies were excluded. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. Risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) were estimated for dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively. When sufficient numbers of comparable RCTs were available, trials were pooled in a meta-analysis to estimate the combined effect. This review includes 36 RCTs (2117 participants); twenty six (72%) evaluated topical antibiotics, seven evaluated systemic antibiotics (four of these administered the antibiotic perioperatively and three administered upon hospital admission or during routine treatment), two evaluated prophylaxis with non absorbable antibiotics, and one evaluated local antibiotics administered via the airway.The 11 trials (645 participants) that evaluated topical prophylaxis with silver sulfadiazine were pooled in a meta analysis. There was a statistically significant increase in burn wound infection associated with silver sulfadiazine compared with dressings/skin substitute (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09 to 3.19, I(2) = 0%). These

  18. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. PMID:27185766

  20. Systematic Review of the Literature and Evidence-Based Recommendations for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Trauma: Results from an Italian Consensus of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniele; Chieregato, Arturo; Langer, Martin; Viaggi, Bruno; Cingolani, Emiliano; Malacarne, Paolo; Mengoli, Francesca; Nardi, Giuseppe; Nascimben, Ennio; Riccioni, Luigi; Turriziani, Ilaria; Volpi, Annalisa; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prophylaxis is frequently administered in severe trauma. However, the risk of selecting resistant bacteria, a major issue especially in critical care environments, has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of the present study was to provide guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis for four different trauma-related clinical conditions, taking into account the risks of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection, thus innovating previous guidelines in the field. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for studies comparing antibiotic prophylaxis to controls (placebo or no antibiotic administration) in four clinical traumatic conditions that were selected on the basis of the traumatic event frequency and/or infection severity. The selected studies focused on the prevention of early ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in comatose patients with traumatic brain injury, of meningitis in severe basilar skull fractures, of wound infections in long-bone open fractures. Since no placebo-controlled study was available for deep surgical site-infections prevention in abdominal trauma with enteric contamination, we compared 24-hour and 5-day antibiotic prophylaxis policies. A separate specific research focused on the question of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection caused by antibiotic prophylaxis, an issue not adequately investigated by the selected studies. Randomised trials, reviews, meta-analyses, observational studies were included. Data extraction was carried out by one author according to a predefined protocol, using an electronic form. The strength of evidence was stratified and recommendations were given according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Results Uncertain evidence deserving further studies was found for two-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for early VAP prevention in comatose patients. In the other cases the risk of resistant-bacteria selection caused by antibiotic administration

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary in clean surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasan, G Z; Saleh, F M; Hossain, M Z; Amin, M R; Siddiqui, T H; Islam, M D; Chakraborty, S

    2013-04-01

    A significant number of paediatric surgical patients undergone clean surgical procedures. Most of the paediatric surgeon use perioperative prophylactic antibiotic in this clean procedure because of undue fear of infection in their mind. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics have an effect to prevent post operative wound infection in clean operation in paediatric surgical patients. This study was conducted in the paediatric surgery department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and some private clinics of Dhaka city from January 2009 to December 2009. Two hundred patients who were undergone clean elective surgical procedure on day case basis were included in this study. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B). The patients of Group A were given intransverse Cephradine 30 minutes before incision and then oral Cephradine was advised postoperatively for 7 days. The patients of Group B were not given any perioperative antibiotic. All the patients of both groups were advised to come on 3rd, 6th and 10th postoperative day for examination of wound. In Group A (With chemo prophylaxis), five patients (5%) developed postoperative wound infection and in Group B (without chemo prophylaxis), three patients (3%) developed postoperative wound infection. Thus the rate of postoperative wound infection is slightly more in patients with chemo prophylaxis but it was not statistically significant by chi-square test. Based on the result of this study, it may be concluded that the antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in clean surgery in paediatric age group.

  2. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-2-0098 TITLE: Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Natasa Strbo CONTRACTING...REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria ...expected to provide prophylactic immunity for malaria by removing infected liver cells before sporozoites can replicate and spread to the erythrocyte

  3. [Prophylaxis of purulent complications in mechanical ileus].

    PubMed

    Tamm, T I; Nepomnyashchiy, V V; Shakalova, E A; Dvornik, I A

    2015-03-01

    In experiment, while simulating an acute ileus, the possibility of antibacterial preparations for prophylaxis of purulent--septic complications was studied. There was established, that while progressing purulent intestinal inflammation its wall already in 12 h losses a capacity to cumulate penicillines and aminoglycosides. In a phlegmon-like changed intestine during 48 h cephalosporins and fluorochinolons are accumulated in bactericidal concentration, making a destruction of intestinal wall and occurrence of purulent peritonitis by 6-12 h slower.

  4. Prophylaxis of endemic goitre in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Stacpoole, Herbert H.

    1953-01-01

    The results of a survey carried out in eight States of Mexico are discussed by the author. The administrative, budgetary, and psychological difficulties encountered when attempting goitre prophylaxis by means of iodized salt are outlined. The author examines the efficacy of iodized sweets given to 50,000 schoolchildren in the Federal District and in the State of Morelos. Recent experiments in Mexico with iodated salt confirm previous statements concerning its stability. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13094516

  5. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Kayvon; Hyman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Patients who undergo colorectal surgery are at a substantially higher risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) than their general surgery counterparts. The incidence of DVT in colorectal surgery patients who do not receive prophylaxis is approximately 30%; a four-fold increase exists in the incidence of pulmonary embolism. The precise reasons for the increased risk are uncertain; likely, contributing factors are the need for pelvic dissection, patient positioning (eg, use of stirrups), and indications for surgery (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer). Despite the clear evidence that supports the safety and efficacy of DVT prophylaxis, appropriate preventive measures are frequently not used. Heparin preparations and mechanical compression in combination likely represents the most appropriate prophylactic regimen in these high-risk patients. Standard heparin appears to be as effective as low-molecular-weight heparin and considerably less costly. In the presence of relatively poor adherence to consensus guidelines for prophylaxis, critical pathways or electronic alerts may be useful to facilitate compliance with appropriate preventive measures.

  6. Self-assessment of striae gravidarum prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Małgorzata; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Striae are the most frequently occurring pathology of connective tissue during pregnancy. According to the statistical data, 70–90% of women suffer from striae gravidarum. Aim To assess effectiveness of topical products and massage used by pregnant women in striae gravidarum prophylaxis. Material and methods The questionnaire study was conducted among 299 women who were maximum 6 months after delivery at term. The questionnaire included questions concerning age, occurrence of striae gravidarum during pregnancy, their location, week of gestation when the lesions appeared and used striae prophylaxis as well as its effectiveness in respondents’ opinion. Results Analysis of the correlation between striae gravidarum occurrence and use of different types of cosmetics showed that this kind of prophylaxis is effective when applied at least twice a day (63.7% vs. 77.6%). No correlation between the type of cosmetics and presence of striae was observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions Use of prophylactic measures like skin emollients and oils with the appropriate frequency significantly reduces the risk of striae gravidarum occurrence. PMID:26755911

  7. [Thromboembolic prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients].

    PubMed

    Braekkan, Sigrid; Grimsgaard, Sameline; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2007-05-03

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) ranges between 15 and 40% for patients hospitalized for certain medical conditions. Clinical studies have shown that prophylactic treatment with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) reduces the risk of VTE from 15 to 6%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of thromboprophylaxis among hospitalized medical patients after the introduction of clinical guidelines. A retrospective chart review was conducted among patients hospitalized for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure at Tromsø University Hospital during 2000-2001 and 2003-2004, i.e. before and after introduction of guidelines for thromboprophylaxis. Demographic data, risk factors for VTE and use of thromboprophylaxis were recorded. 434 hospitalizations were included. According to the guidelines, prophylaxis was indicated in 307 (71%) hospitalizations, and LMWH was prescribed in 62 (20%) hospitalizations. There was a non-significant increase in the use of prophylaxis from 18% to 23% after the introduction of clinical guidelines (p = 0.3). Acute myocardial infarction, acute infection and immobilization were significant predictors for prophylaxis. This study indicates insufficient adherence to clinical guidelines for thromboprophylaxis to patients at risk of VTE in internal medicine. There is potential for improvement of prophylactic treatment to avoid serious VTE among hospitalized medical patients.

  8. Prophylaxis against hepatitis A for travel.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P; Oakeshott, P; Logan, J; Law, J; Harris, D M

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop a rational practice policy for prophylaxis against hepatitis A for travellers to high risk areas. DESIGN--18 Month prospective study of consecutive patients who requested prophylaxis against hepatitis A. SETTING--Inner city general practice. SUBJECTS--104 Patients aged 15-61 (mean 30) assessed for risk factors for hepatitis A and put into groups depending on predictions from the risk factors of their immunity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS--All patients were screened for antibody to hepatitis A virus. Of 52 patients with no risk factors 47 had no antibody and were thus susceptible to hepatitis A. All 27 patients with major risk factors (having been brought up in an endemic area or with a history of jaundice) were immune. Of 25 patients with minor risk factors (a history of previous travel in high risk areas, drug abuse, having lived in a squat or travelled rough, or having lived with someone who had jaundice) 12 were immune (p less than 0.001, chi 2 test). CONCLUSIONS--All travellers requesting prophylaxis against hepatitis A should be assessed for risk factors for previous exposure to hepatitis A. Those with no risk factors could be immunised with human normal immunoglobulin without screening. The remainder should be tested for hepatitis A antibody and those found to be susceptible should be immunised. PMID:2157514

  9. Anticoagulant prophylaxis for placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A

    2011-02-01

    Thrombophilias are not yet established as a cause of the placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age and placental abruption). A thrombophilia may be only one of many factors that lead to development of these complications. Our recent large systematic review of prospective cohort studies highlight that the association between thrombophilia and placenta mediated pregnancy complications is far from proven. The small step of previously describing an association in case control studies has led a large number of clinicians and opinion leaders to take the large leap of accepting this relationship as being causal and potentially treatable with anticoagulant interventions. Furthermore, while data in women with prior severe pre-eclpamsia, abruption and small for gestational age births without thrombophilia suggests some promise for anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent complications in subsequent pregnancies in these women, in the absence of large well done and generalisable "no intervention" controlled studies adopting anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent these complications is premature. The absence of strong evidence, coupled with the small potential for harm from anticoagulant prophylaxis suggests that these drugs should be considered experimental in thrombophilic and non-thrombophilic women with prior placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

  10. Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy: Swedish recommendations 2010.

    PubMed

    Navér, Lars; Albert, Jan; Belfrage, Erik; Flamholc, Leo; Gisslén, Magnus; Gyllensten, Katarina; Josephson, Filip; Karlström, Olof; Lindgren, Susanne; Pettersson, Karin; Svedhem, Veronica; Sönnerborg, Anders; Westling, Katarina; Yilmaz, Aylin; Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy

    2011-07-01

    Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs and the use of elective caesarean section have resulted in a very low mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during recent years. The availability of new antiretroviral drugs, updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge of the importance of drug resistance, have necessitated regular revisions of the "Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy" recommendations. For these reasons, The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) updated the 2007 recommendations at an expert meeting that took place on 25 March 2010. The most important revisions from the previous recommendations are: (1) it is recommended that treatment during pregnancy starts at the latest at gestational week 14-18; (2) ongoing efficient treatment at confirmed pregnancy may, with a few exceptions, be continued; (3) lopinavir/r and atazanavir/r are equally recommended protease inhibitors; (4) if maternal HIV RNA is >50 copies/ml close to delivery, a planned caesarean section, intravenous zidovudine, oral nevirapine for the mother and post-exposure prophylaxis for the infant with 3 antiretroviral drugs are recommended; (5) for delivery at <34 gestational weeks, intravenous zidovudine and oral nevirapine for the mother and at 48-72 h for the infant is recommended, in addition to other prophylaxis; (6) intravenous zidovudine is not recommended when HIV RNA is <50 copies/ml and a caesarean section is performed; (7) it is recommended that prophylaxis for the infant is started within 4 h; (8) prophylactic zidovudine for the infant may be administered twice daily instead of 4 times a day, as was the case previously; and (9) the number of sampling occasions for the infant has been decreased.

  11. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Benjamin; Rajjoub, Lamise; Mansour, Tamer; Chen, Tony; Mumtaz, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with orbital fracture prevent orbital infection. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Participants: All patients diagnosed with orbital fracture between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2014 at The George Washington University Hospital and Clinics. Main Outcome Measures: Development of orbital infection. Results: One hundred seventy-two patients with orbital fracture met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. No orbital infections were documented. Twenty subjects (12%) received no prophylactic antibiotic, and two (1%) received only one dose of antibiotics pre-operatively for surgery. For primary antibiotic, 136 subjects (79%) received oral antibiotics, and 14 (8%) received intravenous (IV) antibiotics (excluding cefazolin). Cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most prescribed oral antibiotics that are equally effective. Five-to-seven day courses of antibiotics had no increased infections compared to ten-to-fourteen day courses. Calculated boundaries for effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics ranged from a Number Needed to Treat (NNT) of 75 to a Number Needed to Harm (NNH) of 198. Conclusion: Antibiotics for prevention of orbital infection in patients with orbital fractures have become widely used. Coordination between trauma teams and specialists is needed to prevent patient overmedication and antibiotic resistance. Should antibiotics be used, shorter courses and avoidance of broad spectrum agents are recommended. Additional studies are needed. PMID:28400887

  12. Antibiotic prophylaxis: is it needed for dialysis access procedures?

    PubMed

    Salman, Loay; Asif, Arif

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis has been employed to reduce the risk of infection. Many reports have documented the role of prophylactic antibiotics on the subsequent development of infection in patients undergoing surgical as well as a variety of percutaneous interventions including cardiac, vascular, biliary, genitourinary, and drainage of fluid collections. While prophylactic antibiotics can be critically important for certain procedures, their use can be associated with allergic reactions (including anaphylaxis), development of bacterial resistance, and increased costs of medical care. In this analysis, we report the incidence of clinical infection following minimally invasive interventions for dialysis access procedures. Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients undergoing consecutive percutaneous interventions (n = 3162) for HD and PD access were included in this study. Procedure-related clinical infection was defined as the presence of fever/chills, tenderness, erythema, swelling within 72 hours postprocedure. The procedures included percutaneous balloon angioplasty (arterial and venous) [n = 2078 (AVF = 1310; AVG = 768)], venography for vascular mapping (n = 110), endovascular stent insertion (n = 26), intravascular coil placement (n = 31), thrombectomy for an arteriovenous fistula (n = 106), thrombectomy for an arteriovenous graft (n = 110), tunneled hemodialysis catheter (TDC) insertion and exchange (n = 283), TDC removal (n = 160), and insertion of accidentally extruded TDC through the same exit site (n = 9). There were 260 peritoneal dialysis catheter insertions and 15 repositioning procedures. Only patients undergoing TDC insertion for accidentally extruded catheter and PD catheter placement received antibiotic prophylaxis within 1-2 hours before the procedure. Extruded TDC received 1 g of cefazolin while PD catheter insertion had 1 g of intravenous vancomycin. Povidone iodine was used for skin antisepsis in all cases. One patient (0

  13. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the pediatric trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Petty, John K

    2017-02-01

    Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs in less than 1% of hospitalized pediatric trauma patients, care providers must make decisions about VTE prophylaxis on a daily basis. The consequences of VTE are significant; the risks of developing VTE are variable; and the effectiveness of prophylaxis against VTE is not conclusive in children. While the value of VTE prophylaxis is well defined in adult trauma care, it is unclear how this translates to the care of injured children. This review evaluates the incidence and risks of VTE in pediatric trauma and assesses the merits of prophylaxis in children. Pharmacologic prophylaxis against VTE is a reasonable strategy in critically injured adolescent trauma patients. Further study is needed to establish the risks and benefits of VTE prophylaxis across the spectrum of injured children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [PONV after strabismus surgery : Risk adapted prophylaxis?].

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Morinello, E; Kestler, G; Käsmann-Kellner, B; Bischoff, M; Hager, T; Schöpe, J; Eberhart, L H J

    2016-07-01

    Following strabismus surgery, patients frequently develop variable degrees of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). These symptoms cause discomfort and result in serious complications such as intramuscular bleeding and subconjunctival hemorrhage. In children long lasting PONV can lead to and electrolyte imbalance and dehydration. A prolonged course of recovery is the consequence. For the hospital, PONV can also involve negative economic impacts because of a damaged public reputation of the institution. There is still an ongoing debate on wether prophylaxis of PONV is necessary and how the prophylaxis of PONV should be performed. On one hand, there are proponents of a liberal prophylaxis. These intend to treat almost all patients regardless of their individual risk for PONV. On the other hand, opponents point out that every medication has to be indicated individually. In their view, risk scores should be the base of a risk-adapted approach. The aim of the study was to reduce the frequency of PONV by using an anesthetic technique adapted to the individual risk for PONV. Until now, all trials studying the efficiency of a score-based antiemetic prophylaxis were performed on adult patients. In this study, a risk-adapted approach was evaluated on children for the first time. In 92 patients, the incidence of PONV was analyzed after strabismus surgery. Before surgery we evaluated the risk factors for PONV according to the POVOC score in children (n = 45, 49 %) and the Apfel's score in adults (n = 47, 51 %). Patients with 0-2 risk factors received a balanced anesthesia (n = 47, 51 %). Those with 3-4 risk factors were operated in total IV anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol (n = 45, 49 %). In addition, as an antiemetic prophylaxis, 0.15 mg/kg dexamethason and 0.1 mg/kg ondansetron were applied in the latter patients. we documented the symptoms and severity of PONV 2, 6 and 24 h after surgery by means of a standardized questionnaire for PONV

  15. BW Threat Reduction Medical Prophylaxis in the Czech Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    from a vaccinee `s unhealed vaccination site – by close contact – can lead to the same adverse events as in the vaccinee • Excluded from care of...postexposure medical prophylaxis • Czech vaccination policy 3 Medical Response to BW Threat 4 BW threat Who are 1st Responders? • Primary Care...Prophylaxis The main goal: Minimize potential impact of BW 8 PRE-EXPOSURE MEDICAL PROPHYLAXIS • Immunoprophylaxis – vaccines against a number of

  16. Safety of Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-Based Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K.; Baeten, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel HIV prevention strategy for individuals at increased sexual risk for HIV infection. For any biomedical prevention intervention, the bar for tolerating adverse effects in healthy persons is high compared to therapeutic interventions. Areas covered We provide a concise summary of the clinical safety of TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis with focus on TDF-related effects on tolerability and side effects, kidney function, bone density, HIV resistance, sexual and reproductive health. The evidence base for this review is derived from a literature search of both randomized and observational studies evaluating efficacy and safety of TDF-based PrEP, TDF alone or in combination with emtricitabine, identified from PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases, clinicaltrials.gov and major HIV conferences. Expert opinion TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis is a potent intervention against HIV acquisition when taken which is generally safe and well tolerated. The risk of the small, non-progressive, and reversible decline in glomerular filtration rate and bone mineral density as well as the potential selection for drug resistance associated with PrEP are outweighed, at the population level and broadly for individuals, by PrEP’s substantial reduction in the risk of HIV infection. PMID:26634852

  17. Micafungin: A Review in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of Invasive Candida Infections in Paediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2017-02-01

    Intravenous micafungin (Mycamine(®); Funguard(®)), an echinocandin, is approved in the EU for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in children (including neonates) and adolescents (<16 years of age) and as prophylaxis against Candida infections in patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or who are expected to have neutropenia for ≥10 days. This narrative review focuses on the use of micafungin in paediatric indications approved in the EU, which may vary from those approved elsewhere in the world. Micafungin has a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against clinically relevant isolates of Candida spp. (including fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates), a low propensity for emergence of resistant isolates and a convenient once-daily regimen. In paediatric substudies and a small multinational, phase 3 trial in neonates with proven invasive candidiasis, intravenous micafungin was effective and generally well tolerated in the treatment of candidaemia and other types of invasive candidiasis and as prophylaxis against fungal infections in patients undergoing HSCT. Hence, micafungin remains an important option for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive Candida infections in paediatric and adult patients.

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis and reflux: critical review and assessment

    PubMed Central

    Baquerizo, Bernarda Viteri

    2014-01-01

    The use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) was critical in the evolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) from a condition in which surgery was the standard of treatment to its becoming a medically managed condition. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of VUR has been challenged in recent years, and significant confusion exists as to its clinical value. This review summarizes the critical factors in the history, use, and investigation of antibiotic prophylaxis in VUR. This review provides suggestions for assessing the potential clinical utility of prophylaxis. PMID:25580258

  19. Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Glaubius, Robert L.; Parikh, Urvi M.; Hood, Greg; Penrose, Kerri J.; Bendavid, Eran; Mellors, John W.; Abbas, Ume L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods. We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP. Results. Pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up modestly increases the proportion of prevalent drug-resistant infections, from 33% to ≤37%. The change in the number of prevalent drug-resistant infections depends on the interplay between PrEP factors (coverage, efficacy, delivery reliability, and scale-up strategy) and the level of cross-resistance between PrEP and ART. An optimistic scenario of 70% effective RPV PrEP (90% efficacious and 80% reliable delivery), among women aged 20–29 years, prevents 17% of cumulative infections over 10 years while decreasing prevalent resistance; however, prevention decreases and resistance increases with more conservative assumptions. Uncertainty analysis assuming 40%–70% cross-resistance prevalence predicts an increase in prevalent resistance unless PrEP's effectiveness exceeds 90%. Conclusions. Prioritized scale-up of injectable PrEP among women in KwaZulu-Natal could reduce HIV infections, but suboptimal effectiveness could promote the spread of drug resistance. PMID:27703992

  20. [Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis versus long-term antibiotic prophylaxis in major clean-contaminated maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Villanueva M, Julio; Araya C, Ignacio; Yanine M, Nicolás

    2012-02-01

    There is no consensus on the most appropriate duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis (single or multiple dose) in clean-contaminated maxillofacial surgery. To determine whether short-term antimicrobial prophylaxis is effective compared to long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis in preventing surgical site infection in clean-contaminated maxillofacial surgery. The cohort study included 527 patients. We compared the incidence of surgical site infection in two groups. One group received short-term antibiotic prophylaxis (single dose) and the other group, long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (multiple dose). The single dose group showed 5.7% of postoperative infections and the multiple-dose group, 5.9%, with an odds ratio of 0.96 (95% CI 0.44 to 2.10) p = 0.9214. No significant differences were found between the infection incidences in the single dose antibiotic prophylaxis group compared with the use of multiple doses.

  1. Prevention of infections in nursing homes: antibiotic prophylaxis versus infection control and antimicrobial stewardship measures.

    PubMed

    Giannella, Maddalena; Tedeschi, Sara; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the lack of structural and human resources for implementing more effective and safe preventive procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis is often used to prevent infections in nursing homes. However, if data on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in nursing homes are null, there is a plenty of evidence that the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in this setting is associated with a high rate of colonization and infection with multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs), and of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Here, we have reviewed the infection epidemiology, the burden of MDROs and CDI, the antibiotic use and some potential infection preventive measures in nursing homes, pointing up the peculiarities of this setting and the absolute need of a more prudential use of antimicrobials.

  2. Primary antifungal prophylaxis in acute myeloblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome--still an open question?

    PubMed

    Rüping, Maria J G T; Vehreschild, Jörg J; Cornely, Oliver A

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we aim to compare different early treatment strategies of invasive fungal diseases in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Three treatment approaches--prophylactic, empiric, and preemptive treatment--are subject to continuous discussion among physicians treating patients at risk. Considering the available clinical basis of evidence, we opt for antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole 200 mg tid po as our primary prophylactic strategy, while the employment of preemptive treatment should be delayed until more accurate diagnostic tools become available. In addition to antifungal prophylaxis, empiric treatment with caspofungin or L-AmB may be administered to patients with fever resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and without radiographic findings typical of invasive fungal disease.

  3. Recurrent herpetic keratitis despite antiviral prophylaxis: A virological and pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Antoine; Boutolleau, David; Titier, Karine; Bourcier, Tristan; Chiquet, Christophe; Weber, Michel; Colin, Joseph; Gueudry, Julie; M'Garrech, Mohamed; Bodaghi, Bahram; Burrel, Sonia; Agut, Henri; Deback, Claire; Labetoulle, Marc

    2017-09-20

    Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a leading infectious cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Antiviral prophylaxis (AVP) may fail to prevent recurrence of HSK due to viral resistance, inadequate dosing, or poor patient compliance. In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled immunocompetent patients with recurrent HSK despite AVP. Ocular samples were tested by PCR for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 drug resistance was assessed with a genotypic assay based on UL23 and UL30 gene sequencing. After curative full dose valacyclovir (VACV) treatment was started, peak and trough acyclovir (ACV) plasma concentrations were measured, and patient compliance to AVP was assessed with a questionnaire. The study sample was comprised of 43 patients. Six (14%) patients were positive for HSV-1 using PCR, of whom 5 (83%) harbored genotypically ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) virus, due to mutations in UL23 (n = 4) or UL30 (n = 1). Disease duration was statistically significantly longer in patients with viral resistance compared to other HSK patients [35.5 ± 23.4 years (range, 6.8-68.4 years) versus 11.1 ± 12.3 years (range, 0.8-56.3 year) respectively; Mann-Whitney p = 0.01)]. While patients were treated with full dose VACV, trough ACV plasma concentrations were below the threshold for ACV sensitivity in 9.5% of cases, and compliance was poor in 5.3% of cases. To summarize, HSV-1 resistance to ACV seems to be a significant cause of failure of prophylaxis in patients with HSK and is associated with longer disease duration. Most PCR-positive samples contained genotypically ACV(R) virus and identification may aid in adapting treatment. Incomplete 24-h drug coverage may also explain some cases of failure of prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Smaill, Fiona M; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is cesarean section. Routine prophylaxis with antibiotics may reduce this risk and should be assessed in terms of benefits and harms. Objectives To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics compared with no prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (May 2009). Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effects of prophylactic antibiotics versus no treatment in women undergoing cesarean section. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified 86 studies involving over 13,000 women. Prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of febrile morbidity (average risk ratio (RR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.51, 50 studies, 8141 women), wound infection (average RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.48, 77 studies, 11,961 women), endometritis (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.42, 79 studies, 12,142 women) and serious maternal infectious complications (RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.48, 31 studies, 5047 women). No conclusions can be made about other maternal adverse effects from these studies (RR 2.43; 95% CI 1.00 to 5.90, 13 studies, 2131 women). None of the 86 studies reported infant adverse outcomes and in particular there was no assessment of infant oral thrush. There was no systematic collection of data on bacterial drug resistance. The findings were similar whether the cesarean section was elective or non elective, and whether the antibiotic was given before or after umbilical cord clamping. Overall, the methodological quality of the trials was unclear and in only a few studies was it obvious that potential other sources of bias had been

  5. Variation in seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ostahowski, Paige J; Kannan, Nithya; Wainwright, Mark S; Qiu, Qian; Mink, Richard B; Groner, Jonathan I; Bell, Michael J; Giza, Christopher C; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Boyle, Linda Ng; Mitchell, Pamela H; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic seizure is a major complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in seizure prophylaxis in select pediatric trauma centers. The authors hypothesized that there would be wide variation in seizure prophylaxis selection and use, within and between pediatric trauma centers. METHODS In this retrospective multicenter cohort study including 5 regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers, the authors examined data from 236 children (age < 18 years) with severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800.0-801.9, 803.0-804.9, 850.0-854.1, 959.01, 950.1-950.3, 995.55, maximum head Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) who received tracheal intubation for ≥ 48 hours in the ICU between 2007 and 2011. RESULTS Of 236 patients, 187 (79%) received seizure prophylaxis. In 2 of the 5 centers, 100% of the patients received seizure prophylaxis medication. Use of seizure prophylaxis was associated with younger patient age (p < 0.001), inflicted TBI (p < 0.001), subdural hematoma (p = 0.02), cerebral infarction (p < 0.001), and use of electroencephalography (p = 0.023), but not higher Injury Severity Score. In 63% cases in which seizure prophylaxis was used, the patients were given the first medication within 24 hours of injury, and 50% of the patients received the first dose in the prehospital or emergency department setting. Initial seizure prophylaxis was most commonly with fosphenytoin (47%), followed by phenytoin (40%). CONCLUSIONS While fosphenytoin was the most commonly used medication for seizure prophylaxis, there was large variation within and between trauma centers with respect to timing and choice of seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric TBI. The heterogeneity in seizure prophylaxis use may explain the previously observed lack of relationship between seizure prophylaxis and outcomes.

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, T; Choobun, T; Peeyananjarassri, K; Islam, M

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum and forceps assisted vaginal deliveries are reported to increase the incidence of postpartum infections and maternal readmission to hospital compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed to prevent these infections. However, the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal deliveries is still unclear. To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing infectious puerperal morbidities in women undergoing operative vaginal deliveries including vacuum and/or forceps deliveries. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (November 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003) and MEDLINE (1966 to November 2003). All randomised trials comparing any prophylactic antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment in women undergoing vacuum or forceps deliveries were eligible. Participants were all pregnant women without evidence of infections or other indications for antibiotics of any gestational age undergoing vacuum or forceps delivery for any indications. Interventions were any antibiotic prophylaxis (any dosage regimen, any route of administration or at any time during delivery or the puerperium) compared with either placebo or no treatment. Four reviewers assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Two reviewers extracted the data independently using prepared data extraction forms. Any discrepancies were resolved by discussion and a consensus reached through discussion with all reviewers. We assessed methodological quality of the included trial using the standard Cochrane criteria and the CONSORT statement of randomised controlled trials. We calculated the relative risks using a fixed effect model and all the reviewers interpreted and discussed the results. One trial, involving 393 women undergoing either vacuum or forceps deliveries, was included. This trial identified only two out of the nine

  7. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and reconstructive ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Carlin, W V; Lesser, T H; John, D G; Fielder, C; Carrick, D G; Thomas, P L; Hill, S

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports a multicentre, controlled, blind, prospective, randomized study into the use of prophylactic systemic antibiotics in myringoplasty surgery. Seventy-one individuals were clinically and bacteriologically assessed both preoperatively, and for a period of 8 weeks postoperatively. The results showed that antibiotic prophylaxis did not eradicate bacterial pathogens already present in preoperative ears, nor did it prevent their development during the postoperative period. The observation that an ear was wet or dry gave no indication of the actual presence or absence of pathogenic organisms.

  8. Feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saranitzky, Elisa; White, C Michael; Baker, Erica L; Baker, William L; Coleman, Craig I

    2009-01-01

    Feverfew has been studied for the treatment of migrane in several studies and the pharmacologic mechanisms are preliminarily understood. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and present the clinical findings and potential implications. The modality of data collection and reporting in the individual studies does not support a pooling of results, but does suggest benefit of feverfew in migraine prophylaxis for at least subsets of the population with the disorder. Pharmacologically, there is some potential for concern with long-term dosing given its cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting effects and longer-term studies will be needed to ameliorate these concerns in coronary disease patients.

  9. [Comparative study on the usefulness of antibacterial prophylaxis with levofloxacin in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Sojo, Jesús; Batlle Massana, Montserrat; Morgades, Mireia; Vives Polo, Susana; Quesada, María Dolores; Ribera Santasusana, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection remains a frequent complication in patients receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the impact of the antibacterial prophylaxis mortality in these patients is controversial. Retrospective comparison of 2 consecutive groups of patients undergoing HSCT receiving (n=132) or not (n=107) antibacterial prophylaxis with levofloxacin. 41% of patients receiving prophylaxis with levofloxacin had microbiologically documented infection (MDI) with bacteremia, compared with 40% of those not receiving levofloxacin. The frequency of gram-negative bacteremia was 11 and 38%, the resistance to levofloxacin was 39 and 14%, and the mortality was 8 and 7%, respectively. In our experience, the use of levofloxacin as prophylaxis in HSCT was associated with a lower frequency of gram-negative bacteremia but was not associated with a decreased rate of MDI and did not influence their outcome. In contrast, there was an increase in quinolone resistance in patients treated with levofloxacin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Is antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Agha, Zia; Lofgren, Richard P; VanRuiswyk, Jerome V

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis is recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA) before undergoing certain dental procedures. Whether such antibiotic prophylaxis is cost-effective is not clear. The authors' objective is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of predental antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with underlying heart disease. The authors conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model to compare cost-effectiveness of 7 antibiotic regimens per AHA guidelines and a no prophylaxis strategy. The study population consisted of a hypothetical cohort of 10 million patients with either a high or moderate risk for developing endocarditis. Prophylaxis for patients with moderate or high risk for endocarditis cost $88,007/quality-adjusted life years saved if clarithromycin was used. Prophylaxis with amoxicillin and ampicillin resulted in a net loss of lives. All other regimens were less cost-effective than clarithromycin. For 10 million persons, clarithromycin prophylaxis prevented 119 endocarditis cases and saved 19 lives. Predental antibiotic prophylaxis is cost-effective only for persons with moderate or high risk of developing endocarditis. Contrary to current recommendations, our data demonstrate that amoxicillin and ampicillin are not cost-effective and should not be considered the agents of choice. Clarithromycin should be considered the drug of choice and cephalexin as an alternative drug of choice. The current published guidelines and recommendations should be revised.

  11. Local antimicrobial administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Huiras, Paul; Logan, Jill K; Papadopoulos, Stella; Whitney, Dana

    2012-11-01

    Despite a lack of consensus guidelines, local antibiotic administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections is used during many surgical procedures. The rationale behind this practice is to provide high antibiotic concentrations at the site of surgery while minimizing systemic exposure and adverse effects. Local antibiotic administration for surgical site prophylaxis has inherent limitations in that antibiotics are applied after the incision is made, rather than the current standard for surgical site prophylaxis that recommends providing adequate antibiotic concentrations at the site before the incision. The efficacy and safety of local application of antibiotics for surgical site prophylaxis have been assessed in different types of surgery with a variety of antibiotic agents and methods of application. We identified 22 prospective, randomized, controlled trials that evaluated local application of antibiotics for surgical site prophylaxis. These trials were subsequently divided and analyzed based on the type of surgical procedure: dermatologic, orthopedic, abdominal, colorectal, and cardiothoracic. Methods of local application analyzed included irrigations, powders, ointments, pastes, beads, sponges, and fleeces. Overall, there is a significant lack of level I evidence supporting this practice for any of the surgical genres evaluated. In addition, the literature spans several decades, and changes in surgical procedures, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, and microbial flora make conclusions difficult to determine. Based on available data, the efficacy of local antibiotic administration for the prophylaxis of surgical site infections remains uncertain, and recommendations supporting this practice for surgical site prophylaxis cannot be made.

  12. An Algorithmic Approach to Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Scott M; Moll, Stephan; Lim, Moe R

    2015-10-01

    Venous thromboembolic embolism (VTE) is a potentially serious and life-threatening complication in spine surgery. However, VTE incidence and prophylaxis in spine surgery remains controversial. Current recommendations for VTE prophylaxis address "spine surgery" as a single broad category and mainly consider patient factors when determining risk. We performed a literature review to determine the varying VTE and bleeding risks within spine surgery to develop an individualized prophylactic algorithm. Our review suggests that the current guidelines on VTE prophylaxis for spine surgery from NASS and ACCP are suboptimal. Consideration of (1) patient-related VTE risks, (2) procedure-related VTE risks, and (3) the risk of neurological compromise from bleeding complications will more appropriately balance safety and effectiveness when choosing a VTE prophylaxis method. To better individualize VTE prophylaxis, we have developed the VTE Prophylaxis Risk/Benefit Score that considers this currently available best evidence to arrive at a recommendation for the most appropriate form of VTE prophylaxis. This algorithm informs the surgeon to help make a more nuanced and individualized determination of prophylaxis.

