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Sample records for resolution chromosomal cgh

  1. High Resolution X Chromosome-Specific Array-CGH Detects New CNVs in Infertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Csilla; Giachini, Claudia; Lo Giacco, Deborah; Daguin, Fabrice; Chianese, Chiara; Ars, Elisabet; Ruiz-Castane, Eduard; Forti, Gianni; Rossi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Context The role of CNVs in male infertility is poorly defined, and only those linked to the Y chromosome have been the object of extensive research. Although it has been predicted that the X chromosome is also enriched in spermatogenesis genes, no clinically relevant gene mutations have been identified so far. Objectives In order to advance our understanding of the role of X-linked genetic factors in male infertility, we applied high resolution X chromosome specific array-CGH in 199 men with different sperm count followed by the analysis of selected, patient-specific deletions in large groups of cases and normozoospermic controls. Results We identified 73 CNVs, among which 55 are novel, providing the largest collection of X-linked CNVs in relation to spermatogenesis. We found 12 patient-specific deletions with potential clinical implication. Cancer Testis Antigen gene family members were the most frequently affected genes, and represent new genetic targets in relationship with altered spermatogenesis. One of the most relevant findings of our study is the significantly higher global burden of deletions in patients compared to controls due to an excessive rate of deletions/person (0.57 versus 0.21, respectively; p = 8.785×10−6) and to a higher mean sequence loss/person (11.79 Kb and 8.13 Kb, respectively; p = 3.435×10−4). Conclusions By the analysis of the X chromosome at the highest resolution available to date, in a large group of subjects with known sperm count we observed a deletion burden in relation to spermatogenic impairment and the lack of highly recurrent deletions on the X chromosome. We identified a number of potentially important patient-specific CNVs and candidate spermatogenesis genes, which represent novel targets for future investigations. PMID:23056185

  2. Chromosomal Minimal Critical Regions in Therapy-Related Leukemia Appear Different from Those of De Novo Leukemia by High-Resolution aCGH

    PubMed Central

    Itzhar, Nathalie; Dessen, Philippe; Toujani, Saloua; Auger, Nathalie; Preudhomme, Claude; Richon, Catherine; Lazar, Vladimir; Saada, Véronique; Bennaceur, Anelyse; Bourhis, Jean Henri; de Botton, Stéphane; Bernheim, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Therapy-related acute leukemia (t-AML), is a severe complication of cytotoxic therapy used for primary cancer treatment. The outcome of these patients is poor, compared to people who develop de novo acute leukemia (p-AML). Cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML are similar to those found in p-AML but present more frequent unfavorable karyotypes depending on the inducting agent. Losses of chromosome 5 or 7 are observed after alkylating agents while balanced translocations are found after topoisomerase II inhibitors. This study compared t-AML to p-AML using high resolution array CGH in order to find copy number abnormalities (CNA) at a higher resolution than conventional cytogenetics. More CNAs were observed in 30 t-AML than in 36 p-AML: 104 CNAs were observed with 63 losses and 41 gains (mean number 3.46 per case) in t-AML, while in p-AML, 69 CNAs were observed with 32 losses and 37 gains (mean number of 1.9 per case). In primary leukemia with a previously “normal” karyotype, 18% exhibited a previously undetected CNA, whereas in the (few) t-AML with a normal karyotype, the rate was 50%. Several minimal critical regions (MCRs) were found in t-AML and p-AML. No common MCRs were found in the two groups. In t-AML a 40kb deleted MCR pointed to RUNX1 on 21q22, a gene coding for a transcription factor implicated in frequent rearrangements in leukemia and in familial thrombocytopenia. In de novo AML, a 1Mb MCR harboring ERG and ETS2 was observed from patients with complex aCGH profiles. High resolution cytogenomics obtained by aCGH and similar techniques already published allowed us to characterize numerous non random chromosome abnormalities. This work supports the hypothesis that they can be classified into several categories: abnormalities common to all AML; those more frequently found in t-AML and those specifically found in p-AML. PMID:21339820

  3. Single-cell chromosomal imbalances detection by array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Le Caignec, Cedric; Spits, Claudia; Sermon, Karen; De Rycke, Martine; Thienpont, Bernard; Debrock, Sophie; Staessen, Catherine; Moreau, Yves; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Van Steirteghem, Andre; Liebaers, Inge; Vermeesch, Joris R.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic imbalances are a major cause of constitutional and acquired disorders. Therefore, aneuploidy screening has become the cornerstone of preimplantation, prenatal and postnatal genetic diagnosis, as well as a routine aspect of the diagnostic workup of many acquired disorders. Recently, array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has been introduced as a rapid and high-resolution method for the detection of both benign and disease-causing genomic copy-number variations. Until now, array CGH has been performed using a significant quantity of DNA derived from a pool of cells. Here, we present an array CGH method that accurately detects chromosomal imbalances from a single lymphoblast, fibroblast and blastomere within a single day. Trisomy 13, 18, 21 and monosomy X, as well as normal ploidy levels of all other chromosomes, were accurately determined from single fibroblasts. Moreover, we showed that a segmental deletion as small as 34 Mb could be detected. Finally, we demonstrated the possibility to detect aneuploidies in single blastomeres derived from preimplantation embryos. This technique offers new possibilities for genetic analysis of single cells in general and opens the route towards aneuploidy screening and detection of unbalanced translocations in preimplantation embryos in particular. PMID:16698960

  4. Supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosome 6: cytogenetic, molecular cytogenetic, and array CGH characterization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Pearle, Phyllis; Rauen, Katherine A; Cotter, Philip D

    2012-07-01

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC) are relatively common in prenatal diagnosis. As the clinical outcomes vary greatly, a better understanding of the karyotype-phenotype correlation for different SMCs will be important for genetic counseling. We present two cases of prenatally detected de novo, small SMCs. The markers were present in 80% of amniocyte colonies in Case 1 and 38% of the colonies in Case 2. The SMCs were determined to be derived from chromosome 6 during postnatal confirmation studies. Although the sizes and the chromosomal origin of the SMCs in these two cases appeared to be similar, the clinical outcomes varied. The clinical manifestations observed in Case 1 included small for gestational age, feeding difficulty at birth, hydronephrosis, deviated septum and dysmorphic features, while the phenotype is apparently normal in Case 2. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed and showed increase in dosage for approximately 26 Mb of genetic material from the proximal short and long arms of chromosome 6 in Case 1. Results of array CGH were uninformative in Case 2, either due to mosaicism or lack of detectable euchromatin. The difference in the clinical presentation in these two patients may have resulted from the difference in the actual gene contents of the marker chromosomes and/or the differential distribution of the mosaicism.

  5. Interstitial deletions of chromosome 6q: genotype-phenotype correlation utilizing array CGH.

    PubMed

    Klein, O D; Cotter, P D; Moore, M W; Zanko, A; Gilats, M; Epstein, C J; Conte, F; Rauen, K A

    2007-03-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are relatively rare, with fewer than 100 cases reported. Phenotypic variation is in large part due to differences in size and location of the segmental aneuploidy. We report three new patients with interstitial deletions of chromosome 6q defined at the molecular level by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). In two of three cases, the molecular breakpoints differed from those indicated by conventional karyotyping, demonstrating the enhanced resolution of array CGH. Two patients had minimal deletions of 6 and 8.8 Mb involving 6q16.2-->q21, and the third patient had a deletion of 11.3 Mb spanning 6q15-->q21. All three had developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphology, and functional eye disorders, suggesting that genes affecting brain and craniofacial development are located in 6q16.2-->q21, the deleted region common to all three patients. Furthermore, gene(s) for discordant phenotypic features, such as central diabetes insipidus, may reside at 6q15, the monosomic region unique to patient 3. All three cases described here showed loss of paternal alleles within the deleted segment, providing further evidence of the predominantly paternal origin for 6q deletions and rearrangements.

  6. The clinical application of array CGH for the detection of chromosomal defects in 20,126 unselected newborns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful tool for detecting unbalanced chromosomal alterations. To validate the usefulness of array CGH in newborn screening, we examined 20,126 unselected infants. In addition, the number of newborns analyzed with array CGH is the largest one ever reported. Findings A total of 20,126 unselected newborns were investigated with array CGH and cytogenetic analyses. The analyses revealed 87 cases with chromosome abnormalities. Of these, 53 cases had significant chromosome aneuploidies, including trisomy 13, trisomy 21, 47,XXY or 45,X, and the other 34 cases presented partial chromosomal deletions or duplications. Conclusions In this study, we show that array CGH is an appropriate tool for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities in newborns, especially for the infants without distinct clinical features. PMID:23725218

  7. De novo complex intra chromosomal rearrangement after ICSI: characterisation by BACs micro array-CGH

    PubMed Central

    Kasakyan, Serdar; Lohmann, Laurence; Aboura, Azeddine; Quimsiyeh, Mazin; Menezo, Yves; Tachdjian, Gerard; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    Background In routine Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia should be informed about the risk of de novo congenital or chromosomal abnormalities in ICSI program. Also the benefits of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis practice need to be explained to the couple. Methods From a routine ICSI attempt, using ejaculated sperm from male with severe oligozoospermia and having normal karyotype, a 30 years old pregnant woman was referred to prenatal diagnosis in the 17th week for bichorionic biamniotic twin gestation. Amniocentesis was performed because of the detection of an increased foetal nuchal translucency for one of the fetus by the sonographic examination during the 12th week of gestation (WG). Chromosome and DNA studies of the fetus were realized on cultured amniocytes Results Conventional, molecular cytogenetic and microarray CGH experiments allowed us to conclude that the fetus had a de novo pericentromeric inversion associated with a duplication of the 9p22.1-p24 chromosomal region, 46,XY,invdup(9)(p22.1p24) [arrCGH 9p22.1p24 (RP11-130C19 → RP11-87O1)x3]. As containing the critical 9p22 region, our case is in coincidence with the general phenotype features of the partial trisomy 9p syndrome with major growth retardation, microcephaly and microretrognathia. Conclusion This de novo complex chromosome rearrangement illustrates the possible risk of chromosome or gene defects in ICSI program and the contribution of array-CGH for mapping rapidly de novo chromosomal imbalance. PMID:19105807

  8. De novo complex intra chromosomal rearrangement after ICSI: characterisation by BACs micro array-CGH.

    PubMed

    Kasakyan, Serdar; Lohmann, Laurence; Aboura, Azeddine; Quimsiyeh, Mazin; Menezo, Yves; Tachdjian, Gerard; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2008-12-23

    In routine Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia should be informed about the risk of de novo congenital or chromosomal abnormalities in ICSI program. Also the benefits of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis practice need to be explained to the couple. From a routine ICSI attempt, using ejaculated sperm from male with severe oligozoospermia and having normal karyotype, a 30 years old pregnant woman was referred to prenatal diagnosis in the 17th week for bichorionic biamniotic twin gestation. Amniocentesis was performed because of the detection of an increased foetal nuchal translucency for one of the fetus by the sonographic examination during the 12th week of gestation (WG). Chromosome and DNA studies of the fetus were realized on cultured amniocytes Conventional, molecular cytogenetic and microarray CGH experiments allowed us to conclude that the fetus had a de novo pericentromeric inversion associated with a duplication of the 9p22.1-p24 chromosomal region, 46,XY,invdup(9)(p22.1p24) [arrCGH 9p22.1p24 (RP11-130C19 --> RP11-87O1)x3]. As containing the critical 9p22 region, our case is in coincidence with the general phenotype features of the partial trisomy 9p syndrome with major growth retardation, microcephaly and microretrognathia. This de novo complex chromosome rearrangement illustrates the possible risk of chromosome or gene defects in ICSI program and the contribution of array-CGH for mapping rapidly de novo chromosomal imbalance.

  9. Analysis of the evolution of chromosome abnormalities in human embryos from Day 3 to 5 using CGH and FISH.

    PubMed

    Daphnis, D D; Fragouli, E; Economou, K; Jerkovic, S; Craft, I L; Delhanty, J D A; Harper, J C

    2008-02-01

    The use of interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has shown that a large number of human embryos exhibit chromosomal abnormalities in vitro. The most common abnormality is mosaicism which is seen in up to 50% of preimplantation embryos at all stages of development. In this study, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to analyse 1-2 cells biopsied on Day 3 of development while the rest of the embryo was cultured until Day 5. Embryos were spread on Day 5 and analysed by FISH using probe combinations that varied depending on the CGH result, to investigate the progress of any abnormalities detected on Day 3. A total of 37 frozen-thawed embryos were analysed in this study. One gave no CGH or FISH results and was excluded from analysis. Six embryos failed to give any FISH result as they were degenerating on Day 5. Thirty embryos provided results from both techniques. According to the CGH results, the embryos were divided into two groups; Group 1 had a normal CGH result (13 embryos) and Group 2 an abnormal CGH result (17 embryos). For Group 1, three embryos showed normal CGH and FISH results, while 10 embryos were mosaic after FISH analysis, with various levels of abnormalities. For Group 2, FISH showed that all embryos were mosaic or completely chaotic. The combination of CGH and FISH enabled the thorough investigation of the evolution of mosaicism and of the mechanisms by which it is generated. The main two mechanisms identified were whole or partial chromosome loss and gain. These were observed in embryos examined on both Day 3 and 5.

  10. The Interactive Online SKY/M-FISH & CGH Database and the Entrez Cancer Chromosomes Search Database: Linkage of Chromosomal Aberrations with the Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Turid; Gobu, Vasuki; Knaus, Rodger; Padilla-Nash, Hesed; Augustus, Meena; Strausberg, Robert L.; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Sirotkin, Karl; Ried, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    To catalogue data on chromosomal aberrations in cancer derived from emerging molecular cytogenetic techniques and to integrate these data with genome maps, we have established two resources, the NCI and NCBI SKY/M-FISH & CGH Database, and the Cancer Chromosomes database. The goal of the former is to allow investigators to submit and analyze clinical and research cytogenetic data. It contains a karyotype parser tool, which automatically converts the ISCN short-form karyotype into an internal representation displayed in detailed form and as a colored ideogram with band overlay, and also contains a tool to compare CGH profiles from multiple cases. The Cancer Chromosomes database integrates the SKY/M-FISH & CGH Database with the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer, and the Recurrent Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer database. These three datasets can now be searched seamlessly by use of the Entrez search and retrieval system for chromosome aberrations, clinical data, and reference citations. Common diagnoses, anatomic sites, chromosome breakpoints, junctions, numerical and structural abnormalities, and bands gained and lost among selected cases can be compared by use of the “similarity” report. Because the model used for CGH data is a subset of the karyotype data, it is now possible to examine the similarities between CGH results and karyotypes directly. All chromosomal bands are directly linked to the Entrez Map Viewer database, providing integration of cytogenetic data with the sequence assembly. These resources, developed as a part of the Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP) initiative, aid the search for new cancer-associated genes and foster insights into the causes and consequences of genetic alterations in cancer. PMID:15934046

  11. Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic and intellectual disability with normal karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Pratte-Santos, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Katyanne Heringer; Santos, Thainá Altoe; Cintra, Terezinha Sarquis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate chromosomal abnormalities by CGH-array in patients with dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with normal conventional karyotype. Methods Retrospective study, carried out from January 2012 to February 2014, analyzing the CGH-array results of 39 patients. Results Twenty-six (66.7%) patients had normal results and 13 (33.3%) showed abnormal results - in that, 6 (15.4%) had pathogenic variants, 6 (15.4%) variants designated as uncertain and 1 (2.5%) non-pathogenic variants. Conclusion The characterization of the genetic profile by CGH-array in patients with intellectual disability and dysmorphic features enabled making etiologic diagnosis, followed by genetic counseling for families and specific treatment. PMID:27074231

  12. Single cell CGH analysis reveals a high degree of mosaicism in human embryos from patients with balanced structural chromosome aberrations.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, H; Sahlén, S; Inzunza, J; Aho, M; Rosenlund, B; Fridström, M; Hovatta, O; Ahrlund-Richter, L; Nordenskjöld, M; Blennow, E

    2002-05-01

    We have performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of single blastomeres from human preimplantation embryos of patients undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for inherited structural chromosome aberrations and from embryos of IVF couples without known chromosomal aberrations. The aim was to verify the PGD results for the specific translocation, reveal the overall genetic balance in each cell and visualize the degree of mosaicism regarding all the chromosomes within the embryo. We successfully analysed 94 blastomeres from 28 human embryos generated from 13 couples. The single cell CGH could verify most of the unbalanced translocations detected by PGD. Some of the embryos exhibited a mosaic pattern regarding the chromosomes involved in the translocation, and different segregation could be seen within an embryo. In addition to the translocations, we found a high degree of numerical aberrations including monosomies, trisomies and duplications or deletions of parts of chromosomes. All of the embryos (100%) were mosaic, containing more than one chromosomally uniform cell line, or even chaotic with a different chromosomal content in each blastomere.

  13. Detection of germline rearrangements in patients with α- and β-thalassemia using high resolution array CGH.

    PubMed

    Blattner, Ariane; Brunner-Agten, Saskia; Ludin, Katja; Hergersberg, Martin; Herklotz, Roberto; Huber, Andreas R; Röthlisberger, Benno

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 80% of α-thalassemia mutations are deletions in the α-globin cluster on chromosome 16 and about 10% of β-thalassemia mutations are deletions in the β-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11. Larger deletions involving the β-globin gene cluster lead to (δβ)-, (γδβ)-, (εγδβ)-thalassemia, or hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was applied to screen for deletions in the α- and β-globin gene clusters not detected by routine gap-PCR. In total, in 13 patients with hypochromia and inclusion bodies (IBs) the α-globin gene cluster was analyzed and in 13 patients with increased fetal hemoglobin levels with or without hypochromia the β-globin gene cluster was examined. All samples were subsequently investigated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In 9 out of 13 patients deletions of the α-globin gene cluster were identified; 5 of these deletions remove the entire α-globin cluster and extend to the telomere. Additional sequencing of the remaining 4 patients revealed polyadenylation mutation in 1 of them. 7 deletions were identified in the β-globin gene cluster in 13 patients. Additional sequencing of the remaining 6 patients revealed mutations in one of the γ-globin gene promoters in 3 of them and a KLF1-mutation in 1 of them. Array CGH is a reliable method to screen for deletions in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy. The method offers the advantage of a high resolution with the possibility to characterize breakpoints on sequence level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functionally-focused algorithmic analysis of high resolution microarray-CGH genomic landscapes demonstrates comparable genomic copy number aberrations in MSI and MSS sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hamad; Bitar, Milad S.; Al Madhoun, Ashraf; Marafie, Makia; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers. We utilized aCGH to characterize genomic CNAs in 116 well-defined sets of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We further applied the significance testing for aberrant copy number (STAC) and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithms to identify functionally relevant (nonrandom) chromosomal aberrations in the analyzed colorectal cancer samples. Our results produced high resolution genomic landscapes of both, MSI and MSS sporadic CRC. We found that CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs are heterogeneous in nature but may be divided into 3 distinct genomic patterns. Moreover, we show that although CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs differ with respect to their size, number and chromosomal distribution, the functional copy number aberrations obtained from MSI and MSS CRCs were in fact comparable but not identical. These unifying CNAs were verified by MLPA tumor-loss gene panel, which spans 15 different chromosomal locations and contains 50 probes for at least 20 tumor suppressor genes. Consistently, deletion/amplification in these frequently cancer altered genes were identical in MSS and MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that MSI and MSS copy number aberrations driving CRC may be functionally comparable. PMID:28231327

  15. Functionally-focused algorithmic analysis of high resolution microarray-CGH genomic landscapes demonstrates comparable genomic copy number aberrations in MSI and MSS sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamad; Bitar, Milad S; Al Madhoun, Ashraf; Marafie, Makia; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers. We utilized aCGH to characterize genomic CNAs in 116 well-defined sets of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We further applied the significance testing for aberrant copy number (STAC) and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithms to identify functionally relevant (nonrandom) chromosomal aberrations in the analyzed colorectal cancer samples. Our results produced high resolution genomic landscapes of both, MSI and MSS sporadic CRC. We found that CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs are heterogeneous in nature but may be divided into 3 distinct genomic patterns. Moreover, we show that although CNAs in MSI and MSS CRCs differ with respect to their size, number and chromosomal distribution, the functional copy number aberrations obtained from MSI and MSS CRCs were in fact comparable but not identical. These unifying CNAs were verified by MLPA tumor-loss gene panel, which spans 15 different chromosomal locations and contains 50 probes for at least 20 tumor suppressor genes. Consistently, deletion/amplification in these frequently cancer altered genes were identical in MSS and MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that MSI and MSS copy number aberrations driving CRC may be functionally comparable.

  16. Integrated high-resolution array CGH and SKY analysis of homozygous deletions and other genomic alterations present in malignant mesothelioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Klorin, Geula; Rozenblum, Ester; Glebov, Oleg; Walker, Robert L; Park, Yoonsoo; Meltzer, Paul S; Kirsch, Ilan R; Kaye, Frederic J; Roschke, Anna V

    2013-05-01

    High-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) were applied to a panel of malignant mesothelioma (MMt) cell lines. SKY has not been applied to MMt before, and complete karyotypes are reported based on the integration of SKY and aCGH results. A whole genome search for homozygous deletions (HDs) produced the largest set of recurrent and non-recurrent HDs for MMt (52 recurrent HDs in 10 genomic regions; 36 non-recurrent HDs). For the first time, LINGO2, RBFOX1/A2BP1, RPL29, DUSP7, and CCSER1/FAM190A were found to be homozygously deleted in MMt, and some of these genes could be new tumor suppressor genes for MMt. Integration of SKY and aCGH data allowed reconstruction of chromosomal rearrangements that led to the formation of HDs. Our data imply that only with acquisition of structural and/or numerical karyotypic instability can MMt cells attain a complete loss of tumor suppressor genes located in 9p21.3, which is the most frequently homozygously deleted region. Tetraploidization is a late event in the karyotypic progression of MMt cells, after HDs in the 9p21.3 region have already been acquired.

  17. Integrated high-resolution array CGH and SKY analysis of homozygous deletions and other genomic alterations present in malignant mesothelioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Klorin, Geula; Rozenblum, Ester; Glebov, Oleg; Walker, Robert L.; Park, Yoonsoo; Meltzer, Paul S.; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Kaye, Frederic J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) were applied to a panel of malignant mesothelioma (MMt) cell lines. SKY has not been applied to MMt before, and complete karyotypes are reported based on the integration of SKY and aCGH results. A whole genome search for homozygous deletions (HDs) produced the largest set of recurrent and non-recurrent HDs for MMt (52 recurrent HDs in 10 genomic regions; 36 non-recurrent HDs). For the first time, LINGO2, RBFOX1/A2BP1, RPL29, DUSP7, and CCSER1/FAM190A were found to be homozygously deleted in MMt, and some of these genes could be new tumor suppressor genes for MMt. Integration of SKY and aCGH data allowed reconstruction of chromosomal rearrangements that led to the formation of HDs. Our data imply that only with acquisition of structural and/or numerical karyotypic instability can MMt cells attain a complete loss of tumor suppressor genes located in 9p21.3, which is the most frequently homozygously deleted region. Tetraploidization is a late event in the karyotypic progression of MMt cells, after HDs in the 9p21.3 region have already been acquired. PMID:23830731

  18. Numerical and structural aberrations in advanced neuroblastoma tumours by CGH analysis; survival correlates with chromosome 17 status

    PubMed Central

    Cunsolo, C Lo; Bicocchi, M P; Petti, A R; Tonini, G P

    2000-01-01

    Rapid tumour progression in neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification, deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and gain of 17q. However, patients with advanced disease without MYCN amplification and/or 1p deletion have a very poor outcome too, which suggests other genetic defects may predict an unfavourable prognosis. We employed CGH to study 22 tumours of patients at stages 3 and 4 over one year of age (6 and 16 cases respectively). Patients were divided in groups (A) long-term survivors and (B) short-term survivors. CGH showed a total of 226 chromosome imbalances (110 in group A and 116 in group B). The neuroblastoma cells of long-term survivors showed a preponderance of numerical aberrations (54%vs 43%); particularly gains of entire chromosomes 1 (P< 0.03), 7 (P< 0.04) and 19 (P< 0.05). An extra copy of 17 was detected in 6/8 (75%) samples of group A and only 1/14 (7%) samples of group B (P< 0.002). Conversely, tumours of patients who died from disease progression displayed a higher frequency of structural abnormalities (43%vs 35%), including loss of 1p, 9p, 11q, 15q and 18q and gain of 12q, although the difference was not significant (P= 0.24). Unbalanced gain of 17q was detected in 8/14 (57%) tumours of group B and only 1/8 (13%) tumours of group A (P< 0.05). The peculiar genetic difference observed in the tumours of long and short-term survivors may have prognostic relevance. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044353

  19. Genetic characterization of dogs via chromosomal analysis and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).

    PubMed

    Müller, M H; Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H

    2012-01-01

    The results of cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic investigations revealed similarities in genetic background and biological behaviour between tumours and genetic diseases of humans and dogs. These findings classify the dog a good and accepted model for human cancers such as osteosarcomas, mammary carcinomas, oral melanomas and others. With the appearance of new studies and advances in canine genome sequencing, the number of known homologies in diseases between these species raised and still is expected to increase. In this context, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) provides a novel tool to rapidly characterize numerical aberrations in canine tumours or to detect copy number aberrations between different breeds. As it is possible to spot probes covering the whole genome on each chip to discover copy number aberrations of all chromosomes simultaneously, this method is time-saving and cost-effective - considering the relation of costs and the amount of data obtained. Complemented with traditional methods like karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, the aCGH is able to provide new insights into the underlying causes of canine carcinogenesis.

  20. Array-CGH fine mapping of minor and cryptic HR-CGH detected genomic imbalances in 80 out of 590 patients with abnormal development.

    PubMed

    Lybaek, Helle; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Kresse, Stine H; Høysaeter, Trude; Steen, Vidar M; Houge, Gunnar

    2008-11-01

    During a 6-year period, 590 patients suspected of having a minor or cryptic genomic imbalance as the cause of mental retardation with dysmorphic signs +/- malformations have been investigated with high-resolution comparative genomic hybridisation (HR-CGH) in our diagnostic laboratory. Thirty-six patients had a small chromosomal aberration detected by routine karyotyping, and 554 patients had a normal G-banded karyotype. In the latter group, a genomic imbalance was detected by HR-CGH in 40 patients (7.2%): 29 deletions, 3 duplications, 4 unbalanced translocations, and 4 occult trisomy mosaicisms. When microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) became available, all HR-CGH-positive samples were also investigated by 1 Mb resolution array-CGH for more precise mapping. From the 514 patients with normal HR-CGH findings, a subset of 20 patients with particularly high suspicion of having a chromosomal imbalance was selected for array-CGH. In four of them (20%), an imbalance was detected: three deletions and one duplication. Of note, 73 out of the 80 array-CGH mapped patients had a de novo chromosomal rearrangement (91%). Taken together, this work provides phenotype-genotype information on 80 patients with minor and cryptic chromosomal imbalances.

  1. Prenatal detection and characterization of supernumerary marker chromosomes by array-CGH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) occur in about 0.043% of newborns and in 0.076% of prenatal diagnoses. The phenotypes associated with sSMC vary substantially depending on size, gene content, and chromosome origin, which cannot easily be determined by karyotype or FISH analysis. There...

  2. Chromosome 18p deletion syndrome presenting holoprosencephaly and premaxillary agenesis: prenatal diagnosis and aCGH characterization using uncultured amniocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-09-25

    We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo distal 18p deletion involving 14.06Mb at 18p11.32-p11.21 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal holoprosencephaly and premaxillary agenesis. QF-PCR analysis showed that distal 18p deletion was from maternal origin. Metaphase FISH analysis confirmed haploinsufficiency of TGIF. We discuss the functions of the genes that are deleted within this region. The present case shows the usefulness of applying aCGH on uncultured amniocytes for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis in cases with prenatally detected fetal structural abnormalities.

  3. An integrated mBAND and submegabase resolution tiling set (SMRT) CGH array analysis of focal amplification, microdeletions, and ladder structures consistent with breakage-fusion-bridge cycle events in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gloria; Karaskova, Jana; Beheshti, Ben; Vukovic, Bisera; Bayani, Jane; Selvarajah, Shamini; Watson, Spencer K; Lam, Wan L; Zielenska, Maria; Squire, Jeremy A

    2005-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is characterized by chromosomal instability and high-copy-number gene amplification. The breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle is a well-established mechanism of genomic instability in tumors and in vitro models used to study the origins of complex chromosomal rearrangements and cancer genome amplification. However, until now, there have been no high-resolution cytogenetic or genomic array studies of BFB events in OS. In the present study, multicolor banding (mBAND) FISH and submegabase resolution tiling set (SMRT) array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to identify and map genomic signatures of BFB events in four OS cell lines and one patient tumor. The expected intermediates associated with BFB-dicentric chromosomes, inverted duplications, and intra- and interchromosomal amplifications-were identified. mBAND analysis provided detailed mapping of rearrangements in 1p, 6p, and 8q and showed that translocation junctions were often in close proximity to fragile sites. More detailed mBAND studies of OS cell line MG-63 revealed ladderlike FISH signals of equally spaced interchromosomal coamplifications of 6p21, 8q24, and 9p21-p22 in a homogeneously staining region (hsr). Focal amplifications that concordantly mapped to the hsr were localized to discrete genomic intervals by SMRT array CGH. The complex amplicon structure in this hsr suggests focal amplifications immediately adjacent to microdeletions. Moreover, the genomic regions in which there was deletion/amplification had a preponderance of fragile sites. In summary, this study has provided further support for the role of the BFB mechanism and fragile sites in facilitating gene amplification and chromosomal rearrangement in OS.

  4. Microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) detects submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications in patients with learning disability/mental retardation and dysmorphic features

    PubMed Central

    Shaw-Smith, C; Redon, R; Rickman, L; Rio, M; Willatt, L; Fiegler, H; Firth, H; Sanlaville, D; Winter, R; Colleaux, L; Bobrow, M; Carter, N

    2004-01-01

    The underlying causes of learning disability and dysmorphic features in many patients remain unidentified despite extensive investigation. Routine karyotype analysis is not sensitive enough to detect subtle chromosome rearrangements (less than 5 Mb). The presence of subtle DNA copy number changes was investigated by array-CGH in 50 patients with learning disability and dysmorphism, employing a DNA microarray constructed from large insert clones spaced at approximately 1 Mb intervals across the genome. Twelve copy number abnormalities were identified in 12 patients (24% of the total): seven deletions (six apparently de novo and one inherited from a phenotypically normal parent) and five duplications (one de novo and four inherited from phenotypically normal parents). Altered segments ranged in size from those involving a single clone to regions as large as 14 Mb. No recurrent deletion or duplication was identified within this cohort of patients. On the basis of these results, we anticipate that array-CGH will become a routine method of genome-wide screening for imbalanced rearrangements in children with learning disability. PMID:15060094

  5. High-density array-CGH with targeted NGS unmask multiple noncontiguous minute deletions on chromosome 3p21 in mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Emi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Nasu, Masaki; Pastorino, Sandra; Szymiczek, Agata; Bononi, Angela; Tanji, Mika; Pagano, Ian; Gaudino, Giovanni; Napolitano, Andrea; Goparaju, Chandra; Pass, Harvey I.; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We used a custom-made comparative genomic hybridization array (aCGH; average probe interval 254 bp) to screen 33 malignant mesothelioma (MM) biopsies for somatic copy number loss throughout the 3p21 region (10.7 Mb) that harbors 251 genes, including BRCA1 (breast cancer 1)-associated protein 1 (BAP1), the most commonly mutated gene in MM. We identified frequent minute biallelic deletions (<3 kb) in 46 of 251 genes: four were cancer-associated genes: SETD2 (SET domain-containing protein 2) (7 of 33), BAP1 (8 of 33), PBRM1 (polybromo 1) (3 of 33), and SMARCC1 (switch/sucrose nonfermentable- SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1) (2 of 33). These four genes were further investigated by targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS), which revealed sequence-level mutations causing biallelic inactivation. Combined high-density aCGH and tNGS revealed biallelic gene inactivation in SETD2 (9 of 33, 27%), BAP1 (16 of 33, 48%), PBRM1 (5 of 33, 15%), and SMARCC1 (2 of 33, 6%). The incidence of genetic alterations detected is much higher than reported in the literature because minute deletions are not detected by NGS or commercial aCGH. Many of these minute deletions were not contiguous, but rather alternated with segments showing oscillating copy number changes along the 3p21 region. In summary, we found that in MM: (i) multiple minute simultaneous biallelic deletions are frequent in chromosome 3p21, where they occur as distinct events involving multiple genes; (ii) in addition to BAP1, mutations of SETD2, PBRM1, and SMARCC1 are frequent in MM; and (iii) our results suggest that high-density aCGH combined with tNGS provides a more precise estimate of the frequency and types of genes inactivated in human cancer than approaches based exclusively on NGS strategy. PMID:27834213

  6. Somatic mosaicism detected by exon-targeted, high-resolution aCGH in 10 362 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Justin; Shaw, Chad; Pursley, Amber; Hixson, Patricia; Sampath, Srirangan; Roney, Erin; Gambin, Tomasz; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Bi, Weimin; Lalani, Seema; Bacino, Carlos; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Somatic chromosomal mosaicism arising from post-zygotic errors is known to cause several well-defined genetic syndromes as well as contribute to phenotypic variation in diseases. However, somatic mosaicism is often under-diagnosed due to challenges in detection. We evaluated 10 362 patients with a custom-designed, exon-targeted whole-genome oligonucleotide array and detected somatic mosaicism in a total of 57 cases (0.55%). The mosaicism was characterized and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or chromosome analysis. Different categories of abnormal cell lines were detected: (1) aneuploidy, including sex chromosome abnormalities and isochromosomes (22 cases), (2) ring or marker chromosomes (12 cases), (3) single deletion/duplication copy number variations (CNVs) (11 cases), (4) multiple deletion/duplication CNVs (5 cases), (5) exonic CNVs (4 cases), and (6) unbalanced translocations (3 cases). Levels of mosaicism calculated based on the array data were in good concordance with those observed by FISH (10–93%). Of the 14 cases evaluated concurrently by chromosome analysis, mosaicism was detected solely by the array in 4 cases (29%). In summary, our exon-targeted array further expands the diagnostic capability of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in detecting mosaicism for cytogenetic abnormalities as well as small CNVs in disease-causing genes. PMID:24398791

  7. Characterization of a neocentric supernumerary marker chromosome originating from the Xp distal region by FISH, CENP-C staining, and array CGH.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Barbouth, D; Benke, P J; Warburton, P E; Fan, Y-S

    2007-01-01

    A small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) was observed in a girl with severe developmental delay. Her dysmorphism included prominent forehead, hypertelorism, down-slanting palpebral fissures, low-set/large ears, and flat nasal bridge with anteverted nares. This case also presented hypotonia, hypermobility of joints, congenital heart defect, umbilical hernia, failure to thrive, and seizures. The SMC originated from the distal region of Xp as identified by FISH with multiple DNA probes. Staining with antibodies to Centromere Protein C (CENP-C) demonstrated a neocentromere, while FISH with an alpha-satellite DNA probe showed no hybridization to the SMC. A karyotype was described as 47,XX,+neo(X)(pter-->p22.31::p22.31-->pter), indicating a partial tetrasomy of Xp22.31-->pter. This karyotype represents a functional trisomy for Xp22.31-->pter and a functional tetrasomy for the pseudoautosomal region given that there is no X-inactivation center in the marker chromosome. The SMC was further characterized by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) as a duplicated DNA fragment of approximately 13 megabase pairs containing about 100 genes. We have described here a new neocentromere with discussion of its clinical significance. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Array CGH detection of a novel cryptic deletion at 3q13 in a complex chromosome rearrangement.

    PubMed

    López-Expósito, Isabel; Ballesta-Martinez, María Juliana; Bafalliu, Juan Antonio; Vera-Carbonell, Ascensión; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; López-González, Vanesa; Fernández, Asunción; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna

    2014-04-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are extremely rare in humans. About 20% of the apparently balanced CCRs have an abnormal phenotype and the degree of severity correlates with a higher number of breakpoints. Several studies using FISH and microarray technologies have shown that deletions in the breakpoints are common although duplications, insertions and inversions have also been detected. We report a patient with two simultaneous reciprocal translocations, t(3;4) and t(2;14;18), involving five chromosomes and six breakpoints. He showed dysmorphic features, preaxial polydactyly in the left hand, brachydactyly, postnatal growth retardation and developmental delay. The rearrangement was characterized by FISH analysis which detected an interstitial segment from chromosome 14 inserted in the derivative chromosome 2, and by whole genome array which revealed an interstitial deletion of approximately 4.5 Mb at the breakpoint site on chromosome 3. To our knowledge this microdeletion has not been previously reported and includes ~12 genes. The haploinsufficiency of one or several of these genes is likely to have contributed to the clinical phenotype of the patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inherited Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication in a boy with recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia: Clinical, chromosomal and aCGH characterization.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Valadares, Eugênia R; da Costa, Silvia S; Arantes, Rodrigo R; de Oliveira, Luiz Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Svartman, Marta

    2016-09-01

    We report on a 16-year-old boy with a maternally inherited ~ 18.3 Mb Xq13.2-q21.31 duplication delimited by aCGH. As previously described in patients with similar duplications, his clinical features included intellectual disability, developmental delay, speech delay, generalized hypotonia, infantile feeding difficulties, self-injurious behavior, short stature and endocrine problems. As additional findings, he presented recurrent seizures and pubertal gynecomastia. His mother was phenotypically normal and had completely skewed inactivation of the duplicated X chromosome, as most female carriers of such duplications. Five previously reported patients with partial Xq duplications presented duplication breakpoints similar to those of our patient. One of them, a fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities, had the same cytogenetic duplication breakpoint. Three of the reported patients shared many features with our proband but the other had some clinical features of the Prader-Willi syndrome. It was suggested that ATRX overexpression could be involved in the major clinical features of patients with partial Xq duplications. We propose that this gene could also be involved with the obesity of the patient with the Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Additionally, we suggest that the PCDH11X gene could be a candidate for our patient's recurrent seizures. In males, the Xq13-q21 duplication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome, as previously suggested, and neuromuscular diseases, particularly mitochondriopathies.

  10. High-resolution copy number profiling by array CGH using DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    van Essen, Hendrik F; Ylstra, Bauke

    2012-01-01

    We describe protocols to acquire high-quality DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for the use in array comparative genome hybridization (CGH). Formalin fixation combined with paraffin embedding is routine procedure for solid malignancies in the diagnostic practice of the pathologist. As a consequence, large archives of FFPE tissues are available in pathology institutes across the globe. This archival material is for many research questions an invaluable resource, with long-term clinical follow-up and survival data available. FFPE is, thus, highly attractive for large genomics studies, including experiments requiring samples for test/learning and validation. Most larger array CGH studies have, therefore, made use of FFPE material and show that CNAs have tumor- and tissue-specific traits (Chin et al. Cancer Cell 10: 529-541, 2006; Fridlyand et al. BMC Cancer 6: 96, 2006; Weiss et al. Oncogene 22: 1872-1879, 2003; Jong et al. Oncogene 26: 1499-1506, 2007). The protocols described are tailored to array CGH of FFPE solid malignancies: from sectioning FFPE blocks to specific cynosures for pathological revisions of sections, DNA isolation, quality testing, and amplification. The protocols are technical in character and elaborate up to the labeling of isolated DNA while further processes and interpretation and data analysis are beyond the scope.

  11. Whole-Genome Array CGH Evaluation for Replacing Prenatal Karyotyping in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Anita S. Y.; Lau, Elizabeth T.; Tang, W. F.; Chan, Sario S. Y.; Ding, Simon C. K.; Chan, Kelvin Y. K.; Lee, C. P.; Hui, Pui Wah; Chung, Brian H. Y.; Leung, K. Y.; Ma, Teresa; Leung, Wing C.; Tang, Mary H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in prenatal diagnosis in Hong Kong. Methods Array CGH was performed on 220 samples recruited prospectively as the first-tier test study. In addition 150 prenatal samples with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings found to have normal karyotypes were analyzed as a ‘further-test’ study using NimbleGen CGX-135K oligonucleotide arrays. Results Array CGH findings were concordant with conventional cytogenetic results with the exception of one case of triploidy. It was found in the first-tier test study that aCGH detected 20% (44/220) clinically significant copy number variants (CNV), of which 21 were common aneuploidies and 23 had other chromosomal imbalances. There were 3.2% (7/220) samples with CNVs detected by aCGH but not by conventional cytogenetics. In the ‘further-test’ study, the additional diagnostic yield of detecting chromosome imbalance was 6% (9/150). The overall detection for CNVs of unclear clinical significance was 2.7% (10/370) with 0.9% found to be de novo. Eleven loci of common CNVs were found in the local population. Conclusion Whole-genome aCGH offered a higher resolution diagnostic capacity than conventional karyotyping for prenatal diagnosis either as a first-tier test or as a ‘further-test’ for pregnancies with fetal ultrasound anomalies. We propose replacing conventional cytogenetics with aCGH for all pregnancies undergoing invasive diagnostic procedures after excluding common aneuploidies and triploidies by quantitative fluorescent PCR. Conventional cytogenetics can be reserved for visualization of clinically significant CNVs. PMID:24505343

  12. Whole-genome array CGH evaluation for replacing prenatal karyotyping in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kan, Anita S Y; Lau, Elizabeth T; Tang, W F; Chan, Sario S Y; Ding, Simon C K; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Lee, C P; Hui, Pui Wah; Chung, Brian H Y; Leung, K Y; Ma, Teresa; Leung, Wing C; Tang, Mary H Y

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in prenatal diagnosis in Hong Kong. Array CGH was performed on 220 samples recruited prospectively as the first-tier test study. In addition 150 prenatal samples with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings found to have normal karyotypes were analyzed as a 'further-test' study using NimbleGen CGX-135K oligonucleotide arrays. Array CGH findings were concordant with conventional cytogenetic results with the exception of one case of triploidy. It was found in the first-tier test study that aCGH detected 20% (44/220) clinically significant copy number variants (CNV), of which 21 were common aneuploidies and 23 had other chromosomal imbalances. There were 3.2% (7/220) samples with CNVs detected by aCGH but not by conventional cytogenetics. In the 'further-test' study, the additional diagnostic yield of detecting chromosome imbalance was 6% (9/150). The overall detection for CNVs of unclear clinical significance was 2.7% (10/370) with 0.9% found to be de novo. Eleven loci of common CNVs were found in the local population. Whole-genome aCGH offered a higher resolution diagnostic capacity than conventional karyotyping for prenatal diagnosis either as a first-tier test or as a 'further-test' for pregnancies with fetal ultrasound anomalies. We propose replacing conventional cytogenetics with aCGH for all pregnancies undergoing invasive diagnostic procedures after excluding common aneuploidies and triploidies by quantitative fluorescent PCR. Conventional cytogenetics can be reserved for visualization of clinically significant CNVs.

  13. Screening of genomic imbalances in glioblastoma multiforme using high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Vranová, Vladimíra; Necesalová, Eva; Kuglík, Petr; Cejpek, Pavel; Pesáková, Martina; Budínská, Eva; Relichová, Jirina; Veselská, Renata

    2007-02-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that allows the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequence copy number differences. We applied conventional CGH and the recently developed high-resolution CGH (HR-CGH) to tumour samples from 18 patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in order to compare the sensitivity of CGH and HR-CGH in the screening of chromosomal abnormalities. The abnormalities were studied in topologically different central and peripheral tumour parts. A total of 78 different changes were observed using CGH (0-16 per tumour, median 3.5) and 154 using HR-CGH (0-21 per tumour, median 6). Using HR-CGH, losses were more frequent than gains. The representation of the most prominent changes revealed by both methods was similar and was comprised of the amplification of 7q12 and 12q13-q15, the gain of 7, 3q and 19, and the loss of 10, 9p, and 13q. However, HR-CGH detected certain other abnormalities (the loss of 6, 14q, 15q and 18q, and the gain of 19), which were rarely revealed by CGH. Using HR-CGH, the numbers and types of chromosomal changes detected in the central and peripheral parts of GBM were almost the same. The loss of chromosomes 10 and 9p and the gain of chromosomes 7 and 19 were the most frequent chromosomal alterations in both tumour parts. Our results from the GBM analysis show that HR-CGH technology can reveal new, recurrent genetic alterations involving the genes known to participate in tumorigenesis and in the progression of several human malignancies, thus allowing for a more accurate genetic characterization of these tumours.

  14. aCGH-MAS: Analysis of aCGH by means of Multiagent System

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Rocío; Bajo, Javier; Rodríguez, Ana Eugenia; Abáigar, María

    2015-01-01

    There are currently different techniques, such as CGH arrays, to study genetic variations in patients. CGH arrays analyze gains and losses in different regions in the chromosome. Regions with gains or losses in pathologies are important for selecting relevant genes or CNVs (copy-number variations) associated with the variations detected within chromosomes. Information corresponding to mutations, genes, proteins, variations, CNVs, and diseases can be found in different databases and it would be of interest to incorporate information of different sources to extract relevant information. This work proposes a multiagent system to manage the information of aCGH arrays, with the aim of providing an intuitive and extensible system to analyze and interpret the results. The agent roles integrate statistical techniques to select relevant variations and visualization techniques for the interpretation of the final results and to extract relevant information from different sources of information by applying a CBR system. PMID:25874203

  15. [Familial presentation of microdeletion and inverted microduplication with array-CGH].

    PubMed

    Beseler-Soto, Beatriz; Jiménez-Candel, M Isabel; Pedrón-Marzal, Gema; Pérez-García, Begoña; Carpena-Lucas, Pedro J

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Over the years the field of genetics has advanced significantly. Following the polymerase chain reaction and mass sequencing techniques, the array-CGH technique (comparative genomic hybridization) has helped to improve genetic procedures. A resolution of up to 200 kb is currently being accomplished in the human genome. CASE REPORTS. We report the case of two sisters with delays in developmental milestones and a characteristic phenotype with normal results from initial studies of the karyotype and subtelomeric regions. Array-CGH was later used to detect a deletion and duplication that were different in each of the sisters, this being the result of a balanced paternal translocation. In the two cases, despite being the result of the same translocation, the genetic and phenotype expression were different. CONCLUSIONS. The precision achieved by means of array-CGH is making it possible to establish a correlation between minimum gains or losses of the genome and the clinical features. Chromosome 3 codes for genes that play a fundamental role in neurological development (contactins, neurotransmitter modulator proteins, etc.) and chromosome 10 codes for proteins involved in apoptosis and proteins regulating transcription. In the literature there have been reports of chromosome 3 deletion syndrome and monosomy 10. Likewise, there are also descriptions of rearrangements between these chromosomes in individuals from the same family. Nevertheless, we describe two cases of a family with a micro-deletion and an inverted microduplication, detected by means of array-CGH, that have not been reported to date. This technique can provide a diagnostic and prognostic approximation as regards development and offer genetic counselling.

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of seven human cancer cell lines by combining G- and R-banding, M-FISH, CGH and chromosome- and locus-specific FISH.

    PubMed

    Cottier, Michèle; Tchirkov, Andrei; Perissel, Bernard; Giollant, Michel; Campos, Lydia; Vago, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Leukemia cell lines K562, KG1a, U937, HL60, Jurkat and solid tumor cell lines A549 and M4Beu are widely used in studies of cell cycle, apoptosis and adhesion mechanisms in cancer cells. Although the K562 and U937 cell lines were previously subjected to a detailed cytogenetic characterization, only a few molecular cytogenetic investigations have been performed on the other five cell lines. We combined several molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multicolor FISH (M-FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to demonstrate the precise genetic aberrations in tumor genomes of these seven cell lines. This information may be useful for multiple studies on these cell lines, providing a genetic basis for the interpretations of experimental findings.

  17. Research on manufacturing method of CGH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xueting

    2016-09-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGH) has shown strong application potential and broad application prospect as the more and more extensive application of CGH. With respect to manufacture an available CGH, design the CGH will be easier. Therefore, this paper mainly summarizes some current feasible CGH manufacturing processes, and in this paper, the manufacturing processes of different types of CGH are presented and analyzed.

  18. New BAC probe set to narrow down chromosomal breakpoints in small and large derivative chromosomes, especially suited for mosaic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Ahmed B; Fan, Xiaobo; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Radhakrishnan, Gopakumar; Liehr, Thomas; Karamysheva, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) performed after initial banding cytogenetics is still the gold standard for detection of chromosomal rearrangements. Although aCGH provides a higher resolution, FISH has two main advantages over the array-based approaches: (1) it can be applied to characterize balanced as well as unbalanced rearrangements, whereas aCGH is restricted to unbalanced ones, and (2) chromosomal aberrations present in low level or complex mosaics can be characterized by FISH without any problems, while aCGH requires presence of over 50 % of aberrant cells in the sample for detection. Recently, a new FISH-based probe set was presented: the so-called pericentric-ladder-FISH (PCL-FISH) that enables characterization of chromosomal breakpoints especially in mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC). It can also be applied on large inborn or acquired derivative chromosomes. The main feature of this set is that the probes are applied in a chromosome-specific manner and they align along the chromosome in average intervals of ten megabasepairs. Hence PCL-FISH provides denser coverage and a more precise anchorage on the human DNA-sequence than most other FISH-banding approaches.

  19. From karyotyping to array-CGH in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lichtenbelt, K D; Knoers, N V A M; Schuring-Blom, G H

    2011-01-01

    Conventional karyotyping detects chromosomal anomalies in up to 35% of pregnancies with fetal ultrasound anomalies, depending on the number and type of these anomalies. Extensive experience gained in the past decades has shown that prenatal karyotyping is a robust technique which can detect the majority of germline chromosomal anomalies. For most of these anomalies the phenotype is known. In postnatal diagnosis of patients with congenital anomalies and intellectual disability, array-CGH/SNP array has become the first-tier investigation. The higher abnormality detection yield and its amenability to automation renders array-CGH also suitable for prenatal diagnosis. As both findings of unclear significance and unexpected findings may be detected, studies on the outcome of array-CGH in prenatal diagnosis were initially performed retrospectively. Recently, prospective application of array-CGH in pregnancies with ultrasound anomalies, and to a lesser extent in pregnancies referred for other reasons, was studied. Array-CGH showed an increased diagnostic yield compared to karyotyping, varying from 1-5%, depending on the reason for referral. Knowledge of the spectrum of array-CGH anomalies detected in the prenatal setting will increase rapidly in the years to come, thus facilitating pre- and posttest counseling. Meanwhile, new techniques like non-invasive prenatal diagnosis are emerging and will claim their place. In this review, we summarize the outcome of studies on prenatal array-CGH, the clinical relevance of differences in detection rate and range as compared to standard karyotyping, and reflect on the future integration of new molecular techniques in the workflow of prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities by array CGH analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Array CGH analysis has been shown to be highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and submicroscopic deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. The objective of this study is to present our "post-validation phase" experience with ...

  1. FISH and array-CGH analysis of a complex chromosome 3 aberration suggests that loss of CNTN4 and CRBN contributes to mental retardation in 3pter deletions.

    PubMed

    Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Essen, Ton; van der Vlies, Pieter; Verheij, Joke B G M; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Veen, Anneke Y; Gerssen-Schoorl, Klasien B J; Buys, Charles H C M; Kok, Klaas

    2006-11-15

    Imbalances of 3p telomeric sequences cause 3p- and trisomy 3p syndrome, respectively, showing distinct, but also shared clinical features. No causative genes have been identified in trisomy 3p patients, but for the 3p- syndrome, there is growing evidence that monosomy for one or more of four genes at 3pter, CHL1, CNTN4, CRBN, and MEGAP/srGAP3, may play a causative role. We describe here an analysis of a complex chromosome 3p aberration in a severely mentally retarded patient that revealed two adjacent segments with different copy number gains and a distal deletion. The deletion in this patient included the loci for CHL1, CNTN4, and CRBN, and narrowed the critical segment associated with the 3p- syndrome to 1.5 Mb, including the loci for CNTN4 and CRBN. We speculate that the deletion contributes more to this patient's phenotype than the gains that were observed. We suggest that 3p- syndrome associated features are primarily caused by loss of CNTN4 and CRBN, with loss of CHL1 probably having an additional detrimental effect on the cognitive functioning of the present patient.

  2. Chromosome-specific segmentation revealed by structural analysis of individually isolated chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Kunio; Taima, Akira; Ogasawara, Kiyomoto; Metsugi, Shouichi; Aikawa, Satoko

    2011-04-01

    Analysis of structural rearrangements at the individual chromosomal level is still technologically challenging. Here we optimized a chromosome isolation method using fluorescent marker-assisted laser-capture and laser-beam microdissection and applied it to structural analysis of two aberrant chromosomes found in a lung cancer cell line. A high-density array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis of DNA samples prepared from each of the chromosomes revealed that these two chromosomes contained 296 and 263 segments, respectively, ranging from 1.5 kb to 784.3 kb in size, derived from different portions of chromosome 8. Among these segments, 242 were common in both aberrant chromosomes, but 75 were found to be chromosome-specific. Sequences of 263 junction sites connecting the ends of segments were determined using a PCR/Sanger-sequencing procedure. Overlapping microhomologies were found at 169 junction sites. Junction partners came from various portions of chromosome 8 and no biased pattern in the positional distribution of junction partners was detected. These structural characteristics suggested the occurrence of random fragmentation of the entire chromosome 8 followed by random rejoining of these fragments. Based on that, we proposed a model to explain how these aberrant chromosomes are formed. Through these structural analyses, it was demonstrated that the optimized chromosome isolation method described here can provide high-quality chromosomal DNA for high resolution array-CGH analysis and probably for massively parallel sequencing analysis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Array-CGH analysis of cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Szuhai, K; van Doorn, R; Tensen, C P; Van Kester

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes a study in which the pattern of numerical chromosomal alterations in cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) tumor samples was defined using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). First, the array-based CGH technique applied is outlined in detail. Next, its application in the analysis of C-ALCL tumor specimens is described. This approach resulted in the identification of highly recurrent chromosomal alterations in C-ALCL that include gain of 7q31 and loss on 6q16-6q21 and 13q34, each affecting 45% of the patients. The pattern characteristic of C-ALCL differs markedly from chromosomal alterations observed in other CTCL such as mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome and yielded several candidate genes with potential relevance in the pathogenesis of C-ALCL.

  4. aCGHViewer: A Generic Visualization Tool For aCGH data

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ganesh; Rossi, Michael R.; McQuaid, Devin E.; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Gaile, Daniel G.; Cowell, John K.; Nowak, Norma J.; Liang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful high throughput technology for detecting chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) in cancer, aiming at identifying related critical genes from the affected genomic regions. However, advancing from a dataset with thousands of tabular lines to a few candidate genes can be an onerous and time-consuming process. To expedite the aCGH data analysis process, we have developed a user-friendly aCGH data viewer (aCGHViewer) as a conduit between the aCGH data tables and a genome browser. The data from a given aCGH analysis are displayed in a genomic view comprised of individual chromosome panels which can be rapidly scanned for interesting features. A chromosome panel containing a feature of interest can be selected to launch a detail window for that single chromosome. Selecting a data point of interest in the detail window launches a query to the UCSC or NCBI genome browser to allow the user to explore the gene content in the chromosomal region. Additionally, aCGHViewer can display aCGH and expression array data concurrently to visually correlate the two. aCGHViewer is a stand alone Java visualization application that should be used in conjunction with separate statistical programs. It operates on all major computer platforms and is freely available at http://falcon.roswellpark.org/aCGHview/. PMID:17404607

  5. Genomic profiling by DNA amplification of laser capture microdissected tissues and array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Joana; Molenaar, Lia; de Menezes, Renée X.; Rosenberg, Carla; Morreau, Hans; Möslein, Gabriela; Fodde, Riccardo; Boer, Judith M.

    2004-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization by means of BAC microarrays (array CGH) allows high-resolution profiling of copy-number aberrations in tumor DNA. However, specific genetic lesions associated with small but clinically relevant tumor areas may pass undetected due to intra-tumor heterogeneity and/or the presence of contaminating normal cells. Here, we show that the combination of laser capture microdissection, φ29 DNA polymerase-mediated isothermal genomic DNA amplification, and array CGH allows genomic profiling of very limited numbers of cells. Moreover, by means of simple statistical models, we were able to bypass the exclusion of amplification distortions and variability prone areas, and to detect tumor-specific chromosomal gains and losses. We applied this new combined experimental and analytical approach to the genomic profiling of colorectal adenomatous polyps and demonstrated our ability to accurately detect single copy gains and losses affecting either whole chromosomes or small genomic regions from as little as 2 ng of DNA or 1000 microdissected cells. PMID:15514107

  6. High-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genome hybridization reveals cryptic chromosome changes in AML and MDS cases with trisomy 8 as the sole cytogenetic aberration.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, K; Heidenblad, M; Strömbeck, B; Staaf, J; Jönsson, G; Borg, A; Fioretos, T; Johansson, B

    2006-05-01

    Although trisomy 8 as the sole chromosome aberration is the most common numerical abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), little is known about its pathogenetic effects. Considering that +8 is a frequent secondary change in AML/MDS, cryptic--possibly primary--genetic aberrations may occur in cases with trisomy 8 as the apparently single anomaly. However, no such hidden anomalies have been reported. We performed a high-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genome hybridization (array CGH) analysis of 10 AML/MDS cases with isolated +8, utilizing a 32K bacterial artificial chromosome array set, providing >98% coverage of the genome with a resolution of 100 kb. Array CGH revealed intrachromosomal imbalances, not corresponding to known genomic copy number polymorphisms, in 4/10 cases, comprising nine duplications and hemizygous deletions ranging in size from 0.5 to 2.2 Mb. A 1.8 Mb deletion at 7p14.1, which had occurred prior to the +8, was identified in MDS transforming to AML. Furthermore, a deletion including ETV6 was present in one case. The remaining seven imbalances involved more than 40 genes. The present results show that cryptic genetic abnormalities are frequent in trisomy 8-positive AML/MDS cases and that +8 as the sole cytogenetic aberration is not always the primary genetic event.

  7. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2005-04-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in-situ hybridization technique. In this type of analysis, two differentially labeled genomic DNAs (study and reference) are cohybridized to normal metaphase spreads or to microarray. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Thus, CGH allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. Since its development, comparative genomic hybridization has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. It is also a powerful tool for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal, postnatal and preimplantation diagnostics. The development of comparative genomic hybridization and increase in resolution analysis by using the microarray-based technique offer new information on chromosomal pathologies and thus better management of patients.

  8. A t-statistic for objective interpretation of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) profiles.

    PubMed

    Moore, D H; Pallavicini, M; Cher, M L; Gray, J W

    1997-07-01

    An objective method for interpreting comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is described and compared with current methods of interpretation. The method is based on a two-sample t-statistic in which composite test:reference and reference:reference CGH profiles are compared at each point along the genome to detect regions of significant differences. Composite profiles are created by combining CGH profiles measured from several metaphase chromosomes for each type of chromosome in the normal human karyotype. Composites for both test:reference and reference:reference CGH analyses are used to generate mean CGH profiles and information about the variance therein. The utility of the method is demonstrated through analysis of aneusomies and partial gain and loss of DNA sequence in a myeloid leukemia specimen. Banding analyses of this specimen indicated inv (3)(q21q26), del (5)(q2?q35), -7, +8 and add (17)(p11.2). The t-statistic analyses of CGH data indicated rev ish enh (8) and rev ish dim (5q31.1q33.1,7q11.23qter). The undetected gain on 17p was small and confined to a single band (17p11.2). Thus, the t-statistic is an objective and effective method for defining significant differences between test and reference CGH profiles.

  9. A web server for mining Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Ranka, Sanjay; Kahveci, Tamer

    2007-11-01

    Advances in cytogenetics and molecular biology has established that chromosomal alterations are critical in the pathogenesis of human cancer. Recurrent chromosomal alterations provide cytological and molecular markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. They also facilitate the identification of genes that are important in carcinogenesis, which in the future may help in the development of targeted therapy. A large amount of publicly available cancer genetic data is now available and it is growing. There is a need for public domain tools that allow users to analyze their data and visualize the results. This chapter describes a web based software tool that will allow researchers to analyze and visualize Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) datasets. It employs novel data mining methodologies for clustering and classification of CGH datasets as well as algorithms for identifying important markers (small set of genomic intervals with aberrations) that are potentially cancer signatures. The developed software will help in understanding the relationships between genomic aberrations and cancer types.

  10. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: a case with normal karyotype, demonstrated by array CGH (aCGH).

    PubMed

    Saberi, Alihossein; Shariati, Gholamreza; Hamid, Mohammad; Galehdari, Hamid; Abdorasouli, Nehzat

    2014-09-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a disorder that affects many parts of the body. The major features of this condition include specific craniofacial malformations, delayed growth and development, intellectual disability and seizures. Here, we report a case of WHS: a 27-month-old girl with a microdeletion at distal part of short arm of chromosome 4. She had striking clinical features of WHS and had an apparently normal karyotype. Array comparative genomic hybridization performed on the DNA extracted from peripheral blood revealed loss of 1.7 Mb at 4q16.3-q15.3. Taken together, this data suggests that a patient with strong clinical suspicion of chromosome abnormality and normal conventional karyotype analysis should be further evaluated by molecular cytogenetic techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

  11. High resolution physical mapping of single gene fragments on pachytene chromosome 4 and 7 of Rosa.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2015-07-02

    Rosaceae is a family containing many economically important fruit and ornamental species. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based physical mapping of plant genomes is a valuable tool for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, no studies using high resolution physical mapping have been performed in this family. Previously we proved that physical mapping of single-copy genes as small as 1.1 kb is possible on mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Rosa wichurana using Tyramide-FISH. In this study we aimed to further improve the physical map of Rosa wichurana by applying high resolution FISH to pachytene chromosomes. Using high resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH, 7 genes (1.7-3 kb) were successfully mapped on pachytene chromosomes 4 and 7 of Rosa wichurana. Additionally, by using multicolor Tyramide-FISH three closely located genes were simultaneously visualized on chromosome 7. A detailed map of heterochromatine/euchromatine patterns of chromosome 4 and 7 was developed with indication of the physical position of these 7 genes. Comparison of the gene order between Rosa wichurana and Fragaria vesca revealed a poor collinearity for chromosome 7, but a perfect collinearity for chromosome 4. High resolution physical mapping of short probes on pachytene chromosomes of Rosa wichurana was successfully performed for the first time. Application of Tyramide-FISH on pachytene chromosomes allowed the mapping resolution to be increased up to 20 times compared to mitotic metaphase chromosomes. High resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH might become useful tools for further physical mapping of single-copy genes and for the integration of physical and genetic maps of Rosa wichurana and other members of the Rosaceae.

  12. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L.; Magriñá, Maria A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema R.; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H.; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs. PMID:27880765

  13. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shen; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L; Magriñá, Maria A; Bacino, Carlos A; Lalani, Seema R; Breman, Amy M; Smith, Janice L; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R

    2016-11-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.