  13. HIV post exposure prophylaxis induced bicytopenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Long and short term side effects of antiretroviral drugs are not fully understood yet. Here a case of reversible blood count changes following post exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabin and lopinavir/ritonavir is reported. We propose that antiretroviral drugs used in post exposure prophylaxis may have a significant impact on hematopoiesis. PMID:24506969

  14. Long-term prophylaxis in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Goodwin, Guy M

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a major cause of disability, and the prevention of relapse is a key management goal. Pharmacological interventions, effectively delivered through enhanced clinical care, are central to long-term management. This article summarises the available evidence for a range of pharmacological options, and provides guidance on common issues in clinical management in line with current practice guidelines. The use of medications for long-term prophylaxis should be considered in all patients meeting criteria for bipolar I disorder. Increasing high-quality evidence from randomised trials informs management decisions relating to both novel agents, such as lamotrigine and olanzapine, and longer-established therapies, such as lithium and valproate, in monotherapy. Medications taken long-term in bipolar disorder differ in the extent to which they protect against manic and depressive relapse. Consequently, the emerging challenge is to understand how combination treatments can enhance efficacy and effectiveness based on data from controlled trials rather than random polypharmacy. Clinical care can be enhanced with effective education about the illness, and the use of strategies to improve treatment adherence and the recognition and management of stressors or prodromal symptoms. Where available, a range of specific psychological interventions can be effective as an adjunct to medication. When discontinuation of prophylaxis is necessary, gradual tapering of dose over weeks or months is recommended.

  15. Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Myles, J E; Hirozawa, A; Katz, M H; Kimmerling, R; Bamberger, J D

    2000-09-27

    This paper presents the findings of a retrospective review of charts of sexual assault survivors who were offered postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) between April 1998 and November 1999 at San Francisco General Hospital. The total cost of PEP medications was also computed. Overall, it is noted that one-third of the 367 sexual assault survivors chose to initiate PEP. Men who were anally raped are at the highest risk for HIV transmission and were most likely to initiate PEP. Among women, on the other hand, those who were non-White and homeless were less likely to accept PEP. In the context of cost, the total per-person cost of medication dispensed during the study period (US$65 per person offered PEP) is comparable to other medications offered routinely following sexual assault, such as azithromycin for chlamydia prophylaxis (US$43 per treatment). However, there is no definitive evidence that PEP is effective in preventing HIV seroconversion after sexual assault. It is suggested that in developing rational policy recommendation offering HIV PEP after sexual assault, further studies are needed to better delineate the rates of HIV seroprevalence among sexual assailants, the efficacy of PEP after sexual exposure, and the psychological benefits or harm incurred by the sexually assaulted patients.

  16. Supplementary iron dose in pregnancy anemia prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Reddaiah, V P; Raj, P P; Ramachandran, K; Nath, L M; Sood, S K; Madan, N; Rusia, U

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimum dose of supplemental iron for prophylaxis against pregnancy anemia. One hundred and ten pregnant women were randomly allocated to three groups: Group A receiving equivalent of 60 mg, group B 120 mg and Group C 240 mg, elemental iron as ferrous sulphate daily; the content of folic acid was constant in all the three groups (0.5 mg). These women had at least consumed 90 tablets in 100 +/- 10 days. Blood was drawn at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Fifty percent were anemic (less than 11 g/100 ml). The hemoglobin levels rose similarly in all groups and the differences were statistically not significant. Fifty-six percent had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin value less than 12 micrograms/l) at the beginning of the study. Following therapy a statistically significant increase in iron stores was observed in group B and C as compared to group A. The difference between group B and C was not significant. The side effects increased with increasing doses of iron; 32.4%, 40.3% and 72% in group A, B and C respectively. Based on these findings, the authors advocate that optimum dose of iron should be 120 mg instead of 60 mg as is currently being used in the National Nutritional Anemia Prophylaxis Programme.

  17. Discontinuation of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis (AP) in Children With Spina Bifida: A Case Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Couloures, Kevin G; Anderson, Michael; Machiorlatti, Michael; Marsenic, Olivera; Opas, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI’s but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. Objectives Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods Case series analysis of pediatric spina bifida clinic patients where routine antimicrobial prophylaxis was replaced by clean-catch catheterization and daily bowel regimen (ST). Retrospective chart review of 67 children (mean entry age: 24 months, median age: 4 months; 32 Males, 35 Females) enrolled between 1986 - 2004. Mean follow-up was 128.6 months (range 3 - 257 months). Asymptomatic and symptomatic UTI incidences were noted on AP and ST protocols. Creatinine clearance at study entry and follow-up was calculated by the age appropriate method. A multivariable regression model with delta Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) as the dependent variable, independent sample t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum were performed with SAS v. 9.2. Results The mean number of infections while on AP was 8.7 (95% CI 5.72, 11.68) and was 1.0 on ST (95% CI 0.48, 1.43). 5 infections on the AP protocol required intravenous (IV) antibiotics due to resistance to oral therapy, but none on ST. Comparing change in GFR between both protocols (AP vs. ST) found a significant difference in the change of GFR by treatment protocol. Conclusions AP did not prevent UTIs and resulted in more resistant organisms requiring IV antibiotics. Discontinuing AP allowed the return of susceptibility to oral antimicrobials and significantly improved GFR in those children who had previously been on AP. Adherence to a catheterization regimen with prompt treatment of symptomatic UTI conserved renal function and prevented selection of resistant

  18. Antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis for anthrax: adverse events and adherence.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Colin W; Soriano-Gabarro, Montse; Zell, Elizabeth R; Hayslett, James; Lukacs, Susan; Goldstein, Susan; Factor, Stephanie; Jones, Joshua; Ridzon, Renee; Williams, Ian; Rosenstein, Nancy

    2002-10-01

    We collected data during postexposure antimicrobial prophylaxis campaigns and from a prophylaxis program evaluation 60 days after start of antimicrobial prophylaxis involving persons from six U.S. sites where Bacillus anthracis exposures occurred. Adverse events associated with antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent anthrax were commonly reported, but hospitalizations and serious adverse events as defined by Food and Drug Administration criteria were rare. Overall adherence during 60 days of antimicrobial prophylaxis was poor (44%), ranging from 21% of persons exposed in the Morgan postal facility in New York City to 64% of persons exposed at the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, D.C. Adherence was highest among participants in an investigational new drug protocol to receive additional antibiotics with or without anthrax vaccine--a likely surrogate for anthrax risk perception. Adherence of <60 days was not consistently associated with adverse events.

  19. Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Navarro-Vela, Ana Maria; Deray, Raffy; Vigilato, Marco; Ertl, Hildegund; Durrheim, David; Rees, Helen; Nel, Louis H; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Briggs, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the safety and immunogenicity of pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis (including accelerated schedules, co-administration with other vaccines and booster doses), its cost–effectiveness and recommendations for use, particularly in high-risk settings. Methods We searched the PubMed, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for papers on pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis published between 2007 and 29 January 2016. We reviewed field data from pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns in Peru and the Philippines. Findings Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic in children and adults, also when co-administered with routine childhood vaccinations and the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. The evidence available indicates that shorter regimens and regimens involving fewer doses are safe and immunogenic and that booster intervals could be extended up to 10 years. The few studies on cost suggest that, at current vaccine and delivery costs, pre-exposure prophylaxis campaigns would not be cost-effective in most situations. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has been advocated for high-risk populations, only Peru and the Philippines have implemented appropriate national programmes. In the future, accelerated regimens and novel vaccines could simplify delivery and increase affordability. Conclusion Pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis is safe and immunogenic and should be considered: (i) where access to postexposure prophylaxis is limited or delayed; (ii) where the risk of exposure is high and may go unrecognized; and (iii) where controlling rabies in the animal reservoir is difficult. Pre-exposure prophylaxis should not distract from canine vaccination efforts, provision of postexposure prophylaxis or education to increase rabies awareness in local communities. PMID:28250534

  20. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after hospital discharge: transition to preventive care.

    PubMed

    Kaatz, Scott; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2011-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the common clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE), are among the most preventable complications of hospitalized patients. However, survey data repeatedly show poor rates of compliance with guideline-based preventive strategies. This has led the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to deny reimbursement for hospital readmission for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Multiple strategies and national initiatives have been developed to improve rates of VTE prophylaxis during hospitalization; however, most VTE occurs in the outpatient setting. Epidemiologic data suggest that recent surgery or hospitalization is a strong risk factor for the development of VTE and that this risk may persist for up to 6 months. These observations call into question whether VTE prophylaxis should be administered only during hospitalization or if this preventive strategy should be continued after hospital discharge. Many of the randomized trials showing efficacy of VTE prophylaxis have used longer durations of prophylaxis than are typical for current length of hospital stay, highlighting the issue of how long the duration of prophylaxis should be. Several patient groups have undergone formal testing to evaluate the risks and benefits of extended-duration VTE prophylaxis, but this issue is less clear for other categories of patients. Although there is clear consensus that most hospitalized patients should receive VTE prophylaxis, there is uncertainty about whether to continue VTE prophylaxis in the immediate post-hospital period or for an extended duration. The transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a key event in the coordination of continuity of care, but VTE-specific care transition guidance is limited. In this article, we review the evidence for both standard- and extended-duration VTE prophylaxis and discuss the difficulties in effectively maintaining VTE

  1. Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in lung transplant recipients on long-term azole antifungal prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pearlie P; Kennedy, Cassie C; Hathcock, Matthew A; Kremers, Walter K; Razonable, Raymund R

    2015-04-01

    Lung transplant recipients (LTR) at our institution receive prolonged and mostly lifelong azole antifungal (AF) prophylaxis. The impact of this prophylactic strategy on the epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is unknown. This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the medical records of all adult LTR from January 2002 to December 2011. Overall, 16.5% (15 of 91) of patients who underwent lung transplantation during this time period developed IFI. Nineteen IFI episodes were identified (eight proven, 11 probable), 89% (17 of 19) of which developed during AF prophylaxis. LTR with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were more likely to develop IFI (HR: 4.29; 95% CI: 1.15-15.91; p = 0.03). A higher hazard of mortality was observed among those who developed IFI, although this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.58-4.05]; p = 0.27). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common cause of IFI (45%), with pulmonary parenchyma being the most common site of infection. None of our patients developed disseminated invasive aspergillosis, cryptococcal or endemic fungal infections. IFI continue to occur in LTR, and the eradication of IFI appears to be challenging even with prolonged prophylaxis. Azole resistance is uncommon despite prolonged AF exposure.

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopedic surgeries: the results of an implemented protocol.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Raquel; Grinbaum, Renato S; Galvão, Luciana L; Tavares, Fernando G; Bergsten-Mendes, Gun

    2005-08-01

    Though the basic principles of antibiotic prophylaxis have been well established, there is still considerable incorrect usage, including how much is prescribed and especially in the duration of treatment, which is generally superior to what is indicated. The adequate use of these drugs contributes towards decreasing the time of internment of the patient, prevents surgical site infection (SSI), decreasing the development of resistant microorganisms, and towards reduced costs for the hospital pharmacy. A protocol for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Service of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo was developed. The objectives of the study were to promote rational antibiotic surgical prophylaxis, through the implantation of a protocol for the use of these drugs in a surgical unit, with the direct contribution of a druggist in collaboration with the Infection Control Committee, to evaluate the adhesion of the health team to the protocol during three distinct periods (daily pre-protocol, early post-protocol and late post-protocol) and to define the consumption of antimicrobials used, measured as daily defined dose.

  3. [Azithromycin in prophylaxis of intravitreal injections in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Figurska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is one of the most dangerous complications after intravitreous drug injection. Preparing a patient to the injection general and topical endophtalmitis development risk factors should be eliminated. Antibiotic injection prophylaxis is still an important issue. This research has to evaluate effectiveness and tolerance of Azithromycin (Azyter, Thea), in injection as an antibiotic prophylaxis in patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The study was conducted in Ophtalmology Department (Medical Military Institute, Warsaw, Poland), in the group of 52 patients, who underwent 52 intraocular injections of anti-VEGF because of AMD. Topical Azithromycin had been administrated twice a day to both eyes in 2 days before injection. On the third day injection was performed in aseptic conditions. One drop of Azithromycin had been administrated to each eye directly before injection and one drop after the procedure. At that moment antibiotic prophylaxis was terminated. Topical tolerance and effectiveness were evaluated. In 2 cases (3.8%) intensive allergic reaction was reported (significant conjuctives oedema, itch, bloodshot), what caused change of antibiotic. In 5 cases (9%) light bloodshot was reported. 12 patients (23%) reported light or moderate foreign body sensation and in 2 cases (3.8%) the sensation was significant. No reaction of ophthalmic inflammation was reported 5 days after injection, moreover foreign body sensation and bloodshot were absent. 30 patients (57%) were satisfied with new and simplier scheme of antibiotic injection prophylaxis (twice a day for 3 days). Azithromycin is a comfortable alternative for other topical antibiotics, especially in repetitive procedures like anti-VEGF injections. High Azithromycin concentration in tissues, tear film, and on the ophthalmic surface, protects injection site and inhibits growth of primary and mutual bacterial colonies. Short-term exposition to Azithromycin decrases risk of drug

  4. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis of mixed infections during hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Moroni, M; Baccolo, M; Cavalli, G; Belloni, C; Ferrari, N; Sartor, V

    1979-01-01

    Surgical procedures on contaminated tissues, such as hysterectomy with opened vagina, are frequently followed by local or systemic infections. It seems that a prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is not justified because of possible induction of resistant mutants or dysmicrobisms. The administration of antibiotics only in a short pre- and postsurgical period appears to be more rational. We have carried out a controlled clinical trial with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of this prophylactic practice. One hundred forty-five patients submitted to vaginal and two hundred seventy-five to abdominal hysterectomy entered this study (started September 1977). All patients received local nitrofurantoin treatment and were then subdivided into four randomized groups: control group, groups treated with thiamphenicol, cephazolin, thiamphenicol plus cephazolin, respectively. Each antibiotic was administered in the dose of 1 gm one hour before and five and 12 hours after surgery. Antibiotics were chosen taking into consideration the usual vaginal microbial flora, notoriously mixed (aerobic and anaerobic). The three treated groups presented a significant decrease in the incidence and severity of infectious complications. The use of antibiotics in the postoperative period resulted in significantly reduced morbidity in the treated groups. Thiamphenicol appears to be the most effective drug. Bacteriological studies showed that local treatment of the vagina decreased the bacteria charge, but never brought about sterilization.

  5. Protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children in rural Uganda: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Homsy, Jaco; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Wanzira, Humphrey; Kakuru, Abel; Bigira, Victor; Kalamya, Julius; Vora, Neil; Kublin, James; Kamya, Moses R; Dorsey, Grant; Tappero, Jordan W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children (uninfected children born to HIV infected mothers) in Africa. Design Non-blinded randomised control trial Setting Tororo district, rural Uganda, an area of high malaria transmission intensity Participants 203 breastfeeding HIV exposed infants enrolled between 6 weeks and 9 months of age Intervention Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis from enrolment until cessation of breast feeding and confirmation of negative HIV status. All children who remained HIV uninfected (n=185) were then randomised to stop co-trimoxazole prophylaxis immediately or continue co-trimoxazole until 2 years old. Main outcome measure Incidence of malaria, calculated as the number of antimalarial treatments per person year. Results The incidence of malaria and prevalence of genotypic mutations associated with antifolate resistance were high throughout the study. Among the 98 infants randomised to continue co-trimoxazole, 299 malaria cases occurred in 92.28 person years (incidence 3.24 cases/person year). Among the 87 infants randomised to stop co-trimoxazole, 400 malaria cases occurred in 71.81 person years (5.57 cases/person year). Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis yielded a 39% reduction in malaria incidence, after adjustment for age at randomisation (incidence rate ratio 0.61 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.81), P=0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of complicated malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, hospitalisations, or deaths between the two treatment arms. Conclusions Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was moderately protective against malaria in HIV exposed infants when continued beyond the period of HIV exposure despite the high prevalence of Plasmodium genotypes associated with antifolate resistance. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00527800 PMID:21454456

  6. Indomethacin prophylaxis revisited: changing practice and supportive evidence.

    PubMed

    AlFaleh, K

    2011-05-01

    Important short-term intermediate outcomes such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), severe intraventricular haemorrhage, surgical ligation of PDA and serious pulmonary haemorrhage correlate with worse neurosensory outcomes in extreme low birth weight infants. Indomethacin prophylaxis has been shown to significantly prevent such outcomes. However, this positive effect did not translate into neither prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia nor long-term neurosensory outcome. The indomethacin prophylaxis story is indeed a puzzling one to neonatal practitioners. We present a summary of evidence and possible explanations to the lack of appreciated long-term effect of indomethacin prophylaxis. As the trial of indomethacin prophylaxis for preterms trial is a major contributor to current evidence, a detailed critical analysis of its methodology is presented. Methodological concerns such as the use of a composite outcome, statistical power, anticipated side effects of indomethacin prophylaxis and lack of predictive validity of cognitive delay measurements are presented. Conclusive evidence of indomethacin prophylaxis use in extreme low birth weight infants is still lacking. Future research should put more emphasis on parental preferences, synergistic effect of indomethacin prophylaxis and fluid restriction and early targeted approach to PDA management. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Time is now: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in blunt splenic injury.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Amy M; Davis, James W; Dirks, Rachel C; Wolfe, Mary M; Kaups, Krista L

    2016-12-01

    The safety and timing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients with blunt splenic injuries is not well known. We hypothesized that early initiation of VTE prophylaxis does not increase failure of nonoperative management or transfusion requirements in these patients. A retrospective review of trauma patients with blunt splenic injury was performed. Patients were compared based on initiation and timing of VTE prophylaxis (<24 hours, 24 to 48 hours, 48 to 72 hours, and >72 hours). Patients who received VTE prophylaxis were matched with those who did not. Primary outcomes included were operation or angioembolization. A total of 497 patients (256 received VTE prophylaxis and 241 did not) were included. There was no difference in the number of interventions based on presence of or time to VTE prophylaxis initiation. Early initiation (<48 hours) of VTE prophylaxis is safe in patients with blunt splenic injuries treated nonoperatively, and may be safe as early as 24 hours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence for extended prophylaxis in the setting of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Dobesh, Paul P

    2004-07-01

    Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery represent one of the highest risk groups for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Evidence shows that this risk extends beyond the period in which the patient is hospitalized, especially for patients undergoing hip surgery. Clinical trials have shown that extended prophylaxis with the low-molecular-weight heparins is effective in reducing the rate of total VTE, and a meta-analysis demonstrated a reduction in symptomatic VTE with extended prophylaxis after total hip replacement surgery. Based on these results, the American College of Chest Physicians gives a grade 2A recommendation for the use of extended prophylaxis after orthopedic surgery. Until recently, data evaluating the role of prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery were limited. Subsequently, a novel anticoagulant, fondaparinux, demonstrated significant benefit in these patients and has become the first and only agent approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery Despite the limitations of the older trials, their findings supported the need to evaluate extended prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. In the first well-conducted trial of extended prophylaxis for hip fracture surgery, fondaparinux provided impressive results in reducing total and symptomatic VTE. The results of this trial have once again led to fondaparinux being the first and only agent to be granted FDA approval for the indication of extended prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

  9. [Aerosinusitis: part 1: Fundamentals, pathophysiology and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Kühnel, T; Graf, J; Hosemann, W

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of aerosinusitis stems from the high number of flight passengers and the impaired fitness for work of the flight personnel. The frontal sinus is more frequently affected than the maxillary sinus and the condition generally occurs during descent. Sinonasal diseases and anatomic variations leading to obstruction of paranasal sinus ventilation favor the development of aerosinusitis. This Continuing Medical Education (CME) article is based on selective literature searches of the PubMed database (search terms: "aerosinusitis", "barosinusitis", "barotrauma" AND "sinus", "barotrauma" AND "sinusitis", "sinusitis" AND "flying" OR "aviator"). Additionally, currently available monographs and further articles that could be identified based on the publication reviews were also included. Part 1 presents the pathophysiology, symptoms, risk factors, epidemiology and prophylaxis of aerosinusitis. In part 2, diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment will be discussed.

  10. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D

    1981-08-13

    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  11. Secondary prophylaxis for esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Tejedor, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Combination therapy with beta-blockers and endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the standard prophylaxis of esophageal variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis. Beta-blockers are the backbone of combination therapy, since their benefit extend to other complications of portal hypertension. EBL carries the risk of post-banding ulcer bleeding, which explains why overall rebleeding is reduced when beta-blockers are added to EBL, and not when EBL is added to beta-blockers. TIPS is the rescue treatment, but it could be considered as first choice in patients that first bleed while on beta-blockers, those with contraindications to beta-blockers or with refractory ascites, and those with fundal varices.

  12. Prophylaxis therapy in haemophilia A: current situation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lucía, J F; Aznar, J A; Abad-Franch, L; Escuin, R R; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Pérez, R; Batlle, J; Balda, I; Alperovich, G; Parra, R

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Epidemiological Study in Haemophilia carried out in 2006 enrolled 2400 patients [2081-86.7% with haemophilia A (HA) and 319-13.3% with haemophilia B]; 465 of them (19.4%) were on prophylaxis. These rates were higher in patients with severe haemophilia (45.4%) and severe paediatric cases (72.5%). On the basis of information recorded in this study, we analysed the current situation of prophylaxis therapy administered to patients with HA in Spain, as well as their orthopaedic status. Prophylaxis was used in 399 (19.2%) patients with HA; such prophylaxis was primary (PP) in 20.3% and secondary (SP) in 75.9% of cases. Among severe HA patients, 313 (45.9%) were on prophylaxis (22.3% on PP and 74.7% on SP). Taking into account the patients' age, 34.7% of severe HA adults were on prophylaxis (6% PP and 92.1% SP), whereas 71.5% of severe HA paediatric patients (40.5% PP and 55.4% SP) received this kind of treatment. Established haemophilic arthropathy (EHA) was detected in 142 from 313 severe HA patients (45.3%) on prophylaxis, but only in 2.9% of patients under PP vs. 59% of patients receiving SP. There was no EHA in adult severe HA patient on PP, whereas 70.4% on SP had joint damage (P < 0.00001). Among paediatric severe HA patients, EHA was detected in 3.3% under PP and 37.8% under SP (P < 0.00001). In conclusion, our data suggest that an early initiation of prophylaxis avoids EHA in the long-term in patients with severe HA. We should emphasize the early onset of prophylaxis regimens.

  13. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jared M; Donnell, Deborah; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly R; Campbell, James D; Wangisi, Jonathan; Tappero, Jordan W; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Kakia, Aloysious; Odoyo, Josephine; Mucunguzi, Akasiima; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Twesigye, Rogers; Ngure, Kenneth; Apaka, Cosmas; Tamooh, Harrison; Gabona, Fridah; Mujugira, Andrew; Panteleeff, Dana; Thomas, Katherine K; Kidoguchi, Lara; Krows, Meighan; Revall, Jennifer; Morrison, Susan; Haugen, Harald; Emmanuel-Ogier, Mira; Ondrejcek, Lisa; Coombs, Robert W; Frenkel, Lisa; Hendrix, Craig; Bumpus, Namandjé N; Bangsberg, David; Haberer, Jessica E; Stevens, Wendy S; Lingappa, Jairam R; Celum, Connie

    2012-08-02

    Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The HIV-1-seronegative partner in each couple was randomly assigned to one of three study regimens--once-daily tenofovir (TDF), combination tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC), or matching placebo--and followed monthly for up to 36 months. At enrollment, the HIV-1-seropositive partners were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy, according to national guidelines. All couples received standard HIV-1 treatment and prevention services. We enrolled 4758 couples, of whom 4747 were followed: 1584 randomly assigned to TDF, 1579 to TDF-FTC, and 1584 to placebo. For 62% of the couples followed, the HIV-1-seronegative partner was male. Among HIV-1-seropositive participants, the median CD4 count was 495 cells per cubic millimeter (interquartile range, 375 to 662). A total of 82 HIV-1 infections occurred in seronegative participants during the study, 17 in the TDF group (incidence, 0.65 per 100 person-years), 13 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 0.50 per 100 person-years), and 52 in the placebo group (incidence, 1.99 per 100 person-years), indicating a relative reduction of 67% in the incidence of HIV-1 with TDF (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 81; P<0.001) and of 75% with TDF-FTC (95% CI, 55 to 87; P<0.001). Protective effects of TDF-FTC and TDF alone against HIV-1 were not significantly different (P=0.23), and both study medications significantly reduced the HIV-1 incidence among both men and women. The rate of serious adverse events was similar across the study groups. Eight participants receiving active treatment were found to have been infected with HIV-1 at baseline, and among these eight, antiretroviral resistance developed in two during the

  14. Parents' knowledge and perceptions regarding vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns.

    PubMed

    Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Vinograd, Orit; Ben-Haim, Maggie; Penso, Sara; Bar-Oz, Benjamin; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing trend of parents refusing vitamin K (VK) prophylaxis in newborns. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, cultural and religious barriers of expecting parents regarding VK prophylaxis. Questionnaires were completed by 217 participants: 151 female participants and 85% were expecting their first child. Two thirds had academic degrees, yet were ignorant regarding recommendation to provide VK (22.5%), source (15.5%), action (34%), and provision options (29%). Moreover, first-time parents had not yet decided to provide VK after birth (P<0.05). There is a need to provide expecting parents with information regarding safety, utility, and benefits of VK prophylaxis.

  15. [Experience with the development of vaccinal prophylaxis in Perm Province].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T M; Fel'dblium, I V; Komkov, B D; Skovorodin, A N; Deviatkov, M Iu; Sarmometov, E V; Perminova, O A; Vorozhtsova, T N

    1999-01-01

    The results of the introduction of the system of epidemiological surveillance on vaccinal prophylaxis on the territory of Perm Province are presented. This system has permitted the realization of the principles of the regional tactics of immunization, while following the unified strategy acting on the territory of the Russian Federation. The optimization of the organizational foundations of vaccinal prophylaxis has made it possible to maintain the morbidity rates if infections, controlled by means of specific prophylaxis, on the levels below the average figures for the Federation and to preserve more stable tendencies to their decrease.

  16. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended.

  17. The hip fracture best practice tariff: early surgery and the implications for MRSA screening and antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bryson, David J; Gulihar, Abhinav; Aujla, Randeep S; Taylor, Grahame J S

    2015-01-01

    In April 2010, the Department of Health introduced the hip fracture best practice. Among the clinical criteria required to earn remuneration is surgery within 36 h of admission. However, early surgery may mean that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation status is not known before surgery, and therefore, appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis may not be administered. In view of this, our department's policy is to administer an additional dose of teicoplanin to patients with unknown MRSA status along with routine antimicrobial prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to provide a safe and effective antimicrobial prophylaxis for hip fracture patients. We prospectively collected details of demographics and antimicrobial prophylaxis for all patients admitted with a hip fracture in November 2011. This was repeated in February 2012 after an educational and advertising drive to improve compliance with departmental antimicrobial policy. Microbiology results were obtained from the hospital microbiology database. A cost-benefit analysis was undertaken to assess this regime. A total of 144 hip fracture patients were admitted during the 2 months. The average admission to surgery time was 32 h, and the average MRSA swab processing time was 35 h. 86 % of patients reached theatre with unknown MRSA status. Compliance with the departmental antimicrobial policy improved from 25 % in November 2011 to 76 % in February 2012. Potential savings of £ 40,000 were calculated. With best practice tariff resulting in 86 % of patients reaching theatre with unknown MRSA status, we advocate an additional single dose of teicoplanin to cover against possible MRSA colonisation.

  18. Effect of different prophylaxis methods on sealant adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sol, E; Espasa, E; Boj, J R; Canalda, C

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the retention of a light-cured sealant using previously different prophylaxis methods and two different etching times, thirty and fifteen seconds. Eighty, third molars surgically extracted were sectioned into two halves (buccal and lingual). The teeth were divided into 8 groups of 20 samples each, according to prophylaxis type: pumice powder, fluoridated paste, sodium bicarbonate spray, and control (no prophylaxis); and etching time: 30 and 15 seconds. Tensile bond strengths were studied using a universal Instron testing machine. A statistical test ANOVA was used. No statistical differences were found when comparing both etching times, but when prophylaxis methods were compared a statistically significant higher retention was found in the sodium bicarbonate and fluoridated paste groups.

  19. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, William F.; Ackerman, Gary E.; Zoellner, Cindy L.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62%) were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier PMID:20706678

  20. Visual Attention in Children With Migraine: The Importance of Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Villa, Thaís Rodrigues; Agessi, Larissa M; Moutran, Andréa R C; Gabbai, Alberto A; Carvalho, Deusvenir de S

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the visual attention performance of children newly diagnosed with migraine, children undergoing migraine prophylaxis, and a healthy control group. Eighty-two children aged 8 to 12 years were divided into 3 groups: untreated migraine (n = 30), migraine prophylaxis (n = 22), and control (n = 30). All were subjected to a visual attention assessment with the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Letter-Cancellation Test, and the Brazilian Visual Attention Test 3rd edition. Although performance in attention tasks was within the normal range in all groups, children with untreated migraine performed significantly worse in some visual attention tests than did the control children or children undergoing migraine prophylaxis. The migraine prophylaxis group performed as well as the control group. The deregulation of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of migraine might induce visual attention deficits, but an effective prophylactic treatment might reverse migraine symptoms.

  1. Conformity with guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sagert, G; Austin, T W; Bombassaro, A M; Parbtani, A

    1994-10-01

    The extent to which prescribed antimicrobial prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis conformed with American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines was determined and the frequency of nonconformity with specific elements of the guidelines was evaluated. Patients with conditions defined by AHA as placing them at risk for developing endocarditis were identified through medical records for a four-year period at an 850-bed hospital. Data about the procedures they underwent and prophylaxis prescribed were compared with the AHA guidelines. Conformity with the guidelines was evaluated according to whether prophylaxis was recommended, optional, or unnecessary; nonconformity with specific elements of the guidelines (indication, choice of antimicrobial, dose, dosage interval, timing, and duration) was also evaluated. The following variables were evaluated for possible association with nonconformity to the guidelines: patient's age and sex, penicillin allergy, use of a consultant, and whether the procedure was the first performed in the patient after identification of the cardiac condition. Of the 131 cases analyzed, 29 (22%) involved prophylaxis that conformed with the AHA guidelines. Conformity with the guidelines was significantly lower when prophylaxis was recommended or optional than when it was unnecessary. Nonconformity was most common with the following elements: indication, choice of antimicrobial, and dose. Recommended prophylaxis was given more often in children than in adults and more often before first procedures than before subsequent procedures. More of the regimens prescribed for children exceeded the recommended duration than those prescribed for adults. Unnecessary prophylaxis was given more often when a consultant was involved than when no consultant was involved. In hospitalized patients, conformity with AHA guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis against endocarditis was low.

  2. Effect of three prophylaxis methods on surface roughness of giomer.

    PubMed

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Savadi-Oskoee, Siavash; Ajami, Amir-Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Asdagh, Saeedeh

    2011-01-01

    Plaque and stains are removed by prophylaxis methods from tooth surfaces. Since prophylaxis methods can have a detrimental effect on the surface finish of restorations, the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of three prophylaxis methods, including pumice with rubber cup, pumice with brush, and air-powder polishing device (APD) on the surface roughness of giomer. Sixty four cylindrical giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu) samples with a diameter of 6 mm and a height of 2 mm were used. Subsequent to a 3-month period of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the samples were randomly divided into four groups of 16. In group 1 (control), no prophylaxis procedure was carried out. In groups 2 to 4 the samples were exposed to pumice with rubber cup, pumice with brush, and APD prophylaxis methods, respectively. The surface roughness of the samples was measured using a profilometer and the effect of different prophylaxis methods on surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in surface roughness among the groups (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, in pairwise comparisons there were statistically significant differences between all the groups (P < 0.05). The roughest surfaces, in descending order, were observed with the use of APD, pumice with brush, and pumice with rubber cup. The use of different prophylaxis methods resulted in an increased surface roughness of giomer compared with the control group. APD prophylaxis exerted the most detrimental effects on the surface of giomer.

  3. Deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism: prophylaxis, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    Thoracic surgery patients should be regarded at high risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, or low-dose unfractionated heparin or fondaparinux (Arixtra) is therefore strongly recommended. Pharmacologic prophylaxis should be extended to 4 weeks after major cancer surgery. Pulmonary embolism should be always managed with anticoagulation, in addition to thrombolytic therapy, in patients presenting with cardiogenic shock or persistent arterial hypotension.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole prophylaxis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzi, Gloria; Yilmaz, Musa; Kantarjian, Hagop; Borthakur, Gautam; Konopleva, Marina; Jabbour, Elias; Brown, Yolanda; Pierce, Sherry; Cortes, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis is routinely given to patients with hematologic malignancies at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI), yet breakthrough IFI may still occur. Posaconazole emerged as an excellent alternative for fungal prophylaxis in high-risk patients. There is limited data about pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of posaconazole when given as prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. We recruited 20 adult patients for prospective, open label trial of posaconazole given as a prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing induction chemotherapy or first salvage therapy. The median age of all patients was 65 years and received prophylaxis for a median of 38 days (range: 5-42 days).Ten patients (50%) completed 42 days on posaconazole prophylaxis. Median plasma posaconazole levels showed no statistical difference across gender, body surface area, patients developing IFI, and patients acquiring grade 3 or 4 elevation of liver enzymes. However, there was an overall trend for higher trough concentrations among patients with no IFI than those with IFI. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole varies from patient to patient, and AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy who never develop IFI tend to have higher plasma concentrations after oral administration of posaconazole.

  5. Cytomegalovirus Hyper Immunoglobulin for CMV Prophylaxis in Thoracic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rea, Federico; Potena, Luciano; Yonan, Nizar; Wagner, Florian; Calabrese, Fiorella

    2016-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection negatively influences both short- and long-term outcomes after cardiothoracic transplantation. In heart transplantation, registry analyses have shown that CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) with or without virostatic prophylaxis is associated with a significant reduction in mortality and graft loss versus no prophylaxis, particularly in high-risk donor (D)+/recipient (R)- transplants. Randomized comparative trials are lacking but retrospective data suggest that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis may reduce rates of CMV-related events after heart transplantation, including the incidence of acute rejection or chronic allograft vasculopathy. However, available data consistently indicate that when CMVIG is used, it should be administered with concomitant antiviral therapy, and that evidence concerning preemptive management with CMVIG is limited, but promising. In lung transplantation, CMVIG should again only be used with concomitant antiviral therapy. Retrospective studies have shown convincing evidence that addition of CMVIG to antiviral prophylaxis lowers CMV endpoints and mortality. The current balance of evidence suggests that CMVIG prophylaxis reduces the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, but a controlled trial is awaited. Overall, the relatively limited current data set suggests that prophylaxis with CMVIG in combination with antiviral therapy appears effective in D+/R- heart transplant patients, whereas in lung transplantation, addition of CMVIG in recipients of a CMV-positive graft may offer an advantage in terms of CMV infection and disease.

  6. Evaluation of the Appropriate Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Francesco; Izzo, Maria Teresa; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The appropriate use of antibiotics prophylaxis in the prevention and reduction in the incidence of surgical site infection is widespread. This study evaluates the appropriateness of the prescription of antibiotics prophylaxis prior to surgery amongst hospitalized patients in the geographic area of Avellino, Caserta, and Naples (Italy) and the factors associated with a poor adherence. Methods A sample of 382 patients admitted to 23 surgical wards and undergoing surgery in five hospitals were randomly selected. Results Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was appropriate in 18.1% of cases. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with hypoalbuminemia, with a clinical infection, with a wound clean were more likely to receive an appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared with patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥4, those with a score of 2 were correlated with a 64% reduction in the odds of having an appropriate prophylaxis. The appropriateness of the timing of prophylactic antibiotic administration was observed in 53.4% of the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that such appropriateness was more frequent in older patients, in those admitted in general surgery wards, in those not having been underwent an endoscopic surgery, in those with a higher length of surgery, and in patients with ASA score 1 when a score ≥4 was chosen as the reference category. The most common antibiotics used inappropriately were ceftazidime, sultamicillin, levofloxacin, and teicoplanin. Conclusions Educational interventions are needed to improve perioperative appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:24236142

  7. Antibiotic prophylaxis for hysteroscopy evaluation of the uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Kasius, Jenneke C; Broekmans, Frank J; Fauser, Bart C; Devroey, Paul; Fatemi, Human M

    2011-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of infectious complications and the protective effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment after diagnostic office hysteroscopy in asymptomatic, infertile patients with normal results from transvaginal sonography. Recording of infectious complications after routine hysteroscopy in the context of a randomized controlled trial; pseudorandomized, center-specific application of antibiotic prophylaxis. Two tertiary infertility care units. Six hundred thirty-one unselected, asymptomatic, infertile women who underwent routine, diagnostic hysteroscopy prior to a first in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. Depending on the hospital and according to local protocols, hysteroscopy was performed with or without antibiotic prophylaxis. The prevalence of infectious complications after routine hysteroscopy. Of the 631 women who underwent routine, diagnostic hysteroscopy, antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed to 266 women, whereas 365 women underwent the procedure without prophylaxis. Only one infectious complication occurred (0.4%) in a patient who had not undergone therapeutic interventions and had taken antibiotic prophylaxis. This complication was successfully treated with antibiotics on an outpatient basis. Considering the extremely low risk of infectious complications and the lack of evidence, suggesting a beneficial effect of antibiotic prophylaxis, its use for routine, diagnostic office hysteroscopy should not be recommended. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Perioperative venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: short review and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Samama, C M

    2008-12-01

    The overall thromboembolic risk is the resultant of patient-related risk and surgical risk. The surgical risk is decreasing, especially with the introduction of new procedures (fast-track surgery). The value of prophylaxis has been firmly established. Mechanical prophylaxis is to be used as first-line prophylaxis when there is a risk of bleeding. Combining this with drugs increases the antithrombotic efficacy. However, the effectiveness of prophylaxis on pulmonary embolism and mortality has not been demonstrated. Renal function needs to be evaluated when low molecular weight heparins, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban or dabigatran are prescribed. An age of over 75 years and low body weight (<50 kg) have to be taken into account. There is a risk of spinal or epidural hematoma in patients receiving anticoagulants. Caution should be taken especially when administering the newer agents. Patients undergoing surgery that involves a moderate or high overall risk should receive prophylaxis until full mobilization. Patients who have undergone a total hip replacement, surgery for hip fracture, or major abdominal surgery should receive prophylaxis for about 5 weeks longer. The relevance of distal vein thromboses is debated. Surrogate venographic end-points should be gradually replaced by a combination of ultrasound and clinical criteria. The new antithrombotic agents will probably modify prevention in the years to come but currently there are very few long-term data for these products for which - it should be reminded - no antagonists are available.

  9. Update on the prophylaxis of migraine.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Goadsby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Migraine prophylaxis is a stepwise procedure with lifestyle advice followed by consideration of medications. Patients should be advised to try to maintain a regular lifestyle, with regular sleep, meals, exercise, and management of stress, perhaps through relaxation techniques or other ways that are sensible for them. If this regimen does not adequately control their migraines, preventatives are indicated. Patients can choose between evidence-based nutraceuticals such as riboflavin, feverfew, butterbur, or coenzyme Q10, or more traditional pharmacotherapeutics. Medicine choices are somewhat limited by what is available in each country, but from the full range, the medicines of first choice are beta-adrenoceptor blockers, flunarizine, topiramate, and valproic acid. Beta-adrenoceptor blockers are particularly useful in patients also suffering from hypertension or tachycardia. Following recent studies, topiramate has become a first choice for episodic as well as chronic migraine. It is the only prophylactic drug that may lead to weight loss, but it is sometimes associated with adverse cognitive effects. Valproic acid and flunarizine also have very good prophylactic properties. However, valproic acid is often associated with adverse effects, and flunarizine is unavailable in many countries, including the United States. If sequential monotherapies are ineffective, combinations of first-line drugs should be tried before advancing to drugs of second choice, which are associated with more adverse effects or have less well-established prophylactic properties. Amitriptyline should be used carefully because of its anticholinergic effects, although it is useful in comorbid tension-type headache, depression, and sleep disorders. Methysergide is very effective, but it has been supplanted or even made unavailable in many countries because of its well-described association with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Pizotifen has a slightly better safety profile but is unavailable in the United

  10. Drug-coated balloons for restenosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Speck, U; Scheller, B; Hamm, B

    2014-04-01

    Drug-coated balloons for restenosis prophylaxis provide a high local drug concentration with minimal or no systemic adverse effects. Their development was both delayed and facilitated by the introduction of drug-eluting stents: delayed because sustained release kinetics from stent platforms seemed to be essential and facilitated because prior experience with stents allowed selection of testing methods and drugs. Currently, a variety of drug-coated balloons are available, basically consisting of a coating containing paclitaxel at a dose of about 3 µg/mm² balloon surface, and different additives influencing the adherence and release of the drug, e. g., contrast agent, urea, or various amphiphilic compounds. The drug is almost completely released during a single inflation of 30 - 60 seconds. Studies in animals and several independent randomized clinical trials in coronary and peripheral arteries demonstrate effective reduction of neointimal proliferation, restenosis, and revascularization persisting for at least 2 years or 5 years according to one study in coronary arteries. Drug-coated balloons are preferably used for treating coronary in-stent restenosis and de novo and restenotic lesions in peripheral vessels. No coating-related adverse events have been observed in clinical trials. Persistent efficacy may be explained by the long residence time of paclitaxel in tissue or inhibition of an essential first step in the chain of events leading to neointimal proliferation.

  11. [Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite].

    PubMed

    Patey, O

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks. The transmission depends on several factors, especially on the duration of the tick's presence in the host body (the nymph which is smaller than the adults and thus less visible, is in this case the most frequently involved) and on whether the tick is infected or not. The interpretation of results in the few available studies is made difficult by the lack of information obtained (due to difficulty to collect information and examination costs). The comparison is made even more difficult by the difference between Borrelia ticks species in various regions. Today, the best methods are preventive: protective clothing, tick repellents, checking and removal of ticks after a journey in an endemic zone, and in case of tick bite, regular examination of the bite site during the following weeks in order to initiate an early curative treatment if ECM is diagnosed. The currently available data seems to be insufficient to suggest systematic antimicrobial prophylaxis in case of tick bite.

  12. Compliance with isoniazid prophylaxis in jail.

    PubMed

    Alcabes, P; Vossenas, P; Cohen, R; Braslow, C; Michaels, D; Zoloth, S

    1989-11-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis in New York City has risen dramatically in the last decade, an increase that has also been seen in the incarcerated population on Rikers Island, New York City's principal jail. We have investigated the establishment and maintenance of compliance with isoniazid prophylaxis in this population. Factors affecting compliance were studied in a sample of young men who were found to be tubercullin-reactive at the time of their incarceration. Compliance was quantified by determining the number of doses taken divided by the total number of available doses. Mean compliance for the 74 subjects was 37.5%. Two factors were important determinants of compliance: (1) the building where the inmate was incarcerated and (2) his knowledge of tuberculoses and the isoniazed regimen. The influence of the housing unit on compliance suggests that administrative responses to prison overcrowding, an increasingly prevalent condition in the nation's jails and prisons, may have an unintended and detrimental effect on medical care and public health.

  13. Risks of Cefuroxime Prophylaxis for Postcataract Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abduljabbar, Khaled A.; Stone, Donald U.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is a rare but vision-threatening complication. Intracameral cefuroxime (ICC) has been reported to be effective at reducing the risk, but concerns regarding the risks associated with this intervention remain. METHODS: Systematic review and synthesis of the literature on ICC, with a focus on the risks of therapy. RESULTS: Level 2a evidence was found to support the use of cefuroxime in penicillin-allergic patients. Compounding or dilutional errors are associated with ocular toxicity, but the incidence and risk of this occurrence are unknown. Level 4 evidence supports interventions that reduce the risk of dilutional errors. The association of cefuroxime injection with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is not established; Level 5 evidence supports standard measures to reduce the incidence of TASS related to cefuroxime administration. CONCLUSION: Cefuroxime can be administered safely to penicillin-allergic patients, and steps should be taken to reduce the risk of compounding or dilutional errors to avoid negating the benefits of this intervention. Recommended practice patterns for endophthalmitis prophylaxis should consider the risks and benefits of ICC. PMID:28546689

  14. Prophylaxis of migraine in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    While it has been established that headaches in the pediatric age group are relatively common, the characterization of headache disorders and their treatment in this group has historically been limited. Due to the paucity of controlled studies on prophylaxis of the primary headache disorders in children, the diagnosis of migraine often rests on criteria similar to those used in adults. Data from adult studies are often extrapolated and applied to the pediatric patient. Although it appears that many prophylactic agents are safe, well tolerated and efficacious in children, currently only topiramate is FDA-approved for use in patients 12 years and over. As a result, despite often experiencing significant disability, many children who present to their physician with migraines do not receive preventive therapy. One-third of adolescents meet the criteria for warranting prophylactic therapy, yet few are offered a preventative medication. Moreover, controlled clinical trials investigating the use of both abortive and prophylactic medications in children have suffered from high placebo response rates. A diverse group of medications are used to prevent migraine attacks, including antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines and antihypertensive agents, yet there still remains a serious lack of controlled studies on the pharmacological treatment of pediatric migraine.

  15. Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia. Focus on prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C A; Balaguera, H U; Craven, D E

    2001-11-01

    Despite an increased understanding of the pathogenesis of NP and advances in diagnosis and treatment, the risk, cost, morbidity, and mortality of NP remain unacceptably high. This article has identified strategic areas for primary and secondary prophylaxis that are simple and cost-effective. Realizing that the pathogenesis of NP requires bacterial colonization and the subsequent entry of these bacteria into the lower respiratory tree helps highlight the role of cross-infection and the importance of standard infection control procedures. Similarly the role of sedation and devices as risk factors can be reduced by minimizing the duration and intensity of sedation and length of exposure to invasive devices. Additional low-cost interventions that have been shown to be effective in preventing NP are the positioning of patients in a semirecumbent position and the appropriate use of enteral feeding, antibiotics, and selected medical devices. Prophylaxis of NP and VAP is carried out best by a multidisciplinary management team comprised of physicians (critical care, pulmonary medicine, infectious diseases, and primary care), critical care and infection control nurses, and respiratory therapists, even though this approach may result in decreased professional autonomy and freedom. This group should review the current guidelines, pathways, and standards for short-term and long-term prophylaxis of NP and VAP, then integrate them into and monitor their use for routine patient care. The risk factors and prophylaxis strategies for NP discussed in this article apply primarily to patients in acute care facilities, but also are relevant to alternative health care settings as well as the care of ill patients in ambulatory settings. The routine use of effective team policies for prophylaxis needs to be monitored by the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Health Care or other agencies. Research to delineate the most effective and feasible strategies for prophylaxis NP has been

  16. Diet as prophylaxis and treatment for venous thromboembolism?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE: deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE)) with anticoagulants are associated with significant risks of major and fatal hemorrhage. Anticoagulation treatment of VTE has been the standard of care in the USA since before 1962 when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) showing efficacy, so efficacy trials were never required for FDA approval. In clinical trials of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients before the 1980s, anticoagulant prophylaxis was clearly beneficial (fatal pulmonary emboli (FPE) without anticoagulants = 0.99%, FPE with anticoagulants = 0.31%). However, observational studies and RCTs of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients from the 1980s until 2010 show that FPE deaths without anticoagulants are about one-fourth the rate that occurs during prophylaxis with anticoagulants (FPE without anticoagulants = 0.023%, FPE while receiving anticoagulant prophylaxis = 0.10%). Additionally, an FPE rate of about 0.012% (35/28,400) in patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulants can be attributed to 'rebound hypercoagulation' in the two months after stopping anticoagulants. Alternatives to anticoagulant prophylaxis should be explored. Methods and Findings The literature concerning dietary influences on VTE incidence was reviewed. Hypotheses concerning the etiology of VTE were critiqued in relationship to the rationale for dietary versus anticoagulant approaches to prophylaxis and treatment. Epidemiological evidence suggests that a diet with ample fruits and vegetables and little meat may substantially reduce the risk of VTE; vegetarian, vegan, or Mediterranean diets favorably affect serum markers of hemostasis and inflammation. The valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis of DVT/VTE etiology is consistent with the development of VTE being affected directly or indirectly by diet. However, it is less consistent with the rationale of using

  17. Primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors : guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Krause, S W; Maschmeyer, G; Schiel, X; von Lilienfeld-Toal, M

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial infections are the most common cause for treatment-related mortality in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the use of antibacterial prophylaxis against bacteria and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in neutropenic cancer patients and offer guidance towards the choice of drug. A literature search was performed to screen all articles published between September 2000 and January 2012 on antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic cancer patients. The authors assembled original reports and meta-analysis from the literature and drew conclusions, which were discussed and approved in a consensus conference of the Infectious Disease Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (AGIHO). Antibacterial prophylaxis has led to a reduction of febrile events and infections. A significant reduction of overall mortality could only be shown in a meta-analysis. Fluoroquinolones are preferred for antibacterial and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP prophylaxis. Due to serious concerns about an increase of resistant pathogens, only patients at high risk of severe infections should be considered for antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factors of individual patients and local resistance patterns must be taken into account. Risk factors, choice of drug for antibacterial and PCP prophylaxis and concerns regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics are discussed in the review.

  18. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis delays initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and reduces the overall use of antimicrobial agents during induction therapy for acute leukaemia: A single-centre study.

    PubMed

    Hallböök, Helene; Lidström, Anna-Karin; Pauksens, Karlis

    2016-01-01

    Due to an outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was questioned. As a result, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis on the use of broad-spectrum antibioctics and anti-mycotics. A cohort of 139 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia treated with remission-inducing induction chemotherapy between 2004-2012 at the Department of Haematology in Uppsala University Hospital was analysed. Fifty-three patients (38%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics at the initiation of chemotherapy and were not eligible for prophylaxis. Of the remaining patients, the initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics was delayed by 3 days in those receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (n = 47) compared with those receiving no prophylaxis (n = 39). The median duration of systemic antibiotic treatment was 6 days shorter in patients receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (12 vs 18 days; p = 0.0005) and the cumulative (total) median days on systemic antibiotic treatment was shortened by 8 days (15 vs 23 days, p = 0.0008). Piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.02), carbapenems (p = 0.05) and empiric broad-spectrum antifungals (p < 0.01) were used significantly less often when ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was given. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis delayed empiric therapy by 3 days and reduced overall antibiotic use in this study. These benefits must be evaluated vs the risks of development of resistant bacterial strains, making fluoroquinolone prophylaxis an open question for debate.

  19. Improving compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines: A multicenter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Cristiane; Lacerda, Rubia Aparecida; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Padoveze, Maria Clara

    2017-06-16

    Improving surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) use is an important element in the control of antimicrobial resistance. However, compliance with SAP guidelines is unsatisfactory. This study investigated the level of compliance with SAP guidelines in neurosurgery, and institutional characteristics associated with compliance. This study assessed surgeries in 9 Brazilian hospitals. Medical record reviews and a structured questionnaire were used to assess compliance and to describe institutional characteristics. Six attributes of compliance with SAP guidelines were evaluated; full compliance was defined whenever all these attributes were met. Logistic and linear regressions were used to investigate the association between compliance, patients, and hospital characteristics. Full compliance was 10% and was associated with weekly hours of infection control personnel per intensive care unit bed (95% CI, 0.2-0.1), hospital-wide dissemination of SAP guidelines (95% CI, 1.2-25.1), monitoring (95% CI, 1.2-25.1), and feedback of compliance rates (95% CI, 3.8-25.2). Daytime procedures had greater compliance regarding drug dose (odds ratio [OR], 3.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-6.65) and initial time (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.24-4.25). Spinal procedures achieved greater compliance with initial time (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.12-3.01) and duration (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.7-2.16). A low level of compliance was identified, which pointed out the need for an innovative stewardship approach to improve adherence to SAP guidelines. Targeted training programs need to be developed to ensure dissemination of guidelines among surgeons. Monitoring, feedback, and closer interaction between the infection control personnel and the surgical team are key factors for better compliance rates of SAP. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Results of a venous thromboembolism prophylaxis program for hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Krokoscz, Daniella Vianna C; de Paiva, Edison Ferreira; Furtado, Ilka Spinola; Mattar, Jorge; de Souza e Sá, Marcia Martiniano; de Lira, Antonio Carlos Onofre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of preventable death in hospitalized patients. However, existing prophylaxis guidelines are rarely followed. Objective The aim of the study was to present and discuss implementation strategies and the results of a VTE prophylaxis program for medical and surgical patients admitted to a large general hospital. Patients and methods This prospective observational study was conducted to describe the strategy used to implement a VTE prophylaxis program in hospitalized medical and surgical patients and to analyze the results in terms of the risk assessment rate within the first 24 hours after admission, adequacy of the prophylaxis prescription, and prevalence of VTE in the discharge records before and after program implementation. We used the Mantel–Haenszel chi-square test for the linear trend of the data analysis and set the significance level to P<0.05. Results With the support of an institutional VTE prophylaxis committee, a multiple-strategy approach was used in the implementation of the protocol, which included continuing education, complete data recording using computerized systems, and continuous auditing of and feedback to the medical staff and multidisciplinary teams. Approximately 90% of patients were evaluated within the first 24 hours after admission, and no significant difference in this percentage was observed among the years analyzed. A progressive increase in adherence to protocol recommendations, from 63.8% in 2010 to 75.0% in 2014 (P<0.001), was noted. The prevalence of symptomatic VTE in the discharge records of patients decreased from 2.03% in 2009 to 1.69% in 2014 (P=0.033). Conclusion The implementation of a VTE prophylaxis program targeting adult patients admitted to a large hospital employing a multiple-strategy approach achieved high rates of risk assessment within 24 hours of admission, improved the adherence to prophylaxis recommendations in high-risk patients, and reduced the

  1. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in preventing BK polyomavirus infection after renal transplant: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Tu-Run; Rao, Zheng-Sheng; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Jin-Peng; Huang, Zhong-Li; Wang, Xian-Ding; Lin, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies regarding the prevention of BK viremia following renal transplantation with fluoroquinolone have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence regarding the efficacy of fluoroquinolone in preventing BK polyomavirus infection following renal transplantation. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for research articles published prior to January 2015 using keywords such as "fluoroquinolone," "BK viremia," and "renal transplantation." We extracted all types of study published in English. The primary outcome was BK viremia and viruria at 1 year post-transplantation. Secondary outcomes were BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN), graft failure, and fluoroquinolone-resistant infection. We identified eight trials, including a total of 1477 participants with a mean duration of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis of >1 month. At 1 year, fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased incidence of BK viremia [risk ratio (RR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.58-1.20). No significant differences in BKVN (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.37-2.11), risk of graft failure due to BKVN (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.29-1.59), or fluoroquinolone-resistant infection (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.64-1.83) were observed between the fluoroquinolone prophylaxis and control groups. The results of this study suggest that fluoroquinolone is ineffective in preventing BK polyomavirus infection following renal transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Seroconversion following nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis against HIV.

    PubMed

    Roland, Michelle E; Neilands, Torsten B; Krone, Melissa R; Katz, Mitchell H; Franses, Karena; Grant, Robert M; Busch, Michael P; Hecht, Frederick M; Shacklett, Barbara L; Kahn, James O; Bamberger, Joshua D; Coates, Thomas J; Chesney, Margaret A; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following occupational exposures has prompted the use of PEP after nonoccupational exposures. There are, however, important differences between occupational and nonoccupational exposures, and the effectiveness of PEP following nonoccupational exposure is unknown. We sought to describe the occurrence and circumstances of HIV seroconversion following nonoccupational PEP. HIV uninfected individuals reporting potential sexual or injection drug use exposures to HIV in the preceding 72 h received a 28-day regimen of antiretroviral therapy and counseling in a nonrandomized trial. The level of HIV antibody was measured 12 weeks after PEP initiation. Of 877 exposed subjects, 702 were evaluable 12 weeks after exposure. Seroconversion was detected in 7 subjects (1%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4%-2%). Three seroconverters reported having no exposures after PEP initiation and, thus, probably represent evidence of chemoprophylactic failure. In the other 4 subjects, additional exposures to HIV after PEP initiation or detection of HIV RNA in plasma specimens obtained at baseline precluded determination of the source of seroconversion. No exposure source was available to assess genetic concordance with the seroconverter's virus. As for occupational exposure, PEP is not completely effective in preventing HIV infection following nonoccupational exposure. Therefore, primary prevention remains essential. In contrast to the occupational setting, the potential source of exposure is rarely available for testing in the nonoccupational setting, and exposures are often not isolated. Thus, it is often impossible to determine whether seroconversion resulted from failure of PEP or from other exposures, posing difficulties for future comparative studies seeking to evaluate the effectiveness of PEP.

  3. [Pattern of injuries and prophylaxis in paragliding].

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Hesse, B; Blatter, G; Schmidtler, B; Muhr, G

    2000-06-01

    This study will present trends and recommendations to increase active and passive safety in paragliding on the basis of current state-of-the-art equipment and typical patterns of injury. This German-Swiss teamwork presents data of 55 male and 9 female patients treated after paragliding accidents between 1994 to 1998 respectively 1996 to 1998. 43.7% of the pilots presented with multiple injuries, 62.5% suffered spinal fractures and 18.8% pelvic fractures. 28.4% of the injured pilots were admitted with injuries of the lower extremities mainly affecting the tarsus or the ankle joint. Only three patients with single injuries could be treated in an ambulatory setting. 54.0% of the injuries left the patients with lasting functional residues and complaints. Main causes of accidents were either pilot error in handling the paraglider or general lack of awareness about potential risk factors. 46.0% of injuries occurred during landing, 42.9% of injuries during the flight and another 11.1% of injuries during starting procedures. With noticeable enhanced performance sails of the beginners and intermediate level are increasingly popular. Protective helmets and sturdy footwear reaching above the ankle joint are indispensable pieces of equipment. The use of protective gloves is highly recommended. Back protection devices of the new generation provide the best passive prophylaxis for the pilot against pelvic and spinal cord injuries. This area hold the most promise for increasing safety and reducing risk of injury in future, apart from using beginners and intermediate wings. After acquisition of the pilot license performance and security training provide the best preparing to master unforeseeable situations.

  4. Evaluation of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime concentrations in cord blood after intrapartum prophylaxis with cefotaxime.

    PubMed

    Lepercq, Jacques; Treluyer, Jean Marc; Auger, Christelle; Raymond, Josette; Rey, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Thomas; Jullien, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes is associated with a high risk of neonatal sepsis. An increase in the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli in premature infants has been observed in the past few years. Intrapartum prophylaxis with ampicillin has proven to be efficient for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to group B streptococci. To date, there is no strategy for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant E. coli. Our aim was to investigate whether a standardized dosage regimen of intrapartum cefotaxime could provide concentrations in the cord blood greater than the cefotaxime MIC(90) for E. coli. Seven pregnant women hospitalized with preterm premature rupture of the membranes and colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were included. Cefotaxime was given intravenously during delivery, as follows: 2 g at the onset of labor and then 1 g every 4 h until delivery. Blood specimens were collected from the mother 30 min after the first injection and just before the second injection, and at birth, blood specimens were simultaneously collected from the mother and the umbilical cord. The concentrations of cefotaxime in the cord blood ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/liter. The MIC(90) of cefotaxime for E. coli strains (0.125 mg/liter) was achieved in all cases. This preliminary study supports the use of cefotaxime for intrapartum prophylaxis in women colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. The effectiveness of this regimen for the prevention of neonatal sepsis needs to be evaluated with a larger population.

  5. Evaluation of Cefotaxime and Desacetylcefotaxime Concentrations in Cord Blood after Intrapartum Prophylaxis with Cefotaxime▿

    PubMed Central

    Lepercq, Jacques; Treluyer, Jean Marc; Auger, Christelle; Raymond, Josette; Rey, Elisabeth; Schmitz, Thomas; Jullien, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes is associated with a high risk of neonatal sepsis. An increase in the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli in premature infants has been observed in the past few years. Intrapartum prophylaxis with ampicillin has proven to be efficient for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to group B streptococci. To date, there is no strategy for the prevention of early neonatal sepsis due to ampicillin-resistant E. coli. Our aim was to investigate whether a standardized dosage regimen of intrapartum cefotaxime could provide concentrations in the cord blood greater than the cefotaxime MIC90 for E. coli. Seven pregnant women hospitalized with preterm premature rupture of the membranes and colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were included. Cefotaxime was given intravenously during delivery, as follows: 2 g at the onset of labor and then 1 g every 4 h until delivery. Blood specimens were collected from the mother 30 min after the first injection and just before the second injection, and at birth, blood specimens were simultaneously collected from the mother and the umbilical cord. The concentrations of cefotaxime in the cord blood ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/liter. The MIC90 of cefotaxime for E. coli strains (0.125 mg/liter) was achieved in all cases. This preliminary study supports the use of cefotaxime for intrapartum prophylaxis in women colonized with ampicillin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. The effectiveness of this regimen for the prevention of neonatal sepsis needs to be evaluated with a larger population. PMID:19307377

  6. Prophylaxis of migraine: general principles and patient acceptance

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Domenico; Tepper, Stewart J

    2008-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological condition with episodic exacerbations. Migraine is highly prevalent, and associated with significant pain, disability, and diminished quality of life. Migraine management is an important health care issue. Migraine management includes avoidance of trigger factors, lifestyle modifications, non-pharmacological therapies, and medications. Pharmacological treatment is traditionally divided into acute or symptomatic treatment, and preventive treatment or prophylaxis. Many migraine patients can be treated using only acute treatment. Patients with severe and/or frequent migraines require long-term preventive therapy. Prophylaxis requires daily administration of anti-migraine compounds with potential adverse events or contraindications, and may also interfere with other concurrent conditions and treatments. These problems may induce patients to reject the idea of a preventive treatment, leading to poor patient adherence. This paper reviews the main factors influencing patient acceptance of anti-migraine prophylaxis, providing practical suggestions to enhance patient willingness to accept pharmacological anti-migraine preventive therapy. We also provide information about the main clinical characteristics of migraine, and their negative consequences. The circumstances warranting prophylaxis in migraine patients as well as the main characteristics of the compounds currently used in migraine prophylaxis will also be briefly discussed, focusing on those aspects which can enhance patient acceptance and adherence. PMID:19337456

  7. Adherence to guidelines for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis: a review.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, Marise; Novaes, Cristiane de Oliveira; Pereira, Daniele Masterson Tavares; Iglesias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis in the perioperative period may reduce the rate of infection in the surgical site. The purpose of this review was to evaluate adherence to guidelines for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The present systematic review was performed according to the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. The databases selected for this review were: Medline (via PubMed), Scopus and Portal (BVS) with selection of articles published in the 2004-2014 period from the Lilacs and Cochrane databases. The search recovered 859 articles at the databases, with a total of 18 studies selected for synthesis. The outcomes of interest analyzed in the articles were as follows: appropriate indication of antibiotic prophylaxis (ranging from 70.3% to 95%), inappropriate indication (ranging from 2.3% to 100%), administration of antibiotic at the correct time (ranging from 12.73% to 100%), correct antibiotic choice (ranging from 22% to 95%), adequate discontinuation of antibiotic (ranging from 5.8% to 91.4%), and adequate antibiotic prophylaxis (ranging from 0.3% to 84.5%). Significant variations were observed in all the outcomes assessed, and all the studies indicated a need for greater adherence to guidelines for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECISTECTOMY: IS IT WORTH DOING?

    PubMed Central

    PASSOS, Márcio Alexandre Terra; PORTARI-FILHO, Pedro Eder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has very low risk for infectious complications, ranging the infection rate from 0.4% to 1.1%. Many surgeons still use routine antibiotic prophylaxis Aim: Evaluate the real impact of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies in low risk patients. Method: Prospective, randomized and double-blind study. Were evaluated 100 patients that underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy divided in two groups: group A (n=50), patients that received prophylaxis using intravenous Cephazolin (2 g) during anesthetic induction and group B (n=50), patients that didn't receive any antibiotic prophylaxis. The outcome evaluated were infeccious complications at surgical site. The patients were reviewed seven and 30 days after surgery. Results: There was incidence of 2% in infection complications in group A and 2% in group B. There was no statistical significant difference of infectious complications (p=0,05) between the groups. The groups were homogeneous and comparable. Conclusion: The use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in low risk patients doesn't provide any significant benefit in the decrease of surgical wound infection. PMID:27759780

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for dentoalveolar surgery: is it indicated?

    PubMed

    Lawler, B; Sambrook, P J; Goss, A N

    2005-12-01

    Usually dentists in Australia give patients oral antibiotics after dentoalveolar surgery as a prophylaxis against wound infection. When this practice is compared to the principle of antibiotic prophylaxis in major surgery it is found to be at variance in a number of ways. In major surgery, the risk of infection should be high, and the consequences of infection severe or catastrophic, before antibiotic prophylaxis is ordered. If it is provided then a high dose of an appropriate spectrum antibiotic must be present in the blood prior to the first incision. Other factors which need to be considered are the degree of tissue trauma, the extent of host compromise, other medical comorbidities and length of hospitalization. Standardized protocols of administration have been determined and evaluated for most major surgical procedures. Dentoalveolar surgery is undoubtedly a skilled and technically challenging procedure. However, in contrast to major surgical procedures, it has a less than five per cent infection rate and rarely has severe adverse consequences. Dentoalveolar surgery should be of short duration with minimal tissue damage and performed in the dental chair under local anaesthesia. Controlled studies for both mandibular third molar surgery and placement of dental implants show little or no evidence of benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis and there is an adverse risk from the antibiotic. This review concludes that there is no case for antibiotic prophylaxis for most dentoalveolar surgery in fit patients. In the few cases where it can be considered, a single high preoperative dose should be given.

  10. [Prophylaxis for stress ulcer bleeding in the intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Reyes, J M; Jaramillo-Ramírez, H

    2014-01-01

    The critically ill patient can develop gastric erosions and, on occasion, stress ulcers with severe gastrointestinal bleeding that can be fatal. The purpose of this review was to provide current information on the pathophysiology, risk factors, and prophylaxis of digestive tract bleeding from stress ulcers in the intensive care unit. We identified articles through a PubMed search, covering the years 1970 to 2013. The most relevant articles were selected using the search phrases "stress ulcer", "stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis", and "stress-related mucosal bleeding" in combination with "intensive care unit". The incidence of clinically significant bleeding has decreased dramatically since 1980. The most important risk factors are respiratory failure and coagulopathy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used in stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis. Both drugs have been shown to be superior to placebo in reducing the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding and PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. Early enteral feeding has been shown to reduce the risk for stress ulcer bleeding, albeit in retrospective studies. Admittance to the intensive care unit in itself does not justify prophylaxis. PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. We should individualize the treatment of each patient in the intensive care unit, determining risk and evaluating the need to begin prophylaxis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of topical antibiotics as prophylaxis in clean dermatologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Levender, Michelle M; Davis, Scott A; Kwatra, Shawn G; Williford, Phillip M; Feldman, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Topical antibiotics are not indicated for routine postoperative care in clean dermatologic procedures, but may be widely used. We sought to describe topical antibiotic use in clean dermatologic surgical procedures in the United States. The 1993 to 2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey database was queried for visits in which clean dermatologic surgery was performed. We analyzed provider specialty, use of topical antibiotics, and associated diagnoses. Use of topical antibiotic over time was analyzed by linear regression. An estimated 212 million clean dermatologic procedures were performed between 1993 and 2007; topical antibiotics were reported in approximately 10.6 million (5.0%) procedures. Dermatologists were responsible for 63.3% of dermatologic surgery procedures and reported use of topical antibiotic prophylaxis in 8.0 million (6.0%). Dermatologists were more likely to use topical antibiotic prophylaxis than nondermatologists (6.0% vs 3.5%). Use of topical antibiotic prophylaxis decreased over time. Data were limited to outpatient procedures. The assumption was made that when topical antibiotics were documented at procedure visits they were being used as prophylaxis. Topical antibiotics continue to be used as prophylaxis in clean dermatologic procedures, despite being ineffective for this purpose and posing a risk to patients. Although topical antibiotic use is decreasing, prophylactic use should be eliminated. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. National Practice in Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Aydan; Karasoy, Durdu; Kurt, Halil; Baskan, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although breast cancer surgery is regarded as a “clean” surgery, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are higher than expected. There is no consensus regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective breast surgery. The nationwide survey was conducted to determine the trend of antibiotic prophylaxis in breast cancer among Turkish surgeons. Methods The survey was sent to surgeons who are member of Turkish Surgical Association (TSA) via e-mail from TSA web address. A 15 item web-based survey consisted of surgeon demographics and the use of prophylactic antibiotic in patients with risk factors related to SSI. Results The number of completed questionnaires was 245. The most common antibiotic used was first generation of cephalosporins. A majority of respondents indicated that prophylaxis was preferred in patients with high risk of SSI including preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, older age, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, immediate reconstruction (P < 0.05). However, the use of drain did not significantly influence antibiotic prophylaxis (P = 0.091). Conclusions The use of prophylactic antibiotic was strongly dependent on the presence of some risk factors; however, the variation in current practice regarding antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrated a lack of its effect on preventing SSI after breast cancer surgery. PMID:24400029

  13. Adverse events in women and children who have received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Farah; Stinton, Chris; Patterson, Jacoby; Geppert, Julia; Tan, Bee; Robinson, Esther R; McCarthy, Noel Denis; Uthman, Olalekan A; Freeman, Karoline; Johnson, Samantha Ann; Fraser, Hannah; Brown, Colin Stewart; Clarke, Aileen; Taylor-Phillips, Sian

    2017-07-26

    Adverse events from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) are poorly documented yet essential to inform clinical practice for neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease prevention. In this systematic review, we appraised and synthesised the evidence on the adverse events of IAP in the mother and/or her child. We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Science Citation Index from date of inception until October 16th 2016. Reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews were hand-searched. We included primary studies in English that reported any adverse events from intrapartum antibiotics for any prophylactic purpose compared to controls. The search was not restricted to prophylaxis for GBS but excluded women with symptoms of infection or undergoing caesarean section. Two reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies, using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomised Studies. Results were synthesised narratively and displayed in text and tables. From 2364 unique records, 30 studies were included. Despite a wide range of adverse events reported in 17 observational studies and 13 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the evidence was inconsistent and at high risk of bias. Only one RCT investigated the long-term effects of IAP reporting potentially serious outcomes such as cerebral palsy; however, it had limited applicability and unclear biological plausibility. Seven observational studies showed that IAP for maternal GBS colonisation alters the infant microbiome. However, study populations were not followed through to clinical outcomes, therefore clinical significance is unknown. There was also observational evidence for increased antimicrobial resistance, however studies were at high or unclear risk of bias. The evidence base to determine the frequency of adverse events from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for neonatal GBS disease

  14. Comparison of sublingual therapeutic vaccine with antibiotics for the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Gómez, María F.; Padilla-Fernández, Bárbara; García-Cenador, María B.; Virseda-Rodríguez, Álvaro J.; Martín-García, Isidoro; Sánchez-Escudero, Alfonso; Vicente-Arroyo, Manuel J.; Mirón-Canelo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical impact of a prophylactic treatment with sublingual immunostimulation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) with the use of antibiotics. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study evaluating the medical records of 669 women with rUTIs; 339 had a 6-month prophylaxis with antibiotics and 360 a 3-month prophylaxis with a sublingual bacterial preparation (MV 140-Uromune®). The time frame after the prophylaxis-period until the appearance of a new infection (assessed by uroculture) was scored and followed during 1 year. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number needed to treat (NNT) were also calculated. Results: All patients treated with antibiotics experienced a new UTI during the scoring period of 12 months, being 19 days the median number of days free of UTIs (range 5–300). In the group treated with the bacterial preparation, 35 (9.7%) patients experienced an UTI in the same period. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the accumulated survival (disease-free time) between both groups were significant different (P < 0.0001). The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 90.28% (87.18–93.38) and the number needed to treat (NNT) 1.1 (1.1–1.1). Conclusions: These results suggest that the treatment with this bacterial preparation significantly reduces the incidence of rUTIs, arising as an effective strategy to reduce the frequency of rUTIs. It reduces antibiotic consumption, matching the current recommendations due to the raise of antimicrobial resistance. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, clinical trials are needed to establish, more accurately, the clinical impact of this bacterial preparation in patients with rUTIs. PMID:26090341

  15. Effects of a paste-free prophylaxis polishing cup and various prophylaxis polishing pastes on tooth enamel and restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Covey, David A; Barnes, Caren; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W

    2011-01-01

    The application of cleaning and polishing agents to a patient's dentition is a routine part of many dental practices. This study measured the surface roughness and surface gloss of tooth enamel, composite resin, and dental porcelain restorative materials when exposed to a paste-free prophylaxis polishing cup as well as a conventional prophylaxis polishing paste. Samples of human tooth enamel, a composite resin restorative material, and dental porcelain were prepared by a series of polishing papers to produce a flat smooth surface. The baseline average surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a contact stylus profilometer, and the surface gloss was measured with a glossmeter. The test samples were subjected to a standardized polishing routine using a paste-free prophylaxis polishing cup and a fine- or coarse-particle prophylaxis paste. Post-treatment surface roughness and gloss measurements were compared using a paired t statistical test. The conventional prophylaxis pastes increased surface roughness and decreased the gloss of the composite resin and tooth enamel test groups. The paste-free cups did not significantly affect the surface roughness of the enamel or the restorative materials. Dental porcelain surface roughness essentially was not affected by the application of paste-free cups and the fine and coarse pastes.