  14. Genetic characterisation of invasive breast cancer: a comparison of CGH and PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Buerger, H; Schmidt, H; Beckmann, A; Zänker, K S; Boecker, W; Brandt, B

    2001-11-01

    Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is a reliable tool to gain an overview of all unbalanced chromosomal alterations within a tumour. Nevertheless, the high numbers of tumour cells required and the comparatively low resolution are drawbacks of this technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based multiplex microsatellite analysis represents a semi-automated, highly reproducible method, which requires small amounts of tumour cells. This is a comparative study of CGH and microsatellite analysis. Eighty one samples of invasive breast cancer were investigated by two sensitive multiplex PCRs containing three microsatellites each of six markers (D6S261, D11S907, D6S300, D11S927, D8S272, and D11S925), and two additional microsatellite markers located within intron 1 of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) and p53 (p53CA). At least one example of loss of heterozygosity was detectable in all breast cancer tissues. However, the overall rate of accordance between the two methods tested was only 61%. An increasing rate of the number of genetic alterations in each case was mirrored by a constantly increasing fractional allelic loss index. PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis using this panel of eight microsatellite markers not only enables the characterisation of cells that have malignant potential in a high frequency of patients with breast cancer, but can also give an estimate of the degree of genetic progression.

  15. [Confirmation of a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)].

    PubMed

    Marton, T; Thein, A; Bán, Z; Soothill, P; Oroszné, N J; Papp, Z

    2001-05-13

    Trisomy 13 was diagnosed with genetic amniocentesis in a fetus of a 50 years old patient. Fetopathologic examination has shown cyclopy, proboscis and semilobar holoprosencephaly of the fetus, which is consistent with Patau syndrome. DNA was extracted from frozen liver tissue. Result of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was consistent with trisomy 13. They processed the DNA according Kallioniemi's method with modifications. CGH was developed for cancer genetics in mid 90s and now it is widely used in prenatal diagnosis too. CGH allows global analysis to detect unbalanced chromosome gains and losses in the whole genome in a single experiment without the need for cell culture. Significant results can be expected in those cases where conventional cytogenetics is not able to provide an answer either because postmortem tissue is not appropriate for cytogenetics or because the chromosomal change is sub-microscopical. CGH is a fluorescent in situ hybridization on a healthy target metaphase, with equal amount of competitive hybridization of green labelled digested test DNA and red labelled digested control DNA. Red to green ratio is assessed with the help of an image analyser. Green dominance represents chromosome gain, while red shift chromosome loss. In the paper they present the fetopathologic report of a trisomy 13 fetus and illustrate the method being the first Hungarian obstetric case diagnosed by CGH.

  16. Cytogenetic and array CGH characterization of de novo 1p36 duplications and deletion in a patient with congenital cataracts, hearing loss, choanal atresia, and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Emily; Obolensky, Elise; Rauen, Katherine A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Li, Xu

    2008-11-01

    We describe a 14-year-old boy with congenital bilateral cataracts, blepharophimosis, ptosis, choanal atresia, sensorineural hearing loss, short, webbed neck, poor esophageal motility, severe growth and mental retardation, skeletal anomalies, seizures, and no speech. As an infant, he had transient hypogammaglobulinemia requiring IVIG therapy. Cytogenetic studies show an apparently de novo visible duplication at 1p36.3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirm that the common region for the 1p36 deletion syndrome (p58) is duplicated. Probes for D1Z2 at 1p36.3 and the subtelomeric region of 1p (TEL1p) are also duplicated. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) studies were done at three separate laboratories, each with somewhat different results. BAC whole genome array CGH suggests a single clone gain at the 1p terminus and a single clone deletion at 1p36.3. A targeted BAC array panel with higher resolution at the distal 1p36 region detects a telomeric duplication and an interstitial deletion. Oligonucleotide whole genomic aCGH shows the highest resolution and a more complex rearrangement: two duplications, an interstitial deletion, and a normal region. The MMP23A/B "matrix metalloproteinase 23A/B" genes are within the distal duplication region in our patient, and this patient does not have craniosynostosis. This is the first association of congenital cataracts, choanal atresia, and transient immune abnormalities with 1p36 duplication/deletion. This case illustrates the limitations of different cytogenetic technologies, and shows how three separate aCGH platforms allow for refined delineation and interpretation of the complex cytogenetic rearrangement which would not have been discovered by standard high-resolution chromosome analysis.

  17. [Genomic abnormalities in children with mental retardation and autism: the use of comparative genomic hybridization in situ (HRCGH) and molecular karyotyping with DNA-microchips (array CGH)].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Kurinnaia, O S; Voinova, V Iu; Iurov, Iu B

    2013-01-01

    Genomic abnormalities occur with high frequency in children with mental retardation and autistic spectrum disorders (ADS). Molecular karyotyping using DNA microarrays is a new technology for diagnosis of genomic and chromosomal abnormalities in autism implemented in the fields of biological psychiatry and medical genetics. We carried out a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of genome abnormalities in children with mental retardation and autism of unknown etiology using high-resolution comparative genomic methods for hybridization (HRCGH) and molecular karyotyping (array CGH). In a study of 100 children with autism, learning difficulties and congenital malformations by HRCGH, we identified genomic rearrangements in 46% of cases. Using array CGH we examined 50 children with autism. In 44 cases out of 50 (88%), different genomic abnormalities and genomic variations (CNV - copy number variations) were identified. Unbalanced genomic rearrangements, including deletions and duplications, were found in 23 cases out of 44 (52%). These data suggest that genomic abnormalities which are not detectable by common methods of chromosome analysis are often discovered by molecular cytogenetic techniques in children autism spectrum disorders. In addition, 54 children with idiopathic mental retardation and congenital malformations (31 boys and 23 girls) without autism spectrum disorders were examined using molecular karyotyping and microarray containing an increased number of DNA samples for genomic loci of chromosome X. Deletions and duplications affecting different regions of the chromosome X were detected in 11 out of 54 children (20.4%).

  18. A High Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 4A

    PubMed Central

    Balcárková, Barbora; Frenkel, Zeev; Škopová, Monika; Abrouk, Michael; Kumar, Ajay; Chao, Shiaoman; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Akhunov, Eduard; Korol, Abraham B.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Bread wheat has a large and complex allohexaploid genome with low recombination level at chromosome centromeric and peri-centromeric regions. This significantly hampers ordering of markers, contigs of physical maps and sequence scaffolds and impedes obtaining of high-quality reference genome sequence. Here we report on the construction of high-density and high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of chromosome 4A supported by high-density chromosome deletion map. A total of 119 endosperm-based RH lines of two RH panels and 15 chromosome deletion bin lines were genotyped with 90K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 2316 and 2695 markers were successfully mapped to the 4A RH and deletion maps, respectively. The chromosome deletion map was ordered in 19 bins and allowed precise identification of centromeric region and verification of the RH panel reliability. The 4A-specific RH map comprises 1080 mapping bins and spans 6550.9 cR with a resolution of 0.13 Mb/cR. Significantly higher mapping resolution in the centromeric region was observed as compared to recombination maps. Relatively even distribution of deletion frequency along the chromosome in the RH panel was observed and putative functional centromere was delimited within a region characterized by two SNP markers. PMID:28119729

  19. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  20. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  1. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  2. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  3. Genomic profiling of bone and soft tissue tumors with supernumerary ring chromosomes using tiling resolution bacterial artificial chromosome microarrays.

    PubMed

    Heidenblad, M; Hallor, K H; Staaf, J; Jönsson, G; Borg, A; Höglund, M; Mertens, F; Mandahl, N

    2006-11-09

    Ring chromosomes and/or giant marker chromosomes have been observed in a variety of human tumor types, but they are particularly common in a subgroup of mesenchymal tumors of low-grade or borderline malignancy. These rings and markers have been shown to contain amplified material predominantly from 12q13-15, but also sequences from other chromosomes. Such amplified sequences were mapped in detail by genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization in ring-containing tumor samples from soft tissue (n = 15) and bone (n = 6), using tiling resolution microarrays, encompassing 32 433 bacterial artificial chromosome clones. The DNA copy number profiles revealed multiple amplification targets, in many cases highly discontinuous, leading to delineation of large numbers of very small amplicons. A total number of 356 (median size: 0.64 Mb) amplicons were seen in the soft tissue tumors and 90 (median size: 1.19 Mb) in the bone tumors. Notably, more than 40% of all amplicons in both soft tissue and bone tumors were mapped to chromosome 12, and at least one of the previously reported recurrent amplifications in 12q13.3-14.1 and 12q15.1, including SAS and CDK4, and MDM2, respectively, were present in 85% of the soft tissue tumors and in all of the bone tumors. Although chromosome 12 was the only chromosome displaying recurrent amplification in the bone tumors, the soft tissue tumors frequently showed recurrent amplicons mapping to other chromosomes, that is, 1p32, 1q23-24, 3p11-12, 6q24-25 and 20q11-12. Of particular interest, amplicons containing genes involved in the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, that is, JUN in 1p32 and MAP3K7IP2 (TAB2) in 6q24-25, were found to be independently amplified in eight of 11 cases with 12q amplification, providing strong support for the notion that aberrant expression of this pathway is an important step in the dedifferentiation of liposarcomas.

  4. HIGH-RESOLUTION GENOMIC ARRAYS FACILITATE DETECTION OF NOVEL CRYPTIC CHROMOSOMAL LESIONS IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Christine L.; Tiu, Ramon; Gondek, Lukasz P.; Powers, Jennifer; Theil, Karl S.; Kalaycio, Matt; Lichtin, Alan; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Unbalanced chromosomal aberrations are common in myelodysplastic syndromes, and have prognostic implications. An increased frequency of cytogenetic changes may reflect an inherent chromosomal instability due to failure of DNA repair. Therefore, it is likely that chromosomal defects in myelodysplastic syndromes may be more frequent than predicted by metaphase cytogenetics and new cryptic lesions may be revealed by precise analysis methods. Methods We used a novel high-resolution karyotyping technique, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, to investigate the frequency of cryptic chromosomal lesions in a cohort of 38 well-characterized myelodysplastic syndromes patients; results were confirmed by microsatellite quantitative PCR or single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Results As compared to metaphase karyotyping, chromosomal abnormalities detected by array-based analysis were encountered more frequently and in a higher proportion of patients. For example, chromosomal defects were found in patients with a normal karyotype by traditional cytogenetics. In addition to verifying common abnormalities, previously cryptic defects were found in new regions of the genome. Cryptic changes often overlapped chromosomes and regions frequently identified as abnormal by metaphase cytogenetics. Conclusion The results underscore the instability of the myelodysplastic syndromes genome and highlight the utility of array-based karyotyping to study cryptic chromosomal changes which may provide new diagnostic information. PMID:17258073

  5. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Zessin, Patrick J M; Finan, Kieran; Heilemann, Mike

    2012-02-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a powerful tool for understanding cellular function. However one of the most important biomolecules - DNA - remains somewhat inaccessible because it cannot be effectively and appropriately labeled. Here, we demonstrate that robust and detailed super-resolution images of DNA can be produced by combining 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling using the 'click chemistry' approach and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). This method can resolve fine chromatin structure, and - when used in conjunction with pulse labeling - can reveal the paths taken by individual fibers through the nucleus. This technique should provide a useful tool for the study of nuclear structure and function.

  6. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) for rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have shown in a prospective validation study that an array CGH test was highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. Here we present our updated "post-validation phase" experience with...

  7. An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: a new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome evolution in turtles.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pedro Alonzo; Ezaz, Tariq; Valenzuela, Nicole; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal sex determination is the prevalent system found in animals but is rare among turtles. In fact, heteromorphic sex chromosomes are known in only seven of the turtles possessing genotypic sex determination (GSD), two of which correspond to cryptic sex microchromosomes detectable only with high-resolution cytogenetic techniques. Sex chromosomes were undetected in previous studies of Emydura macquarii, a GSD side-necked turtle. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and GTG-banding, a heteromorphic XX/XY sex chromosome system was detected in E. macquarii. The Y chromosome appears submetacentric and somewhat larger than the metacentric X, the first such report for turtles. CGH revealed a male-specific chromosomal region, which appeared heteromorphic using GTG-banding, and was restricted to the telomeric region of the p arm. Based on our observations and the current phylogeny of chelid turtles, we hypothesize that the sex chromosomes of E. macquarii might be the result of a translocation of an ancestral Y microchromosome as found in a turtle belonging to a sister clade, Chelodina longicollis, onto the tip of an autosome. However, in the absence of data from an outgroup, the opposite (fission of a large XY into an autosome and a micro-XY) is theoretically equally likely. Alternatively, the sex chromosome systems of E. macquarii and C. longicollis may have evolved independently. We discuss the potential causes and consequences of such putative chromosome rearrangements in the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-determining systems of turtles in general.

  8. Chromosome

    MedlinePlus

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  9. Programmable CGH on photochromic material using DMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, Romain; Pariani, Giorgio; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Bianco, Andrea; Bertarelli, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) are useful for wavefront shaping and complex optics testing, including aspherical and free-form optics. Today, CGHs are recorded directly with a laser or intermediates masks but allows only recording binary CGHs; binary CGHs are efficient but can reconstruct only pixilated images. We propose to use a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) for writing binary CGHs as well as grayscale CGHs, able to reconstruct fulfilled images. DMD is actually studied at LAM, for generating programmable slit masks in multi-object spectrographs. It is composed of 2048x1080 individually controllable micro-mirrors, with a pitch of 13.68 μm. This is a real-time reconfigurable mask, perfect for recording CGHs. A first setup has been developed for hologram recording, where the DMD is enlightened with a collimated beam and illuminates a photosensible plate through an Offner relay, with a magnification of 1:1. Our set up resolution is 2-3 μm, leading to a CGH resolution equal to the DMD micro mirror size. In order to write and erase CGHs during test procedure or on request, we use a photochromic plate called PUR-GD71-50-ST developed at Politecnico di Milano. It is opaque at rest, and becomes transparent when it is illuminated with visible light, between 500 and 700 nm; then it can be erased by a UV flash. We choose to code the CGHs in equally spaced levels, so called stepped CGH. We recorded up to 1000x1000 pixels CGHs with a contrast greater than 50, knowing that the material is able to reach an ultimate contrast of 1000. A second bench has also been developed, dedicated to the reconstruction of the recorded images with a 632.8nm He-Ne laser beam. Very faithful reconstructions have been obtained. Thanks to our recording and reconstruction set-ups, we have been able to successfully record binary and stepped CGHs, and reconstruct them with a high fidelity, revealing the potential of this method for generating programmable/rewritable stepped CGHs on

  10. Chromosomal Localization of DNA Amplifications in Neuroblastoma Tumors Using cDNA Microarray Comparative Genomic Hybridization1

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, Ben; Braude, Ilan; Marrano, Paula; Thorner, Paul; Zielenska, Maria; Squire, Jeremy A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) profiling of neuroblastomas has identified many genomic aberrations, although the limited resolution has precluded a precise localization of sequences of interest within amplicons. To map high copy number genomic gains in clinically matched stage IV neuroblastomas, CGH analysis using a 19,200-feature cDNA microarray was used. A dedicated (freely available) algorithm was developed for rapid in silico determination of chromosomal localizations of microarray cDNA targets, and for generation of an ideogram-type profile of copy number changes. Using these methodologies, novel gene amplifications undetectable by chromosome CGH were identified, and larger MYCN amplicon sizes (in one tumor up to 6 Mb) than those previously reported in neuroblastoma were identified. The genes HPCAL1, LPIN1/KIAA0188, NAG, and NSE1/LOC151354 were found to be coamplified with MYCN. To determine whether stage IV primary tumors could be further subclassified based on their genomic copy number profiles, hierarchical clustering was performed. Cluster analysis of microarray CGH data identified three groups: 1) no amplifications evident, 2) a small MYCN amplicon as the only detectable imbalance, and 3) a large MYCN amplicon with additional gene amplifications. Application of CGH to cDNA microarray targets will help to determine both the variation of amplicon size and help better define amplification-dependent and independent pathways of progression in neuroblastoma. PMID:12659670

  11. Molecular characterization of 20 small supernumerary marker chromosome cases using array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingran; Zhang, Han; Li, Guiying; Guy, Carrie J; Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xianglan; Gong, Fangchao; Lee, Jiyun; Hassed, Susan; Li, Shibo

    2017-09-04

    The variability of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC)-related phenotype is determined by the molecular component, the size, and shape of the marker chromosome. As fluorescence in situ hybridization has limitations regarding the resolution, efficiency, and accuracy. Recently, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used for sSMC characterization. In this study, twenty cases with sSMCs were characterized by aCGH and FISH. Chromosomal origin of the marker chromosomes were successfully identified in seventeen of them. For the three cases with negative aCGH results, two of them were more likely due to that the sSMCs only contained centromere heterochromatin, whereas the reason for the remaining case with negative aCGH finding was uncertain. In order to establish a stronger genotype-phenotype correlation for clinical service in the future and avoid miss characterization, more sSMC cases were needed to be detailed characterized. This will help to clarify the variable clinical characteristics of sSMCs and provide additional information to aid clinical service and future research.

  12. High resolution mapping of interstitial long arm deletions of chromosome 16: relationship to phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Callen, D F; Eyre, H; Lane, S; Shen, Y; Hansmann, I; Spinner, N; Zackai, E; McDonald-McGinn, D; Schuffenhauer, S; Wauters, J

    1993-01-01

    The breakpoints of seven interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 16 and two ring chromosomes of this chromosome were mapped by in situ hybridisation or by analysis of mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing the deleted chromosome 16. Use of a high resolution cytogenetic based physical map of chromosome 16 enabled breakpoints to be assigned to an average resolution of at least 1.6 Mb. In general, interstitial deletions involving q12 or q22.1 have broadly similar phenotypes though there are differences in specific abnormalities. Deletions involving regions more distal, from 16q22.1 to 16q24.1, were associated with relatively mild dysmorphism. One region of the long arm, q24.2 to q24.3, was not involved in any deletion, either in this study or in any previous report. Presumably, monosomy for this region is lethal. In contrast, patients with deletions of 16q21 have a normal phenotype. These results are consistent with the proposed distribution of genes, frequent in telomeric Giesma light band regions but infrequent in G positive bands. Images PMID:8230159

  13. Findings from aCGH in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH): a possible locus for Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, S; Casavant, D; Prada, C; Russell, M; Byrne, J; Haug, L Wilkins; Jennings, R; Manning, S; Blaise, F; Boyd, T K; Fryns, J P; Holmes, L B; Donahoe, P K; Lee, C; Kimonis, V; Pober, B R

    2006-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common and often devastating birth defect that can occur in isolation or as part of a malformation complex. Considerable progress is being made in the identification of genetic causes of CDH. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of approximately 1Mb resolution to 29 CDH patients with prior normal karyotypes who had been recruited into our multi-site study. One patient, clinically diagnosed with Fryns syndrome, demonstrated a de novo 5Mb deletion at chromosome region 1q41-q42.12 that was confirmed by FISH. Given prior reports of CDH in association with cytogenetic abnormalities in this region, we propose that this represents a locus for Fryns syndrome, a Fryns syndrome phenocopy, or CDH.

  14. Significance of genome-wide analysis of copy number alterations and UPD in myelodysplastic syndromes using combined CGH - SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Iqbal, M Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Genetic information is an extremely valuable data source in characterizing the personal nature of cancer. Chromosome instability is a hallmark of most cancer cells. Chromosomal abnormalities are correlated with poor prognosis, disease classification, risk stratification, and treatment selection. Copy number alterations (CNAs) are an important molecular signature in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Recent application of whole-genome tools to characterize normal and cancer genomes provides the powerful molecular cytogenetic means to enumerate the multiple somatic, genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur in cancer. Combined array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array is a useful technique allowing detection of CNAs and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or uni-parental disomy (UPD) together in a single experiment. It also provides allelic information on deletions, duplications, and amplifications. UPD can result in an abnormal phenotype when the chromosomes involved are imprinted. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common clonal stem cell hematologic malignancy characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, which leads to rapid progression into acute myeloid leukemia. UPD that occurs without concurrent changes in the gene copy number is a common chromosomal defect in hematologic malignancies, especially in MDS. Approximately 40-50% of MDS patients do not have karyotypic abnormalities that are detectable using classical metaphase cytogenetic techniques (MC) because of inherent limitations of MC, low resolution and the requirement of having dividing cells. In this review, we highlight advances in the clinical application of microarray technology in MDS and discuss the clinical potential of microarray.

  15. Genetic characterisation of invasive breast cancer: a comparison of CGH and PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, H; Schmidt, H; Beckmann, A; Zanker, K; Boecker, W; Brandt, B

    2001-01-01

    Aims—Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is a reliable tool to gain an overview of all unbalanced chromosomal alterations within a tumour. Nevertheless, the high numbers of tumour cells required and the comparatively low resolution are drawbacks of this technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based multiplex microsatellite analysis represents a semi-automated, highly reproducible method, which requires small amounts of tumour cells. This is a comparative study of CGH and microsatellite analysis. Methods—Eighty one samples of invasive breast cancer were investigated by two sensitive multiplex PCRs containing three microsatellites each of six markers (D6S261, D11S907, D6S300, D11S927, D8S272, and D11S925), and two additional microsatellite markers located within intron 1 of the epidermal growth factor recepter gene (egfr) and p53 (p53CA). Results—At least one example of loss of heterozygosity was detectable in all breast cancer tissues. However, the overall rate of accordance between the two methods tested was only 61%. An increasing rate of the number of genetic alterations in each case was mirrored by a constantly increasing fractional allelic loss index. Conclusions—PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis using this panel of eight microsatellite markers not only enables the characterisation of cells that have malignant potential in a high frequency of patients with breast cancer, but can also give an estimate of the degree of genetic progression. Key Words: breast cancer • comparative genomic hybridisation • microsatellites • epidermal growth factor • p53 PMID:11684716

  16. Molecular karyotyping by array CGH in a Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been repeatedly shown to be a successful tool for the identification of genomic variations in a clinical population. During the last decade, the implementation of array CGH has resulted in the identification of new causative submicroscopic chromosome imbalances and copy number variations (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric (neurobehavioral) diseases. Currently, array-CGH-based technologies have become an integral part of molecular diagnosis and research in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and children with intellectual disability (mental retardation) and congenital anomalies. Here, we introduce the Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies analyzed by BAC array CGH and a novel bioinformatic strategy. Results Among 54 individuals highly selected according to clinical criteria and molecular and cytogenetic data (from 2426 patients evaluated cytogenetically and molecularly between November 2007 and May 2012), chromosomal imbalances were detected in 26 individuals (48%). In two patients (4%), a previously undescribed condition was observed. The latter has been designated as meiotic (constitutional) genomic instability resulted in multiple submicroscopic rearrangements (including CNVs). Using bioinformatic strategy, we were able to identify clinically relevant CNVs in 15 individuals (28%). Selected cases were confirmed by molecular cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods. Eight out of 26 chromosomal imbalances (31%) have not been previously reported. Among them, three cases were co-occurrence of subtle chromosome 9 and 21 deletions. Conclusions We conducted an array CGH study of Russian patients suffering from intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. In total, phenotypic manifestations of clinically relevant genomic variations were found to result from genomic rearrangements affecting 1247 disease-causing and pathway

  17. High resolution comparative genomic hybridisation in clinical cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, M.; Rose, H.; Lundsteen, C.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution comparative genomic hybridisation (HR-CGH) is a diagnostic tool in our clinical cytogenetics laboratory. The present survey reports the results of 253 clinical cases in which 47 abnormalities were detected. Among 144 dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects with a normal conventional karyotype, 15 (10%) had small deletions or duplications, of which 11 were interstitial. In addition, a case of mosaic trisomy 9 was detected. Among 25 dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects carrying apparently balanced de novo translocations, four had deletions at translocation breakpoints and two had deletions elsewhere in the genome. Seventeen of 19 complex rearrangements were clarified by HR-CGH. A small supernumerary marker chromosome occurring with low frequency and the breakpoint of a mosaic r(18) case could not be clarified. Three of 19 other abnormalities could not be confirmed by HR-CGH. One was a Williams syndrome deletion and two were DiGeorge syndrome deletions, which were apparently below the resolution of HR-CGH. However, we were able to confirm Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome deletions, which are about 3-5 Mb. We conclude that HR-CGH should be used for the evaluation of (1) dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects where normal karyotyping has failed to show abnormalities, (2) dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects carrying apparently balanced de novo translocations, (3) apparently balanced de novo translocations detected prenatally, and (4) for clarification of complex structural rearrangements.


Keywords: comparative genomic hybridisation; chromosome analysis; chromosome aberrations; dysmorphism PMID:11694545

  18. Array-CGH analysis in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital malformations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vianna, G S; Medeiros, P F V; Alves, A F; Silva, T O; Jehee, F S

    2016-02-19

    In several patients, intellectual disability and/or congenital malformation may be attributed to chromosomal changes. In this study, we conducted an array-CGH test of 200 patients from the Northeast of Brazil with intellectual disability and/or congenital malformation. Blood samples were collected from the proband and from their parents when possible. DNA was extracted and investigated using the array-CGH test. Findings were evaluated for the pathogenicity in databases of benign and pathogenic changes (ISCA, UCSC, DGV, and DECIPHER). Forty-seven copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in 43/200 (21.5%) patients, including 25/98 (25.5%) in males and 22/102 (21.57%) in females. We considered 33 of these to be clinically significant, reaching a diagnosis rate of 16.5%. The sizes of the CNVs varied from 102 kb to 24 Mb in deletions and from 115 kb to 140 Mb in duplications. In 10/47 (21.3%) patients, the rearrangement involved a sex chromosome. Thirty-nine patients had one chromosomal aberration, while 2 concomitant abnormalities were detected in 4 patients. Ten of 47 CNVs (21.3%) were > 5Mb in size. Fifteen patients had CNVs related to known syndromes. This research highlights the contribution of submicroscopic chromosomal changes to the etiology of intellectual disability and/or congenital malformation, particularly the implication of chromosomal abnormalities detected using an array-CGH test, with a high rate of 16.5%. Thus, our results support the use of array-CGH replacing standard karyotype as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with multiple congenital anomalies and/or intellectual disability.

  19. [Applied research of combined G-banding and array-CGH in the prenatal diagnosis of ultrasonographic abnormalities in fetuses].

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenting; Lu, Jian; Xu, Ling; Zheng, Laiping; Zhang, Yichong; Zhong, Yinhuan; Wang, Yousheng; Jin, Yu

    2014-12-01

    To use combined comparative genome hybridization (array-CGH) and conventional karyotype analysis to study the relationship between ultrasonographic abnormalities of fetuses and chromosomal aberrations. One hundred twenty two fetuses with ultrasonographic abnormalities in middle and late trimesters suspected with chromosomal abnormalities were collected between March 2012 and February 2013. The pregnant women had an average age of 31 yr (22-38), among whom 35 were above the age of 35. The average gestational age was 27(+5) weeks (18-37 weeks), and the most common abnormal findings have involved heart, central nervous system and bones. Multiple malformations were found in 49 cases. The success rate of the combined methods was 100%. In 24 (19.7%) of the cases, a chromosomal abnormality was detected. Among all cases, 16 (13.1%) were detected by the combined method (12.3%). Seventeen cases (13.9%) of chromosomal abnormalities and 4 cases (3.3%) of polymorphic variation were detected by karyotype analysis, and 23 cases (8.9%) of abnormalities were detected by array-CGH. Meanwhile, 7 cases (5.7%) of abnormalities were detected by array-CGH, but the results of karyotype analysis were normal. One case (0.8%) with low level of chromosome chimerism detected by the karyotype analysis was missed by array-CGH. The results suggested that multiple congenital deformity of the fetus has a strong correlation with chromosomal abnormalities. For fetuses with ultrasonographic abnormalities, array-CGH can improve the detection sensitivity of the chromosomal disease.

  20. High Resolution Analysis of Meiotic Chromosome Structure and Behaviour in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Dylan; Nibau, Candida; Wnetrzak, Joanna; Jenkins, Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis generate most of the genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. In barley, crossovers are confined primarily to distal regions of the chromosomes, which means that a substantial proportion of the genes of this crop rarely, if ever, engage in recombination events. There is potentially much to be gained by redistributing crossovers to more proximal regions, but our ability to achieve this is dependent upon a far better understanding of meiosis in this species. This study explores the meiotic process by describing with unprecedented resolution the early behaviour of chromosomal domains, the progression of synapsis and the structure of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Using a combination of molecular cytogenetics and advanced fluorescence imaging, we show for the first time in this species that non-homologous centromeres are coupled prior to synapsis. We demonstrate that at early meiotic prophase the loading of the SC-associated structural protein ASY1, the cluster of telomeres, and distal synaptic initiation sites occupy the same polarised region of the nucleus. Through the use of advanced 3D image analysis, we show that synapsis is driven predominantly from the telomeres, and that new synaptic initiation sites arise during zygotene. In addition, we identified two different SC configurations through the use of super-resolution 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). PMID:22761818

  1. Molecular cytogenetic search for cryptic sex chromosomes in painted turtles Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole; Badenhorst, Daleen; Montiel, Eugenia E; Literman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is triggered by factors ranging from genotypic (GSD) to environmental (ESD), or both GSD + EE (GSD susceptible to environmental effects), and its evolution remains enigmatic. The presence/absence of sex chromosomes purportedly separates species at the ESD end of the continuum from the rest (GSD and GSD + EE) because the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes and autosomes differ. However, studies suggest that turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are cryptically GSD and possess sex chromosomes. Here, we test this hypothesis in painted turtles Chrysemys picta (TSD), using comparative-genome-hybridization (CGH), a technique known to detect morphologically indistinguishable sex chromosomes in other turtles and reptiles. Our results show no evidence for the existence of sex chromosomes in painted turtles. While it remains plausible that cryptic sex chromosomes may exist in TSD turtles that are characterized by minor genetic differences that cannot be detected at the resolution of CGH, previous attempts have failed to identify sex-specific markers. Genomic sequencing should prove useful in providing conclusive evidence in this regard. If such efforts uncover sex chromosomes in TSD turtles, it may reveal the existence of a fundamental constraint for the evolution of a full spectrum of sex determination (from pure GSD to pure TSD) that is predicted theoretically. Finding sex chromosomes in ESD organisms would question whether pure ESD mechanisms exist at all in nature, or whether those systems currently considered pure ESD simply await the characterization of an underlying GSD architecture.

  2. A high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map of equine chromosome 4q12-q22.

    PubMed

    Dierks, C; Mömke, S; Drögemüller, C; Leeb, T; Chowdhary, B P; Distl, O

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we present a comprehensive 5000-rad radiation hybrid map of a 40-cM region on equine chromosome 4 (ECA4) that contains quantitative trait loci for equine osteochondrosis. We mapped 29 gene-associated sequence tagged site markers using primers designed from equine expressed sequence tags or BAC clones in the ECA4q12-q22 region. Three blocks of conserved synteny, showing two chromosomal breakpoints, were identified in the segment of ECA4q12-q22. Markers from other segments of HSA7q mapped to ECA13p and ECA4p, and a region of HSA7p was homologous to ECA13p. Therefore, we have improved the resolution of the human-equine comparative map, which allows the identification of candidate genes underlying traits of interest.

  3. Transient congenital hypoparathyroidism: resolution and recurrence in chromosome 22q11 deletion.

    PubMed

    Greig, F; Paul, E; DiMartino-Nardi, J; Saenger, P

    1996-04-01

    Transient congenital hypoparathyroidism (TCHP), with spontaneous resolution in infancy and subsequent recurrence in childhood, has not been associated with a specific cause. We report three patients with TCHP, initially with severe but transient neonatal hypocalcemia. During childhood, recurrence of hypoparathyroidism and recognition of phenotypic features suggested a diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Features specific for the DiGeorge syndrome, with known clinical and genetic overlap with VCFS, were not present except for hypoparathyroidism. Genetic analysis confirmed chromosome 22q11 deletion in each patient. TCHP may be the earliest specific finding in 22q11 deletion/VCFS subgroup, with other diagnostic features emerging in later childhood. Infants with resolved TCHP need continued observation of parathyroid sufficiency, genetic analysis, and examination for anomalies associated with chromosome 22q11 deletion.

  4. Triangulating the sexually dimorphic brain through high-resolution neuroimaging of murine sex chromosome aneuploidies

    PubMed Central

    Lue, YanHe; Probst, Frank; Greenstein, Deanna; Giedd, Jay; Wang, Christina; Lerch, Jason; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Murine sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) provide powerful models for charting sex chromosome influences on mammalian brain development. Here, building on prior work in X-monosomic (XO) mice, we use spatially non-biased high-resolution imaging to compare and contrast neuroanatomical alterations in XXY and XO mice relative to their wild-type XX and XY littermates. First, we show that carriage of a supernumerary X chromosome in XXY males (1) does not prevent normative volumetric masculinization of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala, but (2) causes distributed anatomical alterations relative to XY males, which show a statistically unexpected tendency to be colocalized with and reciprocal to XO-XX differences in anatomy. These overlaps identify the lateral septum, BNST, ventral group thalamic nuclei and periaqueductal gray matter as regions with replicable sensitivity to X chromosome dose across two SCAs. We then harness anatomical variation across all four karyotype groups in our study—XO, XX, XY and XXY—to create an agnostic data-driven segmentation of the mouse brain into five distributed clusters which (1) recover fundamental properties of brain organization with high spatial precision, (2) define two previously uncharacterized systems of relative volume excess in females vs. males (“forebrain cholinergic” and “cerebelo-pontine-thalamo-cortical”), and (3) adopt stereotyped spatial motifs which delineate ordered gradients of sex chromosome and gonadal influences on volumetric brain development. Taken together, these data provide a new framework for the study of sexually dimorphic influences on brain development in health and disrupted brain development in SCA. PMID:25146308

  5. Triangulating the sexually dimorphic brain through high-resolution neuroimaging of murine sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Raznahan, Armin; Lue, YanHe; Probst, Frank; Greenstein, Deanna; Giedd, Jay; Wang, Christina; Lerch, Jason; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Murine sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) provide powerful models for charting sex chromosome influences on mammalian brain development. Here, building on prior work in X-monosomic (XO) mice, we use spatially non-biased high-resolution imaging to compare and contrast neuroanatomical alterations in XXY and XO mice relative to their wild-type XX and XY littermates. First, we show that carriage of a supernumerary X chromosome in XXY males (1) does not prevent normative volumetric masculinization of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala, but (2) causes distributed anatomical alterations relative to XY males, which show a statistically unexpected tendency to be co-localized with and reciprocal to XO-XX differences in anatomy. These overlaps identify the lateral septum, BNST, ventral group thalamic nuclei and periaqueductal gray matter as regions with replicable sensitivity to X chromosome dose across two SCAs. We then harness anatomical variation across all four karyotype groups in our study--XO, XX, XY and XXY--to create an agnostic data-driven segmentation of the mouse brain into five distributed clusters which (1) recover fundamental properties of brain organization with high spatial precision, (2) define two previously uncharacterized systems of relative volume excess in females vs. males ("forebrain cholinergic" and "cerebelo-pontine-thalamo-cortical"), and (3) adopt stereotyped spatial motifs which delineate ordered gradients of sex chromosome and gonadal influences on volumetric brain development. Taken together, these data provide a new framework for the study of sexually dimorphic influences on brain development in health and disrupted brain development in SCA.

  6. Chromosomal copy number analysis on chorionic villus samples from early spontaneous miscarriages by high throughput genetic technology.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiandong; Wu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Ochin, Humphrey; Qu, Dianyun; Xie, Jiazi; Gao, Li; Zhou, Yadong; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    About 10 -15 % of all clinically recognized pregnancies result in spontaneous miscarriages, and chromosomal abnormalities are the most common reason. The conventional karyotyping on chorionic villus samples (CVSs) is limited by cell culture and its resolution. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of the application of high throughput genetic technology, including array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and next generation sequencing (NGS) on the chromosomal copy number analysis of CVSs from early spontaneous miscarriages. Four hundred and thirty-six CVSs from early spontaneous abortion were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted using a routine method, and the chromosomal copy number variants (CNVs) were analyzed by array CGH and NGS. Two hundred and twenty-five samples (51.6 %) with abnormal chromosomes were identified among 436 samples, of which 188 samples (41.3 %) were aneuploidy, 23 samples (5.3 %) were segmental deletion and/or duplication cases, and 14 samples (3.2 %) were triploid. Two of the three cases with small segmental deletion and duplication were validated to be transferred from their fathers who were carriers of submicroscopic reciprocal translocation. A high chromosomal abnormality detection rate on CVSs from early spontaneous miscarriage was achieved by array CGH and NGS. Specifically, the detection of submicroscopic recombination, which is sometimes missed by conventional karyotyping, was important for genetic counseling for the couples that suffered from recurrent miscarriages.

  7. Array CGH reveals genomic aberrations in human emphysema.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Soo; Lee, Woon Jeong; Baik, Seung Ho; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Kweon-Haeng; Kim, Yeul Hong; Lim, Young; Wang, Young-Pil

    2009-01-01

    Emphysema is the major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Several epidemiologic studies suggest that genetic factors may have an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of chromosomal aberrations using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in 32 patients with emphysema to identify the candidate genes that might be causally involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Copy number gains and losses were detected in chromosomal regions, and the corresponding genes were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Several frequently altered loci were found, including a gain at 5p15.33 (60% of the study subjects), and a loss at 7q22.1 (31% of the study subjects). DNA gains were identified at a high frequency at 1p, 5p, 11p, 12p, 15q, 17p, 18q, 21q, and 22q, whereas DNA losses were frequently found at 7q and 22q. We found that the fold change levels were highest at the CYP4B1 (1p33), JUN (1p32.1), NOTCH2 (1p12-p11.2), SDHA (5p15.33), KCNQ1 (11p15.5-p15.4), NINJ2 (12p13.33), PCSK6 (15q26.3), ABR (17p13.3), CTDP1 (18q23), RUNX1 (21q22.12) and HDAC10 (22q13.33) gene loci. We also observed losses in the MUC17 (7q22.1), COMT (22q11.21) and GSTT1 (22q11.2) genes. These studies show that array CGH is a useful tool for the identification of gene alterations in cases of emphysema and that the aforementioned genes might represent potential candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

  8. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH) maps to Xq26-q27

    SciTech Connect

    Figuera, L.E.; Dunne, P.W.; Pandolfo, M.

    1994-09-01

    CGH is a rare, X-linked dominant trait previously described by one of us in a large, five-generational Mexican family with 28 affected individuals. Family history and clinical examination reveal that excessive hair is present at the patient`s birth becoming more dense during the first year of life. In males the hair eventually covers the face and upper portion of the trunk. The affected women have transmitted the trait to both male and female offspring, while one affected male has transmitted the trait to all three female offspring but not to his nine sons. In addition, manifestations are more severe in males than females, who show an uneven pattern of excessive hair distribution, possibly due to the random nature of X-inactivation. The rarity of this trait and the apparently extremely low rate of mutation of the gene led the authors to hypothesize that this condition was the result of a {open_quotes}back{close_quotes} mutation, leading to reactivation of an {open_quotes}atavistic{close_quotes} gene. Clinical examination, blood collection, and establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines have been completed for the majority of the members of the family available, including affected and unaffected males and females. Sixteen meioses were screened using several polymorphic microsatellite markers distributed along the X-chromosome. The locus DXS1211 did not show recombination events. Two-point linkage analysis yielded a maximum LOD score of 3.08 at theta of zero. An updated map of the X chromosome localizes this marker at Xq16-q27. The identification of the CGH gene will provide insight into development of hair and allow testing of the hypothesis of {open_quotes}atavism{close_quotes}.

  9. A CGH array procedure to detect PAX6 gene structural defects.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Alessandra; Russo, Patrizia Dello; Baldan, Federica; D'Elia, Angela Valentina; Puppin, Cinzia; Penco, Silvana; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-12-02

    Aniridia is a rare congenital disease characterized by eye development defects, in which the more evident clinical manifestation is iris absence or malformation. In most of the patients, aniridia is associated to PAX6 gene point mutations or deletions. When these deletions are large and involve other genes, a more complex disease, named WAGR syndrome, arises. In order to develop a new tool to analyze aniridia and WAGR subjects, a CGH array (CGHa) of the PAX6 genomic region was set up. We generated a custom microarray kit using an oligonucleotide-based platform that allows high resolution molecular profiling of genomic aberrations in 20 Mb of the 11p13 chromosomal region, centered on the PAX6 gene. The average probe spacing was 100 bp. Thirty-five subjects have been analyzed. The major advantage of CGHa compared to MLPA was the knowledge of the deletions borders. Our approach identifies patients harboring deletions including the WT1 gene and, therefore, at risk for kidney tumors. The CGHa assay confirmed that several aniridia patients show a deletion at the level of ELP4 gene, without involvement of the PAX6 exonic regions. In all these patients, deletions include the PAX6 transcriptional enhancer SIMO. This finding further highlights the role of mutation/deletion of long-range enhancers in monogenic human pathology.

  10. aCGH.Spline--an R package for aCGH dye bias normalization.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Tomas W; Larcombe, Lee D; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Clayton, Stephen; Rajan, Diana; Carter, Nigel P; Redon, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The careful normalization of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data is of critical importance for the accurate detection of copy number changes. The difference in labelling affinity between the two fluorophores used in aCGH-usually Cy5 and Cy3-can be observed as a bias within the intensity distributions. If left unchecked, this bias is likely to skew data interpretation during downstream analysis and lead to an increased number of false discoveries. In this study, we have developed aCGH.Spline, a natural cubic spline interpolation method followed by linear interpolation of outlier values, which is able to remove a large portion of the dye bias from large aCGH datasets in a quick and efficient manner. We have shown that removing this bias and reducing the experimental noise has a strong positive impact on the ability to detect accurately both copy number variation (CNV) and copy number alterations (CNA).

  11. High-resolution molecular karyotyping uncovers pairing between ancestrally related Brassica chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S; Batley, Jacqueline; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Hayward, Alice; Cowling, Wallace A; Nelson, Matthew N

    2014-05-01

    How do chromosomal regions with differing degrees of homology and homeology interact at meiosis? We provide a novel analytical method based on simple genetics principles which can help to answer this important question. This method interrogates high-throughput molecular marker data in order to infer chromosome behavior at meiosis in interspecific hybrids. We validated this method using high-resolution molecular marker karyotyping in two experimental Brassica populations derived from interspecific crosses among B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata, using a single nucleotide polymorphism chip. This method of analysis successfully identified meiotic interactions between chromosomes sharing different degrees of similarity: full-length homologs; full-length homeologs; large sections of primary homeologs; and small sections of secondary homeologs. This analytical method can be applied to any allopolyploid species or fertile interspecific hybrid in order to detect meiotic associations. This genetic information can then be used to identify which genomic regions share functional homeology (i.e., retain enough similarity to allow pairing and segregation at meiosis). When applied to interspecific hybrids for which reference genome sequences are available, the question of how differing degrees of homology and homeology affect meiotic interactions may finally be resolved. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Single exon-resolution targeted chromosomal microarray analysis of known and candidate intellectual disability genes

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tracy; Zahir, Farah R; Griffith, Malachi; Delaney, Allen; Chai, David; Tsang, Erica; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Marra, Marco; Eydoux, Patrice; Langlois, Sylvie; Hamdan, Fadi F; Michaud, Jacques L; Friedman, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects about 3% of individuals globally, with∼50% idiopathic. We designed an exonic-resolution array targeting all known submicroscopic chromosomal intellectual disability syndrome loci, causative genes for intellectual disability, and potential candidate genes, all genes encoding glutamate receptors and epigenetic regulators. Using this platform, we performed chromosomal microarray analysis on 165 intellectual disability trios (affected child and both normal parents). We identified and independently validated 36 de novo copy-number changes in 32 trios. In all, 67% of the validated events were intragenic, involving only exon 1 (which includes the promoter sequence according to our design), exon 1 and adjacent exons, or one or more exons excluding exon 1. Seventeen of the 36 copy-number variants involve genes known to cause intellectual disability. Eleven of these, including seven intragenic variants, are clearly pathogenic (involving STXBP1, SHANK3 (3 patients), IL1RAPL1, UBE2A, NRXN1, MEF2C, CHD7, 15q24 and 9p24 microdeletion), two are likely pathogenic (PI4KA, DCX), two are unlikely to be pathogenic (GRIK2, FREM2), and two are unclear (ARID1B, 15q22 microdeletion). Twelve individuals with genomic imbalances identified by our array were tested with a clinical microarray, and six had a normal result. We identified de novo copy-number variants within genes not previously implicated in intellectual disability and uncovered pathogenic variation of known intellectual disability genes below the detection limit of standard clinical diagnostic chromosomal microarray analysis. PMID:24253858

  13. Single exon-resolution targeted chromosomal microarray analysis of known and candidate intellectual disability genes.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Tracy; Zahir, Farah R; Griffith, Malachi; Delaney, Allen; Chai, David; Tsang, Erica; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Marra, Marco; Eydoux, Patrice; Langlois, Sylvie; Hamdan, Fadi F; Michaud, Jacques L; Friedman, Jan M

    2014-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects about 3% of individuals globally, with∼50% idiopathic. We designed an exonic-resolution array targeting all known submicroscopic chromosomal intellectual disability syndrome loci, causative genes for intellectual disability, and potential candidate genes, all genes encoding glutamate receptors and epigenetic regulators. Using this platform, we performed chromosomal microarray analysis on 165 intellectual disability trios (affected child and both normal parents). We identified and independently validated 36 de novo copy-number changes in 32 trios. In all, 67% of the validated events were intragenic, involving only exon 1 (which includes the promoter sequence according to our design), exon 1 and adjacent exons, or one or more exons excluding exon 1. Seventeen of the 36 copy-number variants involve genes known to cause intellectual disability. Eleven of these, including seven intragenic variants, are clearly pathogenic (involving STXBP1, SHANK3 (3 patients), IL1RAPL1, UBE2A, NRXN1, MEF2C, CHD7, 15q24 and 9p24 microdeletion), two are likely pathogenic (PI4KA, DCX), two are unlikely to be pathogenic (GRIK2, FREM2), and two are unclear (ARID1B, 15q22 microdeletion). Twelve individuals with genomic imbalances identified by our array were tested with a clinical microarray, and six had a normal result. We identified de novo copy-number variants within genes not previously implicated in intellectual disability and uncovered pathogenic variation of known intellectual disability genes below the detection limit of standard clinical diagnostic chromosomal microarray analysis.

  14. Objective aneuploidy detection for fetal and neonatal screening using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

    PubMed

    Yu, L C; Moore, D H; Magrane, G; Cronin, J; Pinkel, D; Lebo, R V; Gray, J W

    1997-07-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) allows entire genomes to be scanned for whole and segmental aneuploidy and thus may be an appropriate tool for the detection of clinically important abnormalities during fetal and neonatal screening. Criteria to distinguish between significant aberrations and experimental artifacts are essential for these applications. This report describes the use of a t-statistic to detect changes in CGH profiles that differ significantly from variations that occur in CGH profiles of normal samples. Eleven cell lines derived from fetal or neonatal patients were analyzed in this study. Aneuploidies in these lines included trisomies for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, and 21 and monosomy for distal 5p and tetrasomy 18p. Aneuploidy was detected in all samples by using the t-statistic, although the extent of the aneuploid region was not correctly estimated in some cases. A detailed description of the t-statistic fused for making these CGH comparisons is described in a companion paper (Moore et al., Cytometry 28:183-190, 1997.

  15. A high-resolution physical map integrating an anchored chromosome with the BAC physical maps of wheat chromosome 6B.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Fuminori; Wu, Jianzhong; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Katagiri, Satoshi; Karasawa, Wataru; Kaneko, Satoko; Watanabe, Shota; Sakaguchi, Toyotaka; Hanawa, Yumiko; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Kurita, Kanako; Abe, Chikako; Iehisa, Julio C M; Ohno, Ryoko; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Hamada, Masao; Saito, Mika; Ishikawa, Goro; Katayose, Yuichi; Endo, Takashi R; Takumi, Shigeo; Nakamura, Toshiki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogihara, Yasunari; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Doležel, Jaroslav; Nasuda, Shuhei; Matsumoto, Takashi; Handa, Hirokazu

    2015-08-12

    A complete genome sequence is an essential tool for the genetic improvement of wheat. Because the wheat genome is large, highly repetitive and complex due to its allohexaploid nature, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) chose a strategy that involves constructing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical maps of individual chromosomes and performing BAC-by-BAC sequencing. Here, we report the construction of a physical map of chromosome 6B with the goal of revealing the structural features of the third largest chromosome in wheat. We assembled 689 informative BAC contigs (hereafter reffered to as contigs) representing 91% of the entire physical length of wheat chromosome 6B. The contigs were integrated into a radiation hybrid (RH) map of chromosome 6B, with one linkage group consisting of 448 loci with 653 markers. The order and direction of 480 contigs, corresponding to 87% of the total length of 6B, were determined. We also characterized the contigs that contained a part of the nucleolus organizer region or centromere based on their positions on the RH map and the assembled BAC clone sequences. Analysis of the virtual gene order along 6B using the information collected for the integrated map revealed the presence of several chromosomal rearrangements, indicating evolutionary events that occurred on chromosome 6B. We constructed a reliable physical map of chromosome 6B, enabling us to analyze its genomic structure and evolutionary progression. More importantly, the physical map should provide a high-quality and map-based reference sequence that will serve as a resource for wheat chromosome 6B.

  16. Condensed Mitotic Chromosome Structure at Nanometer Resolution Using PALM and EGFP- Histones

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shao, Lin; Boulanger, Jerome; Kervrann, Charles; Carlton, Peter M.; Kner, Peter; Agard, David; Sedat, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and related fluorescent biological imaging methods are capable of providing very high spatial resolutions (up to 20 nm). Two major demands limit its widespread use on biological samples: requirements for photoactivatable/photoconvertible fluorescent molecules, which are sometimes difficult to incorporate, and high background signals from autofluorescence or fluorophores in adjacent focal planes in three-dimensional imaging which reduces PALM resolution significantly. We present here a high-resolution PALM method utilizing conventional EGFP as the photoconvertible fluorophore, improved algorithms to deal with high levels of biological background noise, and apply this to imaging higher order chromatin structure. We found that the emission wavelength of EGFP is efficiently converted from green to red when exposed to blue light in the presence of reduced riboflavin. The photon yield of red-converted EGFP using riboflavin is comparable to other bright photoconvertible fluorescent proteins that allow <20 nm resolution. We further found that image pre-processing using a combination of denoising and deconvolution of the raw PALM images substantially improved the spatial resolution of the reconstruction from noisy images. Performing PALM on Drosophila mitotic chromosomes labeled with H2AvD-EGFP, a histone H2A variant, revealed filamentous components of ∼70 nm. This is the first observation of fine chromatin filaments specific for one histone variant at a resolution approximating that of conventional electron microscope images (10–30 nm). As demonstrated by modeling and experiments on a challenging specimen, the techniques described here facilitate super-resolution fluorescent imaging with common biological samples. PMID:20856676

  17. Condensed mitotic chromosome structure at nanometer resolution using PALM and EGFP- histones.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shao, Lin; Boulanger, Jerome; Kervrann, Charles; Carlton, Peter M; Kner, Peter; Agard, David; Sedat, John W

    2010-09-15

    Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and related fluorescent biological imaging methods are capable of providing very high spatial resolutions (up to 20 nm). Two major demands limit its widespread use on biological samples: requirements for photoactivatable/photoconvertible fluorescent molecules, which are sometimes difficult to incorporate, and high background signals from autofluorescence or fluorophores in adjacent focal planes in three-dimensional imaging which reduces PALM resolution significantly. We present here a high-resolution PALM method utilizing conventional EGFP as the photoconvertible fluorophore, improved algorithms to deal with high levels of biological background noise, and apply this to imaging higher order chromatin structure. We found that the emission wavelength of EGFP is efficiently converted from green to red when exposed to blue light in the presence of reduced riboflavin. The photon yield of red-converted EGFP using riboflavin is comparable to other bright photoconvertible fluorescent proteins that allow <20 nm resolution. We further found that image pre-processing using a combination of denoising and deconvolution of the raw PALM images substantially improved the spatial resolution of the reconstruction from noisy images. Performing PALM on Drosophila mitotic chromosomes labeled with H2AvD-EGFP, a histone H2A variant, revealed filamentous components of ∼70 nm. This is the first observation of fine chromatin filaments specific for one histone variant at a resolution approximating that of conventional electron microscope images (10-30 nm). As demonstrated by modeling and experiments on a challenging specimen, the techniques described here facilitate super-resolution fluorescent imaging with common biological samples.

  18. An integrative CGH, MSI and candidate genes methylation analysis of colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Brim, Hassan; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salazar, Jose; Deleo, Jim; Razjouyan, Hadi; Mokarram, Pooneh; Schaffer, Alejandro A; Naghibhossaini, Fakhraddin; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Different DNA aberrations processes can cause colorectal cancer (CRC). Herein, we conducted a comprehensive molecular characterization of 27 CRCs from Iranian patients. Array CGH was performed. The MSI phenotype and the methylation status of 15 genes was established using MSP. The CGH data was compared to two established lists of 41 and 68 cancer genes, respectively, and to CGH data from African Americans. A maximum parsimony cladogram based on global aberrations was established. The number of aberrations seem to depend on the MSI status. MSI-H tumors displayed the lowest number of aberrations. MSP revealed that most markers were methylated, except RNF182 gene. P16 and MLH1 genes were primarily methylated in MSI-H tumors. Seven markers with moderate to high frequency of methylation (SYNE1, MMP2, CD109, EVL, RET, LGR and PTPRD) had very low levels of chromosomal aberrations. All chromosomes were targeted by aberrations with deletions more frequent than amplifications. The most amplified markers were CD248, ERCC6, ERGIC3, GNAS, MMP2, NF1, P2RX7, SFRS6, SLC29A1 and TBX22. Most deletions were noted for ADAM29, CHL1, CSMD3, FBXW7, GALNS, MMP2, NF1, PRKD1, SMAD4 and TP53. Aberrations targeting chromosome X were primarily amplifications in male patients and deletions in female patients. A finding similar to what we reported for African American CRC patients. This first comprehensive analysis of CRC Iranian tumors reveals a high MSI rate. The MSI tumors displayed the lowest level of chromosomal aberrations but high frequency of methylation. The MSI-L were predominantly targeted with chromosomal instability in a way similar to the MSS tumors. The global chromosomal aberration profiles showed many similarities with other populations but also differences that might allow a better understanding of CRC's clinico-pathological specifics in this population.

  19. Detection of gene amplification in non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, S.; Houldsworth, J.; Rao, P.H.

    1994-09-01

    Gene amplification characterized by distinct cytogenetic structures, such as homogeneously stained regions (hsrs), aberrantly banded marked chromosomes (abms), and double minutes (dmins) chromosomes is commonly found in tumor cells, and is considered as an important mechanism by which tumor cells gain increased levels of expression of critical genes. Very little is known about gene amplification in NHL. So far, no commonly amplified gene(s) have been identified in NHL. DNA in-gel renaturation assay provided evidence for the presence of amplified DNA fragments in NHL. In order to identify the gene(s) amplified in NHL we performed a modified form of CGH (hybridization and normal chromosomes with biotin labeled tumor DNA) to a panel of 10 NHL, which showed cytogenetic evidence for gene amplification in the form of hsrs and dmins. A number of chromosomal regions were found to be non-randomly amplified: 1p32-36(9/10), 1q32-44(6/10), 6p(9/10), 6q26-27(5/10), 16(8/10), 19(7/10) and 22q(7/10). Amplification of DNA from specific chromosomal bands was noted at 4p16(8/10), 11q13(10/10), and 12q24(8/10). Tumor L-10 showed specific amplification of 2p13. This study details the first CGH study performed on a panel of NHLs to identify gene amplification and chromosomal origin of hsrs and dmins identified by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The modified CGH employed in this study indicated that gene amplification is a frequent genetic alteration in NHL.

  20. A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of rhesus macaque chromosome 5 identifies rearrangements in the genome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Karere, Genesio M.; Froenicke, Lutz; Millon, Lee; Womack, James E.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2008-01-01

    A 10,000-rad radiation hybrid cell panel of the rhesus macaque was generated to construct a comprehensive RH map of chromosome 5. The map represents 218 markers typed in 185 RH clones. The 4,846 cR length map has an average marker spacing of 798 kb. Alignments of the RH map to macaque and human genome sequences confirm a large inversion and reveal a previously unreported telomeric inversion. The macaque genome sequence indicates small translocations from the ancestral homolog of macaque chromosome 5 to macaque chromosome 1 and 6. The RH map suggests that these are likely assembly artifacts. Unlike the genome sequence, the RH mapping data indicate the conservation of synteny between macaque chromosome 5 and human chromosome 4. This study shows that the 10,000-rad panel is appropriate for the generation of a high-resolution whole genome RH map suitable for the verification of the rhesus genome assembly. PMID:18601997

  1. [Subchromosomal microdeletion identified by molecular karyotyping using DNA microarrays (array CGH) in Rett syndrome girls negative for MECP2 gene mutations].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Voinova, V Iu; Kurinnaia, O S; Zelenova, M A; Demidova, I A; Ulas, E V; Iurov, Iu B

    2013-01-01

    Molecular karyotyping using DNA microarrays (array CGH) was applied for identification of subchromosomal microdeletions in a cohort of 12 girls with clinical features of RETT syndrome, but negative for MECP2 gene mutations. Recurrent microdeletions of MECP2 gene in chromosome X (locus Xq28) were identified in 5 girls of 12 studied. Probably RTT girls with subchromosomic microdeletions in Xq28 could represent a special subtype of the disease, which appears as clinically milder than the classic form of disease. In one case, an atypical form of RTT was associated with genomic abnormalities affecting CDKL5 gene and region critical for microdeletion Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes (15q11.2). In addition, data are presented for the first time that genetic variation in regions 3p13, 3q27.1, and 1q21.1-1q21.2 could associate with RTT-like clinical manifestations. Without application of molecular karyotyping technology and bioinformatic method of assessing the pathogenic significance of genomic rearrangements these RTT-like girls negative for MECP2 gene mutations were considered as cases of idiopathic mental retardation associated with autism. It should be noted that absence of intragenic mutations in MECP2 gene is not sufficient criteria to reject the clinical diagnosis of RTT. To avoid errors in the genetic diagnosis of this genetically heterogeneous brain disease molecular cytogenetic studies using high resolution oligonucleotide array CGH (molecular karyotyping) are needed.

  2. Clinically relevant genetic biomarkers from the brain in alcoholism with representation on high resolution chromosome ideograms.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; McGuire, Austen; Butler, Merlin G

    2015-04-15

    Alcoholism arises from combined effects of multiple biological factors including genetic and non-genetic causes with gene/environmental interaction. Intensive research and advanced genetic technology has generated a long list of genes and biomarkers involved in alcoholism neuropathology. These markers reflect complex overlapping and competing effects of possibly hundreds of genes which impact brain structure, function, biochemical alcohol processing, sensitivity and risk for dependence. We compiled a tabular list of clinically relevant genetic biomarkers for alcoholism targeting expression disturbances in the human brain through an extensive search of keywords related to alcoholism, alcohol abuse, and genetics from peer reviewed medical research articles and related nationally sponsored websites. Gene symbols were then placed on high resolution human chromosome ideograms with gene descriptions in tabular form. We identified 337 clinically relevant genetic biomarkers and candidate genes for alcoholism and alcohol-responsiveness from human brain research. Genetic biomarkers included neurotransmitter pathways associated with brain reward processes for dopaminergic (e.g., DRD2, MAOA, and COMT), serotoninergic (e.g., HTR3A, HTR1B, HTR3B, and SLC6A4), GABAergic (e.g., GABRA1, GABRA2, and GABRG1), glutaminergic (GAD1, GRIK3, and GRIN2C) and opioid (e.g., OPRM1, OPRD1, and OPRK1) pathways which presumably impact reinforcing properties of alcohol. Gene level disturbances in cellular and molecular networks impacted by alcohol and alcoholism pathology include transketolase (TKT), transferrin (TF), and myelin (e.g., MBP, MOBP, and MOG). High resolution chromosome ideograms provide investigators, physicians, geneticists and counselors a convenient visual image of the distribution of alcoholism genetic biomarkers from brain research with alphabetical listing of genes in tabular form allowing comparison between alcoholism-related phenotypes, and clinically-relevant alcoholism

  3. How to narrow down chromosomal breakpoints in small and large derivative chromosomes--a new probe set.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Ahmed B; Kreskowski, Katharina; Weise, Anja; Kosayakova, Nadezda; Mrasek, Kristin; Voigt, Martin; Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Wagner, Rebecca; Hardekopf, David; Pekova, Sona; Karamysheva, Tatyana; Liehr, Thomas; Klein, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    Here a new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-) based probe set is presented and its possible applications are highlighted in 34 exemplary clinical cases. The so-called pericentric-ladder-FISH (PCL-FISH) probe set enables a characterization of chromosomal breakpoints especially in small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), but can also be applied successfully in large inborn or acquired derivative chromosomes. PCL-FISH was established as 24 different chromosome-specific probe sets and can be used in two- up multicolor-FISH approaches. PCL-FISH enables the determination of a chromosomal breakpoint with a resolution between 1 and ∼10 megabasepairs and is based on locus-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes. Results obtained on 29 sSMC cases and five larger derivative chromosomes are presented and discussed. To confirm the reliability of PCL-FISH, eight of the 29 sSMC cases were studied by array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); the used sSMC-specific DNA was obtained by glass-needle based microdissection and DOP-PCR-amplification. Overall, PCL-FISH leads to a better resolution than most FISH-banding approaches and is a good tool to narrow down chromosomal breakpoints.

  4. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization detection of chromosomal imbalances in uterine cervix carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Baudis, Michael; Petersen, Iver; Arreola, Hugo; Piña, Patricia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Hernández, Dulce; González, José; Lazos, Minerva; López, Ricardo; Pérez, Carlos; García, José; Vázquez, Karla; Alatorre, Brenda; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    Background Chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) has been applied to all stages of cervical carcinoma progression, defining a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in this tumor. However, given its limited spatial resolution, chromosomal CGH has offered only general information regarding the possible genetic targets of DNA copy number changes. Methods In order to further define specific DNA copy number changes in cervical cancer, we analyzed 20 cervical samples (3 pre-malignant lesions, 10 invasive tumors, and 7 cell lines), using the GenoSensor microarray CGH system to define particular genetic targets that suffer copy number changes. Results The most common DNA gains detected by array CGH in the invasive samples were located at the RBP1-RBP2 (3q21-q22) genes, the sub-telomeric clone C84C11/T3 (5ptel), D5S23 (5p15.2) and the DAB2 gene (5p13) in 58.8% of the samples. The most common losses were found at the FHIT gene (3p14.2) in 47% of the samples, followed by deletions at D8S504 (8p23.3), CTDP1-SHGC- 145820 (18qtel), KIT (4q11-q12), D1S427-FAF1 (1p32.3), D9S325 (9qtel), EIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, 4q24), RB1 (13q14), and DXS7132 (Xq12) present in 5/17 (29.4%) of the samples. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in cervical carcinoma and define specific targets that are suffering DNA copy number changes in this neoplasm. PMID:16004614

  5. CGH Supports World Cancer Day Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    We celebrate World Cancer Day every year on February 4th. This year the theme “We can. I can.” invites us to think not only about how we can work with one another to reduce the global burden of cancer, but how we as individuals can make a difference. Every day the staff at CGH work to establish and build upon programs that are aimed at improving the lives of people affected by cancer.