  16. Mechanical thromboembolic prophylaxis with risk stratification in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William G; Reeves, James D; Fricka, Kevin B; Goyal, Nitin; Engh, Gerard A; Parks, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of thromboembolic and bleeding complications when using mechanical prophylaxis with preoperative risk stratification following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Between 1994 and 2007, 4037 TKAs were performed on 3144 patients at our institution. Mechanical VTE prophylaxis was used for standard risk patients, which included AV impulse foot pumps, thigh high stockings, and early mobilization. Chemoprophylaxis was only given to patients who were at increased thromboembolic risk. The incidence of DVT identified by ultrasound following TKA was 2.1%. A retrospective review showed 1 patient had a fatal pulmonary embolism, and 5 patients had bleeding complications in the knee. We conclude that mechanical thromboembolic prophylaxis using risk stratification is safe and effective following TKA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis on the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections among renal allograft recipients: a retrospective before-after study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramandeep; Bemelman, Frederike J; Hodiamont, Caspar J; Idu, Mirza M; Ten Berge, Ineke J M; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-02-25

    The international guidelines recommend the administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis for six months after transplantation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of TMP-SMX prophylaxis on the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) as cystitis and allograft pyelonephritis (AGPN) and its impact on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of causative microorganisms. We have conducted a retrospective before-after study in adult renal allograft recipients with one year follow-up after transplantation. We compared the ("after") group that received TMP-SMX as PJP prophylaxis to the ("before") group that did not receive it. In total, 343 renal allograft recipients were analysed, of whom 212 (61.8 %) received TMP-SMX as PJP prophylaxis. In this study, 63 (18.4 %) did only develop ASB without UTI, 26 (7.6 %) developed cystitis and 43 (12.5 %) developed AGPN. The remaining 211 (61.5 %) renal allograft recipients did not develop any bacteriuria at all. Multivariable Cox proportional regression analysis indicated that TMP-SMX as PJP prophylaxis was not associated with reduced prevalence of ASB (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.52, 95 % CI = 0.79-2.94, p = 0.213), nor with reduced incidence of cystitis (HR = 2.21, 95 % CI = 0.76-6.39, p = 0.144), nor AGPN (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 0.57-2.21, p = 0.751). Among the group receiving TMP-SMX as PJP prophylaxis there was a trend was observed in increase of both amoxicillin (86 % versus 70 %) and TMP-SMX (89 % versus 48 %) resistance which already appeared within the first 30 days after TMP-SMX exposure. Among renal allograft recipients, administration of TMP-SMX as PJP prophylaxis does not prevent ASB nor UTI, however it is associated with tendency towards increased amoxicillin and TMP-SMX resistance.

  18. Outcomes of Preexposure Prophylaxis Referrals From Public STI Clinics and Implications for the Preexposure Prophylaxis Continuum.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramona; Modali, Laxmi; Lowther, Matthew; Glick, Nancy; Bell, Margo; Rowan, Sarah; Keglovitz, Kristin; Schneider, John

    2017-08-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake remains low in high-risk populations. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics reach PrEP-eligible persons and may be ideal settings to model PrEP implementation. Consenting PrEP-eligible patients identified at Chicago Department of Public Health STI Clinics were actively referred to PrEP partner sites between June 1, 2015, and May 31, 2016. Outcomes included successful contact by a partner site, linkage to a partner site, and receipt of a PrEP prescription. Bivariable and time to event analyses were conducted to determine significant associations of outcomes. One hundred thirty-seven patients were referred; 126 (92%) were men who have sex with men, and mean age was 29 years. Ninety-eight (72%) were contacted by a PrEP partner, 43 (31%) were linked, and 40 (29%) received a prescription. Individuals aged 25 years and older were more likely to link (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.41) and receive a PrEP prescription (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-6.45) compared with individuals 24 years and younger. The average time between each step was greater for those 24 years and younger compared with those aged 25 years and older for all steps. Time to event analyses revealed that those aged 25 years and older were significantly more likely to receive a prescription compared to those aged 24 years and younger (hazard ratio, 3.62; 95% risk limits, 1.47-8.92). Preexposure prophylaxis active referrals from STI clinics to partner sites are feasible, though drop out was prominent in the initial steps of the continuum. Youth were less likely to link or receive prescriptions, indicating the need for tailored interventions for this vulnerable population.

  19. PCP prophylaxis with use of corticosteroids by neurologists.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Dearbhla M; Cronin, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is increasingly reported in patients without HIV. Corticosteroids are a major risk factor, with up to 90% of patients receiving corticosteroid treatment prior to the development of PCP. In view of this, many specialties now prescribe PCP prophylaxis to patients receiving prolonged or high-dose glucocorticoid regimens. Neurologists frequently prescribe corticosteroids but may not be as aware of the risk for PCP. Here, we review the evidence for routine PCP prophylaxis among regular glucocorticoid users and ask what guidance there is on the subject for neurologists.

  20. Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Sabetian, Golnar; Khalili, Hosseinali; Fallahi, Javad; Tahami, Mohammad; Ziaian, Bizhan; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PTE) are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). DVT occurs when a thrombus (a blood clot) forms in deep veins of the body, usually in the lower extremities. It can cause swelling or leg pain, but sometimes may occur with no symptoms. Awareness of DVT is the best way to prevent the VTE. Patients with trauma are at increased risk of DVT and subsequent PE because of coagulopathy in patients with multiple trauma, DVT prophylaxis is essential but the VTE prophylaxis strategy is controversial for the trauma patients. The risk factors for VTE includes pelvic and lower extremity fractures, and head injury. PMID:27162921

  1. Single-dose parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Creve, U; Hubens, A

    1980-01-01

    In the course of two consecutive, double-blind and prospective studies, the authors evaluated the prophylactic effect of a single peroperative intravenous dose of gentamicin (this study included 166 patients) or the combination gentamicin and clindamycin (this study included 127 patients), on the wound infection rate following interventions involving the incision of an abdominal hollow viscus. Antibiotic prophylaxis lowered the post-operative wound sepsis rate, especially following clinically contaminated interventions, but this reduction did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that a single peroperative parenteral dose of antibiotics does not constitute an entirely satisfactory means of wound infection prophylaxis in digestive surgery.

  2. Considerations in individualizing prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Valentino, L A

    2014-09-01

    Prophylaxis is considered optimal care for children and adults with severe haemophilia A because of its proven ability to reduce joint and other bleeding episodes. However, a 'one size fits all' approach to prophylaxis is not ideal, potentially leading to over-treatment in some individuals and under-treatment in others. Moreover, a generic plan fails to take into account a patient's lifestyle and personal preferences. This article reviews the factors contributing to bleeding risk and joint damage and uses case studies to illustrate how these contributors can be weighed to individualize the prophylactic regimen, thereby increasing the likelihood of therapeutic success.

  3. [Large-scale selective antibiotic prophylaxis during the 2004 cholera outbreak in Douala (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Guévart, Edouard; Noeske, Jürgen; Sollé, Jérémie; Mouangue, Antoine; Bikoti, Joseph-Marie

    2007-01-01

    During the 2004 cholera outbreak in Douala, densely populated and poor suburban populations had very poor access to safe drinking water and were at high risk of transmission. The provincial task force thus decided to provide preventive antibiotic treatment of all patient contacts, that is, family members taking care of patients in the hospital and household members of patients or close neighbours living in houses directly adjacent to patients. This retrospective report, based on data from hospitals, local cholera committees, and pharmacies, describes the course of the epidemic, bacteriological monitoring, and antibiotic distribution. Suddenly appearing in January 2004, the outbreak affected 5,020 patients in 8 months. V.cholerae, which was isolated in 111/187 samples, remained susceptible to doxycycline, amoxicillin, and fluoroquinolones. A total of 182,366 persons (35 contacts per patient) received antibiotic treatment. The rate of contacts among new patients fell from 30% to less than 0.2%. Antibiotic prophylaxis was a part of a comprehensive package of community interventions that included health education, disinfection of homes, latrines and wells in all affected households, and bacteriological monitoring. Although it reduces the risk of the disease, mass antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended against cholera outbreaks, because it does not prevent contamination and is limited by contraindications, costs, and modes of administration. Moreover, it increases the risk of developing resistance. It is impossible to eradicate vibrio from the environment. The individual risk of contracting cholera is not known and it is difficult to assess the impact of a collective prevention strategy. Because the bacteria remains susceptible to antibiotic drugs, a well-targeted antibiotic prophylaxis made it possible to reduce direct human transmission of cholera. This reduction did not affect the overall epidemic, however, because of the massive environmental contamination. The

  4. Faecal shedding of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in horses receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Damborg, Peter; Marskar, Peter; Baptiste, Keith E; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-27

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the occurrence and genetic background of faecal Escherichia coli resistant to cefotaxime (CTX) in horses receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after admission to a veterinary teaching hospital. The ten horses enrolled in the study were treated with cefquinome either alone (n=4) or in combination with metronidazole (n=3) or other antimicrobial agents (n=3). CTX-resistant coliforms in faeces collected before, during and after treatment were quantified on selective MacConkey agar supplemented with CTX, and a colony isolated randomly from each positive sample was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and by PCR detection and sequencing of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) and bla(CMY). All horses were negative for CTX-resistant coliforms at admission but became positive within the first three days of treatment. The average faecal densities of CTX-resistant coliforms increased significantly following antimicrobial prophylaxis (P<0.001). Genetic characterization of 29 faecal isolates revealed that this effect was due to proliferation of E. coli producing either CTX-M-1 (n=28) or CTX-M-14 (n=1). Five CTX-M-1 isolates produced additional β-lactamases (TEM-1, CMY-34 and the novel variant CMY-53). Shedding of CTX-M-producing E. coli appeared intermittent in four horses and persisted two weeks after antimicrobial treatments in five of six patients tested after discharge from hospital. Nosocomial transmission was suggested by finding five identical CTX-M-1-producing E. coli pulsotypes in multiple horses. The originality of the study lies in the unanticipated high frequency and genetic diversity of CTX-M-producing E. coli observed in the faecal flora of hospitalized patients receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  5. Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy: Swedish Recommendations 2007.

    PubMed

    Navér, Lars; Bohlin, Ann-Britt; Albert, Jan; Flamholc, Leo; Gisslén, Magnus; Gyllensten, Katarina; Josephson, Filip; Pehrson, Pehrolov; Sönnerborg, Anders; Westling, Katarina; Lindgren, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs, a consequent low viral load, and the use of elective Caesarean section, are factors that radically decrease the risk of HIV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery. The availability of new antiretroviral drugs, updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge of the importance of drug resistance, have necessitated recurrent revisions of the recommendations for 'Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy'. For these reasons, The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) has, at an expert meeting on May 4, 2007, once more updated the treatment recommendations of 1999, 2002 and 2005, which were defined in cooperation with the Swedish Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket). This new text takes the recently updated general HIV treatment recommendations into account. Furthermore, the very low risk of HIV transmission when the mother is treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, has undetectable levels of viraemia and no obstetric risk factors, has been considered in the recommendations concerning the mode of delivery. Finally, the recommendations for monitoring of infants born to HIV-infected mothers have been modified. The recommendations are evidence graded in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, 2001 (see http://www.cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp#levels).

  6. Additive effects of exogenous IL-12 supplementation and antibiotic treatment in infection prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Brandon M; Lindsey, Brock A; Clovis, Nina B; Smith, E Suzanne; Hobbs, Gerald R; Hubbard, David F; Emery, Sanford E; Barnett, John B; Li, Bingyun

    2012-02-01

    The increasing clinical incidence and host risk of open fracture-associated infections, as well as the reduced effectiveness of conventional antibiotics to treat such infections, have driven the development of new therapies for the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. We investigated percutaneous supplementation of a natural cytokine (i.e., interleukin 12p70 or IL-12) at an open fracture site to reduce open fracture-associated infections. We also determined the efficacy of the combination therapy of IL-12 and conventional antibiotic therapy in the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. An open femur fracture infection model was produced by direct inoculation of a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus after creating a femur fracture using rats. The animals were assigned to one of four groups: no drug administration, percutaneous supplementation of IL-12, intraperitoneal administration of the antibiotic ampicillin, or percutaneous IL-12 in combination with intraperitoneal ampicillin. Animals were euthanized at postoperative days 6, 10, 14, and 21. Percutaneous IL-12 led to a reduction in infection at postoperative days 6 and 10. For the first time, exogenous IL-12 was found to have additive effects in the prevention of infection when combined with conventional treatment (i.e., antibiotic therapy). Combination therapy of ampicillin and IL-12 substantially reduced the infection rate at postoperative day 6 and also decreased the time needed for complete inhibition of infection. Therefore, exogenous IL-12, providing a mechanism of protection independent of antibiotic resistance, complements the routine use of antibiotics.

  7. Induction of Antimalaria Immunity by Pyrimethamine Prophylaxis during Exposure to Sporozoites Is Curtailed by Parasite Resistance▿

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Johannes; Borrmann, Steffen; Matuschewski, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Each year, infections with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum kill 1 million people, mostly children in Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) reduces the incidence of malaria and aims to prevent mortality in infants, children, and pregnant women. There is contradictory evidence as to whether this strategy may generate additional protection against reinfection beyond the limited duration of the intervention. Previous work established that ablation of either liver-stage maturation or subsequent life cycle conversion by causal prophylactic drugs elicits protective immune responses against reinfections when drugs are no longer present. Here we show in the rodent malaria model that pyrimethamine, a component of SP, inhibits liver-stage development in vitro and in vivo, confirming the causal prophylactic activity of pyrimethamine. Repeated exposure to high doses of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites during pyrimethamine prophylaxis induced complete protection in C57BL/6 mice against challenge with high doses of sporozoites delivered intravenously 35 to 199 days later. Immunizations by infectious mosquito bites induced limited, inoculation-dependent protection against subsequent challenge by infected mosquito bites but provided partial protection against experimental cerebral malaria. Short-term pyrimethamine prophylaxis during intravenous transmission of sporozoites from a pyrimethamine-resistant strain delayed, but did not prevent, blood-stage infection. Our data provide a rationale for the notion of sustained protective efficacy of IPT based on the capacity of arrested, drug-sensitive liver-stage and/or suppressed blood-stage parasites to mount lasting protection. PMID:21444698

  8. Ventilator-associated pneumonias in children (II)--prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shmilev, Tonyo I; Yankov, Ivan V

    2012-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection among children treated in intensive care units. The risk factors for developing this condition are generated by the patient's bedside conditions, the equipment used and the specific treatment administered to the child. Prophylaxis of VAP should necessarily include all measures that have been proven to be efficient in this respect such as rigorous hygiene control of hands and protective clothing of attending staff, changing breathing circuits of ventilators only if they malfunction or if they are visibly contaminated, preference of orotracheal intubation (instead of nasotracheal intubation) and use of endotracheal tubes with dorsal lumens to allow respiratory secretions to drain, and introduction of a uniform approach to patient care and staff training. Prophylaxis of the microbial colonization in children by antibiotics does not reduce the incidence of VAP-causing poly-resistant bacteria. Therapeutic management includes early initiation of broad spectrum empirical antibiotic therapy, the right choice of antibiotic requiring regular monitoring and good knowledge of the antibiotics sensitivity of the most common microbial isolates in the ward.

  9. Role of preoperative biliary stents, bile contamination and antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical site infections after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, Francesca; Ridolfi, Cristina; Capretti, Giovanni; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Morelli, Paola; Casari, Erminia; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2016-03-31

    The routine use of preoperative biliary drainage before pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains controversial. This observational retrospective study compared stented and non-stented patients undergoing PD to assess any differences in post-operative morbidity and mortality. A total of 180 consecutive patients who underwent PD and had intra-operative bile cultures performed between January 2010 and February 2013 were retrospectively identified. All patients received peri-operative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, primarily cefazolin. Overall incidence of post-operative surgical complications was 52.3 %, with no difference between stented and non-stented patients (53.4 % vs. 51.1 %; p = 0.875). However, stented patients had a significantly higher incidence of deep incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) (p = 0.038). In multivariate analysis, biliary stenting was confirmed as a risk factor for deep incisional SSIs (p = 0.044). Significant associations were also observed for cardiac disease (p = 0.010) and BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) (p = 0.045). Enterococcus spp. were the most frequent bacterial isolates in bile (74.5 %) and in drain fluid (69.1 %). In antimicrobial susceptibilty testing, all Enterococci isolates were cefazolin-resistant. Given the increased risk of deep incisional SSIs, preoperative biliary stenting in patients underging PD should be used only in selected patients. In stented patients, an antibiotic with anti-enterococcal activity should be chosen for PD prophylaxis.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Antibacterial Prophylaxis After Craniotomy: A Decision Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Amal F; Mekary, Rania A; Zaidi, Hasan A; Smith, Timothy R; Pandya, Ankur

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis has revolutionized the safety of neurosurgical procedures in the last century. Today, the clinician's drug of choice before surgery often is based on the antibiotic's resistance profile and drug-induced complications. A decision tree model was developed to compare cefazolin (cephalosporin), vancomycin, or their combination on 90-day mortality postcraniotomy. We modeled the infection type (methicillin-sensitive, methicillin-resistant, or other organisms), antibiotic-related complications that could affect mortality (e.g., renal injury), and Clostridium difficile infections. Parameters' values were extracted from published sources. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to examine results' robustness to plausible variations in input parameter values. The expected value (EV) of 90-day survival was the greatest among patients on cefazolin (EV = 0.9145), followed by patients on vancomycin (EV = 0.8898), and patients on the combination (EV = 0.8886). Cefazolin was the preferred strategy in most one-way sensitivity analyses, except for a few cases in which other options could be preferred based on expected survival. Vancomycin was preferred if kidney injury risk was ≤0.056 conditional on vancomycin intake or ≥12% conditional on cefazolin intake. The combination was preferred if kidney injury conditional risk was ≤0.083 or that for kidney injury-mortality was ≤4.7%. Varying other risks (e.g., postsurgical-site infections (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, or other); Clostridium difficile infections' risks conditional on each antibiotic) did not change the preferred strategy. According to this decision analysis, patients undergoing a craniotomy who had cefazolin as prophylaxis had a slightly greater expected survival compared with other strategies. These results were sensitive to changes in kidney injury development risk and kidney failure-associated death. Copyright © 2017

  11. Intensified prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia with ofloxacin plus rifampin during severe short-duration neutropenia in patients with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, L; Martino, R; Subirà, M; Brunet, S; Sureda, A; Sierra, J

    1999-08-01

    To analyse the impact of intensified prophylaxis with ofloxacin plus rifampin (O+R) in neutropenic patients we used this combination in 40 consecutive cycles of ifosfamide, cytarabine, prednisolone and etoposide (IAPVP-16). This salvage chemotherapy regimen for lymphoma usually produces four to six days of severe neutropenia without significant extrahematologic toxicities. We compared the infectious morbidity during neutropenia under O+R with 58 consecutives cycles using either norfloxacin or no prophylaxis (control group). Fifty-three percent of control group patients and 20% of the O+R group developed febrile neutropenia that required hospital admission (p<0.001, 95% CI for the difference between both proportions of 16% to 51%). Bacteremia was documented in two patients in the O+R group and six in the control group (p=0.08). Gram-positive cocci (GPC) accounted for all six bacteremias in the control group, while both cases in O+R group were due to a quinolone-resistant gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (p<0.01 for GPC). Five patients (13%) who received O+R and 23 (40%) in control group developed fever of unknown origin, p<0.001, while the total duration of hospitalization due to febril neutropenia was 42 days and 158 days, respectively (p<0.001). In conclusion, intensified prophylaxis with O+R appears to reduce the rate of febrile neutropenia and GPC bacteremia in patients with short and severe neutropenia, which translates into a reduction in the need for hospitalization.

  12. Dihydropteroate Synthase Gene Mutations in Pneumocystis and Sulfa Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Kristina; Atzori, Chiara; Benfield, Thomas; Miller, Robert; Rabodonirina, Meja; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of illness and death in HIV-infected persons. Sulfa drugs, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and dapsone are mainstays of PCP treatment and prophylaxis. While prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of PCP, its use has raised concerns about development of resistant organisms. The inability to culture human Pneumocystis, Pneumocystis jirovecii, in a standardized culture system prevents routine susceptibility testing and detection of drug resistance. In other microorganisms, sulfa drug resistance has resulted from specific point mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Similar mutations have been observed in P. jirovecii. Studies have consistently demonstrated a significant association between the use of sulfa drugs for PCP prophylaxis and DHPS gene mutations. Whether these mutations confer resistance to TMP-SMX or dapsone plus trimethoprim for PCP treatment remains unclear. We review studies of DHPS mutations in P. jirovecii and summarize the evidence for resistance to sulfamethoxazole and dapsone. PMID:15504256

  13. Dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations in Pneumocystis and sulfa resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina; Atzori, Chiara; Benfield, Thomas; Miller, Robert; Rabodonirina, Meja; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik

    2004-10-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of illness and death in HIV-infected persons. Sulfa drugs, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and dapsone are mainstays of PCP treatment and prophylaxis. While prophylaxis has reduced the incidence of PCP, its use has raised concerns about development of resistant organisms. The inability to culture human Pneumocystis, Pneumocystis jirovecii, in a standardized culture system prevents routine susceptibility testing and detection of drug resistance. In other microorganisms, sulfa drug resistance has resulted from specific point mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Similar mutations have been observed in P. jirovecii. Studies have consistently demonstrated a significant association between the use of sulfa drugs for PCP prophylaxis and DHPS gene mutations. Whether these mutations confer resistance to TMP-SMX or dapsone plus trimethoprim for PCP treatment remains unclear. We review studies of DHPS mutations in P. jirovecii and summarize the evidence for resistance to sulfamethoxazole and dapsone.

  14. Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adult and child patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F.; Al-Shinaiber, Rafif M.; Al-Baijan, Refal S.; Al-Balawi, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dentists’ knowledge regarding the prevention of infective endocarditis in Saudi Arabia and their implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in March 2014, 801 dentists who practice in different regions of Saudi Arabia completed a questionnaire regarding the need for antibiotic prophylaxis for specific cardiac conditions and specific dental procedures, prophylaxis regimens in adults and children, and recommendations for patients on chronic antibiotics, and in dental emergencies. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests, and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total knowledge level regarding antibiotic prophylaxis among all participants was 52.2%, with a significant difference between dentists who graduated before and after 2007. Comparing the level of knowledge among different dental specialists, surgeons and periodontists had the highest level of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the drug of choice by 63.9% of the participants. Conclusion: This study emphasized the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the guidelines in the students’ curriculum, as well as for strategic placement of the guidelines in locations throughout dental clinics. PMID:25935175

  15. Intraoperative retinal detachment prophylaxis in vitrectomy for retained cataract fragments.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert E; Shere, Jeffrey L; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Segal, Zachary K; Tehranchi, Linda; Kuhn, Ferenc; Sapp, Mathew

    2009-03-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of peripheral 360-degree laser retinopexy as prophylaxis against rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in eyes having pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the removal of retained cataract fragments. Private practice, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Helen Keller Foundation for Research and Education, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. This retrospective analysis comprised a consecutive series of patients who had PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy for retained cataract fragment removal between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2000. All laser treatments were applied with indirect ophthalmoscope delivery. In 78 eyes of 78 patients, the mean interval between cataract surgery and PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis was 14 days. One (1.3%) of 78 eyes had postoperative RRD during a mean follow-up of 6 years. No laser-related complications occurred. The incidence of RRD after PPV with 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis was 1.3%, a significant reduction from the average 8.2% RRD rate in the literature (P = .024). Although future prospective trials are indicated, the results suggest that 360-degree laser retinopexy prophylaxis could significantly reduce the incidence of this visually disabling complication.

  16. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed PMID:21224912

  17. Antibiotic prophylaxis in incisional hernia repair using a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; Rodríguez, J M; Munitiz, V; Alcaraz, P; Pérez Flores, D; Parrilla, P

    2001-09-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgery with implantation of prosthetic material is widely accepted, although there are no studies on its use in abdominal incisional hernia repair. The objective was to evaluate antibiotic chemoprophylaxis in incisional herniorrhaphy with the implantation of prosthetic material. A prospective non-randomized study (1990-1998) was conducted to analyse 216 patients undergoing surgery for abdominal incisional hernia who required a prosthesis (polypropylene) in the reconstruction and who met the criteria for clean surgery. Risk factors were observed in 31.5%, the most frequent being diabetes and obesity. The incisional hernia was located mostly in the abdominal midline and in 64.4% measured over 10 cm. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered in 140 patients (64.8%) via the systemic route, the antibiotics being first- or second-generation cephalosporins or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Surgical wound infection occurred in 39 patients (18.1%), 19 who had received antibiotic prophylaxis (13.6%) and 20 who had not (26.3%). In multivariate analysis using logistic regression, the variables with statistical significance for local septic infection were antibiotic prophylaxis and number of risk factors. We can conclude therefore that antibiotic chemoprophylaxis is useful in abdominal incisional herniorrhaphy surgery with implantation of prosthetic material for reducing local septic complications.

  18. [Low-temperature sterilization for the surgical infection prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kornev, I I; Baranov, G A; Ul'ianov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The comparative characteristic of the accepted methods of low-temperature sterilization of medical equipment is given. Special attention is devoted to the surgical infection prophylaxis. The efficacy, expediency and safety of gas sterilization with ethilenoxide is proved. Plasmic methods of sterilization is recommended for use together with other methods of low-temperature sterilization.

  19. Periocular ulcerative dermatitis associated with gentamicin ointment prophylaxis in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Binenbaum, Gil; Bruno, Christie J.; Forbes, Brian J.; Snyder, MaryAnn; Mollen, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Barbara; Peterside, Iyalla

    2009-01-01

    A recent shortage of erythromycin ointment has resulted in the use of alternative agents for newborn ocular infection prophylaxis in the United States. We report a series of 26 newborns who developed a characteristic periocular ulcerative dermatitis following gentamicin ointment administration at two Philadelphia hospitals. PMID:20105641

  20. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Información básica sobre la Profilaxis de Pre-exposición (PrEP) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Download PrEP 101 Consumer Info Sheet Pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) is when people at ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of standard vs intensive antibiotic regimens for transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Mehrad; Pearle, Margaret S; Lotan, Yair

    2012-07-01

    Multiple studies have shown an increase in the hospital admission rates due to infectious complications after transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSBx), mostly related to a rise in the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant organisms. As a result, multiple series have advocated the use of more intensive prophylactic antibiotic regimens to augment the effect of the widely used fluoroquinolone prophylaxis for TRUSBx. The present study compares the cost-effectiveness fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to more intensive prophylactic antibiotic regimens, which is an important consideration for any antibiotic regimen used on a wide-scale for TRUSBx prophylaxis. To compare the cost-effectiveness of fluoroquinolones vs intensive antibiotic regimens for transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSBx) prophylaxis. Risk of hospital admission for infectious complications after TRUSBx was determined from published data. The average cost of hospital admission due to post-biopsy infection was determined from patients admitted to our University hospital ≤1 week of TRUSBx. A decision tree analysis was created to compare cost-effectiveness of standard vs intensive antibiotic prophylactic regimens based on varying risk of infection, cost, and effectiveness of the intensive antibiotic regimen. Baseline assumption included cost of TRUSBx ($559), admission rate (1%), average cost of admission ($5900) and cost of standard and intensive antibiotic regimens of $1 and $33, respectively. Assuming a 50% risk reduction in admission rates with intensive antibiotics, the standard regimen was slightly less costly with average cost of $619 vs $622, but was associated with twice as many infections. Sensitivity analyses found that a 1.1% risk of admission for quinolone-resistant infections or a 54% risk reduction attributed to the more intensive antibiotic regimen will result in cost-equivalence for the two regimens. Three-way sensitivity analyses showed that

  2. Evaluation of an alternative posaconazole prophylaxis regimen in haematological malignancy patients receiving concomitant stress ulcer prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley L; Slain, Douglas; Cumpston, Aaron; Bryant, Alexander M; Hamadani, Mehdi; Craig, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Posaconazole (PCZ) is approved for fungal prophylaxis in high-risk neutropenic patients. Unfortunately, PCZ oral absorption is affected by nutritional intake and drug interactions with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and possibly histamine-2 antagonists (H2As). Cancer patients frequently receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) with PPIs or H2As. Recommended PCZ steady-state concentrations (C(ss)) are difficult to achieve using the traditional dosing regimen of 200 mg thrice daily. Given the paucity of guidance on PCZ dosing in patients receiving SUP, this study evaluated attainment of targeted PCZ C(ss) (0.5 μg/mL and 0.7 μg/mL) with two different PCZ dosing regimens when SUP was given. Twenty patients received the traditional dosing and 34 patients received 400 mg twice daily. Median PCZ C(ss) levels were 0.37 μg/mL and 0.32 μg/mL with the traditional and 400 mg twice-daily regimens, respectively (P=0.809). When stratified by type of SUP, H2A patients had a median PCZ C(ss) of 0.39 μg/mL, whereas PPI patients had a median PCZ C(ss) of 0.32 μg/mL. Despite having more patients with PCZ C(ss) >0.5 μg/mL in the H2A group, a statistical significance was not found (P=0.368). Multiple logistic regression did show that increasing age [odds ratio (OR)=1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.19] and use of H2As over PPIs (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.22-55.16] was associated with PCZ target attainment. These results suggest that PCZ target attainment is similar with either PCZ regimen but that there may be less of an interaction with H2As compared with PPIs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis in retrograde ureteroscopy: what strategy should we adopt?

    PubMed Central

    Pricop, Cătălin; Dorobăt¸, Carmen; Puia, Dragoş; Orsolya, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Background Retrograde ureteroscopy as a minimally invasive treatment of ureteral calculi can be complicated by the occurrence of urinary tract infections. Fever is considered the main indicator of such postoperative complications and we aimed to study its incidence in patients with and without preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Methods We included all patients who underwent retrograde ureteroscopy for ureteric stones in the Iaşi and Tg Mureş Urology Clinics from 2009 to 2012. Data were statistically analyzed using the EpiInfo 7 software. Indicative of a statistically significant difference was a p value <0.05. Results We recorded fever in a total of 108 cases, accounting for 22.83% of all subjects in the study. Group 1 included patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis; 48 of 147 (32.65%) were febrile, compared with Group 2 (no antibiotic prophylaxis), where we recorded febrile syndrome in 60 (18.40%) cases, p=0.0009. Comparing the two groups based on calculus size, for stones with diameters of 0.6-0.8 cm 38.71% of patients were febrile in Group 1, compared with 10.88% in Group 2 (p=0.0008). Secondary ureterohydronephrosis did not statistically influence the frequency of fever in any of the studied groups. Conclusion Less than half of all febrile patients had positive urine cultures, which may point to other causes, such as noninfectious factors (aseptic kidney inflammation). This study did not prove the efficiency of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis; however, based on the clinical experience of the past 120 years, infectious complications are known to be associated with urological maneuvers and prophylaxis could be indicated. PMID:24432295

  4. Rationale for a randomized controlled trial comparing two prophylaxis regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A: the Hemophilia Adult Prophylaxis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2011-01-01

    A major goal of comprehensive hemophilia care is to prevent occurrence of bleeds by prophylaxis or regular preventive factor, one or more times weekly. Although prophylaxis is effective in reducing bleeding and joint damage in children, whether it is necessary to continue into adulthood is not known. The purpose of this article is to describe a Phase III randomized controlled trial to evaluate prophylaxis comparing two dose regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A. I hypothesize that adults with mature cartilage and joints are less susceptible to joint bleeds and joint damage, and that once-weekly recombinant factor VIII prophylaxis, with up to two rescue doses per week, is as effective as thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing bleeding frequency, but less costly and more acceptable, with higher quality of life. The ultimate goal of this project is to determine whether once-weekly prophylaxis is any worse than thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing joint bleeding frequency, while potentially utilizing less factor, at lower cost, leading to a better quality of life. This is an innovative concept, as it challenges the current paradigm of thrice-weekly prophylaxis in adults, which is based on dosing in children. Furthermore, this trial will assess interdose thrombin generation, a novel tissue factor-based assay of hemostasis, to determine if individualized thrombin generation can predict more individualized prophylaxis dosing, which would be practice changing. PMID:21939418

  5. Rationale for a randomized controlled trial comparing two prophylaxis regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A: the Hemophilia Adult Prophylaxis Trial.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2011-10-01

    A major goal of comprehensive hemophilia care is to prevent occurrence of bleeds by prophylaxis or regular preventive factor, one or more times weekly. Although prophylaxis is effective in reducing bleeding and joint damage in children, whether it is necessary to continue into adulthood is not known. The purpose of this article is to describe a Phase III randomized controlled trial to evaluate prophylaxis comparing two dose regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A. I hypothesize that adults with mature cartilage and joints are less susceptible to joint bleeds and joint damage, and that once-weekly recombinant factor VIII prophylaxis, with up to two rescue doses per week, is as effective as thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing bleeding frequency, but less costly and more acceptable, with higher quality of life. The ultimate goal of this project is to determine whether once-weekly prophylaxis is any worse than thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing joint bleeding frequency, while potentially utilizing less factor, at lower cost, leading to a better quality of life. This is an innovative concept, as it challenges the current paradigm of thrice-weekly prophylaxis in adults, which is based on dosing in children. Furthermore, this trial will assess interdose thrombin generation, a novel tissue factor-based assay of hemostasis, to determine if individualized thrombin generation can predict more individualized prophylaxis dosing, which would be practice changing.

  6. The Potential of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Women in Violent Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; McMahon, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant intersecting threats to women's health. Women in violent relationships have few feasible HIV risk reduction options as traditional prevention methods are largely dependent on a partner's cooperation. The purpose of this review is to explore potential benefits and drawbacks of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among women in the United States experiencing IPV. Advantages of PrEP use in this population include the potential for covert or autonomous use, coital independence, dual protection against sexual and injection risk, and facilitated connections to social services. A number of barriers, however, may interfere with the effective use of PrEP, including partner resistance, cost, frequent medical visits, gendered norms regarding sexuality, and stigma. To realize its potential for women in violent relationships, it will be necessary to incorporate PrEP into behavioral and structural interventions that encourage uptake, facilitate adherence, ensure women's safety, and challenge existing gender norms. PMID:27286296

  7. Crew resource management and VTE prophylaxis in surgery: a quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Victor F; Karcher, Rachel Bongiorno; Weeks, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Despite the availability of safe and effective prophylaxis, appropriate use of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in surgical patients remains suboptimal. Multifaceted quality improvement (QI) activities are needed for sustained improvement at the individual institution level. This work describes a QI initiative for VTE prophylaxis in surgery that combined clinical education with Crew Resource Management (CRM)--a set of principles and techniques for communication, teamwork, and error avoidance used in the aviation industry. Surveys of clinicians participating in the initiative demonstrated immediate and retained confidence and increased knowledge in identifying process-related factors leading to errors, applying CRM to patient care, and identifying VTE prophylaxis candidates and guideline-recommended prophylaxis regimens. Reviews of patient charts preinitiative and postinitiative demonstrated performance improvement in meeting guideline recommendations for the timing, inpatient duration, and use of VTE prophylaxis beyond discharge. This new model joins continuing medical education with CRM to improve the appropriate use of VTE prophylaxis in surgery.

  8. Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase gene of human-derived Pneumocystis carinii isolates from Italy are infrequent but correlate with prior sulfa prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Kovacs, Joseph A; Cargnel, Antonietta; Valerio, Antonella; Fantoni, Giovanna; Atzori, Chiara

    2002-05-15

    Mutations in the human-derived Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene have been reported with increasing frequency and have been linked to prior sulfa prophylaxis and possible emergence of sulfa resistance. This study was done to examine the prevalence and clinical significance of P. carinii DHPS mutations in Italian patients. A previously described single-strand conformation polymorphism technique was used to identify P. carinii DHPS mutations in 107 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Overall prevalence (8%) was low compared with that in other reports. Mutations were observed in 19% (6/31) of patients exposed to sulfa prophylaxis, compared with 4% (3/76) of patients not exposed to sulfa prophylaxis (P=.017). No significant association was observed between the presence of DHPS mutations and mortality, CD4 cell count, or demographic factors. The study confirms the association between DHPS mutations and prior sulfa prophylaxis and shows that the prevalence of DHPS mutations in an Italian patient population is lower than that in other populations.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis may not be necessary in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Lorenz; Sammer, Ulla; Walter, Matthias; Knüpfer, Stephanie C.; Schneider, Marc P.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Tornic, Jure; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) present with chronic bacteriuria. In these patients, antibiotic prophylaxis has been widely recommended since bacteriuria might impair treatment efficacy and cause urinary tract infections (UTI) but the evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an antibiotic prophylaxis is needed in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Between 06/2012 and 12/2014, a consecutive series of 154 patients undergoing a total of 273 treatment cycles were prospectively evaluated. Before treatment urine samples were collected, patients with no clinical signs for UTI underwent onabotulinumtoxinA injections, no antibiotic prophylaxis was given. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found in 73% (200/273 treatments). Following treatment, UTI occurred in 5% (9/200) and 7% (5/73) of patients with and without bacteriuria, respectively. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections were clinically and urodynamically successful in 70% (192/273). There was no association between bacteriuria and treatment-related adverse events (odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.23–1.81, p = 0.4) nor between bacteriuria and therapy failure (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.43–1.43, p = 0.4). Thus, we conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis needs to be critically reconsidered in patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections, especially taking into account the alarming antibiotic resistance worldwide. PMID:27616488

  10. Selection and characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus escape mutants resistant to a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Lorena; Frabasile, Sandra; Candia, Claudia; Pittini, Alvaro; Farina, Natalia; Melero, José Antonio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-06-01

    A human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralization escape mutant was obtained after 56 serial passages in the presence of a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this escape mutant virus revealed two amino acid substitutions: Asn268Ile and Val533Met. When this virus was allowed to grow in the absence of the anti-F polyclonal serum, only the mutation Asn268Ile was stably maintained. Both the double and single escape mutant viruses lost reactivity with mAbs belonging to antigenic site II of the fusion protein of RSV. Mutation Asn268Ile has already been reported in RS viruses that are resistant to mAbs 47F and 11 and palivizumab (PZ). We have thus identified a novel mutation (Val533Met) in the transmembrane domain of the F protein that was selected under immune pressure.

  11. Addition of Vancomycin to Cefazolin Prophylaxis Is Associated With Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Courtney, P Maxwell; Melnic, Christopher M; Zimmer, Zachary; Anari, Jason; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2015-07-01

    With increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty, some have advocated a dual-antibiotic regimen including vancomycin as prophylaxis against surgical site infections. However, routine administration of vancomycin may result in impaired renal functions in susceptible patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin and vancomycin have a higher risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with patients receiving cefazolin alone before elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty. We also aimed to compare severity and recovery of AKI in these two cohorts and to determine independent risk factors for AKI. We retrospectively evaluated a series of 1828 patients undergoing primary hip and knee arthroplasty over a 2-year period who received either cefazolin (n = 500) or cefazolin and vancomycin (n = 1328) as perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. During the study period, a perceived high prevalence of MRSA infections at our institution led some surgeons to add vancomycin to the prophylactic antibiotic regimen. The patient characteristics, case mix, and preoperative renal function and baseline creatinine clearance were similar between the two groups. We defined AKI according to the published Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, and the risk of AKI in both groups was compared. We also compared the proportions of patients by AKIN severity stage and assessed recovery as defined by creatinine levels showing kidney function reaching 50% baseline. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, preoperative chronic kidney disease, intraoperative fluid requirements, and estimated blood loss were recorded. We analyzed the data using a multivariate logistic regression model to identify potential independent risk factors, including dual antibiotic therapy. Patients receiving dual antibiotics were more

  12. Antifungal prophylaxis following reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kami, M; Murashige, N; Tanaka, Y; Narimatsu, H

    2006-12-01

    Reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) has been developed to be a novel curative option for advanced hematologic diseases. Its minimal toxicity allows for transplantation in patients with advanced age or with organ dysfunction. Young patients without comorbidity can undergo RIST as outpatients. However, fungal infection remains an important complication in RIST. Given the poor prognosis of fungal infection, prophylaxis is critical in its management. The prophylactic strategy is recently changing with the development of RIST. Hospital equipment is important for fungal prophylaxis; however, the median day for the development of fungal infection is day 100, when most RIST patients are followed as outpatients. The focus of fungal management after RIST needs to shift from in-hospital equipment to oral antifungals. Various antifungals have recently been developed and introduced for clinical use. A major change in antifungal management will probably occur within several years.

  13. EFFICACY OF LITHIUM PROPHYLAXIS IN BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Manu R.K.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Shreeram, S.S.; Anand, I.

    1995-01-01

    Forty four patients attending the affective disorder clink at J1PMER Hospital who were on prophylactic lithium for bipolar affective disorder were studied, Intra-individual comparison for severity of illness was made between periods of similar duration with and without lithium prophylaxis. It was found that during lithium prophylaxis patients did significantly better on the following parameters: number of episodes of illness, duration of episodes, hospital admission, neuroleptic dosages and duration of antidepressant treatment. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 45% were good responders, 39% were partial responders and 16% were poor responders. Late age of onset was found to be a significant predictor of good response to lithium. PMID:21743706

  14. [Classical dengue transmission dynamics involving mechanical control and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Restrepo, Leonardo D; Vergaño-Salazar, Juan G; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever transmission dynamics were studied in an endemic region considering the use of preventative measures and mechanical control in reducing transmission of the disease. A system of ordinary differential equations was proposed, describing the dynamics and their evolution as determined by numerical simulation. Different mechanical control and prophylaxis strategies were compared to the situation without control. The basic reproduction number R₀ was determined R₀ to show that if R₀ > 1 there would be a risk of an epidemic and otherwise the disease would have low impact levels. The basic reproduction number helps determine the dynamics' future pattern and contrast the results so obtained with those obtained numerically. It was concluded that although prophylaxis and mechanical control alone provide effective results in controlling the disease, if both controls are combined then infection levels become significantly reduced. Around 60 % mechanical control and prevention levels are needed to provide suitable results in controlling dengue outbreaks.

  15. Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W R; Richie, T L; Fryauff, D J; Picarima, H; Ohrt, C; Tang, D; Braitman, D; Murphy, G S; Widjaja, H; Tjitra, E; Ganjar, A; Jones, T R; Basri, H; Berman, J

    1999-01-01

    New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.

  16. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in critical illness: a Canadian survey.

    PubMed

    Shears, Melissa; Alhazzani, Waleed; Marshall, John C; Muscedere, John; Hall, Richard; English, Shane W; Dodek, Peter M; Lauzier, François; Kanji, Salmaan; Duffett, Mark; Barletta, Jeffrey; Alshahrani, Mohammed; Arabi, Yaseen; Deane, Adam; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-06-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) using histamine-2-receptor antagonists has been a standard of care in intensive care units (ICUs) for four decades. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly used despite apparently lower background rates of gastrointestinal bleeding and growing concerns about PPI-associated complications. Our objective was to understand the views and prescribing habits amongst Canadian physicians regarding SUP in the ICU and to gauge interest in a future randomized-controlled trial (RCT). We created a short self-administered survey about SUP for critically ill adults, evaluated its clinical sensibility, and pilot tested the instrument. We surveyed all physician members of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group (CCCTG) by e-mail and sent reminders three and five weeks later. We received 94 of 111 (85%) surveys from the validated respondent pool between May and June, 2015. Respondents reported use of SUP most commonly in patients 1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (62, 66%), 2) expected to be ventilated for ≥ two days (25, 27%), or 3) receiving mechanical ventilation but nil per os (NPO) (20, 21%). Stress ulcer prophylaxis is discontinued when patients no longer receive mechanical ventilation (75%), no longer are NPO (22%), or are discharged from the ICU (19%). Stress ulcer prophylaxis involves PPIs in 68% of centres. Most respondents endorsed the need for a large rigorous RCT of PPI vs placebo to understand the risks and benefits of this practice. Stress ulcer prophylaxis is reportedly used primarily for the duration of mechanical ventilation. The CCCTG physicians believe that a placebo-controlled RCT is needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of contemporary SUP with PPIs.

  17. Current evidence of antifungal prophylaxis and therapy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Giacchino, Mareva; Milano, Giuseppe Maria; Carraro, Francesca; Bezzio, Stefania; Pegoraro, Anna; Aversa, Franco; Cesaro, Simone

    2011-02-24

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an important complication in pediatric haematological and oncological patients who undergo intensive chemotherapy for leukemia, solid tumour at advanced stage or relapsed, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of IFI is lower than bacterial infection but mortality rate remains high. This review is designed to help paediatric oncologists in choosing the appropriate anti-fungal strategy and agents for prophylaxis, empirical, pre-emptive and specific therapy on the basis of published evidence.

  18. [Postoperative venous thrombosis in general surgery patients and perioperative prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Horie, Hisanaga; Endo, Noriyuki; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    In a population of general surgery patients in Western countries, there was a 19% incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a 1.6% incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE), with 0.9% of patients experiencing fatal PE. In Japan, there was a 15.8% incidence of DVT and a 0.34% incidence of PE, with 0.08% of patients experiencing fatal PE in a population of abdominal surgery patients. The incidences of PE and fatal PE in our department were 0.11% and 0.03%, respectively. We started to use intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) for the prophylaxis of postoperative PE in 1999 and then added elastic stockings in 2002 and low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) in 2003 for prophylaxis. The incidence of PE has dropped and that of fatal PE has become 0% with the use of such prophylactic measures. When the risk of venous thromboembolism of the 15 patients who experienced PE in our department were assessed using the Japanese Guidelines for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism, 13 patients were assessed as high risk and 2 as low risk. The mean age and mean body mass index of the 15 patients were 54 yeas old and 24.8, respectively, and PE was not limited to obese or elderly patients. Such findings appear to indicate the difficulty of risk assessment for PE. Therefore we started to use IPC, elastic stockings, and LDUH for the prophylaxis of PE and DVT for all general surgery patients from April 2004. These prophylactic measures are recommended for the highest-risk patients in the Japanese Guidelines for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism. There have so far been no serious bleeding complications with the administration of LDUH. We will continue to observe the effects of prophylaxis and the risk of bleeding.

  19. Current evidence of antifungal prophylaxis and therapy in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Giacchino, Mareva; Milano, Giuseppe Maria; Carraro, Francesca; Bezzio, Stefania; Pegoraro, Anna; Aversa, Franco; Cesaro, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an important complication in pediatric haematological and oncological patients who undergo intensive chemotherapy for leukemia, solid tumour at advanced stage or relapsed, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The incidence of IFI is lower than bacterial infection but mortality rate remains high. This review is designed to help paediatric oncologists in choosing the appropriate anti-fungal strategy and agents for prophylaxis, empirical, pre-emptive and specific therapy on the basis of published evidence. PMID:21647279

  20. Anti-Viral Prophylaxis Target Product Profile Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-24

    pertain to vaccine development. The prophylaxis candidates will be used to prophylax patients who have been exposed to the pathogen, and are asymptomatic...FDA. uring exposure and for seven ro h laxis days after last exposure requency of therapy Once every six weeks Oral or topical, fast disintegrating...administration: • Objective: modeled from influenza (oseltamavir); • Threshold modeled from hepatitis A, rabies (immune serum globulin, rabies immune

  1. Posaconazole: Use in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nina M; Grim, Shellee A; Lynch, Joseph P

    2015-10-01

    Posaconazole, a fluorinated triazole antifungal drug, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for (1) prophylaxis against Aspergillus and Candida infections in immunocompromised patients at high risk for these infections and (2) oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), including cases refractory to fluconazole and/or itraconazole. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved posaconazole for (1) treatment of aspergillosis, fusariosis, chromoblastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other azoles or amphotericin B; (2) first-line therapy for OPC for severe disease or in those unlikely to respond to topical therapy; and (3) prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk hematologic patients and stem cell transplant recipients. In addition to approved indications, posaconazole has been used with success as salvage therapy for invasive mold infections and endemic mycoses in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other antifungal agents, and as prophylaxis or salvage therapy in children, for whom indications are more limited owing to a paucity of data. Posaconazole has potent in vitro activity against a broad range of fungi and molds, including Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, filamentous fungi, and endemic mycoses including coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis. Importantly, posaconazole is much more active than other azoles against many Mucorales species and the combination of posaconazole with other antifungal agents may be synergistic. Hence, posaconazole is a potential candidate as a single or combination agent for difficult-to-treat fungal infections. Posaconazole has an excellent safety profile; to date, serious side effects are rare, even with prolonged use. However, newer posaconazole formulations achieve higher blood levels and it remains to be seen whether this may lead to an increase in the rate of adverse effects. Currently, posaconazole is used predominantly

  2. [Perioperative metronidazole-prophylaxis for cesarian section (author's transl].

    PubMed

    Gerstner, G; Kofler, E; Huber, J

    1980-12-01

    A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 103 patients undergoing cesarian section to assess the efficacy of prophylactic, intravenously administered Metronidazole on the infectious morbidity. A group of 53 patients with perioperative Metronidazol-prophylaxis was compared to a similar controll-group without prophylaxis. Bacteriologic swabs were taken from the cervix pre- and postoperatively, using anaerobic transport media. Prophylactic Metronidazole reduced postoperative fever of more than 38 degrees C on two subsequent days from 60% in the controll-group to 30,2% in the Metronidazole-group (p less than 0,01) wound infections were reduced from 18% without to 5,7% with prophylaxis (p less than 0,05) and Endometritis from 30% without to 13,2% with prophylaxis (p less than 0,05). An additional antibiotic therapy was necessary in 44% of the cases in the controllgroup, compared to 24,5% of the cases in the Metronidazolegroup (p less than 0,05). The mean duration of hospitalisation was reduced from 12,1 +/- 3,2 days in the controll-group to 11,2 +/- 2,1 in the Metronidazole-group (p less than 0,01). Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the servical swabs in 60% preoperatively, with a still increasing incidence to 72% postoperatively, compared to 7% in the Metronidazole-group. Our results suggest, that prophylactic, intravenously administered Metronidazol reduces the infectious morbidity following cesarian section due to the reduction of the anaerobic flora at the female genital-tract.

  3. Monitoring rFVIII Prophylaxis Dosing Using Global Hemostasis Assays

    PubMed Central

    Al Hawaj, Maitham; Martin, Erika J.; Venitz, Jürgen; Barrett, J. Christian; Kuhn, Janice G.; Nolte, Melinda E.; Brophy, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction Secondary FVIII prophylaxis converts severe hemophiliacs (FVIII:C < 1 IU dL−1) to a moderate phenotype (FVIII:C ≥ 1 IU dL−1), however, plasma FVIII:C is a poor predictor of bleeding risk. Aim To study the use of thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin generation assay (TGA) to quantify coagulation across a 48 hour rFVIII prophylaxis period. Methods 10 severe hemophiliacs with varying clinical bleeding phenotypes received their standard rFVIII prophylaxis dose and blood samples were obtained over 48 hours. Measured parameters included FVIII:C, TEG, and TGA at each time point. FVIII:C pharmacokinetics (PK) and correlation between global assay parameters was performed. Results The FVIII:C PK parameters were consistent with previous literature. There was significant correlation between FVIII:C and TEG R-time and aPTT (both p<0.001). Significant correlations existed between FVIII:C and TGA peak, ETP and velocity parameters (all p<0.001). At 24 hours the TEG parameters were sub-therapeutic despite median FVIII:C of 13.0 IU dL−1. TGA was sensitive to FVIII:C below 1 IU dL−1. Those with the severest bleeding phenotype had the lowest TGA parameters. Conclusion There was significant correlation between FVIII:C and TEG and TGA. TEG lost sensitivity at 48 hours, but not TGA. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether these data can be used to design individualized rFVIII prophylaxis regimens. PMID:23510278

  4. Current practice of antibiotic prophylaxis during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Macano, Caw; Griffiths, E A; Vohra, R S

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Current guidelines do not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite this, there is wide variation in antibiotic prophylaxis during cholecystectomy in population-based studies. The aim of this survey was to establish the current rationale for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A short questionnaire was designed and disseminated across collaborators for a population-based study investigating outcomes following cholecystectomy and via the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, Researchgate and Surginet membership. RESULTS Responses were received from 234 people; 50.9% had no written policy for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in elective cholecystectomy; 5.6% never used antibiotics, while 30.8% always did and 63.7% selectively used antibiotics. Contamination with bile, stones and pus were scenarios in which antibiotics were most commonly used in selective practices to reduce infective complications. Interestingly, 87% of respondents would be happy to participate in a trial investigating the effectiveness of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. CONCLUSIONS The disparity between current practice and guidelines appears to arise because of a lack of evidence to show that antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. This question needs to addressed before practice will change.

  5. Prophylaxis in von Willebrand Disease: Coming of Age?

    PubMed

    Saccullo, Giorgia; Makris, Mike

    2016-07-01

    Although in most cases von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a mild disorder, a subgroup of patients experience frequent bleeding. In contrast to severe hemophilia in which prophylaxis is the accepted standard of care, this is less frequently used in VWD. Most type 1 VWD patients can be adequately managed with episodic desmopressin and tranexamic acid. In patients with more severe disease, especially those with type 3 VWD, joint bleeds, epistaxis, menorrhagia, and gastrointestinal bleeding are problematic and usually require treatment with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII (VWF/FVIII) concentrate. While in the past these patients were managed with on-demand VWF/FVIII concentrate, several recent reports have demonstrated the value of prophylactic treatment. Despite some uncertainties about the economic impact of treatment of severe VWD, prophylaxis with VWF concentrate should now be considered as the standard of care for the more severe end of the spectrum of affected individuals. The recent introduction of recombinant VWF concentrate is likely to improve the acceptability of prophylaxis in VWD.

  6. Medical rota changes and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in orthopaedic patients.

    PubMed

    Bohler, Iain; George Mackenzie Jardine, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of clinical guidelines to improve patient care is highly dependent on the ability of hospital teams to interpret and implement advised standards of care. Trimester and bi-annual rotation changes often see transference and loss of acquired experience and knowledge from wards with ensuing shortfalls in patient safety and care quality. Such shortfalls were noticed in the ability of our unit to adhere to national venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis measures. A prospective quality improvement audit was embarked upon to address this. An initial audit of VTE prophylaxis in 112 patients demonstrated just 71% compliance with suggested measures. Errors were predominantly medical in origin and secondary to poor understanding, interpretation, and knowledge of VTE guidelines. Errors were also noted in nursing and patient compliance to measures. Repeated re-auditing demonstrated increased error (following initial improvement post audit) after periods of medical staff rotation. Through education of junior medical and nursing staff, and of patients, the unit was able to achieve 100% compliance. Rota changes often induce conflict of interest between maintaining adequate services and high levels of patient care or providing suitable and informed induction programmes for new medical staff. Emphasised education of VTE prophylaxis guidelines has now become part of induction of junior medical staff, whilst ward based measures ensure daily compliance. The success of the audit strategy has led to its use throughout other surgical units within the hospital.

  7. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in physically restrained psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Hans; von Beckerath, Olga; Kröger, Knut

    2016-09-01

    We analysed the rate of physical restraint in acute and chronic psychiatric patients and looked at the safety of waiving venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) prophylaxis in the case of restraining of less than 24 h. We did a retrospective analysis of all episodes of restraining in 2012 and 2013, diagnosis of restrained patients, time of restraining and use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for prophylaxis of VTE associated with restraining. Overall, 12 734 patients were hospitalised. The number of episodes of restraining was 1035 and involved 469 (7.4%) patients. Only 79 episodes of restraining lasted more than 24 h and affected only 36 (0.3%) individual patients. The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were unstable borderline personality in 41 (52%) and schizophrenic or schizoaffective psychosis in 26 (33%) episodes. None of these prolonged restraints and none of the 956 episodes of restraining for less than 24 h were associated with clinical symptoms or signs of VTE that would have required additional diagnostic consequences. The concept of waiving VTE prophylaxis within the first 24 h of restraining seems to be safe. On the other hand, LMWH sufficiently protected the small sample being restrained for more than 24 h.

  8. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila cellulitis following leech therapy.

    PubMed

    Giltner, Carmen L; Bobenchik, April M; Uslan, Daniel Z; Deville, Jaime G; Humphries, Romney M

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection.

  9. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M.; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection. PMID:23363826

  10. Molecular Characterization of Mefloquine Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-22

    prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant malaria and has recently received FDA approval for use in the U.S. In nature, it is clear from previous studies...calmodazolium and chlorpromazine ref. 9). Each of these agents was able to restore the Imefloquine sensitivity to the resistant clone MEF-2.4 but less so to

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis with teicoplanin on alternate days reduces rate of viridans sepsis and febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Boztug, Heidrun; Mühlegger, Nora; Pötschger, Ulrike; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Peters, Christina; Mann, Georg; Dworzak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis. Fifty pediatric patients underwent 199 evaluable chemotherapy cycles. Viridans sepsis occurred after none of 98 cycles with prophylactic administration of teicoplanin/vancomycin in comparison to 12 cases of viridans sepsis among 79 cycles without systemic antibacterial prophylaxis (0 vs. 15 %, p < 0.0001). In addition, there were significantly fewer episodes of febrile neutropenia in the teicoplanin/vancomycin group (44 % vs. no prophylaxis 82 %, p < 0.0001). Severity of infection seemed to be worse when no antibiotic prophylaxis had been administered with a higher rate of intensive care unit treatment (0/98, 0 %, vs. 4/79, 5 %, p = 0.038). So far, no increase of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates in surveillance cultures was noticed. Antibiotic prophylaxis with teicoplanin (or vancomycin) appears safe and feasible and resulted in eradication of viridans sepsis and decreased incidence of febrile neutropenia in pediatric AML patients. The possibility to administer teicoplanin on alternate days on an outpatient basis or at home could contribute to patient's quality of life and decrease health care costs.

  12. Pursuing Paradoxical Proconvulsant Prophylaxis for Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Caren; Morgan, Robert J.; Soltesz, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Summary There are essentially two potential treatment options for any acquired disorder: symptomatic or prophylactic. For acquired epilepsies which follow a variety of different brain insults, there remains a complete lack of prophylactic treatment options while at the same time these epilepsies are notoriously resistant to symptomatic treatments with antiepileptic drugs once they have emerged. The development of prophylactic strategies is, however, logistically challenging, both for basic researchers and clinicians. Nevertheless, cannabinoid-targeting drugs provide a very interesting example of a system within the CNS that can have very different acute and long-term effects on hyperexcitability and seizures. In this review, we outline research on cannabinoids suggesting that while cannabinoid antagonists are acutely pro-convulsant, they may have beneficial effects on long-term hyperexcitability following brain insults of multiple etiologies, making them promising candidates for further investigation as prophylactics against acquired epilepsy. We then discuss some of the implications of this finding on future attempts at prophylactic treatments, specifically, the very short window within which prevention may be possible, the possibility that traditional anticonvulsants may interfere with prophylactic strategies, and the importance of moving beyond anticonvulsants—even to proconvulsants—to find the ideal preventative strategy for acquired epilepsy. PMID:19552655

  13. Do estrogen and alendronate improve metaphyseal fracture healing when applied as osteoporosis prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Hoerster, Ann Kristin; Sehmisch, Stephan; Malcherek, Marie Christin; Rack, Thomas; Tezval, Mohammed; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is accompanied by predominantly metaphyseal fractures with a delayed and qualitatively reduced healing process. This study addressed the question of whether fracture healing in the context of osteoporosis prophylaxis is improved with estrogen (E) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six ovariectomized and 12 sham-operated 12-week-old rats received soy-free (osteoporotic C, sham), E-, or ALN- supplemented diets. After 10 weeks, a metaphyseal tibia osteotomy and standardized T-plate fixation were performed. After a 5-week healing process, the fracture callus was evaluated qualitatively by biomechanical bending test and quantitatively in microradiographic sections. The time course of callus formation was examined using fluorochrome-labeled histological sections. Administration of E improved the biomechanical properties of callus (stiffness [N/mm]: sham: 110.2 + or - 76.07, C: 41.28 + or - 33.70, E: 85.72 + or - 47.24, ALN: 72.07 + or - 34.68). The resistance to microfracturing seen in E-treated animals was significantly enhanced and even superior to sham (yield load [N] sham: 27.44 + or - 9.72, C: 21.04 + or - 12.47, E: 42.85 + or - 13.74(Delta), ALN: 25.28 + or - 6.4(.)) (* P < 0.05 vs. sham group, (Delta) P < 0.05 vs. C group, (*) P < 0.05 vs. E group). Trabecular bone in particular was improved, indicating the presence of physiological endosteal bridging (Tr.Dn [%] sham: 10.53 + or - 18.9, C: 1.01 + or - 0.14, E: 24.13 + or - 34.09(Delta), ALN: 3.99 + or - 8.3(.)). ALN did not help bone healing, as shown by mechanical tests. Compared to the C group, statistically, ALN did not show worse properties. The induction of callus formation under ALN treatment was slightly delayed (Tt.Cl [mm(2)] sham: 3.68 + or - 0.66, C: 3.44 + or - 0.42, E: 3.69 + or - 0.58, ALN: 3.06 + or - 0.56). Osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture healing was qualitatively and quantitatively improved by E prophylaxis. The process of fracture healing occurred nearly physiologically (shamlike

  14. Effectiveness of a bundled intervention of decolonization and prophylaxis to decrease Gram positive surgical site infections after cardiac or orthopedic surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Marin; Perencevich, Eli; McDanel, Jennifer; Carson, Jennifer; Formanek, Michelle; Hafner, Joanne; Braun, Barbara; Herwaldt, Loreen

    2013-06-13

    To evaluate studies assessing the effectiveness of a bundle of nasal decolonization and glycopeptide prophylaxis for preventing surgical site infections caused by Gram positive bacteria among patients undergoing cardiac operations or total joint replacement procedures. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed (1995 to 2011), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CINAHL, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched to identify relevant studies. Pertinent journals and conference abstracts were hand searched. Study authors were contacted if more data were needed. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and cohort studies that assessed nasal decolonization or glycopeptide prophylaxis, or both, for preventing Gram positive surgical site infections compared with standard care. Patients undergoing cardiac operations or total joint replacement procedures. DATA EXTRACTION AND STUDY APPRAISAL: Two authors independently extracted data from each paper and a random effects model was used to obtain summary estimates. Risk of bias was assessed using the Downs and Black or the Cochrane scales. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics. 39 studies were included. Pooled effects of 17 studies showed that nasal decolonization had a significantly protective effect against surgical site infections associated with Staphylococcus aureus (pooled relative risk 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.50) when all patients underwent decolonization (0.40, 0.29 to 0.55) and when only S aureus carriers underwent decolonization (0.36, 0.22 to 0.57). Pooled effects of 15 prophylaxis studies showed that glycopeptide prophylaxis was significantly protective against surgical site infections related to methicillin (meticillin) resistant S aureus (MRSA) compared with prophylaxis using β lactam antibiotics (0.40, 0.20 to 0.80), and a non-significant risk factor for methicillin susceptible S aureus infections (1.47, 0.91 to 2.38). Seven studies

  15. Two regimens of azithromycin prophylaxis against community-acquired respiratory and skin/soft-tissue infections among military trainees.

    PubMed

    Guchev, Igor A; Gray, Gregory C; Klochkov, Oleg I

    2004-04-15

    Epidemics of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are a frequent cause of morbidity among Russian military trainees. We evaluated azithromycin prophylaxis against CAP. In 2001-2002, incoming military trainees were randomized to 1 of 3 trial arms by training group: azithromycin, 500 mg per week for 8 weeks (R1); azithromycin, 1500 mg once at enrollment (R2); or no therapy (R3). During the 22 weeks of training, CAP was diagnosed in 20.2% of 678 subjects in the R3 group, 8.6% of 508 subjects in the R1 group, and 10.3% of 507 subjects in the R2 group. Throat carriage cultures revealed that the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with resistance to macrolides correspondingly increased during the study, from 0% (all) to 40% (R1) and 22.6% (R2) by week 20. Azithromycin prophylaxis is effective against CAP in a healthy population of young men at transient high risk of disease; however, azithromycin use must be tempered with the possible concomitant risk of selection for resistant endemic pathogens.

  16. [Contemporary view on the role of bacteriophages in evolution of nosocomial strains and prophylaxis of healthcare associated infections].

    PubMed

    Zueva, L P; Aslanov, B I; Akimkin, V G

    2014-01-01

    One of the actual problems of contemporary healthcare are healthcare associated infections (HAI). An important aspect of study of HAI problem is the study of evolution of hospital strains causing HAI. The knowledge accumulated to date in the field of bacteria genetics gives evidence on the significant role of phages in the mechanism of virulence obtaining by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. The studies of the authors of this article show that bacteriophages may play a significant role in the formation of virulent properties in hospital conditions that in different hospitals with participation of phages form virulent and antibiotic resistant hospital strains of HAI causative agents. At the same time bacteriophages are effective means for HAI therapy and prophylaxis. Under the condition of mass and irrational use of antibiotics, HAI causative agents form multiple resistance to the existing antibacterial preparations. In this regard bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents become especially actual. To date in Russian and foreign literature considerable material has been accumulated that shows high effectiveness of bacteriophages under the conditions of rational use. The aim of this review is to evaluate contemporary achievements in the field of study of bacteriophage role in evolution of hospital strains and therapy and prophylaxis of healthcare associated infections.

  17. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral urological surgeries: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alsaywid, Basim S; Smith, Grahame H H

    2013-04-01

    The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection and bacteremia (sepsis) following endoscopic urologic procedures is a controversial topic. Evidence in the literature revealed that urological instrumentation is associated with increased incidence of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the risk of urinary tract infection in patients who had transurethral urological surgeries. We have selected all RCTs of adult population who underwent all different types of transurethral urological surgery, including cystoscopy, transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, and received prophylactic antibiotics or placebo/no treatment. At first, more than 3000 references were identified and reviewed; of which 42 studies with a total of 7496 patients were included in the final analysis. All those trials were analyzing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo/no treatment, and they were significantly favoring antibiotic use in reducing all outcomes, including bacteriuria (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46, P < 0.0001) with moderate heterogeneity detected (I(2) 48%), symptomatic UTI (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.51, P < 0.0001) with no significant heterogeneity was detected (I(2)= 17%), bacteremia (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.82, P < 0.0001) with no noted heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%), and fever ≥38.5 Celsius (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73, P = 0.003); also, there was no noted heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). However, using antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of low grade temperature (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11, P = 0.20) or in moderate grade temperature (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.48, P = 0.89). Antibiotic prophylaxis appears to be an effective intervention in preventing urinary tract infections and its sequels following transurethral urological surgeries in patients with preoperative sterile urine.

  18. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Inan, Nurten; Inan, Levent E; Coşkun, Özlem; Tunç, Tuğba; Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis.

  19. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    İNAN, Nurten; İNAN, Levent E.; COŞKUN, Özlem; TUNÇ, Tuğba; İLHAN, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Methods Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. Results The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis. PMID:28360765

  20. Micafungin: a review of its use in the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2012-11-12

    Intravenous micafungin (Mycamine®; Fungard®), an echinocandin, is approved in the EU for the treatment of adult (aged ≥ 16 years) and paediatric patients with invasive candidiasis and for the treatment of adult patients with oesophageal candidiasis. It is also approved in the EU as prophylactic treatment to prevent Candida infections in adult and paediatric patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) or patients who are expected to have neutropenia for ≥ 10 days. This article reviews the therapeutic use of micafungin for the treatment and prophylaxis of Candida infections in adult and paediatric patients, focusing on approved indications in Europe, and briefly discusses the pharmacology of the drug. Micafungin shows very good in vitro activity against clinically relevant isolates of Candida spp., with a low propensity to be associated with the emergence of resistant isolates. The drug has a convenient once-daily dosage regimen and is associated with relatively few drug-drug interactions. In large, multinational trials in adult and/or paediatric patients with invasive candidiasis, micafungin was noninferior to intravenous caspofungin or liposomal amphotericin B. In similarly designed trials in adult patients with oesophageal candidiasis, treatment with micafungin was noninferior to that with intravenous fluconazole or caspofungin. As prophylactic treatment in adult and paediatric patients who had undergone HSCT, micafungin was superior to fluconazole therapy and noninferior to oral itraconazole in large, multicentre trials. Micafungin was generally well tolerated by participants in these clinical trials, given the severe morbidity of the underlying conditions of patients, with a similar tolerability profile to caspofungin and, in general, to fluconazole. It was better tolerated than liposomal amphotericin B or oral itraconazole. Thus, micafungin is a valuable first-line or alternative option to other antifungal agents for the management of

  1. Attitude towards antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists.

    PubMed

    Puro, Vincenzo; Palummieri, Antonio; De Carli, Gabriella; Piselli, Pierluca; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2013-05-14

    To investigate perceptions and attitude to prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV specialists. A questionnaire developed through a Focus Group and literature review was administered to a convenience sample of HIV specialists during educational courses in two Regions and an online survey in February-May 2012. Participants were classified as having a positive or negative attitude according to their willingness to prescribe PrEP. Demographic and working information, experience with HIV-infected patients, information and provision of antiretrovirals to uninfected persons, self-reported knowledge, perceptions and concerns regarding PrEP were assessed. The association between a different attitude towards PrEP prescription and selected characteristics was assessed through univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Of 311 specialists, 70% would prescribe PrEP, mainly to serodiscordant partners (64%) but also to people at ongoing, high risk of HIV infection (56%); 66% advocated public support of costs. A negative attitude towards PrEP was significantly associated with lack of provision of information on, and prescription of, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis; specialists with a negative attitude believed behavioural interventions to be more effective than PrEP and were more concerned about toxicity. Overall, 90% of specialists disagreed regarding a lack of time for engaging in prevention counselling and PrEP monitoring; 79% would welcome formal guidelines, while those with a negative attitude did not consider this advisable. Although conflicting attitudes appear evident, most specialists seem to be willing, with guidance from normative bodies, to promote PrEP within multiple prevention strategies among vulnerable populations. More scientific evidence regarding effectiveness could overcome resistance.