  6. Exceptional conservation of horse-human gene order on X chromosome revealed by high-resolution radiation hybrid mapping.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Lee, Eun-Joon; Kata, Srinivas R; Brinkmeyer, Candice; Mickelson, James R; Skow, Loren C; Womack, James E; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2004-02-24

    Development of a dense map of the horse genome is key to efforts aimed at identifying genes controlling health, reproduction, and performance. We herein report a high-resolution gene map of the horse (Equus caballus) X chromosome (ECAX) generated by developing and typing 116 gene-specific and 12 short tandem repeat markers on the 5,000-rad horse x hamster whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and mapping 29 gene loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The human X chromosome sequence was used as a template to select genes at 1-Mb intervals to develop equine orthologs. Coupled with our previous data, the new map comprises a total of 175 markers (139 genes and 36 short tandem repeats, of which 53 are fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped) distributed on average at approximately 880-kb intervals along the chromosome. This is the densest and most uniformly distributed chromosomal map presently available in any mammalian species other than humans and rodents. Comparison of the horse and human X chromosome maps shows remarkable conservation of gene order along the entire span of the chromosomes, including the location of the centromere. An overview of the status of the horse map in relation to mouse, livestock, and companion animal species is also provided. The map will be instrumental for analysis of X linked health and fertility traits in horses by facilitating identification of targeted chromosomal regions for isolation of polymorphic markers, building bacterial artificial chromosome contigs, or sequencing.

  7. Clinical validity of karyotyping for the diagnosis of chromosomal imbalance following array comparative genomic hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Gekas, Jean; Vallée, Maud; Castonguay, Lysanne; Laframboise, Rachel; Maranda, Bruno; Piedboeuf, Bruno; Rousseau, François

    2011-12-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) represents a major advance in the ability to detect chromosomal imbalances (CI). A recent meta-analysis recommended aCGH for replacing karyotyping for patients with unexplained disabilities. However, favouring aCGH over karyotyping must be based on solid evidence due to the major implications of selecting a preferential diagnostic tool. A prospective study of 376 samples was conducted to assess the relevance of karyotyping after a first-tier aCGH in patients with unexplained disabilities. aCGH detected CI in 28.7% of the cases. Out of 376 patients, 288 had undergone parallel karyotyping testing: 69.8% (201/288) showed similar results for both aCGH and karyotyping. For patients with a CI detected by aCGH, 7.9% (7/89) showed similar results for both aCGH and karyotyping. Among 20 patients with abnormal karyotyping, 13 showed dissimilar results compared to aCGH analysis: 4 patients (1.4%) had balanced rearrangements and 9 patients (3.1%) had additional chromosomal anomalies unseen using aCGH. This rate of unseen chromosomal anomalies is far superior to the previously estimated 0.5-0.78% prevalence and affects 10.1% (9/89) of patients with CI detected by aCGH in the tested population. Since the clinical significance of CI identified by aCGH might be influenced by such discrepancies between the two methods, these may in turn have an impact on clinical diagnosis and patient counselling. It is proposed that each genetic laboratory should evaluate the relevance of karyotyping for all first-tier abnormal aCGH results in order to include the genomic (chromosomal) aspects of the aCGH findings in the diagnosis.

  8. High-Resolution Chromosome Ideogram Representation of Currently Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Rafi, Syed K.; Manzardo, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, autism-related research has focused on the identification of various genes and disturbed pathways causing the genetically heterogeneous group of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The list of autism-related genes has significantly increased due to better awareness with advances in genetic technology and expanding searchable genomic databases. We compiled a master list of known and clinically relevant autism spectrum disorder genes identified with supporting evidence from peer-reviewed medical literature sources by searching key words related to autism and genetics and from authoritative autism-related public access websites, such as the Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute autism genomic database dedicated to gene discovery and characterization. Our list consists of 792 genes arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with gene symbols placed on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms, thereby enabling clinical and laboratory geneticists and genetic counsellors to access convenient visual images of the location and distribution of ASD genes. Meaningful correlations of the observed phenotype in patients with suspected/confirmed ASD gene(s) at the chromosome region or breakpoint band site can be made to inform diagnosis and gene-based personalized care and provide genetic counselling for families. PMID:25803107

  9. Confirmation rates of array-CGH in day-3 embryo and blastocyst biopsies for preimplantation genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Mir, P; Mateu, E; Mercader, A; Herrer, R; Rodrigo, L; Vera, M; Peinado, V; Milán-Sánchez, M; Campos-Galindo, I; García-Herrero, S; Simón, C; Rubio, C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the confirmation rate of day-3 embryo biopsy (blastomere) and trophectoderm biopsy using array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) technology. A blinded study was conducted to re-analyse 109 embryos previously diagnosed as chromosomally abnormal by array-CGH. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) was performed using array-CGH on day 3 (n = 50) or day 5 (n = 59). Partial chromosome gains or losses were excluded (n=6), and only whole chromosome aneuploidies were considered. Re-analysis of whole blastocysts was carried out following the same array-CGH protocol used for PGS. The PGS result was confirmed in the whole blastocyst in (a) 49/50 (98 %) abnormal embryos after day-3 biopsy and (b) 57/59 (96.6 %) abnormal embryos after trophectoderm biopsy. One embryo (1/50; 2 %) was diagnosed as abnormal, with monosomy 18, on day 3, and software analysis of the whole blastocyst gave a euploid result; however, a mosaic pattern was observed for monosomy 18 in the whole blastocyst. Two trophectoderm biopsy cases (3.4 %) did not have the abnormalities (trisomy 7, and trisomy 1 and 4, respectively) verified in the whole embryo. Concordance rates for both biopsy strategies and for individual chromosomes were evaluated by Fisher's exact test and showed no significant differences. Both types of biopsies showed similar high concordance rates with whole blastocyst results. Therefore, regarding the confirmation rates shown in this work, day-3 embryo biopsies can be representative of the whole embryo and both types of biopsy can be used for clinical analysis in PGS following the described array-CGH protocol.

  10. S. cerevisiae Chromosomes Biorient via Gradual Resolution of Syntely Between S-Phase and Anaphase

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Eugenio; Dorn, Jonas F.; Hsu, Pei-hsin; Jaqaman, Khuloud; Sorger, Peter K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Following DNA replication, eukaryotic cells must biorient all sister chromatids prior to cohesion cleavage at anaphase. In animal cells, sister chromatids gradually biorient during prometaphase, but current models of mitosis in S. cerevisiae assume biorientation is established shortly after S-phase. This assumption is based on the observation of a bilobed distribution of yeast kinetochores early in mitosis, and suggests fundamental differences between yeast mitosis and mitosis in animal cells. By applying super-resolution imaging methods, we show that yeast and animal cells share the key property of gradual and stochastic chromosome biorientation. The characteristic bilobed distribution of yeast kinetochores, hitherto considered synonymous for biorientation, arises from kinetochores in mixed attachment states to microtubules, the length of which discriminates bioriented from syntelic attachments. Our results offer a revised view of mitotic progression in S. cerevisiae which augments the relevance of mechanistic information obtained in this powerful genetic system for mammalian mitosis. PMID:23993100

  11. Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Tucker, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

  12. Toriello-Carey syndrome with a 6Mb interstitial deletion at 22q12 detected by array CGH.

    PubMed

    Said, Edith; Cuschieri, Alfred; Vermeesch, Joris; Fryns, Jean Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Toriello-Carey syndrome is a rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising agenesis of the corpus callosum, telecanthus, short palpebral fissures, abnormal ears, Pierre Robin sequence, and cardiac anomaly. Autosomal recessive inheritance has been hypothesized and chromosome abnormalities have been reported. The present case is a girl with agenesis of the corpus callosum, a large cleft palate, telecanthus, hypertelorism, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus. A routine karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization subtelomeric analysis were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) identified a de novo 6 Mb interstitial deletion at 22q12.1→22q12.2. These findings support recent findings of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with the Toriello-Carey phenotype. We suggest that the clinical features described in some cases with Toriello-Carey syndrome might be due to cryptic chromosomal rearrangements and that array CGH should be considered in any case presenting with clinical features of Toriello-Carey.

  13. Supernumerary ring chromosome: an etiology for Pallister-Killian syndrome?

    PubMed

    Lloveras, E; Canellas, A; Cirigliano, V; Català, V; Cerdan, C; Plaja, A

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of marker chromosomes before the introduction of array CGH (aCGH) assays was only based on their banding patterns (G, C, and NOR staining) and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques. The use of aCGH greatly improves the identification of marker chromosomes in some cases. We describe an atypical case of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) detected at prenatal diagnosis with a very unusual cytogenetic presentation: a supernumerary ring chromosome including two copies of 12p. A similar anomaly described in a postnatal patient suggests ring chromosome as a possible cause of PKS. Extra ring chromosomes might be a more common etiology for PKS than previously thought, given the difficulty in their characterization before the advent of aCGH.

  14. High-resolution physical mapping in Pennisetum squamulatum reveals extensive chromosomal heteromorphism of the genomic region associated with apomixis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yukio; Conner, Joann A; Goel, Shailendra; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2004-04-01

    Gametophytic apomixis is asexual reproduction as a consequence of parthenogenetic development of a chromosomally unreduced egg. The trait leads to the production of embryos with a maternal genotype, i.e. progeny are clones of the maternal plant. The application of the trait in agriculture could be a tremendous tool for crop improvement through conventional and nonconventional breeding methods. Unfortunately, there are no major crops that reproduce by apomixis, and interspecific hybridization with wild relatives has not yet resulted in commercially viable germplasm. Pennisetum squamulatum is an aposporous apomict from which the gene(s) for apomixis has been transferred to sexual pearl millet by backcrossing. Twelve molecular markers that are linked with apomixis coexist in a tight linkage block called the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR), and several of these markers have been shown to be hemizygous in the polyploid genome of P. squamulatum. High resolution genetic mapping of these markers has not been possible because of low recombination in this region of the genome. We now show the physical arrangement of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing apomixis-linked molecular markers by high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization on pachytene chromosomes. The size of the ASGR, currently defined as the entire hemizygous region that hybridizes with apomixis-linked bacterial artificial chromosomes, was estimated on pachytene and mitotic chromosomes to be approximately 50 Mbp (a quarter of the chromosome). The ASGR includes highly repetitive sequences from an Opie-2-like retrotransposon family that are particularly abundant in this region of the genome.

  15. High resolution genetic and physical mapping of the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 reveals almost continuous microsynteny with grape chromosome 12 but interspersed microsynteny with duplications on Arabidopsis chromosomes 1, 2 and 3.

    PubMed

    Lim, G T T; Wang, G-P; Hemming, M N; McGrath, D J; Jones, D A

    2008-12-01

    The tomato I-3 gene introgressed from the Lycopersicon pennellii accession LA716 confers resistance to race 3 of the fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. We have improved the high-resolution map of the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 with the development and mapping of 31 new PCR-based markers. Recombinants recovered from L. esculentum cv. M82 x IL7-2 F2 and (IL7-2 x IL7-4) x M82 TC1F2 mapping populations, together with recombinants recovered from a previous M82 x IL7-3 F2 mapping population, were used to position these markers. A significantly higher recombination frequency was observed in the (IL7-2 x IL7-4) x M82 TC1F2 mapping population based on a reconstituted L. pennellii chromosome 7 compared to the other two mapping populations based on smaller segments of L. pennellii chromosome 7. A BAC contig consisting of L. esculentum cv. Heinz 1706 BACs covering the I-3 region has also been established. The new high-resolution map places the I-3 gene within a 0.38 cM interval between the molecular markers RGA332 and bP23/gPT with an estimated physical size of 50-60 kb. The I-3 region was found to display almost continuous microsynteny with grape chromosome 12 but interspersed microsynteny with Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. An S-receptor-like kinase gene family present in the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 was found to be present in the microsyntenous region of grape chromosome 12 but was absent altogether from the A. thaliana genome.

  16. High-resolution chromosome ideogram representation of recognized genes for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Lindsay N; McGuire, Austen B; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-07-15

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is genetically heterogeneous with a growing list of BPD associated genes reported in recent years resulting from increased genetic testing using advanced genetic technology, expanded genomic databases, and better awareness of the disorder. We compiled a master list of recognized susceptibility and genes associated with BPD identified from peer-reviewed medical literature sources using PubMed and by searching online databases, such as OMIM. Searched keywords were related to bipolar disorder and genetics. Our compiled list consisted of 290 genes with gene names arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with source documents and their chromosome location and gene symbols plotted on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms. The identified genes impacted a broad range of biological pathways and processes including cellular signaling pathways particularly cAMP and calcium (e.g., CACNA1C, CAMK2A, CAMK2D, ADCY1, ADCY2); glutamatergic (e.g., GRIK1, GRM3, GRM7), dopaminergic (e.g., DRD2, DRD4, COMT, MAOA) and serotonergic (e.g., HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR3B) neurotransmission; molecular transporters (e.g., SLC39A3, SLC6A3, SLC8A1); and neuronal growth (e.g., BDNF, IGFBP1, NRG1, NRG3). The increasing prevalence of BPD calls for better understanding of the genetic etiology of this disorder and associations between the observed BPD phenotype and genes. Visual representation of genes for bipolar disorder becomes a tool enabling clinical and laboratory geneticists, genetic counselors, and other health care providers and researchers easy access to the location and distribution of currently recognized BPD associated genes. Our study may also help inform diagnosis and advance treatment developments for those affected with this disorder and improve genetic counseling for families.

  17. Sensitive and high resolution in situ hybridization to human chromosomes using biotin labelled probes: assignment of the human thymocyte CD1 antigen genes to chromosome 1.

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, D G; Fishpool, R; Sherrington, P; Nacheva, E; Milstein, C

    1988-01-01

    A method for in situ hybridization originally developed for mapping genes in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans has been adapted for high resolution cytological mapping of genes in the human. The probe DNAs are labelled by incorporation of biotin dUTP and the site of hybridization detected by immunofluorescence. For the accurate assignment of the hybridization signal to chromosome bands, visualized by staining with Hoechst 33258, a heterologous ribosomal DNA probe is also included in the hybridization reaction. These rDNA signals are used as fiducial markers when aligning the two fluorescent images. We demonstrate the method by assignment of the human thymocyte CD1 antigen genes to human chromosome 1q22-23. Images PMID:3053166

  18. Gene dosage methods as diagnostic tools for the identification of chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gouas, L; Goumy, C; Véronèse, L; Tchirkov, A; Vago, P

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetics is the part of genetics that deals with chromosomes, particularly with numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, and their implications in congenital or acquired genetic disorders. Standard karyotyping, successfully used for the last 50 years in investigating the chromosome etiology in patients with infertility, fetal abnormalities and congenital disorders, is constrained by the limits of microscopic resolution and is not suited for the detection of subtle chromosome abnormalities. The ability to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements that lead to copy-number changes has escalated progressively in recent years with the advent of molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we review various gene dosage methods such as FISH, PCR-based approaches (MLPA, QF-PCR, QMPSF and real time PCR), CGH and array-CGH, that can be used for the identification and delineation of copy-number changes for diagnostic purposes. Besides comparing their relative strength and weakness, we will discuss the impact that these detection methods have on our understanding of copy number variations in the human genome and their implications in genetic counseling.

  19. High-resolution mapping of the spatial organization of a bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Le, Tung B K; Imakaev, Maxim V; Mirny, Leonid A; Laub, Michael T

    2013-11-08

    Chromosomes must be highly compacted and organized within cells, but how this is achieved in vivo remains poorly understood. We report the use of chromosome conformation capture coupled with deep sequencing (Hi-C) to map the structure of bacterial chromosomes. Analysis of Hi-C data and polymer modeling indicates that the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome consists of multiple, largely independent spatial domains that are probably composed of supercoiled plectonemes arrayed into a bottle brush-like fiber. These domains are stable throughout the cell cycle and are reestablished concomitantly with DNA replication. We provide evidence that domain boundaries are established by highly expressed genes and the formation of plectoneme-free regions, whereas the histone-like protein HU and SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) promote short-range compaction and the colinearity of chromosomal arms, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal general principles for the organization and structure of chromosomes in vivo.

  20. Evaluation of somatic genomic imbalances in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin by CGH-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Allegri, Lorenzo; Passon, Nadia; Lepore, Saverio M; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2017-09-07

    Application of distinct technologies of cancer genome analysis has provided important information for the molecular characterization of several human neoplasia, including follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma. Among them, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based procedures have been extensively applied to evaluate genomic imbalances present in these tumours, obtaining data leading to an increase in the understanding of their complexity and diversity. In this review, after a brief overview of the most commonly used CGH-based technichs, we will describe the major results deriving from the most influential studies in the literature which used this approach to investigate the genomic aberrations of thyroid cancer cells. In most studies a small number of patients have been analyzed. Deletions and duplications at different chromosomal regions were detected in all investigated cohorts. A higher number of genomic imbalances has been detected in anaplastic or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas compared to well differentiated ones. Limitations in the interpretation of the results, as well the potential impact in the clinical practice are discussed. Though a quite heterogeneous picture arises from results so far available, CGH array, combined with other methodologies as well as an accurate clinical management, may offer novel opportunities for a better stratification of thyroid cancer patients.

  1. Improved phylogenetic resolution for Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaotian; Tang, Senwei; Bian, Beilei; Wu, Xiaoli; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chuan-Chao

    2017-04-25

    Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 is one of the dominant lineages of East Asians and Southeast Asians. However, its internal phylogeny remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we genotyped 89 new highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 305 individuals with Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 identified from 2139 Han Chinese males. Two major branches were identified, O2a1c1-F18 and O2a1c2-L133.2 and the first was further divided into two main subclades, O2a1c1a-F11 and O2a1c1b-F449, accounting for 11.13% and 2.20% of Han Chinese, respectively. In Haplogroup O2a1c1a-F11, we also determined seven sublineages with quite different frequency distributions in Han Chinese ranging from 0.187% to 3.553%, implying they might have different demographic history. The reconstructed haplogroup tree for all the major clades within Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 permits better resolution of male lineages in population studies of East Asia and Southeast Asia. The dataset generated in the present study are also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China.

  2. Clinical Performance of an Ultrahigh Resolution Chromosomal Microarray Optimized for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ho, Karen S; Twede, Hope; Vanzo, Rena; Harward, Erin; Hensel, Charles H; Martin, Megan M; Page, Stephanie; Peiffer, Andreas; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Serrano, Moises; Wassman, E Robert

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) as detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) significantly contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study summarizes the results of 3.5 years of CMA testing by a CLIA-certified clinical testing laboratory 5487 patients with neurodevelopmental conditions were clinically evaluated for rare copy number variants using a 2.8-million probe custom CMA optimized for the detection of CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We report an overall detection rate of 29.4% in our neurodevelopmental cohort, which rises to nearly 33% when cases with DD/ID and/or MCA only are considered. The detection rate for the ASD cohort is also significant, at 25%. Additionally, we find that detection rate and pathogenic yield of CMA vary significantly depending on the primary indications for testing, the age of the individuals tested, and the specialty of the ordering doctor. We also report a significant difference between the detection rate on the ultrahigh resolution optimized array in comparison to the array from which it originated. This increase in detection can significantly contribute to the efficient and effective medical management of neurodevelopmental conditions in the clinic.

  3. Analysis of adjustment error in aspheric null testing with CGH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yiwei; Xi, Hou; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Fan; Li, Chaoqiang; Zhu, Xiaoqiang; Song, Weihong

    2016-09-01

    Generally, in order to gain high accuracy in aspheric testing, a piece of high-quality CGH (computer generated hologram) is inserted behind transmission sphere to generate specified wave-front to match aspheric part. According to the difference in function, the CGH is divided into 2 parts: the center region, called as testing hologram, is used to generate specified aspheric wave-front; the outer ring, called as alignment hologram, is used to align the location of CGH behind transmission sphere. Although alignment hologram is used, there is still some adjustment error from both CGH and aspheric part, such as tilt, eccentricity and defocus. Here we will stimulate the effect of these error sources on the accuracy that is rms after the piston, tilt and power are removed, when testing a specified aspheric part. It is easy to conclude that the total measurement error is about 2 nm and the defocus of CGH contributes most.

  4. Intragenic rearrangements in X-linked intellectual deficiency: results of a-CGH in a series of 54 patients and identification of TRPC5 and KLHL15 as potential XLID genes.

    PubMed

    Mignon-Ravix, Cécile; Cacciagli, Pierre; Choucair, Nancy; Popovici, Cornel; Missirian, Chantal; Milh, Mathieu; Mégarbané, André; Busa, Tiffany; Julia, Sophie; Girard, Nadine; Badens, Catherine; Sigaudy, Sabine; Philip, Nicole; Villard, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) enables the detection of intragenic rearrangements, such as single exon deletion or duplication. This approach can lead to the identification of new disease genes. We report on the analysis of 54 male patients presenting with intellectual deficiency (ID) and a family history suggesting X-linked (XL) inheritance or maternal skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), using a home-made X-chromosome-specific microarray covering the whole human X-chromosome at high resolution. The majority of patients had whole genome array-CGH prior to the selection and we did not include large rearrangements such as MECP2 and FMR1 duplications. We identified four rearrangements considered as causative or potentially pathogenic, corresponding to a detection rate of 8%. Two CNVs affected known XLID genes and were therefore considered as causative (IL1RAPL1 and OPHN1 intragenic deletions). Two new CNVs were considered as potentially pathogenic as they affected interesting candidates for ID. The first CNV is a deletion of the first exon of the TRPC5 gene, encoding a cation channel implicated in dendrite growth and patterning, in a child presenting with ID and an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The second CNV is a partial deletion of KLHL15, in a patient with severe ID, epilepsy, and anomalies of cortical development. In both cases, in spite of strong arguments for clinical relevance, we were not able at this stage to confirm pathogenicity of the mutations, and the causality of the variants identified in XLID remains to be confirmed.

  5. High resolution chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients referred for Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    Laboratory testing is helpful in the evaluation of patients suspected to have either Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) or Angelman syndrome (AS) because most of the patients have recognizable cytogenetic deletions of 15q11q13. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, identified by molecular genetic techniques, is found in about 20 to 25% of PWS patients. Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 is seen in 2 to 3% of AS patients. Thus, PWS and AS represent the first examples in humans of genetic imprinting or the differential expression of genetic information depending on the parental origin. Herein, I report our experience with FISH and high resolution chromosome analysis in patients referred to confirm or rule out PWS or AS. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  6. DNA methylation analysis of chromosome 21 gene promoters at single base pair and single allele resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Rohde, Christian; Tierling, Sascha; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Bock, Christoph; Santacruz, Diana; Ragozin, Sergey; Reinhardt, Richard; Groth, Marco; Walter, Jörn; Jeltsch, Albert

    2009-03-01

    Differential DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic signal for gene regulation, development, and disease processes. We mapped DNA methylation patterns of 190 gene promoter regions on chromosome 21 using bisulfite conversion and subclone sequencing in five human cell types. A total of 28,626 subclones were sequenced at high accuracy using (long-read) Sanger sequencing resulting in the measurement of the DNA methylation state of 580427 CpG sites. Our results show that average DNA methylation levels are distributed bimodally with enrichment of highly methylated and unmethylated sequences, both for amplicons and individual subclones, which represent single alleles from individual cells. Within CpG-rich sequences, DNA methylation was found to be anti-correlated with CpG dinucleotide density and GC content, and methylated CpGs are more likely to be flanked by AT-rich sequences. We observed over-representation of CpG sites in distances of 9, 18, and 27 bps in highly methylated amplicons. However, DNA sequence alone is not sufficient to predict an amplicon's DNA methylation status, since 43% of all amplicons are differentially methylated between the cell types studied here. DNA methylation in promoter regions is strongly correlated with the absence of gene expression and low levels of activating epigenetic marks like H3K4 methylation and H3K9 and K14 acetylation. Utilizing the single base pair and single allele resolution of our data, we found that i) amplicons from different parts of a CpG island frequently differ in their DNA methylation level, ii) methylation levels of individual cells in one tissue are very similar, and iii) methylation patterns follow a relaxed site-specific distribution. Furthermore, iv) we identified three cases of allele-specific DNA methylation on chromosome 21. Our data shed new light on the nature of methylation patterns in human cells, the sequence dependence of DNA methylation, and its function as epigenetic signal in gene regulation

  7. Increased resolution of Y chromosome haplogroup T defines relationships among populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Karafet, Tatiana M; Krahn, Thomas; Ostrer, Harry; Soodyall, Himla; Hammer, Michael F

    2011-02-01

    Increasing phylogenetic resolution of the Y chromosome haplogroup tree has led to finer temporal and spatial resolution for studies of human migration. Haplogroup T, initially known as K2 and defined by mutation M70, is found at variable frequencies across West Asia, Africa, and Europe. While several SNPs were recently discovered that extended the length of the branch leading to haplogroup T, only two SNPs are known to mark internal branches of haplogroup T. This low level of phylogenetic resolution has hindered studies of the origin and dispersal of this interesting haplogroup, which is found in Near Eastern non-Jewish populations, Jewish populations from several communities, and in the patrilineage of President Thomas Jefferson. Here we map 10 new SNPs that, together with the previously known SNPs, mark 11 lineages and two large subclades (T1a and T1b) of haplogroup T. We also report a new SNP that links haplogroups T and L within the major framework of Y chromosome evolution. Estimates of the timing of the branching events within haplogroup T, along with a comprehensive geographic survey of the major T subclades, suggest that this haplogroup began to diversify in the Near East -25 kya. Our survey also points to a complex history of dispersal of this rare and informative haplogroup within the Near East and from the Near East to Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. The presence of T1a2 chromosomes in Near Eastern Jewish and non-Jewish populations may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The presence of different subclades of T chromosomes in Europe may be explained by both the spread of Neolithic farmers and the later dispersal of Jews from the Near East. Finally, the moderately high frequency (-18%) of T1b* chromosomes in the Lemba of southern Africa supports the hypothesis of a Near Eastern, but not necessarily a Jewish, origin for their paternal line.

  8. Smc5/6 Coordinates Formation and Resolution of Joint Molecules with Chromosome Morphology to Ensure Meiotic Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Blitzblau, Hannah G.; Newcombe, Sonya; Chan, Andrew Chi-ho; Newnham, Louise; Li, Zhaobo; Gray, Stephen; Herbert, Alex D.; Arumugam, Prakash; Hochwagen, Andreas; Hunter, Neil; Hoffmann, Eva

    2013-01-01

    During meiosis, Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) complexes underpin two fundamental features of meiosis: homologous recombination and chromosome segregation. While meiotic functions of the cohesin and condensin complexes have been delineated, the role of the third SMC complex, Smc5/6, remains enigmatic. Here we identify specific, essential meiotic functions for the Smc5/6 complex in homologous recombination and the regulation of cohesin. We show that Smc5/6 is enriched at centromeres and cohesin-association sites where it regulates sister-chromatid cohesion and the timely removal of cohesin from chromosomal arms, respectively. Smc5/6 also localizes to recombination hotspots, where it promotes normal formation and resolution of a subset of joint-molecule intermediates. In this regard, Smc5/6 functions independently of the major crossover pathway defined by the MutLγ complex. Furthermore, we show that Smc5/6 is required for stable chromosomal localization of the XPF-family endonuclease, Mus81-Mms4Eme1. Our data suggest that the Smc5/6 complex is required for specific recombination and chromosomal processes throughout meiosis and that in its absence, attempts at cell division with unresolved joint molecules and residual cohesin lead to severe recombination-induced meiotic catastrophe. PMID:24385939

  9. Imaging of chromosomes at nano-meter scale resolution using scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Toshio; Shichirii, Motoharu; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Yoshino, Tomoyuki; Kobori, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Shoji; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2002-12-01

    Topographic and fluorescent images of whole barley chromosomes stained with YOYO-1 were observed simultaneously by scanning near-field optical/ atomic force microscopy (SNOM/AFM). The chromosome was relatively smooth and flat in the topographic images and no significant difference in height was present between regions of high fluorescent and low fluorescent intensity in the chromosomes. The telomeric region, labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method, was also observed by SNOM/AFM at high resolution, and fluorescent signals of the telomeric region were clearly defined on the topographic image of chromatin fibers on the chromosome at the nano-meter scale level. Although the telomeric signals were usually visualized as a single fluorescent region at the end of sister chromatids by conventional light microscopy, they were observed separately as two fluorescent regions, less than 100-200 nm distance, using the SNOM/AFM. The SNOM/AFM offers great potential in identifying particular single gene location on chromosomes in the near future.

  10. High-resolution chromosome mapping of BACs using multi-colour FISH and pooled-BAC FISH as a backbone for sequencing tomato chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Szinay, Dóra; Chang, Song-Bin; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Peters, Sander; Schijlen, Elio; Bai, Yuling; Stiekema, Willem J; van Ham, Roeland C H J; de Jong, Hans; Klein Lankhorst, René M

    2008-11-01

    Within the framework of the International Solanaceae Genome Project, the genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is currently being sequenced. We follow a 'BAC-by-BAC' approach that aims to deliver high-quality sequences of the euchromatin part of the tomato genome. BACs are selected from various libraries of the tomato genome on the basis of markers from the F2.2000 linkage map. Prior to sequencing, we validated the precise physical location of the selected BACs on the chromosomes by five-colour high-resolution fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping. This paper describes the strategies and results of cytogenetic mapping for chromosome 6 using 75 seed BACs for FISH on pachytene complements. The cytogenetic map obtained showed discrepancies between the actual chromosomal positions of these BACs and their markers on the linkage group. These discrepancies were most notable in the pericentromere heterochromatin, thus confirming previously described suppression of cross-over recombination in that region. In a so called pooled-BAC FISH, we hybridized all seed BACs simultaneously and found a few large gaps in the euchromatin parts of the long arm that are still devoid of seed BACs and are too large for coverage by expanding BAC contigs. Combining FISH with pooled BACs and newly recruited seed BACs will thus aid in efficient targeting of novel seed BACs into these areas. Finally, we established the occurrence of repetitive DNA in heterochromatin/euchromatin borders by combining BAC FISH with hybridization of a labelled repetitive DNA fraction (Cot-100). This strategy provides an excellent means to establish the borders between euchromatin and heterochromatin in this chromosome.

  11. aCGH.Spline—an R package for aCGH dye bias normalization

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Tomas W.; Larcombe, Lee D.; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Clayton, Stephen; Rajan, Diana; Carter, Nigel P.; Redon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: The careful normalization of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data is of critical importance for the accurate detection of copy number changes. The difference in labelling affinity between the two fluorophores used in aCGH—usually Cy5 and Cy3—can be observed as a bias within the intensity distributions. If left unchecked, this bias is likely to skew data interpretation during downstream analysis and lead to an increased number of false discoveries. Results: In this study, we have developed aCGH.Spline, a natural cubic spline interpolation method followed by linear interpolation of outlier values, which is able to remove a large portion of the dye bias from large aCGH datasets in a quick and efficient manner. Conclusions: We have shown that removing this bias and reducing the experimental noise has a strong positive impact on the ability to detect accurately both copy number variation (CNV) and copy number alterations (CNA). Contact: l.larcombe@cranfield.ac.uk; tf2@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21357574

  12. Features of genomic organization in a nucleotide-resolution molecular model of the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hacker, William C; Li, Shuxiang; Elcock, Adrian H

    2017-07-27

    We describe structural models of the Escherichia coli chromosome in which the positions of all 4.6 million nucleotides of each DNA strand are resolved. Models consistent with two basic chromosomal orientations, differing in their positioning of the origin of replication, have been constructed. In both types of model, the chromosome is partitioned into plectoneme-abundant and plectoneme-free regions, with plectoneme lengths and branching patterns matching experimental distributions, and with spatial distributions of highly-transcribed chromosomal regions matching recent experimental measurements of the distribution of RNA polymerases. Physical analysis of the models indicates that the effective persistence length of the DNA and relative contributions of twist and writhe to the chromosome's negative supercoiling are in good correspondence with experimental estimates. The models exhibit characteristics similar to those of 'fractal globules,' and even the most genomically-distant parts of the chromosome can be physically connected, through paths combining linear diffusion and inter-segmental transfer, by an average of only ∼10 000 bp. Finally, macrodomain structures and the spatial distributions of co-expressed genes are analyzed: the latter are shown to depend strongly on the overall orientation of the chromosome. We anticipate that the models will prove useful in exploring other static and dynamic features of the bacterial chromosome. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Meilerman, Monica B.; Underhill, Peter A.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Markers on the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome continue to have applications in many fields including evolutionary biology, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. In 2002, the Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing the relationships among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. Here we present an extensively revised Y chromosome tree containing 311 distinct haplogroups, including two new major haplogroups (S and T), and incorporating approximately 600 binary markers. We describe major changes in the topology of the parsimony tree and provide names for new and rearranged lineages within the tree following the rules presented by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2002. Several changes in the tree topology have important implications for studies of human ancestry. We also present demography-independent age estimates for 11 of the major clades in the new Y chromosome tree. PMID:18385274

  14. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.

    PubMed

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Meilerman, Monica B; Underhill, Peter A; Zegura, Stephen L; Hammer, Michael F

    2008-05-01

    Markers on the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome continue to have applications in many fields including evolutionary biology, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. In 2002, the Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing the relationships among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. Here we present an extensively revised Y chromosome tree containing 311 distinct haplogroups, including two new major haplogroups (S and T), and incorporating approximately 600 binary markers. We describe major changes in the topology of the parsimony tree and provide names for new and rearranged lineages within the tree following the rules presented by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2002. Several changes in the tree topology have important implications for studies of human ancestry. We also present demography-independent age estimates for 11 of the major clades in the new Y chromosome tree.

  15. Currently recognized genes for schizophrenia: High-resolution chromosome ideogram representation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen B; Masoud, Humaira; Manzardo, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    A large body of genetic data from schizophrenia-related research has identified an assortment of genes and disturbed pathways supporting involvement of complex genetic components for schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. Advances in genetic technology and expanding studies with searchable genomic databases have led to multiple published reports, allowing us to compile a master list of known, clinically relevant, or susceptibility genes contributing to schizophrenia. We searched key words related to schizophrenia and genetics from peer-reviewed medical literature sources, authoritative public access psychiatric websites and genomic databases dedicated to gene discovery and characterization of schizophrenia. Our list of 560 genes were arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with gene symbols placed on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms. Genome wide pathway analysis using GeneAnalytics was carried out on the resulting list of genes to assess the underlying genetic architecture for schizophrenia. Recognized genes of clinical relevance, susceptibility or causation impact a broad range of biological pathways and mechanisms including ion channels (e.g., CACNA1B, CACNA1C, CACNA1H), metabolism (e.g., CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6), multiple targets of neurotransmitter pathways impacting dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and serotonin function, brain development (e.g., NRG1, RELN), signaling peptides (e.g., PIK3CA, PIK4CA) and immune function (e.g., HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1) and interleukins (e.g., IL1A, IL10, IL6). This summary will enable clinical and laboratory geneticists, genetic counselors, and other clinicians to access convenient pictorial images of the distribution and location of contributing genes to inform diagnosis and gene-based treatment as well as provide risk estimates for genetic counseling of families with affected relatives.

  16. A full-coverage, high-resolution human chromosome 22 genomic microarray for clinical and research applications.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Patrick G; Mantripragada, Kiran K; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; Tapia-Páez, Isabel; Diaz De Ståhl, Teresita; Rosenquist, Magnus; Ali, Haider; Jarbo, Caroline; De Bustos, Cecilía; Hirvelä, Carina; Sinder Wilén, Birgitta; Fransson, Ingegerd; Thyr, Charlotte; Johnsson, Britt-Inger; Bruder, Carl E G; Menzel, Uwe; Hergersberg, Martin; Mandahl, Nils; Blennow, Elisabeth; Wedell, Anna; Beare, David M; Collins, John E; Dunham, Ian; Albertson, Donna; Pinkel, Daniel; Bastian, Boris C; Faruqi, A Fawad; Lasken, Roger S; Ichimura, Koichi; Collins, V Peter; Dumanski, Jan P

    2002-12-01

    We have constructed the first comprehensive microarray representing a human chromosome for analysis of DNA copy number variation. This chromosome 22 array covers 34.7 Mb, representing 1.1% of the genome, with an average resolution of 75 kb. To demonstrate the utility of the array, we have applied it to profile acral melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma, DiGeorge syndrome and neurofibromatosis 2. We accurately diagnosed homozygous/heterozygous deletions, amplifications/gains, IGLV/IGLC locus instability, and breakpoints of an imbalanced translocation. We further identified the 14-3-3 eta isoform as a candidate tumor suppressor in glioblastoma. Two significant methodological advances in array construction were also developed and validated. These include a strictly sequence defined, repeat-free, and non-redundant strategy for array preparation. This approach allows an increase in array resolution and analysis of any locus; disregarding common repeats, genomic clone availability and sequence redundancy. In addition, we report that the application of phi29 DNA polymerase is advantageous in microarray preparation. A broad spectrum of issues in medical research and diagnostics can be approached using the array. This well annotated and gene-rich autosome contains numerous uncharacterized disease genes. It is therefore crucial to associate these genes to specific 22q-related conditions and this array will be instrumental towards this goal. Furthermore, comprehensive epigenetic profiling of 22q-located genes and high-resolution analysis of replication timing across the entire chromosome can be studied using our array.

  17. A high-resolution whole-genome cattle-human comparative map reveals details of mammalian chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Larkin, Denis M; Green, Cheryl A; Elliott, Janice S; Olmstead, Colleen A; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Marra, Marco A; Womack, James E; Lewin, Harris A

    2005-12-20

    Approximately 3,000 cattle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequences were added to the Illinois-Texas 5,000-rad RH (RH, radiation hybrid) map. The BAC-end sequences selected for mapping are approximately 1 Mbp apart on the human chromosomes as determined by blastn analysis. The map has 3,484 ordered markers, of which 3,204 are anchored in the human genome. Two hundred-and-one homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) were identified, of which 27 are previously undiscovered, 79 are extended, 26 were formed by previously unrecognized breakpoints in 18 previously defined HSBs, and 23 are the result of fusions. The comparative coverage relative to the human genome is approximately 91%, or 97% of the theoretical maximum. The positions of 64% of all cattle centromeres and telomeres were reassigned relative to their positions on the previous map, thus facilitating a more detailed comparative analysis of centromere and telomere evolution. As an example of the utility of the high-resolution map, 22 cattle BAC fingerprint contigs were directly anchored to cattle chromosome 19 [Bos taurus, (BTA) 19]. The order of markers on the cattle RH and fingerprint maps of BTA19 and the sequence-based map of human chromosome 17 [Homo sapiens, (HSA) 17] were found to be highly consistent, with only two minor ordering discrepancies between the RH map and fingerprint contigs. The high-resolution Illinois-Texas 5,000-rad RH and comparative maps will facilitate identification of candidate genes for economically important traits, the phylogenomic analysis of mammalian chromosomes, proofing of the BAC fingerprint map and, ultimately, aid the assembly of cattle whole-genome sequence.

  18. High-Resolution Mapping of the Drosophila Fourth Chromosome Using Site-Directed Terminal Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Neves, Rui; Lukacsovich, Tamas; Mizutani, Claudia Mieko; Locke, John; Podemski, Lynn; Marsh, J. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    For more than 80 years, the euchromatic right arm of the Drosophila fourth chromosome (101F-102F) has been one of the least genetically accessible regions of the fly genome despite the fact that many important genes reside there. To improve the mapping of genes on the fourth chromosome, we describe a strategy to generate targeted deficiencies and we describe 13 deficiencies that subdivide the 300 kb between the cytological coordinates 102A6 and 102C1 into five discrete regions plus a 200-kb region from 102C1 to 102D6. Together these deficiencies substantially improve the mapping capabilities for mutant loci on the fourth chromosome. PMID:15466427

  19. First systematic CGH-based analyses of ancient DNA samples of malformed fetuses preserved in the Meckel Anatomical Collection in Halle/Saale (Germany).

    PubMed

    Tönnies, H; Gerlach, A; Klunker, R; Schultka, R; Göbbel, L

    2005-03-01

    We present the first data on our comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based strategy for the analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) samples extracted from fetuses preserved in the Meckel Anatomical Collection in Halle, Germany. The collection contains numerous differently fixed ancient samples of fetal malformations collected from the middle of the 18th to the early 19th century. The main objective of this study is to establish a "standard" aDNA extraction and amplification protocol as a prerequisite for successful CGH analyses to detect or exclude chromosomal imbalances possibly causative for the malformations described for the fetuses.

  20. High-resolution idiogram of Giemsa R-banded human prophase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Richer, C L; Drouin, R; Murer-Orlando, M; Jean, P

    1983-12-01

    The schematic representation of RHG-banded chromosomes (R-banding was produced by heat denaturation followed by Giemsa staining (RHG) in the 850-band range per haploid set, was prepared showing the relative position, the specific size, and the characteristic staining intensity for each band. To this idiogram was adapted the new International Standard Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our aim was to produce a realistic idiogram which could help in the preparation of R-banded prophase karyotypes and in the localization of chromosomal rearrangements. A comparative analysis of bands at prophase and metaphase revealed certain aspects of the dynamics involved in chromosome condensation and in R-band organization. The effect of chromosome elongation on the appearance of R-bands within heterochromatic regions has also been discussed.

  1. Detection of unbalanced chromosome segregations in preimplantation genetic diagnosis of translocations by short comparative genomic hibridization.

    PubMed

    Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Pujol, Aïda; Martínez-Passarell, Olga; Marquès, Laura; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2011-07-01

    To apply a comprehensive chromosomal screening through short comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of translocations. Clinical research study. A PGD laboratory and two IVF clinics. Three Robertsonian translocation carriers, two reciprocal translocation carriers, and a double-translocation carrier. After using the short-CGH approach in the reanalysis of two unbalanced embryos, discarded from a PGD for a reciprocal translocation carrier, the same method was applied in the PGD of day-3 embryos of translocation carriers. Ability of short CGH to detect partial chromosomal abnormalities in unbalanced embryos, translocation segregation proportions, and proportion of embryos carrying chromosomal abnormalities not related to the translocations. The short-CGH technique detected errors resulting from the meiotic segregation of the chromosomes involved in the translocations and other abnormalities affecting the remaining chromosomes. Alternate segregation was detected most frequently among Robertsonian translocation cases, whereas unbalanced chromosome segregations were found predominantly in reciprocal ones. Aneuploidy and structural chromosome errors were found more frequently in Robertsonian than in reciprocal translocation carriers. Application of short-CGH PGD achieved pregnancy in two cases. Short CGH is a reliable approach for PGD of translocations, as it is capable of detecting partial chromosome errors caused by unbalanced segregations simultaneously to the screening of all chromosomes, and it may improve the results after PGD for translocation carriers. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization detects copy number variations with prognostic relevance in 80% of ALL with normal karyotype or failed chromosome analysis.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, V; Haferlach, T; Kern, W; Zenger, M; Schnittger, S; Haferlach, C

    2016-02-01

    Pretreatment cytogenetics is an important parameter for risk stratification and therapy approach in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, in up to 30% of cases, chromosome banding analysis (CBA) fails or reveals a normal karyotype. To characterize the subset of ALL with normal karyotype or failed CBA, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or PCR for BCR-ABL1 and MLL rearrangements as well as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 186 adult patients. We further carried out FISH for MYC in cases with Burkitt leukemia phenotype. FISH or PCR revealed one of the respective rearrangements in 22% of patients. In 80% of cases, copy number variations (CNV) were identified by aCGH. In 22% of cases, all CNV were below the resolution of CBA. On the basis of results of FISH, RT-PCR and aCGH, patients were categorized into three groups. The novel subset of patients with submicroscopic CNV only showed an overall survival at 3 years of 84% compared with 64% for patients classified as adverse abnormalities and 77% for cases with other aberrations (P=0.046). Thus, ALL with non-informative CBA can be further classified by FISH and aCGH providing prognostic information, which may be useful for a more individualized therapy.

  3. Fully efficient chromosome dimer resolution in Escherichia coli cells lacking the integral membrane domain of FtsK

    PubMed Central

    Dubarry, Nelly; Barre, François-Xavier

    2010-01-01

    In bacteria, septum formation frequently initiates before the last steps of chromosome segregation. This is notably the case when chromosome dimers are formed by homologous recombination. Chromosome segregation then requires the activity of a double-stranded DNA transporter anchored at the septum by an integral membrane domain, FtsK. It was proposed that the transmembrane segments of proteins of the FtsK family form pores across lipid bilayers for the transport of DNA. Here, we show that truncated Escherichia coli FtsK proteins lacking all of the FtsK transmembrane segments allow for the efficient resolution of chromosome dimers if they are connected to a septal targeting peptide through a sufficiently long linker. These results indicate that FtsK does not need to transport DNA through a pore formed by its integral membrane domain. We propose therefore that FtsK transports DNA before membrane fusion, at a time when there is still an opening in the constricted septum. PMID:20033058

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Using Array-CGH for Diagnosing Learning Disability.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, G S; Mohammed, S; Barton, G; Norbury, G; Ahn, J W; Ogilvie, C M; Kroese, M

    2015-08-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) as a first-line test versus as a second-line test for the diagnosis of causal chromosomal abnormalities in patients referred to a NHS clinical genetics service in the U.K. with idiopathic learning disability, developmental delay and/or congenital anomalies. A cost-effectiveness study was conducted. The perspective is that of a U.K. NHS clinical genetics service provider (with respect to both costs and outcomes). A cohort of patients (n = 1590) referred for array-CGH testing of undiagnosed learning disability and developmental delay by a single NHS regional clinical genetics service (South East Thames Regional Genetics Service), were split into a before-and-after design where 742 patients had array-CGH as a second-line test (before group-comparator intervention) and 848 patients had array-CGH as a first-line test (after group-evaluated intervention). The mean costs were calculated from the clinical genetics testing pathway constructed for each patient including the costs of genetic testing undertaken and clinical appointments scheduled. The outcome was the number of diagnoses each intervention produced so that a mean cost-per-diagnosis could be calculated. The cost effectiveness of the two interventions was calculated as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to produce an incremental cost-per-diagnosis (in 2013 GBP). Sensitivity analyses were conducted by altering both costs and effects to check the validity of the outcome. The incremental mean cost of testing patients using the first-line testing strategy was -GBP241.56 (95% CIs -GBP256.93 to -GBP226.19) and the incremental mean gain in the percentage diagnoses was 0.39% (95% CIs -2.73 to 3.51%), which equates to an additional 1 diagnosis per 256 patients tested. This cost-effectiveness study comparing these two strategies estimates that array-CGH first-line testing dominates second-line testing because it

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities using array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using a targeted array-CGH strategy for prenatal diagnosis of genomic imbalances in a clinical setting of current pregnancies. Women undergoing prenatal diagnosis were counseled and offered array-CGH (BCM V4.0) in addition to routine chromosome ...

  6. Single-molecule super-resolution imaging of chromosomes and in situ haplotype visualization using Oligopaint FISH probes

    PubMed Central

    Beliveau, Brian J.; Boettiger, Alistair N.; Avendaño, Maier S.; Jungmann, Ralf; McCole, Ruth B.; Joyce, Eric F.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Bantignies, Frédéric; Fonseka, Chamith Y.; Erceg, Jelena; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Hoang, Hien G.; Colognori, David; Lee, Jeannie T.; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Wu, Chao-ting

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful single-cell technique for studying nuclear structure and organization. Here we report two advances in FISH-based imaging. We first describe the in situ visualization of single-copy regions of the genome using two single-molecule super-resolution methodologies. We then introduce a robust and reliable system that harnesses single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to visually distinguish the maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes in mammalian and insect systems. Both of these new technologies are enabled by renewable, bioinformatically designed, oligonucleotide-based Oligopaint probes, which we augment with a strategy that uses secondary oligonucleotides (oligos) to produce and enhance fluorescent signals. These advances should substantially expand the capability to query parent-of-origin-specific chromosome positioning and gene expression on a cell-by-cell basis. PMID:25962338

  7. Parsimonious Higher-Order Hidden Markov Models for Improved Array-CGH Analysis with Applications to Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael; Gohr, André; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (Array-CGH) is an important technology in molecular biology for the detection of DNA copy number polymorphisms between closely related genomes. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are popular tools for the analysis of Array-CGH data, but current methods are only based on first-order HMMs having constrained abilities to model spatial dependencies between measurements of closely adjacent chromosomal regions. Here, we develop parsimonious higher-order HMMs enabling the interpolation between a mixture model ignoring spatial dependencies and a higher-order HMM exhaustively modeling spatial dependencies. We apply parsimonious higher-order HMMs to the analysis of Array-CGH data of the accessions C24 and Col-0 of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We compare these models against first-order HMMs and other existing methods using a reference of known deletions and sequence deviations. We find that parsimonious higher-order HMMs clearly improve the identification of these polymorphisms. Moreover, we perform a functional analysis of identified polymorphisms revealing novel details of genomic differences between C24 and Col-0. Additional model evaluations are done on widely considered Array-CGH data of human cell lines indicating that parsimonious HMMs are also well-suited for the analysis of non-plant specific data. All these results indicate that parsimonious higher-order HMMs are useful for Array-CGH analyses. An implementation of parsimonious higher-order HMMs is available as part of the open source Java library Jstacs (www.jstacs.de/index.php/PHHMM). PMID:22253580

  8. A very rare case of trisomy 4q32.3-4q35.2 and trisomy 21q11.2-21q22.11 in a patient with recombinant chromosomes 4 and 21.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Sha; Xue, Dan; Xi, Zuo-Ming; Liu, Dan-Na; Zou, Peng-Shu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Ying; Chen, Xia-Hui; Qiu, Guang-Bin; Cao, Dong-Hua

    2015-05-25

    We report the case of a patient with a clinical phenotype consistent with Down Syndrome (DS) who has a novel karyotypic abnormality. Karyotypic analyses were performed to investigate the cause of two spontaneous abortions. A balanced translocation between chromosomes 4 and 21 was identified, along with an additional abnormal chromosome 21. We performed high-resolution banding, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and FISH studies in both the patient and her mother to define the abnormality and determine its origin. CGH revealed a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 4, spanning at least 24.4 Mb, and a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 21, spanning at least 16.2 Mb. FISH analysis using a chromosome 21 centromere probe and chromosome 4 long arm telomere (4pter) probe confirmed the origin of the marker chromosome. It has been confirmed by the State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of China that this is the first reported instance of the karyotype 47,XX,t(4;21)(q31.3;q11.2),+der(21)t(4;21)mat reported in the world.

  9. Imaging of Bacterial Chromosome Organization by 3D Super-Resolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Antoine; Cattoni, Diego I; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial nucleoid is highly organized, yet it is dynamically remodeled by cellular processes such as transcription, replication, or segregation. Many principles of nucleoid organization have remained obscure due to the inability of conventional microscopy methods to retrieve structural information beyond the diffraction limit of light. Structured illumination microscopy has recently been shown to provide new levels of spatial details on bacterial chromosome organization by surpassing the diffraction limit. Its ease of use and fast 3D multicolor capabilities make it a method of choice for imaging fluorescently labeled specimens at the nanoscale. We describe a simple high-throughput method for imaging bacterial chromosomes using this technique.

  10. A high resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 4A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bread wheat has a large and complex allohexaploid genome with low recombination level at chromosome centromeric and peri-centromeric regions. This significantly hampers ordering of markers, contigs of physical maps and sequence scaffolds and impedes obtaining of high-quality reference genome sequenc...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (Vernazza+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted an extensive spectroscopic survey in the near-infrared range of 70 main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids and 4 Ch/Cgh-type families and combined these measurements with available visible wavelength spectra. New data presented here are near-infrared asteroid spectral measurements for Ch- and Cgh-type asteroids from 0.7-2.5μm obtained using SpeX, the low- to medium-resolution near-IR spectrograph and imager on the 3m NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) located on Mauna Kea, HI. Observing runs were conducted remotely primarily from the Observatory of Paris-Meudon, France between 2010 April and 2012 January. The spectrograph SpeX, combined with a 0.8*15arcsec slit, was used in the low-resolution prism mode for acquisition of the spectra in the 0.7-2.5μm wavelength range. In order to monitor the high luminosity and variability of the sky in the near-IR, the telescope was moved along the slit during the acquisition of the data so as to obtain a sequence of spectra located at two different positions (A and B) on the array. In addition, we complemented our data set with additional near-infrared spectra retrieved from the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) database (http://smass.mit.edu/). Combining these near-infrared measurements with available visible wavelength spectra (Bus, 1999PhDT........50B; Lazzaro et al., 2004Icar..172..179L) allows for the first time an extensive visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral database of main-belt Ch and Cgh types with D>45km (78% or 49/63 of all Ch and Cgh types listed in SMASS; see Table1). (1 data file).

  12. Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carlos; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Karadsheh, Naif; Gonzalez, Ana M

    2005-01-01

    A high-resolution, Y-chromosome analysis using 46 binary markers has been carried out in two Jordan populations, one from the metropolitan area of Amman and the other from the Dead Sea, an area geographically isolated. Comparisons with neighboring populations showed that whereas the sample from Amman did not significantly differ from their Levantine neighbors, the Dead Sea sample clearly behaved as a genetic outlier in the region. Its high R1*-M173 frequency (40%) has until now only been found in northern Cameroonian samples. This contrasts with the comparatively low presence of J representatives (9%), which is the modal clade in Middle Eastern populations, including Amman. The Dead Sea sample also showed a high presence of E3b3a-M34 lineages (31%), which is only comparable to that found in Ethiopians. Although ancient and recent ties with sub-Saharan and eastern Africans cannot be discarded, it seems that isolation, strong drift, and/or founder effects are responsible for the anomalous Y-chromosome pool of this population. These results demonstrate that, at a fine scale, the smooth, continental clines detected for several Y-chromosome markers are often disrupted by genetically divergent populations.

  13. Autism and chromosome abnormalities-A review.

    PubMed

    Bergbaum, Anne; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

    2016-07-01

    The neuro-behavioral disorder of autism was first described in the 1940s and was predicted to have a biological basis. Since that time, with the growth of genetic investigations particularly in the area of pediatric development, an increasing number of children with autism and related disorders (autistic spectrum disorders, ASD) have been the subject of genetic studies both in the clinical setting and in the wider research environment. However, a full understanding of the biological basis of ASDs has yet to be achieved. Early observations of children with chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banded chromosome analysis (karyotyping) and in situ hybridization revealed, in some cases, ASD associated with other features arising from such an abnormality. The introduction of higher resolution techniques for whole genome screening, such as array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), allowed smaller imbalances to be detected, some of which are now considered to represent autism susceptibility loci. In this review, we describe some of the work underpinning the conclusion that ASDs have a genetic basis; a brief history of the developments in genetic analysis tools over the last 50 years; and the most common chromosome abnormalities found in association with ASDs. Introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) into the clinical diagnostic setting is likely to provide further insights into this complex field but will not be covered in this review. Clin. Anat. 29:620-627, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Slit-scan flow cytometry for consistent high resolution DNA analysis of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm.

    PubMed

    Rens, W; Welch, G R; Houck, D W; van Oven, C H; Johnson, L A

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the application of slit-scan flow cytometry for accurate DNA analysis of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm. The introduction of the slit-scanning technique was initiated to improve the consistency in resolution of the X and Y population from donor to donor. An optimal resolution is essential for high purity sorting of X and Y sperm, as the difference in DNA content is small (3-4%) in most mammals. This difference is the discriminatory parameter for the flow cytometric sorting of the two populations. Our approach was to focus on the role of the sperm tail in the detection process. Slit-scan flow cytometric analysis allows the whole sperm to be spatially analyzed along the direction of flow. Sperm were stained with Dansyl Lysine, a UV excitable fluorescent membrane dye, which stained the head, midpiece, and principal piece. Analysis of these stained sperm showed that there was no difference between the relative number of sperm that travel headfirst or tailfirst through the detection zone of the flow cytometer. The influence of sperm with coiled tails on DNA analysis was also investigated. The proportion of sperm with coiled tails influences semen quality. The standard X-Y separation procedure uses Hoechst 33342, which stains all intact sperm, both living and dead. Propidium iodide was added to discriminate the dead sperm population. Slit-scan analysis showed that measurement of a sample containing a high proportion of living sperm with coiled tails results in an inferior DNA histogram and reduced X-Y resolution. Sperm with coiled tails can result in a lower detected fluorescence intensity, but the reason for this is unclear. Slit-scan flow cytometry allows exclusion of sperm with coiled tails from the analysis, resulting in a restoration of high resolution of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm populations.

  15. Array based characterization of a terminal deletion involving chromosome subband 15q26.2: an emerging syndrome associated with growth retardation, cardiac defects and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Josef; Collin, Anna; Björkhem, Gudrun; Soller, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. Methods In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k) genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Results After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb) region, ranging from 93.86–100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. Conclusion In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome. PMID:18194513

  16. Prophage lambda induces terminal recombination in Escherichia coli by inhibiting chromosome dimer resolution. An orientation-dependent cis-effect lending support to bipolarization of the terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Corre, J; Patte, J; Louarn, J M

    2000-01-01

    A prophage lambda inserted by homologous recombination near dif, the chromosome dimer resolution site of Escherichia coli, is excised at a frequency that depends on its orientation with respect to dif. In wild-type cells, terminal hyper- (TH) recombination is prophage specific and undetectable by a test involving deletion of chromosomal segments between repeats identical to those used for prophage insertion. TH recombination is, however, detected in both excision and deletion assays when Deltadif, xerC, or ftsK mutations inhibit dimer resolution: lack of specialized resolution apparently results in recombinogenic lesions near dif. We also observed that the presence near dif of the prophage, in the orientation causing TH recombination, inhibits dif resolution activity. By its recombinogenic effect, this inhibition explains the enhanced prophage excision in wild-type cells. The primary effect of the prophage is probably an alteration of the dimer resolution regional control, which requires that dif is flanked by suitably oriented (polarized) stretches of DNA. Our model postulates that the prophage inserted near dif in the deleterious orientation disturbs chromosome polarization on the side of the site where it is integrated, because lambda DNA, like the chromosome, is polarized by sequence elements. Candidate sequences are oligomers that display skewed distributions on each oriC-dif chromosome arm and on lambda DNA. PMID:10628967

  17. Double deletion of a chromosome 21 inserted in a chromosome 22 in an azoospermic patient

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Valentine; Bourgeois, Dominique; De Mas, Philippe; Bouneau, Laurence; Vigouroux-Castera, Adeline; Molignier, Romain; Calvas, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report on a phenotypically normal 41-year-old azoospermic man with a 45 chromosomes karyotype including one normal chromosome 21, one normal chromosome 22, and a der(22)ins(22;21). Array CGH showed a 1.8 Mb terminal deletion of bands 21pter to 21q21.1 and a 341 kb terminal deletion on band 21q22.3. PMID:26401282

  18. The Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer: a high-resolution map of transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones aligned with the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 genome.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Kunihiro; Liu, Yao-Guang; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yukino; Yokoyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hanano, Shigeru; Takita, Eiji; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Yano, Kentaro; Tabata, Satoshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    We present a high-resolution map of genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones extending over all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) chromosomes. The Arabidopsis genomic TAC clones have been valuable genetic tools. Previously, we constructed an Arabidopsis genomic TAC library consisting of more than 10,000 TAC clones harboring large genomic DNA fragments extending over the whole Arabidopsis genome. Here, we determined 13,577 end sequences from 6987 Arabidopsis TAC clones and mapped 5937 TAC clones to precise locations, covering approximately 90% of the Arabidopsis chromosomes. We present the large-scale data set of TAC clones with high-resolution mapping information as a Java application tool, the Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer, which provides ready-to-go transformable genomic DNA clones corresponding to certain loci on Arabidopsis chromosomes. The TAC clone resources will accelerate genomic DNA cloning, positional walking, complementation of mutants and DNA transformation for heterologous gene expression.

  19. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Integration of high-resolution physical and genetic map reveals differential recombination frequency between chromosomes and the genome assembling quality in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qunfeng; He, Yuhua; Cheng, Chunyan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Ji; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber is an important model crop and the first species sequenced in Cucurbitaceae family. Compared to the fast increasing genetic and genomics resources, the molecular cytogenetic researches in cucumber are still very limited, which results in directly the shortage of relation between plenty of physical sequences or genetic data and chromosome structure. We mapped twenty-three fosmids anchored by SSR markers from LG-3, the longest linkage group, and LG-4, the shortest linkage group on pachytene chromosomes 3 and 4, using uorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Integrated molecular cytogenetic maps of chromosomes 3 and 4 were constructed. Except for three SSR markers located on heterochromatin region, the cytological order of markers was concordant with those on the linkage maps. Distinct structural differences between chromosomes 3 and 4 were revealed by the high resolution pachytene chromosomes. The extreme difference of genetic length between LG-3 and LG-4 was mainly attributed to the difference of overall recombination frequency. The significant differentiation of heterochromatin contents in chromosomes 3 and 4 might have a direct correlation with recombination frequency. Meanwhile, the uneven distribution of recombination frequency along chromosome 4 was observed, and recombination frequency of the long arm was nearly 3.5 times higher than that of the short arm. The severe suppression of recombination was exhibited in centromeric and heterochromatin domains of chromosome 4. Whereas a close correlation between the gene density and recombination frequency was observed in chromosome 4, no significant correlation was observed between them along chromosome 3. The comparison between cytogenetic and sequence maps revealed a large gap on the pericentromeric heterochromatin region of sequence map of chromosome 4. These results showed that integrated molecular cytogenetic maps can provide important information for the study of genetic and genomics in cucumber.

  1. Detection of Clinically Relevant Exonic Copy-Number Changes by Array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Philip M.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Shaw, Chad A.; Eng, Patricia A.; Hixson, Patricia M.; Pursley, Amber N.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Yang, Yaping; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Nowakowska, Beata A.; Gaudio, Daniela del; Xia, Zhilian; Simpson-Patel, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna L.; Gibson, James B.; Tsai, Anne C.-H.; Bowers, Jennifer A.; Reimschisel, Tyler E.; Schaaf, Christian P.; Potocki, Lorraine; Scaglia, Fernando; Gambin, Tomasz; Sykulski, Maciej; Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwinska, Katarzyna; Wisniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Lalani, Seema R.; Probst, Frank J.; Bi, Weimin; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Patel, Ankita; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for the molecular elucidation and diagnosis of disorders resulting from genomic copy-number variation (CNV). However, intragenic deletions or duplications—those including genomic intervals of a size smaller than a gene—have remained beyond the detection limit of most clinical aCGH analyses. Increasing array probe number improves genomic resolution, although higher cost may limit implementation, and enhanced detection of benign CNV can confound clinical interpretation. We designed an array with exonic coverage of selected disease and candidate genes and used it clinically to identify losses or gains throughout the genome involving at least one exon and as small as several hundred base pairs in size. In some patients, the detected copy-number change occurs within a gene known to be causative of the observed clinical phenotype, demonstrating the ability of this array to detect clinically relevant CNVs with subkilobase resolution. In summary, we demonstrate the utility of a custom-designed, exon-targeted oligonucleotide array to detect intragenic copy-number changes in patients with various clinical phenotypes. PMID:20848651

  2. High-resolution RNA allelotyping along the inactive X chromosome: evidence of RNA polymerase III in regulating chromatin configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ru; Lin, Bingqing; Lu, Xinyi; Lai, Lan-Tian; Chen, Xin; Sanyal, Amartya; Ng, Huck-Hui; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2017-01-01

    We carried out padlock capture, a high-resolution RNA allelotyping method, to study X chromosome inactivation (XCI). We examined the gene reactivation pattern along the inactive X (Xi), after Xist (X-inactive specific transcript), a prototype long non-coding RNA essential for establishing X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in early embryos, is conditionally deleted from Xi in somatic cells (Xi∆Xist). We also monitored the behaviors of X-linked non-coding transcripts before and after XCI. In each mutant cell line, gene reactivation occurs to ~6% genes along Xi∆Xist in a recognizable pattern. Genes with upstream regions enriched for SINEs are prone to be reactivated. SINE is a class of retrotransposon transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Intriguingly, a significant fraction of Pol III transcription from non-coding regions is not subjected to Xist-mediated transcriptional silencing. Pol III inhibition affects gene reactivation status along Xi∆Xist, alters chromatin configuration and interferes with the establishment XCI during in vitro differentiation of ES cells. These results suggest that Pol III transcription is involved in chromatin structure re-organization during the onset of XCI and functions as a general mechanism regulating chromatin configuration in mammalian cells. PMID:28368037

  3. High-resolution RNA allelotyping along the inactive X chromosome: evidence of RNA polymerase III in regulating chromatin configuration.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ru; Lin, Bingqing; Lu, Xinyi; Lai, Lan-Tian; Chen, Xin; Sanyal, Amartya; Ng, Huck-Hui; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2017-04-03

    We carried out padlock capture, a high-resolution RNA allelotyping method, to study X chromosome inactivation (XCI). We examined the gene reactivation pattern along the inactive X (Xi), after Xist (X-inactive specific transcript), a prototype long non-coding RNA essential for establishing X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in early embryos, is conditionally deleted from Xi in somatic cells (Xi(∆Xist)). We also monitored the behaviors of X-linked non-coding transcripts before and after XCI. In each mutant cell line, gene reactivation occurs to ~6% genes along Xi(∆Xist) in a recognizable pattern. Genes with upstream regions enriched for SINEs are prone to be reactivated. SINE is a class of retrotransposon transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). Intriguingly, a significant fraction of Pol III transcription from non-coding regions is not subjected to Xist-mediated transcriptional silencing. Pol III inhibition affects gene reactivation status along Xi(∆Xist), alters chromatin configuration and interferes with the establishment XCI during in vitro differentiation of ES cells. These results suggest that Pol III transcription is involved in chromatin structure re-organization during the onset of XCI and functions as a general mechanism regulating chromatin configuration in mammalian cells.