  2. Dose and administration of intracameral moxifloxacin for prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Arshinoff, Steve A; Modabber, Milad

    2016-12-01

    To review current and past practices of intracameral antibiotic administration for infection prophylaxis in cataract surgery; to review the benefits and liabilities of available prophylactic drugs, dosage determination, and administration protocols; and to devise an optimum dose and administration protocol for intracameral moxifloxacin. Humber River Hospital and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrospective evaluation of treatment modality. This study consisted of a detailed review of the history, drugs, and methods of intracameral prophylaxis and microbiological and pharmacodynamics analysis of options. A review of potential drug sources and doses was performed and 1 drug, dose, and administration protocol was selected. The current method's adoption reasons are described followed by the authors' experience. A single infection in 3430 cases occurred with a moxifloxacin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis when moxifloxacin 100 mcg in 0.1 mL was used. Increasing the dose and changing the administration technique resulted in no infections in 4601 cases and no detrimental side effects or complications. Intracameral moxifloxacin prepared by dilution of 3 cc moxifloxacin 0.5% (Vigamox) with 7 cc balanced salt solution and with the administration of 0.3 to 0.4 cc (450 to 600 mcg.) as the final step in cataract surgery via the side port after the main incision has been sealed and hydrated showed advantages over alternative intracameral antibiotic prophylactic methods, with minimum risk. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitude towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate perceptions and attitude to prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV specialists. Methods A questionnaire developed through a Focus Group and literature review was administered to a convenience sample of HIV specialists during educational courses in two Regions and an online survey in February-May 2012. Participants were classified as having a positive or negative attitude according to their willingness to prescribe PrEP. Demographic and working information, experience with HIV-infected patients, information and provision of antiretrovirals to uninfected persons, self-reported knowledge, perceptions and concerns regarding PrEP were assessed. The association between a different attitude towards PrEP prescription and selected characteristics was assessed through univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results Of 311 specialists, 70% would prescribe PrEP, mainly to serodiscordant partners (64%) but also to people at ongoing, high risk of HIV infection (56%); 66% advocated public support of costs. A negative attitude towards PrEP was significantly associated with lack of provision of information on, and prescription of, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis; specialists with a negative attitude believed behavioural interventions to be more effective than PrEP and were more concerned about toxicity. Overall, 90% of specialists disagreed regarding a lack of time for engaging in prevention counselling and PrEP monitoring; 79% would welcome formal guidelines, while those with a negative attitude did not consider this advisable. Conclusions Although conflicting attitudes appear evident, most specialists seem to be willing, with guidance from normative bodies, to promote PrEP within multiple prevention strategies among vulnerable populations. More scientific evidence regarding effectiveness could overcome resistance. PMID:23672424

  4. Discontinuing early prophylaxis in severe haemophilia leads to deterioration of joint status despite low bleeding rates.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, Annelies; Foppen, Wouter; De Kleijn, Piet; Mauser-Bunschoten, Evelien P; Roosendaal, Goris; van Galen, Karin P M; Schutgens, Roger E G; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Fischer, Kathelijn

    2016-05-02

    Prophylaxis is the recommended treatment for children with severe haemophilia A, but whether prophylaxis should be continued in adulthood is still under debate. Previous studies with limited follow-up have suggested that some patients may be able to stop prophylaxis in adulthood, while maintaining good joint health. This single-centre observational cohort study examined patients with severe haemophilia A born 1970-1988 without inhibitor development, and assessed the long-term consequences of discontinuing prophylaxis. Patient-initiated changes in prophylaxis, including all switches to on-demand treatment lasting a minimum of two consecutive weeks, were recorded from the time self-infusion began until the last evaluation. Sixty-six patients were evaluated at a median age of 32.4 years: 26 % of patients had stopped prophylaxis for a median of 10 years, 15 % had interrupted prophylaxis and 59 % had continued prophylaxis. Annual joint bleeding rate (AJBR), Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS-2.1; 0-124 points), radiological Pettersson score (0-78 points) and Haemophilia Activities List score (HAL; 100-0 points) were compared between patients who stopped and patients who continued prophylaxis. Although self-reported bleeding rates and functional limitations were similar in both groups (AJBR: 1.5 vs 1.2 and HAL: 84 vs 84 for those who stopped and continued prophylaxis, respectively), objective assessment of joint status showed increased arthropathy after 10 years of on-demand treatment in patients who stopped prophylaxis compared with those who continued (HJHS: 23 vs. 14 and Pettersson: 16 vs 5, respectively; P< 0.01). These results support continuation of long-term prophylaxis in adults and demonstrate the need for objective monitoring of joint status.

  5. Universal fungal prophylaxis and risk of coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant recipients living in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Allon; Carey, Elizabeth J; Blair, Janis E

    2015-03-01

    Recipients of liver transplantation (LT) are at increased risk for symptomatic coccidioidomycosis, primarily because of chronic immunosuppression and impaired cellular immunity. Unfortunately, no consensus exists regarding optimal posttransplant prophylaxis. In a prior study at our institution, we observed both de novo and recurrent coccidioidomycosis despite targeted antifungal prophylaxis. In response, in February 2011, we instituted a universal prophylaxis program consisting of fluconazole (200 mg daily) for the first posttransplant year. In the current study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent LT between the initiation of universal prophylaxis and July 11, 2013. Patients receiving a second transplant or dual-organ transplant and those who died or did not have follow-up in the 12-month post-LT period were excluded. Data from the universal prophylaxis cohort were compared with previously published data from the targeted prophylaxis era. Of the 160 patients undergoing LT during the study period, 143 met criteria for data analysis. When compared with the 349 patients in the targeted prophylaxis cohort, patients in the universal prophylaxis group were older and had higher rates of pre-LT coccidioidomycosis, asymptomatic coccidioidal seropositivity, posttransplant diabetes mellitus, and renal insufficiency. Fluconazole-related toxicity occurred in 13 of the universal prophylaxis patients, 7 of whom were required to discontinue use of the medication. Coccidioidomycosis developed in 10 of the 391 patients (2.6%) in the targeted prophylaxis cohort and in none of the patients in the universal prophylaxis group (P = 0.04). These data strongly support the use of a 1-year antifungal prophylaxis regimen for LT recipients in endemic regions.

  6. No recurrence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia after solid organ transplantation regardless of secondary prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tark; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Yu-Mi; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Kim, Sung-Han; Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Sang-Oh

    2012-11-01

    There are no data on the efficacy of secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia after solid organ transplantation. Therefore, we investigated the rate of recurrence of Pneumocystis pneumonia after solid organ transplantation in a retrospective cohort study. Between 2005 and 2011, a total of 41 recipients recovered from Pneumocystis pneumonia. Of these, 22 (53.7%) received secondary prophylaxis. None of the 41 recipients experienced recurrence of Pneumocystis pneumonia during the follow-up, regardless of secondary prophylaxis.

  7. Evaluation of azithromycin, trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin as prophylaxis for experimental murine melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dermot J; Sefton, Armine M; Brooks, Timothy J G; Laws, Thomas R; Simpson, Andrew J H; Atkins, Helen S

    2010-07-01

    The efficacies of the azalide azithromycin and the fluoroquinolones trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of infection with high or low challenge doses of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain 576 were assessed in an experimental mouse model. Trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin afforded significant levels of protection, whereas azithromycin was ineffective and potentially detrimental. Overall, the data suggest that some fluoroquinolones may have potential utility in prophylaxis of melioidosis and suggest that azithromycin would not be effective in prophylaxis of B. pseudomallei infection.

  8. Norfloxacin for the Prophylaxis of Travelers’ Diarrhea in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    5055 PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO ": N/A ! I. TITLE (incluce Security Classification) NORFLOXACIN FOR.THE PROPHYLAXIS...HF4en" NORFLOXACIN FOR THE PROPHYLAXIS OF TRAVELERS’ DIARRHEA IN U.S. MILITARY PERSONNEL DANIEL A. SCOTT. RICHARD L. HABERBERGER, SCOTT A- FHORNTON... Norfloxacin . an oral fluoroquinolone (dose 400 mg daily). was compared to a placebo in a double blinded randomized tral for the prophylaxis of travelers

  9. Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-02-01

    This review focuses on free-living amoebae, widely distributed in soil and water, causing opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections in humans: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. Diseases include primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (N. fowleri), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, cutaneous and nasopharyngeal infections (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, S. diploidea), and amoebic keratitis (Acanthamoeba spp). Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, and Naegleria have been repeatedly isolated; S. diploidea has been reported only once, from a brain infection. Antimicrobial therapy for these infections is generally empirical and patient recovery often problematic. N. fowleri is highly sensitive to the antifungal agent amphotericin B, but delay in diagnosis and the fulminant nature of the disease result in few survivors. Encephalitis and other infections caused by Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia have been treated, more or less successfully, with antimicrobial combinations including sterol-targeting azoles (clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole), pentamidine isethionate, 5-fluorocytosine, and sulfadiazine. The use of drug combinations addresses resistance patterns that may exist or develop during treatment, ensuring that at least one of the drugs may be effective against the amoebae. Favorable drug interactions (additive or synergistic) are another potential benefit. In vitro drug testing of clinical isolates points up strain and species differences in sensitivity, so that no single drug can be assumed effective against all amoebae. Another complication is risk of activation of dormant cysts that form in situ in Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia infections, and which can lead to patient relapse following apparently effective treatment. This is particularly true in Acanthamoeba keratitis, a non-opportunistic infection of the cornea, which responds well to treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate and

  10. Fatal Breakthrough Mucormycosis in an Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Patient while on Posaconazole Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyun Seon; Bae, Myoung Nam; Kim, Jihye; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Lee, Kwan Yong; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-03-01

    Posaconazole is a new oral triazole with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Posaconazole has also shown a significant advantage of preventing invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole or itraconazole in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Indeed, posaconazole has been commonly used for antifungal prophylaxis in patients undergoing remission induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We experienced a case of fatal mucormycosis despite posaconazole prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fatal breakthrough mucormycosis in a patient receiving posaconazole prophylaxis during remission induction chemotherapy in Korea. This case demonstrated that breakthrough fungal infection can occurs in patients receiving posaconazole prophylaxis because of its limited activity against some mucorales.

  11. 77 FR 10748 - Scientific Information Request on Mechanical Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... effectiveness and safety of pharmacologic and mechanical strategies to prevent VTE in patients having bariatric surgery? Question 7 What is the comparative effectiveness and safety of pharmacologic prophylaxis...

  12. Adherence To Malaria Prophylaxis Among Peace Corps Volunteers in the Africa Region, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Keren Z.; Tan, Kathrine R.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although malaria can be prevented with prophylaxis, it is diagnosed in over 100 Africa-region Peace Corps Volunteers annually. This suggests that prophylaxis non-adherence is a problem in these non-immune travelers. Methods We investigated Volunteers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prophylaxis using an internet-based survey during August 19–September 30, 2013. Adherence was defined as taking doxycycline or atovaquone-proguanil daily, or taking mefloquine doses no more than 8 days apart. Results The survey was sent to 3,248 Volunteers. Of 781 whose responses were analyzed, 514 (73%) reported adherence to prophylaxis. The most common reasons for non-adherence were forgetting (n=530, 90%); fear of long-term adverse effects (LTAEs; n=316, 54%); and experiencing adverse events that Volunteers attributed to prophylaxis (n=297, 51%). Two hundred fourteen (27%) Volunteers reported not worrying about malaria. On multivariate analysis controlling for sex and experiencing adverse events Volunteers attributed to prophylaxis, the factor most strongly associated with non-adherence was being prescribed mefloquine (OR 5.4, 95% confidence interval 3.2–9.0). Conclusions We found moderate adherence and a prevailing fear of LTAEs among Volunteers. Strategies to improve prophylaxis adherence may include medication reminders, increasing education about prophylaxis safety and malaria risk, and promoting prompt management of prophylaxis side effects. PMID:25534297

  13. Pharmacokinetics of fusidic acid and cefepime in heart tissues: implications for a role in surgical prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kanellakopoulou, K; Tselikos, D; Giannitsioti, E; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E J; Apostolakis, E; Lolas, C; Giamarellou, H

    2008-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of fusidic acid and cefepime in heart tissues were assessed in 30 patients undergoing elective valve replacement and cardiopulmonary bypass. Single doses of 1 g of fusidic acid and 2 g of cefepime were administered intravenously to two groups of 15 and 15 patients respectively upon initiation of anesthesia. Samples of serum, heart valves, myocardium, pericardium, mediastinal fat and sternum were collected within <1 hour, 1-2 h and 2-4 h after the end of drug infusion. Drug concentrations were estimated by a microbiological assay. It was found that concentrations of fusidic acid in all specimens were 20-fold higher than the MIC90s of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, being at such levels throughout all period of sampling. Cefepime concentrations in heart valves collected 1-2 h after drug infusion were higher than the MIC90s of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. It is concluded that both fusidic acid and cefepime penetrated heart tissues adequately; however only fusidic acid could also accumulate in the mediastinum. These data suggest that both antibiotics may be a good alternative for prophylaxis in open heart surgery.

  14. Isometamidium chloride prophylaxis against Trypanosoma congolense challenge and the development of immune responses in Boran cattle.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, D D; Bell, I R; Holmes, P H; Moloo, S K; Hirumi, H; Urquhart, G M; Murray, M

    1986-06-28

    Twenty-four Boran cattle were injected with isometamidium chloride (1 mg/kg bodyweight) to investigate the duration of drug-induced prophylaxis against infection by metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma congolense and to determine if specific antibody responses to the organism were mounted by animals under chemoprophylactic cover. Complete protection against either single challenge by five tsetse flies infected with T congolense, or repeated challenge at monthly intervals by five tsetse flies, lasted for five months. Six months after treatment, two-thirds of the cattle were resistant to challenge, irrespective of whether subjected to single or multiple challenge with trypanosome-infected tsetse flies, or titrated doses of in vitro-cultured metacyclic forms of T congolense (5 X 10(2) to 5 X 10(5) organisms), inoculated intradermally. No animal which resisted infection developed detectable skin reactions at the site of deposition of metacyclic trypanosomes or produced trypanosome-specific antibodies. It was concluded that drug residues effectively limited trypanosome multiplication at the site of deposition in the skin, thus preventing subsequent parasitaemia or priming of the host's immune response.

  15. Addressing the sociotechnical drivers of quality improvement: a case study of post-operative DVT prophylaxis computerised decision support

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianji; McConnachie, Judy; Brenk, Thomas; Winterbottom, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality improvement (QI) initiatives characterised by iterative cycles of quantitative data analysis do not readily explain the organisational determinants of change. However, the integration of sociotechnical theory can inform more effective strategies. Our specific aims were to (1) describe a computerised decision support intervention intended to improve adherence with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis recommendations; and (2) show how sociotechnical theory expressed in ‘Fit between Individuals, Task and Technology’ framework (FITT) can identify and clarify the facilitators and barriers to QI work. Methods A multidisciplinary team developed and implemented electronic menus with DVT prophylaxis recommendations. Stakeholders were interviewed and human factors were analysed to optimise integration. Menu exposure, order placement and clinical performance were measured. Vista tool extraction and chart review were used. Performance compliance pre-implementation was 77%. Results There were 80–110 eligible cases per month. Initial menu use rate was 20%. After barriers were classified and addressed using the FITT framework, use improved 50% to 90%. Tasks, users and technology issues in the FITT model and their interfaces were identified and addressed. Workflow styles, concerns about validity of guidelines, cycle times and perceived ambiguity of risk were issues identified. Conclusions DVT prophylaxis in a surgical setting is fraught with socio-political agendas, cognitive dissonance and misaligned expectations. These must be sought and articulated if organisations are to respond to internal resistance to change. This case study demonstrates that QI teams using information technology must understand the clinical context, even in mature electronic health record environments, in order to implement sustainable systems. PMID:21209144

  16. Antibiotic usage in surgical prophylaxis: a prospective surveillance of surgical wards at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ai Ling; Goh, Leh Min; Nik Azim, Nik Abdullah; Tee, Chee Sian; Shehab Phung, Chee Wei

    2014-02-13

    The widespread and inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis has led to reduced treatment efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to explore the adherence of antibiotic usage in surgical prophylaxis to the national antibiotic guideline and the incidences of surgical site infection (SSI). A three-month prospective observational study has been conducted in the surgical wards of Sarawak General Hospital (SGH) using a standardized surveillance form. Each patient was reviewed for up to 30 days post-operatively to determine the occurrence of SSI. A total of 87 patients were included within the study period. The majority of the cases were clean-contaminated wounds (60.9%). Most were hepatobiliary cases (37.9%), followed by colorectal cases (19.5%). The most preferred antibiotic used was cefoperazone (63.2%). The choices of antibiotics in 78.2% of the cases were consistent with the guideline. Around 80% of prophylactic antibiotics were given within one hour before operation and 27.6% were omitted from intraoperative re-dosing. Prophylactic antibiotics were discontinued within 24 hours post-operatively in 77% of the cases. Of those continued for > 24 hours, the majority (60%) were administered for unknown reasons. SSI was documented in 13.8% of the total cases studied. However, there was no significant association between choices of antibiotics and timing of surgical prophylaxis with SSI (p = 0.299 and p = 0.258 respectively). Overall guideline adherence rate was more than 70%. Areas of non-concordance to the guideline require further investigation.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim as primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia in lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lathia, Nina; Isogai, Pierre K; De Angelis, Carlo; Smith, Thomas J; Cheung, Matthew; Mittmann, Nicole; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Walker, Scott

    2013-08-07

    Febrile neutropenia is a serious toxicity of cancer chemotherapy that is usually treated in hospital. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim as primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients undergoing chemotherapy. We used a Markov model that followed patients through induction chemotherapy to compare the three prophylaxis strategies: 1) no primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia; 2) primary prophylaxis with 10 days of filgrastim therapy; and 3) primary prophylaxis with a single dose of pegfilgrastim. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of 64-year-old men and women with DLBCL. Data sources included published literature and current clinical practice. The analysis was conducted from a publicly funded health-care system perspective. The main outcome measures included costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). In the base-case analysis, costs associated with no primary prophylaxis, primary prophylaxis with 10 days of filgrastim, and primary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim were CaD $7314, CaD $13947, and CaD $16290, respectively. The QALYs associated with the three strategies were 0.2004, 0.2015, and 0.2024, respectively. The ICER for the filgrastim vs no primary prophylaxis strategy was CaD $5796000 per QALY. The ICER for the pegfilgrastim vs filgrastim primary prophylaxis strategy was CaD $2611000 per QALY. All one-way sensitivity analyses yielded ICERs greater than CaD $400000 per QALY. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that 20.0% of iterations are cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of CaD $1595000 for the filgrastim strategy and CaD $561000 for the pegfilgrastim strategy. Primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia with either filgrastim or pegfilgrastim is not cost-effective in DLBCL patients.

  18. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients.

  19. Antenatal Rh prophylaxis is unnecessary for "Asia type" DEL women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chao-Peng; Xu, Hua; Xu, Qun; Sun, Guo-Dong; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Zhong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Zhuang, Nai-Bao

    2010-10-01

    Generally Rh-negative patients need to be transfused with Rh-negative red blood cells. For pregnant women carrying Rh-positive fetus, the antenatal anti-D detection and Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis are required worldwide. In East Asia, a RhD variant, termed "Asia type" DEL, was found in approximately 30% of apparent Rh-negative individuals. The antigenic and molecular properties of the DEL were previously defined. Few data discuss whether DEL could be immunized by D antigen clinically although DEL was reported arousing alloimmunization to true Rh-negative patients. To determine whether the DEL variant can be immunized to the D antigen, we retrospectively evaluated 104 Rh-negative pregnancies with allo-anti-D antibodies, and we also tracked 199 consecutive apparent Rh-negative pregnant women, with a history of gestations or parturitions but not subject to anti-D gamma-globulin prophylaxis, for evidence of allo-anti-D. The DEL variant was first excluded by ccee phenotypes and then identified through PCR analysis or sequencing. In the retrospective study, we expected to find 30 DEL variants, yet none of the anti-D alloimmunized women were DEL-positive. And in the second group, none of 44 DEL-positive women versus 38 of 155 (24.5%) true Rh-negative women (those excluding DEL) formed allo-anti-D. The data indicate that the "Asia type" DEL variant does not appear at risk of alloimmunization to the D antigen. It strongly suggests that the antenatal Rh immune globulin prophylaxis is unnecessary for DEL women. Furthermore, it implicates that the "Asia type" DEL may be deemed Rh-positive safely for clinical transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of appropriate tetanus prophylaxis in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Simşek, Gözde; Armağan, Erol; Köksal, Ozlem; Heper, Yasemin; Eraybar Pozam, Suna; Durak, Vahide Aslıhan

    2013-07-01

    In this study, our aim was to identify the validity of the prophylaxis indications for patients who received tetanus prophylaxis, determine the ratio of high-risk wounds to the number of patients with immunity, and to evaluate the tetanus immunity of specific age groups. Patients who applied to the Emergency Department (ED) between September 2009 and May 2010 and who were considered for tetanus prophylaxis by his/her primary care physician were included in the study. A total of 320 patients were evaluated. The average age of the patients was 40.87 ± 15.83 years. A total of 73.1% of the patients were male and 26.8% were female. A total of 40.3% of the patients knew their vaccination history, while 59.7% had no recollection of their vaccination history. 14.7% of the patients had received their last dose within 5 years and 48.1% within 5-10 years; 37.2% of the patients declared that more 10 years had passed since their last vaccination. In 75% of the patients, the tetanus immunoglobulin (Ig)G level was identified as >=0.1 IU/ml, while 25% of the patients had levels <0.1 IU/ml. The number of patients with protective levels was lower among those who were illiterate or who had only a primary school education, and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The vaccination histories can be misleading. Certain equipment can be used at the bedside to determine a patient's tetanus immunization status.

  1. Roughness of human enamel surface submitted to different prophylaxis methods.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Gisela Muassab; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Fava, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate alterations in the surface roughness and micromorphology of human enamel submitted to three prophylaxis methods. Sixty-nine caries-free molars with exposed labial surfaces were divided into three groups. Group I was treated with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and a mixture of water and pumice; group II with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and prophylaxis paste Herjos-F (Vigodent S/A Indústria e Comércio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); and group III with sodium bicarbonate spray Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante Indústrias Médico Odontológicas Ltda, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). All procedures were performed by the same operator for 10 s, and samples were rinsed and stored in distilled water Pre and post-treatment surface evaluation was completed using a surface profilometer (Perthometer S8P, Marh, Perthen, Germany) in 54 samples. In addition, the other samples were coated with gold and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this study were statistically analyzed with the paired t-test (Student), the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Dunn (5%) test. The sodium bicarbonate spray led to significantly rougher surfaces than the pumice paste. The use of prophylaxis paste showed no statistically significant difference when compared with the other methods. Based on SEM analysis, the sodium bicarbonate spray presented an irregular surface with granular material and erosions. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there was an increased enamel surface roughness when teeth were treated with sodium bicarbonate spray when compared with teeth treated with pumice paste.

  2. Thromboembolic Complications and Prophylaxis Patterns in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of colorectal surgery, but its incidence is unclear in the era of VTE prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of and risk factors associated with thromboembolic complications and contemporary VTE prophylaxis patterns following colorectal surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective data from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) linked to a statewide hospital discharge database. At 52 Washington State SCOAP hospitals, participants included consecutive patients undergoing colorectal surgery between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Venous thromboembolism complications in-hospital and up to 90 days after surgery. RESULTS Among 16 120 patients (mean age, 61.4 years; 54.5% female), the use of perioperative and in-hospital VTE chemoprophylaxis increased significantly from 31.6% to 86.4% and from 59.6% to 91.4%, respectively, by 2011 (P < .001 for trend for both). Overall, 10.6% (1399 of 13 230) were discharged on a chemoprophylaxis regimen. The incidence of VTE was 2.2% (360 of 16 120). Patients undergoing abdominal operations had higher rates of 90-day VTE compared with patients having pelvic operations (2.5% [246 of 9702] vs 1.8% [114 of 6413], P = .001). Those having an operation for cancer had a similar incidence of 90-day VTE compared with those having an operation for nonmalignant processes (2.1% [128 of 6213] vs 2.3% [232 of 9902], P = .24). On adjusted analysis, older age, nonelective surgery, history of VTE, and operations for inflammatory disease were associated with increased risk of 90-day VTE (P < .05 for all). There was no significant decrease in VTE over time. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Venous thromboembolism rates are low and largely unchanged despite increases in perioperative and postoperative prophylaxis. These data should be considered in developing future guidelines. PMID:26060977

  3. Cost-effectiveness of rabies post exposure prophylaxis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Nahid; Esmaelzade, Firooz; Mirahmadizadeh, Alireza; Keshavarz, Khosro; Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Afsar Kazerooni, Parvin; Ataollahi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    The rabies is one of the most important officially-known viral zoonotic diseases for its global distribution, outbreak, high human and veterinary costs, and high death rate and causes high economic costs in different countries of the world every year. The rabies is the deadliest disease and if the symptoms break out in a person, one will certainly die. However, the deaths resulting from rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis. To do so, in Iran and most of the countries in the world, all the people who are exposed to animal bite receive Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) treatment. The present survey aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of PEP in southern Iran. The present study estimated the PEP costs from the government`s Perspective with step-down method for the people exposed to animal bite, estimated the number of DALYs prevented by PEP in the individuals using decision Tree model, and computed the Incremental cost-effectiveness Ratio. The information collected of all reported animal bite cases (n=7111) in Fars Province, who referred rabies registries in urban and rural health centers to receive active care. Performing the PEP program cost estimated 1,052,756.1 USD for one  year and the estimated cost for the treatment of each animal bite case and each prevented death was 148.04 and 5945.42 USD, respectively. Likewise 4,509.82 DALYs were prevented in southern Iran in 2011 by PEP program. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for each DALY was estimated to be 233.43 USD. In addition to its full effectiveness in prophylaxis from rabies, PEP program saves the financial resources of the society, as well. This study showed performing PEP to be more cost-effective.

  4. Compliance with mechanical venous thromboproembolism prophylaxis after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Palmerola, Katherine L; Brock, Clifton O; D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M

    2016-10-01

    Universal perioperative mechanical thromboprophylaxis is recommended for patients undergoing cesarean delivery because of increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with this mode of delivery. While research supports clinical benefits from this approach, other specialties have demonstrated suboptimal compliance with prophylaxis device use. The objective of this study was to review patient compliance with sequential compression devices (SCDs). This cross-sectional observational study utilized data from a prospective quality assurance analysis to evaluate demographic, medical and obstetrical factors associated with postoperative SCD compliance after cesarean delivery. Observations were performed before 7 a.m. on the first postoperative day, a time point when patients were unlikely to be fully ambulatory and would most benefit from device use. The reason for failure was documented in cases where the device was not being properly used. Two hundred and ninety-three patients underwent cesarean delivery, had SCD compliance assessed and were included in the analysis. Twenty one percent of patients (n=60) were non-compliant with SCD use. Reasons for noncompliance included patient discomfort, machine malfunction and incorrect device use. Patients who were non-compliant had similar risk factors for thromboembolism compared to women who were compliant. Although SCD's are effective in preventing thromboembolism, device use was suboptimal in this cohort of post-cesarean patients. These findings are similar to those from other fields. For institutions that rely primarily on mechanical thromboprophylaxis for obstetric patients, quality assurance and auditing of use may be necessary to ensure patients are receiving adequate prophylaxis. For post-cesarean patients with additional VTE risk factors, pharmacologic prophylaxis may be beneficial.

  5. Dental Prophylaxis and Osteoradionecrosis: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, C T; Liu, S P; Muo, C H; Tsai, C H; Huang, Y F

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of different dental prophylactic modalities and osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and determine the risk of ORN under different timing periods of scaling, with the use chlorhexidine mouth rinse after surgery and with different strategies of fluoride gel application in head and neck cancer (HNC) participants. A cohort of 18,231 HNC participants, including 941 ORN patients and 17,290 matched control cases, were enrolled from a Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for Catastrophic Illness Patients (LHID-CIP) in Taiwan. Based on different dental prophylactic modalities before radiotherapy, including chlorhexidine mouth rinse, scaling, and fluoride gel, all HNC subjects were stratified into different groups. The Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compare ORN incidences under different dental prophylactic modalities. The results revealed that scaling and chlorhexidine mouth rinse were significantly related to ORN risk ( P = 0.004 and P < 0.0001). Chlorhexidine mouth rinse was highly correlated to ORN occurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83-2.66), as exposure increased the risk by 2.43-fold among oral cancer patients, regardless of whether they had received major oral surgery or not. Oral cancer patients receiving scaling within 2 wk before radiotherapy increased their incidence of ORN by 1.28-fold compared with patients who had not undergone scaling within 6 mo. There is no significance of fluoride application for dental prophylaxis in increasing ORN occurrence. In conclusion, dental prophylaxis before radiotherapy is strongly correlated to ORN in HNC patients. Chlorhexidine exposure and dental scaling within 2 wk before radiotherapy is significantly related to ORN risk, especially in oral cancer patients. The use of 1.1% NaF topical application did not significantly increase the risk of ORN in HNC patients. An optimal dental prophylaxis protocol to reduce ORN should concern cancer location, cautious prescription

  6. From prophylaxis to atomic cocktail: circulation of radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a history of iodine. To trace the trajectory of this element, goiter is used as a guideline for the articulation of a historical account, as a representation of thyroid disorders and of the spaces of knowledge and practices related to iodine. Iodine's journey from goiter treatment and prophylaxis in the late interwar period took on a new course after WWII by including the element's radioactive isotopes. I intend to show how the introduction of radioiodine contributed to stabilize the epistemic role of iodine, in both its non-radioactive and radioactive form, in thyroid gland studies and in the treatment of its disorders.

  7. Acute Pharmacological DVT Prophylaxis after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Casha, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed to address pertinent clinical questions regarding deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Deep vein thromboses are a common occurrence following SCI. Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) within 72 h of injury is recommended to minimize the occurrence of DVT. Furthermore, when surgical intervention is required, LMWH should be held the morning of surgery, and resumed within 24 h post-operatively. PMID:20795870

  8. Nonadherence to Primary Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Heffelfinger, James D.; Voetsch, Andrew C.; Nakamura, Glenn V.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; McNaghten, A. D.; Huang, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the effectiveness of prophylaxis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) continues to be the most common serious opportunistic infection among HIV-infected persons. We describe factors associated with nonadherence to primary PCP prophylaxis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 2000–2004 data from the Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) project, a cross-sectional interview project of HIV-infected persons ≥18 years conducted in 18 states. We limited the analysis to persons who denied having prior PCP, reported having a current prescription to prevent PCP, and answered the question “In the past 30 days, how often were you able to take the PCP medication(s) exactly the way your doctor told you to take them?” We used multivariable logistic regression to describe factors associated with nonadherence. Of 1,666 subjects prescribed PCP prophylaxis, 305 (18.3%) were nonadherent. Persons were more likely to be nonadherent if they reported using marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–2.4), non-injection drugs other than marijuana (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), or injection drugs (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3–4.1) in the past year; their mental health was “not good” for ≥1 day during the past month (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.2); their most recent CD4 count was <200 cells/μL (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2); or taking ART usually (aOR = 9.6, 95% CI = 6.7–13.7) or sometimes/rarely/never (aOR = 18.4, 95% CI = 11.1–30.4), compared with always, as prescribed. Conclusion/Significance Providers should inquire about and promote strategies to improve adherence to PCP prophylaxis, particularly among persons who use illicit drugs, have mental health issues, and who are not compliant with ART to reduce the occurrence of PCP. PMID:19319199

  9. [Prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced vomiting and nausea].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Judit; Szántó, János

    2008-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced vomiting and nausea is the most common adverse event of anticancer therapy. In different guide-lines (MASCC, NCCN, ESMO and ASCO) antiemetic prophylaxis is directed toward the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy and the type of vomiting and nausea. Chemotherapeutic agents are classified into four emetic risk groups: high, moderate, low, and minimal. Steroids, dexamethasone, metoclopramide, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron) and a new group of antiemetics, the neurokinin1 receptor antagonists are used to prevent anticipatory, acute and delayed vomiting and nausea. This paper examines evidence-based recommendations for optimal use of antiemetics.

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis adequacy in knee arthroplasty and surgical wound infection: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Del-Moral-Luque, J A; Checa-García, A; López-Hualda, Á; Villar-Del-Campo, M C; Martínez-Martín, J; Moreno-Coronas, F J; Montejo-Sancho, J; Rodríguez-Caravaca, G

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is the most suitable tool for preventing surgical wound infection. This study evaluated adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery for knee arthroplasty and its effect on surgical site infection. Prospective cohort study. We assessed the degree of adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis, the causes of non-adequacy, and the effect of non-adequacy on surgical site infection. Incidence of surgical site infection was studied after a maximum incubation period of a year. To assess the effect of prophylaxis non-adequacy on surgical site infection we used the relative risk adjusted with the aid of a logistic regression model. The study covered a total of 1749 patients. Antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated in all patients and administered in 99.8% of cases, with an overall protocol adequacy of 77.6%. The principal cause of non-compliance was the duration of prescription of the antibiotics (46.5%). Cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 1.43%. No relationship was found between prophylaxis adequacy and surgical infection (RR=1.15; 95% CI: .31-2.99) (P>.05). Surveillance and infection control programs enable risk factors of infection and improvement measures to be assessed. Monitoring infection rates enables us to reduce their incidence. Adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis was high but could be improved. We did not find a relationship between prophylaxis adequacy and surgical site infection rate. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  12. Pharmacological Thromboembolic Prophylaxis in Traumatic Brain Injuries: Low Molecular Weight Heparin Is Superior to Unfractionated Heparin.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Elizabeth; Recinos, Gustavo; Aiolfi, Alberto; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is superior to unfractionated heparin (UH) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Pharmacological VTE prophylaxis with LMWH or UH is the current standard of care in TBI. Clinical work suggests that LMWH may be more effective than UH for VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Experimental work shows that heparinoids may have neuroprotective properties. ACS TQIP database study including patients with blunt severe TBI (AIS ≥ 3), those that received LMWH or UH VTE prophylaxis. Patients with severe extracranial injuries (AIS ≥ 3), death within 72 hours, or hospital stay <48 hours were excluded. Demographic and clinical data on admission was collected, as well as head, thorax, and abdomen AIS, and timing of prophylaxis (within 48 hours, 49-72 hours, and >72 hours). Outcomes included VTE complications, mortality, and unplanned return to the operating room. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare outcomes between patients receiving LMWH and UH. Overall, 20,417 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study, 10,018 (49.1%) received LMWH and 10,399 (50.9%) UH. Multivariate analysis showed that LMWH was an independent protective factor against mortality and thromboembolic complications, regardless of timing of prophylaxis initiation. The type of prophylaxis had no effect on the need for unplanned return to the operating room. LMWH prophylaxis in severe TBI is associated with better survival and lower thromboembolic complications than UH.

  13. Pneumocystis carinii mutations associated with sulfa and sulfone prophylaxis failures in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W; Meshnick, S; Kazanjian, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mutations in two amino acid positions of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene are significantly more common in immunocompromised patients with P. carinii pneumonia who fail sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis. This paper reviews the studies that suggest that these mutations may be responsible for some failures of prophylaxis in P. carinii.

  14. Infective endocarditis prophylaxis: current practice trend among paediatric cardiologists: are we following the 2007 guidelines?

    PubMed

    Naik, Ronak J; Patel, Neil R; Wang, Ming; Shah, Nishant C

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the American Heart Association modified the infective endocarditis prophylaxis guidelines by limiting the use of antibiotics in patients with cardiac conditions associated with the highest risk of adverse outcomes after infective endocarditis. Our objective was to evaluate current practice for infective endocarditis prophylaxis among paediatric cardiologists. A web-based survey focussing on current practice, describing the use of antibiotics for infective endocarditis prophylaxis in various congenital and acquired heart diseases, was distributed via e-mail to paediatric cardiologists. The survey was kept anonymous and was distributed twice. Data from 253 participants were analysed. Most paediatric cardiologists discontinued infective endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with simple lesions such as small ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and bicuspid aortic valve without stenosis or regurgitation; however, significant disagreement persists in prescribing infective endocarditis prophylaxis in certain conditions such as rheumatic heart disease, Fontan palliation without fenestration, and the Ross procedure. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in certain selected conditions for which infective endocarditis prophylaxis has been indicated as per the current guidelines varies from 44 to 83%. Only 44% follow the current guidelines exclusively, and 34% regularly discuss the importance of oral hygiene with their patients at risk for infective endocarditis. Significant heterogeneity still persists in recommending infective endocarditis prophylaxis for several cardiac lesions among paediatric cardiologists. More than half of the participants (56%) do not follow the current guidelines exclusively in their practice. Counselling for optimal oral health in patients at risk for infective endocarditis needs to be optimised in the current practice.

  15. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of active-passive prophylaxis and antiviral prophylaxis during pregnancy to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F; Murphy, Trudy V

    2016-05-01

    In an era of antiviral treatment, reexamination of the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in the United States is needed. We used a decision tree and Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current U.S. strategy and two alternatives: (1) Universal hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) strategy: No pregnant women are screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). All infants receive HepB before hospital discharge; no infants receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG). (2) Current strategy: All pregnant women are screened for HBsAg. Infants of HBsAg-positive women receive HepB and HBIG ≤12 hours of birth. All other infants receive HepB before hospital discharge. (3) Antiviral prophylaxis strategy: All pregnant women are screened for HBsAg. HBsAg-positive women have HBV-DNA load measured. Antiviral prophylaxis is offered for 4 months starting in the third trimester to women with DNA load ≥10(6) copies/mL. HepB and HBIG are administered at birth to infants of HBsAg-positive women, and HepB is administered before hospital discharge to infants of HBsAg-negative women. Effects were measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Compared to the universal HepB strategy, the current strategy prevented 1,006 chronic HBV infections and saved 13,600 QALYs (ICER: $6,957/QALY saved). Antiviral prophylaxis dominated the current strategy, preventing an additional 489 chronic infections, and saving 800 QALYs and $2.8 million. The results remained robust over a wide range of assumptions. The current U.S. strategy for preventing perinatal HBV remains cost-effective compared to the universal HepB strategy. An antiviral prophylaxis strategy was cost saving compared to the current strategy and should be considered to continue to decrease the burden of perinatal hepatitis B in the United States. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public

  17. Nuclear detonation, thyroid cancer and potassium iodide prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    The recent nuclear disaster at Japan has raised global concerns about effects of radioactive leakage in the environment, associated hazards, and how they can be prevented. In this article, we have tried to explain about the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization for a potassium iodide prophylaxis following a nuclear disaster, and its mechanism of action in preventing thyroid cancer. Data was collected mainly from the studies carried out during the Chernobyl disaster of Russia in 1986 and the hazardous effects especially on the thyroid gland were studied. It was seen that radioactive iodine leakage from the nuclear plants mainly affected the thyroid gland, and especially children were at a higher risk at developing the cancers. Potassium Iodide prophylaxis can be administered in order to prevent an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancers in the population of an area affected by a nuclear disaster. However, one has to be cautious while giving it, as using it without indication has its own risks. PMID:21731865

  18. Cost analyses of extended prophylaxis with enoxaparin after hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R J; Dunsworth, G A

    2000-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic complications occur in 50% to 70% of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty if no prophylactic regimen is used. Because enoxaparin and warfarin are useful for extended outpatient prophylaxis, the objective of this study was to determine which of these agents is most cost effective in preventing venous thromboembolic complications. A decision tree analysis was developed to simulate a hypothetical cohort of patients with total hip arthroplasty. The analysis considered home health care services to perform monitoring and compliance verification. Accounting for prophylactic failures and treatment complications, results showed that enoxaparin maintained a cost effective advantage over warfarin for extended prophylaxis in the time after discharge and total hip arthroplasty ranging from 19 to 31 days after the patient was discharged from the hospital. The duration of cost effectiveness of enoxaparin was reduced to 14 to 17 days when home care services were excluded. These results indicated that approximately 3 weeks of outpatient therapy with enoxaparin is cost effective. With the cornerstone of managed care being cost efficiency in the provision of quality care, this conclusion warrants the development of integrated care strategies for the patient having orthopaedic surgery to achieve cost effective patient management.

  19. The economics of hemodialysis catheter-related infection prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kosa, S Daisy; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with the highest morbidity, mortality, and cost of all types of hemodialysis vascular access. CVC-related infection drives much of the cost associated with CVC use. The magnitude of the cost associated with CVC-related infection varies depending on the type and severity of that infection; however, estimates of the total direct and indirect costs associated with hospitalizations due to hemodialysis CVC-related infections range from 17,000 USD to 32,000 USD per episode. Thus, it is critically important, to not only have effective strategies to limit CVC-related infection but also evaluate whether these strategies are an efficient use of resources. Prophylactic strategies can be considered economically efficient only if the value of its implementation and the corresponding drop in infection rate offer greater value than standard care. The optimal CVC-related infection prophylaxis strategy should work to limit infection risk with minimal risk, inconvenience, and discomfort to the patient, and at minimal cost. The aim of this review was to examine the clinical and economic impact of some commonly described interventions used for CVC infection prophylaxis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A New Approach to the Prophylaxis of Cyclic Vomiting: Topiramate

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Oya B; Sezer, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate and propranolol in preventing pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome. Methods A retrospective medical-record review of patients who underwent prophylaxis after receiving a diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome was performed. Patients who completed at least 12 months of treatment were included in the analysis. Responder rate, and adverse-event rates were also calculated from all patients. Response to treatment was assessed as the total number of vomiting attacks per year. Patients in whom the frequency of vomiting attack reduced greater or equal to 50% were defined as responders, and the remaining patients were classified as nonresponders. Results A total of 38 patients who were treated prophylactically with either topiramate (16 patients) or propranolol (22 patients) were identified. Fifty-nine percent of the patients in the propranolol group and 81% of the patients in the topiramate group reported freedom from attacks. A decrease of more than 50% in attacks per year occurred in 23% of patients in the propranolol group and 13% of patients in the topiramate group. The responder rates were 81% for propranolol group and 94% for topiramate group (P = 0.001). Despite minor adverse effects (drowsiness, nervousness, and dizziness) observed in a few patients, the adverse event rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.240). Conclusions The efficacy of topiramate was superior to propranolol for the prophylaxis of pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome. PMID:27302967

  1. Use of loteprednol for routine prophylaxis after photorefractive keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mifflin, Mark D; Leishman, Lisa L; Christiansen, Steven M; Sikder, Shameema; Hsu, Maylon; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work is to report our experience using loteprednol 0.5% for routine prophylaxis after photorefractive keratectomy in an academic refractive surgery center. Materials and methods Photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 579 eyes from 316 patients in this retrospective chart review of patients treated postoperatively with either fluorometholone 0.1% (273 eyes) or loteprednol 0.5% (306 eyes). Primary outcome measures at 6 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and manifest refraction spherical equivalent. Secondary outcome measures were incidence of corneal haze and increased intraocular pressure. Results There were no statistically significant differences in preoperative characteristics between the two groups when comparing age, sex, best-corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent, or keratometry. Both groups achieved excellent visual outcomes, with a mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR) of 0.004 ± 1.4 in the fluorometholone group and −0.028 ± 1.1 in the loteprednol group (P = 0.013) at 6 months. Postoperative corneal haze and increased intraocular pressure were uncommon and not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion Loteprednol 0.5% performed similarly to fluorometholone 0.1% when used for prophylaxis following photorefractive keratectomy. The incidence of haze and increased intraocular pressure were similar between the two groups. PMID:22570546

  2. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-04-15

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3-4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

  3. [SELENIUM EFFICIENCY IN PROPHYLAXIS AND COMPLEX TREATMENT OF DIFFUSE GOITER].

    PubMed

    Osadtsiv, O I; Kravchenko, V I; Andrusyshyna, I M

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of the combined prophylaxis and treatment of a diffuse goiter by preparations of sele- nium and iodine at 54 patients--men at the age of 41-50 years with the diagnosis of a diffuse goiter of 1st and 2nd degree was investigated. The diagnosis of a diffuse goiter was based on palpatory and ultrasonic research of the thyroid gland, which volume was compared with a body surface area. All surveyed have been divided into three groups. Patients of the first group accepted preparations of selenium and the iodine throughout three months, the second group--iodine preparations, in control group only dynamic supervision was spent. Thyroid gland volume at men who constantly used iodated salt and had no palpatory signs of a goiter was also measured for control. In the group which members accepted selenium and iodine preparations, at 11,8 % of patients was noted reduction of thyroid volume to normal and was revealed more expressed reduction of thyroid volume (for 2.15 sm3/M2 ± 0.07 sm3/M2), than at monotherapy by iodine preparations (for 0.92 sm3/M2 ± 0.17 sm3/M2). The conclusion was made that it is possible to recommend selenium preparations in a dose of 100 mkg a day together with preparations of iodine for prophylaxis and treatment of a diffuse goiter in conditions of the combined insufficiency in consumption of selenium and light deficiency of iodine.

  4. Pharmacologic Considerations for Preexposure Prophylaxis in Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Reirden, Daniel; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC)–based preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not focused on transgendered women who are at disproportionate risk of HIV acquisition. Concerns exist for drug interactions between cross-sex therapy (estradiol, progestins, and spironolactone) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine. This review assessed the experimental and theoretical risk for such drug interactions. It was found that none of these medications are implicated as major perpetrators of drug interactions, and the classes use different metabolic pathways for clearance, suggesting a low likelihood for interactions in either direction. Subanalyses of transgender women in Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative suggested PrEP efficacy if adherence was high. Nevertheless, several research gaps were identified, particularly the need for controlled interaction studies in transgendered women, including effects on renal clearance, intracellular tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate in target cells, as well as hormone effects on HIV susceptibility and immunity. PrEP should continue to be offered to transgender women while additional research is planned or pending. PMID:27429188

  5. Long term outcome of prophylaxis for febrile convulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, F U; Paerregaard, A; Andersen, R; Andresen, J

    1996-01-01

    A cohort of 289 children with febrile convulsions who had been randomised in early childhood to either intermittent prophylaxis (diazepam at fever) or no prophylaxis (diazepam at seizures) was followed up 12 years later. The study focused on the occurrence of epilepsy and on neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic achievements in the cohort. At follow up the two groups were of almost identical age (14.0 v 14.1 years), body weight (58.2 v 57.2 kg), height (168.2 v 167.7 cm), and head circumference (55.9 v 56.2 cm). The occurrence of epilepsy (0.7% v 0.8%), neurological examination, fine and gross motor development on the Stott motor test, intellectual performance on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children verbal IQ (105 v 105), performance IQ (114 v 111), and full scale IQ (110 v 108), cognitive abilities on a neuropsychological test battery, including short and long term, auditory and visual memory, visuomotor tempo, computer reaction time, reading test, and scholastic achievement were also very similar. Children with simple and complex febrile convulsions had the same benign outcome. The long term prognosis in terms of subsequent epilepsy, neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic ability was not influenced by the type of treatment applied in early childhood. Preventing new febrile convulsions appears no better in the long run than abbreviating them. PMID:8660037

  6. Pentamidine aerosol for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after BMT.

    PubMed

    Link, H; Vöhringer, H F; Wingen, F; Brägas, B; Schwardt, A; Ehninger, G

    1993-05-01

    Following BMT there is a 5-15% risk of interstitial pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii (PcP). Cotrimoxazole is therefore administered prophylactically, but may cause myelodepression, allergic reactions and nephrotoxicity. As PcP prophylaxis with pentamidine aerosol is effective in patients with AIDS, we conducted a prospective trial with regular inhalations of pentamidine. The aim of this study was to evaluate toxicity, safety, practicability and possible resorption of aerosolized pentamidine. We treated 31 allogeneic and 12 autologous BMT patients with 60 mg pentamidine 3 days before and 14 days after BMT. Starting 4 weeks after BMT, 300 mg pentamidine was given every 4 weeks for 6 months. There was no pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii. The only noteworthy side-effects were cough (19.8%), salivation (9.6%), and sore throat (5.7%), of similar frequency after allogeneic or autologous BMT. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, pentamidine could only be detected in the serum of 33-54% of patients tested. In these patients the median serum levels were 7.5-9 ng/ml. We conclude that pentamidine aerosol has only minor side-effects, is well tolerated and safe, and is therefore an attractive alternative for PcP prophylaxis after BMT.

  7. Migraine prophylaxis, ischemic depolarizations and stroke outcomes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yalcin, Nilufer; Yu, Esther Sori; Daneshmand, Ali; Wei, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Can, Anil; Sengul, Buse; Ferrari, Michel D.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Ayata, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Migraine with aura is an established stroke risk factor, and excitatory mechanisms such as spreading depression are implicated in the pathogenesis of both migraine and stroke. Spontaneous spreading depression waves originate within the peri-infarct tissue and exacerbate the metabolic mismatch during focal cerebral ischemia. Genetically enhanced spreading depression susceptibility facilitates anoxic depolarizations and peri-infarct spreading depressions and accelerates infarct growth, suggesting that susceptibility to spreading depression is a critical determinant of vulnerability to ischemic injury. Because chronic treatment with migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses spreading depression susceptibility, we tested whether migraine prophylaxis can also suppress ischemic depolarizations and improve stroke outcome. Methods We measured the cortical susceptibility to spreading depression and ischemic depolarizations, and determined tissue and neurological outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion in wild type and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 knock-in mice treated with vehicle, topiramate or lamotrigine daily for 7 weeks or as a single dose shortly before testing. Results Chronic treatment with topiramate or lamotrigine reduces the susceptibility to KCl- or electrical stimulation-induced spreading depressions as well as ischemic depolarizations in both wild-type and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice. Consequently, both tissue and neurological outcomes are improved. Notably, treatment with a single dose of either drug is ineffective. Conclusions These data underscore the importance of hyperexcitability as a mechanism for increased stroke risk in migraineurs, and suggest that migraine prophylaxis may not only prevent migraine attacks but also protect migraineurs against ischemic injury. PMID:25424478

  8. Migraine prophylaxis, ischemic depolarizations, and stroke outcomes in mice.

    PubMed

    Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yalcin, Nilufer; Yu, Esther S; Daneshmand, Ali; Wei, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Can, Anil; Sengul, Buse; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Migraine with aura is an established stroke risk factor, and excitatory mechanisms such as spreading depression (SD) are implicated in the pathogenesis of both migraine and stroke. Spontaneous SD waves originate within the peri-infarct tissue and exacerbate the metabolic mismatch during focal cerebral ischemia. Genetically enhanced SD susceptibility facilitates anoxic depolarizations and peri-infarct SDs and accelerates infarct growth, suggesting that susceptibility to SD is a critical determinant of vulnerability to ischemic injury. Because chronic treatment with migraine prophylactic drugs suppresses SD susceptibility, we tested whether migraine prophylaxis can also suppress ischemic depolarizations and improve stroke outcome. We measured the cortical susceptibility to SD and ischemic depolarizations, and determined tissue and neurological outcomes after middle cerebral artery occlusion in wild-type and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 knock-in mice treated with vehicle, topiramate or lamotrigine daily for 7 weeks or as a single dose shortly before testing. Chronic treatment with topiramate or lamotrigine reduced the susceptibility to KCl-induced or electric stimulation-induced SDs as well as ischemic depolarizations in both wild-type and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice. Consequently, both tissue and neurological outcomes were improved. Notably, treatment with a single dose of either drug was ineffective. These data underscore the importance of hyperexcitability as a mechanism for increased stroke risk in migraineurs, and suggest that migraine prophylaxis may not only prevent migraine attacks but also protect migraineurs against ischemic injury. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten H

    2016-04-01

    Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is considered standard of care in the majority of critically ill patients in the ICU. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of SUP in ICU patients, including data on the prevalence of gastrointestinal bleeding and the balance between benefits and harms of SUP. The prevalence of overt gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients is in the area of 5%. Consistent risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified, but indications for SUP vary considerably. SUP is used in three out of four critically ill patients, most frequently in the form of proton pump inhibitors. A recent systematic review of SUP vs. placebo or no prophylaxis in critically ill patients highlights the lack of evidence supporting the use of SUP. Importantly, data suggest potential harm, including increased risk of nosocomial infections and cardiovascular events. The prevalence of gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill patients in the ICU is low, the prognostic importance is ambiguous, and SUP is widely used. The balance between benefits and harms of SUP is unknown, and clinical equipoise exists. High-quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews assessing benefits and harms of SUP in ICU patients are highly warranted.

  10. A national audit of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vasireddy, A; Nehra, D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic surgeons in Great Britain and Ireland were surveyed to assess their use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This followed a Cochrane review that found no evidence to support the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in routine cases. Methods Data were collected on routine use of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and how that was influenced by factors such as bile spillage, patient co-morbidities and surgeons’ experience. An online questionnaire was sent to 450 laparoscopic surgeons in December 2011. Results Data were received from 111 surgeons (87 consultants) representing over 7,000 cases per year. In routine cases without bile spillage, 64% of respondents gave no antibiotics and 36% gave a single dose. In cases with bile spillage, 11% gave no antibiotics. However, 80% gave one dose and 7% gave three doses. Co-amoxiclav was used by 75% of surgeons. Surgeons are more likely to give antibiotics when patients have risk factors for infective endocarditis. Conclusions This study suggests over 20,000 doses of antibiotics and over £100,000 could be saved annually if surgeons modified their practice to follow current guidelines. PMID:24992423

  11. Preliminary consultation on preferred product characteristics of benzathine penicillin G for secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Boyd, Ben J; Colquhoun, Samantha; Currie, Bart J; Engel, Mark; Kado, Joseph; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sullivan, Mark; Saxena, Anita; Sheel, Meru; Steer, Andrew; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Zühlke, Liesl; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatic fever is caused by an abnormal immune reaction to group A streptococcal infection. Secondary prophylaxis with antibiotics is recommended for people after their initial episode of rheumatic fever to prevent recurrent group A streptococcal infections, recurrences of rheumatic fever and progression to rheumatic heart disease. This secondary prophylaxis must be maintained for at least a decade after the last episode of rheumatic fever. Benzathine penicillin G is the first line antibiotic for secondary prophylaxis, delivered intramuscularly every 2 to 4 weeks. However, adherence to recommended secondary prophylaxis regimens is a global challenge. This paper outlines a consultation with global experts in rheumatic heart disease on the characteristics of benzathine penicillin G formulations which could be changed to improve adherence with secondary prophylaxis. Characteristics included dose interval, pain, administration mechanism, cold chain independence and cost. A sample target product profile for reformulated benzathine penicillin G is presented.

  12. Maximizing appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical patients: an update from LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City.

    PubMed

    Burke, J P

    2001-09-01

    Errors in antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical patients remain one of the most frequent types of medication errors in hospitals. Failure to administer the first dose of antimicrobial prophylaxis within the 2-h window of time before incision is associated with 2- to 6-fold increases in rates of surgical site infection. Optimal use of antimicrobial prophylaxis includes proper case selection; use of appropriate agents; proper dosing, route of administration, timing, and duration; and intraoperative dosing when appropriate. Effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis also requires monitoring of and feedback on patterns of use. Programs to improve antimicrobial prophylaxis should be multidisciplinary and should aim to improve use of medications, not simply to change physician practice patterns. The LDS Hospital experience demonstrates the clinical and financial benefits of such a program and also shows the pitfalls of and great difficulties associated with changing systems of care.

  13. Comparison of mefloquine, chloroquine plus pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar), and chloroquine as malarial prophylaxis in eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, E F; Pang, L W; Chaikummao, S; Witayarut, C

    1991-06-01

    From July 1983 to March 1984 a randomized double blind prophylactic trial in Thai gem miners working across the border in Cambodia was conducted to determine the prophylactic efficacy of 3 drug regimens against P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria along the Thai-Cambodian border. Gem miners have a high incidence of malaria. Maximum duration of individual participation was 14 weeks. Of 334 participants in this study who were seen every 2 weeks, 145 received mefloquine 500 mg fortnightly, 112 received chloroquine 300 mg base weekly plus Fansidar (1000 mg sulfadoxine and 50 mg pyrimethamine) fortnightly and 77 received chloroquine as 300 mg base weekly. The significant reduction of vivax malaria in study subjects (compared to background incidence) implied good compliance with self administration of chloroquine in the intervening weeks between scheduled appointments. The attack rate in each prophylactic regimen was 2188 cases/1000/year with mefloquine, 8338 cases/1000/year with chloroquine-Fansidar and 10,207 cases/1000/year receiving chloroquine alone. There was a 79% prophylactic efficacy for mefloquine and 18% efficacy for the chloroquine plus Fansidar regimen compared to chloroquine. Using life table analysis, 56% of the mefloquine group, 6% of the chloroquine-Fansidar group and 4% of the chloroquine group were malaria free at the end of the 14 weeks study. The chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine regimen prescribed for prophylaxis is no longer effective for multidrug resistant strains of P. falciparum in the study area. This study also seriously questions the efficacy of mefloquine prophylaxis.

  14. Recommendations for reporting economic evaluations of haemophilia prophylaxis: a nominal groups consensus statement on behalf of the Economics Expert Working Group of The International Prophylaxis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A; Berger, K; Bohn, R; Carcao, M; Fischer, K; Gringeri, A; Hoots, K; Mantovani, L; Schramm, W; van Hout, B A; Willan, A R; Feldman, B M

    2008-01-01

    The need for clearly reported studies evaluating the cost of prophylaxis and its overall outcomes has been recommended from previous literature. To establish minimal ''core standards'' that can be followed when conducting and reporting economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Ten members of the IPSG Economic Analysis Working Group participated in a consensus process using the Nominal Groups Technique (NGT). The following topics relating to the economic analysis of prophylaxis studies were addressed; Whose perspective should be taken? Which is the best methodological approach? Is micro- or macro-costing the best costing strategy? What information must be presented about costs and outcomes in order to facilitate local and international interpretation? The group suggests studies on the economic impact of prophylaxis should be viewed from a societal perspective and be reported using a Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) (with consideration of also reporting Cost Benefit Analysis [CBA]). All costs that exceed $500 should be used to measure the costs of prophylaxis (macro strategy) including items such as clotting factor costs, hospitalizations, surgical procedures, productivity loss and number of days lost from school or work. Generic and disease specific quality of lífe and utility measures should be used to report the outcomes of the study. The IPSG has suggested minimal core standards to be applied to the reporting of economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Standardized reporting will facilitate the comparison of studies and will allow for more rational policy decisions and treatment choices.

  15. Vancomycin Prophylaxis for Total Joint Arthroplasty: Incorrectly Dosed and Has a Higher Rate of Periprosthetic Infection Than Cefazolin.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Michael M; Tan, Timothy L; Azboy, Ibrahim; Tan, Dean D; Parvizi, Javad

    2017-07-01

    In total joint arthroplasty (TJA), vancomycin is used as perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penicillin allergy or in patients colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although vancomycin dosing should be weight-based (15 mg/kg), not all surgeons are aware of this; a fixed 1-g dose is instead frequently administered. (1) Is there a difference in the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients receiving vancomycin or cefazolin prophylaxis after primary TJA? (2) What proportion of patients is adequately dosed with vancomycin? (3) Compared with actual fixed dosing, does weight-based dosing result in a greater proportion of patients staying above the recommended 15-mg/L level at the beginning and end of surgery? (4) Are patients overdosed with vancomycin at greater risk of developing nephrotoxicity and acute kidney injury? A single-institution, retrospective study was performed on 1828 patients undergoing primary TJAs who received vancomycin prophylaxis between 2008 and 2014. During the same period, 5810 patients underwent primary TJA and received cefazolin monotherapy. A chart review was performed to obtain patient characteristics, antibiotic dose and timing of administration, and microbiology data. Adequate vancomycin dosing was defined as 15 mg/kg and within the 125-mg range. Vancomycin levels were calculated at the beginning and end of surgery using pharmacokinetic equations. Levels of 15 mg/L were considered adequate. Logistic regression, chi square tests, and analysis of variance were performed. Among primary TJAs, patients receiving vancomycin had a higher rate of PJI (32 of 1828 [2%]) compared with patients receiving cefazolin prophylaxis (62 of 5810 [1%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.587 [1.004-2.508]; p = 0.048). Ten percent of PJIs in the vancomycin underdosed group (two of 20) was caused by MRSA, and no patients with adequate dosing or overdosing of vancomycin developed PJI with MRSA. Of all procedures

  16. Practice patterns in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in thoracic surgery: a comprehensive Canadian Delphi survey

    PubMed Central

    Agzarian, John; Linkins, Lori-Ann; Schneider, Laura; Hanna, Waël C.; Finley, Christian J.; Schieman, Colin; De Perrot, Marc; Crowther, Mark; Douketis, James

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) after resection of thoracic malignancies can reach 15%, but prophylaxis guidelines are yet to be established. We aimed to survey Canadian practitioners regarding perioperative risk factors for VTE, impact of those factors on extended prophylaxis selection, type of preferred prophylaxis, and timing of initiation and duration of thromboprophylaxis. Methods A modified Delphi survey was undertaken over three rounds with thoracic surgeons, thoracic anesthesiologists and thrombosis experts across Canada. Participants were asked to rate each parameter on a ten-point scale. Agreement was determined a priori as an item reaching a coefficient of variation of ≤30% (0.3), with the item then discontinued from later rounds. Results In total, 72, 57 and 50 respondents participated in three consecutive rounds, respectively. Consensus was reached on previous VTE, age, cancer diagnosis, thrombophilia, poor mobilization, extended resections, and pre-operative chemotherapy as risk factors. Consensus on risk factors impacting extended prophylaxis decisions was achieved on cancer diagnosis, obesity, previous VTE and poor mobilization. With respect to perioperative prophylaxis, once daily low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the only parameter that demonstrated agreement as a common practice pattern. No agreement was achieved regarding the role of mechanical prophylaxis, unfractionated heparin (UFH) or timing of initiation of peri-operative treatment. VTE prophylaxis until discharge reached agreement but there was substantial variability regarding the role of extended prophylaxis. Conclusions There is agreement between Canadian clinicians treating patients with thoracic malignancies regarding most risk factors for VTE, but there is no agreement on timing of initiation of prophylaxis, the agents used or factors mandating usage of extended prophylaxis. PMID:28203409

  17. Iranian Low-dose Escalating Prophylaxis Regimen in Children with Severe Hemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Peyman; Sadeghi, Elham; Tara, S Zahra; Habibpanah, Behnaz; Hantooshzadeh, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Establishing an appropriate prophylaxis regimen for children with hemophilia is a critical challenge in developing countries. Barriers including availability and affordability, catheter-related complications, and inhibitor development risks have led to the introduction of new tailored prophylaxis regimens in different countries. This study emphasizes on the benefits of the Iranian low-dose escalating prophylaxis regimen in a Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Center in Iran. Referred patients with hemophilia less than 15 years of age, who were subject to prophylaxis regimen, are studied retrospectively. A once-weekly prophylaxis regimen of 25 IU/kg was started for the patients primarily. Their prophylaxis regimen was changed to 25 IU/kg twice a week and then 3 times a week when they experienced 3 joint bleedings, 4 soft tissue bleedings, or a 1 life-threatening bleed without a specific trauma history. Overall, 25 patients with severe hemophilia and at least 6-month history of on-demand (OD) treatment were studied. A mean of 1754 IU/kg/yr of coagulation factors, used for OD and prophylaxis purposes, was sufficient to decrease the mean annual bleeding rate (ABR) to 1.86 after prophylaxis. It also reduced the mean hospitalization days and the mean number of target joints to 0.24 and 0.16, respectively. Overall, 19 (76%) patients were continuing their once-weekly regimen at the end of the follow-up. None of the patients needed 3-times-a-week regimen or central venous catheterization and none developed inhibitors in the follow-up. Benefits of the Iranian low-dose escalating prophylaxis regimen prove equal to some of the previous 3-times-a-week prophylaxis regimens in reducing the ABR and hospitalizations.

  18. Compliance with guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis in hip and knee arthroplasty in Italy: results of the GISIO-ISChIA project.

    PubMed

    Agodi, Antonella; Auxilia, Francesco; Barchitta, Martina; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Mura, Ida; Nobile, Marta; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2015-01-01

    The Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis (PAP) contributes considerably to the total amount of antibiotics used in hospitals and has been shown to be associated with increase in antibiotic resistance and healthcare costs. The level of compliance with the national guidelines of current practices of PAP for elective hip and knee prosthesis procedures in a network of Italian hospitals (the multicentre Surgical Site Infection surveillance project GISIO-ISChIA), has been evaluated. Compliance of the current prophylactic antibiotic practices with the published national guidelines was assessed for each included operative procedure, considering indication, timing of administration, prescribed antimicrobial agent and total duration of prophylaxis. A total of 14 hospitals and 1285 surgical procedures were included. 99.4% of patients received antimicrobial prophylaxis pre-operatively and 73.0% of patients received PAP within the recommended time period (within 60 minutes before incision). The rate of compliance with discontinuation of PAP within 24 hours after initiation of surgery was 70.2%. Taking into account all doses administered, the antibiotic was chosen appropriately in 57.7% of patients. PAP was performed appropriately, in accordance with national guidelines, in 43.6% of surgical operations. Given the increasing number of replacement procedures in Italy and in Europe, the gap between the evidence-based guidelines and practice must be appropriately addressed in order to improve PAP practices.

  19. Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing surgical-site infection in plastic surgery: an evidence-based consensus conference statement from the American Association of Plastic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Ariyan, Stephan; Martin, Janet; Lal, Avtar; Cheng, Davy; Borah, Gregory L; Chung, Kevin C; Conly, John; Havlik, Robert; Lee, W P Andrew; McGrath, Mary H; Pribaz, Julian; Young, V Leroy

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing concern for microbial resistance as a result of overuse of antibiotics. Although guidelines have focused on the use of antibiotics for surgery in general, few have addressed plastic surgery specifically. The objective of this expert consensus conference was to evaluate the evidence for efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in plastic surgical procedures. THE AUTHORS: searched for existing high-quality systematic reviews for antibiotic prophylaxis in the literature from the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. All synonyms for antibiotics were combined with terms for relevant plastic surgery procedures. The searches were not limited by language, and included all study designs. In addition, supplemental hand searches were performed of bibliographies of relevant articles, and extensive "related articles." Meta-analyses were performed and reviewed by experts selected by the American Association of Plastic Surgeons to reach consensus recommendations. Database searches identified 4300 articles, from which 2042 full-text articles were identified for eligibility. De novo meta-analyses were performed for each plastic surgical category. In total, 67 studies met the inclusion criteria, including nine for breast surgery, 17 for head and neck surgery, 10 for orthognathic surgery, seven for rhinoplasty/septoplasty, 19 for hand surgery, five for skin surgery, and two for abdominoplasty. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for clean breast surgery and for contaminated surgery of the hand or the head and neck. It is not recommended to reduce infection in clean surgical cases of the hand, skin, head and neck, or abdominoplasty.

  20. Evaluation of the duration of thromboembolic prophylaxis after high-risk orthopaedic surgery: the ETHOS observational study.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, David; Arcelus, Juan I; Felicissimo, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Real-life data on post-discharge venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis practices and treatments are lacking. We assessed post-operative VTE prophylaxis prescribed and received in a prospective registry, compared with the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines in high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients. Consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA), hip fracture surgery (HFS), or knee arthroplasty (KA) were enrolled at discharge from 161 centres in 17 European countries if they had received in-hospital VTE prophylaxis that was considered in accordance with the ACCP guidelines by the treating physician. Data on prescribed and actual prophylaxis were obtained from hospital charts and patient post-discharge diaries. Post-operative prophylaxis prescribed and actual prophylaxis received were considered adherent or adequate, respectively, if recommended therapies were used for ≥28 days (HFS and THA) or ≥10 days (KA). Among 4,388 patients, 69.9% were prescribed ACCP-adherent VTE prophylaxis (THA: 1,411/2,217 [63.6%]; HFS: 701/1,112 [63.0%]; KA: 955/1,059 [90.2%]). Actual prophylaxis received was described in 3,939 patients with an available diary after discharge (non-evaluability rate of 10%). Mean actual durations of pharmacological prophylaxis from surgery were: 28.4 ± 13.7 (THA), 29.3 ± 13.9 (HFS), and 28.7 ± 14.1 days (KA). ACCP-adequate VTE prophylaxis was received by 66.5% of patients (60.9% THA, 55.4% HFS, and 88.7% KA). Prophylaxis inadequacies were mainly due to inadequate prescription, non-recommended prophylaxis prescription at discharge, or too short prophylaxis prescribed. In high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients with hospital-initiated prophylaxis, there is a gap between ACCP recommendations, prescribed and actual prophylaxis received, mainly due to inadequate prescription at discharge.

  1. [Assessment of antibiotic use and impact of an intervention intended to modify the prescribing behavior in surgical prophylaxis in 6hospitals in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen; de la Garza-Camargo, Mauricio; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Carmona-González, Sandra; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Islas-Esparza, Luis Arturo; Saldaña-Flores, Gustavo; González-Cano, Juan Roberto; González-Ruvalcaba, Román; Valadez-Botello, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Montero-Cantú, Carlos Alberto; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino

    2017-01-04

    Improper use of antibiotics increases antimicrobial resistance. Evaluate the use of antibiotics and the impact of an intervention designed to improve antibiotic prescription for surgical prophylaxis in 6 hospitals of Monterrey, Mexico. Design: A prospective multicenter survey and a pretest-postest experimental study. Phase 1: Survey to evaluate the use of antibiotics through an especially designed guide. Phase 2: Intervention designed to improve antibiotic prescription for surgical prophylaxis by the medical staff by using printed, audiovisual and electronic messages. Phase 3: Survey to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Frequencies, percentages, medians, ranges and X(2) test. Phase 1: We evaluated 358 surgical patients, 274 prophylactic antibiotic regimens. A total of 96% of antibiotics regimens began with inappropriate timing (290/302), 82.8% were inappropriate regimens (274/331), 77.7% were in inappropriate dosage (230/296), 86% of inadequate length (241/280), and in 17.4% restricted antibiotics were used (52/299). Phase 2: 9 sessions including 189 physicians (14 department chairs, 58 general practitioners and 117 residents). Phase 3: We evaluated 303 surgical patients, 218 prophylactic antibiotics regimens. Inappropriate treatment commencement was reduced to 84.1% (180/214) (P<0.001), inappropriate regimens to 75.3% (162/215) (P=0.03), inappropriate dosages to 51.2% (110/215) (P<0.001), and use of restricted antibiotics to 8.3% (18/215) (P=0.003). Inappropriate use of prophylactic antibiotics in surgery is a frequent problem in Monterrey. The intervention improved the antibiotic prescription for surgical prophylaxis by reducing inappropriate treatment commencement, regimens, dosages, and overuse of restricted antibiotics. It is necessary to strengthen strategies to improve the prescription of antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV-1 drug resistance and resistance testing.

    PubMed

    Clutter, Dana S; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Shafer, Robert W

    2016-12-01

    The global scale-up of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) has led to dramatic reductions in HIV-1 mortality and incidence. However, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a potential threat to the long-term success of ART and is emerging as a threat to the elimination of AIDS as a public health problem by 2030. In this review we describe the genetic mechanisms, epidemiology, and management of HIVDR at both individual and population levels across diverse economic and geographic settings. To describe the genetic mechanisms of HIVDR, we review the genetic barriers to resistance for the most commonly used ARVs and describe the extent of cross-resistance between them. To describe the epidemiology of HIVDR, we summarize the prevalence and patterns of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance (ADR) in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We also review to two categories of HIVDR with important public health relevance: (i) pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR), a World Health Organization-recommended HIVDR surveillance metric and (ii) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-related drug resistance, a type of ADR that can impact clinical outcomes if present at the time of treatment initiation. To summarize the implications of HIVDR for patient management, we review the role of genotypic resistance testing and treatment practices in both high-income and LMIC settings. In high-income countries where drug resistance testing is part of routine care, such an understanding can help clinicians prevent virological failure and accumulation of further HIVDR on an individual level by selecting the most efficacious regimens for their patients. Although there is reduced access to diagnostic testing and to many ARVs in LMIC, understanding the scientific basis and clinical implications of HIVDR is useful in all regions in order to shape appropriate surveillance, inform treatment algorithms, and manage difficult cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  3. Adaptive innate immunity? Responsive-mode prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Yannick; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2003-01-01

    A primary infection by a parasite may indicate a higher risk of being reinfected in the near future (since infection may indicate that enemies are becoming more abundant). Acquired immunity does not exist in invertebrates despite the fact that they also face increased risks of reinfection following primary exposure. However, when subjected to immune insult, insects can produce immune responses that persist for long enough to provide prophylaxis. Because these immune responses are costly, persistence must be maintained through a selective advantage. We tested for the possibility that these long-lasting immune responses provided increased resistance to later infections by experimentally mimicking a primary immune insult (pre-challenge) in larvae of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) prior to early or late exposure to spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. We found that pre-challenged larvae produced a long-lasting antimicrobial response, which provided a survival benefit when the larvae were exposed to fungal infection. These results suggest that the observed response is functionally "adaptive". PMID:14667338

  4. Periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: benefits, risks, and challenges to implementation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Lynn T; Baeten, Jared M; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R

    2013-01-01

    HIV-serodiscordant couples face complicated choices between fulfilling reproductive desire and risking HIV transmission to their partners and children. Sexual HIV transmission can be dramatically reduced through artificial insemination and sperm washing, however most couples cannot access these resources. We propose that periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could offer an important, complementary therapy to harm reduction counseling programs that aim to decrease HIV transmission for couples who choose to conceive. In this paper we describe the potential benefits of periconception PrEP and define critical points of clarification prior to implementation of PrEP as part of a reproductive health program. We consider sexual transmission risk, current risk reduction options, PrEP efficacy, cost, adherence, resistance, fetal toxicity, and impact of PrEP counseling on entry into health services. We address PrEP in the context of other periconception HIV prevention strategies, including antiretroviral treatment of the HIV-infected partner. We conclude that, should PrEP prove safe and efficacious in ongoing trials, periconception PrEP may offer a useful approach to minimize risk of HIV transmission for individuals of reproductive age in HIV-endemic countries. PMID:20679759

  5. Vectored ImmunoProphylaxis Protects Humanized Mice from Mucosal HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Alejandro B.; Ouyang, Yong; Hong, Christin M.; Chen, Joyce; Nguyen, Steven M.; Rao, Dinesh S.; An, Dong Sung; Baltimore, David

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of new HIV infections result from relatively inefficient transmission1,2 of the virus across mucosal surfaces during sexual intercourse3. A consequence of this inefficiency is that small numbers of transmitted founder viruses initiate most heterosexual infections4. This natural bottleneck to transmission has stimulated efforts to develop interventions aimed at blocking this step of the infection process5. Despite the promise of this strategy, clinical trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis have had limited degrees of success in humans, due in part to lack of adherence to the recommended pre-exposure treatment regimens6,7. In contrast, a number of existing vaccines elicit systemic immunity that protects against mucosal infections, such as the vaccines for influenza8 and HPV9. We recently demonstrated the ability of vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) to prevent intravenous transmission of HIV using broadly neutralizing antibodies10. Here we demonstrate that VIP is capable of protecting humanized mice from intravenous as well as vaginal challenge with diverse viral strains, despite repeated exposures. Moreover, animals receiving VIP that expresses a modified VRC07 antibody were completely resistant to repetitive intravaginal challenge by a heterosexually transmitted founder HIV strain11, suggesting that VIP may be effective in preventing vaginal transmission of HIV between humans. PMID:24509526

  6. Antimicrobial delivery systems for local infection prophylaxis in orthopedic- and trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    ter Boo, Gert-Jan A; Grijpma, Dirk W; Moriarty, Thomas F; Richards, Robert G; Eglin, David

    2015-06-01

    Infectious complications occur in a minor but significant portion of the patients undergoing joint replacement surgery or fracture fixation, particularly those with severe open fractures, those undergoing revision arthroplasty or those at elevated risk because of poor health status. Once established, infections are difficult to eradicate, especially in the case of bacterial biofilm formation on implanted hardware. Local antibiotic carriers offer the prospect of controlled delivery of antibiotics directly in target tissues and implant, without inducing toxicity in non-target organs. Polymeric carriers have been developed to optimize the release and targeting of antibiotics. Passive polymeric carriers release antibiotics by diffusion and/or upon degradation, while active polymeric carriers release their antibiotics upon stimuli provided by bacterial pathogens. Additionally, some polymeric carriers gelate in-situ in response to physiological stimuli to form a depot for antibiotic release. As antibiotic resistance has become a major issue, also other anti-infectives such as silver and antimicrobial peptides have been incorporated in research. Currently, several antibiotic loaded biomaterials for local infection prophylaxis are available for use in the clinic. Here we review their advantages and limitations and provide an overview of new materials emerging that may overcome these limitations.