  4. High resolution mapping of Dense spike-ar (dsp.ar) to the genetic centromere of barley chromosome 7H.

    PubMed

    Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2012-02-01

    Spike density in barley is under the control of several major genes, as documented previously by genetic analysis of a number of morphological mutants. One such class of mutants affects the rachis internode length leading to dense or compact spikes and the underlying genes were designated dense spike (dsp). We previously delimited two introgressed genomic segments on chromosome 3H (21 SNP loci, 35.5 cM) and 7H (17 SNP loci, 20.34 cM) in BW265, a BC(7)F(3) nearly isogenic line (NIL) of cv. Bowman as potentially containing the dense spike mutant locus dsp.ar, by genotyping 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in both BW265 and its recurrent parent. Here, the gene was allocated by high-resolution bi-parental mapping to a 0.37 cM interval between markers SC57808 (Hv_SPL14)-CAPSK06413 residing on the short and long arm at the genetic centromere of chromosome 7H, respectively. This region putatively contains more than 800 genes as deduced by comparison with the collinear regions of barley, rice, sorghum and Brachypodium, Classical map-based isolation of the gene dsp.ar thus will be complicated due to the infavorable relationship of genetic to physical distances at the target locus.

  5. A high-resolution genetic map of mouse chromosome 5 encompassing the reeler (rl) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Beckers, M.C.; Bar, I.; Huynh-Thu, T.

    1994-10-01

    Using interspecific crosses between BALB/c and Mus spretus (SEG) mice, the murine reeler (rl) gene was mapped to the proximal region of chromosome 5 between the hepatocyte growth factor gene (Hgf) and the D5Mit66 microsatellite. The following order was defined: (centromere) - Cch12a/Hgf-D5Mit1-D5Nam1/D5-Nam2-rl/D5Mit61-D5Mit72-Xmv45-Htr5a-Peplb-D5Nam3-D5Mit66. Estimated distances between reeler and the nearest flanking markers D5Nam1 and D5Mit72 are 1.5 and 1.0 cM, respectively (95% confidence level), suggesting that the region could be physically mapped using a manageable number of YAC clones.

  6. [Middle ear salivary gland choristoma related to branchio-oto-renal syndrome diagnosed by array-CGH].

    PubMed

    Amrhein, P; Sittel, C; Spaich, C; Kohlhase, J; Boppert, R; Kohlhof, P; Koitschev, A

    2014-05-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is characterized by ear malformations associated with sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. In addition, preauricular tags, preauricular pits, branchial cleft fistulas and cysts, as well as renal dysplasia are seen. A genetic mutation on chromosome 8, either autosomal dominantly inherited or occuring as a spontaneous mutation, is the cause in the majority of cases. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), it is possible to detect even the smallest genetic changes. Salivary gland choristoma in the middle ear is very rare. Surgical removal and histological clarification are required.

  7. Asterias: A Parallelized Web-based Suite for the Analysis of Expression and aCGH Data

    PubMed Central

    Alibés, Andreu; Morrissey, Edward R.; Cañada, Andrés; Rueda, Oscar M.; Casado, David; Yankilevich, Patricio; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of expression and CGH arrays plays a central role in the study of complex diseases, especially cancer, including finding markers for early diagnosis and prognosis, choosing an optimal therapy, or increasing our understanding of cancer development and metastasis. Asterias (http://www.asterias.info) is an integrated collection of freely-accessible web tools for the analysis of gene expression and aCGH data. Most of the tools use parallel computing (via MPI) and run on a server with 60 CPUs for computation; compared to a desktop or server-based but not parallelized application, parallelization provides speed ups of factors up to 50. Most of our applications allow the user to obtain additional information for user-selected genes (chromosomal location, PubMed ids, Gene Ontology terms, etc.) by using clickable links in tables and/or figures. Our tools include: normalization of expression and aCGH data (DNMAD); converting between different types of gene/clone and protein identifiers (IDconverter/IDClight); filtering and imputation (preP); finding differentially expressed genes related to patient class and survival data (Pomelo II); searching for models of class prediction (Tnasas); using random forests to search for minimal models for class prediction or for large subsets of genes with predictive capacity (GeneSrF); searching for molecular signatures and predictive genes with survival data (SignS); detecting regions of genomic DNA gain or loss (ADaCGH). The capability to send results between different applications, access to additional functional information, and parallelized computation make our suite unique and exploit features only available to web-based applications. PMID:19455230

  8. Asterias: a parallelized web-based suite for the analysis of expression and aCGH data.

    PubMed

    Alibés, Andreu; Morrissey, Edward R; Cañada, Andrés; Rueda, Oscar M; Casado, David; Yankilevich, Patricio; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón

    2007-02-03

    The analysis of expression and CGH arrays plays a central role in the study of complex diseases, especially cancer, including finding markers for early diagnosis and prognosis, choosing an optimal therapy, or increasing our understanding of cancer development and metastasis. Asterias (http://www.asterias.info) is an integrated collection of freely-accessible web tools for the analysis of gene expression and aCGH data. Most of the tools use parallel computing (via MPI) and run on a server with 60 CPUs for computation; compared to a desktop or server-based but not parallelized application, parallelization provides speed ups of factors up to 50. Most of our applications allow the user to obtain additional information for user-selected genes (chromosomal location, PubMed ids, Gene Ontology terms, etc.) by using clickable links in tables and/or figures. Our tools include: normalization of expression and aCGH data (DNMAD); converting between different types of gene/clone and protein identifiers (IDconverter/IDClight); filtering and imputation (preP); finding differentially expressed genes related to patient class and survival data (Pomelo II); searching for models of class prediction (Tnasas); using random forests to search for minimal models for class prediction or for large subsets of genes with predictive capacity (GeneSrF); searching for molecular signatures and predictive genes with survival data (SignS); detecting regions of genomic DNA gain or loss (ADaCGH). The capability to send results between different applications, access to additional functional information, and parallelized computation make our suite unique and exploit features only available to web-based applications.

  9. High-resolution linkage map of mouse chromosome 13 in the vicinity of the host resistance locus Lgn1

    SciTech Connect

    Beckers, M.C.; Ernst, E.; Diez, E.

    1997-02-01

    Natural resistance of inbred mouse strains to infection with Legionella pneumophila is controlled by the expression of a single dominant gene on chromosome 13, designated Lgn1. The genetic difference at Lgn1 is phenotypically expressed as the presence or absence of intracellular replication of L. pneumophila in host macrophages. In our effort to identify the Lgn1 gene by positional cloning, we have generated a high-resolution linkage map of the Lgn1 chromosomal region. For this, we have carried out extensive segregation analysis in a total of 1270 (A/J x C57BL/6J) X A/J informative backcross mice segregating the resistance allele of C57BL/6J and the susceptibility allele of A/J. Additional segregation analyses were carried out in three preexisting panels of C57BL/6J X Mus spretus interspecific backcross mice. A total of 39 DNA markers were mapped within an interval of approximately 30 cM overlapping the Lgn1 region. Combined pedigree analyses for the 5.4-cM segment overlapping Lgn1 indicated the locus order and the interlocus distances (in cM): D13Mit128-(1.4)-D13Mit194-(0.1)-D13Mit147-(0.9)-Dl3Mit36-(0.9)-D13Mit146-(0.2)-Lgn1/D 13Mit37-(1.0)-D13Mit70. Additional genetic linkage studies of markers not informative in the A/J X C57BL/6J cross positioned D13Mit30, -72, -195, and -203, D13Gor4, D13Hun35, and Mtap5 in the immediate vicinity of the Lgn1 locus. The marker density and resolution of this genetic linkage map should allow the construction of a physical map of the region and the isolation of YAC clones overlapping the gene. 60 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Nonrandom chromosomal imbalances in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma detected by arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, A; Taruscio, D; Scardoni, M; Iosi, F; Paradisi, S; Ennas, M G; Rigaud, G; Moore, P S; Menestrina, F

    1999-11-01

    We used arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) fingerprinting to identify chromosomal imbalances in six primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas (PMBLs). Seventy-four chromosomal imbalances were detected, consisting of 49 sequence gains and 25 losses. Amplifications on chromosome X were seen in five cases, four of which involved the same chromosomal locus. Nonrandom gains at the same locus were also identified on chromosomes 2 and 7 in four cases and on chromosomes 5, 9, and 12 in three cases. Five PMBLs were also analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), which found chromosome arm 9p amplification as the only nonrandom imbalance. Our data demonstrate that chromosomal amplifications outnumber losses in PMBL. These mainly involve chromosomes 9 and X and may reflect more complex phenomena, such as translocations or other chromosomal rearrangements, as AP-PCR found coexistent gains and losses on these chromosomes. Comparison between AP-PCR and CGH suggests that anomalies affecting the same chromosomal regions may occur at much higher frequencies than expected by CGH, suggesting that genomic amplifications are usually confined to DNA segments smaller than the megabase long segments required for detection in CGH. Modest increases in genetic material may be as effective as higher-level amplifications when affecting sites where a proto-oncogene resides. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. High-resolution G-banding and nucleolus-organizer regions of chromosomes of vole Microtus kirgisorum

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurok, N.A.; Rubtsov, N.B.; Ovechkina, Y.Y.

    1995-08-01

    The use of G-banding of chromosomes in combination with the pipette method of chromosome preparation at the early metaphase made it possible to distinguish about 520 segments in the haploid chromosome set of vole Microtus kirgisorum. The idiogram of M. kirgisorum chromosomes was obtained on the basis of detailed investigation of chromosomes at different condensation levels. Data of the localization and the number of nucleolus-organizer regions are given. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. CGH Celebrates Take Your Child To Work Day 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Shady Grove celebrated Take Your Child To Work Day this year with a variety of activities and sessions aimed at inspiring school-aged children to explore career paths in science and public service. CGH hosted its inaugural Take Your Child To Work Day session: An Introduction to Global Health.

  13. Meiotic chromosomes and stages of sex chromosome evolution in fish: zebrafish, platyfish and guppy.

    PubMed

    Traut, W; Winking, H

    2001-01-01

    We describe SC complements and results from comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the zebrafish Danio rerio, the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The three fish species represent basic steps of sex chromosome differentiation: (1) the zebrafish with an all-autosome karyotype; (2) the platyfish with genetically defined sex chromosomes but no differentiation between X and Y visible in the SC or with CGH in meiotic and mitotic chromosomes; (3) the guppy with genetically and cytogenetically differentiated sex chromosomes. The acrocentric Y chromosomes of the guppy consists of a proximal homologous and a distal differential segment. The proximal segment pairs in early pachytene with the respective X chromosome segment. The differential segment is unpaired in early pachytene but synapses later in an 'adjustment' or 'equalization' process. The segment includes a postulated sex determining region and a conspicuous variable heterochromatic region whose structure depends on the particular Y chromosome line. CGH differentiates a large block of predominantly male-specific repetitive DNA and a block of common repetitive DNA in that region.

  14. High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of 342 new cosmid markers including 43 RFLP markers on human chromosome 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Inazawa, Johji; Ariyama, Takeshi; Abe, Tatsuo ); Saito, Hiroko; Nakamura, Yusuke )

    1993-07-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 17 with 342 cosmid markers, each newly isolated from a cosmid library constructed from a human-mouse hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 17. Direct mapping on R- and/or G-banded (pro)metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized these markers throughout the chromosome, although density was highest in the R-band-dominant regions of 17p13, 17p11.2, 17q11.2-q12, 17q21.3, 17q23, and 17q25. By screening some of the cosmid clones, they identified 71 polymorphic systems with 43 markers; 11 of these are VNTRs. As the high-resolution cytogenetic map contains a large number of markers, it can provide useful landmarks for a contig map of chromosome 17. Furthermore, the map will contribute to positional cloning of aberrant genes responsible for inherited diseases such as Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), and familial early-onset breast cancer, as well as putative tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome. 47 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Array-CGH study of partial trisomy 9p without mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Hannachi, Hanane; Zerelli, Soumaya Mougou; Labalme, Audrey; Gmidène, Abir; Soyah, Najla; Missaoui, Sonia; Sanlaville, Damien; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Partial trisomy 9p is one of the most common detected autosomal structural anomalies, so the phenotype-genotype correlation of this rearrangement has been well described. Despite variation in size of the 9p duplications, trisomy 9p syndrome is characterized by typical dysmorphic features and a variable but constant psychomotor and mental retardation. Previously reported phenotype genotype correlation studies proposed that the critical region for phenotype is located in 9p22. We report here on a new patient with partial trisomy 9p13.3→9pter in an 8-year-old boy with typical trisomy 9p dysmorphic features but a normal mental development. Cytogenetics investigations showed that our patient karyotype was 47,XY,+ der(22)t(9;22)(p13.q11) inherited by a 3:1 disjunction of a maternal reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(p13.q11). FISH and array CGH analysis were used to better characterize duplicated chromosomal regions and showed a large duplication of chromosome 9p13.3→9pter associated to microduplication in 22q11.1. The size of the duplications in chromosomes 9p and 22q were estimated about 33.9 and 2.67 Mb, respectively. The comparison between this case and those reported in the literature allows us to support that all syndromes show variability and that not all partial trisomies 9p are associated with intellectual disability.

  16. Condensin- and Replication-Mediated Bacterial Chromosome Folding and Origin Condensation Revealed by Hi-C and Super-resolution Imaging.

    PubMed

    Marbouty, Martial; Le Gall, Antoine; Cattoni, Diego I; Cournac, Axel; Koh, Alan; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Mozziconacci, Julien; Murray, Heath; Koszul, Romain; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2015-08-20

    Chromosomes of a broad range of species, from bacteria to mammals, are structured by large topological domains whose precise functional roles and regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we combine super-resolution microscopies and chromosome-capture technologies to unravel the higher-order organization of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome and its dynamic rearrangements during the cell cycle. We decipher the fine 3D architecture of the origin domain, revealing folding motifs regulated by condensin-like complexes. This organization, along with global folding throughout the genome, is present before replication, disrupted by active DNA replication, and re-established thereafter. Single-cell analysis revealed a strict correspondence between sub-cellular localization of origin domains and their condensation state. Our results suggest that the precise 3D folding pattern of the origin domain plays a role in the regulation of replication initiation, chromosome organization, and DNA segregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A high-resolution map of the chromosomal region surrounding the nude gene

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, C.C.; Griffith, J.; Morahan, G.

    1995-03-20

    The nude mutation produces the apparently disparate phenotypes of hairlessness and congenital thymic aplasia. These pleiotropic defects are the result of a single, autosomal recessive mutation that was previously mapped to a 9-cM region of murine chromosome 11 bounded by loci encoding the acetylcholine receptor P subunit and myeloperoxidase. In this study, exclusion mapping of a panel of congenic nude strains was used to place the nude locus between the microsatellite loci D11Nds1 and D11Mit8. The relative distance from nude to each of these loci was determined by analyzing a large segregating cross. Thus, nude lies 1.4 cM distal to D11Nds1 and is 0.5 cM proximal to D11Mit8. Mice that carried recombinational breakpoints between D11Nds1 and D11Mit8 were further analyzed at the loci Evi-2 and D11Mit34, which placed nu 0.2 cM proximal to these markers. D11Nds1 and Evi-2/D11Mit34 thus define the new proximal and distal boundaries, respectively, for the nu interval. We also report the typing of the above microsatellite markers in the AKXD, AKXL, BXD, CXB, and BXH recombinant inbred strains, which confirmed the relative order and separation of loci in this region. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Multiplexed chromosome conformation capture sequencing for rapid genome-scale high-resolution detection of long-range chromatin interactions.

    PubMed

    Stadhouders, Ralph; Kolovos, Petros; Brouwer, Rutger; Zuin, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kockx, Christel; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Wendt, Kerstin S; Grosveld, Frank; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Soler, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology is a powerful and increasingly popular tool for analyzing the spatial organization of genomes. Several 3C variants have been developed (e.g., 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET, Hi-C), allowing large-scale mapping of long-range genomic interactions. Here we describe multiplexed 3C sequencing (3C-seq), a 4C variant coupled to next-generation sequencing, allowing genome-scale detection of long-range interactions with candidate regions. Compared with several other available techniques, 3C-seq offers a superior resolution (typically single restriction fragment resolution; approximately 1-8 kb on average) and can be applied in a semi-high-throughput fashion. It allows the assessment of long-range interactions of up to 192 genes or regions of interest in parallel by multiplexing library sequencing. This renders multiplexed 3C-seq an inexpensive, quick (total hands-on time of 2 weeks) and efficient method that is ideal for the in-depth analysis of complex genetic loci. The preparation of multiplexed 3C-seq libraries can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments. The protocol describes all materials, critical steps and bioinformatics tools required for successful application of 3C-seq technology.

  19. Array CGH on unstimulated blood does not detect all cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome: a skin biopsy should remain the diagnostic gold standard.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Jennelle C; Hulshizer, Rachael L; Seger, Pam; St Antoine, Angelique; Bair, Jennifer; Kirmani, Salman

    2012-03-01

    A child whose features are consistent with Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) did not have detectable tetrasomy 12p due to an additional isochromosome 12p in an unstimulated blood specimen by interphase FISH or array CGH analysis. The diagnosis of PKS was made through these methods solely in a skin biopsy specimen. To determine the sensitivity of our array CGH platform to tetrasomy 12p mosaicism, dilutions of DNA from both the child's skin fibroblasts and a PKS cell line were analyzed. Tetrasomy 12p at 10% mosaicism was identifiable but 5% was below the limit of detection. This result suggests through extrapolation that the tetrasomy 12p is present in <10% of cells in our patient's blood, confirming the tissue-limited mosaicism of PKS. Multiple recent studies show that array CGH provides greater sensitivity than chromosome analysis to detect mosaic abnormalities including that of tetrasomy 12p in blood specimens. However, our case demonstrates that the biology of PKS precludes the exclusive use of array CGH on blood for diagnosis. A tissue sample should continue to be the diagnostic gold standard for PKS.

  20. Refining the 22q11.2 deletion breakpoints in DiGeorge syndrome by aCGH.

    PubMed

    Bittel, D C; Yu, S; Newkirk, H; Kibiryeva, N; Holt, A; Butler, M G; Cooley, L D

    2009-01-01

    Hemizygous deletions of the chromosome 22q11.2 region result in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome also referred to as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial or Shprintzen syndromes. The phenotype is variable but commonly includes conotruncal cardiac defects, palatal abnormalities, learning and behavioral problems, immune deficiency, and facial anomalies. Four distinct highly homologous blocks of low copy number repeat sequences (LCRs) flank the deletion region. Mispairing of LCRs during meiosis with unequal meiotic exchange is assumed to cause the recurrent and consistent deletions. The proximal LCR is reportedly located at 22q11.2 from 17.037 to 17.083 Mb while the distal LCR is located from 19.835 to 19.880 Mb. Although the chromosome breakpoints are thought to localize to the LCRs, the positions of the breakpoints have been investigated in only a few individuals. Therefore, we used high resolution oligonucleotide-based 244K microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to resolve the breakpoints in a cohort of 20 subjects with known 22q11.2 deletions. We also investigated copy number variation (CNV) in the rest of the genome. The 22q11.2 breaks occurred on either side of the LCR in our subjects, although more commonly on the distal side of the reported proximal LCR. The proximal breakpoints in our subjects spanned the region from 17.036 to 17.398 Mb. This region includes the genes DGCR6 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region protein 6) and PRODH (proline dehydrogenase 1), along with three open reading frames that may encode proteins of unknown function. The distal breakpoints spanned the region from 19.788 to 20.122 Mb. This region includes the genes GGT2 (gamma-glutamyltransferase-like protein 2), HIC2 (hypermethylated in cancer 2), and multiple transcripts of unknown function. The genes in these two breakpoint regions are variably hemizygous depending on the location of the breakpoints. Our 20 subjects had 254 CNVs throughout the genome, 94 duplications and 160 deletions

  1. Computer-generated holograms (CGH) realization: the integration of dedicated software tool with digital slides printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, Vittorio; Francini, Franco

    1997-12-01

    Last generation of digital printer is usually characterized by a spatial resolution enough high to allow the designer to realize a binary CGH directly on a transparent film avoiding photographic reduction techniques. These devices are able to produce slides or offset prints. Furthermore, services supplied by commercial printing company provide an inexpensive method to rapidly verify the validity of the design by means of a test-and-trial process. Notably, this low-cost approach appears to be suitable for a didactical environment. On the basis of these considerations, a set of software tools able to design CGH's has been developed. The guidelines inspiring the work have been the following ones: (1) ray-tracing approach, considering the object to be reproduced as source of spherical waves; (2) Optimization and speed-up of the algorithms used, in order to produce a portable code, runnable on several hardware platforms. In this paper calculation methods to obtain some fundamental geometric functions (points, lines, curves) are described. Furthermore, by the juxtaposition of these primitives functions it is possible to produce the holograms of more complex objects. Many examples of generated CGHs are presented.

  2. Resolution of chromosomes III and VI of Aspergillus nidulans by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis shows that the penicillin biosynthetic pathway genes pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE are clustered on chromosome VI (3.0 megabases).

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, E; Fierro, F; Fernandez, F J; Gutiérrez, S; Martín, J F

    1992-01-01

    An improved electrophoretic molecular karyotype of Aspergillus nidulans ATCC 28901 has been obtained by contour-clamped electric field gel electrophoresis, which separates seven chromosomal bands and allows resolution of chromosomes III and VI. The three genes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway, pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE, encoding alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase, isopenicillin N synthase, and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, respectively, are clustered together on a chromosome of 3.0 Mg, corresponding to linkage group VI, whereas the argB gene was located on a chromosome of 3.4 Mb, corresponding to linkage group III. Three other strains of A. nidulans contained a modified chromosome III of about 3.1 Mb that overlaps with chromosome VI, forming a doublet. Resolution of chromosomes III and VI in strain ATCC 28901 allowed unequivocal mapping of the penicillin gene cluster on chromosome VI of A. nidulans. Images PMID:1400258

  3. Resolution of chromosomes III and VI of Aspergillus nidulans by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis shows that the penicillin biosynthetic pathway genes pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE are clustered on chromosome VI (3.0 megabases).

    PubMed

    Montenegro, E; Fierro, F; Fernandez, F J; Gutiérrez, S; Martín, J F

    1992-11-01

    An improved electrophoretic molecular karyotype of Aspergillus nidulans ATCC 28901 has been obtained by contour-clamped electric field gel electrophoresis, which separates seven chromosomal bands and allows resolution of chromosomes III and VI. The three genes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway, pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE, encoding alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase, isopenicillin N synthase, and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, respectively, are clustered together on a chromosome of 3.0 Mg, corresponding to linkage group VI, whereas the argB gene was located on a chromosome of 3.4 Mb, corresponding to linkage group III. Three other strains of A. nidulans contained a modified chromosome III of about 3.1 Mb that overlaps with chromosome VI, forming a doublet. Resolution of chromosomes III and VI in strain ATCC 28901 allowed unequivocal mapping of the penicillin gene cluster on chromosome VI of A. nidulans.

  4. Highly frequent allelic loss of chromosome 6q16-23 in osteosarcoma: involvement of cyclin C in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Norihide; Ito, Sachio; Yoshida, Aki; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Numoto, Kunihiko; Jitsumori, Yoshimi; Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kenji; Ouchida, Mamoru

    2006-12-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma is very complicated and associated with chaotic abnormalities on many chromosomal arms. We analyzed 12 cases of osteosarcomas with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify chromosomal imbalances, and detected highly frequent chromosomal alterations in chromosome 6q, 8p, 10p and 10q. To define the narrow rearranged region on chromosome 6 with higher resolution, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was performed with 21 microsatellite markers. Out of 31 cases, 23 cases (74%) showed allelic loss at least with one marker on chromosome 6q. We identified two distinct commonly deleted regions on chromosome 6 using markers D6S1565 located at 6q16 and 6q23MS1 at 6q23. The expression analysis of genes located at the deleted region was performed, and the decreased mRNA expression of the CCNC gene, one of the regulators of cell cycle, was detected. Growth of osteosarcoma cell line was significantly suppressed after the CCNC cDNA transfection. Fine mapping of the deleted region containing a possible tumor suppressor gene and the transfection assay suggest that the CCNC is a candidate tumor suppressor gene.

  5. Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ledig, Susanne; Schippert, Cordula; Strick, Reiner; Beckmann, Matthias W; Oppelt, Patricia G; Wieacker, Peter

    2011-04-01

    To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Prospective laboratory study. University hospital. Fifty-six patients with MRKH syndrome. Identification of microdeletions and -duplications in a group of 48 MRKH patients by array-CGH. Results obtained by array-CGH were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Sequential analysis of two candidate genes LHX1 and HNF1B in a group of 56 MRKH patients. Identification of chromosomal regions and genes (recurrent and private) associated with MRKH syndrome. We could delineate three definitively relevant regions (1q21.1, 17q12, and 22q11.21) and suggest that LHX1 und HNF1B are candidate genes for MRKH syndrome, because we identified recurrent deletions affecting these genes and a possible causative missense mutation in LHX1. Our findings suggest that different chromosomal regions are associated with MRKH syndrome. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hi-C 2.0: An optimized Hi-C procedure for high-resolution genome-wide mapping of chromosome conformation.

    PubMed

    Belaghzal, Houda; Dekker, Job; Gibcus, Johan H

    2017-07-01

    Chromosome conformation capture-based methods such as Hi-C have become mainstream techniques for the study of the 3D organization of genomes. These methods convert chromatin interactions reflecting topological chromatin structures into digital information (counts of pair-wise interactions). Here, we describe an updated protocol for Hi-C (Hi-C 2.0) that integrates recent improvements into a single protocol for efficient and high-resolution capture of chromatin interactions. This protocol combines chromatin digestion and frequently cutting enzymes to obtain kilobase (kb) resolution. It also includes steps to reduce random ligation and the generation of uninformative molecules, such as unligated ends, to improve the amount of valid intra-chromosomal read pairs. This protocol allows for obtaining information on conformational structures such as compartment and topologically associating domains, as well as high-resolution conformational features such as DNA loops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CGH Figure Testing of Aspherical Mirrors in Cold Vacuums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Victor John; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald G.; Arnold, Steven

    2009-01-01

    An established method of room-temperature interferometric null testing of mirrors having simple shapes (e.g., flat, spherical, or spheroidal) has been augmented to enable measurement of errors in the surface figures of off-axis, non-axisymmetric, aspherical mirrors when the mirrors are located inside cryogenic vacuum chambers. The established method involves the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), functionally equivalent to a traditional null lens, to modify the laser beam of an imaging interferometer to obtain a reference wavefront that matches the ideal surface figure of a mirror under test. The CGH is inserted at the appropriate position and orientation in the optical path of the imaging interferometer, which, in turn, is appropriately positioned and oriented with respect to the mirror under test. Deviations of the surface figure of the mirror from the ideal surface figure manifest themselves as interference fringes. Interferograms are recorded and analyzed to deduce figure errors.

  8. Chromosomal instability, aneuploidy and routine high-resolution DNA content analysis in oral cancer risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giaretti, Walter; Pentenero, Monica; Gandolfo, Sergio; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2012-10-01

    Carcinogen exposure of the oral cavity is thought to create an extensive 'field cancerization'. According to this model, a very early precursor of oral cancer is a patch of normal-appearing mucosa in which stem cells share genetic/genomic aberrations. These precancerous fields then become clinically visible as white and red lesions (leuko- and erythro-plakias), which represent the vast majority of the oral potentially malignant disorders. This review focuses on aneuploidy (where it is from) and on biomarkers associated with DNA aneuploidy in oral mucosa and oral potentially malignant disorders, as detected by DNA image and flow cytometry. Data from the literature strongly support the association of DNA ploidy with dysplasia. However, work is still needed to prove the clinical value of DNA ploidy in large-scale prospective studies. Using high-resolution DNA flow cytometry with fresh/frozen material and the degree of DNA aneuploidy (DNA Index) might improve the prediction of risk of oral cancer development.

  9. Bayesian Hidden Markov Modeling of Array CGH Data.

    PubMed

    Guha, Subharup; Li, Yi; Neuberg, Donna

    2008-06-01

    Genomic alterations have been linked to the development and progression of cancer. The technique of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) yields data consisting of fluorescence intensity ratios of test and reference DNA samples. The intensity ratios provide information about the number of copies in DNA. Practical issues such as the contamination of tumor cells in tissue specimens and normalization errors necessitate the use of statistics for learning about the genomic alterations from array CGH data. As increasing amounts of array CGH data become available, there is a growing need for automated algorithms for characterizing genomic profiles. Specifically, there is a need for algorithms that can identify gains and losses in the number of copies based on statistical considerations, rather than merely detect trends in the data.We adopt a Bayesian approach, relying on the hidden Markov model to account for the inherent dependence in the intensity ratios. Posterior inferences are made about gains and losses in copy number. Localized amplifications (associated with oncogene mutations) and deletions (associated with mutations of tumor suppressors) are identified using posterior probabilities. Global trends such as extended regions of altered copy number are detected. Because the posterior distribution is analytically intractable, we implement a Metropolis-within-Gibbs algorithm for efficient simulation-based inference. Publicly available data on pancreatic adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and breast cancer are analyzed, and comparisons are made with some widely used algorithms to illustrate the reliability and success of the technique.

  10. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a-d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q.

  11. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q. PMID:24896152

  12. A high-resolution linkage map of the achondroplasia critical region on human chromosome 4q16.3

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.

    1994-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with an incidence of greater than 1/40,000 births. Recently, a random search of the genome using highly polymorphic autosomal markers has localized the gene for achondroplasia to the distal portion of human chromosome 4p. We report here the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the critical region including the achondroplasia locus. The CEPH panel of pedigrees was genotyped at several loci using highly polymorphic markers, including the Huntington locus (IT15), D4S43, D4S115, and the gene for the {beta}-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB). These data were incorporated into the CEPH v.6.6 database and a multipoint map was generated using the LINKAGE programs v.5.1. Based on reported recombination events in achondroplasia pedigrees, the gene for achondroplasia lies distal to the anonymous marker D4S43, in the 8 cM region defined as follows: cen-IT15-D4S43-D4S98-[D4S115-D4S111]-D4S90-PDEB. The disparity between the genetic distance and the physical distance (2 mB) among these markers likely reflects the high rate of recombination within the region. Extension of this linkage map further toward the telomere and identification of distal recombinant markers should expedite efforts directed toward isolation of the gene for achondroplasia.

  13. A case report of 22q11 deletion syndrome confirmed by array-CGH method

    PubMed Central

    Sedghi, Maryam; Nouri, Narges; Abdali, Hossein; Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Nouri, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and affects approximately 1 in 4000 persons, making it the second most prevalent genetic syndrome after Down syndrome and the most common genetic syndrome associated with cleft palate. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic; however, in about 10 % of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. This report describes a 1.5 years-old male child with clinical signs of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) presented with heart defect, soft cleft palate, developmental delay, acrocephaly, seizure, MRI abnormalities and descriptive facial feature, such as hypertelorism. Array-CGH test was done to confirm the diagnosis; the result revealed a 2.6 Mbp deletion in 22q11.2 chromosome that containing TBX1 and COMT genes. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of TBX1 gene is probably a major contributor to some of the syndrome characteristic signs, such as heart defect. Because of developmental delay and dysmorphic facial feature were observed in the index's mother and relatives, inherited autosomal dominant form of VCF is probable, and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) test should be performed for parents to estimate the recurrent risk in next pregnancy. PMID:23267387

  14. Chromosomal changes during development and progression of prostate adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zitzelsberger, H; Engert, D; Walch, A; Kulka, U; Aubele, M; Höfler, H; Bauchinger, M; Werner, M

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal copy number changes were investigated in 16 prostate carcinomas, 12 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PIN; 4 low-grade and 8 high-grade) adjacent to the invasive tumour areas, and 5 regional lymph node metastases. For this purpose, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed and a copy number karyotype for each histomorphological entity was created. CGH on microdissected cells from non-neoplastic glands was carried out on 3 different cases to demonstrate the reliability of the overall procedure. None of the non-neoplastic tissue samples revealed chromosome copy number changes. In PIN areas, chromosomal imbalances were detected on chromosomes 7, 8q, Xq (gains), and on 4q, 5q, 8p, 13q and 18q (losses). In the primary tumours, recurrent (at least 25% of cases) gains on chromosomes 12q and 15q, and losses on 2q, 4q, 5q, Xq, 13q and 18q became apparent. Losses on 8p and 6q as well as gains on 8q and of chromosome 7 were also detected at lower frequencies than previously reported. The pooled CGH data from the primary carcinomas revealed a novel region of chromosomal loss on 4q which is also frequently affected in other tumour entities like oesophageal adenocarcinomas and is supposed to harbour a new tumour suppressor gene. Gains on chromosome 9q and of chromosome 16 and loss on chromosome 13q were observed as common aberrations in metastases and primary tumours. These CGH results indicate an accumulation of chromosomal imbalances during the PIN–carcinoma–metastasis sequence and an early origin of tumour-specific aberrations in PIN areas. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161378

  15. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  16. Pallister-Killian syndrome: tetrasomy of 12pter-->12p11.22 in a boy with an analphoid, inverted duplicated marker chromosome.

    PubMed

    Huang, X-L; Isabel de Michelena, M; Leon, E; Maher, T A; McClure, R; Milunsky, A

    2007-11-01

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) without detectable alphoid DNA are predicted to have a neocentromere and have been referred to as mitotically stable neocentromere marker chromosomes (NMCs). Here we report the molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new case of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) in a boy with an analphoid, inverted duplicated NMC derived from 12pter-->12p11.22 in his fibroblasts by using high-resolution comparative genetic hybridization (HR-CGH), multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-FISH mapping analyses with various alpha-satellite DNA probes, subtelomere probes and BAC-DNA probes. Precise identification of SMCs and NMCs is of essential importance in genetic counseling. HR-CGH is a more informative and often a faster way of precisely identifying the origin of SMCs. This case is the third report of PKS with an NMC containing an inverted duplication of partial 12p with available clinical data. These observations may help to determine the critical region for PKS and the mechanisms leading to the origin of the NMC derived from 12pter-->12p11.22 - a region that appears to be susceptible to the formation of neocentromeres. The use of subtelomeric probe PCP12p in buccal cells appears superior to the use of the centromere probe D12Z3 for the diagnosis of the PKS.

  17. Resolution of four large chromosomes in penicillin-producing filamentous fungi: the penicillin gene cluster is located on chromosome II (9.6 Mb) in Penicillium notatum and chromosome I (10.4 Mb) in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Fierro, F; Gutiérrez, S; Díez, B; Martín, J F

    1993-12-01

    Four chromosomes were resolved by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in Penicillium notatum (10.8, 9.6, 6.3 and 5.4 Mb in size) and in five different strains of Penicillium chrysogenum (10.4, 9.6, 7.3 and 6.8 Mb in the wild type). Small differences in size were found between the four chromosomes of the five P. chrysogenum strains. The penicillin gene cluster was localized by hybridization with a pcbAB probe to chromosome II of P. notatum and to chromosome I of all P. chrysogenum strains except the deletion mutant P. chrysogenum npe10, which lacks this DNA region. The pyrG gene was localized to chromosome I in P. notatum and to chromosome II in all P. chrysogenum strains except in the mutant AS-P-78 where the probe hybridized to chromosome III. A major chromosomal rearrangement seems to have occurred in this high penicillin producing strain. A fast moving DNA band observed in all gels corresponds to mitochondrial DNA. The total genome size has been calculated as 32.1 Mb in P. notatum and 34.1 Mb for the P. chrysogenum strains.

  18. The optimizations of CGH generation algorithms based on multiple GPUs for 3D dynamic holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Yingxi; Li, Xin; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Holographic display has been considered as a promising display technology. Currently, low-speed generation of holograms with big holographic data is one of crucial bottlenecks for three dimensional (3D) dynamic holographic display. To solve this problem, the acceleration method computation platform is presented based on look-up table point source method. The computer generated holograms (CGHs) acquisition is sped up by offline file loading and inline calculation optimization, where a pure phase CGH with gigabyte data is encoded to record an object with 10 MB sampling data. Both numerical simulation and optical experiment demonstrate that the CGHs with 1920×1080 resolution by the proposed method can be applied to the 3D objects reconstruction with high quality successfully. It is believed that the CGHs with huge data can be generated by the proposed method with high speed for 3D dynamic holographic display in near future.

  19. Identification of Sex Chromosomes by Means of Comparative Genomic Hybridization in a Lizard, Eremias multiocellata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Tang, Xiaolong; Xin, Ying; Yue, Feng; Yan, Xuefeng; Liu, Bingbing; An, Bei; Wang, Xi; Chen, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Eremias multiocellata is a viviparous lizard that is known to exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Conventional Giemsa staining under light microscope examination has identified the karyotype of this species to be 2 n=36 I+2 m, with no detectable heteromorphic sex chromosomes. However, a highly differentiated female-specific chromosome, W, which is homomorphic with the Z chromosome, is found in the present study by the high-resolution cytogenetic method of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The results show that E. multiocellata is a viviparous lizard with both TSD and ZW heterogametic sex chromosomes. Despite the fact that a different sex ratio of male offspring was found in two populations (separated by an altitude of 1400 m) in previous incubation experiments, we demonstrate, using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), that there is no significant chromosomal loss or acquisition between the two populations. This suggests that temperature may play a more important role in lowland populations. These results most likely indicate that E. multiocellata is transitioning between the evolutionary processes of TSD and genotypic sex determination (GSD) systems, and also give clues to the effect of TSD versus GSD in this process.

  20. Multiplex genotyping assays for fine-resolution subtyping of the major human Y-chromosome haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R in anthropological, genealogical, and forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    van Oven, Mannis; Toscani, Kimberley; van den Tempel, Nathalie; Ralf, Arwin; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    Inherited DNA polymorphisms located within the nonrecombing portion of the human Y chromosome provide a powerful means of tracking the patrilineal ancestry of male individuals. Recently, we introduced an efficient genotyping method for the detection of the basal Y-chromosome haplogroups A to T, as well as an additional method for the dissection of haplogroup O into its sublineages. To further extend the use of the Y chromosome as an evolutionary marker, we here introduce a set of genotyping assays for fine-resolution subtyping of haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R, which make up the bulk of Western Eurasian and African Y chromosomes. The marker selection includes a total of 107 carefully selected bi-allelic polymorphisms that were divided into eight hierarchically organized multiplex assays (two for haplogroup E, one for I, one for J, one for G, and three for R) based on the single-base primer extension (SNaPshot) technology. Not only does our method allow for enhanced Y-chromosome lineage discrimination, the more restricted geographic distribution of the subhaplogroups covered also enables more fine-scaled estimations of patrilineal bio-geographic origin. Supplementing our previous method for basal Y-haplogroup detection, the currently introduced assays are thus expected to be of major relevance for future DNA studies targeting male-specific ancestry for forensic, anthropological, and genealogical purposes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews.

    PubMed

    Nebel, A; Filon, D; Weiss, D A; Weale, M; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A; Thomas, M G

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution Y chromosome haplotype analysis was performed in 143 paternally unrelated Israeli and Palestinian Moslem Arabs (I&P Arabs) by screening for 11 binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. Two frequent haplotypes were found among the 83 detected: the modal haplotype of the I&P Arabs (approximately 14%) was spread throughout the region, while its one-step microsatellite neighbor, the modal haplotype of the Galilee sample (approximately 8%), was mainly restricted to the north. Geographic substructuring within the Arabs was observed in the highlands of Samaria and Judea. Y chromosome variation in the I&P Arabs was compared to that of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, and to that of North Welsh individuals. At the haplogroup level, defined by the binary polymorphisms only, the Y chromosome distribution in Arabs and Jews was similar but not identical. At the haplotype level, determined by both binary and microsatellite markers, a more detailed pattern was observed. Single-step microsatellite networks of Arab and Jewish haplotypes revealed a common pool for a large portion of Y chromosomes, suggesting a relatively recent common ancestry. The two modal haplotypes in the I&P Arabs were closely related to the most frequent haplotype of Jews (the Cohen modal haplotype). However, the I&P Arab clade that includes the two Arab modal haplotypes (and makes up 32% of Arab chromosomes) is found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting divergence and/or admixture from other populations.

  2. [First experiences with preimplantation genetic screening of chromosomal aberrations using oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization].

    PubMed

    Kuglík, Petr; Smetana, Jan; Němcová, Darja; Vallová, Vladimíra; Mikulášová, Aneta; Gaillyová, Renata; Hubinka, Vít; Koudelka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a complex approach for detecting genetic abnormalities in early-stage embryos using genetic or molecular cytogenetic methods. Recently, single cell genomic methods based on DNA microarrays have been used for PGD. In the presented paper, we discuss and demonstrate the possibility to detect copy number variation (CNVs) in trophectoderm cells biopsied from 5-day embryos using 60-mer oligonucleotide-based array-CGH with CytoSure 8 × 15K Aneuploidy Array. Whereas this microarray platform was originally designed for analysis of unamplified DNA derived from many cells, the new methods, developed for single-cell genomics, allow the application of oligo arrays technology in preimplanation genetic diagnosis. Preclinical validation of single cell array-CGH was made by analysis of 30 positive and negative controls. Validation process included whole genome amplification of DNA from 5-10 cells with normal karyotype and from samples with known aneuploidies and structural aberrations. Subsequently, we analyzed the whole genome profiles in 118 embryos; aneuploidies of chromosomes were observed in 26.7%; segmental imbalances were proved in 6.8% of embryos. Our first experience confirmed that this oligonucleotide-based array technique enables high-resolution preimplantation aneuploidy screening of all the 23 chromosome pairs and sensitive preimplantation diagnosis of segmental imbalances such as deletions, duplications and amplifications.

  3. Effects of chromosomal variations on pharmacokinetic activity of zolpidem in healthy volunteers: an array-based comparative genomic hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jin Soo; Park, E-Jin; Kang, Chin-Yang; Jeon, Yang-Whan; Lee, Kweon-Haeng; Rha, Hyoung Kyun; Han, Sang-Ick

    2007-05-18

    Zolpidem has been known as a very safe and effective hypnotic drug used to treat a variety of patients with insomnia. Even though the same dose of the medicine is administered to each patient, the blood level of zolpidem and the time required to obtain peak concentration are not consistent among different people. We evaluated the relationship between the peak concentrations of zolpidem and chromosomal imbalances using a high-resolution genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 16 healthy volunteers in order to detect the genetic factors underlying the variations. The present study showed that chromosomal losses were detected in the 4q35.2, 9p13.1 and 9p12 regions, and those gains were indicated in the 2p14, 11q13.4 and 15q11.2 regions. The abnormal regions were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time PCR. It is suggested that array-CGH analysis may be used as a measure for pharmacogenomic applications in the patients with insomnia and for further exploration of candidate genomic regions implicated in sleep disturbances.

  4. Testing and improving experimental parameters for the use of low molecular weight targets in array-CGH experiments.

    PubMed

    Stef, Marianne; Simon, Delphine; Burgelin, Ingrid; Guisle, Isabelle; Chevalier, Catherine; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Lacombe, Didier; Léger, Jean; Arveiler, Benoît

    2006-11-01

    Array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has evolved as a useful technique for the detection and characterization of deletions, and, to a lesser extent, of duplications. The resolution of the technique is dictated by the genomic distance between targets spotted on the microarray, and by the targets' sizes. The use of region-specific, high-resolution microarrays is a specific goal when studying regions that are prone to rearrangements, such as those involved in deletion syndromes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the best experimental conditions to be used for array-CGH analysis using low molecular weight (LMW) targets. The parameters tested were: the target concentration, the way LMW targets are prepared (either as linearized plasmids or as purified PCR products), and the way the targets are attached to the array-CGH slide (in a random fashion on amino-silane coated slides, or by one amino-modified end on epoxysilane-coated slides). As a test case, we constructed a microarray harboring LMW targets located in the CREBBP gene, mutations of which cause the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). From 10 to 15% of RTS patients have a CREBBP deletion. We showed that aminosilane- and epoxysilane-coated slides were equally efficient with targets above 1,000 bp in size. On the other hand, with the smallest targets, especially those below 500 bp, epoxysilane-coated slides were superior to aminosilane-coated slides, which did not allow deletion detection. Use of the high resolution array allowed us to map intragenic breakpoints with precision and to identify a very small deletion and a duplication that were not detected by the currently available techniques for finding CREBBP deletions.

  5. Currently recognized clinically relevant and known genes for human reproduction and related infertility with representation on high-resolution chromosome ideograms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; Rafi, Syed K; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    To provide an update of currently recognized clinically relevant candidate and known genes for human reproduction and related infertility plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms (850 band level) and represented alphabetically in tabular form. Descriptive authoritative computer-based website and peer-reviewed medical literature searches used pertinent keywords representing human reproduction and related infertility along with genetics and gene mutations. A master list of genes associated with human reproduction and related infertility was generated with a visual representation of gene locations on high resolution chromosome ideograms. GeneAnalytics pathway analysis was carried out on the resulting list of genes to assess underlying genetic architecture for infertility. Advances in genetic technology have led to the discovery of genes responsible for reproduction and related infertility. Genes identified (N=371) in our search primarily impact ovarian steroidogenesis through sex hormone biology, germ cell production, genito-urinary or gonadal development and function, and related peptide production, receptors and regulatory factors. The location of gene symbols plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms forms a conceptualized image of the distribution of human reproduction genes. The updated master list can be used to promote better awareness of genetics of reproduction and related infertility and advance discoveries on genetic causes and disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Short-Range DNA Interactions in Mammalian Cells Using High-Resolution Circular Chromosome Conformation Capture Coupled to Deep Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Millau, Jean-François; Gaudreau, Luc

    2015-01-01

    DNA interactions shape the genome to physically and functionally connect regulatory elements to their target genes. Studying these interactions is crucial to understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In this chapter, we present a protocol for high-resolution circular chromosome conformation capture coupled to deep sequencing. This methodology allows to investigate short-range DNA interactions (<100 kbp) and to obtain high-resolution DNA interaction maps of loci. It is a powerful tool to explore how regulatory elements and genes are connected together.

  7. Programmable CGH on photochromic plates coded with DMD generated masks.

    PubMed

    Alata, R; Pariani, G; Zamkotsian, F; Lanzoni, P; Bianco, A; Bertarelli, C

    2017-03-20

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) are used for wavefront shaping and complex optics testing. Present technology allows for recording binary CGHs. We propose a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) as a reconfigurable mask, to record rewritable binary and grayscale CGHs on a photochromic plate. Opaque at rest, this plate becomes transparent when it is illuminated with visible light of suitable wavelength. We have successfully recorded the very first amplitude grayscale CGH, with a contrast greater than 50, which was reconstructed with a high fidelity in shape, intensity, size and location. These results reveal the high potential of this method for generating programmable/rewritable grayscale CGHs, which combine DMDs and photochromic substrates.

  8. Complex X chromosome rearrangement associated with multiorgan autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Haltrich, Irén; Pikó, Henriett; Pamjav, Horolma; Somogyi, Anikó; Völgyi, Antónia; David, Dezső; Beke, Artúr; Garamvölgyi, Zoltán; Kiss, Eszter; Karcagi, Veronika; Fekete, György

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects 1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. Turner syndrome is usually associated with short stature, gonadal dysgenesis and variable dysmorphic features. The classical 45,X karyotype accounts approximately for half of all patients, the remainder exhibit mosaicism or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. However, complex intra-X chromosomal rearrangements involving more than three breakpoints are extremely rare. We present a unique case of a novel complex X chromosome rearrangement in a young female patient presenting successively a wide range of autoimmune diseases including insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, celiac disease, anaemia perniciosa, possible inner ear disease and severe hair loss. For the genetic evaluation, conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH with different X specific probes were initially performed. The complexity of these results and the variety of autoimmune problems of the patient prompted us to identify the exact composition and breakpoints of the rearranged X as well as methylation status of the X chromosomes. The high resolution array-CGH (assembly GRCh37/hg19) detected single copy for the whole chromosome X short arm. Two different sized segments of Xq arm were present in three copies: one large size of 80,3 Mb from Xq11.1 to Xq27.3 region and another smaller (11,1 Mb) from Xq27.3 to Xq28 region. An 1,6 Mb Xq27.3 region of the long arm was present in two copies. Southern blot analysis identified a skewed X inactivation with ≈ 70:30 % ratios of methylated/unmethylated fragments. The G-band and FISH patterns of the rearranged X suggested the aspect of a restructured i(Xq) chromosome which was shattered and fortuitously repaired. The X-STR genotype analysis of the family detected that the patient inherited intact maternal X chromosome and a rearranged paternal X chromosome. The multiple Xq

  9. High-resolution physical mapping of a 250-kb region of human chromosome 11q24 by genomic sequence sampling (GSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Selleri, L.; Smith, M.W.; Holmsen, A.L.

    1995-04-10

    A physical map of the region of human chromosome 11q24 containing the FLI1 gene, disrupted by the t(11;22) translocation in Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, was analyzed by genomic sequence sampling. Using a 4- to 5-fold coverage chromosome 11-specific library, 22 region-specific cosmid clones were identified by phenol emulsion reassociation hybridization, with a 245-kb yeast artificial chromosome clone containing the FLI1 gene, and by directed {open_quotes}walking{close_quotes} techniques. Cosmid contigs were constructed by individual clone fingerprinting using restriction enzyme digestion and assembly with the Genome Reconstruction and AsseMbly (GRAM) computer algorithm. The relative orientation and spacing of cosmid contigs with respect to the chromosome were determined by the structural analysis of cosmid clones and by direct visual in situ hybridization mapping. Each cosmid clone in the contig was subjected to {open_quotes}one-pass{close_quotes} end sequencing, and the resulting ordered sequence fragments represent {approximately}5% of the complete DNA sequence, making the entire region accessible by PCR amplification. The sequence samples were analyzed for putative exons, repetitive DNAs, and simple sequence repeats using a variety of computer algorithms. Based upon the computer predictions, Southern and Northern blot experiments led to the independent identification and localization of the FLI1 gene as well as a previously unknown gene located in this region of chromosome 11q24. This approach to high-resolution physical analysis of human chromosomes allows the assembly of detailed sequence-based maps. 62 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Array-CGH is an effective first-tier diagnostic test for EFTUD2-associated congenital mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Gandomi, S K; Parra, M; Reeves, D; Yap, V; Gau, C-L

    2015-01-01

    Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a sporadic malformation syndrome with severe craniofacial abnormalities, microcephaly, developmental delay, and dysmorphic features. Most cases of clinically diagnosed MFDM remain genetically unexplained, and to the best of our knowledge a total of 35 patients, 31 different mutations, 4 deletions, and 6 reports have been published. Our proband was born at 36 weeks gestation with microcephaly, microcrania, cleft palate, severe retrognathia, oral and pharyngeal dysphagia, bilateral proximal radioulnar synostosis, 11 thoracic ribs, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings including simplified gyral pattern and mild dilatation of the posterior bodies of the lateral ventricles secondary to thinning of the white matter, high-pitched cry due to unilateral vocal cord paralysis, and dysmorphic features. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) + single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a likely de novo pathogenic deletion on chromosome 17q21.31, encompassing the EFTUD2 gene. Our case represents the fifth reported proband to have MFDM caused by small deletions involving EFTUD2. All known mutations involving EFTUD2 result in genetic haploinsufficiency, consistent with our proband's case as well. Her phenotypic features both overlap and expand on the clinical features of previously reported cases, and her genetic diagnosis also supports the use of aCGH as a first-tier testing option for this disorder.

  11. RecFOR Is Not Required for Pneumococcal Transformation but Together with XerS for Resolution of Chromosome Dimers Frequently Formed in the Process

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Calum; Mortier-Barrière, Isabelle; Granadel, Chantal; Polard, Patrice; Martin, Bernard; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is required for both genome maintenance and generation of diversity in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This process initiates from single-stranded (ss) DNA and is driven by a universal recombinase, which promotes strand exchange between homologous sequences. The bacterial recombinase, RecA, is loaded onto ssDNA by recombinase loaders, RecBCD and RecFOR for genome maintenance. DprA was recently proposed as a third loader dedicated to genetic transformation. Here we assessed the role of RecFOR in transformation of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We firstly established that RecFOR proteins are not required for plasmid transformation, strongly suggesting that DprA ensures annealing of plasmid single-strands internalized in the process. We then observed no reduction in chromosomal transformation using a PCR fragment as donor, contrasting with the 10,000-fold drop in dprA - cells and demonstrating that RecFOR play no role in transformation. However, a ∼1.45-fold drop in transformation was observed with total chromosomal DNA in recFOR mutants. To account for this limited deficit, we hypothesized that transformation with chromosomal DNA stimulated unexpectedly high frequency (>30% of cells) formation of chromosome dimers as an intermediate in the generation of tandem duplications, and that RecFOR were crucial for dimer resolution. We validated this hypothesis, showing that the site-specific recombinase XerS was also crucial for dimer resolution. An even higher frequency of dimer formation (>80% of cells) was promoted by interspecies transformation with Streptococcus mitis chromosomal DNA, which contains numerous inversions compared to pneumococcal chromosome, each potentially promoting dimerization. In the absence of RecFOR and XerS, dimers persist, as confirmed by DAPI staining, and can limit the efficiency of transformation, since resulting in loss of transformant chromosome. These findings strengthen the view that different HR

  12. Detection of chromosomal imbalances in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Voorter, C.; Joos, S.; Bringuier, P. P.; Vallinga, M.; Poddighe, P.; Schalken, J.; du Manoir, S.; Ramaekers, F.; Lichter, P.; Hopman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was applied for a comprehensive screening of chromosomal aberrations in 14 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder of different grade and stage. The results were compared in a number of selected cases with those obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization. Distinct amplifications, found with CGH, were located on 3p22-24, 10p13-14, 12q13-15, 17q22-23, 18p11, and 22q11-13. These high copy number amplifications and the frequency of imbalances involving chromosome 5, occurring in 4 of 14 cases, have not yet been identified in transitional cell carcinomas. Apart from these new aberrations, imbalances were detected in 3 or more cases for chromosomes 9 and 11, as already described previously in the literature. In four tumors, the copy number of specific chromosomal regions was also analyzed by interphase cytogenetics. Although in most instances the CGH data were confirmed, in one tumor, distinct differences were observed, possibly a result of heterogeneity of the tumor cell population. Furthermore, the CGH data were compared with loss of heterozygosity as revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the same tumors. In 80% of informative cases, no loss was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism or by CGH. Of the 15 cases of loss of heterozygosity, 7 showed a loss also with CGH, whereas in 8 cases no loss was observed. In summary, CGH is a fast method to obtain a comprehensive picture of chromosomal imbalances in transitional cell carcinomas, including a number of previously unknown genomic alterations such as high level amplifications. Images Figure 2 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7778674

  13. Model-based clustering of array CGH data

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sohrab P.; Cheung, K-John; Johnson, Nathalie A.; Alain, Guillaume; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Horsman, Douglas E.; Ng, Raymond T.; Murphy, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data for recurrent DNA copy number alterations from a cohort of patients can yield distinct sets of molecular signatures or profiles. This can be due to the presence of heterogeneous cancer subtypes within a supposedly homogeneous population. Results: We propose a novel statistical method for automatically detecting such subtypes or clusters. Our approach is model based: each cluster is defined in terms of a sparse profile, which contains the locations of unusually frequent alterations. The profile is represented as a hidden Markov model. Samples are assigned to clusters based on their similarity to the cluster's profile. We simultaneously infer the cluster assignments and the cluster profiles using an expectation maximization-like algorithm. We show, using a realistic simulation study, that our method is significantly more accurate than standard clustering techniques. We then apply our method to two clinical datasets. In particular, we examine previously reported aCGH data from a cohort of 106 follicular lymphoma patients, and discover clusters that are known to correspond to clinically relevant subgroups. In addition, we examine a cohort of 92 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients, and discover previously unreported clusters of biological interest which have inspired followup clinical research on an independent cohort. Availability: Software and synthetic datasets are available at http://www.cs.ubc.ca/∼sshah/acgh as part of the CNA-HMMer package. Contact: sshah@bccrc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19478003

  14. Development of a novel ozone- and photo-stable HyPer5 red fluorescent dye for array CGH and microarray gene expression analysis with consistent performance irrespective of environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Mubasher; Giesler, Theresa; Richardson, Rob; Cai, Christine; Cooper, Mike; Lavasani, Shahin; Kille, Peter; Voet, Thierry; Vermeesch, Joris

    2008-01-01

    Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and gene expression profiling have become vital techniques for identifying molecular defects underlying genetic diseases. Regardless of the microarray platform, cyanine dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) are one of the most widely used fluorescent dye pairs for microarray analysis owing to their brightness and ease of incorporation, enabling high level of assay sensitivity. However, combining both dyes on arrays can become problematic during summer months when ozone levels rise to near 25 parts per billion (ppb). Under such conditions, Cy5 is known to rapidly degrade leading to loss of signal from either "homebrew" or commercial arrays. Cy5 can also suffer disproportionately from dye photobleaching resulting in distortion of (Cy5/Cy3) ratios used in copy number analysis. Our laboratory has been active in fluorescent dye research to find a suitable alternative to Cy5 that is stable to ozone and resistant to photo-bleaching. Here, we report on the development of such a dye, called HyPer5, and describe its' exceptional ozone and photostable properties on microarrays. Results Our results show HyPer5 signal to be stable to high ozone levels. Repeated exposure of mouse arrays hybridized with HyPer5-labeled cDNA to 300 ppb ozone at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals resulted in no signal loss from the dye. In comparison, Cy5 arrays showed a dramatic 80% decrease in total signal during the same interval. Photobleaching experiments show HyPer5 to be resistant to light induced damage with 3- fold improvement in dye stability over Cy5. In high resolution array CGH experiments, HyPer5 is demonstrated to detect chromosomal aberrations at loci 2p21-16.3 and 15q26.3-26.2 from three patient sample using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays. The photostability of HyPer5 is further documented by repeat array scanning without loss of detection. Additionally, HyPer5 arrays are shown to preserve sensitivity and data quality from gene

  15. Development of a novel ozone- and photo-stable HyPer5 red fluorescent dye for array CGH and microarray gene expression analysis with consistent performance irrespective of environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mubasher; Giesler, Theresa; Richardson, Rob; Cai, Christine; Cooper, Mike; Lavasani, Shahin; Kille, Peter; Voet, Thierry; Vermeesch, Joris

    2008-11-12

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and gene expression profiling have become vital techniques for identifying molecular defects underlying genetic diseases. Regardless of the microarray platform, cyanine dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) are one of the most widely used fluorescent dye pairs for microarray analysis owing to their brightness and ease of incorporation, enabling high level of assay sensitivity. However, combining both dyes on arrays can become problematic during summer months when ozone levels rise to near 25 parts per billion (ppb). Under such conditions, Cy5 is known to rapidly degrade leading to loss of signal from either "homebrew" or commercial arrays. Cy5 can also suffer disproportionately from dye photobleaching resulting in distortion of (Cy5/Cy3) ratios used in copy number analysis. Our laboratory has been active in fluorescent dye research to find a suitable alternative to Cy5 that is stable to ozone and resistant to photo-bleaching. Here, we report on the development of such a dye, called HyPer5, and describe its' exceptional ozone and photostable properties on microarrays. Our results show HyPer5 signal to be stable to high ozone levels. Repeated exposure of mouse arrays hybridized with HyPer5-labeled cDNA to 300 ppb ozone at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals resulted in no signal loss from the dye. In comparison, Cy5 arrays showed a dramatic 80% decrease in total signal during the same interval. Photobleaching experiments show HyPer5 to be resistant to light induced damage with 3- fold improvement in dye stability over Cy5. In high resolution array CGH experiments, HyPer5 is demonstrated to detect chromosomal aberrations at loci 2p21-16.3 and 15q26.3-26.2 from three patient sample using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays. The photostability of HyPer5 is further documented by repeat array scanning without loss of detection. Additionally, HyPer5 arrays are shown to preserve sensitivity and data quality from gene expression

  16. Complex chromosome 17p rearrangements associated with low-copy repeats in two patients with congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, L. E. L. M.; Stankiewicz, P.; Yatsenko, S. A.; Crawford, E.; Creswick, H.; Proud, V. K.; de Vries, B. B. A.; Pfundt, R.; Marcelis, C. L. M.; Zackowski, J.; Bi, W.; van Kessel, A. Geurts; Lupski, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent molecular cytogenetic data have shown that the constitution of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) may be more complicated than previously thought. The complicated nature of these rearrangements challenges the accurate delineation of the chromosomal breakpoints and mechanisms involved. Here, we report a molecular cytogenetic analysis of two patients with congenital anomalies and unbalanced de novo CCRs involving chromosome 17p using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In the first patient, a 4-month-old boy with developmental delay, hypotonia, growth retardation, coronal synostosis, mild hypertelorism, and bilateral club feet, we found a duplication of the Charcot-Marie–Tooth disease type 1A and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) chromosome regions, inverted insertion of the Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome region into the SMS region, and two microdeletions including a terminal deletion of 17p. The latter, together with a duplication of 21q22.3-qter detected by array CGH, are likely the unbalanced product of a translocation t(17;21)(p13.3;q22.3). In the second patient, an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features, we identified four submicroscopic interspersed 17p duplications. All 17 breakpoints were examined in detail by FISH analysis. We found that four of the breakpoints mapped within known low-copy repeats (LCRs), including LCR17pA, middle SMS-REP/LCR17pB block, and LCR17pC. Our findings suggest that the LCR burden in proximal 17p may have stimulated the formation of these CCRs and, thus, that genome architectural features such as LCRs may have been instrumental in the generation of these CCRs. PMID:17457615

  17. CGH and OCC Announce a New, Two-Year Funding Opportunity for NCI-designated Cancer Centers

    Cancer.gov

    CGH and OCC announce a new funding opportunity available from CGH for cancer prevention and control (CPC) researchers at NCI-designated cancer centers: Administrative Supplements to Promote Cancer Prevention and Control Research in Low and Middle Income Countries.

  18. Interspecies comparative genomic hybridization (I-CGH): a new twist to study animal tumor models.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Sivakumar; Zhuang, Zhengping; Mannan, Poonam; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Furuta, Makoto; Dickerman, Rob; Bedanova, Julia; Lonser, Russell R; Walbridge, Stuart; Weil, Robert J; Lobanenkov, Victor V; Oldfield, Edward H; Pack, Svetlana D

    2007-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are widely used to address questions of tumor development. Selection of a particular animal model depends upon a variety of factors, among them: animal cost, species lifespan and hardiness; availability of biomolecular and genetic tools for that species; and evolutionary distance from humans. In spite of the growth in genomic data in the past several years, many animal models cannot yet be studied extensively due to gaps in genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses. Thus, alternative molecular genetic approaches are needed. We have designed an interspecies comparative genomic hybridization approach to analyze genetic changes in radiation-induced brain tumors in the non-human primate, Macaca mulatta. Using homologies between the primate and human genomes, we adapted widely-available CGH techniques to generate cytogenetic profiles of malignant gliomas in four monkey tumors. Losses and gains were projected onto the corresponding homologous chromosomal regions in the human genome, thus directly translating the status of the monkey gliomas into human gene content. This represents a novel method of comparative interspecies cytogenetic mapping that permits simultaneous analysis of genomic imbalances of unknown sequences in disparate species and correlation with potential or known human disease-related genes.

  19. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  20. Investigation of the diagnostic value of chromosome analysis and bacterial artificial chromosome-based array comparative genomic hybridization in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Savli, Hakan; Keskin, Seda Eren; Cine, Naci

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis. This study included the chromosome analysis and BAC-based array CGH analysis of 140 amniocentesis samples with prenatal diagnosis indications. Karyotype analysis showed trisomy 21 in 4 patients, trisomy 18 in 5 patients, monosomy X in 1 patient, and other anomalies in 3 patients. The BAC-based array CGH analysis showed 4 patients with trisomy 21, 4 patients with trisomy 18, and 1 patient with monosomy X as a numerical chromosome anomaly, while partial duplication was observed in chromosome 14 in 1 case as a structural anomaly. The array CGH is the most effective method available to complement cases where chromosome analysis, a gold standard in prenatal diagnosis, proves to be insufficient. Considering the inherent limitations of both methods, complementary features should be introduced in order to be able to give the most accurate data at the right time.

  1. Ultra High-Resolution Gene Centric Genomic Structural Analysis of a Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defect, Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Bittel, Douglas C.; Zhou, Xin-Gang; Kibiryeva, Nataliya; Fiedler, Stephanie; O’Brien, James E.; Marshall, Jennifer; Yu, Shihui; Liu, Hong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common severe congenital heart malformations. Great progress has been made in identifying key genes that regulate heart development, yet approximately 70% of TOF cases are sporadic and nonsyndromic with no known genetic cause. We created an ultra high-resolution gene centric comparative genomic hybridization (gcCGH) microarray based on 591 genes with a validated association with cardiovascular development or function. We used our gcCGH array to analyze the genomic structure of 34 infants with sporadic TOF without a deletion on chromosome 22q11.2 (n male = 20; n female = 14; age range of 2 to 10 months). Using our custom-made gcCGH microarray platform, we identified a total of 613 copy number variations (CNVs) ranging in size from 78 base pairs to 19.5 Mb. We identified 16 subjects with 33 CNVs that contained 13 different genes which are known to be directly associated with heart development. Additionally, there were 79 genes from the broader list of genes that were partially or completely contained in a CNV. All 34 individuals examined had at least one CNV involving these 79 genes. Furthermore, we had available whole genome exon arrays from right ventricular tissue in 13 of our subjects. We analyzed these for correlations between copy number and gene expression level. Surprisingly, we could detect only one clear association between CNVs and expression (GSTT1) for any of the 591 focal genes on the gcCGH array. The expression levels of GSTT1 were correlated with copy number in all cases examined (r = 0.95, p = 0.001). We identified a large number of small CNVs in genes with varying associations with heart development. Our results illustrate the complexity of human genome structural variation and underscore the need for multifactorial assessment of potential genetic/genomic factors that contribute to congenital heart defects. PMID:24498113

  2. Cryptic trisomy 5q35.2qter and deletion 1p36.3 characterised using FISH and array-based CGH.

    PubMed

    Utine, Eda G; Alanay, Yasemin; Aktas, Dilek; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; Boduroglu, Koray; Vermeesch, Joris; Tuncbilek, Ergul; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A 10(6/12)-year-old boy was referred to the genetics department because of mental retardation and dysmorphic findings including microcephaly, flat face, down-slanting palpebral fissures, strabismus, prominent ears, bulbous nasal tip, down-turned corners of the mouth, narrow palate, clinodactyly of the fifth fingers and generalised eczema. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar of paternal origin. Multicolour FISH showed the marker chromosome to be derived from chromosome 15. For further elucidation of the phenotype, array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) was performed, which revealed dup(5)(q35.2qter) and del(1)(p36.3). Parental FISH analysis revealed that the translocation occurred de novo. Despite the presence of a clinical phenotype along with a microscopically visible chromosomal aberration, a complex cryptic cytogenetic abnormality was causative for the phenotype of the patient. Elucidation of this complex aberration required combination of the whole cytogenetic toolbox.

  3. Physical Maps of the Six Smallest Chromosomes of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae at a Resolution of 2.6 Kilobase Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Riles, L.; Dutchik, J. E.; Baktha, A.; McCauley, B. K.; Thayer, E. C.; Leckie, M. P.; Braden, V. V.; Depke, J. E.; Olson, M. V.

    1993-01-01

    Physical maps of the six smallest chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. In order of increasing size, they are chromosomes I, VI, III, IX, V and VIII, comprising 2.49 megabase pairs of DNA. The maps are based on the analysis of an overlapping set of lambda and cosmid clones. Overlaps between adjacent clones were recognized by shared restriction fragments produced by the combined action of EcoRI and HindIII. The average spacing between mapped cleavage sites is 2.6 kb. Five of the six chromosomes were mapped from end to end without discontinuities; a single internal gap remains in the map of chromosome IX. The reported maps span an estimated 97% of the DNA on the six chromosomes; nearly all the missing segments are telomeric. The maps are fully cross-correlated with the previously published SfiI/NotI map of the yeast genome by A. J. Link and M. V. Olson. They have also been cross-correlated with the yeast genetic map at 51 loci. PMID:8514151

  4. Characteristics of Highly Polymorphic Segmental Copy-Number Variations Observed in Japanese by BAC-Array-CGH

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Norio; Satoh, Yasunari; Sasaki, Keiko; Shimoichi, Yuko; Sugita, Keiko; Katayama, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Segmental copy-number variations (CNVs) may contribute to genetic variation in humans. Reports of the existence and characteristics of CNVs in a large Japanese cohort are quite limited. We report the data from a large Japanese population. We conducted population screening for 213 unrelated Japanese individuals using comparative genomic hybridization based on a bacterial artificial chromosome microarray (BAC-aCGH). We summarize the data by focusing on highly polymorphic CNVs in ≥5.0% of the individual, since they may be informative for demonstrating the relationships between genotypes and their phenotypes. We found a total of 680 CNVs at 16 different BAC-regions in the genome. The majority of the polymorphic CNVs presented on BAC-clones that overlapped with regions of segmental duplication, and the majority of the polymorphic CNVs observed in this population had been previously reported in other publications. Some of the CNVs contained genes which might be related to phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. PMID:21197411

  5. [Cytogenetic-molecular analysis of balanced chromosomal rearrangements in nine patients with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Borg, Katarzyna; Bocian, Ewa; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Obersztyn, Ewa; Kruczek, Anna; Nowakowska, Beata; Ilnicka, Alicja; Mazurczak, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    In about 6% of individuals with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies, an abnormal, apparently balanced karyotype is found. These abnormalities may result from abnormal expression of genes at the breakpoints, presence of a submicroscopic deletion, or other unbalanced chromosome aberrations. In such cases, the detailed analysis of breakpoints of balanced chromosome rearrangements may help with identification of genes responsible for patient's clinical features. Was the explanation of causes of abnormal phenotype in the carriers with abnormal but balanced karyotype. Cytogenetic-molecular analysis performed in nine patients with mental retardation, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. Studies with subtelomeric probes, high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (HR-CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with region-specific BAC clones were performed. Seventeen chromosome breakpoint regions were narrowed to 200-400 kb. In one case, an 0.5-Mb submicroscopic deletion associated with more complex rearrangement has been found. Mapping of the breakpoints and information obtained from the UCSC Human Genome Browser data base enabled identification of 46 genes in these regions. Twelve genes, that may have been disrupted as a result of the patients' chromosomal rearrangement, were found. At four different breakpoints the identified genes (NRCAM, NPTX1, NMT1, MAPT, HDAC5 and MEF2C) may be due to a position effect. The results confirm earlier suggestions concerning reasons of abnormal phenotype in the patients with balanced chromosome rearrangements and present the value of detailed analysis of the genome in such cases.

  6. The proximal chromosome 14q microdeletion syndrome: delineation of the phenotype using high resolution SNP oligonucleotide microarray analysis (SOMA) and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Torgyekes, Edina; Shanske, Alan L; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Nahum, Odelia; Pirzadeh, Sara; Blumfield, Einat; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Warburton, Dorothy; Levy, Brynn

    2011-08-01

    We report on two patients with overlapping small interstitial deletions involving regions 14q12 to 14q13.1. Both children had severe developmental delay, failure to thrive, microcephaly, and distinctive facial features, including abnormal spacing of the eyes, epicanthal folds, sloping forehead, low-set ears, rounded eyebrows with triangular media aspect and outer tapering, depressed and broad nasal bridge, small mouth, a long philtrum, and a prominent Cupid's bow. Brain MRI of both children showed partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. Our first patient had bilateral hypoplastic optic nerves causing blindness, mild hearing impairment, sinus arrhythmia, abnormal temperature regulation, frequent apneic episodes, myoclonic jerks, and opisthotonus. Our second patient had a seizure disorder confirmed by EEG, sleep apnea, chronic interstitial lung disease, and several episodes of pneumonia and gastroenteritis. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype in Patient 1 and a unique apparently balanced three-way translocation in Patient 2 involving chromosomes 4, 14, and 11. High resolution SNP Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis (SOMA) revealed a deletion in the proximal region of chromosome 14q overlapping with the deletion of our first patient, and no copy number changes in chromosomes 4 and 11. Here, we review and compare published cases with a deletion involving the 14q12-22.1 chromosomal region in an effort to correlate phenotype and genotype. We also examine the underlying genomic architecture to identify the possible mechanism of the chromosomal abnormality. Our review found a patient with a mirror duplication of our first patient's deletion, confirming the existence of an underlying genomic structural instability in the region. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A de novo 2.78-Mb duplication on chromosome 21q22.11 implicates candidate genes in the partial trisomy 21 phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Weisfeld-Adams, James D; Tkachuk, Amanda K; Maclean, Kenneth N; Meeks, Naomi L; Scott, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) and in the majority of cases is the result of complete trisomy 21. The hypothesis that the characteristic DS clinical features are due to a single DS critical region (DSCR) at distal chromosome 21q has been refuted by recently reported segmental trisomy 21 cases characterised by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). These rare cases have implicated multiple regions on chromosome 21 in the aetiology of distinct features of DS; however, the map of chromosome 21 copy-number aberrations and their associated phenotypes remains incompletely defined. We report a child with ID who was deemed very high risk for DS on antenatal screening (1 in 13) and has partial, but distinct, dysmorphologic features of DS without congenital heart disease (CHD). Oligonucleotide aCGH testing of the proband detected a previously unreported de novo 2.78-Mb duplication on chromosome 21q22.11 that includes 16 genes; however, this aberration does not harbour any of the historical DSCR genes (APP, DSCR1, DYRK1A and DSCAM). This informative case implicates previously under-recognised candidate genes (SOD1, SYNJ1 and ITSN1) in the pathogenesis of specific DS clinical features and supports a critical region for CHD located more distal on chromosome 21q. In addition, this unique case illustrates how the increasing resolution of microarray and high-throughput sequencing technologies can continue to reveal new biology and enhance understanding of widely studied genetic diseases that were originally described over 50 years ago. PMID:27840696

  8. Array CGH Analysis of Paired Blood and Tumor Samples from Patients with Sporadic Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Crespo, María; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares-Bralo, María; Martin-Arenas, Rubén; Rueda-Arenas, Inmaculada; Silvestre de Faria, Paulo Antonio; García-Miguel, Purificación; Lapunzina, Pablo; Regla Vargas, Fernando; Seuanez, Hector N.; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT), the most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children, has a complex etiology that is still poorly understood. Identification of genomic copy number variants (CNV) in tumor genomes provides a better understanding of cancer development which may be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. In paired blood and tumor DNA samples from 14 patients with sporadic WT, analyzed by aCGH, 22% of chromosome abnormalities were novel. All constitutional alterations identified in blood were segmental (in 28.6% of patients) and were also present in the paired tumor samples. Two segmental gains (2p21 and 20q13.3) and one loss (19q13.31) present in blood had not been previously described in WT. We also describe, for the first time, a small, constitutive partial gain of 3p22.1 comprising 2 exons of CTNNB1, a gene associated to WT. Among somatic alterations, novel structural chromosomal abnormalities were found, like gain of 19p13.3 and 20p12.3, and losses of 2p16.1-p15, 4q32.5-q35.1, 4q35.2-q28.1 and 19p13.3. Candidate genes included in these regions might be constitutively (SIX3, SALL4) or somatically (NEK1, PIAS4, BMP2) operational in the development and progression of WT. To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in paired blood and tumor samples in sporadic WT. PMID:26317783

  9. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis of Consecutive Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using an Ultra-High Resolution Chromosomal Microarray Optimized for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Karen S.; Wassman, E. Robert; Baxter, Adrianne L.; Hensel, Charles H.; Martin, Megan M.; Prasad, Aparna; Twede, Hope; Vanzo, Rena J.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) significantly contribute to understanding the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other related conditions. In recognition of the value of CMA testing and its impact on medical management, CMA is in medical guidelines as a first-tier test in the evaluation of children with these disorders. As CMA becomes adopted into routine care for these patients, it becomes increasingly important to report these clinical findings. This study summarizes the results of over 4 years of CMA testing by a CLIA-certified clinical testing laboratory. Using a 2.8 million probe microarray optimized for the detection of CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, we report an overall CNV detection rate of 28.1% in 10,351 consecutive patients, which rises to nearly 33% in cases without ASD, with only developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall detection rate for individuals with ASD is also significant at 24.4%. The detection rate and pathogenic yield of CMA vary significantly with the indications for testing, age, and gender, as well as the specialty of the ordering doctor. We note discrete differences in the most common recurrent CNVs found in individuals with or without a diagnosis of ASD. PMID:27941670

  10. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis of Consecutive Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using an Ultra-High Resolution Chromosomal Microarray Optimized for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ho, Karen S; Wassman, E Robert; Baxter, Adrianne L; Hensel, Charles H; Martin, Megan M; Prasad, Aparna; Twede, Hope; Vanzo, Rena J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-12-09

    Copy number variants (CNVs) detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) significantly contribute to understanding the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other related conditions. In recognition of the value of CMA testing and its impact on medical management, CMA is in medical guidelines as a first-tier test in the evaluation of children with these disorders. As CMA becomes adopted into routine care for these patients, it becomes increasingly important to report these clinical findings. This study summarizes the results of over 4 years of CMA testing by a CLIA-certified clinical testing laboratory. Using a 2.8 million probe microarray optimized for the detection of CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, we report an overall CNV detection rate of 28.1% in 10,351 consecutive patients, which rises to nearly 33% in cases without ASD, with only developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall detection rate for individuals with ASD is also significant at 24.4%. The detection rate and pathogenic yield of CMA vary significantly with the indications for testing, age, and gender, as well as the specialty of the ordering doctor. We note discrete differences in the most common recurrent CNVs found in individuals with or without a diagnosis of ASD.

  11. A contiguous high-resolution radiation hybrid map of 44 loci from the distal portion of the long arm of human chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Warrington, J A; Wasmuth, J J

    1996-07-01

    A contiguous high-resolution map of 44 loci from a 35-Mb portion of the distal region of the long arm of human chromosome 5, q21-q35, was produced using radiation hybrid (RH) mapping in conjunction with a natural deletion mapping panel. The map includes 30 genes, four sequence-tagged site (STS) loci, and 10 DNA markers. Newly mapped markers fill two gap regions that were present in previous maps, between markers FER-IL4 and IL3-IL9. Identifying the position of genes on the physical map aids in positional cloning efforts and contributes to our understanding of the overall organization of the human genome.

  12. A method for detecting significant genomic regions associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma using aCGH.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Yeol; Kim, Jin; Kim, Hyung Jun; Nam, Woong; Cha, In-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) provides a genome-wide technique for identifying chromosomal aberrations in human diseases, including cancer. Chromosomal aberrations in cancers are defined as regions that contain an increased or decreased DNA copy number, relative to normal samples. The identification of genomic regions associated with systematic aberrations provides insights into initiation and progression of cancer, and improves diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy strategies. The McNemar test can be used to detect differentially expressed genes after discretization of gene expressions in a microarray experiment for the matched dataset. In this study, we propose a method to detect significantly altered DNA regions, shifted McNemar test, which is based on the standard McNemar test and takes into account changes in copy number variations and the region size throughout the whole genome. In addition, this novel method can be used to detect genomic regions associated with the progress of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The performance of the proposed method was evaluated based on the homogeneity within the selected regions and the classification accuracies of the selected regions. This method might be useful for identifying new candidate genes that neighbor known genes based on the whole-genomic variation because it detects significant chromosomal regions, not independent probes.

  13. Array CGH data modeling and smoothing in Stationary Wavelet Packet Transform domain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Heng; Nguyen, Nha; Oraintara, Soontorn; Vo, An

    2008-01-01

    Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is a highly efficient technique, allowing the simultaneous measurement of genomic DNA copy number at hundreds or thousands of loci and the reliable detection of local one-copy-level variations. Characterization of these DNA copy number changes is important for both the basic understanding of cancer and its diagnosis. In order to develop effective methods to identify aberration regions from array CGH data, many recent research work focus on both smoothing-based and segmentation-based data processing. In this paper, we propose stationary packet wavelet transform based approach to smooth array CGH data. Our purpose is to remove CGH noise in whole frequency while keeping true signal by using bivariate model. Results In both synthetic and real CGH data, Stationary Wavelet Packet Transform (SWPT) is the best wavelet transform to analyze CGH signal in whole frequency. We also introduce a new bivariate shrinkage model which shows the relationship of CGH noisy coefficients of two scales in SWPT. Before smoothing, the symmetric extension is considered as a preprocessing step to save information at the border. Conclusion We have designed the SWTP and the SWPT-Bi which are using the stationary wavelet packet transform with the hard thresholding and the new bivariate shrinkage estimator respectively to smooth the array CGH data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through theoretical and experimental exploration of a set of array CGH data, including both synthetic data and real data. The comparison results show that our method outperforms the previous approaches. PMID:18831782

  14. Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; King, Roy; Mehdi, S. Q.; Edmonds, Christopher A.; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Lin, Alice A.; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K.; Ramesh, A.; Usha Rani, M. V.; Thakur, Chitra M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Majumder, Partha P.; Underhill, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000–15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era—not Indo-European—expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape. PMID:16400607

  15. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Mehdi, S Q; Edmonds, Christopher A; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Lin, Alice A; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K; Ramesh, A; Usha Rani, M V; Thakur, Chitra M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Majumder, Partha P; Underhill, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.

  16. Clinical experience with array CGH: case presentations from nine months of practice.

    PubMed

    Poss, Alexis F; Goldenberg, Paula C; Rehder, Catherine W; Kearney, Hutton M; Melvin, Elizabeth C; Koeberl, Dwight D; McDonald, Marie T

    2006-10-01

    A total of 124 individuals were tested in the initial 9 months that array CGH technology was offered to clinical genetics patients. In 11 of these patients array CGH identified a previously unsuspected diagnosis. A suspected diagnosis was confirmed in three patients. A single case in this series proved to be a polymorphic copy number variant. This paper describes five of the patients with previously unsuspected diagnoses in detail. We suggest that array CGH is an improved tool ready for routine use in clinical genetics.

  17. Design and fabrication of CGH for 600mm diameter SiC primary mirror surface figure testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhihai; Ma, Zhen; Fan, Xuewu; Zou, Gangyi

    2016-09-01

    Computer-generated hologram (CGH) is an effective way to compensate wavefront aberration in null test of aspheric surfaces and freeform surfaces. Our strategies of CGH design for 600mm diameter SiC primary mirror surface figure testing are presented, and an experiment demonstrating the compensation test results of CGH is reported. We design a CGH including two sections on the same substrate in order to align the CGH to the incident wavefront: main section for compensating wavefront in null test, alignment section for adjusting the relative position between CGH and interferometer. In order to isolate different orders of diffraction, we used power carrier to make different orders of diffraction come to focus at different position along the axis to avoid ghost reflections. We measured the 600mm diameter SiC primary mirror using this CGH, and the surface test result is 0.033λ rms.

  18. aCGH detects partial tetrasomy of 12p in blood from Pallister-Killian syndrome cases without invasive skin biopsy.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Aaron; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Farrell, Sandra A; Harris, Catharine J; Wetzel, Heather H; Torchia, Beth A; Bejjani, Bassem A; Ballif, Blake C; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2009-05-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, seizures, streaks of hypo- or hyperpigmentation and dysmorphic features. PKS is associated with tissue-limited mosaic partial tetrasomy of 12p, usually caused by an isochromosome 12p. The mosaicism is usually detected in cultured skin fibroblasts or amniotic cells and rarely in phytohemagluttinin-stimulated lymphocytes, which suggests stimulation of T-lymphocytes may distort the percentage of abnormal cells. We recently reported on the identification by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of a previously unsuspected case of partial tetrasomy of 12p caused by an isochromosome 12p. Here we report on seven additional individuals with partial tetrasomy of 12p characterized by our laboratory. All individuals were referred for mental retardation/developmental delay and/or dysmorphic features. In each case, aCGH using genomic DNA extracted from whole peripheral blood detected copy-number gain for all clones for the short arm of chromosome 12. In all but one case, FISH on metaphases from cultured lymphocytes did not detect the copy-number gain; in the remaining case, metaphase FISH on cultured lymphocytes showed an isochromosome in 10% of cells. However, interphase FISH using probes to 12p on peripheral blood smears showed additional hybridization signals in 18-70% of cells. Microarray and FISH analysis on cultured skin biopsies from four individuals confirmed the presence of an isochromosome 12p. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of aCGH with genomic DNA from whole peripheral blood to detect chromosome abnormalities that are not present in stimulated blood cultures and would otherwise require invasive skin biopsies for identification.

  19. [Genetic analysis of a supernumerary derivative chromosome 15].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Yao; Wang, Chun-zhi; He, X-iyu

    2012-02-01

    To detect and analyze a supernumerary derivative chromosome 15 with combined cytogenetic and molecular techniques, and to discuss the correlation between genomic copy number variations (CNVs) and clinical phenotypes. G-banded chromosome analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were carried out. The whole genome of the patient was also analyzed with array-comparative genome hybridization(array-CGH). G-banding analysis indicated that the patient has a karyotype of 47, XY, + mar, with the supernumerary chromsome derived from 15q11-13 region spanning 9.8 Mb from locus 20477397 to 30298155. CNVs of 15q11-13 are associated with mental retardation, language development delay and autistic disorder. Conventional cytogenetic analysis with array-CGH may provide a platform for accurate detection of chromosomal aberrations, which can faciliate the study of genome rearrangement underlying various diseases.

  20. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations

    DOE PAGES

    Lyons, Jessica

    2014-12-11

    Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculent Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480more » meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. Here, we used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selectionenhanced breeding of this important crop.« less

  1. High-Resolution Linkage Map and Chromosome-Scale Genome Assembly for Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 Populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. PMID:25504737

  2. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop.

  3. Co-existence of 9p deletion and Silver-Russell syndromes in a patient with maternally inherited cryptic complex chromosome rearrangement involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Sathanoori, Malini; Kochmar, Sally; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; McGuire, Marianne; Surti, Urvashi

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with a maternally inherited unbalanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11 detected by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This patient presents with clinical features of 9p deletion syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Chromosome analysis performed in 2000 showed what appeared to be a simple terminal deletion of chromosome 9p22.1. aCGH performed in 2010 revealed a 1.63 Mb duplication at 4q28.3, a 15.48 Mb deletion at 9p24.3p22.3, and a 1.95 Mb duplication at 11p15.5. FISH analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 9 resulting from an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 11, a chromosome 4 fragment inserted near the breakpoint of the translocation. The 4q28.3 duplication does not contain any currently known genes. The 9p24.3p22.3 deletion region contains 36 OMIM genes including a 3.5 Mb critical region for the 9p-phenotype. The 11p15.5 duplication contains 49 OMIM genes including H19 and IGF2. Maternal aCGH was normal. However, maternal chromosomal and FISH analyses revealed an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with maternally inherited trans-duplication of the entire imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) among the 11p15.5 duplications reported in SRS patients. This report supports the hypothesis that the trans-duplication of the maternal copy of ICR1 alone is sufficient for the clinical manifestation of SRS and demonstrates the usefulness of combining aCGH with karyotyping and FISH for detecting cryptic genomic imbalances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma derived from recurrent pleomorphic adenoma shows important difference by array CGH compared to recurrent pleomorphic adenoma without malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Giovanetti, Karina; Saccomani, Luis Fernando Vidal; Del Negro, André; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Krepischi, Ana Cristina Victorino; Altemani, Albina

    A key step of cancer development is the progressive accumulation of genomic changes resulting in disruption of several biological mechanisms. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an aggressive neoplasm that arises from a pleomorphic adenoma. CXPA derived from a recurrent PA (RPA) has been rarely reported, and the genomic changes associated with these tumors have not yet been studied. We analyzed CXPA from RPAs and RPAs without malignant transformation using array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to identify somatic copy number alterations and affected genes. DNA samples extracted from FFPE tumors were submitted to array-CGH investigation, and data was analyzed by Nexus Copy Number Discovery Edition v.7. No somatic copy number alterations were found in RPAs without malignant transformation. As for CXPA from RPA, although genomic profiles were unique for each case, we detected some chromosomal regions that appear to be preferentially affected by copy number alterations. The first case of CXPA-RPA (frankly invasive myoepithelial carcinoma) showed copy number alterations affecting 1p36.33p13, 5p and chromosomes 3 and 8. The second case of CXPA-RPA (frankly invasive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma) showed several alterations at chromosomes 3, 8, and 16, with two amplifications at 8p12p11.21 and 12q14.3q21.2. The third case of CXPA-RPA (minimally invasive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma) exhibited amplifications at 12q13.3q14.1, 12q14.3, and 12q15. The occurrence of gains at chromosomes 3 and 8 and genomic amplifications at 8p and 12q, mainly those encompassing the HMGA2, MDM2, WIF1, WHSC1L1, LIRG3, CDK4 in CXAP from RPA can be a significant promotional factor in malignant transformation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased Y-chromosome resolution of haplogroup O suggests genetic ties between the Ami aborigines of Taiwan and the Polynesian Islands of Samoa and Tonga.

    PubMed

    Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Kristian J; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-01-25

    The Austronesian expansion has left its fingerprint throughout two thirds of the circumference of the globe reaching the island of Madagascar in East Africa to the west and Easter Island, off the coast of Chile, to the east. To date, several theories exist to explain the current genetic distribution of Austronesian populations, with the "slow boat" model being the most widely accepted, though other conjectures (i.e., the "express train" and "entangled bank" hypotheses) have also been widely discussed. In the current study, 158 Y chromosomes from the Polynesian archipelagos of Samoa and Tonga were typed using high resolution binary markers and compared to populations across Mainland East Asia, Taiwan, Island Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Polynesia in order to establish their patrilineal genetic relationships. Y-STR haplotypes on the C2 (M38), C2a (M208), O1a (M119), O3 (M122) and O3a2 (P201) backgrounds were utilized in an attempt to identify the differing sources of the current Y-chromosomal haplogroups present throughout Polynesia (of Melanesian and/or Asian descent). We find that, while haplogroups C2a, S and K3-P79 suggest a Melanesian component in 23%-42% of the Samoan and Tongan Y chromosomes, the majority of the paternal Polynesian gene pool exhibits ties to East Asia. In particular, the prominence of sub-haplogroup O3a2c* (P164), which has previously been observed at only minimal levels in Mainland East Asians (2.0-4.5%), in both Polynesians (ranging from 19% in Manua to 54% in Tonga) and Ami aborigines from Taiwan (37%) provides, for the first time, evidence for a genetic connection between the Polynesian populations and the Ami.

  6. A Chromosome 7 Pericentric Inversion Defined at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Diagnostic Whole Genome Sequencing in a Patient with Hand-Foot-Genital Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christopher M; Crinnion, Laura A; Harrison, Sally M; Lascelles, Carolina; Antanaviciute, Agne; Carr, Ian M; Bonthron, David T; Sheridan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methodologies are facilitating the rapid characterisation of novel structural variants at nucleotide resolution. These approaches are particularly applicable to variants initially identified using alternative molecular methods. We report a child born with bilateral postaxial syndactyly of the feet and bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly. This was presumed to be an autosomal recessive syndrome, due to the family history of consanguinity. Karyotype analysis revealed a homozygous pericentric inversion of chromosome 7 (46,XX,inv(7)(p15q21)x2) which was confirmed to be heterozygous in both unaffected parents. Since the resolution of the karyotype was insufficient to identify any putatively causative gene, we undertook medium-coverage whole genome sequencing using paired-end reads, in order to elucidate the molecular breakpoints. In a two-step analysis, we first narrowed down the region by identifying discordant read-pairs, and then determined the precise molecular breakpoint by analysing the mapping locations of "soft-clipped" breakpoint-spanning reads. PCR and Sanger sequencing confirmed the identified breakpoints, both of which were located in intergenic regions. Significantly, the 7p15 breakpoint was located 523 kb upstream of HOXA13, the locus for hand-foot-genital syndrome. By inference from studies of HOXA locus control in the mouse, we suggest that the inversion has delocalised a HOXA13 enhancer to produce the phenotype observed in our patient. This study demonstrates how modern genetic diagnostic approach can characterise structural variants at nucleotide resolution and provide potential insights into functional regulation.

  7. Highly conserved Z and molecularly diverged W chromosomes in the fish genus Triportheus (Characiformes, Triportheidae).

    PubMed

    Yano, C F; Bertollo, L A C; Ezaz, T; Trifonov, V; Sember, A; Liehr, T; Cioffi, M B

    2017-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to test: (1) whether the W-chromosome differentiation matches to species' evolutionary divergence (phylogenetic concordance) and (2) whether sex chromosomes share a common ancestor within a congeneric group. The monophyletic genus Triportheus (Characiformes, Triportheidae) was the model group for this study. All species in this genus so far analyzed have ZW sex chromosome system, where the Z is always the largest chromosome of the karyotype, whereas the W chromosome is highly variable ranging from almost homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. We applied conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including C-banding, ribosomal DNA mapping, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and cross-species whole chromosome painting (WCP) to test our questions. We developed Z- and W-chromosome paints from T. auritus for cross-species WCP and performed CGH in a representative species (T. signatus) to decipher level of homologies and rates of differentiation of W chromosomes. Our study revealed that the ZW sex chromosome system had a common origin, showing highly conserved Z chromosomes and remarkably divergent W chromosomes. Notably, the W chromosomes have evolved to different shapes and sequence contents within ~15-25 Myr of divergence time. Such differentiation highlights a dynamic process of W-chromosome evolution within congeneric species of Triportheus.

  8. Brief communication: new Y-chromosome binary markers improve phylogenetic resolution within haplogroup R1a1.

    PubMed

    Pamjav, Horolma; Fehér, Tibor; Németh, Endre; Pádár, Zsolt

    2012-12-01

    Haplogroup R1a1-M198 is a major clade of Y chromosomal haplogroups which is distributed all across Eurasia. To this date, many efforts have been made to identify large SNP-based subgroups and migration patterns of this haplogroup. The origin and spread of R1a1 chromosomes in Eurasia has, however, remained unknown due to the lack of downstream SNPs within the R1a1 haplogroup. Since the discovery of R1a1-M458, this is the first scientific attempt to divide haplogroup R1a1-M198 into multiple SNP-based sub-haplogroups. We have genotyped 217 R1a1-M198 samples from seven different population groups at M458, as well as the Z280 and Z93 SNPs recently identified from the "1000 Genomes Project". The two additional binary markers present an effective tool because now more than 98% of the samples analyzed assign to one of the three sub-haplogroups. R1a1-M458 and R1a1-Z280 were typical for the Hungarian population groups, whereas R1a1-Z93 was typical for Malaysian Indians and the Hungarian Roma. Inner and Central Asia is an overlap zone for the R1a1-Z280 and R1a1-Z93 lineages. This pattern implies that an early differentiation zone of R1a1-M198 conceivably occurred somewhere within the Eurasian Steppes or the Middle East and Caucasus region as they lie between South Asia and Eastern Europe. The detection of the Z93 paternal genetic imprint in the Hungarian Roma gene pool is consistent with South Asian ancestry and amends the view that H1a-M82 is their only discernible paternal lineage of Indian heritage.

  9. High-resolution meiotic and physical mapping of the Best`s vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2) locus to pericentromeric chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.H.F.; Vogt, G.; Walker, D.

    1994-09-01

    Vitelliform macular dystrophy, also known as Best`s disease, is a juvenile-onset macular degeneration with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by well-demarcated accumulation of lipofuscin-like material within and beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and classically results in an egg yolk-like appearance of the macula. Typically, carriers of the disease gene show a specific electrophysiological sign which can be detected by electrooculography (EOG). The EOG measures a standing potential between the cornea and the retina which is primarily generated by the RPE. The histopathological findings as well as the EOG abnormalities suggest that Best`s disease is a generalized disorder of the RPE. The basic biochemical defect is still unknown. As a first step in the positional cloning of the defective gene, the Best`s disease locus was mapped to chromosome 11 between markers at D11S871 and INT2. Subsequently, his region was refined to a 3.7 cM interval flanked by loci D11S903 and PYGM. To further narrow the D11S903-PYGM interval and to obtain an estimate of the physical size of the minimal candidate region, we used a combination of high-resolution PCR hybrid mapping and analysis of recombinant Best`s disease chromosomes. We identified six markers from within the D11S903-PYGM interval that show no recombination with the defective gene in three multigeneration Best`s disease pedigrees. Our hybrid panel localizes these markers on either side of the centromere on chromosome 11. The closest markers flanking the disease gene are at D11S986 in band p12-11.22 and at D11S480 in band q13.2-13.3. Our study demonstrates that the physical size of the Best`s disease region is exceedingly larger than was previously estimated from the genetic data due to the proximity of the defective gene to the centromere of chromosome 11.

  10. Regional deletion and amplification on chromosome 6 in a uveal melanoma case without abnormalities on chromosomes 1p, 3 and 8.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Walter; Kilic, Emine; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Verbiest, Michael M; Beverloo, Berna; van Til-Berg, Marjan E; Paridaens, Dion; Luyten, Gregorius P; de Klein, Annelies

    2008-02-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Loss of the long arm and gain of the short arm of chromosome 6 are frequently observed chromosomal aberrations in UM, together with loss of chromosome 1p36, loss of chromosome 3 and gain of chromosome 8. This suggests the presence of one or more oncogenes on 6p and tumor suppressor genes at 6q that are involved in UM development. Both regions, however, have not been well defined yet. Furthermore in other neoplasms gain of 6p and loss of 6q are frequently occurring events. In this case report, we describe the delineation of a partial gain on chromosome 6p and a partial deletion on 6q in a UM with the objective to pinpoint smaller candidate regions on chromosome 6 involved in UM development. Conventional cytogenetics, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) were used to delineate regions of loss and gain on chromosome 6 in this UM patient. With conventional cytogenetics a deleted region was found on chromosome 6q that was further delineated to a region ranging from 6q16.1 to 6q22 using CGH and FISH. A region of gain from 6pter to 6p21.2 was also demarcated with CGH and FISH. No other deletions or amplifications on recurrently involved chromosomes were found in this patient. This study indicates the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosomal region 6q16.1-6q22 and the presence of one or more oncogenes on chromosomal region 6pter-6p21.2, which are likely to be important in UM and other tumors.

  11. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    PubMed

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  12. High-resolution genetic mapping of the sucrose octaacetate taste aversion (Soa) locus on mouse Chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, A A; Li, X; Li, S; Neira, M; Beauchamp, G K; Azen, E A

    2001-09-01

    An acetylated sugar, sucrose octaacetate (SOA), tastes bitter to humans and has an aversive taste to at least some mice and other animals. In mice, taste aversion to SOA depends on allelic variation of a single locus, Soa. Three Soa alleles determine 'taster' (Soa(a)), 'nontaster' (Soa(b)), and 'demitaster' (Soa(c)) phenotypes of taste sensitivity to SOA. Although Soa has been mapped to distal Chromosome (Chr) 6, the limits of the Soa region have not been defined. In this study, mice from congenic strains SW.B6-Soa(b), B6.SW-Soa(a), and C3.SW-Soa(a/c) and from an outbred CFW strain were genotyped with polymorphic markers on Chr 6. In the congenic strains, the limits of introgressed donor fragments were determined. In the outbred mice, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses were conducted. Positions of the markers were further resolved by using radiation hybrid mapping. The results show that the Soa locus is contained in an approximately 1-cM (3.3-4.9 Mb) region including the Prp locus.

  13. High-Resolution genomic arrays identify CNVs that phenocopy the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busse, Tracy; Graham, John M; Feldman, Gerald; Perin, Juan; Catherwood, Anne; Knowlton, Robert; Rappaport, Eric F; Emanuel, Beverly; Driscoll, Deborah A; Saitta, Sulagna C

    2011-01-01

    The 22q11 Deletion Syndrome includes the overlapping phenotypes of DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndromes, characterized by conotruncal heart defects, cleft palate, thymus, and parathyroid gland dysplasia. The majority (90%) of patients harbor detectable chr22q11.2 deletions, but a genetic etiology for the remainder of patients without a deletion can remain undefined despite major birth defects. We analyzed DNA from eight patients with normal 22q11 FISH studies by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and identified potentially pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) in four of eight patients. Two patients showed large CNVs in regions of known genomic disorders: one a deletion of distal chr22q11.2 and the other a duplication of chr5q35. A 3-Mb deletion of chr19p13.3 that includes a gene associated with conotruncal heart defects was found in a third patient. Two potentially pathogenic CNVs were found in a fourth patient: a large heterozygous deletion of chr6p24 and a smaller duplication of chr9p24. Our findings support a recent consensus statement advocating chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line diagnostic approach for patients with multiple congenital anomalies. In patients with phenotypes suggestive of the 22q11.2 syndrome spectrum and normal FISH, microarray analysis can uncover the molecular basis of other genomic disorders whose features overlap those of 22q11.2 deletions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Utility of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has emerged as a powerful new tool to identify genomic abnormalities associated with a wide range of developmental disabilities including congenital malformations, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. CMA includes array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism…

  15. The Utility of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has emerged as a powerful new tool to identify genomic abnormalities associated with a wide range of developmental disabilities including congenital malformations, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. CMA includes array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism…

  16. Sparsity-based fast CGH generation using layer-based approach for 3D point cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak Gu; Jeong, Hyunwook; Ro, Yong Man

    2017-03-01

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) is becoming increasingly important for a 3-D display in various applications including virtual reality. In the CGH, holographic fringe patterns are generated by numerically calculating them on computer simulation systems. However, a heavy computational cost is required to calculate the complex amplitude on CGH plane for all points of 3D objects. This paper proposes a new fast CGH generation based on the sparsity of CGH for 3D point cloud model. The aim of the proposed method is to significantly reduce computational complexity while maintaining the quality of the holographic fringe patterns. To that end, we present a new layer-based approach for calculating the complex amplitude distribution on the CGH plane by using sparse FFT (sFFT). We observe the CGH of a layer of 3D objects is sparse so that dominant CGH is rapidly generated from a small set of signals by sFFT. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method is one order of magnitude faster than recently reported fast CGH generation.

  17. Improving global and regional resolution of male lineage differentiation by simple single-copy Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Mark; Wollstein, Andreas; van der Gaag, Kristiaan; Lao, Oscar; Xue, Yali; Wang, Qiuju; Roewer, Lutz; Knoblauch, Hans; Tyler-Smith, Chris; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We analysed 67 short tandem repeat polymorphisms from the non-recombining part of the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs), including 49 rarely-studied simple single-copy (ss)Y-STRs and 18 widely-used Y-STRs, in 590 males from 51 populations belonging to 8 worldwide regions (HGDP-CEPH panel). Although autosomal DNA profiling provided no evidence for close relationship, we found 18 Y-STR haplotypes (defined by 67 Y-STRs) that were shared by two to five men in 13 worldwide populations, revealing high and widespread levels of cryptic male relatedness. Maximal (95.9%) haplotype resolution was achieved with the best 25 out of 67 Y-STRs in the global dataset, and with the best 3-16 markers in regional datasets (89.6-100% resolution). From the 49 rarely-studied ssY-STRs, the 25 most informative markers were sufficient to reach the highest possible male lineage differentiation in the global (92.2% resolution), and 3-15 markers in the regional datasets (85.4-100%). Considerably lower haplotype resolutions were obtained with the three commonly-used Y-STR sets (Minimal Haplotype, PowerPlex Y®, and AmpFlSTR® Yfiler®). Six ssY-STRs (DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576 and DYS643) were most informative to supplement the existing Y-STR kits for increasing haplotype resolution, or – together with additional ssY-STRs - as a new set for maximizing male lineage differentiation. Mutation rates of the 49 ssY-STRs were estimated from 403 meiotic transfers in deep-rooted pedigrees, and ranged from ~4.8×10−4 for 31 ssY-STRs with no mutations observed to 1.3×10−2 and 1.5×10−2 for DYS570 and DYS576, respectively, the latter representing the highest mutation rates reported for human Y-STRs so far. Our findings thus demonstrate that ssY-STRs are useful for maximizing global and regional resolution of male lineages, either as a new set, or when added to commonly-used Y-STR sets, and support their application to forensic, genealogical and anthropological studies. PMID:19647704

  18. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Human Malignant Gliomas Reveals Multiple Amplification Sites and Nonrandom Chromosomal Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Schròck, Evelin; Thiel, Gundula; Lozanova, Tanka; du Manoir, Stanislas; Meffert, Marie-Christine; Jauch, Anna; Speicher, Michael R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Vogel, Siegfried; Janisch, Werner; Donis-Keller, Helen; Ried, Thomas; Witkowski, Regine; Cremer, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Nine human malignant gliomas (2 astrocytomas grade III and 7 glioblastomas) were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition to the amplification of the EGFR gene at 7p12 in 4 of 9 cases, six new amplification sites were mapped to 1q32, 4q12, 7q21.1, 7q21.2-3, 12p, and 22q12. Nonrandom chromosomal gains and losses were identified with overrepresentation of chromosome 7 and underrepresentation of chromosome 10 as the most frequent events (1 of 2 astrocytomas, 7 of 7 glioblastomas). Gain of a part or the whole chromosome 19 and losses of chromosome bands 9pter-23 and 22q13 were detected each in five cases. Loss of chromosome band 17p13 and gain of chromosome 20 were revealed each in three cases. The validity of the CGH data was confirmed using interphase cytogenetics with YAC clones, chromosome painting in tumor metaphase spreads, and DNA fingerprinting. A comparison of CGH data with the results of chromosome banding analyses indicates that metaphase spreads accessible in primary tumor cell cultures may not represent the clones predominant in the tumor tissue ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:8203461

  19. Shared language, diverging genetic histories: high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variability in Calabrian and Sicilian Arbereshe

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Tofanelli, Sergio; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Bortolini, Eugenio; Ferri, Gianmarco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Sineo, Luca; Luiselli, Donata; Boattini, Alessio; Pettener, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between genetic and linguistic diversification in human populations has been often explored to interpret some specific issues in human history. The Albanian-speaking minorities of Sicily and Southern Italy (Arbereshe) constitute an important portion of the ethnolinguistic variability of Italy. Their linguistic isolation from neighboring Italian populations and their documented migration history, make such minorities particularly effective for investigating the interplay between cultural, geographic and historical factors. Nevertheless, the extent of Arbereshe genetic relationships with the Balkan homeland and the Italian recipient populations has been only partially investigated. In the present study we address the genetic history of Arbereshe people by combining highly resolved analyses of Y-chromosome lineages and extensive computer simulations. A large set of slow- and fast-evolving molecular markers was typed in different Arbereshe communities from Sicily and Southern Italy (Calabria), as well as in both the putative Balkan source and Italian sink populations. Our results revealed that the considered Arbereshe groups, despite speaking closely related languages and sharing common cultural features, actually experienced diverging genetic histories. The estimated proportions of genetic admixture confirm the tight relationship of Calabrian Arbereshe with modern Albanian populations, in accordance with linguistic hypotheses. On the other hand, population stratification and/or an increased permeability of linguistic and geographic barriers may be hypothesized for Sicilian groups, to account for their partial similarity with Greek populations and their higher levels of local admixture. These processes ultimately resulted in the differential acquisition or preservation of specific paternal lineages by the present-day Arbereshe communities. PMID:26130483

  20. Shared language, diverging genetic histories: high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variability in Calabrian and Sicilian Arbereshe.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Tofanelli, Sergio; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Bortolini, Eugenio; Ferri, Gianmarco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Sineo, Luca; Luiselli, Donata; Boattini, Alessio; Pettener, Davide

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between genetic and linguistic diversification in human populations has been often explored to interpret some specific issues in human history. The Albanian-speaking minorities of Sicily and Southern Italy (Arbereshe) constitute an important portion of the ethnolinguistic variability of Italy. Their linguistic isolation from neighboring Italian populations and their documented migration history, make such minorities particularly effective for investigating the interplay between cultural, geographic and historical factors. Nevertheless, the extent of Arbereshe genetic relationships with the Balkan homeland and the Italian recipient populations has been only partially investigated. In the present study we address the genetic history of Arbereshe people by combining highly resolved analyses of Y-chromosome lineages and extensive computer simulations. A large set of slow- and fast-evolving molecular markers was typed in different Arbereshe communities from Sicily and Southern Italy (Calabria), as well as in both the putative Balkan source and Italian sink populations. Our results revealed that the considered Arbereshe groups, despite speaking closely related languages and sharing common cultural features, actually experienced diverging genetic histories. The estimated proportions of genetic admixture confirm the tight relationship of Calabrian Arbereshe with modern Albanian populations, in accordance with linguistic hypotheses. On the other hand, population stratification and/or an increased permeability of linguistic and geographic barriers may be hypothesized for Sicilian groups, to account for their partial similarity with Greek populations and their higher levels of local admixture. These processes ultimately resulted in the differential acquisition or preservation of specific paternal lineages by the present-day Arbereshe communities.

  1. Resolution and evolution of the duck-billed platypus karyotype with an X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5 male sex chromosome constitution.

    PubMed

    Rens, Willem; Grützner, Frank; O'brien, Patricia C M; Fairclough, Helen; Graves, Jennifer A M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2004-11-16

    The platypus (2n = 52) has a complex karyotype that has been controversial over the last three decades. The presence of unpaired chromosomes and an unknown sex-determining system especially has defied attempts at conventional analysis. This article reports on the preparation of chromosome-specific probes from flow-sorted chromosomes and their application in the identification and classification of all platypus chromosomes. This work reveals that the male karyotype has 21 pairs of chromosomes and 10 unpaired chromosomes (E1-E10), which are linked by short regions of homology to form a multivalent chain in meiosis. The female karyotype differs in that five of these unpaired elements (E1, E3, E5, E7, and E9) are each present in duplicate, whereas the remaining five unpaired elements (E2, E4, E6, E8, and E10) are absent. This finding indicates that sex is determined by the alternate segregation of the chain of 10 during spermatogenesis so that equal numbers of sperm bear either one of the two groups of five elements, i.e., five X and five Y chromosomes. Chromosome painting reveals that these X and Y chromosomes contain pairing (XY shared) and differential (X- or Y-specific) segments. Y differential regions must contain male-determining genes, and X differential regions should be dosage-compensated in the female. Two models for the evolution of the sex-determining system are presented. The resolution of the longstanding debate over the platypus karyotype is an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of sex determination, dosage compensation, and karyotype evolution.

  2. Resolution and evolution of the duck-billed platypus karyotype with an X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5Y5 male sex chromosome constitution

    PubMed Central

    Rens, Willem; Grützner, Frank; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Fairclough, Helen; Graves, Jennifer A. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.

    2004-01-01

    The platypus (2n = 52) has a complex karyotype that has been controversial over the last three decades. The presence of unpaired chromosomes and an unknown sex-determining system especially has defied attempts at conventional analysis. This article reports on the preparation of chromosome-specific probes from flow-sorted chromosomes and their application in the identification and classification of all platypus chromosomes. This work reveals that the male karyotype has 21 pairs of chromosomes and 10 unpaired chromosomes (E1-E10), which are linked by short regions of homology to form a multivalent chain in meiosis. The female karyotype differs in that five of these unpaired elements (E1, E3, E5, E7, and E9) are each present in duplicate, whereas the remaining five unpaired elements (E2, E4, E6, E8, and E10) are absent. This finding indicates that sex is determined by the alternate segregation of the chain of 10 during spermatogenesis so that equal numbers of sperm bear either one of the two groups of five elements, i.e., five X and five Y chromosomes. Chromosome painting reveals that these X and Y chromosomes contain pairing (XY shared) and differential (X- or Y-specific) segments. Y differential regions must contain male-determining genes, and X differential regions should be dosage-compensated in the female. Two models for the evolution of the sex-determining system are presented. The resolution of the longstanding debate over the platypus karyotype is an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of sex determination, dosage compensation, and karyotype evolution. PMID:15534209

  3. Evaluation of high-resolution microarray platforms for genomic profiling of bone tumours

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several high-density oligonucleotide microarray platforms are available for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH), which may be used to detect copy number aberrations in human tumours. As part of the EuroBoNeT network of excellence for research on bone tumours (eurobonet.eu), we have evaluated four different commercial high-resolution microarray platforms in order to identify the most appropriate technology for mapping DNA copy number aberrations in such tumours. Findings DNA from two different cytogenetically well-characterized bone sarcoma cell lines, representing a simple and a complex karyotype, respectively, was tested in duplicate on four high-resolution microarray platforms; Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0, Agilent Human Genome CGH 244A, Illumina HumanExon510s-duo and Nimblegen HG18 CGH 385 k WG tiling v1.0. The data was analysed using the platform-specific analysis software, as well as a platform-independent analysis algorithm. DNA copy number was measured at six specific chromosomes or chromosomal regions, and compared with the expected ratio based on available cytogenetic information. All platforms performed well in terms of reproducibility and were able to delimit and score small amplifications and deletions at similar resolution, but Agilent microarrays showed better linearity and dynamic range. The platform-specific analysis software provided with each platform identified in general correct copy numbers, whereas using a platform-independent analysis algorithm, correct copy numbers were determined mainly for Agilent and Affymetrix microarrays. Conclusions All platforms performed reasonably well, but Agilent microarrays showed better dynamic range, and like Affymetrix microarrays performed well with the platform-independent analysis software, implying more robust data. Bone tumours like osteosarcomas are heterogeneous tumours with complex

  4. Molecular characterisation of a mosaicism with a complex chromosome rearrangement: evidence for coincident chromosome healing by telomere capture and neo‐telomere formation

    PubMed Central

    Chabchoub, Elyes; Rodríguez, Laura; Galán, Enrique; Mansilla, Elena; Martínez‐Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Martínez‐Frías, Maria Luisa; Fryns, Jean‐Pierre; Vermeesch, Joris Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background Broken chromosomes must acquire new telomeric “caps” to be structurally stable. Chromosome healing can be mediated either by telomerase through neo‐telomere synthesis or by telomere capture. Aim To unravel the mechanism(s) generating complex chromosomal mosaicisms and healing broken chromosomes. Methods G banding, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), fluorescence in‐situ hybridisation (FISH) and short tandem repeat analysis (STR) was performed on a girl presenting with mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, urogenital malformations and limb anomalies carrying a complex chromosomal mosaicism. Results & discussion The karyotype showed a de novo chromosome rearrangement with two cell lines: one cell line with a deletion 9pter and one cell line carrying an inverted duplication 9p and a non‐reciprocal translocation 5pter fragment. aCGH, FISH and STR analysis enabled the deduction of the most likely sequence of events generating this complex mosaic. During embryogenesis, a double‐strand break occurred on the paternal chromosome 9. Following mitotic separation of both broken sister chromatids, one acquired a telomere vianeo‐telomere formation, while the other generated a dicentric chromosome which underwent breakage during anaphase, giving rise to the del inv dup(9) that was subsequently healed by chromosome 5 telomere capture. Conclusion Broken chromosomes can coincidently be rescued by both telomere capture and neo‐telomere synthesis. PMID:17172463

  5. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future.

  6. A prenatally ascertained, maternally inherited 14.8 Mb duplication of chromosomal bands Xq13.2-q21.31 associated with multiple congenital abnormalities in a male fetus.

    PubMed

    Sismani, C; Donoghue, J; Alexandrou, A; Karkaletsi, M; Christopoulou, S; Konstantinidou, A E; Livanos, P; Patsalis, P C; Velissariou, V

    2013-11-01

    Duplications of the X chromosome are rare cytogenetic findings, and have been associated with an abnormal phenotype in the male offspring of apparently normal or near normal female carriers. We report on the prenatal diagnosis of a duplication on the long arm of chromosome X from chromosomal band Xq13.2 to q21.31 in a male fetus with increased nuchal translucency in the first trimester and polyhydramnios at 22 weeks of gestation. Amniocentesis was undertaken and cytogenetic analysis revealed additional chromosomal material in the long arm of chromosome X at position Xq13. Analysis with high resolution array CGH revealed the additional material is in fact a duplication of the region Xq13.2-q21.13. The duplication is 14.8 Mb in size and includes fourteen genes: SLC16A2, KIAA2022, ABCB7, ZDHHC15, ATRX, MAGT1, ATP7A, PGK1, TBX22, BRWD3, POU3F4, ZNF711, POF1B and CHM. Analysis of the parents revealed the mother to be a carrier of the same duplication. After elected termination of the pregnancy at 28 weeks a detailed autopsy of the fetus allowed for genotype-phenotype correlations. © 2013.

  7. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  8. Analysis of a familial three way translocation involving chromosomes 3q, 6q, and 15q by high resolution banding and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) shows two different unbalanced karyotypes in sibs.

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, D; Engels, H; Viersbach, R; Henke, B; Schwanitz, G; Passarge, E

    1998-01-01

    We report on a familial three way translocation involving chromosomes 3, 6, and 15 identified by prometaphase banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Two mentally retarded sibs with different phenotypic abnormalities, their phenotypically normal sister and mother, and two fetuses of the phenotypically normal sister were analysed. The terminal regions of chromosomes 3q, 6q, and 15q were involved in a reciprocal translocation, in addition to a paracentric inversion of the derivative chromosome 15. Conventional cytogenetic studies with high resolution GTG banding did not resolve this rearrangement. FISH using whole chromosome paints (WCPs) identified the chromosomal regions involved, except the aberrant region of 3q, which was undetectable with these probes. Investigation of this region with the subtelomeric FISH probe D3S1445/D3S1446 showed a balanced karyotype, 46,XX,t(3;15;6) (q29;q26.1;q26), inv der(15) (q15.1q26.1) in two adult females and one fetus. It was unbalanced in two sibs, showing two different types of unbalanced translocation resulting in partial trisomy 3q in combination with partial monosomy 6q in one patient and partial trisomy 15q with partial monosomy 6q in the other patient and one fetus. These represent apparently new chromosomal phenotypes. Images PMID:9678698

  9. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 6 and 20 in a woman with recurrent spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Guediche, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Nouchy, Marc; Lecerf, Laure; Cornet, Dominique; Brisset, Sophie; Goossens, Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we describe a case of multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) presenting with recurrent abortions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of a young, healthy and non-consanguineous couple who asked for genetic evaluation after two spontaneous miscarriages were obtained for karyotypes. Lymphocytes of the woman were analyzed by FISH techniques and DNA was extracted and used for array CGH investigation. Karyotyping revealed 48,XX,+2mar[24]/47,XX,+mar[5]/46,XX[3] for the woman and 46,XY for her husband. FISH analysis showed that the two sSMC consisted of chromosomes 6 and 20. Array CGH analysis showed gains of the 6p11.2q12 (9 Mb) and 20 p11.21 (3.3 Mb) chromosomal regions with a total of 42 genes present on both sSMC. Our findings support also the hypothesis that the modification of the expression of some genes involved in embryo implantation, like THBD gene, could be responsible in the recurrent abortions. This report underpins the necessity of array CGH for characterizing precisely sSMC and helping in genotype-phenotype correlations. Furthermore, a literature review on sSMC is included. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Constitutive heterochromatin polymorphisms in human chromosomes identified by whole comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Dávila-Rodríguez, M.I.; Cortés Gutiérrez, E.I.; Cerda Flores, R.M.; Pita, M.; Fernández, J.L.; López-Fernández, C.; Gosálvez, J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole comparative genomic hybridization (W-CGH) is a new technique that reveals cryptic differences in highly repetitive DNA sequences, when different genomes are compared using metaphase or interphase chromosomes. W-CGH provides a quick approach to identify differential expansion of these DNA sequences at the single-chromosome level in the whole genome. In this study, we have determined the frequency of constitutive chromatin polymorphisms in the centromeric regions of human chromosomes using a whole-genome in situ cross-hybridization method to compare the whole genome of five different unrelated individuals. Results showed that the pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 6 exhibited a high incidence of polymorphisms in repetitive DNA families located in pericentromeric regions. The constitutive heterochromatin of chromosomes 5 and 9 was also identified as highly polymorphic. Although further studies are necessary to corroborate and assess the overall incidence of these polymorphisms in human populations, the use of W-CGH could be pertinent and of clinical relevance to assess rapidly, from a chromosomal viewpoint, genome similarities and differences in closely related genomes such as those of relatives, or in more specific situations such as bone marrow transplantation where chimerism is produced in the recipient. PMID:22073375

  11. Array-CGH and clinical characterization in a patient with subtelomeric 6p deletion without ocular dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Maria; Antona, R; Salzano, E; Cavani, S; Malacarne, M; Morreale Bubella, R; Pierluigi, M; Viaggi, C D; Corsello, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Subtelomeric terminal 6p deletion has been recognized as a clinically identifiable syndrome including facial dysmorphism, malformation of the anterior eye chamber, hearing loss, heart defects, and developmental delay. Genotype-phenotype correlations of previously published patients have strongly suggested anterior eye segment anomalies as one of the major malformations of the syndrome if the critical 6p25 region contains the FOXC 1 gene. In addition, the presence in this region of one or more genes involved in hearing loss has been hypothesized. We report a patient with a 47,XYY karyotype and submicroscopic terminal 6p deletion. Further characterization of the deletion with array comparative genome hybridization also revealed a cryptic microduplication on chromosome 19. The patient showed dysmorphic features, neuromotor retardation, and profound language impairment, in absence of hearing loss and structural eye anomalies. As far as we know this is the first reported terminal 6p25.1 deletion case without eye dysgenesis precisely characterized by array-CGH. Our result suggests that the genes in this region may not be obvious candidates for hearing loss and demonstrate the need for further elucidation of the function of the genes involved in eye developmental processes.

  12. Copy-Number Variations Observed in a Japanese Population by BAC Array CGH: Summary of Relatively Rare CNVs

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Yasunari; Sasaki, Keiko; Shimoichi, Yuko; Sugita, Keiko; Katayama, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Copy-number variations (CNVs) may contribute to genetic variation in humans. Reports regarding existence and characteristics of CNVs in a large apparently healthy Japanese cohort are quite limited. We report the data from a screening of 213 unrelated Japanese individuals using comparative genomic hybridization based on a bacterial artificial chromosome microarray (BAC aCGH). In a previous paper, we summarized the data by focusing on highly polymorphic CNVs (in ≥5.0 % of the individuals). However, rare variations have recently received attention from scientists who espouse a hypothesis called “common disease and rare variants.” Here, we report CNVs identified in fewer than 10 individuals in our study population. We found a total of 126 CNVs at 52 different BAC regions in the genome. The CNVs observed at 27 of the 52 BAC-regions were found in only one unrelated individual. The majority of CNVs found in this study were not identified in the Japanese who were examined in the other studies. Family studies were conducted, and the results demonstrated that the CNVs were inherited from one parent in the families. PMID:22315515

  13. Unique Combination of 22q11 and 14qter Microdeletion Syndromes Detected Using Oligonucleotide Array-CGH

    PubMed Central

    Zrnová, E.; Vranová, V.; Šoukalová, J.; Slámová, I.; Vilémová, M.; Gaillyová, R.; Kuglík, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report an infant with a unique combination of 22q11 deletion syndrome and 14q terminal deletion syndrome. The proband had clinical symptoms compatible with diagnosis of 22q11 deletion syndrome: microcephaly, micrognathia, high-arched palate, hypertelorism, short palpebral fissures, square nasal root, prominent tubular nose, hypoplastic nasal alae, bulbous nasal tip, dysplastic low-set ears, short philtrum, and heart defect, but no cell-mediated immunodeficiency typical for the syndrome. G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed a karyotype 45,XY,der(14)t(14;22)(q32.3;q11.2),-22.ish del(14)(q32.33)(D14S1420-),del(22)(q11.2q11.2)(N25-). Subsequent analyses disclosed a translocation between chromosomes 14 and 22 in the proband's mother with a deleted 14q telomere. Using comparative genome hybridization on oligonucleotide-based microarray (array-CGH), the deletion at 22q11.21 in the size of ∼4.25 Mb was revealed in the proband as well as the deletion of the telomeric area at 14q32.33qter (∼3.24 Mb) in the proband and his mother. However, both the proband and his mother showed mild symptoms (microcephaly, thin lips, carp-shaped mouth) typical for patients with the described terminal 14q deletion syndrome. PMID:22511897

  14. High-Throughput Screening for Spermatogenesis Candidate Genes in the AZFc Region of the Y Chromosome by Multiplex Real Time PCR Followed by High Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alechine, Evguenia; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microdeletions in the AZF region of the Y chromosome are among the most frequent genetic causes of male infertility, although the specific role of the genes located in this region is not fully understood. AZFa and AZFb deletions impair spermatogenesis since no spermatozoa are found in the testis. Deletions of the AZFc region, despite being the most frequent in azoospermic patients, do not correlate with spermatogenic failure. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a screening method to ascertain the presence of the main spermatogenesis candidate genes located in the AZFc region in the light of the identification of those responsible for spermatogenic failure. DAZ, CDY, BPY2, PRY, GOLGA2LY and CSGP4LY genes were selected on the basis of their location in the AZFc region, testis-only expression, and confirmed or predicted protein codification. AMEL and SRY were used as amplification controls. The identification of Real Time PCR products was performed by High Resolution Melting analysis with SYTO 9 as intercalating dye. The herein described method allows a rapid, simple, low-cost, high-throughput screening for deletions of the main AZFc genes in patients with spermatogenic failure. This provides a strategy that would accelerate the identification of spermatogenesis candidate genes in larger populations of patients with non-obstructive idiopathic azoospermia. PMID:24828879

  15. High-throughput screening for spermatogenesis candidate genes in the AZFc region of the Y chromosome by multiplex real time PCR followed by high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Alechine, Evguenia; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microdeletions in the AZF region of the Y chromosome are among the most frequent genetic causes of male infertility, although the specific role of the genes located in this region is not fully understood. AZFa and AZFb deletions impair spermatogenesis since no spermatozoa are found in the testis. Deletions of the AZFc region, despite being the most frequent in azoospermic patients, do not correlate with spermatogenic failure. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a screening method to ascertain the presence of the main spermatogenesis candidate genes located in the AZFc region in the light of the identification of those responsible for spermatogenic failure. DAZ, CDY, BPY2, PRY, GOLGA2LY and CSGP4LY genes were selected on the basis of their location in the AZFc region, testis-only expression, and confirmed or predicted protein codification. AMEL and SRY were used as amplification controls. The identification of Real Time PCR products was performed by High Resolution Melting analysis with SYTO 9 as intercalating dye. The herein described method allows a rapid, simple, low-cost, high-throughput screening for deletions of the main AZFc genes in patients with spermatogenic failure. This provides a strategy that would accelerate the identification of spermatogenesis candidate genes in larger populations of patients with non-obstructive idiopathic azoospermia.