  7. Prophylaxis against malaria for travellers from the United Kingdom. Malaria Reference Laboratory and the Ross Institute.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D

    1993-01-01

    To provide revised guidance on malaria prevention for the medical advisers of travellers from the United Kingdom going overseas to malarious areas, a committee of those most involved in giving advice and with specialist expertise in the United Kingdom agreed a policy document. There is a need for all travellers to be aware of the risk of malaria and to take measures to avoid being bitten by anopheline mosquitos, especially at night. Chemoprophylaxis is recommended also for most malarious areas. In view of the increasing prevalence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine and proguanil, mefloquine is added to the list of recommended drugs for more areas than in the past, and is the preferred chemoprophylactic for east and central Africa. Chloroquine with proguanil continues to be widely appropriate. Detailed recommendations are given for each country. Travellers out of reach of prompt medical assistance are advised to carry treatment doses of a standby drug: halofantrine, Fansidar, or quinine. The need for full compliance with any regimen is emphasised. No prophylaxis is totally effective. Malaria must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any fever in someone who has visited an endemic area within the past year. PMID:8499856

  8. The effect of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines on surgical-site infections associated with cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Bjørnholt, Jørgen V; Gran, Jon M; Erisken, Hanne-Merete

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of Norwegian antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines on rates of superficial and deep surgical-site infections (SSIs) associated with cesarean delivery (CD). A cross-sectional study was conducted that analyzed the physician-diagnosed SSIs by regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis among women who underwent planned or emergency CD at one of 42 hospitals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. The antibiotic prophylaxis regimen was verified using a hospital survey, whereas guideline compliance was assessed as part of the mandatory Norwegian Surveillance System for Healthcare-Associated Infections. Data for 4498 patients were used. Hospitals that practiced antibiotic prophylaxis for all CDs (n=4) provided antibiotics more often in both emergency and planned CDs than did those that used this approach for emergency CDs only (n=33) or had no written guidelines or used prophylaxis on indication only (n=5) (P<0.001). The provision of antibiotic prophylaxis for all cases of CD was associated with markedly lowered rates of superficial SSIs among planned CDs, whereas no differences in rates of deep SSIs were observed between the guidelines in either planned or emergency CDs. Hospitals that provided antibiotic prophylaxis to all women undergoing CD reported high compliance and had reduced rates of superficial SSIs among planned CDs. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Adherence to and satisfaction with oral outpatient thromboembolism prophylaxis compared to parenteral: SALTO study].

    PubMed

    Peidro-Garcés, L; Otero-Fernandez, R; Lozano-Lizarraga, L

    2013-01-01

    Prolongation of drug-based thromboembolism prophylaxis after discharge from hospital is clearly recommended following total hip and knee replacement. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare adherence to and satisfaction with outpatient thromboembolism prophylaxis (by injection and oral) under routine clinical practice conditions. We analysed two consecutive cohorts of patients (480 and 366, respectively) who had undergone total hip or knee replacement surgery in 120 Spanish hospitals, and were prescribed outpatient thromboembolism prophylaxis, by injection and orally, respectively. Information on adherence to and satisfaction with both treatments, sociodemographic data and treatment compliance was collected using specific questionnaires. The drop-out rate (9.49 vs. 4.14%), general satisfaction (37 vs. 83.38%), and the TSQM satisfaction scale were better in the oral prophylaxis cohort and, although the differences between the two routes of administration were not significant, treatment compliance was also better in the oral cohort (Morisky-Green test: 53.49 vs. 59.05%). Adherence to and satisfaction with the oral thromboembolism prophylaxis were better than for prophylaxis by injection in the context of outpatient prolongation. Nevertheless, suboptimal treatment compliance was found in both cohorts, which could result in lack of efficacy of the prophylaxis. Both patients and doctors have to be made aware of the importance of post-discharge extension of thromboprophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery with high thrombotic risk. Moreover, strategies should be developed to encourage compliance. Copyright © 2012 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a medical-surgical ICU.

    PubMed

    Ryskamp, R P; Trottier, S J

    1998-01-01

    To assess the utilization of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in a medical-surgical ICU. Prospective cohort study. A closed (mandatory critical care consult) medical-surgical ICU of a large community teaching hospital. The medical records of consecutive medical-surgical ICU admissions were evaluated by a single investigator during a 3-month period. Risk factors for VTE and the type and timing of VTE prophylaxis were recorded. Of 308 admissions evaluated, 209 were included in the study. VTE prophylaxis was administered within the first 24 h of ICU admission to 179 of the 209 study patients or 86%. Fifty-three percent (n=111) were surgical patients and 47% (n=98) were medical patients. The study patients had an average of 4.4 risk factors for VTE. Thirty study patients (14%) did not receive VTE prophylaxis. Eighty-six percent of the medical-surgical patients included in this study received VTE prophylaxis. The utilization of VTE prophylaxis described in this study is higher compared to previously published data. The nature of physician coverage in our medical-surgical ICU (closed unit), consistent practice patterns of a designated ICU staff, and a continuing medical education program involving VTE prophylaxis are the factors believed to be responsible for these results.

  11. Fosfomycin Addition to Poly(D,L-Lactide) Coating Does Not Affect Prophylaxis Efficacy in Rat Implant-Related Infection Model, But That of Gentamicin Does

    PubMed Central

    Yorukoglu, Ali Cagdas; Kaleli, Ilknur; Bir, Ferda

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin is the preferred antimicrobial agent used in implant coating for the prevention of implant-related infections (IRI). However, the present heavy local and systemic administration of gentamicin can lead to increased resistance, which has made its future use uncertain, together with related preventive technologies. Fosfomycin is an alternative antimicrobial agent that lacks the cross-resistance presented by other classes of antibiotics. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis of 10% fosfomycin-containing poly(D,L-lactide) (PDL) coated K-wires in a rat IRI model and compared it with uncoated (Control 1), PDL-coated (Control 2), and 10% gentamicin-containing PDL-coated groups with a single layer of coating. Stainless steel K-wires were implanted and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300) suspensions (103 CFU/10 μl) were injected into a cavity in the left tibiae. Thereafter, K-wires were removed and cultured in tryptic soy broth and then 5% sheep blood agar mediums. Sliced sections were removed from the tibiae, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and semi-quantitatively evaluated with X-rays. The addition of fosfomycin into PDL did not affect the X-ray and histopathological evaluation scores; however, the addition of gentamicin lowered them. The addition of gentamicin showed a protective effect after the 28th day of X-ray evaluations. PDL-only coating provided no protection, while adding fosfomycin to PDL offered a 20% level protection and adding gentamicin offered 80%. Furthermore, there were 103 CFU level growths in the gentamicin-added group, while the other groups had 105. Thus, the addition of fosfomycin to PDL does not affect the efficacy of prophylaxis, but the addition of gentamicin does. We therefore do not advise the use of fosfomycin as a single antimicrobial agent in coating for IRI prophylaxis. PMID:27806071

  12. [Single-hormone prophylaxis of uterine hemorrhages in the premenopause].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E

    1989-01-01

    Single-hormone prophylaxis with gestagen (Primolut nor) was carried out on 62 women with uterine bleedings during the premenopause of climacteric at mean age of 46.8 years. A ten-day scheme with application of 5 mg of gestagen daily from 16 to 25 day of the cycle for a period of 6 months was used. The treatment provided stable clinical characteristic of the successive pseudomenstrual cycles could continue for a considerable time practically till disappearance of pseudo-menstruation and transition of the woman in postmenopause. Primolut nor was a convenient drug also in women under continuous anticoagulant treatment. However it was effective and could not be used for treatment of accompanied climacteric symptoms.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis at IBadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, Samuel A; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2010-01-01

    HIV infection from occupational and nonoccupational exposures can be prevented through risk assessment and management with antiretroviral drug therapy (ART). This study sought to examine the pattern of presentation and outcome of clients who were given postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A retrospective review of case notes of clients presenting for HIV PEP from January 2005 to December 2006 was carried out. A total of 48 clients with a mean age of 27.9 +/- 12.3 years underwent PEP during the period under review. Rape constituted 50% of reasons for PEP, while needle pricks and blood splash into mucous membranes constituted 25% each. Among those who received therapy, 10 (23.8%) could not complete drug therapy because of side effects. Although no client was HIV positive after the recommended 6 months of follow-up, 8 (16.7%) clients did not complete attendance to the clinic during the period.

  14. Sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis in the otitis-prone child.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, R H; Puglise, J; Rodriguez, W J

    1982-01-01

    A bedtime dose of sulphamethoxazole was effective in preventing ear infections in otitis-prone young children. Thirty-three such children were studied by means of a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol. Nine (27%) of 33 children treated with sulphamethoxazole experienced 10 episodes of acute suppurative otitis media or otitis media with effusion while 19 (58%) of 33 children given a placebo experienced 27 episodes of acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion. No new episode of otitis media was observed in 11 children in whom serial urine samples uniformly had a positive response to Micrococcus lutea bioinhibition test, the method we chose to monitor compliance. Otitis media with effusion (secretory otitis media) was detected less often in the children who were given sulphamethoxazole; this fact suggests that prophylaxis with sulphamethoxazole may prevent persistent middle ear effusion in otitis-prone young children. PMID:7051984

  15. Pre-exposure prophylaxis in Southern Africa: feasible or not?

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Willem Daniel François; Cowan, Frances; Black, Vivian; Rebe, Kevin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Southern and Eastern Africa bear the brunt of the AIDS epidemic, and current prevention interventions remain inadequate. Antiretroviral-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is gaining momentum as an effective prevention intervention. Discussion Discussions have been started on how this strategy could be employed in Africa such that the populations most in need can be reached urgently for the greatest impact. This requires the selection of specific risk groups and service environments in which PrEP can be distributed safely and cost effectively while being mindful of any ethical issues. Conclusions Given the need for an integrated public health approach to this, a number of potential populations and opportunities for PrEP distribution exist and are discussed in this commentary. PMID:26198344

  16. The need for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Young, V Leroy; Watson, Marla E

    2006-01-01

    The reader is presumed to have a broad understanding of plastic surgical procedures and concepts. After studying this article, the participant should be able to: Physicians may earn 1 AMA PRA Category 1 credit credit by successfully completing the examination based on material covered in this article. The examination begins on page 176. ASAPS members can also complete this CME examination online by logging onto the ASAPS Members-Only Web site (http://www.surgery.org/members) and clicking on "Clinical Education" in the menu bar. Little has been published about venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications in plastic surgery. The authors investigated the recent literature, particularly literature reviews and meta-analyses of clinical studies, in order to outline strategies for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) applicable to plastic surgery patients. Major risk factors for VTE include trauma, a prior history of VTE, older age, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, and prolonged travel. Although the frequency of VTE among plastic surgery patients is estimated to be from less than 1% to 2% of cases, in fact many of our patients are at moderate to high risk of VTE. Moreover, the actual frequency of VTE among plastic surgery patients is probably higher than we know, because up to two thirds of cases are asymptomatic. Mechanical methods of VTE prophylaxis include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices, and venous foot pumps (VFPs). They are recommended primarily for patients with a high risk of bleeding or as an adjunct to chemoprophylaxis. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices were found to be more effective than passive compression using GCSs. For plastic surgery patients, IPC devices or VFPs are recommended for any procedure that lasts more than 1 hour, and for all patients receiving general anesthesia. Use should begin 30 to 60 minutes before surgery. Low

  17. Deficiencies in tetanus prophylaxis in wound management in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatunde, O J; Familusi, J B

    2002-01-01

    In a review of 94 paediatric patients treated for post-neonatal tetanus over a period of 11 years at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, reliable data regarding the care received for wounds that eventually resulted in tetanus was available in 58 patients. Seventeen of these patients had orthodox medical care for their wounds before developing tetanus. While some of the patients had received antibiotics and/or tetanus toxoid, no patient received antitetanus serum despite the fact that most of them had no previous immunization against tetanus. All the 3 victims of road traffic accidents were given tetanus toxoid but none of the 6 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media had any form of tetanus prophylaxis. The findings highlight the adverse consequences of failure to adhere to basic guidelines for management of the tetanus-prone wound.

  18. Treatment and Prophylaxis in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Sotoudeh, Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in early life. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment prevent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria and end stage renal disease. A computerized search of MEDLINE, Embase and other databases was done to find the latest results about the treatment and prevention in pediatric UTI. Randomized control trials, systematic reviews and original articles were assessed. Search terms were “UTI, treatment, prophylaxis, prevention, and children”. All children with complicated or simple UTI were included in our search study from neonatal period to late childhood and medical aspects of treatment were reviewed. Recently, treatment approaches have been changed by simplification of drug administration. Oral treatment is recommended especially in older infants and children instead of strict intravenous treatment and patient admission. In addition, prophylactic treatment becomes easier and limited to certain cases. In this article, we review the recent information and approaches in this setting. PMID:21448397

  19. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis, New York, 1995–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Nadine Y.; Eidson, Millicent; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Hanlon, Cathleen A.

    2005-01-01

    The epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in 4 upstate New York counties was described from data obtained from 2,216 incidences of PEP recorded by local health departments from 1995 to 2000. Overall annual incidence for the study period was 27 cases per 100,000 persons. Mean annual PEP incidence rates were highest in rural counties and during the summer months. PEP incidence was highest among patients 5–9 and 30–34 years of age. Bites accounted for most PEP (51%) and were primarily associated with cats and dogs. Bats accounted for 30% of exposures, more than any other group of animals; consequently, bats have replaced raccoons as the leading rabies exposure source to humans in this area. PMID:16485480

  20. Limitations of current prophylaxis against influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guralnik, Mario; Rosenbloom, Richard A; Petteruti, Michael P; Lefante, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza has been a source of worldwide concern since Hong Kong authorities detected the first outbreak in 1997. Mainly as a result of poultry-to-human transmission, more than 200 cases of infection in humans have been attributed to the A/H5, A/H7, and A/H9 viral subtypes, with a case fatality rate for A/H5N1 infections exceeding 50%. A mutant or reassortant virus capable of efficient human-to-human transmission can set off a pandemic. Increased attention to prophylaxis against viral infection has identified several potentially complementary approaches: nonpharmacologic measures (eg, travel restrictions), vaccination, chemotherapeutic agents, and herbal/natural products. All have significant limitations that point out the need for additional modalities. Herbal/natural products, particularly those based on green tea extract, offer promise as adjuncts or alternatives to current interventions and warrant further evaluation in well-controlled human trials.

  1. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    PubMed

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  2. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part I.

    PubMed

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Bioterrorism presents a real and omnipresent risk to public health throughout the world. More than 30 biological agents have been identified as possessing the potential to be deployed in a bioterrorist attack. Those that have been determined to be of the greatest concern and possess the greatest potential of use in this arena are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); Variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); viral hemorrhagic fevers; and Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism toxin). Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention utilizes surveillance systems to identify illnesses, the weight of diagnosing, effectively treating, and notifying the appropriate public health officials lies squarely on the shoulders of emergency care personnel. Part I of this two-part review will focus on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. The subsequent Part II of this review will discuss smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism toxin, and the provision of mass prophylaxis.

  3. Indications of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental practice- Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, C; Padmanabhan, TV

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection. Special care needs to be addressed to patients with organ transplants, poorly controlled diabetes and pregnancy. Antibiotics should be used only as an adjunct to dental treatment and never alone as the first line of care. The present paper reviews the indications of antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:23570007

  4. A comparison of recommendations for pharmacologic thromboembolism prophylaxis after caesarean delivery from three major guidelines.

    PubMed

    Palmerola, K L; D'Alton, M E; Brock, C O; Friedman, A M

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines for pharmacologic obstetric venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis from the American Congress of Obstetricians (ACOG), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), and the American College of Chest Physicians (Chest) vary significantly. The objective of this study was to determine the practical implications of these recommendations in terms of prophylaxis rates for a tertiary obstetric population. Cross-sectional. Tertiary referral hospital. Patients post-operative day 1 after caesarean delivery. This cross-sectional study evaluated rates of pharmacologic prophylaxis for women based on RCOG, ACOG, and Chest recommendations. Medical, obstetric, and demographic risk factors for thromboembolism were reviewed for individual patients. Rates of prophylaxis based on each of the guidelines with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Recommended pharmacologic prophylaxis. About 293 patients were included in the analysis. Under RCOG guidelines, 85.0% of patients would receive post-caesarean pharmacologic prophylaxis [95% confidence interval (CI) 80.5-88.6%] compared with 1.0% of patients under ACOG guidelines (95% CI 0.3-3.0%) and 34.8% of patients under Chest guidelines (95% CI 29.6-40.4%). Caesarean during labour, obesity, advanced maternal age, pre-eclampsia, and multiple gestation were among the most commonrisk factors. Recommended prophylaxis differed significantly. Under ACOG recommendations a small minority of patients would receive prophylaxis, whereas under RCOG recommendations a large majority of patients would receive low-molecular-weight heparin. Given the large differences in prophylaxis rates for post-caesarean thromboprophylaxis based on different guidelines, further research is urgently needed to compare the risks and benefits of recommendations. Recommendations from major society guidelines for post-caesarean thromboprophylaxis differ greatly. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Is prophylaxis required for delivery in women with factor VII deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa M.; Morton, Colleen T.; Reding, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Factor VII (fVII) deficiency is a rare congenital bleeding disorder in which fVII activity level and bleeding tendency do not completely correlate. Pregnancy and delivery present a significant hemostatic challenge to women with fVII deficiency. Treatment with recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) carries a thrombotic risk and the literature is unclear whether prophylaxis is necessary prior to delivery. Aim To define management, hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications of pregnant women with fVII deficiency through a systematic review. Methods Medical databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched using “factor VII deficiency” and “pregnancy” or “surgery.” Overall 34 articles, 4 abstracts, and 3 institutional cases were reviewed. Results Literature from 1953–2011 reported 94 live births from 62 women with fVII deficiency. The median fVII activity was 5.5%. Hemostatic prophylaxis was used in 32% of deliveries. Without prophylaxis, 40 vaginal deliveries and 16 cesarean sections were completed. The odds of receiving prophylaxis were 2.9 times higher in women undergoing cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery. Post-partum hemorrhage occurred in 10% of deliveries with prophylaxis and 13% of deliveries without prophylaxis. The fVII level did not significantly differ between women who did and did not receive prophylaxis. Conclusion We present the only systematic review of the management of pregnancy in fVII deficient women. No difference in post-partum hemorrhage was seen in deliveries with and without prophylaxis. Therefore we recommend that rfVIIa be available in the case of hemorrhage or surgical intervention, but not as mandatory prophylaxis. PMID:23607277

  6. Assessment of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Neurological Patients with Restricted Mobility – VTE-NEURO Study

    PubMed Central

    BAJENARU, Ovidiu; ANTOCHI, Florina; BALASA, Rodica; BURAGA, Ioan; PATRICHI, Sanda; SIMU, Mihaela; SZABOLCS, Szatmari; TIU, Cristina; ZAHARIA, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the data of a medical registry which evaluated if the physicians assess VTE risk in stroke patients, during hospitalization period and at hospital discharge and if the thromboprophylaxis is used according to National Guidelines for VTE Prophylaxis. 884 patients with acute ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between June 2010 and December 2011, from 62 centers, 51.4% male and 48.6% female with mean age 70.07 years (68.25 years in the male group and 71.92 years in the female one). There were two co-primary endpoints: the percentage of patients at risk for VTE at hospital admission assessed by the physician, and the percentage of patients with risk factors for VTE that persist at hospital discharge from the total number of patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke. The secondary endpoints were: the percentage of hospitalized patients receiving prophylaxis according to the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis from the total number of patients at risk of VTE, the percentage of hospitalized patients with VTE risk receiving recommendation for thromboprophylaxis at discharge, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized patients, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis at discharge. Results: 879 (99.4%) of the total number of patients at risk of VTE have received prophylaxis during hospitalization. The most frequently types of prophylaxis used during hospitalisation were LMWH in 96.3% of the patients and mechanic method in 16.6% that were in accordance with the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis recommendations. Conclusions: There is a clear improvement in both assessment and thromprophylaxis recommendation in acute stroke patients with restricted mobility at VTE risk and in our country. LMWH is preferred to unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this high-risk patient population in view of its better clinical benefits to risk ratio and convenience of once daily administration. PMID:25553119

  7. Choice of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery does matter.

    PubMed

    Deierhoi, Rhiannon J; Dawes, Lillian G; Vick, Catherine; Itani, Kamal M F; Hawn, Mary T

    2013-11-01

    The Surgical Care Improvement Program endorses mandatory compliance with approved intravenous prophylactic antibiotics; however, oral antibiotics are optional. We hypothesized that surgical site infection (SSI) rates may vary depending on the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study of elective colorectal procedures using Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) and SSI outcomes data was linked to the Office of Informatics and Analytics (OIA) and Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM) antibiotic data from 2005 to 2009. Surgical site infection rates by type of IV antibiotic agent alone (IV) or in combination with oral antibiotic (IV + OA) were determined. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between type of antibiotic prophylaxis and SSI for the entire cohort and stratified by use of oral antibiotics. After 5,750 elective colorectal procedures, 709 SSIs (12.3%) developed within 30 days. Oral antibiotic + IV (n = 2,426) had a lower SSI rate than IV alone (n = 3,324) (6.3% vs 16.7%, p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in the SSI rate based on type of preoperative IV antibiotic given (p ≤ 0.0001). Generalized estimating equations adjusting for significant covariates of age, body mass index, procedure work relative value units, and operation duration demonstrated an independent protective effect of oral antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46), as well as increased rates of SSI associated with ampicillin/sulbactam (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.56) and second generation cephalosporins (cefoxitin, OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.42; cefotetan, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.22) when compared with first generation cephalosporin/metronidazole. The choice of IV antibiotic was related to the SSI rate; however, oral antibiotics were associated with reduced SSI rate for every antibiotic class. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Is DVT prophylaxis overemphasized? A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kosir, M A; Kozol, R A; Perales, A; McGee, K; Beleski, K; Lange, P; Dahn, M

    1996-02-01

    This study was designed to prospectively evaluate a previously published prognostic index for predicting deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in general surgical patients with conventional prophylaxis. Patients undergoing procedures of at least 1 hr duration (abdominal, thoracic, head and neck, inguinal) requiring general or spinal anesthetic were prospectively randomized into the following groups: Group 1, sequential pneumatic compression devices during surgery and 2 days postoperatively; Group 2, subcutaneous heparin (5000 U q 12 hr) starting 1 hr before surgery and for 7 days postop; Group 3, control group. All patients underwent duplex evaluation of bilateral lower extremity deep venous systems preoperatively and on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 30. In addition, a previously developed predictive DVT incidence indicator, the prognostic index (PI), was calculated for each patient. A total of 137 patients were entered into the study with 29 removed for patient/staff reasons. There were no differences in PI among the three groups at the 0.05 level (ANOVA). The distribution of risk factors for DVT including increased age, body size, hemoglobin (Hb), and colorectal procedures were distributed evenly among the groups. Additional factors such as diabetes, COPD, PVD, immobilization, and cancer were also evenly distributed among the groups. The PI predicted a 20% incidence of DVT. For Groups 1 (n = 25), 2 (n = 38), and 3 (n = 45) no DVTs were detected over the 30 days of study. During the study period, 8 DVTs were detected by duplex evaluation in general surgical patients not in the study (1.5%). In conclusion, in a prospective randomized study using sequential pneumatic compression devices, subcutaneous heparin or no prophylaxis in matched general surgical patients at moderate to high risk for thromboembolism, no DVTs occurred for up to 30 days. Furthermore, neither a PI nor other factors associated with DVT accurately predicted the incidence of DVT in this patient population.

  9. Topical azithromycin or ofloxacin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis after intravitreal injection

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Sararols, Laura; Arias, Lluis; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Bassaganyas, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of patients who have undergone intravitreal injections has increased enormously in recent years, but a consensus is still lacking on prophylaxis for endophthalmitis. The aim of this prospective, observational study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of azithromycin eye drops versus ofloxacin eye drops. Methods The study was conducted in five hospitals in Spain and included all patients undergoing intravitreal injections of triamcinolone, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or pegaptanib over one year. Patients received azithromycin 15 mg/g eye drops (twice daily on the day prior to injection and for another 2 days) or ofloxacin 3 mg/g eye drops (every 6 hours on the day prior to injection and for another 7 days). Results In the azithromycin group, there were 4045 injections in 972 eyes of 701 patients. In the ofloxacin group, there were 4151 injections in 944 eyes of 682 patients. There were two cases of endophthalmitis (0.049%) in the azithromycin group and five (0.12%) in the ofloxacin group. The odds ratio of presenting with endophthalmitis in the ofloxacin group compared with the azithromycin group was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–3.72, P < 0.001). There were two cases of noninfectious uveitis after triamcinolone injection in the azithromycin group (0.049%) and two (0.048%) in the ofloxacin group; no significant differences were observed (odds ratio 0.902, 95% CI 0.622–1.407, P = 0.407). Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in 12 cases in the azithromycin group and none in the ofloxacin group. Conclusion The risk of endophthalmitis was significantly greater with ofloxacin than with azithromycin. These findings provide a valuable addition to the ever-increasing pool of information on endophthalmitis prophylaxis after intravitreal injection, although further large-scale studies are required to provide definitive conclusions. PMID:23109798

  10. Targeting viral dsRNA for antiviral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Zhou; Liu, Yang; Yan, Zhen; Fan, Daiming; Alexander, Alice; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds)RNA in the infected cells is a trait shared by most if not all viruses. While humans have developed variable immune responses, viruses have also developed countermeasures to defeat dsRNA-induced antiviral strategies. Thus, we proposed a broad antiviral strategy to antagonize the countermeasures of viruses and bypass the dsRNA-induced signals that are readily defeated by viruses. By rewiring the dsRNA-binding proteins in the dsRNA complex and reconnecting them to apoptosis signaling, we created several dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiters, termed dsCAREs, to bypass dsRNA-induced antiviral signals that would otherwise be targeted by viruses. Adenovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus, representing viruses of the dsDNA and negative-stranded RNA viral groups, were used to infect HEK293 cells. The dsCARE chimera was added in medium to evaluate its antiviral activity. The truncated dsCAREs were used as controls. We demonstrate that dsCARE suppresses viral infection starting at 0.1 μg/ml and reaches the peak at 2 μg/ml. The EC50 was ∼0.2 μg/ml. However, it had an undetectable effect on uninfected cells. Further data show that both dsRNA binding and apoptosis activation of dsCARE are essential for its antiviral activity. We conclude that dsRNA is a practical virus-associated molecular pattern that can be targeted for broad and rapid antiviral prophylaxis.—Fei, Z., Liu, Y., Yan, Z., Fan, D., Alexander, A., Yang, J.-H. Targeting viral dsRNA for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:19880628

  11. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lut; Corneli, Amy; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Lombaard, Johan; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Owino, Fredrick; Manongi, Rachel; Onyango, Jacob; Temu, Lucky; Monedi, Modie Constance; Mak'Oketch, Paul; Makanda, Mankalimeng; Reblin, Ilse; Makatu, Shumani Elsie; Saylor, Lisa; Kiernan, Haddie; Kirkendale, Stella; Wong, Christina; Grant, Robert; Kashuba, Angela; Nanda, Kavita; Mandala, Justin; Fransen, Katrien; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mastro, Timothy D; Taylor, Douglas

    2012-08-02

    Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or placebo once daily. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of TDF-FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. HIV infections occurred in 33 women in the TDF-FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and in 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), for an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.52; P=0.81). The proportions of women with nausea, vomiting, or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the TDF-FTC group (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.03, respectively). Rates of drug discontinuation because of hepatic or renal abnormalities were higher in the TDF-FTC group (4.7%) than in the placebo group (3.0%, P=0.051). Less than 40% of the HIV-uninfected women in the TDF-FTC group had evidence of recent pill use at visits that were matched to the HIV-infection window for women with seroconversion. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. Prophylaxis with TDF-FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low. (Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and others; FEM-PrEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00625404.).

  12. Cranial radiation necessary for CNS prophylaxis in pediatric NHL

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, L.R.; Wollner, N.; Fuks, Z.

    1987-03-01

    The records of 95 consecutive children less than or equal to 21 years of age with previously untreated diffuse histology NHL registered in our protocols from 1978 to 1983 were reviewed. Seventy-nine patients were considered eligible for analysis. The histologic subtypes represented included lymphoblastic (LB) 37%; histiocytic (DHL) 29%; undifferentiated (DU) 19%; poorly differentiated (DPDL) 9%; and unclassified (UNHL) 6%. Distribution of the patients according to stage showed Stage I, 0%; Stage II, 11%; Stage III, 53%; Stage IV, 36%. Four different Memorial Hospital protocols for systemic chemotherapy were used (LSA2L2 73%; L10 9%; L17 10%; L17M 8%); however, the IT (intrathecal) chemotherapy was uniform (Methotrexate: 6.0-6.25 mg/M2 per treatment course) and was included in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of all treatment protocols. Cranial radiation was included in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of all treatment protocols. Cranial radiation was not included in the CNS prophylaxis program. The overall median time of follow-up was 43 months. The overall CNS relapse rate was 6.3%; however, the incidence of CNS lymphoma presenting as the first isolated site of relapse in patients in otherwise complete remission (minimum follow-up of 19 months with 97% of patients off treatment) was only 1/58 (1.7%). Our data suggest that IT chemotherapy when given in combination with modern aggressive systemic combination chemotherapy, and without cranial radiation appears to be a highly effective modality for CNS prophylaxis regardless of stage, histology, or bone marrow or mediastinal involvement. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine during malaria prophylaxis in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Charles, Bruce G; Miller, Ann K; Nasveld, Peter E; Reid, Mark G; Harris, Ivor E; Edstein, Michael D

    2007-08-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were studied in Australian soldiers taking tafenoquine for malarial prophylaxis. The subjects (476 males and 14 females) received a loading dose of 200 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days, followed by a weekly dose of 200 mg tafenoquine for 6 months. Blood samples were collected from each subject after the last loading dose and then at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Plasma tafenoquine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population modeling was performed with NONMEM, using a one-compartment model. Typical values of the first-order absorption rate constant (K(a)), clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.243 h(-1), 0.056 liters/h/kg, and 23.7 liters/kg, respectively. The intersubject variability (coefficient of variation) in CL/F and V/F was 18% and 22%, respectively. The interoccasion variability in CL/F was 18%, and the mean elimination half-life was 12.7 days. A positive linear association between weight and both CL/F and V/F was found, but this had insufficient impact to warrant dosage adjustments. Model robustness was assessed by a nonparametric bootstrap (200 samples). A degenerate visual predictive check indicated that the raw data mirrored the postdose concentration-time profiles simulated (n = 1,000) from the final model. Individual pharmacokinetic estimates for tafenoquine did not predict the prophylactic outcome with the drug for four subjects who relapsed with Plasmodium vivax malaria, as they had similar pharmacokinetics to those who were free of malaria infection. No obvious pattern existed between the plasma tafenoquine concentration and the pharmacokinetic parameter values for subjects with and without drug-associated moderate or severe adverse events. This validated population pharmacokinetic model satisfactorily describes the disposition and variability of tafenoquine used for long-term malaria prophylaxis in a large cohort of soldiers on military

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics of Tafenoquine during Malaria Prophylaxis in Healthy Subjects▿

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Bruce G.; Miller, Ann K.; Nasveld, Peter E.; Reid, Mark G.; Harris, Ivor E.; Edstein, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were studied in Australian soldiers taking tafenoquine for malarial prophylaxis. The subjects (476 males and 14 females) received a loading dose of 200 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days, followed by a weekly dose of 200 mg tafenoquine for 6 months. Blood samples were collected from each subject after the last loading dose and then at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Plasma tafenoquine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population modeling was performed with NONMEM, using a one-compartment model. Typical values of the first-order absorption rate constant (Ka), clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.243 h−1, 0.056 liters/h/kg, and 23.7 liters/kg, respectively. The intersubject variability (coefficient of variation) in CL/F and V/F was 18% and 22%, respectively. The interoccasion variability in CL/F was 18%, and the mean elimination half-life was 12.7 days. A positive linear association between weight and both CL/F and V/F was found, but this had insufficient impact to warrant dosage adjustments. Model robustness was assessed by a nonparametric bootstrap (200 samples). A degenerate visual predictive check indicated that the raw data mirrored the postdose concentration-time profiles simulated (n = 1,000) from the final model. Individual pharmacokinetic estimates for tafenoquine did not predict the prophylactic outcome with the drug for four subjects who relapsed with Plasmodium vivax malaria, as they had similar pharmacokinetics to those who were free of malaria infection. No obvious pattern existed between the plasma tafenoquine concentration and the pharmacokinetic parameter values for subjects with and without drug-associated moderate or severe adverse events. This validated population pharmacokinetic model satisfactorily describes the disposition and variability of tafenoquine used for long-term malaria prophylaxis in a large cohort of soldiers on military

  15. Anti-D in Rh(D)-negative pregnant women: are at-risk pregnancies and deliveries receiving appropriate prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Koby, Lawrence; Grunbaum, Ami; Benjamin, Alice; Koby, Robert; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2012-05-01

    Although anti-D prophylaxis has greatly reduced the rate of Rh-immunization, there remain women who sensitize during or after pregnancy because of inadequate prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to compare adherence to prophylaxis recommendations for antenatal and postnatal anti-D immunoglobulin administration. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all pregnancies recorded at the Royal Victoria Hospital between 2001 and 2006 to determine the rates of antenatal and postnatal prophylaxis in Rh(D)-negative women. We compared adherence to anti-D prophylaxis recommendations between our institution's physician-dependent antenatal approach and the protocol-based postpartum approach. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals of determinants of non-adherence to current recommendations for anti-D prophylaxis. Antenatal administration was analyzed in 1868 pregnancies in eligible Rh-negative women. Among these women, 85.7% received appropriate antenatal prophyla