  16. A highly conserved pericentromeric domain in human and gorilla chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pita, M; Gosálvez, J; Gosálvez, A; Nieddu, M; López-Fernández, C; Mezzanotte, R

    2009-01-01

    Significant similarity between human and gorilla genomes has been found in all chromosome arms, but not in centromeres, using whole-comparative genomic hybridization (W-CGH). In human chromosomes, centromeric regions, generally containing highly repetitive DNAs, are characterized by the presence of specific human DNA sequences and an absence of homology with gorilla DNA sequences. The only exception is the pericentromeric area of human chromosome 9, which, in addition to a large block of human DNA, also contains a region of homology with gorilla DNA sequences; the localization of these sequences coincides with that of human satellite III. Since highly repetitive DNAs are known for their high mutation frequency, we hypothesized that the chromosome 9 pericentromeric DNA conserved in human chromosomes and deriving from the gorilla genome may thus play some important functional role.

  17. Purification, partial characterization, and heterologous radioimmunoassay of growth hormone (cGH) in red deer.

    PubMed

    Curlewis, J D; Loudon, A S; McNeilly, A S

    1992-10-01

    Red deer growth hormone (cGH; 3.3 mg) was purified from an aqueous extract of seven pituitary glands (4.01 g wet weight) by preparative gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 SF, and anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Purified cGH gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight under reducing conditions of 20,000 Da and gave a single peak on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid determination of 42 residues gave a sequence identical with those published for bovine and ovine GH. In a radioreceptor assay based on binding of iodinated recombinant bovine GH (rbGH) to liver microsomes prepared from a pregnant ewe, cGH was equipotent with an ovine GH (oGH) standard. In an oGH radioimmunoassay, cGH diluted in parallel with oGH and rbGH. Using this assay plasma GH concentrations were determined in adult nonpregnant red deer hinds over a 12-month period. There was a significant seasonality in plasma GH concentrations with concentrations consistently low between mid-May and mid-September. This is the period when voluntary food intake and liveweight gain are greatest. It is suggested that in the presence of low plasma GH concentrations nutrients may be diverted toward lipogenesis and hence promote fat deposition.

  18. Phenotype in patients with intellectual disability and pathological results in array CGH.

    PubMed

    Caballero Pérez, V; López Pisón, F J; Miramar Gallart, M D; González Álvarez, A; García Jiménez, M C; García Iñiguez, J P; Orden Rueda, C; Gil Hernández, I; Fuertes Rodrigo, C; Fernando Martínez, R; Rodríguez Valle, A; Alcaine Villarroya, M J

    2016-05-06

    Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) are frequent reasons for consultation in paediatric neurology departments. Nowadays, array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) is one of the most widely used techniques for diagnosing these disorders. Our purpose was to determine the phenotypic features associated with pathological results in this genetic test. We conducted a blind study of the epidemiological, clinical, anthropometric, and morphological features of 80 patients with unexplained ID to determine which features were associated with pathological results in array-CGH. Pathological results were found in 27.5% of the patients. Factors associated with pathological results in array-CGH were a family history of GDD/ID (OR = 12.1), congenital malformations (OR = 5.33), having more than 3 facial dysmorphic features (OR = 20.9), and hypotonia (OR = 3.25). Our findings are consistent with those reported by other published series. We therefore conclude that the probability of having pathological results in array-CGH increases with the presence of any of the features mentioned above in patients with ID/GDD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Further delineation of novel 1p36 rearrangements by array-CGH analysis: narrowing the breakpoints and clarifying the "extended" phenotype.

    PubMed

    Giannikou, Krinio; Fryssira, Helen; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Syrmou, Areti; Kosma, Konstantina; Tzetis, Maria; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia; Kanavakis, Emmanouel

    2012-09-15

    High resolution oligonucleotide array Comparative Genome Hybridization technology (array-CGH) has greatly assisted the recognition of the 1p36 contiguous gene deletion syndrome. The 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered to be one of the most common subtelomeric microdeletion syndromes and has an incidence of ~1 in 5000 live births, while respectively the "pure" 1p36 microduplication has not been reported so far. We present seven new patients who were referred for genetic evaluation due to Developmental Delay (DD), Mental Retardation (MR), and distinct dysmorphic features. They all had a wide phenotypic spectrum. In all cases previous standard karyotypes were negative. Array-CGH analysis revealed five patients with interstitial 1p36 microdeletion (four de novo and one maternal) and two patients with de novo reciprocal duplication of different sizes. These were the first reported "pure" 1p36 microduplication cases so far. Three of our patients carrying the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome were also found to have additional pathogenetic aberrations. These findings (del 3q27.1; del 4q21.22-q22.1; del 16p13.3; dup 21q21.2-q21.3; del Xp22.12) might contribute to the patients' severe phenotype, acting as additional modifiers of their clinical manifestations. We review and compare the clinical and array-CGH findings of our patients to previously reported cases with the aim of clearly delineating more accurate genotype-phenotype correlations for the 1p36 syndrome that could allow for a more precise prognosis.

  20. Marker chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  1. Recombination and chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, David J; Søballe, Britta; Barre, François-Xavier; Filipe, Sergio; Lau, Ivy; Massey, Thomas; Yates, James

    2004-01-01

    The duplication of DNA and faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes at cell division is frequently dependent on recombinational processes. The rebuilding of broken or stalled replication forks is universally dependent on homologous recombination proteins. In bacteria with circular chromosomes, crossing over by homologous recombination can generate dimeric chromosomes, which cannot be segregated to daughter cells unless they are converted to monomers before cell division by the conserved Xer site-specific recombination system. Dimer resolution also requires FtsK, a division septum-located protein, which coordinates chromosome segregation with cell division, and uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to activate the dimer resolution reaction. FtsK can also translocate DNA, facilitate synapsis of sister chromosomes and minimize entanglement and catenation of newly replicated sister chromosomes. The visualization of the replication/recombination-associated proteins, RecQ and RarA, and specific genes within living Escherichia coli cells, reveals further aspects of the processes that link replication with recombination, chromosome segregation and cell division, and provides new insight into how these may be coordinated. PMID:15065657

  2. Comparison of cytogenetics and molecular karyotyping for chromosome testing of miscarriage specimens.

    PubMed

    Shah, Meera Sridhar; Cinnioglu, Cengiz; Maisenbacher, Melissa; Comstock, Ioanna; Kort, Jonathan; Lathi, Ruth Bunker

    2017-04-01

    To compare chromosome testing of miscarriage specimens between traditional cytogenetic analysis and molecular karyotyping using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays (SNP) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Prospective blinded cohort study. University-based practice. Women undergoing dilation and curettage for first-trimester miscarriage between March 2014 and December 2015. None. Chromosome analysis from chorionic villi separated equally and submitted for cytogenetics, SNP microarray, and aCGH testing. Sixty samples were analyzed, of which 47 (78%) were chromosomally abnormal. A correct call was defined when a result was concordant with at least one other testing platform. The correct call rate was 85%, 93%, and 85% using cytogenetics, SNP array, and aCGH, respectively. We found a 33% overall discordance rate between results. Discordances were due to maternal cell contamination, balanced chromosome rearrangements, polyploidy, and placental mosaicism. Mosaicism was detected in 18% of all samples. Growth failure occurred in four samples sent to cytogenetics, of which three were chromosomally abnormal by molecular testing. This study demonstrates the many technical limitations of the three testing modalities. Our rates of maternal cell contamination were low, but it is important to note that this is a commonly reported limitation of cytogenetics. Given the similar overall performance of the three testing modalities, providers may choose a method based on individual availability and consideration of limitations as it applies to each clinical scenario. The unexpected high rate of placental mosaicism warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and validation of a pericentromeric BAC clone set aimed at improving diagnosis and phenotype prediction of supernumerary marker chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) are additional, structurally abnormal chromosomes, generally smaller than chromosome 20 of the same metaphase spread. Due to their small size, they are difficult to characterize by conventional cytogenetics alone. In regard to their clinical effects, sSMCs are a heterogeneous group: in particular, sSMCs containing pericentromeric euchromatin are likely to be associated with abnormal outcomes, although exceptions have been reported. To improve characterization of the genetic content of sSMCs, several approaches might be applied based on different molecular and molecular-cytogenetic assays, e.g., fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). To provide a complementary tool for the characterization of sSMCs, we constructed and validated a new, FISH-based, pericentromeric Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone set that with a high resolution spans the most proximal euchromatic sequences of all human chromosome arms, excluding the acrocentric short arms. Results By FISH analysis, we assayed 561 pericentromeric BAC probes and excluded 75 that showed a wrong chromosomal localization. The remaining 486 probes were used to establish 43 BAC-based pericentromeric panels. Each panel consists of a core, which with a high resolution covers the most proximal euchromatic ~0.7 Mb (on average) of each chromosome arm and generally bridges the heterochromatin/euchromatin junction, as well as clones located proximally and distally to the core. The pericentromeric clone set was subsequently validated by the characterization of 19 sSMCs. Using the core probes, we could rapidly distinguish between heterochromatic (1/19) and euchromatic (11/19) sSMCs, and estimate the euchromatic DNA content, which ranged from approximately 0.13 to more than 10 Mb. The characterization was not completed for seven sSMCs due to a

  4. Genomic Aberrations in an African American Colorectal Cancer Cohort Reveals a MSI-Specific Profile and Chromosome X Amplification in Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brim, Hassan; Lee, Edward; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Chaouchi, Mohamed; Razjouyan, Hadi; Namin, Hassanzadeh; Goel, Ajay; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Objective DNA aberrations that cause colorectal cancer (CRC) occur in multiple steps that involve microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability (CIN). Herein, we studied CRCs from AA patients for their CIN and MSI status. Experimental Design Array CGH was performed on 30 AA colon tumors. The MSI status was established. The CGH data from AA were compared to published lists of 41 TSG and oncogenes in Caucasians and 68 cancer genes, proposed via systematic sequencing for somatic mutations in colon and breast tumors. The patient-by-patient CGH profiles were organized into a maximum parsimony cladogram to give insights into the tumors' aberrations lineage. Results The CGH analysis revealed that CIN was independent of age, gender, stage or location. However, both the number and nature of aberrations seem to depend on the MSI status. MSI-H tumors clustered together in the cladogram. The chromosomes with the highest rates of CGH aberrations were 3, 5, 7, 8, 20 and X. Chromosome X was primarily amplified in male patients. A comparison with Caucasians revealed an overall similar aberration profile with few exceptions for the following genes; THRB, RAF1, LPL, DCC, XIST, PCNT, STS and genes on the 20q12-q13 cytoband. Among the 68 CAN genes, all showed some level of alteration in our cohort. Conclusion Chromosome X amplification in male patients with CRC merits follow-up. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs. The clustering of MSI-H tumors in global CGH data analysis suggests that chromosomal aberrations are not random. PMID:22879877

  5. Genomic aberrations in an African American colorectal cancer cohort reveals a MSI-specific profile and chromosome X amplification in male patients.

    PubMed

    Brim, Hassan; Lee, Edward; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Chaouchi, Mohamed; Razjouyan, Hadi; Namin, Hassanzadeh; Goel, Ajay; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    DNA aberrations that cause colorectal cancer (CRC) occur in multiple steps that involve microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability (CIN). Herein, we studied CRCs from AA patients for their CIN and MSI status. Array CGH was performed on 30 AA colon tumors. The MSI status was established. The CGH data from AA were compared to published lists of 41 TSG and oncogenes in Caucasians and 68 cancer genes, proposed via systematic sequencing for somatic mutations in colon and breast tumors. The patient-by-patient CGH profiles were organized into a maximum parsimony cladogram to give insights into the tumors' aberrations lineage. The CGH analysis revealed that CIN was independent of age, gender, stage or location. However, both the number and nature of aberrations seem to depend on the MSI status. MSI-H tumors clustered together in the cladogram. The chromosomes with the highest rates of CGH aberrations were 3, 5, 7, 8, 20 and X. Chromosome X was primarily amplified in male patients. A comparison with Caucasians revealed an overall similar aberration profile with few exceptions for the following genes; THRB, RAF1, LPL, DCC, XIST, PCNT, STS and genes on the 20q12-q13 cytoband. Among the 68 CAN genes, all showed some level of alteration in our cohort. Chromosome X amplification in male patients with CRC merits follow-up. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs. The clustering of MSI-H tumors in global CGH data analysis suggests that chromosomal aberrations are not random.

  6. Three tumor-suppressor regions on chromosome 11p identified by high-resolution deletion mapping in human non-small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bepler, G.; Garcia-Blanco, A. )

    1994-06-07

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for men and women in the industrialized nations. Identification of regions for genes involved in its pathogenesis has been difficult. Data presented here show three distinct regions identified on chromosome 11p. Two regions on 11p13 distal to the Wilms tumor gene WT1 and on 11p15.5 between the markers HBB and D11S860 are described. The third region on the telomere of 11p15.5 has been previously described and is further delineated in this communication. By high-resolution mapping the size of each of these regions was estimated to be 2-3 megabases. The frequency of somatic loss of genetic information in these regions (57%, 71%, and 45%, respectively) was comparable to that seen in heritable tumors such as Wilms tumor (55%) and retinoblastoma (70%) and suggests their involvement in pathogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer. Gene dosage analyses revealed duplication of the remaining allele in the majority of cases in the 11p13 and the proximal 11p15.5 region but rarely in the distal 11p15.5 region. In tumors with loss of heterozygosity in all three regions any combination of duplication or simple deletion was observed, suggesting that loss of heterozygosity occurs independently and perhaps at different points in time. These results provide a basis for studies directed at cloning potential tumor-suppressor genes in these regions and for assessing their biological and clinical significance in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  7. Influence of radiation quality on mouse chromosome 2 deletions in radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Manning, Grainne; Bouffler, Simon; Badie, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Leukaemia is the prevailing neoplastic disorder of the hematopoietic system. Epidemiological analyses of the survivors of the Japanese atomic bombings show that exposure to ionising radiation (IR) can cause leukaemia. Although a clear association between radiation exposure and leukaemia development is acknowledged, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. A hemizygous deletion on mouse chromosome 2 (del2) is a common feature in several mouse strains susceptible to radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML). The deletion is an early event detectable 24h after exposure in bone marrow cells. Ultimately, 15-25% of exposed animals develop AML with 80-90% of cases carrying del2. Molecular mapping of leukaemic cell genomes identified a minimal deleted region (MDR) on chromosome 2 (chr2) in which a tumour suppressor gene, Sfpi1 is located, encoding the transcription factor PU.1, essential in haematopoiesis. The remaining copy of Sfpi1 has a point mutation in the coding sequence for the DNA-binding domain of the protein in 70% of rAML, which alters a single CpG sequence in the codon for arginine residue R235. In order to identify chr2 deletions and Sfpi.1/PU.1 loss, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a unique panel of 79rAMLs. Using a custom made CGH array specifically designed for mouse chr2, we analysed at unprecedentedly high resolution (1.4M array- 148bp resolution) the size of the MDR in low LET and high-LET induced rAMLs (32 X-ray- and 47 neutron-induced). Sequencing of Sfpi1/PU.1DNA binding domain identified the presence of R235 point mutations, showing no influence of radiation quality on R235 type or frequency. We identified for the first time rAML cases with complex del2 in a subset of neutron-induced AMLs. This study allowed us to re-define the MDR to a much smaller 5.5Mb region (still including Sfpi1/PU.1), identical regardless of radiation quality. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. High-resolution analysis of DNA copy number alterations in patients with isolated sporadic keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Hellani, Ali M.; Al Mansouri, Sameer M.; Kalantan, Hatem; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether patients with sporadic, non-familial keratoconus and no pathogenic mutations in the visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene have evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations. Methods Twenty Saudi Arabian patients with isolated keratoconus, no family history of the disease and no mutations in VSX1 were recruited. Additionally, 10 ethnically-matched healthy controls were also recruited for this study. We screened patients for chromosomal copy number aberrations using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 244A Oligo Microarray Chip. Results None of the keratoconus patients screened had evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations when compared to normal ethnically matched controls. Conclusions Chromosomal deletions and/or duplications were not detected in any of the patients tested here. Other chromosomal imbalances such as translocations, inversions, and some ploidies cannot be detected by current array CGH technology and other nuclear genetic or epigenetic factors cannot be excluded as a possible contributing factor to keratoconus pathogenesis. PMID:21528002

  9. High-resolution analysis of DNA copy number alterations in patients with isolated sporadic keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali M; Al Mansouri, Sameer M; Kalantan, Hatem; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M

    2011-03-30

    To determine whether patients with sporadic, non-familial keratoconus and no pathogenic mutations in the visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene have evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations. Twenty Saudi Arabian patients with isolated keratoconus, no family history of the disease and no mutations in VSX1 were recruited. Additionally, 10 ethnically-matched healthy controls were also recruited for this study. We screened patients for chromosomal copy number aberrations using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 244A Oligo Microarray Chip. None of the keratoconus patients screened had evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations when compared to normal ethnically matched controls. Chromosomal deletions and/or duplications were not detected in any of the patients tested here. Other chromosomal imbalances such as translocations, inversions, and some ploidies cannot be detected by current array CGH technology and other nuclear genetic or epigenetic factors cannot be excluded as a possible contributing factor to keratoconus pathogenesis.

  10. Improving molecular diagnosis of aniridia and WAGR syndrome using customized targeted array-based CGH

    PubMed Central

    Vallespín, Elena; Villaverde, Cristina; Martín-Arenas, Rubén; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Lorda-Sánchez, Isabel; Nevado, Julián; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Lapunzina, Pablo; Ayuso, Carmen; Corton, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions at 11p13 are a frequent cause of congenital Aniridia, a rare pan-ocular genetic disease, and of WAGR syndrome, accounting up to 30% of cases. First-tier genetic testing for newborn with aniridia, to detect 11p13 rearrangements, includes Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and karyotyping. However, neither of these approaches allow obtaining a complete picture of the high complexity of chromosomal deletions and breakpoints in aniridia. Here, we report the development and validation of a customized targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, so called WAGR-array, for comprehensive high-resolution analysis of CNV in the WAGR locus. Our approach increased the detection rate in a Spanish cohort of 38 patients with aniridia, WAGR syndrome and other related ocular malformations, allowing to characterize four undiagnosed aniridia cases, and to confirm MLPA findings in four additional patients. For all patients, breakpoints were accurately established and a contiguous deletion syndrome, involving a large number of genes, was identified in three patients. Moreover, we identified novel microdeletions affecting 3' PAX6 regulatory regions in three families with isolated aniridia. This tool represents a good strategy for the genetic diagnosis of aniridia and associated syndromes, allowing for a more accurate CNVs detection, as well as a better delineation of breakpoints. Our results underline the clinical importance of performing exhaustive and accurate analysis of chromosomal rearrangements for patients with aniridia, especially newborns and those without defects in PAX6 after diagnostic screening. PMID:28231309

  11. A prenatally ascertained de novo terminal deletion of chromosomal bands 1q43q44 associated with multiple congenital abnormalities in a female fetus.

    PubMed

    Sismani, Carolina; Christopoulou, Georgia; Alexandrou, Angelos; Evangelidou, Paola; Donoghue, Jacqueline; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E; Velissariou, Voula

    2015-01-01

    Terminal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 1 result in a postnatally recognizable disorder described as 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The size of the deletions and the resulting phenotype varies among patients. However, some features are common among patients as the chromosomal regions included in the deletions. In the present case, ultrasonography at 22 weeks of gestation revealed choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) and a single umbilical artery (SUA) and therefore amniocentesis was performed. Chromosomal analysis revealed a possible terminal deletion in 1q and high resolution array CGH confirmed the terminal 1q43q44 deletion and estimated the size to be approximately 8 Mb. Following termination of pregnancy, performance of fetopsy allowed further clinical characterization. We report here a prenatal case with the smallest pure terminal 1q43q44 deletion, that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized. In addition, to our knowledge this is the first prenatal case reported with 1q13q44 terminal deletion and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS). Our findings combined with review data from the literature show the complexity of the genetic basis of the associated syndrome.

  12. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  13. A Familial Cri-du-Chat/5p Deletion Syndrome Resulted from Rare Maternal Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements (CCRs) and/or Possible Chromosome 5p Chromothripsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ∼26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family. PMID:24143197

  14. Causes and estimated incidences of sex-chromosome misdiagnosis in preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Krithika; Guzman, Luis; Escudero, Tomas; Zheng, Xuezhong; Colls, Pere; Jordan, Amy; Cohen, Jacques; Wells, Dagan; Munné, Santiago

    2016-11-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy (PGD-A) with comprehensive chromosome analysis has been known to improve pregnancy outcomes. Accuracy in detecting sex chromosomes becomes important when selecting against embryos at risk for sex-linked disorders. A total of 21,356 PGD-A cycles consisting of day-3 (cleavage) or day-5 (blastocyst) biopsies were received at the same laboratory for PGD-A via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) from multiple fertility centres. The misdiagnosis rates were 0.12% (Wilson 95% CI 0.05 to 0.25%) in day-3 FISH cycles, 0.48% (Wilson 95% CI 0.19 to 1.22%) in day-3 aCGH cycles and 0.0% (Wilson 95% CI 0 to 0.26) in day-5 aCGH cycles. Although rare, the likely causative biological event for true misdiagnosis is embryonic XX/XY mosaicism. Reanalysis of 1219 abnormal cleavage-stage research embryos revealed a 73% incidence of minor and major mosaicism. Only four (0.3%) embryos were found to be diploid and contained XX and XY cells that could potentially account for the misdiagnosis of sex. Our investigation identified errors leading to misdiagnosis and their attribution to specific events during PGD-A testing. The reported misdiagnosis rates suggest that PGD-A for sex determination is highly accurate, particularly when using aCGH applied to blastocyst biopsies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. High-resolution mapping of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13, and localization of breakpoints in two Angelman syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnett, D.; Wagstaff, J.; Woolf, E. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Glatt, K. ); Kirkness, E.J. )Lalande, M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Boston, MA )

    1993-06-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels constituting the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. In order to determine the genomic organization of the GABA[sub A] receptor [beta]3 subunit gene (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 subunit gene (GABRA5) in chromosome 15q11-q13, the authors have constructed a high-resolution physical map using the combined techniques of field-inversion gel electrophoresis and phage genomic library screening. This map, which covers nearly 1.0 Mb, shows that GABRB3 and GABRA5 are separated by less than 100 kb and are arranged in a head-to-head configuration. GABRB3 encompasses approximately 250 kb, while GABRA5 is contained within 70 kb. This difference in size is due in large part to an intron of 150 kb within GABRB3. The authors have also identified seven putative CpG islands within a 600-kb interval. Chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints -- in one Angelman syndrome (AS) patient with an unbalanced translocation and in another patient with a submicroscopic deletion -- are located within the large GABRB3 intron. These findings will facilitate chromosomal walking strategies for cloning the regions disrupted by the DNA rearrangements in these AS patients and will be valuable for mapping new genes to the AS chromosomal region. 64 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Chromosomal imbalances in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Examination of 31 cell lines and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christa Lese; Reshmi, Shalini C.; Ried, Thomas; Gottberg, William; Wilson, John W.; Reddy, Jaya K.; Khanna, Poornima; Johnson, Jonas T.; Myers, Eugene N.; Gollin, Susanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Classical and molecular cytogenetic analysis, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), were used to examine genetic changes involved in the development and/or progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Of 31 OSCC cell lines studied, more than one-third expressed clonal structural abnormalities involving chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 9, and 11. Eleven OSCC cell lines were evaluated using CGH to identify novel genome-wide gains, losses, or amplifications. By CGH, more than half of the cell lines showed loss of 3p, gain of 3q, 8q, and 20q. Further, molecular cytogenetic analyses by FISH of primary tumors showed that the karyotypes of cell lines derived from those tumors correlated with specific gains and losses in the tumors from which they were derived. The most frequent nonrandom aberration identified by both karyotype and CGH analyses was amplification of chromosomal band 11q13 in the form of a homogeneously staining region. Our data suggest that loss of 9p and 11q13 amplification may be of prognostic benefit in the management of OSCC, which is consistent with the literature. The results of this study validate the relationship between these OSCC cell lines and the tumors from which they were derived. The results also emphasize the usefulness of these cell lines as in vitro experimental models and provide important genetic information on these OSCC cell lines that were recently reported in this journal. PMID:17681875

  17. Selection of competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening: a prospective study with sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in time-lapse monitoring in IVF treatment have provided new morphokinetic markers for embryonic competence. However, there is still very limited information about the relationship between morphokinetic parameters, chromosomal compositions and implantation potential. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effects of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing on pregnancy and implantation outcomes for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Methods A total of 1163 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved from 138 PGS patients at a mean age of 36.6 ± 2.4 years. These sibling MII oocytes were then randomized into two groups after ICSI: 1) Group A, oocytes (n = 582) were cultured in the time-lapse system and 2) Group B, oocytes (n = 581) were cultured in the conventional incubator. For both groups, whole genomic amplification and array CGH testing were performed after trophectoderm biopsy on day 5. One to two euploid blastocysts within the most predictive morphokinetic parameters (Group A) or with the best morphological grade available (Group B) were selected for transfer to individual patients on day 6. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between the two groups. Results There were significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates between Group A and Group B (71.1% vs. 45.9%, respectively, p = 0.037). The observed implantation rate per embryo transfer significantly increased in Group A compared to Group B (66.2% vs. 42.4%, respectively, p = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase in ongoing pregnancy rates was also observed in Group A compared to Group B (68.9% vs. 40.5%. respectively, p = 0.019). However, there was no significant difference in miscarriage rate between the time-lapse system and the conventional incubator (3.1% vs. 11.8%, respectively, p = 0.273). Conclusions This is the first prospective investigation using

  18. Screening of 50 cypriot patients with autism spectrum disorders or autistic features using 400K custom array-CGH.

    PubMed

    Kousoulidou, Ludmila; Moutafi, Maria; Nicolaides, Paola; Hadjiloizou, Stavros; Christofi, Christos; Paradesiotou, Anna; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina; Patsalis, Philippos C

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a distinct entity of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Despite the identification of several candidate genes and causative genomic copy number variations (CNVs), the majority of ASD cases still remain unresolved. We have applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) using Agilent 400K custom array in the first Cyprus population screening for identification of ASD-associated CNVs. A cohort of 50 ASD patients (G1), their parents (G2), 50 ethnically matched normal controls (G3), and 80 normal individuals having children with various developmental and neurological conditions (G4) were tested. As a result, 14 patients were found to carry 20 potentially causative aberrations, two of which were de novo. Comparison of the four population groups revealed an increased rate of rare disease-associated variants in normal parents of children with autism. The above data provided additional evidence, supporting the complexity of ASD aetiology in comparison to other developmental disorders involving cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the rationale of a more targeted approach combining accurate clinical description with high-resolution population-oriented genomic screening for defining the role of CNVs in autism and identifying meaningful associations on the molecular level.

  19. Three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy of the inactive X chromosome territory reveals a collapse of its active nuclear compartment harboring distinct Xist RNA foci.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Daniel; Markaki, Yolanda; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Tattermusch, Anna; Cerase, Andrea; Sterr, Michael; Fiedler, Susanne; Demmerle, Justin; Popken, Jens; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Brockdorff, Neil; Cremer, Thomas; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Marion

    2014-01-01

    A Xist RNA decorated Barr body is the structural hallmark of the compacted inactive X territory in female mammals. Using super-resolution three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and quantitative image analysis, we compared its ultrastructure with active chromosome territories (CTs) in human and mouse somatic cells, and explored the spatio-temporal process of Barr body formation at onset of inactivation in early differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We demonstrate that all CTs are composed of structurally linked chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). In active CTs the periphery of CDCs harbors low-density chromatin enriched with transcriptionally competent markers, called the perichromatin region (PR). The PR borders on a contiguous channel system, the interchromatin compartment (IC), which starts at nuclear pores and pervades CTs. We propose that the PR and macromolecular complexes in IC channels together form the transcriptionally permissive active nuclear compartment (ANC). The Barr body differs from active CTs by a partially collapsed ANC with CDCs coming significantly closer together, although a rudimentary IC channel system connected to nuclear pores is maintained. Distinct Xist RNA foci, closely adjacent to the nuclear matrix scaffold attachment factor-A (SAF-A) localize throughout Xi along the rudimentary ANC. In early differentiating ESCs initial Xist RNA spreading precedes Barr body formation, which occurs concurrent with the subsequent exclusion of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Induction of a transgenic autosomal Xist RNA in a male ESC triggers the formation of an 'autosomal Barr body' with less compacted chromatin and incomplete RNAP II exclusion. 3D-SIM provides experimental evidence for profound differences between the functional architecture of transcriptionally active CTs and the Barr body. Basic structural features of CT organization such as CDCs and IC channels are however still recognized, arguing against a uniform

  20. Three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy of the inactive X chromosome territory reveals a collapse of its active nuclear compartment harboring distinct Xist RNA foci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A Xist RNA decorated Barr body is the structural hallmark of the compacted inactive X territory in female mammals. Using super-resolution three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and quantitative image analysis, we compared its ultrastructure with active chromosome territories (CTs) in human and mouse somatic cells, and explored the spatio-temporal process of Barr body formation at onset of inactivation in early differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Results We demonstrate that all CTs are composed of structurally linked chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). In active CTs the periphery of CDCs harbors low-density chromatin enriched with transcriptionally competent markers, called the perichromatin region (PR). The PR borders on a contiguous channel system, the interchromatin compartment (IC), which starts at nuclear pores and pervades CTs. We propose that the PR and macromolecular complexes in IC channels together form the transcriptionally permissive active nuclear compartment (ANC). The Barr body differs from active CTs by a partially collapsed ANC with CDCs coming significantly closer together, although a rudimentary IC channel system connected to nuclear pores is maintained. Distinct Xist RNA foci, closely adjacent to the nuclear matrix scaffold attachment factor-A (SAF-A) localize throughout Xi along the rudimentary ANC. In early differentiating ESCs initial Xist RNA spreading precedes Barr body formation, which occurs concurrent with the subsequent exclusion of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Induction of a transgenic autosomal Xist RNA in a male ESC triggers the formation of an ‘autosomal Barr body’ with less compacted chromatin and incomplete RNAP II exclusion. Conclusions 3D-SIM provides experimental evidence for profound differences between the functional architecture of transcriptionally active CTs and the Barr body. Basic structural features of CT organization such as CDCs and IC channels are however still

  1. Multisample aCGH Data Analysis via Total Variation and Spectral Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Zhao, Hongyu; Yu, Weichuan

    2013-01-01

    DNA copy number variation (CNV) accounts for a large proportion of genetic variation. One commonly used approach to detecting CNVs is array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Although many methods have been proposed to analyze aCGH data, it is not clear how to combine information from multiple samples to improve CNV detection. In this paper, we propose to use a matrix to approximate the multisample aCGH data and minimize the total variation of each sample as well as the nuclear norm of the whole matrix. In this way, we can make use of the smoothness property of each sample and the correlation among multiple samples simultaneously in a convex optimization framework. We also developed an efficient and scalable algorithm to handle large-scale data. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques under a wide range of scenarios and it is capable of processing large data sets with millions of probes. PMID:23702561

  2. An application of CART algorithm in genetics: IGFs and cGH polymorphisms in Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Selçuk

    2017-04-01

    The avian insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGFs) and avian growth hormone (cGH) genes are the most important genes that can affect bird performance traits because of its important function in growth and metabolism. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of variation in growth-related traits is of importance for continued improvement and increased rates of genetic gain. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of cGH and IGFs genes in Japanese quail using conventional least square method (LSM) and CART algorithm. Therefore, this study was aimed to demonstrate at determining the polymorphisms of two genes related growth characteristics via CART algorithm. A simulated data set was generated to analyze by adhering the results of some poultry genetic studies which it includes live weights at 5 weeks of age, 3 alleles and 6 genotypes of cGH and 2 alleles and 3 genotypes of IGFs. As a result, it has been determined that the CART algorithm has some advantages as for that LSM.

  3. Genomic CGH-assessed structural DNA alterations in rectal carcinoma as related to local recurrence following primary operation for cure.

    PubMed

    Kodeda, K; Asting, A Gustafsson; Lönnroth, C; Derwinger, K; Wettergren, Y; Nordgren, S; Gustavsson, B; Lundholm, K

    2012-10-01

    Several factors determine overall outcome and possible local recurrence after curative surgery for rectal carcinoma. Surgical performance is usually believed to be the most pertinent factor, followed by adjuvant oncological treatment and tumor histopathology. However, chromosomal instability is common in colorectal cancer and tumor clones are assumed to differ in aggressiveness and potential of causing local recurrence. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate if genetic alterations in primary rectal carcinoma are predictive of local recurrences. A large clinical database with linked bio-bank allowed for careful matching of two patient groups (R0) resected for rectal carcinoma. One group had developed early, isolated local recurrences and the other group seemed cured after 93 months follow-up. DNA from the primary tumors was analysed with array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) including 55,000 genomic probes. DNA from all primary tumors in both groups displayed previously reported and well-recognised DNA aberrations in colorectal carcinoma. Significant copy number gains were confirmed in the 4q31.1-31.22 region in DNA from tumors with subsequent local recurrence. Twenty-two affected genes in this region code for products with high relevance in tumor biology (p53 regulation, cell cycle activity, transcription). DNA from rectal carcinoma displayed well-known aberrations as described for colon carcinoma with no obvious prediction of local rectal recurrence. Gains in the 4q31.1-31.22 DNA region are highly potential for local recurrence despite R0 resection to be confirmed in larger patient materials.

  4. Exome Sequencing of Germline DNA from Non-BRCA1/2 Familial Breast Cancer Cases Selected on the Basis of aCGH Tumor Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Hilbers, Florentine S.; Meijers, Caro M.; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; van Galen, Michiel; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of familial breast cancer risk (∼70%) cannot be explained by mutations in the known predisposition genes, primarily BRCA1 and BRCA2. Underlying genetic heterogeneity in these cases is the probable explanation for the failure of all attempts to identify further high-risk alleles. While exome sequencing of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases is a promising strategy to detect new high-risk genes, rational approaches to the rigorous pre-selection of cases are needed to reduce heterogeneity. We selected six families in which the tumours of multiple cases showed a specific genomic profile on array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Linkage analysis in these families revealed a region on chromosome 4 with a LOD score of 2.49 under homogeneity. We then analysed the germline DNA of two patients from each family using exome sequencing. Initially focusing on the linkage region, no potentially pathogenic variants could be identified in more than one family. Variants outside the linkage region were then analysed, and we detected multiple possibly pathogenic variants in genes that encode DNA integrity maintenance proteins. However, further analysis led to the rejection of all variants due to poor co-segregation or a relatively high allele frequency in a control population. We concluded that using CGH results to focus on a sub-set of families for sequencing analysis did not enable us to identify a common genetic change responsible for the aggregation of breast cancer in these families. Our data also support the emerging view that non-BRCA1/2 hereditary breast cancer families have a very heterogeneous genetic basis. PMID:23383274

  5. Zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to detect germline rearrangements in cancer susceptibility genes.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Johan; Borg, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Disease predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements, including deletions or duplications that are challenging, to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Such rearrangements range from single exons up to hundreds of kilobases of sequence in size. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has evolved as a powerful technique to detect copy number alterations on a genome-wide scale. However, the conventional genome-wide approach of aCGH still provides only limited information about copy number status for individual exons. Custom-designed aCGH arrays focused on only a few target regions (zoom-in aCGH) may circumvent this drawback. Benefits of zoom-in aCGH include the possibility to target almost any region in the genome, and an unbiased coverage of exonic and intronic sequence facilitating convenient design of primers for sequence determination of the breakpoints. Furthermore, zoom-in aCGH can be streamlined for a particular application, for example, focusing on breast cancer susceptibility genes, with increased capacity using multiformat design.

  6. Comparative genomic hybridization and karyotyping of human embryonic stem cells reveals the occurrence of an isodicentric X chromosome after long-term cultivation.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, J; Sahlén, S; Holmberg, K; Strömberg, A-M; Teerijoki, H; Blennow, E; Hovatta, O; Malmgren, H

    2004-06-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are important research tools in studies of the physiology of early tissue differentiation. In addition, prospects are high regarding the use of these cells for successful cell transplantation. However, one concern has been that cultivation of these cells over many passages might induce chromosomal changes. It is thus important to investigate these cell lines, and check that a normal chromosomal content is retained even during long-term in vitro culture. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to analyse three hES cell lines derived in our laboratory and cultured continuously for 30-42 weeks, comprising 35-39 cell passages. CGH could be successfully performed in 48 out of a total of 50 isolated single cells (96%). All three lines (HS181, HS235 and HS237) were shown to have a normal chromosomal content when analysed by both single cell CGH and by karyotyping up to passages 39, 39 and 35 respectively. No aneuploidies or larger deletions or amplifications were detected, and they were female (46,XX). However, HS237 was reanalysed at passage 61, and at that point an aberrant X chromosome was detected by karyotyping. The aberration was confirmed and characterized by single cell CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, 46,X,idic(X)(q21). Thus, chromosomal aberrations may occur over time in stem cell lines, and continuous analysis of these cells during cultivation is crucial. Single cell CGH is a method that can be used for continuous analysis of the hES cell lines during cultivation, in order to detect chromosome imbalance.

  7. Genetic investigations on 8 patients affected by ring 20 chromosome syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosaic Chromosome 20 ring [r(20)] is a chromosomal disorder associated with a rare syndrome characterized by a typical seizure phenotype, a particular electroclinical pattern, cognitive impairment, behavioural problems and absence of a consistent pattern of dysmorphology. The pathogenic mechanism underlying seizures disorders in r(20) syndrome is still unknown. We performed a detailed clinical and genetic study on 8 patients with r(20) chromosome, aimed at detecting the genetic mechanism underlying r(20) syndrome. Methods We submitted 8 subjects with a previous diagnosis of ring 20 chromosome mosaicism to a clinical re-evaluation, followed by cytogenetic, FISH, array-CGH and molecular analyses. The genetic study was also extended to their available parents. Results FISH and array-CGH experiments indicate that cryptic deletions on chromosome 20 are not the cause of the r(20) chromosome associated disease. Moreover, no evidence of chromosome 20 uniparental disomy was found. Analysis of FISH signals given by variant in size alphoid tandem repeats probes on the normal chromosome 20 and the r(20) chromosome in the mosaic carriers suggests that the r(20) chromosome is the same chromosome not circularized in the "normal" cell line. Conclusions Higher percentages of r(20) chromosome cells were observed to be related with precocious age at seizure onset and with resistance to antiepileptic drug treatment. Behavioural problems also seem to be associated with higher percentages of r(20) chromosome cells. Our results suggest that an epigenetic mechanism perturbing the expression of genes close to the telomeric regions, rather than deletion of genes located at the distal 20p and/or 20q regions, may underlie the manifestation of r(20) syndrome. PMID:20939888

  8. DNA profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor tissue cell in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Baik, Seung-Ho; Jee, Bo-Keun; Choi, Jin-Soo; Yoon, Hyoung-Kyu; Lee, Kweon-Haeng; Kim, Yeul-Hong; Lim, Young

    2009-09-01

    Lung tumor cell DNA copy number alteration (CNA) was expected to display specific patterns such as a large-scale amplification or deletion of chromosomal arms, as previously published data have reported. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) CNA however, was expected to show normal variations in cancer patients as well as healthy individuals, and has thus been used as normal control DNA samples in various published studies. We performed array CGH to measure and compare genetic changes in terms of the CNA of PBMC samples as well as DNA isolated from tumor tissue samples, obtained from 24 non-small cell lung cancer patients. Contradictory to expectations, our studies showed that the PBMC CNA also showed chromosomal variant regions. The list included well-known tumor-associated NTRK1, FGF8, TP53, and TGFbeta1 genes and potentially novel oncogenes such as THPO (3q27.1), JMJD1B, and EGR1 (5q31.2), which was investigated in this study. The results of this study highlighted the connection between PBMC and tumor cell genomic DNA in lung cancer patients. However, the application of these studies to cancer prognosis may pose a challenge due to the large amount of information contained in genetic predisposition and family history that has to be processed for useful downstream clinical applications.

  9. Array-CGH predicts prognosis in plasma cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Kaltenbach, Sophie; Faurie, Pierre; Canioni, Danielle; Berger, Françoise; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Ghesquieres, Hervé; Salles, Gilles; Bachy, Emmanuel; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Hermine, Olivier; Neven, Bénédicte; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Romana, Serge; Molina, Thierry Jo; Suarez, Felipe; Asnafi, Vahid; Bruneau, Julie

    2017-03-01

    Plasma-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PC-PTLD) is a rare monomorphic PTLD entity divided into plasma cell myeloma (PCM) and plasmacytoma-like lesion (PLL) PTLD. To date, there are no exhaustive published cytogenetic data on PC-PTLD. We report array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of 10 cases of PCM and PLL-PTLD. Patients had received kidney (n = 6), heart (n = 2), lung (n = 1) or bone marrow (n = 1) transplantation. There were six men and median age at time of PTLD was 56.5 years (3-74). We identified two different cytological features, plasmacytic and plasmablastic, among six PLL and three PCM PTLD. Eight cases were associated with EBV. First line treatment was heterogeneous: rituximab alone (n = 5), CHOP-like (n = 3) and multiple myeloma-like (n = 1). One patient died before any treatment. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months (0-150), five patients died (four from PTLD) and five were alive without evidence of disease. By aCGH, 5/10 demonstrated a complex profile. The most frequent abnormalities were +7q (5/10), +16q (5/10), +17q (5/10), +17p (4/10), +5q (4/10), t7 (4/10), t9 (3/10), del1p (3/10). No del17p13 (TP53) were observed. Del1p32.3 (CDKN2C) was observed in 2 cases. On univariate prognostic analysis, a complex aCGH was associated with a shorter OS. Thus, cytogenetic abnormalities seem to be closely related to those reported in multiple myeloma or diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Complex aCGH constitutes an unfavorable prognostic marker and aCGH should be integrated in the evaluation of patients with PLL/PCM-PTLD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ring chromosome 18 in combination with 18q12.1 (DTNA) interstitial microdeletion in a patient with multiple congenital defects.

    PubMed

    Zlotina, Anna; Nikulina, Tatiana; Yany, Natalia; Moiseeva, Olga; Pervunina, Tatiana; Grekhov, Eugeny; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ring chromosome 18 [r(18)] syndrome represents a relatively rare condition with a complex clinical picture including multiple congenital dysmorphia and varying degrees of mental retardation. The condition is cytogenetically characterized by a complete or mosaic form of ring chromosome 18, with ring formation being usually accompanied by the partial loss of both chromosomal arms. Here we observed a 20-year-old male patient who along with the features typical for r(18) carriers additionally manifested a severe congenital subaortic stenosis. To define the genetic basis of such a compound phenotype, standard cytogenetic and high-resolution molecular-cytogenetic analysis of the patient was performed. Standard chromosome analysis of cultured lymphocytes confirmed 46, XY, r(18) karyotype. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) allowed to define precisely the breakpoints of 18p and 18q terminal deletions, thus identifying the hemizygosity extent, and to reveal an additional duplication adjoining the breakpoint of the 18p deletion. Apart from the terminal imbalances, we found an interstitial microdeletion of 442 kb in size (18q12.1) that encompassed DTNA gene encoding α-dystrobrevin, a member of dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. While limited data on the role of DTNA missense mutations in pathogenesis of human cardiac abnormalities exist, a microdeletion corresponding to whole DTNA sequence and not involving other genes has not been earlier described. A detailed molecular-cytogenetic characterization of the patient with multiple congenital abnormalities enabled to unravel a combination of genetic defects, namely, a ring chromosome 18 with terminal imbalances and DTNA whole-gene deletion. We suggest that such combination could contribute to the complex phenotype. The findings obtained allow to extend the knowledge of the role of DTNA haploinsufficiency in congenital heart malformation, though further comprehensive functional studies are

  11. Array CGH characterization of an unbalanced X-autosome translocation associated with Xq27.2-qter deletion, 11q24.3-qter duplication and Xq22.3-q27.1 duplication in a girl with primary amenorrhea and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Kuo, Yu-Ling; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shan; Wang, Wayseen

    2014-02-01

    We present array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) characterization of an unbalanced X-autosome translocation with an Xq interstitial segmental duplication in a 16-year-old girl with primary ovarian failure, mental retardation, attention deficit disorder, learning difficulty and facial dysmorphism. aCGH analysis revealed an Xq27.2-q28 deletion, an 11q24.3-q25 duplication, and an inverted duplication of Xq22.3-q27.1. The karyotype was 46,X,der(X)t(X;11)(q27.2;q24.3) dup(X)(q27.1q22.3). We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation in this case. Our case provides evidence for an association of primary amenorrhea and mental retardation with concomitant unbalanced X-autosome translocation and X chromosome rearrangement.

  12. [Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants].

    PubMed

    Muravenko, O V; Zelenin, A V

    2009-11-01

    An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and/or with low-informative C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea. To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on chromosomes and for artificial impairment of mitotic chromosome condensation with the use of a DNA intercalator, 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA). To estimate polymorphism of the patterns of C-banding of small chromosomes on preparations obtained with the use of 9-AMA, it is necessary to choose a length interval that must not exceed three average sizes of metaphase chromosomes without the intercalator. The use of 9-AMA increases the resolution of differential C- and OR-banding and the precision of physical chromosome mapping by the FISH method. Of particular importance in studying small chromosomes is optimization of the computer-aided methods used to obtain and process chromosome images. The complex approach developed for analysis of the chromosome organization in plant genomes was used to study the karyotypes of 24 species of the genus Linum L. It permitted their chromosomes to be identified for the first time, and, in addition, B chromosomes were discovered and studied in the karyotypes of the species of the section Syllinum. By similarity of the karyotypes, the studied flax species were distributed in eight groups in agreement with the clusterization of these species according to the results of RAPD analysis performed in parallel. Systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the studied flax species were verified. Out results can serve as an important argument in favour of the proposal to develop a special program for sequencing the genome of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), which is a major representative of small-chromosome species.

  13. A patient with Down syndrome with a de novo derivative chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Zafer; Yakut, Sezin; Mihci, Ercan; Manguoglu, Ayse Esra; Berker, Sibel; Keser, Ibrahim; Luleci, Guven

    2012-10-10

    Pure partial trisomy of chromosome 21 is a rare event. The patients with this aberration are very important for setting up precise karyotype-phenotype correlations particularly in Down syndrome phenotype. We present here a patient with Down syndrome with a de novo derivative chromosome 21. Karyotype of the patient was designated as 46,XY,der(21)(p13)dup(21)(q11.2q21.3)dup(21)(q22.2q22.3) with regard to cytogenetic, FISH and array-CGH analyses. Non-continuous monosomic, disomic and trisomic chromosomal segments through the derivative chromosome 21 were detected by array-CGH analysis. STR analyses revealed maternal origin of the de novo derivative chromosome 21. The dual-specificity tyrosine (Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) and Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (DSCR1) genes that are located in Down syndrome critical region, are supposed to be responsible for most of the clinical findings of Down syndrome. However, our patient is the first patient with Down syndrome whose clinical findings were provided in detail, with a de novo derivative chromosome 21 resulting from multiple chromosome breaks excluding DYRK1A and DSCR1 gene regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-resolution mapping of D16Led-1, Gart, Gas-r, Cbr, Pcp-4, and Erg on distal mouse chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Mjaatvedt, A.E.; Citron, M.P.; Reeves, R.H. )

    1993-08-01

    More than 500 backcross progeny from four inter-subspecific backcrosses were typed for six markers on distal mouse chromosome 16. Five of these represented genes that mapped within the Sod-1 to Ets-2 interval, which was shown previously to contain the weaver (wv) gene. The map order, including previously mapped reference markers, is (cen)-D16H21S16-D16Led-1-App-Sod-1-Gart-Gas-4-Cbr-wv-Pep-4-Erg-Ets-2. This gene order recapitulates the order of the genes on human chromosome 21 where known. Two of these markers further define the region containing the weaver gene to a 3.9-cM segment between Cbr and Pcp-4. In addition, Pep-4 was localized to human chromosome 21 by the presence of a human-specific restriction fragment in WAV-17, a mouse-human somatic cell hybrid with human chromosome 31 as the only human contribution. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Tracking the complex flow of chromosome rearrangements from the Hominoidea Ancestor to extant Hylobates and Nomascus Gibbons by high-resolution synteny mapping.

    PubMed

    Misceo, Doriana; Capozzi, Oronzo; Roberto, Roberta; Dell'oglio, Maria P; Rocchi, Mariano; Stanyon, Roscoe; Archidiacono, Nicoletta

    2008-09-01

    In this study we characterized the extension, reciprocal arrangement, and orientation of syntenic chromosomal segments in the lar gibbon (Hylobates lar, HLA) by hybridization of a panel of approximately 1000 human BAC clones. Each lar gibbon rearrangement was defined by a splitting BAC clone or by two overlapping clones flanking the breakpoint. A reconstruction of the synteny arrangement of the last common ancestor of all living lesser apes was made by combining these data with previous results in Nomascus leucogenys, Hoolock hoolock, and Symphalangus syndactylus. The definition of the ancestral synteny organization facilitated tracking the cascade of chromosomal changes from the Hominoidea ancestor to the present day karyotype of Hylobates and Nomascus. Each chromosomal rearrangement could be placed within an approximate phylogenetic and temporal framework. We identified 12 lar-specific rearrangements and five previously undescribed rearrangements that occurred in the Hylobatidae ancestor. The majority of the chromosomal differences between lar gibbons and humans are due to rearrangements that occurred in the Hylobatidae ancestor (38 events), consistent with the hypothesis that the genus Hylobates is the most recently evolved lesser ape genus. The rates of rearrangements in gibbons are 10 to 20 times higher than the mammalian default rate. Segmental duplication may be a driving force in gibbon chromosome evolution, because a consistent number of rearrangements involves pericentromeric regions (10 events) and centromere inactivation (seven events). Both phenomena can be reasonably supposed to have strongly contributed to the euchromatic dispersal of segmental duplications typical of pericentromeric regions. This hypothesis can be more fully tested when the sequence of this gibbon species becomes available. The detailed synteny map provided here will, in turn, substantially facilitate sequence assembly efforts.

  16. Tracking the complex flow of chromosome rearrangements from the Hominoidea Ancestor to extant Hylobates and Nomascus Gibbons by high-resolution synteny mapping

    PubMed Central

    Misceo, Doriana; Capozzi, Oronzo; Roberto, Roberta; Dell’Oglio, Maria P.; Rocchi, Mariano; Stanyon, Roscoe; Archidiacono, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

    In this study we characterized the extension, reciprocal arrangement, and orientation of syntenic chromosomal segments in the lar gibbon (Hylobates lar, HLA) by hybridization of a panel of ∼1000 human BAC clones. Each lar gibbon rearrangement was defined by a splitting BAC clone or by two overlapping clones flanking the breakpoint. A reconstruction of the synteny arrangement of the last common ancestor of all living lesser apes was made by combining these data with previous results in Nomascus leucogenys, Hoolock hoolock, and Symphalangus syndactylus. The definition of the ancestral synteny organization facilitated tracking the cascade of chromosomal changes from the Hominoidea ancestor to the present day karyotype of Hylobates and Nomascus. Each chromosomal rearrangement could be placed within an approximate phylogenetic and temporal framework. We identified 12 lar-specific rearrangements and five previously undescribed rearrangements that occurred in the Hylobatidae ancestor. The majority of the chromosomal differences between lar gibbons and humans are due to rearrangements that occurred in the Hylobatidae ancestor (38 events), consistent with the hypothesis that the genus Hylobates is the most recently evolved lesser ape genus. The rates of rearrangements in gibbons are 10 to 20 times higher than the mammalian default rate. Segmental duplication may be a driving force in gibbon chromosome evolution, because a consistent number of rearrangements involves pericentromeric regions (10 events) and centromere inactivation (seven events). Both phenomena can be reasonably supposed to have strongly contributed to the euchromatic dispersal of segmental duplications typical of pericentromeric regions. This hypothesis can be more fully tested when the sequence of this gibbon species becomes available. The detailed synteny map provided here will, in turn, substantially facilitate sequence assembly efforts. PMID:18552313

  17. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  18. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  19. Modeling Chromosomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  20. Modeling Chromosomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  1. Impact of centralization on aCGH-based genomic profiles for precision medicine in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Commo, F.; Ferté, C.; Soria, J. C.; Friend, S. H.; André, F.; Guinney, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays are increasingly used in personalized medicine programs to identify gene copy number aberrations (CNAs) that may be used to guide clinical decisions made during molecular tumor boards. However, analytical processes such as the centralization step may profoundly affect CGH array results and therefore may adversely affect outcomes in the precision medicine context. Patients and methods The effect of three different centralization methods: median, maximum peak, alternative peak, were evaluated on three datasets: (i) the NCI60 cell lines panel, (ii) the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) panel, and (iii) the patients enrolled in prospective molecular screening trials (SAFIR-01 n = 283, MOSCATO-01 n = 309), and compared with karyotyping, drug sensitivity, and patient-drug matching, respectively. Results Using the NCI60 cell lines panel, the profiles generated by the alternative peak method were significantly closer to the cell karyotypes than those generated by the other centralization strategies (P < 0.05). Using the CCLE dataset, selected genes (ERBB2, EGFR) were better or equally correlated to the IC50 of their companion drug (lapatinib, erlotinib), when applying the alternative centralization. Finally, focusing on 24 actionable genes, we observed as many as 7.1% (SAFIR-01) and 6.8% (MOSCATO-01) of patients originally not oriented to a specific treatment, but who could have been proposed a treatment based on the alternative peak centralization method. Conclusion The centralization method substantially affects the call detection of CGH profiles and may thus impact precision medicine approaches. Among the three methods described, the alternative peak method addresses limitations associated with existing approaches. PMID:25538175

  2. Application of the cghRA framework to the genomic characterization of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Alcantara, Marion; Villenet, Céline; Figeac, Martin; Dubois, Sydney; Bertrand, Philippe; Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Viailly, Pierre-Julien; Penther, Dominique; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-10-01

    Although sequencing-based technologies are becoming the new reference in genome analysis, comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH) still constitute a simple and reliable approach for copy number analysis. The most powerful algorithms to analyze such data have been freely provided by the scientific community for many years, but combining them is a complex scripting task. The cghRA framework combines a user-friendly graphical interface and a powerful object-oriented command-line interface to handle a full aCGH analysis, as is illustrated in an original series of 107 Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas. New algorithms for copy-number calling, polymorphism detection and minimal common region prioritization were also developed and validated. While their performances will only be demonstrated with aCGH, these algorithms could actually prove useful to any copy-number analysis, whatever the technique used. R package and source for Linux, MS Windows and MacOS are freely available at http://bioinformatics.ovsa.fr/cghRA. mareschal@ovsa.fr or fabrice.jardin@chb.unicancer.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Protection of specific maternal messenger RNAs by the P body protein CGH-1 (Dhh1/RCK) during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Peter R.; Atalay, Arzu; Robida, Stacey; Reinke, Valerie; Blackwell, T. Keith

    2008-01-01

    During oogenesis, numerous messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are maintained in a translationally silenced state. In eukaryotic cells, various translation inhibition and mRNA degradation mechanisms congregate in cytoplasmic processing bodies (P bodies). The P body protein Dhh1 inhibits translation and promotes decapping-mediated mRNA decay together with Pat1 in yeast, and has been implicated in mRNA storage in metazoan oocytes. Here, we have investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans whether Dhh1 and Pat1 generally function together, and how they influence mRNA sequestration during oogenesis. We show that in somatic tissues, the Dhh1 orthologue (CGH-1) forms Pat1 (patr-1)-dependent P bodies that are involved in mRNA decapping. In contrast, during oogenesis, CGH-1 forms patr-1–independent mRNA storage bodies. CGH-1 then associates with translational regulators and a specific set of maternal mRNAs, and prevents those mRNAs from being degraded. Our results identify somatic and germ cell CGH-1 functions that are distinguished by the involvement of PATR-1, and reveal that during oogenesis, numerous translationally regulated mRNAs are specifically protected by a CGH-1–dependent mechanism. PMID:18695045

  4. A hybrid Gerchberg-Saxton-like algorithm for DOE and CGH calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haichao; Yue, Weirui; Song, Qiang; Liu, Jingdan; Situ, Guohai

    2017-02-01

    The Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm is widely used in various disciplines of modern sciences and technologies where phase retrieval is required. However, this legendary algorithm most likely stagnates after a few iterations. Many efforts have been taken to improve this situation. Here we propose to introduce the strategy of gradient descent and weighting technique to the GS algorithm, and demonstrate it using two examples: design of a diffractive optical element (DOE) to achieve off-axis illumination in lithographic tools, and design of a computer generated hologram (CGH) for holographic display. Both numerical simulation and optical experiments are carried out for demonstration.

  5. A continuous high-resolution physical map spanning 17 megabases of the q12, q13.1, and q13.2 cytogenetic bands of human chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.; Elliott, J.; Gorvad, A.

    1995-05-01

    The authors report the construction of a high-resolution physical map of a 17-Mb region that encompasses the entire q12, q13.1, and q13.2 bands of human chromosome 19. The continuous map extends from a region approximately 400 kb centromeric of the D1j9S7 marker to the excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 1 (ERCC1) locus. The ordered clone map has been obtained starting from a foundation of cosmid contigs assembled by automated fingerprinting and localized to the cytogenetic map by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clonal continuity of the map has been achieved by binning and linking the premapped cosmid contigs by means of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). The map consists of a single contig composed of 169 YAC members (minimal spanning path of 18 YACs) linking 165 cosmid contigs. Eighty percent, or about 13.2 Mb of the entire regions spanned by the map, has been resolved to the EcoRI restriction map level. Twenty-nine sequence-tagged sites associated with genetic markers or derived from FISH-mapped cosmids have been placed on the map. In addition to the ERCC1 gene area, the map includes the location of the creatine kinase muscle locus (CKM), imidazoledipeptidase (PEPD), glucophosphate isomerase (GPI), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), the apolipoprotein E and C (APOE and APOC) genes, and the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene. This type of map provides a source of continuously overlapping DNA segments at a level of resolution two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained using YACs alone. In addition, it provides ready-to-use reagents for detailed analyses at the gene level, FISH studies of chromosomal aberrations, and DNA sequencing. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of a recombinant chromosome 7 resulting in trisomy 7q11.22 --> qter.

    PubMed

    Tchirikov, M; Merinsky, A; Strohner, M; Bonin, M; Beyer, V; Haaf, T; Bartsch, O

    2010-03-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 7 is complex due to only a few reported cases. We report here on a stillborn boy with very large duplication of 7q11.22 --> qter, encompassing almost the entire long arm of chromosome 7. Ultrasound, fetal and parental chromosome banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses were performed. Sonographic findings included growth retardation, micrognathia, ventricular septal defect (VSD), aortic coarctation, bradyarrhythmia, pericardial effusion, bilateral hydronephrosis, infravesical obstruction, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Chromosome analysis after cordocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation revealed an abnormal male karyotype with 46 chromosomes and a derivative chromosome 7 with a very large duplication of the long arm, 46,XY,der(7)(qter --> q11.2::p22 --> qter). The mother was found to carry an apparently balanced pericentric inversion, 46,XX,inv(7)(p22q11.2). Thus, the recombinant chromosome 7 [rec(7)dup(7q)inv(7)(p22.3q11.22)mat] of the fetus must have arisen through meiotic crossing-over between the inverted chromosome and the normal chromosome 7 in the maternal germline. FISH and array CGH results confirmed the recombinant chromosome 7 in the fetus and indicated a loss of 1.9 Mb at chromosome 7pter --> p22.3 (pter to 1,948,072 bp), and a gain of 87.04 Mb at chromosome 7q11.22 --> qter (71,760,154 bp to qter). The rare syndrome of almost complete trisomy 7q may be suspected in cases of growth retardation, cerebellar hypoplasia, micrognathia, aortic coarctation and VSD and hydronephrosis. Invasive prenatal diagnosis must be offered to the parents. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A 500-kb region on chromosome 16p13.1 contains the pseudoxanthoma elasticum locus: high-resolution mapping and genomic structure.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Struk, B; Adams, M D; Ji, W; Haaf, T; Kang, H L; Dho, S H; Xu, X; Ringpfeil, F; Nancarrow, J; Zäch, S; Schaen, L; Stumm, M; Niu, T; Chung, J; Lunze, K; Verrecchia, B; Goldsmith, L A; Viljoen, D; Figuera, L E; Fuchs, W; Lebwohl, M; Uitto, J; Richards, R; Hohl, D; Ramesar, R

    2000-01-01

    We have recently mapped the genetic defect underlying pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an inherited disorder characterized by progressive calcification of elastic fibers in skin, eye, and cardiovascular system, to chromosome 16p 13.1. Here we report further data on the fine-mapping and genomic structure of this locus. Haplotype analysis of informative PXE families narrowed the locus to an interval of less than 500 kb located between markers D16B9621 and D16S764. Three overlapping YAC clones were found to cover this region through YAC-STS content mapping. An overlapping BAC contig was then constructed to cover this interval and the surrounding region. About 80% of this chromosomal region has been fully sequenced using the BAC shotgun technique. Gene content and sequence analysis predicted four genes (MRP1, MRP6, PM5, and a novel transcript) and two pseudogenes (ARA and PKDI) within this interval. By screening a somatic cell hybrid panel we were able to precision-map the breakpoint of Cy185 and the starting point of a chromosomal duplication within 20 kb of BAC A962B4. The present data further refine the localization of PXE, provide additional physical cloning resources, and will aid in the eventual identification of the genetic defect causing PXE.

  8. Chromosomal gains at 9q characterize enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zettl, Andreas; Ott, German; Makulik, Angela; Katzenberger, Tiemo; Starostik, Petr; Eichler, Thorsten; Puppe, Bernhard; Bentz, Martin; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Chott, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    Genetic alterations in enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) are unknown so far. In this series, 38 cases of ETL were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). CGH revealed chromosomal imbalances in 87% of cases analyzed, with recurrent gains of genetic material involving chromosomes 9q (in 58% of cases), 7q (24%), 5q (18%), and 1q (16%). Recurrent losses of genetic material occurred on chromosomes 8p and 13q (24% each), and 9p (18%). In this first systematic genetic study on ETL, chromosomal gains on 9q (minimal overlapping region 9q33-q34) were found to be highly characteristic of ETL. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on four cases of ETL, using a probe for 9q34, indicated frequent and multiple gains of chromosomal material at 9q34 (up to nine signals per case). Among 16 patients with ETL who survived initial disease presentation, patients with more than three chromosomal gains or losses (n = 11) followed a worse clinical course than those with three or less imbalances (n = 5). The observation of similar genetic alterations in ETL and in primary gastric (n = 4) and colonic (n = 1) T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, is suggestive of a genetic relationship of gastrointestinal T-cell lymphomas at either localization.

  9. An update of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in gene diseases, chromosomal translocation, and aneuploidy screening

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Jung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Tsai, Yi-Yi; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Mei-Ya

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is gradually widely used in prevention of gene diseases and chromosomal abnormalities. Much improvement has been achieved in biopsy technique and molecular diagnosis. Blastocyst biopsy can increase diagnostic accuracy and reduce allele dropout. It is cost-effective and currently plays an important role. Whole genome amplification permits subsequent individual detection of multiple gene loci and screening all 23 pairs of chromosomes. For PGD of chromosomal translocation, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) is traditionally used, but with technical difficulty. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) can detect translocation and 23 pairs of chromosomes that may replace FISH. Single nucleotide polymorphisms array with haplotyping can further distinguish between normal chromosomes and balanced translocation. PGD may shorten time to conceive and reduce miscarriage for patients with chromosomal translocation. PGD has a potential value for mitochondrial diseases. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping has been applied for unknown mutation sites of single gene disease. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) using limited FISH probes in the cleavage-stage embryo did not increase live birth rates for patients with advanced maternal age, unexplained recurrent abortions, and repeated implantation failure. Polar body and blastocyst biopsy may circumvent the problem of mosaicism. PGS using blastocyst biopsy and array CGH is encouraging and merit further studies. Cryopreservation of biopsied blastocysts instead of fresh transfer permits sufficient time for transportation and genetic analysis. Cryopreservation of embryos may avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and possible suboptimal endometrium. PMID:22384431

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of 4p and 4q Subtelomeric Microdeletion in De Novo Ring Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Cine, Naci; Erdemoglu, Mahmut; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Simsek, Selda; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul; Fidanboy, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Ring chromosomes are unusual abnormalities that are observed in prenatal diagnosis. A 23-year-old patient (gravida 1, para 0) referred for amniocentesis due to abnormal maternal serum screening result in the 16th week of second pregnancy. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniyotic fluid cells revealed out ring chromosome 4. Both maternal and paternal karyotypes were normal. Terminal deletion was observed in both 4p and 4q arms of ring chromosome 4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However deletion was not observed in the WHS critical region of both normal and ring chromosome 4 by an additional FISH study. These results were confirmed by means of array-CGH showing terminal deletions on 4p16.3 (130 kb) and 4q35.2 (2.449 Mb). In the 21th week of pregnancy, no gross anomalia, except two weeks symmetric growth retardation, was present in the fetal ultrasonographic examination. According to our review of literature, this is the first prenatal case with 4p and 4q subtelomeric deletion of ring chromosome 4 without the involvement of WHS critical region. Our report describes the prenatal case with a ring chromosome 4 abnormality completely characterized by array-CGH which provided complementary data for genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24455347

  11. Complex Mosaic Ring Chromosome 11 Associated with Hemizygous Loss of 8.6 Mb of 11q24.2qter in Atypical Jacobsen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galvão Gomes, Alexandra; Paiva Grangeiro, Carlos H; Silva, Luiz R; Oliveira-Gennaro, Flávia G; Pereira, Ciro S; Joaquim, Tatiana M; Panepucci, Rodrigo A; Squire, Jeremy A; Martelli, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving terminal chromosome 11q. The haploinsufficiency of multiple genes contributes to the overall clinical phenotype, which can include the variant Paris-Trousseau syndrome, a transient thrombocytopenia related to FLI1 hemizygous deletion. We investigated a boy with features of JBS using classic cytogenetic methods, FISH and high-resolution array CGH. The proband was found to have a mosaic ring chromosome 11 resulting in a hemizygous 11q terminal deletion of 8.6 Mb, leading to a copy number loss of 52 genes. The patient had a hemizygous deletion in the FLI1 gene region without apparent thrombocytopenia, and he developed diabetes mellitus type I, which has not previously been described in the spectrum of disorders associated with JBS. The relationship of some of the genes within the context of the phenotype caused by a partial deletion of 11q has provided insights concerning the developmental anomalies presented in this patient with atypical features of JBS.

  12. Involvement of Lipocalin-like CghA in Decalin-Forming Stereoselective Intramolecular [4+2] Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Michio; Yagishita, Fumitoshi; Mino, Takashi; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Patel, Ashay; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Goda, Yukihiro; Xu, Wei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hotta, Kinya; Houk, Kendall N.; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding enzymatic Diels—Alder (DA) reactions that can form complex natural product scaffold is of considerable interest. Sch 210972 1, a potential anti-HIV fungal natural product, contains a decalin core that is proposed to form via a DA reaction. We identified the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and heterologously reconstituted the biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus nidulans to characterize the enzymes involved. Most notably, deletion of cghA resulted in a loss of stereoselective decalin core formation, yielding both an endo 1 and a diastereomeric exo adducts of the proposed DA reaction. Complementation with cghA restored the sole formation of 1. Density functional theory computation of the proposed DA reaction provided a plausible explanation of the observed pattern of product formation. Based on our study, we propose that lipocalin-like CghA is responsible for the stereoselective intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition that forms the decalin core of 1. PMID:26360642

  13. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Chen, Yi-Yung; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-09-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome (CES) using cultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, left renal hypoplasia, total anomalous pulmonary venous return with dominant right heart and right ear deformity. The sSMC was bisatellited and dicentric, and was characterized by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The SALSA MLPA P250-B1 DiGeorge Probemix showed duplication of gene dosage in the CES region. aCGH showed a 1.26-Mb duplication at 22q11.1-q11.21 encompassing CECR1-CECR7. The sSMC was likely inv dup(22) (q11.21). Prenatal diagnosis of an sSMC(22) at amniocentesis should alert CES. MLPA, aCGH and fetal ultrasound are useful for rapid diagnosis of CES in case of prenatally detected sSMC(22).

  14. A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guijun; Yi, Meisheng; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hong, Yunhan; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system), the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:25506037

  15. Clinical Implementation of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis: Summary of 2513 Postnatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinyan; Shaw, Chad A.; Patel, Ankita; Li, Jiangzhen; Cooper, M. Lance; Wells, William R.; Sullivan, Cathy M.; Sahoo, Trilochan; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Ou, Zhishu; Chinault, A. Craig; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Ward, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic tool to detect genomic imbalances and study disease mechanism and pathogenesis. We report our experience with the clinical implementation of this high resolution human genome analysis, referred to as Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). Methods and Findings CMA was performed clinically on 2513 postnatal samples from patients referred with a variety of clinical phenotypes. The initial 775 samples were studied using CMA array version 4 and the remaining 1738 samples were analyzed with CMA version 5 containing expanded genomic coverage. Overall, CMA identified clinically relevant genomic imbalances in 8.5% of patients: 7.6% using V4 and 8.9% using V5. Among 117 cases referred for additional investigation of a known cytogenetically detectable rearrangement, CMA identified the majority (92.5%) of the genomic imbalances. Importantly, abnormal CMA findings were observed in 5.2% of patients (98/1872) with normal karyotypes/FISH results, and V5, with expanded genomic coverage, enabled a higher detection rate in this category than V4. For cases without cytogenetic results available, 8.0% (42/524) abnormal CMA results were detected; again, V5 demonstrated an increased ability to detect abnormality. Improved diagnostic potential of CMA is illustrated by 90 cases identified with 51 cryptic microdeletions and 39 predicted apparent reciprocal microduplications in 13 specific chromosomal regions associated with 11 known genomic disorders. In addition, CMA identified copy number variations (CNVs) of uncertain significance in 262 probands; however, parental studies usually facilitated clinical interpretation. Of these, 217 were interpreted as familial variants and 11 were determined to be de novo; the remaining 34 await parental studies to resolve the clinical significance. Conclusions This large set of clinical results demonstrates the significantly improved sensitivity of CMA for the

  16. Retinoblastoma and mental retardation microdeletion syndrome: clinical characterization and molecular dissection using array CGH.

    PubMed

    Caselli, R; Speciale, C; Pescucci, C; Uliana, V; Sampieri, K; Bruttini, M; Longo, I; De Francesco, S; Pramparo, T; Zuffardi, O; Frezzotti, R; Acquaviva, A; Hadjistilianou, T; Renieri, A; Mari, F

    2007-01-01

    We describe three patients with retinoblastoma, dysmorphic features and developmental delay. Patients 1 and 2 have high and broad forehead, deeply grooved philtrum, thick anteverted lobes and thick helix. Patient 1 also has dolicocephaly, sacral pit/dimple and toe crowding; patient 2 shows intrauterine growth retardation and short fifth toe. Both patients have partial agenesis of corpus callosum. Patient 3 has growth retardation, microcephaly, thick lower lip and micrognathia. Using array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we identified a 13q14 de novo deletion in patients 1 and 2, while patient 3 had a 7q11.21 maternally inherited deletion, probably not related to the disease. Our results confirm that a distinct facial phenotype is related to a 13q14 deletion. Patients with retinoblastoma and malformations without a peculiar facial phenotype may have a different deletion syndrome or a casual association of mental retardation and retinoblastoma. Using array-CGH, we defined a critical region for mental retardation and dysmorphic features. We compared this deletion with a smaller one in a patient with retinoblastoma (case 4) and identified two distinct critical regions, containing 30 genes. Four genes appear to be good functional candidates for the neurological phenotype: NUFIP1 (nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein 1), HTR2A (serotonin receptor 2A), PCDH8 (prothocaderin 8) and PCDH17 (prothocaderin 17).

  17. The communication of secondary variants: interviews with parents whose children have undergone array-CGH testing.

    PubMed

    Christenhusz, G M; Devriendt, K; Peeters, H; Van Esch, H; Dierickx, K

    2014-09-01

    Children with unexplained developmental disabilities or congenital anomalies are increasingly being referred for genetic diagnostic testing using array-comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Their parents will have to deal with the secondary variants that will inevitably arise. We conducted 16 prospective semi-structured interviews with native Dutch-speaking parents whose children had undergone clinical array-CGH testing. The interviews explored the parents' experiences, expectations and opinions, specifically regarding the communication of results. Concrete examples of 'unexpected results' were provided to help guide the discussion, differing in severity, treatability, time of onset, level of risk, and carrier status. Data was analysed using content and narrative analysis methodologies. Parental motivations for and against the disclosure of unexpected results cluster around four main themes: actionability; knowledge; context; and characteristics of the result. Most parents wished to know all types of results. Disclosure was framed within a holistic, contextual, family-wide view. Genetic counselling should aim to integrate explorations of the motivations of parents surrounding the disclosure of results with good clinical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genomic analysis of clonal eosinophils by CGH arrays reveals new genetic regions involved in chronic eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Arefi, Maryam; Robledo, Cristina; Peñarrubia, María J; García de Coca, Alfonso; Cordero, Miguel; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; García, Juan Luis

    2014-11-01

    To assess the presence of genetic imbalances in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), 38 patients with chronic eosinophilia were studied by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH): seven had chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), BCR-ABL1 positive, nine patients had myeloproliferative neoplasia Ph- (MPN-Ph-), three had a myeloid neoplasm associated with a PDGFRA rearrangement, and the remaining two cases were Lymphoproliferative T neoplasms associated with eosinophilia. In addition, 17 patients had a secondary eosinophilia and were used as controls. Eosinophilic enrichment was carried out in all cases. Genomic imbalances were found in 76% of all MPN patients. Losses on 20q were the most frequent genetic abnormality in MPNs (32%), affected the three types of MPN studied. This study also found losses at 11q13.3 in 26% of patients with MPN-Ph- and in 19p13.11 in two of the three patients with an MPN associated with a PDGFRA rearrangement. In addition, 29% of patients with CML had losses on 8q24. In summary, aCGH revealed clonality in eosinophils in most MPNs, suggesting that it could be a useful technique for defining clonality in these diseases. The presence of genetic losses in new regions could provide new insights into the knowledge of these MPN associated with eosinophilia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... division. There are two kinds of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis results in two cells that are duplicates of ... 23 paired sets of chromosomes in nonreproductive cells. Mitosis: Cell division resulting in cells that have paired ...

  20. Controversies about the chromosomal stability of cultivated mesenchymal stem cells: their clinical use is it safe?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Reginaldo Justino; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ricardo Correa; Francisco, Julio Cesarm; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Srikanth, Garikipati Venkata Naga; Nityanand, Soniya; Rosati, Roberto; Chachques, Juan Carlos; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    The usefulness of adult stem cells in research and therapeutic applications highly relies on their genomic integrity and stability. Many laboratories including ours have addressed this concern using methods such as karyotyping, Qbanding, fluorescent in situ hybridization, array CGH, flow cytometry and Pap test to evaluate number and structure of chromosomes and cellular phenotype. This review attempts to summarize the findings reported so far for the studies on chromosomal aberrations in adult stem cells and warrant to perform certain basic tests before transplantation to avoid any adverse reactions, which will thus aid in better therapeutic output after cellular transplantation in the treatment of various diseases.

  1. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Jessica

    2014-12-11

    Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400–500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculent Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. Here, we used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selectionenhanced breeding of this important crop.

  2. High Resolution Consensus Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Fiber Strength, Length and Micronaire on Chromosome 25 of the Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shi, Yuzhen; Gong, Juwu; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Li, Wei; Sun, Linyang; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural crop that provides renewable natural fiber resources for the global textile industry. Technological developments in the textile industry and improvements in human living standards have increased the requirement for supplies and better quality cotton. Upland cotton 0–153 is an elite cultivar harboring strong fiber strength genes. To conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for fiber quality in 0–153, we developed a population of 196 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 0–153 and sGK9708. The fiber quality traits in 11 environments were measured and a genetic linkage map of chromosome 25 comprising 210 loci was constructed using this RIL population, mainly using simple sequence repeat markers and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. QTLs were identified across diverse environments using the composite interval mapping method. A total of 37 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified on chromosome 25, of which 17 were stably expressed in at least in two environments. A stable fiber strength QTL, qFS-chr25-4, which was detected in seven environments and was located in the marker interval between CRI-SNP120491 and BNL2572, could explain 6.53%–11.83% of the observed phenotypic variations. Meta-analysis also confirmed the above QTLs with previous reports. Application of these QTLs could contribute to improving fiber quality and provide information for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26262992

  3. High Resolution Consensus Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Fiber Strength, Length and Micronaire on Chromosome 25 of the Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Junwen; Muhammad, Jamshed; Cai, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shi, Yuzhen; Gong, Juwu; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Li, Wei; Sun, Linyang; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural crop that provides renewable natural fiber resources for the global textile industry. Technological developments in the textile industry and improvements in human living standards have increased the requirement for supplies and better quality cotton. Upland cotton 0-153 is an elite cultivar harboring strong fiber strength genes. To conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for fiber quality in 0-153, we developed a population of 196 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 0-153 and sGK9708. The fiber quality traits in 11 environments were measured and a genetic linkage map of chromosome 25 comprising 210 loci was constructed using this RIL population, mainly using simple sequence repeat markers and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. QTLs were identified across diverse environments using the composite interval mapping method. A total of 37 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified on chromosome 25, of which 17 were stably expressed in at least in two environments. A stable fiber strength QTL, qFS-chr25-4, which was detected in seven environments and was located in the marker interval between CRI-SNP120491 and BNL2572, could explain 6.53%-11.83% of the observed phenotypic variations. Meta-analysis also confirmed the above QTLs with previous reports. Application of these QTLs could contribute to improving fiber quality and provide information for marker-assisted selection.

  4. High-resolution physical and transcriptional mapping of the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy locus on chromosome 21q22.3 by FISH.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, J; Horelli-Kuitunen, N; Fan, J B; Björses, P; Perheentupa, J; Myers, R; Palotie, A; Peltonen, L

    1997-08-01

    Autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, PGD type I) is an autosomal recessive disease enriched in the Finnish population. Previously, we have assigned APECED to a 2.6-cM interval on chromosome 21q22.3 by linkage analysis in 14 Finnish families. This subtelomeric region of 21q22.3 seems to have sequence features resulting in its under-representation in large insert genomic libraries, and only a few large insert clones have been available for positional cloning to date. Here, we report the refined localization of the APECED gene and a visual physical map of 800 kb covering the critical chromosomal region for the gene. In the construction of the physical map, the recently developed fiber FISH techniques were essential for the orientation of the cosmid PI, PAC, and BAC clones in relation to each other. We also localized two cDNAs within this genomic region by fiber FISH combined with the highly sensitive tyramide-based detection method. These data will facilitate the final cloning of the APECED gene and any other novel gene in this complex genomic region.

  5. A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cruciani, Fulvio; Santolamazza, Piero; Shen, Peidong; Macaulay, Vincent; Moral, Pedro; Olckers, Antonel; Modiano, David; Holmes, Susan; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Coia, Valentina; Wallace, Douglas C.; Oefner, Peter J.; Torroni, Antonio; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Scozzari, Rosaria; Underhill, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    The variation of 77 biallelic sites located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome was examined in 608 male subjects from 22 African populations. This survey revealed a total of 37 binary haplotypes, which were combined with microsatellite polymorphism data to evaluate internal diversities and to estimate coalescence ages of the binary haplotypes. The majority of binary haplotypes showed a nonuniform distribution across the continent. Analysis of molecular variance detected a high level of interpopulation diversity (ΦST=0.342), which appears to be partially related to the geography (ΦCT=0.230). In sub-Saharan Africa, the recent spread of a set of haplotypes partially erased pre-existing diversity, but a high level of population (ΦST=0.332) and geographic (ΦCT=0.179) structuring persists. Correspondence analysis shows that three main clusters of populations can be identified: northern, eastern, and sub-Saharan Africans. Among the latter, the Khoisan, the Pygmies, and the northern Cameroonians are clearly distinct from a tight cluster formed by the Niger-Congo–speaking populations from western, central western, and southern Africa. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that a large component of the present Khoisan gene pool is eastern African in origin and that Asia was the source of a back migration to sub-Saharan Africa. Haplogroup IX Y chromosomes appear to have been involved in such a migration, the traces of which can now be observed mostly in northern Cameroon. PMID:11910562

  6. An Xq22.3 duplication detected by comparative genomic hybridization microarray (Array-CGH) defines a new locus (FGS5) for FG syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Rosenberg, Carla; Krepischi-Santos, Ana Cristina; Kok, Fernando; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; Froyen, Guy; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Opitz, John M; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2005-12-15

    FG syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) syndrome. It has been mapped to four distinct loci FGS1-4, through linkage analysis (Xq13, Xp22.3, and Xp11.4-p11.3) and based on the breakpoints of an X chromosome inversion (Xq11:Xq28), but so far no gene has been identified. We describe a boy with FG syndrome who has an inherited duplication at band Xq22.3 detected by comparative genomic hybridization microarray (Array-CGH). These duplication maps outside all four loci described so far for FG syndrome, representing therefore a new locus, which we propose to be called FGS5. MID2, a gene closely related to MID1, which is known to be mutated in Opitz G/BBB syndrome, maps within the duplicated segment of our patient. Since FG and Opitz G/BBB syndromes share many manifestations we considered MID2 a candidate gene for FG syndrome. We also discuss the involvement of other potential genes within the duplicated segment and its relationship with clinical symptoms of our patient, as well as the laboratory abnormalities found in his mother, a carrier of the duplication.

  7. Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Esteban; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are generally ∼1000 times longer than the cells in which they reside, and concurrent replication, segregation, and transcription/translation of this crowded mass of DNA poses a challenging organizational problem. Recent advances in cell-imaging technology with subdiffraction resolution have revealed that the bacterial nucleoid is reliably oriented and highly organized within the cell. Such organization is transmitted from one generation to the next by progressive segregation of daughter chromosomes and anchoring of DNA to the cell envelope. Active segregation by a mitotic machinery appears to be common; however, the mode of chromosome segregation varies significantly from species to species. PMID:20182613

  8. Syndromic non-compaction of the left ventricle: associated chromosomal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Digilio, M C; Bernardini, L; Gagliardi, M G; Versacci, P; Baban, A; Capolino, R; Dentici, M L; Roberti, M C; Angioni, A; Novelli, A; Marino, B; Dallapiccola, B

    2013-10-01

    Non-compaction of the left ventricle (NCLV) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent left ventricular trabeculae and deep intertrabecular recesses. Associated extracardiac anomalies occur in 14-66% of patients of different series, while chromosomal anomalies were reported in sporadic cases. We investigated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances in 25 syndromic patients with NCLV, using standard cytogenetic, subtelomeric fluorescent in situ hybridization, and array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses. Standard chromosome analysis disclosed an abnormality in three (12%) patients, including a 45,X/46,XX mosaic, a 45,X/46,X,i(Y)(p11) mosaic, and a de novo Robertsonian 13;14 translocation in a child affected by hypomelanosis of Ito. Cryptic chromosome anomalies were found in six (24%) cases, including 1p36 deletion in two patients, 7p14.3p14.1 deletion, 18p subtelomeric deletion, 22q11.2 deletion associated with velo-cardio-facial syndrome, and distal 22q11.2 deletion, each in one case. These results recommend accurate clinical evaluation of patients with NCLV, and suggest that chromosome anomalies occur in about one third of syndromic NCLV individuals, without metabolic/neuromuscular disorder. Array-CGH analysis should be included in the diagnostic protocol of these patients, because different submicroscopic imbalances are causally associated with this disorder and can pinpoint candidate genes for this cardiomyopathy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CHROMOSOME MICROMANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, R. Bruce; Koch, Carol A.

    1969-01-01

    Kinetochore reorientation is the critical process ensuring normal chromosome distribution. Reorientation has been studied in living grasshopper spermatocytes, in which bivalents with both chromosomes oriented to the same pole (unipolar orientation) occur but are unstable: sooner or later one chromosome reorients, the stable, bipolar orientation results, and normal anaphase segregation to opposite poles follows. One possible source of stability in bipolar orientations is the normal spindle forces toward opposite poles, which slightly stretch the bivalent. This tension is lacking in unipolar orientations because all the chromosomal spindle fibers and spindle forces are directed toward one pole. The possible role of tension has been tested directly by micromanipulation of bivalents in unipolar orientation to artificially create the missing tension. Without exception, such bivalents never reorient before the tension is released; a total time "under tension" of over 5 hr has been accumulated in experiments on eight bivalents in eight cells. In control experiments these same bivalents reoriented from a unipolar orientation within 16 min, on the average, in the absence of tension. Controlled reorientation and chromosome segregation can be explained from the results of these and related experiments. PMID:5824068

  10. Identification of novel deletions of 15q11q13 in Angelman syndrome by array-CGH: molecular characterization and genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A; German, Jennifer R; Shaw, Chad A; Bird, Lynne M; Kimonis, Virginia; Anselm, Irinia; Waisbren, Susan; Beaudet, Arthur L; Peters, Sarika U

    2007-09-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, absent speech, ataxia, and a happy disposition. Deletions of the 15q11q13 region are found in approximately 70% of AS patients. The deletions are sub-classified into class I and class II based on their sizes of approximately 6.8 and approximately 6.0, respectively, with two different proximal breakpoints and a common distal breakpoint. Utilizing a chromosome 15-specific comparative genomic hybridization genomic microarray (array-CGH), we have identified, determined the deletion sizes, and mapped the breakpoints in a cohort of 44 cases, to relate those breakpoints to the genomic architecture and derive more precise genotype-phenotype correlations. Interestingly four patients of the 44 studied (9.1%) had novel and unusually large deletions, and are reported here. This is the first report of very large deletions of 15q11q13 resulting in AS; the largest deletion being >10.6 Mb. These novel deletions involve three different distal breakpoints, two of which have been earlier shown to be involved in the generation of isodicentric 15q chromosomes (idic15). Additionally, precise determination of the deletion breakpoints reveals the presence of directly oriented low-copy repeats (LCRs) flanking the recurrent and novel breakpoints. The LCRs are adequate in size, orientation, and homology to enable abnormal recombination events leading to deletions and duplications. This genomic organization provides evidence for a common mechanism for the generation of both common and rare deletion types. Larger deletions result in a loss of several genes outside the common Angelman syndrome-Prader-Willi syndrome (AS-PWS) critical interval, and a more severe phenotype.

  11. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Danny C.T.; Rudduck, Christina; Chin, Koei; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lie, Daniel K.H.; Chua, Constance L.M.; Wong, Chow Yin; Hong, Ga Sze; Gray, Joe; Lee, Ann S.G.

    2008-05-06

    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We show here that LARG, from 11q23, has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, utilizing both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). LARG (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analyzed region, was underexpressed in 34% of primary breast carcinomas and 80% of breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 line. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on 30 primary breast cancers and six breast cancer cell lines showed that LARG had the highest frequency of deletion compared to the BCSC-1 and TSLC1 genes, two known candidate tumor suppressor genes from 11q. In vitro analysis of breast cancer cell lines that underexpress LARG showed that LARG could be reactivated by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, but not by 5-Aza-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation confirmed the lack of CpG island methylation in LARG in breast cancer. Restoration of LARG expression in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced proliferation and colony formation, suggesting that LARG has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor gene.

  12. High resolution SNP array genomic profiling of peripheral T cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified, identifies a subgroup with chromosomal aberrations affecting the REL locus.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sylvia; Gesk, Stefan; Scholtysik, René; Kreuz, Markus; Bug, Stefanie; Vater, Inga; Döring, Claudia; Cogliatti, Sergio; Parrens, Marie; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Kwiecinska, Anna; Porwit, Anna; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Hoefler, Gerald; Küppers, Ralf; Siebert, Reiner; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2010-02-01

    Little is known about genomic aberrations in peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL NOS). We studied 47 PTCL NOS by 250k GeneChip single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and detected genomic imbalances in 22 of the cases. Recurrent gains and losses were identified, including gains of chromosome regions 1q32-43, 2p15-16, 7, 8q24, 11q14-25, 17q11-21 and 21q11-21 (> or = 5 cases each) as well as losses of chromosome regions 1p35-36, 5q33, 6p22, 6q16, 6q21-22, 8p21-23, 9p21, 10p11-12, 10q11-22, 10q25-26, 13q14, 15q24, 16q22, 16q24, 17p11, 17p13 and Xp22 (> or = 4 cases each). Genomic imbalances affected several regions containing members of nuclear factor-kappaB signalling and genes involved in cell cycle control. Gains of 2p15-16 were confirmed in each of three cases analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and were associated with breakpoints at the REL locus in two of these cases. Three additional cases with gains of the REL locus were detected by FISH among 18 further PTCL NOS. Five of 27 PTCL NOS investigated showed nuclear expression of the REL protein by immunohistochemistry, partly associated with genomic gains of the REL locus. Therefore, in a subgroup of PTCL NOS gains/rearrangements of REL and expression of REL protein may be of pathogenetic relevance.

  13. Statistical methods for detecting genomic alterations through array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuedong; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (ABCGH) is an emerging high-resolution and high-throughput molecular genetic technique that allows genome-wide screening for chromosome alterations associated with tumorigenesis. Like the cDNA microarrays, ABCGH uses two differentially labeled test and reference DNAs which are cohybridized to cloned genomic fragments immobilized on glass slides. The hybridized DNAs are then detected in two different fluorochromes, and the significant deviation from unity in the ratios of the digitized intensity values is indicative of copy-number differences between the test and reference genomes. Proper statistical analyses need to account for many sources of variation besides genuine differences between the two genomes. In particular, spatial correlations, the variable nature of the ratio variance and non-Normal distribution call for careful statistical modeling. We propose two new statistics, the standard t-statistic and its modification with variances smoothed along the genome, and two tests for each statistic, the standard t-test and a test based on the hybrid adaptive spline (HAS). Simulations indicate that the smoothed t-statistic always improves the performance over the standard t-statistic. The t-tests are more powerful in detecting isolated alterations while those based on HAS are more powerful in detecting a cluster of alterations. We apply the proposed methods to the identification of genomic alterations in endometrium in women with endometriosis.

  14. Using aCGH to study intraspecific genetic variability in two pathogenic molds, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intraspecific molecular divergence is the basis of all sequence-based typing methods employed in many clinical laboratories to differentiate strains of pathogenic fungi. We have examined the feasibility of using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) approaches to explore the extent of gene...

  15. Detailed phenotype-genotype study in five patients with chromosome 6q16 deletion: narrowing the critical region for Prader-Willi-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bonaglia, Maria Clara; Ciccone, Roberto; Gimelli, Giorgio; Gimelli, Stefania; Marelli, Susan; Verheij, Joke; Giorda, Roberto; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Pagone, Filomena; Rodrìguez, Laura; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; van Ravenswaaij, Conny; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2008-12-01

    Most patients with an interstitial deletion of 6q16 have Prader-Willi-like phenotype, featuring obesity, hypotonia, short hands and feet, and developmental delay. In all reported studies, the chromosome rearrangement was detected by karyotype analysis, which provides an overview of the entire genome but has limited resolution. Here we describe a detailed clinical presentation of five patients, two of whom were previously reported, with overlapping interstitial 6q16 deletions and Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Our patients share the following main features with previously reported cases: global developmental delay, hypotonia, obesity, hyperphagia, and eye/vision anomalies. All rearrangement breakpoints have been accurately defined through array-CGH at about 100 Kb resolution. We were able to narrow the shortest region of deletion overlap for the presumed gene(s) involved in the Prader-Willi-like syndrome to 4.1 Mb located at 6q16.1q16.2. Our results support the evidence that haploinsufficiency of the SIM1 gene is responsible for obesity in these patients. A possible involvement of the GRIK2 gene in autistic-like behaviour, of POPDC3 in heart development, and of MCHR2 in the control of feeding behaviour and energy metabolism is also hypothesized.

  16. Discovery of the youngest sex chromosomes reveals first case of convergent co-option of ancestral autosomes in turtles.

    PubMed

    Montiel, E E; Badenhorst, D; Tamplin, J; Burke, R L; Valenzuela, N

    2017-02-01

    Most turtle species possess temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), but genotypic sex determination (GSD) has evolved multiple times independently from the TSD ancestral condition. GSD in animals typically involves sex chromosomes, yet the sex chromosome system of only 9 out of 18 known GSD turtles has been characterized. Here, we combine comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and BAC clone fluorescent in situ hybridization (BAC FISH) to identify a macro-chromosome XX/XY system in the GSD wood turtle Glyptemys insculpta (GIN), the youngest known sex chromosomes in chelonians (8-20 My old). Comparative analyses show that GIN-X/Y is homologous to chromosome 4 of Chrysemys picta (CPI) painted turtles, chromosome 5 of Gallus gallus chicken, and thus to the X/Y sex chromosomes of Siebenrockiella crassicollis black marsh turtles. We tentatively assign the gene content of the mapped BACs from CPI chromosome 4 (CPI-4) to GIN-X/Y. Chromosomal rearrangements were detected in G. insculpta sex chromosome pair that co-localize with the male-specific region of GIN-Y and encompass a gene involved in sexual development (Wt1-a putative master gene in TSD turtles). Such inversions may have mediated the divergence of G. insculpta sex chromosome pair and facilitated GSD evolution in this turtle. Our results illuminate the structure, origin, and evolution of sex chromosomes in G. insculpta and reveal the first case of convergent co-option of an autosomal pair as sex chromosomes within chelonians.

  17. Chromosome Territories

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions with other CTs is provided as well as the dynamics of CT arrangements during cell cycle and postmitotic terminal differentiation. The article concludes with a discussion of open questions and new experimental strategies to answer them. PMID:20300217

  18. The method to reduce the spinal error in the aspheric mirror testing with the CGH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fengtao; Fan, Bin; Hou, Xi; Wu, Fan; Lei, Baiping; Liu, Haitao; Zhao, Hongshen

    2016-09-01

    Interferometric optical testing using computer-generated holograms(CGHs) has proven to supply a very good and accurate measurements method of the aspheric surfaces. However, the CGHs are diffractive optical elements which use diffraction to create wavefronts of light with desired amplitudes and phases. The different diffraction order of the light would be make some ghost image to the fringe pattern. It would introduce some spinal error to the measurement results. This error would not be avoided after the CGH designed and manufactured. In this work, we take two measurement steps to reduce the spinal error. The first step, the apheric mirror was tested with the CGHs. The second step, the aspheric mirror was tested with transmission sphere directly. Then the subaperture theory was used to obtain the final measurement results of the aspheric mirror surface. The experimental demonstrations were provided by testing an aspheric mirror. The results are shown that this method could reduce the spinal error.

  19. Trisomy of chromosome 16p13.3 due to an unbalanced insertional translocation into chromosome 22p13.

    PubMed

    de Ravel, Thomy; Aerssens, Peter; Vermeesch, Joris R; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    A dysmorphic boy with severe mental retardation was found on array CGH to have an insertional translocation of chromosome 16p13.3 into the short arm of chromosome 22, karyotype 46,XY,.ish der(22),ins(22;16)(p13;p13.3p13.3) de novo. His clinical features overlap with the reported cases of 'duplication 16p' syndrome, namely a round face, hypertelorism, a long philtrum, micrognathia, a thin upper lip, a posterior cleft palate and low set, simple ears, clubbed feet, severe developmental delay, psychomotor retardation and seizures. This 4-year boy with trisomy 16p13.3 has the smallest duplication reported of this critical region, which could not be detected without array CGH. The maximal duplicated region is gene rich and contains about 80 genes and/or candidate genes. Assignment of the genes that contribute to the observed phenotype awaits the characterisation of other patients with small duplications in this region.

  20. Gain of chromosome 2p in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: significant heterogeneity and a new recurrent dicentric rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Jarosova, Marie; Urbankova, Helena; Plachy, Radek; Papajik, Tomas; Holzerova, Milena; Balcarkova, Jana; Pikalova, Zuzana; Divoky, Vladimir; Indrak, Karel

    2010-02-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) studies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have revealed novel recurrent chromosomal imbalances, such as a gain of chromosome 2p. However, a detailed cytogenetic analysis of the 2p gain region has not been elucidated. Here, we present cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of 16 such cases selected from a group of 200 patients with CLL based on CGH and/or arrayCGH data. We revealed significant heterogeneity of the region of gain on 2p in CLL, including a new recurrent aberration: the dicentric chromosome, dic(2;18). In our cases, the region of gain involved three genes (MYCN, REL, and ALK) and was associated with an unmutated IgVH status in 14 out of 16 cases. We consider this aberration clinically important in CLL and suggest that an examination of the gene(s) located in region of gain should be included in the routine fluorescence in situ hybridization screening method used for patients with CLL.

  1. A 10.46 Mb 12p11.1-12.1 interstitial deletion coincident with a 0.19 Mb NRXN1 deletion detected by array CGH in a girl with scoliosis and autism.

    PubMed

    Soysal, Yasemin; Vermeesch, Joris; Davani, Nooshin Ardeshir; Hekimler, Kuyaş; Imirzalioğlu, Necat

    2011-07-01

    We present a 12-year-old girl with de novo karyotype 46,XX,del(12)(p11.1p12.1). Array CGH revealed in addition to a 10.466 Mb interstitial deletion on 12p11.1→12p12.1 a 0.191 Mb deletion on 2p16.3. The girl presented with mild facial dysmorphism consisting of microcephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, strabismus, broad nasal base, bulbous nose, short philtrum, micro/retrognathia, irregular tooth arrangement, phalangeal deformity in distal phalanges of hands, 5th finger camptodactyly, brachydactyly in feet, history of joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. She was considered to have mild to moderate mental retardation and ascertained for an autism spectrum disorder(ASD). Short arm of chromosome 12 interstitial deletions are rarely reported whereas point mutations and deletions of NRXN1, which is located on chromosome 2p16.3, are associated with ASDs. In this article we present and discuss the phenotypic consequences of a patient who was affected by deletions of two different chromosomal regions.

  2. High-resolution mapping and chromosome landing at the root-know nematode resistance locus Ma from Myrobalan plum using a large-insert BAC DNA library.

    PubMed

    Claverie, M; Dirlewanger, E; Cosson, P; Bosselut, N; Lecouls, A C; Voisin, R; Kleinhentz, M; Lafargue, B; Caboche, M; Chalhoub, B; Esmenjaud, D

    2004-10-01

    The Ma gene for root-knot nematode (RKN)resistance from Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera L.)confers a complete-spectrum and a heat-stable resistance to Meloidogvne spp., conversely to Mi-I from tomato,which has a more restricted spectrum and a reduced efficiency at high temperature. This gene was identified from a perennial self-incompatible near-wild rootstock species and lies in cosegregation with the SCAR marker SCAFLP2 on the Prunus linkage group 7 in a 2.3 cM interval between the SCAR SCAL19 and SSR pchgms6 markers. We initiated a map-based cloning of Ma and report here the strategy that rapidly led to fine mapping and direct chromosome landing at the locus. Three pairs of bulks, totaling 90 individuals from half-sibling progenies derived from the Ma-heterozygous resistant accession P.2175, were constructed using mapping data, and saturation of the Ma region was performed by bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of 320 AFLP primer pair combinations. The closest three AFLP markers were transformed into codominant SCARs or CAPS designatedSCAFLP3, SCAFLP4 and SCAFLP5. By completing the mapping population up to 1,332 offspring from P.2175,Ma and SCAFLP2 were mapped in a 0.8 cM interval between SCAFLP3 and SCAFLP4. A large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA library of P.2175,totaling 30,720 clones with a mean insert size of 145 kb and a 14-15x Prunus haploid genome coverage was constructed and used to land on the Ma spanning interval with few BAC clones. As P.2175 is heterozygous for the gene, we constructed the resistant and susceptible physical contigs by PCR screening of the library with codominant markers. Additional microsatellite markers were then designed from BAC subcloning or BAC end sequencing. In the resistant contig, a single 280 kb BAC clone was shown to carry the Ma gene; this BAC contains two flanking markers on each side of the gene as well as two cosegregating markers. These results should allow future cloning of the Ma gene in this

  3. Real-time generation of high-definition resolution digital holograms by using multiple graphic processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Joongseok; Park, Jungsik; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2013-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a practical approach for implementing computer-generated-holography (CGH) using multiple graphic processing units (GPUs). The proposed method can generate high-definition (HD) resolution (1920×1080) digital holograms in real-time. In order to demonstrate the plausibility of our method, some experimental results will be given. First, we discuss the advantage of GPUs for CGH against central processing units (CPUs) by comparing the performance of both. Our results show that use of GPUs can shorten CGH computation time by 2791 times. Then, we discuss the potential of multiple GPUs for generating HD resolution digital holograms in real-time by measuring and analyzing the CGH computational time in accordance with the number of GPUs. Our result shows that the CGH computational time decreases nonlinearly, with a logarithmic-like curve, as the number of GPU increases. Therefore, we can determine the number of GPUs to maximize the efficiency. Consequently, our implementation can generate HD resolution digital holograms at a rate of more than 66 hps (holograms-per-second) using two NVIDIA GTX 590 cards.

  4. The Peach v2.0 release: high-resolution linkage mapping and deep resequencing improve chromosome-scale assembly and contiguity.

    PubMed

    Verde, Ignazio; Jenkins, Jerry; Dondini, Luca; Micali, Sabrina; Pagliarani, Giulia; Vendramin, Elisa; Paris, Roberta; Aramini, Valeria; Gazza, Laura; Rossini, Laura; Bassi, Daniele; Troggio, Michela; Shu, Shengqiang; Grimwood, Jane; Tartarini, Stefano; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2017-03-11

    The availability of the peach genome sequence has fostered relevant research in peach and related Prunus species enabling the identification of genes underlying important horticultural traits as well as the development of advanced tools for genetic and genomic analyses. The first release of the peach genome (Peach v1.0) represented a high-quality WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) chromosome-scale assembly with high contiguity (contig L50 214.2 kb), large portions of mapped sequences (96%) and high base accuracy (99.96%). The aim of this work was to improve the quality of the first assembly by increasing the portion of mapped and oriented sequences, correcting misassemblies and improving the contiguity and base accuracy using high-throughput linkage mapping and deep resequencing approaches. Four linkage maps with 3,576 molecular markers were used to improve the portion of mapped and oriented sequences (from 96.0% and 85.6% of Peach v1.0 to 99.2% and 98.2% of v2.0, respectively) and enabled a more detailed identification of discernible misassemblies (10.4 Mb in total). The deep resequencing approach fixed 859 homozygous SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) and 1347 homozygous indels. Moreover, the assembled NGS contigs enabled the closing of 212 gaps with an improvement in the contig L50 of 19.2%. The improved high quality peach genome assembly (Peach v2.0) represents a valuable tool for the analysis of the genetic diversity, domestication, and as a vehicle for genetic improvement of peach and related Prunus species. Moreover, the important phylogenetic position of peach and the absence of recent whole genome duplication (WGD) events make peach a pivotal species for comparative genomics studies aiming at elucidating plant speciation and diversification processes.

  5. High-Resolution Physical and Genetic Mapping of the Critical Region for Meckel Syndrome and Mulibrey Nanism on Chromosome 17q22–q23

    PubMed Central

    Paavola, Paulina; Avela, Kristiina; Horelli-Kuitunen, Nina; Bärlund, Maarit; Kallioniemi, Anne; Idänheimo, Niina; Kyttälä, Mira; de la Chapelle, Albert; Palotie, Aarno; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Peltonen, Leena

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we assigned the genes for two autosomal recessive disorders, Meckel syndrome (MKS; MIM 249000) and Mulibrey Nanism [MUL (muscle–liver–brain–eye Nanism); MIM 253250] that are enriched in the Finnish population, to overlapping genomic regions on chromosome 17q. Now, we report the construction of a bacterial clone contig over the critical region for both disorders. Several novel CA-repeat markers were isolated from these clones, which allowed refined mapping of the MKS and MUL loci using haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis. The localization of the MKS locus was narrowed to <1 cM between markers D17S1290 and 132-CA, within an ∼800-kb region. The MUL locus was refined into an ∼1400-kb interval between markers D17S1290 and 52-CA. The whole MKS region falls within the MUL region. In the common critical region, the conserved haplotypes were different in MKS and MUL patients. A trancript map was constructed by assigning expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes, derived from the human gene map, to the bacterial clone contig. Altogether, four genes and a total of 20 ESTs were precisely localized. These data provide the molecular tools for the final identification of the MKS and the MUL genes. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. G42608–G42611, G42376–G42388, and G42200–G42250. The online supplement for primer sequences and PCR product sizes, as well as the STS-content table, are available at http://www.cshl.org/gr.] PMID:10077533

  6. Amplification and overexpression of CTTN and CCND1 at chromosome 11q13 in Esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) of North Eastern Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Moon, Ji Wook; Li, Shibo; Xu, Weihong; Wang, Xianfu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and is a major cause of cancer-related mortality. The combination of genetics, diet, behavior, and environment plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. To characterize the genomic aberrations of this disease, we investigated the genomic imbalances in 19 primary ESCC cases using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). All cases showed either loss or gain of whole chromosomes or segments of chromosome(s) with variable genomic sizes. The copy number alterations per case affected the median 34% (~ 1,034Mb/3,000Mb) of the whole genome. Recurrent gains were 1q21.3-qter, 3q13.11-qter, 5pter-p11, 7pter-p15.3, 7p12.1-p11.2, 7q11-q11.2, 8p12-qter, 11q13.2-q13.3, 12pter-p13.31, 17q24.2, 20q11.21-qter, and 22q11.21-q11.22 whereas the recurrent losses were 3pter-p11.1, 4pter-p12, 4q28.3-q31.22, 4q31.3-q32.1, 9pter-p12, 11q22.3-qter and 13q12.11-q22.1. Amplification of 11q13 resulting in overexpression of CTTN/CCND1 was the most prominent finding, which was observed in 13 of 19 ESCC cases. These unique profiles of copy number alteration should be validated by further studies and need to be taken into consideration when developing biomarkers for early detection of ESCC.

  7. Chromosome Microarray.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed.

  8. Microdeletions involving chromosomes 12 and 22 associated with syndromic Duane retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Kondkar, Altaf A; Oystreck, Darren T; Khan, Arif O; Bosley, Thomas M

    2014-09-01

    Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is the most common of the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). CCDDs can be monogenic or chromosomal in origin. Identification of the genetic cause(s) in patients and families with DRS facilitates definitive diagnosis and provides insights into these developmental errors. This study described a young girl with DRS on the left and several additional developmental abnormalities. Clinical examination including neuroimaging, sequencing of candidate genes associated with DRS, and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) were performed. The proband had unilateral DRS type 3 on the left with somewhat low-set ears, mild motor delay with normal intelligence, and an asymmetric neck without a palpable right sternocleidomastoid muscle. Spine X-rays revealed a Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) and an MRI showed a webbed neck. She also had spina bifida at C8-T1 and a submucosal cleft palate. The parents of the proband were related with no other family member affected similarly. Sequencing of SALL4, CHN1, HOXA1, and TUBB3 did not show any mutation. Array CGH revealed de novo deletions of 21 Kb on chromosome 12q24.31 and 11 Kb on chromosome 22q13.31, each encompassing only one gene, ring finger protein 34, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (RNF34) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) respectively. This patient presents an unusual phenotype associated with a unique combination of two chromosomal microdeletions.

  9. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in human infertility.

    PubMed

    Guediche, N; Tosca, L; Kara Terki, A; Bas, C; Lecerf, L; Young, J; Briand-Suleau, A; Tou, B; Bouligand, J; Brisset, S; Misrahi, M; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Goossens, M; Tachdjian, G

    2012-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding cytogenetics. This study describes four patients with sSMC in relation with infertility. Patient 1 had primary infertility. His brother, fertile, carried the same sSMC (patient 2). Patient 3 presented polycystic ovary syndrome and patient 4 primary ovarian insufficiency. Cytogenetic studies, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and sperm analyses were compared with cases previously reported. sSMC corresponded to the 15q11.2 region (patients 1 and 2), the centromeric chromosome 15 region (patient 3) and the 21p11.2 region (patient 4). Array CGH showed 3.6-Mb gain for patients 1 and 2 and 0.266-Mb gain for patient 4. Sperm fluorescent in-situ hybridization analyses found ratios of 0.37 and 0.30 of sperm nuclei with sSMC(15) for patients 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). An increase of sperm nuclei with disomy X, Y and 18 was noted for patient 1 compared with control and patient 2 (P < 0.001). Among the genes mapped in the unbalanced chromosomal regions, POTE B and BAGE are related to the testis and ovary, respectively. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to duplication, but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  11. High-Resolution Mapping of a Genetic Locus Regulating Preferential Carbohydrate Intake, Total Kilocalories, and Food Volume on Mouse Chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Gularte-Mérida, Rodrigo; DiCarlo, Lisa M.; Robertson, Ginger; Simon, Jacob; Johnson, William D.; Kappen, Claudia; Medrano, Juan F.; Richards, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    The specific genes regulating the quantitative variation in macronutrient preference and food intake are virtually unknown. We fine mapped a previously identified mouse chromosome 17 region harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) with large effects on preferential macronutrient intake-carbohydrate (Mnic1), total kilcalories (Kcal2), and total food volume (Tfv1) using interval-specific strains. These loci were isolated in the [C57BL/6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1-(D17Mit19-D17Mit50); B6.CAST-17.1] strain, possessing a ∼40.1 Mb region of CAST DNA on the B6 genome. In a macronutrient selection paradigm, the B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice eat 30% more calories from the carbohydrate-rich diet, ∼10% more total calories, and ∼9% more total food volume per body weight. In the current study, a cross between carbohydrate-preferring B6.CAST-17.1 and fat-preferring, inbred B6 mice was used to generate a subcongenic-derived F2 mapping population; genotypes were determined using a high-density, custom SNP panel. Genetic linkage analysis substantially reduced the 95% confidence interval for Mnic1 (encompassing Kcal2 and Tfv1) from 40.1 to 29.5 Mb and more precisely established its boundaries. Notably, no genetic linkage for self-selected fat intake was detected, underscoring the carbohydrate-specific effect of this locus. A second key finding was the separation of two energy balance QTLs: Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 for food intake and a newly discovered locus regulating short term body weight gain. The Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 QTL was further de-limited to 19.0 Mb, based on the absence of nutrient intake phenotypes in subcongenic HQ17IIa mice. Analyses of available sequence data and gene ontologies, along with comprehensive expression profiling in the hypothalamus of non-recombinant, cast/cast and b6/b6 F2 controls, focused our attention on candidates within the QTL interval. Zfp811, Zfp870, and Btnl6 showed differential expression and also contain stop codons, but have no known biology related to food

  12. Cryptic deletions are a common finding in “balanced” reciprocal and complex chromosome rearrangements: a study of 59 patients

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, M; Ciccone, R; Magini, P; Pramparo, T; Gimelli, S; Messa, J; Novara, F; Vetro, A; Rossi, E; Maraschio, P; Bonaglia, M C; Anichini, C; Ferrero, G B; Silengo, M; Fazzi, E; Zatterale, A; Fischetto, R; Previderé, C; Belli, S; Turci, A; Calabrese, G; Bernardi, F; Meneghelli, E; Riegel, M; Rocchi, M; SGuerneri; Lalatta, F; Zelante, L; Romano, C; Fichera, Ma; Mattina, T; Arrigo, G; Zollino, M; Giglio, S; Lonardo, F; Bonfante, A; Ferlini, A; Cifuentes, F; Van Esch, H; Backx, L; Schinzel, A; Vermeesch, J R; Zuffardi, O

    2007-01-01

    Using array comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) 41 de novo reciprocal translocations and 18 de novo complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) were screened. All cases had been interpreted as “balanced” by conventional cytogenetics. In all, 27 cases of reciprocal translocations were detected in patients with an abnormal phenotype, and after array CGH analysis, 11 were found to be unbalanced. Thus 40% (11 of 27) of patients with a “chromosomal phenotype” and an apparently balanced translocation were in fact unbalanced, and 18% (5 of 27) of the reciprocal translocations were instead complex rearrangements with >3 breakpoints. Fourteen fetuses with de novo, apparently balanced translocations, all but two with normal ultrasound findings, were also analysed and all were found to be normal using array CGH. Thirteen CCRs were detected in patients with abnormal phenotypes, two in women who had experienced repeated spontaneous abortions and three in fetuses. Sixteen patients were found to have unbalanced mutations, with up to 4 deletions. These results suggest that genome‐wide array CGH may be advisable in all carriers of “balanced” CCRs. The parental origin of the deletions was investigated in 5 reciprocal translocations and 11 CCRs; all were found to be paternal. Using customised platforms in seven cases of CCRs, the deletion breakpoints were narrowed down to regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. No susceptibility motifs were associated with the imbalances. These results show that the phenotypic abnormalities of apparently balanced de novo CCRs are mainly due to cryptic deletions and that spermatogenesis is more prone to generate multiple chaotic chromosome imbalances and reciprocal translocations than oogenesis. PMID:17766364

  13. X Chromosome Evolution in Cetartiodactyla

    PubMed Central

    Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Makunin, Alexey I.; Kukekova, Anna V.; Lynn Johnson, Jennifer; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Roelke-Parker, Melody E.; Bellizzi, June; Ryder, Oliver A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization. To trace the X chromosome evolution during fast radiation in specious families, we performed mapping in several cervids (moose, Siberian roe deer, fallow deer, and Pere David’s deer) and bovid (muskox, goat, sheep, sable antelope, and cattle) species. We have identified three major conserved synteny blocks and rearrangements in different cetartiodactyl lineages and found that the recently described phenomenon of the evolutionary new centromere emergence has taken place in the X chromosome evolution of Cetartiodactyla at least five times. We propose the structure of the putative ancestral cetartiodactyl X chromosome by reconstructing the order of syntenic segments and centromere position for key groups. PMID:28858207

  14. Lampbrush chromosomes enable study of cohesin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher; Novikova, Natalya; Guacci, Vincent; Bellini, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The lampbrush chromosomes present in the nuclei of amphibian oocytes offer unique biological approaches for study of the mechanisms that regulate chromatin structure with high spatial resolution. We discuss fundamental aspects of the remarkable organization and plasticity exhibited by lampbrush chromosomes. We then utilize lampbrush chromosomes to characterize the chromosomal distribution and dynamics of cohesin, the four-protein complex (RAD21/MCD1/SCC1, SMC1, SMC3, SCC3/SA2) responsible for sister chromatid cohesion. We find that endogenous SMC3 and newly expressed hRAD21 co-localize on chromosomal axes, sites where sister chromatids are tightly paired. We present evidence suggesting that hRAD21 recruitment to lampbrush chromosomes is modulated by chromosomal SMC1 and SMC3. Notably, using a technique for de novo chromosome assembly, we demonstrate that both SMC3 and hRAD21 are recruited to single, unreplicated lampbrush chromatids. Finally, we used our novel method of analyzing the oocyte nucleus under oil combined with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, to provide direct evidence that cohesin is highly dynamic at discrete, condensed chromosomal regions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that lampbrush chromosomes provide a unique and powerful tool for combining biochemical and cytological analyses for dissection of complex chromosomal processes.

  15. Genome architecture: domain organization of interphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bickmore, Wendy A; van Steensel, Bas

    2013-03-14

    The architecture of interphase chromosomes is important for the regulation of gene expression and genome maintenance. Chromosomes are linearly segmented into hundreds of domains with different protein compositions. Furthermore, the spatial organization of chromosomes is nonrandom and is characterized by many local and long-range contacts among genes and other sequence elements. A variety of genome-wide mapping techniques have made it possible to chart these properties at high resolution. Combined with microscopy and computational modeling, the results begin to yield a more coherent picture that integrates linear and three-dimensional (3D) views of chromosome organization in relation to gene regulation and other nuclear functions.

  16. Mechanisms of chromosome behaviour during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Claire E.; Cai, Shang; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have strived to understand the mechanisms that govern the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. The most intriguing feature of this process, which is particularly prominent in higher eukaryotes, is the complex behaviour exhibited by the chromosomes. This behaviour is based on specific and highly regulated interactions between the chromosomes and spindle microtubules. Recent discoveries, enabled by high-resolution imaging combined with the various genetic, molecular, cell biological and chemical tools, support the idea that establishing and controlling the dynamic interaction between chromosomes and microtubules is a major factor in genomic fidelity. PMID:20068571

  17. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  18. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  19. Small-cell lung cancer is characterized by a high incidence of deletions on chromosomes 3p, 4q, 5q, 10q, 13q and 17p.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, I.; Langreck, H.; Wolf, G.; Schwendel, A.; Psille, R.; Vogt, P.; Reichel, M. B.; Ried, T.; Dietel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms that define the malignant behaviour of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) are poorly understood. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on 22 autoptic SCLCs to screen the tumour genome for genomic imbalances. DNA loss of chromosome 3p was a basic alteration that occurred in all tumours. Additionally, deletions were observed on chromosome 10q in 94% of tumours and on chromosomes 4q, 5q, 13q and 17p in 86% of tumours. DNA loss was confirmed by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis for chromosomes 3p, 5q and 10q. Simultaneous mutations of these six most abundant genetic changes were found in 12 cases. One single tumour carried at least five deletions. DNA under-representations were observed less frequently on chromosome 15q (55%) and chromosome 16q (45%). The prevalent imbalances were clearly indicated by the superposition of the 22 tumours to a CGH superkaryogram. In our view, the high incidence of chromosomal loss is an indication that SCLC is defined by a pattern of deletions and that the inactivation of multiple growth-inhibitory pathways contributes in particular to the aggressive phenotype of that type of tumour. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9000602

  20. Spitzoid malignant melanoma with lymph-node metastasis. Is a copy-number loss on chromosome 6q a marker of malignancy?

    PubMed

    Mihic-Probst, D; Zhao, J; Saremaslani, P; Baer, A; Komminoth, P; Heitz, P U

    2001-12-01

    Distinction of spitzoid malignant melanomas (SMM) from Spitz nevi may be difficult or even impossible on the basis of conventional histology. In this report, a patient suffering from a primary lesion diagnosed as a Spitz nevus and a metastatic malignant melanoma approximately 4 years thereafter is described. A diagnosis of SMM was made subsequently upon review of the primary lesion. In the present analysis, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to define markers characteristic of SMM. The primary lesion revealed deletions on chromosomes 6q and 9p. In the metastasis, additional deletions on chromosomes 10p and 10q and gains of chromosome 7 were found. To our knowledge, no chromosomal aberration on chromosome 6 was hitherto demonstrated in benign melanocytic nevi. Findings reported in the literature suggest that human melanoma metastasis suppressor gene maps to 6q. In contrast, losses on chromosome 9p seem to be an early event in the development of melanoma. However, they are not only found in melanomas but are occasionally present in Spitz nevi as well as in atypical nevi. The CGH result with deletion of 6q in this difficult to diagnose primary melanocytic lesion strongly supports the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. To demonstrate the reliability of loss on chromosome 6q as a marker of SMM, a larger number of lesions must be investigated.

  1. Clinical trial involving sufferers and non-sufferers of cervicogenic headache (CGH): potential mechanisms of action of photobiomodulation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Ann D.; Bicknell, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is an effective tool for the management of spinal pain including inflammation of facet joints. Apart from cervical and lumbar joint pain the upper cervical spine facet joint inflammation can result in the CGH (traumatic or atraumatic in origin). This condition affects children, adults and elders and is responsible for 19% of chronic headache and up to 33% of patients in pain clinics. The condition responds well to physiotherapy, facet joint injection, radiofrequency neurotomy and surgery at a rate of 75%. The other 25% being unresponsive to treatment with no identified features of unresponsiveness. In other conditions of chronic unresponsive cervical pain have responded to photobiomodulation at a level of 80% in the short and medium term. A clinical trial was therefore conducted on a cohort of atraumatic patients from the ages of 5-93 (predominantly Neurologist referred / familial sufferers 2/3 generations vertically and laterally) who had responded to a course of PBM and physiotherapy. The CGH sufferers and their non CGH suffering relatives over these generations were then compared for features that distinguish the two groups. Fifty parameters were tested (anthropmetric, movement and neural tension tests included) and there was a noted difference in tandem stance between the groups (.04 significance with repeated measures). As this impairment is common to benign ataxia and migrainous vertigo and in these conditions there is an ion channelopathy (especially potassium channelopathy). A postulated mechanism of action of PBM would involve modulation of ion channels and this is discussed in this presentation.

  2. Ultra dense array CGH and discovery of micro-copy number alterations and gene fusions in cancer genome

    PubMed Central

    Przybytkowski, Ewa; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adrianan; Nabavi, Sheida; Tonellato, Peter J.; Basik, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of molecular alterations specific to cancer facilitates the discovery of predictive and prognostic biomarkers important to targeted therapeutics. Alterations critical to cancer therapeutics include copy number alterations (CNAs) such as gene amplifications and deletions as well as genomic rearrangements resulting in gene fusions. There are two genome-wide technologies used to detect CNAs: next generation sequencing (NGS) and dense microarray based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Array CGH is a mature robust technology of lower cost and more accessible than NGS. This chapter describes the protocol steps and analysis required to obtain reliable aCGH results from clinical samples. Technical options and various necessary compromises related to the nature of clinical material are considered and the consequences of these choices for data analysis and interpretation are discussed. The chapter includes brief description of the data analysis, even though analysis is often performed by bioinformaticians. Today’s cancer research requires collaboration of clinicians, molecular biologist and mathematicians. Acquaintance with the basic principles related to the extraction of the data from arrays, its normalization and the algorithms available for analysis provides a baseline for mutual understanding and communication. PMID:23412781

  3. Massively parallel sequencing, aCGH, and RNA-Seq technologies provide a comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Lach, Francis P; Kimble, Danielle C; Kamat, Aparna; Teer, Jamie K; Donovan, Frank X; Flynn, Elizabeth; Sen, Shurjo K; Thongthip, Supawat; Sanborn, Erica; Smogorzewska, Agata; Auerbach, Arleen D; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2013-05-30

    Current methods for detecting mutations in Fanconi anemia (FA)-suspected patients are inefficient and often miss mutations. We have applied recent advances in DNA sequencing and genomic capture to the diagnosis of FA. Specifically, we used custom molecular inversion probes or TruSeq-enrichment oligos to capture and sequence FA and related genes, including introns, from 27 samples from the International Fanconi Anemia Registry at The Rockefeller University. DNA sequencing was complemented with custom array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. aCGH identified deletions/duplications in 4 different FA genes. RNA-seq analysis revealed lack of allele specific expression associated with a deletion and splicing defects caused by missense, synonymous, and deep-in-intron variants. The combination of TruSeq-targeted capture, aCGH, and RNA-seq enabled us to identify the complementation group and biallelic germline mutations in all 27 families: FANCA (7), FANCB (3), FANCC (3), FANCD1 (1), FANCD2 (3), FANCF (2), FANCG (2), FANCI (1), FANCJ (2), and FANCL (3). FANCC mutations are often the cause of FA in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) ancestry, and we identified 2 novel FANCC mutations in 2 patients of AJ ancestry. We describe here a strategy for efficient molecular diagnosis of FA.

  4. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis reveals YRF1 gene copy number variation that modulates genetic stability in distillery yeasts.

    PubMed

    Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-10-13

    Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains.

  5. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis reveals YRF1 gene copy number variation that modulates genetic stability in distillery yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Skoneczna, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains. PMID:26384347

  6. Deletion of chromosome 3 and a 3;20 reciprocal translocation demonstrated by chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, B.; Cardoso, H.; Mimbacas, A.

    1995-01-02

    The combined use of high resolution banding and chromosome painting techniques allowed us to identify a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 3 and 20 and simultaneous interstitial deletion of chromosome 3 in a patient with several minor anomalies of the face and hands. His karyotype is described as 46,XY,t(3;20) (p14.2;p12.2),del(3)(p11-p14.1). 25 refs., 3 figs.

  7. A high-resolution map of the Grp1 locus on chromosome V of potato harbouring broad-spectrum resistance to the cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Danan, Sarah; van Dijk, Thijs; Beyene, Amelework; Bouwman, Liesbeth; Overmars, Hein; van Eck, Herman; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Bakker, Erin

    2009-06-01

    The Grp1 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis and is located in the GP21-GP179 interval on the short arm of chromosome V of potato. A high-resolution map has been developed using the diploid mapping population RHAM026, comprising 1,536 genotypes. The flanking markers GP21 and GP179 have been used to screen the 1,536 genotypes for recombination events. Interval mapping of the resistances to G. pallida Pa2 and G. rostochiensis Ro5 resulted in two nearly identical LOD graphs with the highest LOD score just north of marker TG432. Detailed analysis of the 44 recombinant genotypes showed that G. pallida and G. rostochiensis resistance could not be separated and map to the same location between marker SPUD838 and TG432. It is suggested that the quantitative resistance to both nematode species at the Grp1 locus is mediated by one or more tightly linked R genes that might belong to the NBS-LRR class.

  8. Increased number of chromosomal imbalances and high-level DNA amplifications in mantle cell lymphoma are associated with blastoid variants.

    PubMed

    Beà, S; Ribas, M; Hernández, J M; Bosch, F; Pinyol, M; Hernández, L; García, J L; Flores, T; González, M; López-Guillermo, A; Piris, M A; Cardesa, A; Montserrat, E; Miró, R; Campo, E

    1999-06-15

    Mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) are characterized by 11q13 chromosomal translocations and cyclin D1 overexpression. The secondary genetic and molecular events involved in the progression of these tumors are not well known. In this study, we have analyzed 45 MCLs (32 typical and 13 blastoid variants) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To identify the possible genes included in the abnormal chromosome regions, selected cases were analyzed for P53, P16(INK4a), RB, C-MYC, N-MYC, BCL2, BCL6, CDK4, and BMI-1 gene alterations. The most frequent imbalances detected by CGH were gains of chromosomes 3q (49%), 7p (27%), 8q (22%), 12q (20%), 18q (18%), and 9q34 (16%) and losses of chromosomes 13 (44%), 6q (27%), 1p (24%), 11q14-q23 (22%), 10p14-p15 (18%), 17p (16%), and 9p (16%). High-level DNA amplifications were identified in 11 different regions of the genome, predominantly in 3q27-q29 (13%), 18q23 (9%), and Xq28 (7%). The CGH analysis allowed the identification of regional consensus areas in most of the frequently involved chromosomes. Chromosome gains (P =. 02) and losses (P =.01) and DNA amplifications (P =.015) were significantly higher in blastoid variants. The significant differences between blastoid and typical tumors were gains of 3q, 7p, and 12q, and losses of 17p. CGH losses of 17p correlated with P53 gene deletions and mutations. Similarly, gains of 12q and high-level DNA amplifications of 10p12-p13 were associated with CDK4 and BMI-1 gene amplifications, respectively. One of 2 cases with 8q24 amplification showed C-MYC amplification by Southern blot. Alterations in 2p, 3q, 13, and 18q were not associated with N-MYC, BCL6, RB, or BCL2 alterations, respectively, suggesting that other genes may be the targets of these genetic abnormalities in MCLs. Increased number of gains (0 v 1-4 v >4 gains per case) (P =.002), gains of 3q (P =.02), gains of 12q (P =.03), and losses of 9p (P =. 003) were significantly associated with a shorter survival of the patients

  9. Chromosome structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

  10. Sex determination in Madagascar geckos of the genus Paroedura (Squamata: Gekkonidae): are differentiated sex chromosomes indeed so evolutionary stable?

    PubMed

    Koubová, Martina; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Farkačová, Klára; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-12-01

    Among amniote vertebrates, geckos represent a clade with exceptional variability in sex determination; however, only a minority of species of this highly diverse group has been studied in this respect. Here, we describe for the first time a female heterogamety in the genus Paroedura, the group radiated in Madagascar and adjacent islands. We identified homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome in Paroedura masobe, Paroedura oviceps, Paroedura karstophila, Paroedura stumpffi, and Paroedura lohatsara. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed that female-specific sequences are greatly amplified in the W chromosome of P. lohatsara and that P. gracilis seems to possess a derived system of multiple sex chromosomes. Contrastingly, neither CGH nor heterochromatin visualization revealed differentiated sex chromosomes in the members of the Paroedura picta-Paroedura bastardi-Paroedura ibityensis clade, which is phylogenetically nested within lineages with a heterochromatic W chromosome. As a sex ratio consistent with genotypic sex determination has been reported in P. picta, it appears that the members of the P. picta-P. bastardi-P. ibityensis clade possess homomorphic, poorly differentiated sex chromosomes and may represent a rare example of evolutionary loss of highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe revealed a telomere-typical pattern in all species and an accumulation of telomeric sequences in the centromeric region of autosomes in P. stumpffi and P. bastardi. Our study adds important information for the greater understanding of the variability and evolution of sex determination in geckos and demonstrates how the geckos of the genus Paroedura provide an interesting model for studying the evolution of the sex chromosomes.

  11. The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ezaz, Tariq; Quinn, Alexander E; Miura, Ikuo; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2005-01-01

    The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae: Reptilia) is an agamid lizard endemic to Australia. Like crocodilians and many turtles, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common in agamid lizards, although many species have genotypic sex determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex chromosomes in this species. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), GTG- and C-banding identified a highly heterochromatic microchromosome specific to females, demonstrating female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW) in this species. We isolated the P. vitticeps W chromosome by microdissection, re-amplified the DNA and used it to paint the W. No unpaired bivalents were detected in male synaptonemal complexes at meiotic pachytene, confirming male homogamety. We conclude that P. vitticeps has differentiated previously unidentifable W and Z micro-sex chromosomes, the first to be demonstrated in an agamid lizard. Our finding implies that heterochromatinization of the heterogametic chromosome occurred during sex chromosome differentiation in this species, as is the case in some lizards and many snakes, as well as in birds and mammals. Many GSD reptiles with cryptic sex chromosomes may also prove to have micro-sex chromosomes. Reptile microchromosomes, long dismissed as non-functional minutiae and often omitted from karyotypes, therefore deserve closer scrutiny with new and more sensitive techniques.

  12. Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Suppression of Repetitive Sequences in Whole Chromosome Painting Probes for FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, L C; Pattee, M; Williams, J; Eklund, M; Bedford, J S; Christian, A T

    2004-04-21

    We have developed a method to suppress the PCR amplification of repetitive sequences in whole chromosome painting probes by adding Cot-1 DNA to the amplification mixture. The repetitive sequences in the Cot-1 DNA bind to their homologous sequences in the probe library, prevent the binding of primers, and interfere with extension of the probe sequences, greatly decreasing PCR efficiency selectively across these blocked regions. A second labeling reaction is then done and this product is resuspended in FISH hybridization mixture without further addition of blocking DNA. The hybridization produces little if any non-specific binding on any other chromosomes. We have been able to successfully use this procedure with both human and rat chromosome probes. This technique should be applicable in producing probes for CGH, M-FISH and SKY, as well as reducing the presence of repetitive DNA in genomic libraries.

  13. A novel 47.2 Mb duplication on chromosomal bands Xq21.1-25 associated with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhijuan; Yu, Li; Geng, Juan; Wang, Jian; Jin, Xingming; Huang, Hong

    2015-08-01

    We present array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) characterization of a novel Xq21.1-25 duplication in a 2-year-old girl with facial dysmorphism, mental retardation and short stature. Analysis of aCGH results revealed a 47,232kb duplication region that harbored 231 RefSeq genes, including 32 OMIM genes. Ten genes (i.e., ZNF711, SRPX2, RAB40AL, MID2, ACSL4, PAK3, UBE2A, UPF3B, CUL4B, and GRIA3) in the duplication interval have been associated with mental retardation. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation in this case. Our case provides evidence for an association of mental retardation with X chromosome duplication.

  14. Somatic Mosaicism in Cases with Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liehr, Thomas; Karamysheva, Tatyana; Merkas, Martina; Brecevic, Lukrecija; Hamid, Ahmed B.; Ewers, Elisabeth; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Weise, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that. PMID:21358988

  15. Association of chromosome 19 to lung cancer genotypes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yong; Nilsson, Carol L; Berven, Frode S; Andrén, Per E; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Horvatovich, Peter; Malm, Johan; Fuentes, Manuel; Végvári, Ákos; Welinder, Charlotte; Fehniger, Thomas E; Rezeli, Melinda; Edula, Goutham; Hober, Sophia; Nishimura, Toshihide; Marko-Varga, György

    2015-06-01

    The Chromosome 19 Consortium, a part of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP, http://www.C-HPP.org ), is tasked with the understanding chromosome 19 functions at the gene and protein levels, as well as their roles in lung oncogenesis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies revealed chromosome aberration in lung cancer subtypes, including ADC, SCC, LCC, and SCLC. The most common abnormality is 19p loss and 19q gain. Sixty-four aberrant genes identified in previous genomic studies and their encoded protein functions were further validated in the neXtProt database ( http://www.nextprot.org/ ). Among those, the loss of tumor suppressor genes STK11, MUM1, KISS1R (19p13.3), and BRG1 (19p13.13) is associated with lung oncogenesis or remote metastasis. Gene aberrations include translocation t(15, 19) (q13, p13.1) fusion oncogene BRD4-NUT, DNA repair genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1), TGFβ1 pathway activation genes (TGFB1, LTBP4), Dyrk1B, and potential oncogenesis protector genes such as NFkB pathway inhibition genes (NFKBIB, PPP1R13L) and EGLN2. In conclusion, neXtProt is an effective resource for the validation of gene aberrations identified in genomic studies. It promises to enhance our understanding of lung cancer oncogenesis.

  16. Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome: Clinical Profile and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in Six Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espirito Santo, Layla Damasceno; Moreira, Lília Maria Azevedo; Riegel, Mariluce

    2016-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The disease severity, levels of intellectual and developmental delay, and patient prognosis have been related to the size and position of the deletion. Aiming to establish genotype-phenotype correlations, we applied array-CGH to evaluate six patients carrying cytogenetically detected deletions of the short arm of chromosome 5 who were followed at a genetics community service. The patients' cytogenetic and clinical profiles were reevaluated. A database review was performed to predict additional genes and regulatory elements responsible for the characteristic phenotypic and behavioral traits of this disorder. Array-CGH analysis allowed for delineation of the terminal deletions, which ranged in size from approximately 11.2 Mb to 28.6 Mb, with breakpoints from 5p15.2 to 5p13. An additional dup(8)(p23) (3.5 Mb), considered to be a benign copy number variation, was also observed in one patient. The correlation coefficient value (ρ = 0.13) calculated indicated the presence of a weak relationship between developmental delay and deletion size. Genetic background, family history, epigenetic factors, quantitative trait locus polymorphisms, and environmental factors may also affect patient phenotype and must be taken into account in genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:27144168

  17. Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome: Clinical Profile and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in Six Patients.

    PubMed

    Espirito Santo, Layla Damasceno; Moreira, Lília Maria Azevedo; Riegel, Mariluce

    2016-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The disease severity, levels of intellectual and developmental delay, and patient prognosis have been related to the size and position of the deletion. Aiming to establish genotype-phenotype correlations, we applied array-CGH to evaluate six patients carrying cytogenetically detected deletions of the short arm of chromosome 5 who were followed at a genetics community service. The patients' cytogenetic and clinical profiles were reevaluated. A database review was performed to predict additional genes and regulatory elements responsible for the characteristic phenotypic and behavioral traits of this disorder. Array-CGH analysis allowed for delineation of the terminal deletions, which ranged in size from approximately 11.2 Mb to 28.6 Mb, with breakpoints from 5p15.2 to 5p13. An additional dup(8)(p23) (3.5 Mb), considered to be a benign copy number variation, was also observed in one patient. The correlation coefficient value (ρ = 0.13) calculated indicated the presence of a weak relationship between developmental delay and deletion size. Genetic background, family history, epigenetic factors, quantitative trait locus polymorphisms, and environmental factors may also affect patient phenotype and must be taken into account in genotype-phenotype correlations.

  18. Array-CGH reveals recurrent genomic changes in Merkel cell carcinoma including amplification of L-Myc.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Kelly G; Lemos, Bianca D; Feng, Bin; Jaimes, Natalia; Peñas, Pablo F; Bi, Xiaohui; Maher, Elizabeth; Cohen, Lisa; Leonard, J Helen; Granter, Scott R; Chin, Lynda; Nghiem, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer with poorly characterized genetics. We performed high resolution comparative genomic hybridization on 25 MCC specimens using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. Tumors frequently carried extra copies of chromosomes 1, 3q, 5p, and 6 and lost chromosomes 3p, 4, 5q, 7, 10, and 13. MCC tumors with less genomic aberration were associated with improved survival (P=0.04). Tumors from 13 of 22 MCC patients had detectable Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA, and these tumors had fewer genomic deletions. Three regions of genomic alteration were of particular interest: a deletion of 5q12-21 occurred in 26% of tumors, a deletion of 13q14-21 was recurrent in 26% of tumors and contains the well-characterized tumor suppressor RB1, and a previously unreported focal amplification at 1p34 was present in 39% of tumors and centers on L-Myc (MYCL1). L-Myc is related to the c-Myc proto-oncogene, has transforming activity, and is amplified in the closely related small cell lung cancer. Normal skin showed no L-Myc expression, whereas 4/4 MCC specimens tested expressed L-Myc RNA in relative proportion to the DNA copy number gain. These findings suggest several genes that may contribute to MCC pathogenesis, most notably L-Myc.

  19. Genome-Wide Detection of Copy Number Variations among Diverse Horse Breeds by Array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses. PMID:24497987

  20. Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shenyuan; Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses.

  1. X-chromosome tiling path array detection of copy number variants in patients with chromosome X-linked mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal, I; Rodríguez-Revenga, L; Armengol, L; González, E; Rodriguez, B; Badenas, C; Sánchez, A; Martínez, F; Guitart, M; Fernández, I; Arranz, JA; Tejada, MI; Pérez-Jurado, LA; Estivill, X; Milà, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Aproximately 5–10% of cases of mental retardation in males are due to copy number variations (CNV) on the X chromosome. Novel technologies, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), may help to uncover cryptic rearrangements in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) patients. We have constructed an X-chromosome tiling path array using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and validated it using samples with cytogenetically defined copy number changes. We have studied 54 patients with idiopathic mental retardation and 20 controls subjects. Results Known genomic aberrations were reliably detected on the array and eight novel submicroscopic imbalances, likely causative for the mental retardation (MR) phenotype, were detected. Putatively pathogenic rearrangements included three deletions and five duplications (ranging between 82 kb to one Mb), all but two affecting genes previously known to be responsible for XLMR. Additionally, we describe different CNV regions with significant different frequencies in XLMR and control subjects (44% vs. 20%). Conclusion This tiling path array of the human X chromosome has proven successful for the detection and characterization of known rearrangements and novel CNVs in XLMR patients. PMID:18047645

  2. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  3. Characterization of a balanced complex chromosomal rearrangement carrier ascertained through a fetus with dup15q26.3 and del5p15.33: case report.

    PubMed

    Lledo, Belen; Ortiz, Jose Antonio; Morales, Ruth; Manchon, Irene; Galan, Francisco; Bernabeu, Andrea; Bernabeu, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are structural aberrations involving more than two chromosomes which rarely appear in individuals with normal phenotypes. These individuals report fertility problems, recurrent miscarriages, or congenital anomalies in newborn offspring as a consequence of either meiotic failure or imbalanced chromosome segregation. A CCR involving chromosomes 5, 15, and 18 was discovered in a phenotypically normal man through a fetus with congenital malformations and partial trisomy of chromosome 15 and monosomy of chromosome 5. Ultrasound examination at 20 weeks of gestation showed severe oligoamnios and hydrothorax. Prenatal cytogenetic analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a female fetus with dup15q26.3 and del5p15.33. We diagnosed the CCR using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (three-color FISH), and a balanced CCR using array-CGH and FISH was diagnosed in the paternal karyotype. The father is a carrier of a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(5;15;18)(p15.31;q26.3;p11.2). Due to the complexity of these rearrangements the diagnosis is difficult and the reproductive outcome uncertain. Reporting such rare cases is important to enable such information to be used for genetic counseling in similar situations and help estimate the risk of miscarriage or of newborns with congenital abnormalities.

  4. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Kartapradja, Hannie; Marzuki, Nanis Sacharina; Pertile, Mark D.; Francis, David; Suciati, Lita Putri; Anggaratri, Helena Woro; Ambarwati, Debby Dwi; Idris, Firman Prathama; Lesmana, Harry; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Paramayuda, Chrysantine; Harahap, Alida Roswita

    2015-01-01

    We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband's mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP) FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband's mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother's and grandmother's CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations. PMID:25722897

  5. High-resolution mapping of a novel rat blood pressure locus on chromosome 9 to a region containing the Spp2 gene and colocalization of a QTL for bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ying; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Waghulde, Harshal; Cheng, Xi; Mell, Blair; Czernik, Piotr J.; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Through linkage analysis of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait locus (QTL) was previously located on rat chromosome 9. Subsequent substitution mapping studies of this QTL revealed multiple BP QTLs within the originally identified logarithm of odds plot by linkage analysis. The focus of this study was on a 14.39 Mb region, the distal portion of which remained unmapped in our previous studies. High-resolution substitution mapping for a BP QTL in the setting of a high-salt diet indicated that an SHR-derived congenic segment of 787.9 kb containing the gene secreted phosphoprotein-2 (Spp2) lowered BP and urinary protein excretion. A nonsynonymous G/T polymorphism in the Spp2 gene was detected between the S and S.SHR congenic rats. A survey of 45 strains showed that the T allele was rare, being detected only in some substrains of SHR and WKY. Protein modeling prediction through SWISSPROT indicated that the predicted protein product of this variant was significantly altered. Importantly, in addition to improved cardiovascular and renal function, high salt-fed congenic animals carrying the SHR T variant of Spp2 had significantly lower bone mass and altered bone microarchitecture. Total bone volume and volume of trabecular bone, cortical thickness, and degree of mineralization of cortical bone were all significantly reduced in congenic rats. Our study points to opposing effects of a congenic segment containing the prioritized candidate gene Spp2 on BP and bone mass. PMID:27113531

  6. GeneBreak: detection of recurrent DNA copy number aberration-associated chromosomal breakpoints within genes.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Evert; van Lieshout, Stef; Rausch, Christian; Ylstra, Bauke; van de Wiel, Mark A; Meijer, Gerrit A; Fijneman, Remond J A; Abeln, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Development of cancer is driven by somatic alterations, including numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations. Currently, several computational methods are available and are widely applied to detect numerical copy number aberrations (CNAs) of chromosomal segments in tumor genomes. However, there is lack of computational methods that systematically detect structural chromosomal aberrations by virtue of the genomic location of CNA-associated chromosomal breaks and identify genes that appear non-randomly affected by chromosomal breakpoints across (large) series of tumor samples. 'GeneBreak' is developed to systematically identify genes recurrently affected by the genomic location of chromosomal CNA-associated breaks by a genome-wide approach, which can be applied to DNA copy number data obtained by array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) or by (low-pass) whole genome sequencing (WGS). First, 'GeneBreak' collects the genomic locations of chromosomal CNA-associated breaks that were previously pinpointed by the segmentation algorithm that was applied to obtain CNA profiles. Next, a tailored annotation approach for breakpoint-to-gene mapping is implemented. Finally, dedicated cohort-based statistics is incorporated with correction for covariates that influence the probability to be a breakpoint gene. In addition, multiple testing correction is integrated to reveal recurrent breakpoint events. This easy-to-use algorithm, 'GeneBreak', is implemented in R ( www.cran.r-project.org) and is available from Bioconductor ( www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GeneBreak.html).

  7. Molecular cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of ring chromosome 13 in three unrelated patients.

    PubMed

    Abdallah-Bouhjar, Inesse B; Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Gmidène, Abir; Labalme, Audrey; Soyah, Najla; Sanlaville, Damien; Saad, Ali; Elghezal, Hatem

    2013-09-01

    We report on the cytogenetic and molecular investigations of constitutional de-novo ring chromosome 13s in three unrelated patients for better understanding and delineation of the phenotypic variability characterizing this genomic rearrangement. The patient's karyotypes were as follows: 46,XY,r(13)(p11q34) dn for patients 1 and 2 and 46,XY,r(13)(p11q14) dn for patient 3, as a result of the deletion in the telomeric regions of chromosome 13. The patients were, therefore, monosomic for the segment 13q34 → 13qter; in addition, for patient 3, the deletion was larger, encompassing the segment 13q14 → 13qter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed these rearrangement and array CGH technique showed the loss of at least 2.9 Mb on the short arm and 4.7 Mb on the long arm of the chromosome 13 in patient 2. Ring chromosome 13 (r(13)) is associated with several phenotypic features like intellectual disability, marked short stature, brain and heart defects, microcephaly and genital malformations in males, including undescended testes and hypospadias. However, the hearing loss and speech delay that were found in our three patients have rarely been reported with ring chromosome 13. Although little is known about its etiology, there is interesting evidence for a genetic cause for the ring chromosome 13. We thus performed a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to ascertain the contribution of ring chromosome 13 to the clinical features of our three cases.

  8. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for chromosomal rearrangements with the use of array comparative genomic hybridization at the blastocyst stage.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Christodoulos; Dheedene, Annelies; Heindryckx, Björn; van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra; Menten, Björn; Van den Abbeel, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    To establish the value of array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in embryos of translocation carriers in combination with vitrification and frozen embryo transfer in nonstimulated cycles. Retrospective data analysis study. Academic centers for reproductive medicine and genetics. Thirty-four couples undergoing PGD for chromosomal rearrangements from October 2013 to December 2015. Trophectoderm biopsy at day 5 or day 6 of embryo development and subsequently whole genome amplification and array CGH were performed. This approach revealed a high occurrence of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements unrelated to the parental rearrangement. Nevertheless, we observed a benefit in pregnancy rates of these couples. We detected chromosomal abnormalities in 133/207 embryos (64.2% of successfully amplified), and 74 showed a normal microarray profile (35.7%). In 48 of the 133 abnormal embryos (36.1%), an unbalanced rearrangement originating from the parental translocation was identified. Interestingly, 34.6% of the abnormal embryos (46/133) harbored chromosome rearrangements that were not directly linked to the parental translocation in question. We also detected a combination of unbalanced parental-derived rearrangements and aneuploidies in 27 of the 133 abnormal embryos (20.3%). The use of trophectoderm biopsy at the blastocyst stage is less detrimental to the survival of the embryo and leads to a more reliable estimate of the genomic content of the embryo than cleavage-stage biopsy. In this small cohort PGD study, we describe the successful implementation of array CGH analysis of blastocysts in patients with a chromosomal rearrangement to identify euploid embryos for transfer. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma is associated with non-random chromosomal gains as detected by comparative genomic hybridisation.

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, G A; Hermsen, M A; Baak, J P; van Diest, P J; Meuwissen, S G; Beliën, J A; Hoovers, J M; Joenje, H; Snijders, P J; Walboomers, J M

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: Chromosomal gains and losses were surveyed by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in a series of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, in search of high risk genomic changes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Nine colorectal adenomas and 14 carcinomas were analysed by CGH, and DNA ploidy was assessed with both flow and image cytometry. RESULTS: In the nine adenomas analysed, an average of 6.6 (range 1 to 11) chromosomal aberrations were identified. In the 14 carcinomas an average of 11.9 (range 5 to 17) events were found per tumour. In the adenomas the number of gains and losses was in balance (3.6 v 3.0) while in carcinomas gains occurred more often than losses (8.2 v 3.7). Frequent gains involved 13q, 7p, 8q, and 20q, whereas losses most often occurred at 18q, 4q, and 8p. Gains of 13q, 8q, and 20q, and loss of 18q occurred more often in carcinomas than in adenomas (p = 0.005, p = 0.05, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02, respectively). Aneuploid tumours showed more gains than losses (mean 9.3 v 4.9, p = 0.02), in contrast to diploid tumours where gains and losses were nearly balanced (mean 3.1 v 4.1, p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The most striking difference between chromosomal aberrations in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as detected by CGH, is an increased number of chromosomal gains that show a nonrandom distribution. Gains of 13q and also of 20q and 8q seem especially to be involved in the progression of adenomas to carcinomas, possibly owing to low level overexpression of oncogenes at these loci. Images PMID:10070331

  10. A novel 6.14 Mb duplication of chromosome 8p21 in a patient with autism and self mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Heval M; Staal, Wouter G; Barber, John C; de Jonge, Maretha V; Eleveld, Marc J; Beemer, Frits A; Hochstenbach, Ron; Poot, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic etiology. Cytogenetic abnormalities have been detected in 5-10% of the patients with autism. In this study, we present the clinical, cytogenetic and array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) evaluation of a 13-year-old male with severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphic features, autism and self mutilation. The patient was found to carry a de novo duplication of chromosome region 8p21 of minimally 6.14 and maximally 6.58 Mb as ascertained by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array-CGH. Hitherto, only a few patients with autism with cytogenetically visible duplications involving the chromosome 8p21 region have been described, but the extent of these duplications has not been determined at the molecular level. This represents the smallest rearrangement of chromosomal region 8p21 as yet found in a patient with autism. For 11 of the 36 genes with known functions located within this duplication clear transcription in the brain was found. Of those the STMN4 and DPYSL2 genes are the most likely candidate genes to be involved in neuronal development, and, if altered in gene-dosage, in the autistic phenotype of our patient.

  11. Chromosomal and Genetic Analysis of a Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line OM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Wu; Bai, Lin; Dai, Lyu-Xia; He, Xu; Zhou, Xian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer has become the leading cause of death in many regions. Carcinogenesis is caused by the stepwise accumulation of genetic and chromosomal changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosome and gene alterations in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line OM. Methods: We used Giemsa banding and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization focusing on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line OM to analyze its chromosome alterations. In addition, the gains and losses in the specific chromosome regions were identified by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the amplifications of cancer-related genes were also detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: We identified a large number of chromosomal numerical alterations on all chromosomes except chromosome X and 19. Chromosome 10 is the most frequently involved in translocations with six different interchromosomal translocations. CGH revealed the gains on chromosome regions of 3q25.3-28, 5p13, 12q22-23.24, and the losses on 3p25-26, 6p25, 6q26-27, 7q34-36, 8p22-23, 9p21-24, 10q25-26.3, 12p13.31-13.33 and 17p13.1-13.3. And PCR showed the amplification of genes: Membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME), sucrase-isomaltase (SI), butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE), and kininogen (KNG). Conclusions: The lung adenocarcinoma cell line OM exhibited multiple complex karyotypes, and chromosome 10 was frequently involved in chromosomal translocation, which may play key roles in tumorigenesis. We speculated that the oncogenes may be located at 3q25.3-28, 5p13, 12q22-23.24, while tumor suppressor genes may exist in 3p25-26, 6p25, 6q26-27, 7q34-36, 8p22-23, 9p21-24, 10q25-26.3, 12p13.31-13.33, and 17p13.1-13.3. Moreover, at least four genes (MME, SI, BCHE, and KNG) may be involved in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line OM. PMID:26879013

  12. A recurrent copy number variation of the NEB triplicate region: only revealed by the targeted nemaline myopathy CGH array.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, Kirsi; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Löytynoja, Ari; Ahlstén, Liina; Laitila, Jenni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Pelin, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    Recently, new large variants have been identified in the nebulin gene (NEB) causing nemaline myopathy (NM). NM constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders among the congenital myopathies, and disease-causing variants in NEB are a main cause of the recessively inherited form of NM. NEB consists of 183 exons and it includes homologous sequences such as a 32-kb triplicate region (TRI), where eight exons are repeated three times (exons 82-89, 90-97, 98-105). In human, the normal copy number of NEB TRI is six (three copies in each allele). Recently, we described a custom NM-CGH microarray designed to detect copy number variations (CNVs) in the known NM genes. The array has now been updated to include all the currently known 10 NM genes. The NM-CGH array is superior in detecting CNVs, especially of the NEB TRI, that is not included in the exome capture kits. To date, we have studied 266 samples from 196 NM families using the NM-CGH microarray, and identified a novel recurrent NEB TRI variation in 13% (26/196) of the families and in 10% of the controls (6/60). An analysis of the breakpoints revealed adjacent repeat elements, which are known to predispose for rearrangements such as CNVs. The control CNV samples deviate only one copy from the normal six copies, whereas the NM samples include CNVs of up to four additional copies. Based on this study, NEB seems to tolerate deviations of one TRI copy, whereas addition of two or more copies might be pathogenic.

  13. A recurrent copy number variation of the NEB triplicate region: only revealed by the targeted nemaline myopathy CGH array

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Kirsi; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Löytynoja, Ari; Ahlstén, Liina; Laitila, Jenni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Pelin, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Recently, new large variants have been identified in the nebulin gene (NEB) causing nemaline myopathy (NM). NM constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders among the congenital myopathies, and disease-causing variants in NEB are a main cause of the recessively inherited form of NM. NEB consists of 183 exons and it includes homologous sequences such as a 32-kb triplicate region (TRI), where eight exons are repeated three times (exons 82–89, 90–97, 98–105). In human, the normal copy number of NEB TRI is six (three copies in each allele). Recently, we described a custom NM-CGH microarray designed to detect copy number variations (CNVs) in the known NM genes. The array has now been updated to include all the currently known 10 NM genes. The NM-CGH array is superior in detecting CNVs, especially of the NEB TRI, that is not included in the exome capture kits. To date, we have studied 266 samples from 196 NM families using the NM-CGH microarray, and identified a novel recurrent NEB TRI variation in 13% (26/196) of the families and in 10% of the controls (6/60). An analysis of the breakpoints revealed adjacent repeat elements, which are known to predispose for rearrangements such as CNVs. The control CNV samples deviate only one copy from the normal six copies, whereas the NM samples include CNVs of up to four additional copies. Based on this study, NEB seems to tolerate deviations of one TRI copy, whereas addition of two or more copies might be pathogenic. PMID:26197980

  14. [Accidental finding of a cri du chat syndrome in an adult patient by means of array-CGH].

    PubMed

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; López-Manzanares, Lydia; Alonso-Cerezo, Concepción

    2014-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome cri du chat (SCDC) tiene su origen en una delecion parcial o total del brazo corto del cromosoma 5, y es uno de los sindromes de delecion cromosomica mas frecuentes en humanos. La mayoria de los pacientes se diagnostica entre el primer mes y el primer año de vida, si bien aqui se describe el hallazgo de un SCDC en una mujer con sospecha de ataxia espinocerebelar y antecedentes familiares de trastorno bipolar y ataxia, con especial atencion a las caracteristicas clinicas y las tecnicas diagnosticas que permitieron su identificacion. Caso clinico. Mujer de 46 años que presentaba una inteligencia limite, intervenida a los 43 años de faquectomia bilateral. El inicio de la sintomatologia fue durante la infancia, e incluia hipoacusia, ataxia, disartria, disfagia, depresion, deterioro cognitivo y trastorno bipolar. La exploracion fisica revelo microcefalia, micrognatia, pies equinos y ataxia. Se realizo cariotipo y array-CGH en sangre periferica. La paciente presentaba una traslocacion que involucraba los cromosomas 5 y 15, y una inversion del cromosoma 9: 45,XX,inv9(p11q13);t(5,15)(p15.33;q11.2). El array-CGH mostro una delecion de 2,91 Mb en 5p15.33, formula genomica arr 5p15.33 (151537-3057771)x1, que involucraba 20 genes, incluyendo el gen TERT. Conclusiones. La delecion de multiples genes confirmo el diagnostico de SCDC y es la responsable del fenotipo de la paciente. Se pone de manifiesto la importancia de utilizar tecnicas adecuadas de diagnostico (array-CGH, cariotipo en sangre periferica) y la correcta eleccion de estas.

  15. KC-SMARTR: An R package for detection of statistically significant aberrations in multi-experiment aCGH data.

    PubMed

    de Ronde, Jorma J; Klijn, Christiaan; Velds, Arno; Holstege, Henne; Reinders, Marcel Jt; Jonkers, Jos; Wessels, Lodewyk Fa

    2010-11-11

    Most approaches used to find recurrent or differential DNA Copy Number Alterations (CNA) in array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) data from groups of tumour samples depend on the discretization of the aCGH data to gain, loss or no-change states. This causes loss of valuable biological information in tumour samples, which are frequently heterogeneous. We have previously developed an algorithm, KC-SMART, that bases its estimate of the magnitude of the CNA at a given genomic location on kernel convolution (Klijn et al., 2008). This accounts for the intensity of the probe signal, its local genomic environment and the signal distribution across multiple samples. Here we extend the approach to allow comparative analyses of two groups of samples and introduce the R implementation of these two approaches. The comparative module allows for a supervised analysis to be performed, to enable the identification of regions that are differentially aberrated between two user-defined classes.We analyzed data from a series of B- and T-cell lymphomas and were able to retrieve all positive control regions (VDJ regions) in addition to a number of new regions. A t-test employing segmented data, that we implemented, was also able to locate all the positive control regions and a number of new regions but these regions were highly fragmented. KC-SMARTR offers recurrent CNA and class specific CNA detection, at different genomic scales, in a single package without the need for additional segmentation. It is memory efficient and runs on a wide range of machines. Most importantly, it does not rely on data discretization and therefore maximally exploits the biological information in the aCGH data.The program is freely available from the Bioconductor website http://www.bioconductor.org/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  16. Human chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S

    1988-01-01

    The role of human chromosome 8 in genetic disease together with the current status of the genetic linkage map for this chromosome is reviewed. Both hereditary genetic disease attributed to mutant alleles at gene loci on chromosome 8 and neoplastic disease owing to somatic mutation, particularly chromosomal translocations, are discussed. PMID:3070042

  17. Technique to 'Map' Chromosomal Mosaicism at the Blastocyst Stage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tyl H; Griffin, Darren K; Katz, Seth L; Crain, Jack L; Johnson, Lauren; Gitlin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a technique that allows for comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) of individual cells within human blastocysts along with the approximation of their location in the trophectoderm relative to the inner cell mass (ICM). This proof-of-concept study will allow for a greater understanding of chromosomal mosaicism at the blastocyst stage and the mechanisms by which mosaicism arises. One blastocyst was held by a holding pipette and the ICM was removed. While still being held, the blastocyst was further biopsied into quadrants. To separate the individual cells from the biopsied sections, the sections were placed in calcium/magnesium-free medium with serum for 20 min. A holding pipette was used to aspirate the sections until individual cells were isolated. Individual cells from each section were placed into PCR tubes and prepped for aCGH. A total of 18 cells were used for analysis, of which 15 (83.3%) amplified and provided a result and 3 (16.7%) did not. Fifteen cells were isolated from the trophectoderm; 13 (86.7%) provided an aCGH result, while 2 (13.3%) did not amplify. Twelve cells were euploid (46,XY), while 1 was complex abnormal (44,XY), presenting with monosomy 7, 10, 11, 13, and 19, and trisomy 14, 15, and 21. A total of 3 cells were isolated from the ICM; 2 were euploid (46,XY) and 1 did not amplify. Here, we expand on a previously published technique which disassociates biopsied sections of the blastocyst into individual cells. Since the blastocyst sections were biopsied in regard to the position of the ICM, it was possible to reconstruct a virtual image of the blastocyst while presenting each cell's individual CCS results.

  18. B chromosomes: from cytogenetics to systems biology.

    PubMed

    Valente, Guilherme T; Nakajima, Rafael T; Fantinatti, Bruno E A; Marques, Diego F; Almeida, Rodrigo O; Simões, Rafael P; Martins, Cesar

    2017-02-01

    Though hundreds to thousands of reports have described the distribution of B chromosomes among diverse eukaryote groups, a comprehensive theory of their biological role has not yet clearly emerged. B chromosomes are classically understood as a sea of repetitive DNA sequences that are poor in genes and are maintained by a parasitic-drive mechanism during cell division. Recent developments in high-throughput DNA/RNA analyses have increased the resolution of B chromosome biology beyond those of classical and molecular cytogenetic methods; B chromosomes contain many transcriptionally active sequences, including genes, and can modulate the activity of autosomal genes. Furthermore, the most recent knowledge obtained from omics analyses, which is associated with a systemic view, has demonstrated that B chromosomes can influence cell biology in a complex way, possibly favoring their own maintenance and perpetuation.

  19. Mitotic chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  20. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Monroy, Alberto; Arana, Rosa Ma; Taja, Lucía; Vázquez, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Background Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. Methods We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. Results All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Conclusions Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma. PMID:12659655

  1. Chromosomal micro-aberration in a Saudi family with Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Sogaty, Sameera; Rasool, Mahmood; Karim, Sajjad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Bibi, Fehmida; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Algahtani, Hussein A; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H

    2017-07-31

    Epilepsy is genetically complex neurological disorder affecting millions of people of the world. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a most common epilepsy syndromes that starts in the teen age group commonly between ages 12 and 18, and lasts into adulthood. Out of 14 people with epilepsy one suffer with JME. Myoclonic seizures and muscle twitching or uncontrolled jerking are the most common type of seizure in the people suffering with JME. To observe the novel CNVs involved in JME we investigated a Saudi family with nine siblings with one male and one female affected members. In this study we used high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400K array-CGH chips. Our results showed CNVs including the amplifications and deletions in different chromosomal regions in the patients as compared to the normal members of the family. Amplifications were observed in the chromosome 22 cytoband 22q11.23 with LDL receptor related protein 5 like (LRP5L), Immunoglobulin Lambda-Like Polypeptide 3 (IGLL3) and crystallin beta B2 pseudogene (CRYBB2P) genes respectively whereas the deletions were observed in the chromosomal regions 4q22.2 with Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 (GRID2) as potential gene cytoband 1p31.1 with potential Neuronal Growth Regulator 1 gene (NEGR1) gene in this region and NME/NM23 family member (NME7) gene cytoband 1q24. Moreover, the array CGH results deletions and duplication were also validated by using primer for simple PCR or also by using quantitative real time PCR analysis. We found deletions and duplication in JME patients in our study for the first time in Saudi population. Our results suggest that array-CGH should be considered as a first line genetic test for epilepsy unless there is a strong evidence for a specific monogenic syndrome. The use of high throughput technique in this study will help to identify novel mechanisms underlying epileptic disorder in order to lowering the burden of epilepsy in Saudi Arabia. Copyright

  2. Amplification of chromosome 8q21-qter associated with the acquired paclitaxel resistance of nasopharyngeal caricinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; You, Yating; Zhang, Xiaowei; Song, Yexun; Xiang, Hong; Peng, Xiaowei; Qin, Jiangbo; Tan, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to observe relationship between chromosome imbalance and taxol resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: three taxol-resistant sub-lines were established through repeated exposure of escalating doses of paclitaxel to NPC cell lines (CNE-1, HNE-2 and 5-8F). The change of copy number of chromosomes was investigated by the genome-wide analyses of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Gene profiles of both parental and resistant cell lines were determined by cDNA microarray. Cell viability was assayed by colony formation assay. Results: The taxol resistant sub-lines (CNE1/Taxol, HNE2/Taxol and 5-8F/Taxol) developed displayed an average 5~8-fold higher IC50 value than their parental cells. The common losses of chromosome 18, 10q11-qter and gains of chromosome 12, 3q21-qter, 5p13-pter and 20q11-qter were observed by CGH in all of 6 NPC cell lines. A common gain region of chromosome 8q21-qter was identified in taxol resistant sub-lines. 15 genes of 762 transcripts on this chromosome region were consistently up-regulated detected by cDNA microarray in three taxol resistant sub-lines, and functionally clustered into various groups, including genes related to vascular formation vascular formation (ANGPT1), apoptosis (MYC, TOP1MT), cell adhesion and cell cycle (PPP1R16A, SDC2, CA2, ANKRD46), gene regulation (HRSP12, ZNF696, SLC39A4, POP1), metabolism (PYCRL). Inhibition of ANGPT1 expression significantly increased the sensitivity of CNE-1/taxol to paclitaxol. Conclusion: The common gain of chromosome 8q21-qter in taxol resistant sublines predicates that potential candidate genes on this region may contribute to taxol resistant phenotype. ANGPT1 may be associated with taxol resistance of NPC cells. PMID:26722421

  3. Amplification of chromosome 8q21-qter associated with the acquired paclitaxel resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; You, Yating; Zhang, Xiaowei; Song, Yexun; Xiang, Hong; Peng, Xiaowei; Qin, Jiangbo; Tan, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    to observe relationship between chromosome imbalance and taxol resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). three taxol-resistant sub-lines were established through repeated exposure of escalating doses of paclitaxel to NPC cell lines (CNE-1, HNE-2 and 5-8F). The change of copy number of chromosomes was investigated by the genome-wide analyses of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Gene profiles of both parental and resistant cell lines were determined by cDNA microarray. Cell viability was assayed by colony formation assay. The taxol resistant sub-lines (CNE1/Taxol, HNE2/Taxol and 5-8F/Taxol) developed displayed an average 5~8-fold higher IC50 value than their parental cells. The common losses of chromosome 18, 10q11-qter and gains of chromosome 12, 3q21-qter, 5p13-pter and 20q11-qter were observed by CGH in all of 6 NPC cell lines. A common gain region of chromosome 8q21-qter was identified in taxol resistant sub-lines. 15 genes of 762 transcripts on this chromosome region were consistently up-regulated detected by cDNA microarray in three taxol resistant sub-lines, and functionally clustered into various groups, including genes related to vascular formation vascular formation (ANGPT1), apoptosis (MYC, TOP1MT), cell adhesion and cell cycle (PPP1R16A, SDC2, CA2, ANKRD46), gene regulation (HRSP12, ZNF696, SLC39A4, POP1), metabolism (PYCRL). Inhibition of ANGPT1 expression significantly increased the sensitivity of CNE-1/taxol to paclitaxol. The common gain of chromosome 8q21-qter in taxol resistant sublines predicates that potential candidate genes on this region may contribute to taxol resistant phenotype. ANGPT1 may be associated with taxol resistance of NPC cells.

  4. B Chromosomes - A Matter of Chromosome Drive.

    PubMed

    Houben, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes which are often preferentially inherited, deviating from usual Mendelian segregation. The balance between the so-called chromosome drive and the negative effects that the presence of Bs applies on the fitness of their host determines the frequency of Bs in a particular population. Drive is the key for understanding most B chromosomes. Drive occurs in many ways at pre-meiotic, meiotic or post-meiotic divisions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The cellular mechanism of drive is reviewed based on the findings obtained for the B chromosomes of rye, maize and other species. How novel analytical tools will expand our ability to uncover the biology of B chromosome drive is discussed.

  5. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; Del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-02-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25-45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18-33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes.

  6. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25–45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18–33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes. PMID:23695274

  7. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Killian, J Keith; Hammond, Sue; Burke, Laura S; Bennett, Hunter; Wang, Yonghong; Davis, Sean R; Strong, Louise C; Neglia, Joseph; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Robison, Leslie L; Bhatia, Smita; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Inskip, Peter D; Meltzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29), had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26), estrogen receptor (ER)-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28), and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22). Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12). Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  8. Characterization of Genomic Alterations in Radiation-Associated Breast Cancer among Childhood Cancer Survivors, Using Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Killian, J. Keith; Hammond, Sue; Burke, Laura S.; Bennett, Hunter; Wang, Yonghong; Davis, Sean R.; Strong, Louise C.; Neglia, Joseph; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Bhatia, Smita; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Inskip, Peter D.; Meltzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29), had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26), estrogen receptor (ER)-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28), and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22). Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12). Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an “amplifier” genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25764003

  9. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  10. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  11. Unraveling the Sex Chromosome Heteromorphism of the Paradoxical Frog Pseudis tocantins.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Kaleb Pretto; Busin, Carmen Silvia; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2016-01-01

    The paradoxical frog Pseudis tocantins is the only species in the Hylidae family with known heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes. The Z chromosome is metacentric and presents an interstitial nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the long arm that is adjacent to a pericentromeric heterochromatic band. In contrast, the submetacentric W chromosome carries a pericentromeric NOR on the long arm, which is adjacent to a clearly evident heterochromatic band that is larger than the band found on the Z chromosome and justify the size difference observed between these chromosomes. Here, we provide evidence that the non-centromeric heterochromatic bands in Zq and Wq differ not only in size and location but also in composition, based on comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and an analysis of the anuran PcP190 satellite DNA. The finding of PcP190 sequences in P. tocantins extends the presence of this satellite DNA, which was previously detected among Leptodactylidae and Hylodidae, suggesting that this family of repetitive DNA is even older than it was formerly considered. Seven groups of PcP190 sequences were recognized in the genome of P. tocantins. PcP190 probes mapped to the heterochromatic band in Wq, and a Southern blot analysis indicated the accumulation of PcP190 in the female genome of P. tocantins, which suggests the involvement of this satellite DNA in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of this species.

  12. Unraveling the Sex Chromosome Heteromorphism of the Paradoxical Frog Pseudis tocantins

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Kaleb Pretto; Busin, Carmen Silvia; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2016-01-01

    The paradoxical frog Pseudis tocantins is the only species in the Hylidae family with known heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes. The Z chromosome is metacentric and presents an interstitial nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the long arm that is adjacent to a pericentromeric heterochromatic band. In contrast, the submetacentric W chromosome carries a pericentromeric NOR on the long arm, which is adjacent to a clearly evident heterochromatic band that is larger than the band found on the Z chromosome and justify the size difference observed between these chromosomes. Here, we provide evidence that the non-centromeric heterochromatic bands in Zq and Wq differ not only in size and location but also in composition, based on comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and an analysis of the anuran PcP190 satellite DNA. The finding of PcP190 sequences in P. tocantins extends the presence of this satellite DNA, which was previously detected among Leptodactylidae and Hylodidae, suggesting that this family of repetitive DNA is even older than it was formerly considered. Seven groups of PcP190 sequences were recognized in the genome of P. tocantins. PcP190 probes mapped to the heterochromatic band in Wq, and a Southern blot analysis indicated the accumulation of PcP190 in the female genome of P. tocantins, which suggests the involvement of this satellite DNA in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of this species. PMID:27214234

  13. [Prenatal diagnosis of fetal urinary abnormalities and microdeletion on chromosome 1q21.1].

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Huang, Yong-hua; Liao, Can; Li, Ru; Feng, Sui-hua; Mai, Qiao-jiao; Li, Wei-kai

    2012-10-01

    To investigate genetic etiology of fetal urinary abnormalities with array-based comparative genomic hycridization(array-CGH). Thirty-two fetuses with variable urinary abnormalities but normal karyotyping by conventional cytogenetic technique were selected. DNA from the fetuses and their parents samples were prepared and hybridization with Affymetrix cytogenetic 2.7M arrays by follwing the manufacture's standard protocol. The data were analyzed by special CHAS software packages. By using array-CGH detection, genomic imbalanced copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in night fetuses(28%), four out of night CNVs were inherited from parental samples; two were indicated to be benign variants(6%) in the database; and the other three CNVs (9%) were all de novo adjacent microdeletions and microduplication mapping on to common chromosome 1q21.1 region, within which was genitourinaty system function associated gene PDZK1. The incidence of genomic unbalanced variations in fetuses with congenital urinary malformations is approximately 28%, including about 9% pathogenic variations. Copy number variations (CNVs) of chromosome 1q21.1 region are associated with congenital urinary malformations which may be due to haploinsufficiency or overexpression of PDZK1 gene.

  14. Three Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in a Patient with Developmental Delay, Mental Retardation, and Dysmorphic Features

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Serrano Russi, Alvaro H.; Kochmar, Sally; DeWard, Stephanie J.; Sathanoori, Malini; Surti, Urvashi

    2011-01-01

    We characterized three supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) simultaneously present in a 2-year- and 10-month-old male patient with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. Peripheral blood chromosome analysis revealed two to three SMCs in 25/26 cells analyzed. The remaining one cell had one SMC. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) showed mosaicism for gains of 5q35.3, 15q11.2q13.3, and 18p11.21q11.1 regions. All three gains contain multiple OMIM genes. FISH studies indicated that one of the SMCs is a dicentric ring 15 with two copies of the 15q11.2q13.3 region including SNRPN/UBE3A and two copies of the 5q35.3 region. One of the der(18)s contains the 18 centromere and 18p11.2 regions, while the other der(18) has a signal for the 18 centromere only. The phenotype of the patient is compared with that of patients with tetrasomy 15q11.2q13.3, trisomy 5q35.3, and trisomy 18p11.2. Our study demonstrates that aCGH and FISH analyses are powerful tools, which complement the conventional cytogenetic analysis for the identification of SMCs. PMID:22567345

  15. The effect of first chromosome long arm duplication on survival of endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Erman; Doğer, Emek; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Sünnetçi, Deniz; Çine, Naci; Savlı, Hakan; Yücesoy, İzzet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of first chromosome long arm duplication (dup(1q)) in cases with endometrial carcinoma detected with array based comperative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on survival from the cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 patients with the diagnosis of endometrial carcinom due to endometrial biopsy and who have been operated for this reason have been allocated in the study. Frozen section biopsy and staging surgery have been performed for all the cases. Samples obtained from the tumoral mass have been investigated for chromosomal aberrations with aCGH method. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis have been performed for survival analysis. Results: Among 53 cases with endometrial carcinomas, dup(1q) was diagnosed in 14 (26.4%) of the cases. For the patient group that has been followed-up for 24 months (3-33 months), dup(1q) (p=.01), optimal cytoreduction (p<.001), lymph node positivity (p=.006), tumor stage >1 (p=.006) and presence of high risk tumor were the factors that were associated with survival. Cox-regression analysis has revealed that optimal cytoreduction was the most important prognostic factor (p=.02). Conclusion: Presence of 1q duplication can be used as a prognostic factor in the preoperative period. PMID:28913021

  16. Segmental Chromosomal Aberrations in Localized Neuroblastoma Can be Detected in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples and Are Associated With Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Navin; Mayfield, Jodi R.; Raca, Gordana; Applebaum, Mark A.; Chlenski, Alexandre; Sukhanova, Madina; Bagatell, Rochelle; Irwin, Meredith S.; Little, Anthony; Rawwas, Jawhar; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Lapouble, Eve; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Cohn, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses of frozen tumors have shown strong associations between the pattern of chromosomal aberrations and outcome in patients with advanced-stage neuroblastoma. New platforms for analyzing chromosomal aberrations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue have recently been developed. We sought to determine whether chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) using FFPE tumors is feasible and if segmental chromosomal aberrations were prognostic of recurrence in localized neuroblastoma. Methods Patients with MYCN nonamplified International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 1 and 2 disease who recurred were identified. CMA was performed with diagnostic FFPE samples using OncoScan™ FFPE Express 2.0. The prognostic significance of chromosomal pattern was validated in 105 patients with available CGH results. Results In 26 evaluable patients, 11 recurred locally, nine had metastatic relapse, and six remained progression free >3 years from diagnosis. No chromosomal aberrations were identified in four tumors. Numerical chromosomal aberrations (NCAs) without segmental chromosomal aberration (SCA) were identified in 11 patients: six progressed locally, two had metastatic progression and 3 remained progression-free. Eleven patients had SCAs: four progressed locally, six developed metastatic progression and one remained progression-free. Five or more SCAs were only detected in tumors from patients who developed metastases (P = 0.0004). In the validation cohort, SCAs were associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS) compared to NCA (5-year EFS 68% ± 8.3% vs. 91% ± 3.6%, respectively; P = 0.0083). Conclusions It is feasible to evaluate chromosomal aberrations using FFPE neuroblastoma tissue. SCA is associated with inferior EFS in localized neuroblastoma patients, and multiple SCAs may be predictive of metastatic relapse. PMID:26864375

  17. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visit our Photo Gallery Education, Advocacy, Information & Support Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc is a non-profit organization. ... Inc. All Rights Reserved You are donating to : Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc, a 501c non-profit organization. ...

  18. Human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 21, describes in detail the human X chromosome. X chromatin (or Barr body) formation, inactivation and reactivation of the X chromosome, X;Y translocations, and sex reversal are discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Exome sequencing and arrayCGH detection of gene sequence and copy number variation between ILS and ISS mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Laura; Dickens, C Michael; Anderson, Nathan; Davis, Jonathan; Bennett, Beth; Radcliffe, Richard A; Sikela, James M

    2014-06-01

    It has been well documented that genetic factors can influence predisposition to develop alcoholism. While the underlying genomic changes may be of several types, two of the most common and disease associated are copy number variations (CNVs) and sequence alterations of protein coding regions. The goal of this study was to identify CNVs and single-nucleotide polymorphisms that occur in gene coding regions that may play a role in influencing the risk of an individual developing alcoholism. Toward this end, two mouse strains were used that have been selectively bred based on their differential sensitivity to alcohol: the Inbred long sleep (ILS) and Inbred short sleep (ISS) mouse strains. Differences in initial response to alcohol have been linked to risk for alcoholism, and the ILS/ISS strains are used to investigate the genetics of initial sensitivity to alcohol. Array comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) and exome sequencing were conducted to identify CNVs and gene coding sequence differences, respectively, between ILS and ISS mice. Mouse arrayCGH was performed using catalog Agilent 1 × 244 k mouse arrays. Subsequently, exome sequencing was carried out using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. ArrayCGH detected 74 CNVs that were strain-specific (38 ILS/36 ISS), including several ISS-specific deletions that contained genes implicated in brain function and neurotransmitter release. Among several interesting coding variations detected by exome sequencing was the gain of a premature stop codon in the alpha-amylase 2B (AMY2B) gene specifically in the ILS strain. In total, exome sequencing detected 2,597 and 1,768 strain-specific exonic gene variants in the ILS and ISS mice, respectively. This study represents the most comprehensive and detailed genomic comparison of ILS and ISS mouse strains to date. The two complementary genome-wide approaches identified strain-specific CNVs and gene coding sequence variations that should provide strong candidates to

  20. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis in neonates with congenital anomalies: detection of chromosomal imbalances.

    PubMed

    Emy Dorfman, Luiza; Leite, Júlio César L; Giugliani, Roberto; Riegel, Mariluce

    2015-01-01

    To identify chromosomal imbalances by whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in DNA samples of neonates with congenital anomalies of unknown cause from a birth defects monitoring program at a public maternity hospital. A blind genomic analysis was performed retrospectively in 35 stored DNA samples of neonates born between July of 2011 and December of 2012. All potential DNA copy number variations detected (CNVs) were matched with those reported in public genomic databases, and their clinical significance was evaluated. Out of a total of 35 samples tested, 13 genomic imbalances were detected in 12/35 cases (34.3%). In 4/35 cases (11.4%), chromosomal imbalances could be defined as pathogenic; in 5/35 (14.3%) cases, DNA CNVs of uncertain clinical significance were identified; and in 4/35 cases (11.4%), normal variants were detected. Among the four cases with results considered causally related to the clinical findings, two of the four (50%) showed causative alterations already associated with well-defined microdeletion syndromes. In two of the four samples (50%), the chromosomal imbalances found, although predicted as pathogenic, had not been previously associated with recognized clinical entities. Array-CGH analysis allowed for a higher rate of detection of chromosomal anomalies, and this determination is especially valuable in neonates with congenital anomalies of unknown etiology, or in cases in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. Moreover, although the interpretation of the results must be refined, this method is a robust and precise tool that can be used in the first-line investigation of congenital anomalies, and should be considered for prospective/retrospective analyses of DNA samples by birth defect monitoring programs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  2. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  3. Chromosomal development of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 30, describes the chromosomal development of cancer. It has been established through cytological research that the number of chromosomes in cancer cells often deviates greatly from the usual number in healthy cells of the host organism. This chapter includes discussions on chromosome studies in ascites tumors, stemline and tumor development, mitotic aberrations in cancer, and selection and tumor progression. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  5. The human Y chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, P; Darling, S; Wolfe, J

    1985-01-01

    Despite its central role in sex determination, genetic analysis of the Y chromosome has been slow. This poor progress has been due to the paucity of available genetic markers. Whereas the X chromosome is known to include at least 100 functional genetic loci, only three or four loci have been ascribed to the Y chromosome and even the existence of several of these loci is controversial. Other factors limiting genetic analysis are the small size of the Y chromosome, which makes cytogenetic definition difficult, and the absence of extensive recombination. Based on cytogenetic observation and speculation, a working model of the Y chromosome has been proposed. In this classical model the Y chromosome is defined into subregions; an X-Y homologous meiotic pairing region encompassing most of the Y chromosome short arm and, perhaps, including a pseudoautosomal region of sex chromosome exchange; a pericentric region containing the sex determining gene or genes; and a long arm heterochromatic genetically inert region. The classical model has been supported by studies on the MIC2 loci, which encode a cell surface antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. The X linked locus MIC2X, which escapes X inactivation, maps to the tip of the X chromosome short arm and the homologous locus MIC2Y maps to the Y chromosome short arm; in both cases, these loci are within the proposed meiotic pairing region. MIC2Y is the first biochemically defined, expressed locus to be found on the human Y chromosome. The proposed simplicity of the classical model has been challenged by recent molecular analysis of the Y chromosome. Using cloned probes, several groups have shown that a major part of the Y chromosome short arm is unlikely to be homologous to the X chromosome short arm. A substantial block of sequences of the short arm are homologous to sequences of the X chromosome long arm but well outside the pairing region. In addition, the short arm contains sequences shared with the Y chromosome

  6. Genome-Wide Microarray Expression and Genomic Alterations by Array-CGH Analysis in Neuroblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Soto, Soledad; Legarra, Sheila; Pata-Merci, Noémie; Guegan, Justine; Danglot, Giselle; Bernheim, Alain; Meléndez, Bárbara; Rey, Juan A.; Castresana, Javier S.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma has a very diverse clinical behaviour: from spontaneous regression to a very aggressive malignant progression and resistance to chemotherapy. This heterogeneous clinical behaviour might be due to the existence of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC), a subpopulation within the tumor with stem-like cell properties: a significant proliferation capacity, a unique self-renewal capacity, and therefore, a higher ability to form new tumors. We enriched the CSC-like cell population content of two commercial neuroblastoma cell lines by the use of conditioned cell culture media for neurospheres, and compared genomic gains and losses and genome expression by array-CGH and microarray analysis, respectively (in CSC-like versus standard tumor cells culture). Despite the array-CGH did not show significant differences between standard and CSC-like in both analyzed cell lines, the microarray expression analysis highlighted some of the most relevant biological processes and molecular functions that might be responsible for the CSC-like phenotype. Some signalling pathways detected seem to be involved in self-renewal of normal tissues (Wnt, Notch, Hh and TGF-β) and contribute to CSC phenotype. We focused on the aberrant activation of TGF-β and Hh signalling pathways, confirming the inhibition of repressors of TGF-β pathway, as SMAD6 and SMAD7 by RT-qPCR. The analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway showed overexpression of PTCH1, GLI1 and SMO. We found overexpression of CD133 and CD15 in SIMA neurospheres, confirming that this cell line was particularly enriched in stem-like cells. This work shows a cross-talk among different pathways in neuroblastoma and its importance in CSC-like cells. PMID:25392930

  7. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  8. Chromosome instability syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 11, discusses chromosome instability syndromes. The focus is on the most extensively studied genotypic chromosomal aberrations which include Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The great interest in these syndromes is out of proportion to their rare occurrence; however, studies of genotypic chromosome breakage have been inspired by the hope of throwing light on chromosome structure and behavior. A table is given which relates chromosomal aberrations in Bloom syndrome which may cause or promote cancer. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Engineering of plant chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mette, Michael Florian; Houben, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant biotechnology, these steps need to be combined and supplemented with additional methods such as site-specific recombination for the directed transfer of multiple genes of interest on the minichromosomes. At the same time, the development of these methods allows new insight into basic aspects of plant chromosome functions such as how centromeres assure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells or how telomeres serve to cap the chromosome ends to prevent shortening of ends over DNA replication cycles and chromosome end fusion.

  10. Characterization of apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements from the developmental genome anatomy project.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Anne W; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Bosco, Amy F; Brown, Kerry K; Bruns, Gail A P; Donovan, Diana J; Eisenman, Robert; Fan, Yanli; Farra, Chantal G; Ferguson, Heather L; Gusella, James F; Harris, David J; Herrick, Steven R; Kelly, Chantal; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Korf, Bruce R; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Lally, Eric; Leach, Natalia T; Lemyre, Emma; Lewis, Janine; Ligon, Azra H; Lu, Weining; Maas, Richard L; MacDonald, Marcy E; Moore, Steven D P; Peters, Roxanna E; Quade, Bradley J; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Saadi, Irfan; Shen, Yiping; Shendure, Jay; Williamson, Robin E; Morton, Cynthia C

    2008-03-01

    Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements in individuals with major congenital anomalies represent natural experiments of gene disruption and dysregulation. These individuals can be studied to identify novel genes critical in human development and to annotate further the function of known genes. Identification and characterization of these genes is the goal of the Developmental Genome Anatomy Project (DGAP). DGAP is a multidisciplinary effort that leverages the recent advances resulting from the Human Genome Project to increase our understanding of birth defects and the process of human development. Clinically significant phenotypes of individuals enrolled in DGAP are varied and, in most cases, involve multiple organ systems. Study of these individuals' chromosomal rearrangements has resulted in the mapping of 77 breakpoints from 40 chromosomal rearrangements by FISH with BACs and fosmids, array CGH, Southern-blot hybridization, MLPA, RT-PCR, and suppression PCR. Eighteen chromosomal breakpoints have been cloned and sequenced. Unsuspected genomic imbalances and cryptic rearrangements were detected, but less frequently than has been reported previously. Chromosomal rearrangements, both balanced and unbalanced, in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies continue to be a valuable resource for gene discovery and annotation.

  11. Chromosomes, conflict, and epigenetics: chromosomal speciation revisited.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith D; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2010-01-01

    Since Darwin first noted that the process of speciation was indeed the "mystery of mysteries," scientists have tried to develop testable models for the development of reproductive incompatibilities-the first step in the formation of a new species. Early theorists proposed that chromosome rearrangements were implicated in the process of reproductive isolation; however, the chromosomal speciation model has recently been questioned. In addition, recent data from hybrid model systems indicates that simple epistatic interactions, the Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, are more complex. In fact, incompatibilities are quite broad, including interactions among heterochromatin, small RNAs, and distinct, epigenetically defined genomic regions such as the centromere. In this review, we will examine both classical and current models of chromosomal speciation and describe the "evolving" theory of genetic conflict, epigenetics, and chromosomal speciation.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis and array comparative genomic hybridization characterization of trisomy 21 in a fetus associated with right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a review of the literature of chromosomal abnormalities associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Wang, Yeou-Lih; Chern, Schu-Rern; Liu, Yu-Peng; Peng, Cheng-Ran; Kuo, Yu-Ling; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Wen-Lin; Wang, Wayseen

    2015-02-01

    Rapid genome-wide aneuploidy diagnosis using uncultured amniocytes and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is useful in pregnancy with abnormal ultrasound findings. The purpose of this report is to report a case of right congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) associated with trisomy 21 diagnosed prenatally by aCGH and to review the literature of chromosomal abnormalities associated with CDH. A 29-year-old woman was referred for genetic counseling at 25 weeks of gestation because of fetal CDH. The pregnancy was uneventful until 25 weeks of gestation when level II ultrasound detected isolated right CDH. Ultrasound showed that the liver and gallbladder were located in the right hemithorax, and there was levocardia. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of right CDH with the gallbladder and part of the liver appearing in the right hemithorax and the heart shifting to the left hemithorax. Amniocentesis was immediately performed. About 10 mL of amniotic fluid was sent for aCGH analysis by use of the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes, and 20 mL of amniotic fluid was sent for conventional cytogenetic analysis. aCGH analysis revealed the result of arr 21p11.2q22.3 (9,962,872-48,129,895) × 3, consistent with the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Conventional cytogenetics revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21. Postnatally, polymorphic DNA marker analysis using DNAs extracted from the placenta and parental bloods showed a heterozygous extra chromoso