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Sample records for resolution emitter readout

  1. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dan; Zhao Wei

    2008-07-15

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 {mu}m. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 {mu}mx50 {mu}m pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 {mu}m. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  2. Investigation of spatial resolution and temporal performance of SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) with integrated electrostatic focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaduto, David A.; Lubinsky, Anthony R.; Rowlands, John A.; Kenmotsu, Hidenori; Nishimoto, Norihito; Nishino, Takeshi; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Zhao, Wei

    2014-03-01

    We have previously proposed SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout), a novel detector concept with potentially superior spatial resolution and low-dose performance compared with existing flat-panel imagers. The detector comprises a scintillator that is optically coupled to an amorphous selenium photoconductor operated with avalanche gain, known as high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor (HARP). High resolution electron beam readout is achieved using a field emitter array (FEA). This combination of avalanche gain, allowing for very low-dose imaging, and electron emitter readout, providing high spatial resolution, offers potentially superior image quality compared with existing flat-panel imagers, with specific applications to fluoroscopy and breast imaging. Through the present collaboration, a prototype HARP sensor with integrated electrostatic focusing and nano- Spindt FEA readout technology has been fabricated. The integrated electron-optic focusing approach is more suitable for fabricating large-area detectors. We investigate the dependence of spatial resolution on sensor structure and operating conditions, and compare the performance of electrostatic focusing with previous technologies. Our results show a clear dependence of spatial resolution on electrostatic focusing potential, with performance approaching that of the previous design with external mesh-electrode. Further, temporal performance (lag) of the detector is evaluated and the results show that the integrated electrostatic focusing design exhibits comparable or better performance compared with the mesh-electrode design. This study represents the first technical evaluation and characterization of the SAPHIRE concept with integrated electrostatic focusing.

  3. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  4. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  5. HIGH RESOLUTION EMITTANCE MEASUREMENTS AT SNS FRONT END

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2013-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac accelerates an H- beam from 2.5MeV up to 1GeV. Recently the emittance scanner in the MEBT (2.5 MeV) was upgraded. In addition to the slit - harp measurement, we now can use a slit installed on the same actuator as the harp. In combination with a faraday cup located downstream in DTL part of the linac, it represents a classical slit-slit emittance measurement device. While a slit slit scan takes much longer, it is immune to harp related problems such as wire cross talk, and thus looks promising for accurate halo measurements. Time resolution of the new device seems to be sufficient to estimate the amount of beam in the chopper gap (the scanner is downstream of the chopper), and probably to measure its emittance. This paper describes the initial measurements with the new device and some model validation data.

  6. Readout architecture for sub-nanosecond resolution TDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-04-01

    The DIAPHANE project is pluri-disciplinary collaboration between particle physicists and geophysicists to perform the tomography of large geological structure mainly devoted to the study of active volcanoes. The detector used for this tomography, hereafter referred to as telescope, uses a standard, robust, cost-effective and well-known technology based on solid plastic scintillator readout by photomultiplier(s) (either multichannel pixelized PM or silicon PM). The electronics system is built on the concept of autonomous, triggerless, smart sensor directly connected on a standard fast Ethernet network. First radiographies have been performed on the Mont-Terri underground laboratory (St-Ursanne, Switzerland) and on the active volcano of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France). We present an upgrade of the readout architecture allowing to embed a sub-nanosecond resolution TDC within the existing programmable logic to help in the background rejection (rear flux, random coincidences) and to improve the detection purity and the radiography quality. First results obtained are also presented and briefly discussed.

  7. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  8. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-01

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  9. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  10. Super-resolution of dense nanoscale emitters beyond the diffraction limit using spatial and temporal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsic, Anthony; Piestun, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    We propose a super-resolution technique for dense clusters of blinking emitters. The method relies on two basic assumptions: the emitters are statistically independent and a model of the imaging system is known. We numerically analyze the performance limits of the method as a function of emitter density and noise level. Numerical simulations show that five closely packed emitters can be resolved and localized to a precision of 17 nm. The experimental resolution of five quantum dots located within a diffraction-limited spot confirms the applicability of this approach. Statistical tests validate the independence of our quantum dots separated by nanoscale distances.

  11. Fast two-dimensional super-resolution image reconstruction algorithm for ultra-high emitter density.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaqing; Gumpper, Kristyn; Chi, Yuejie; Sun, Mingzhai; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-07-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy achieves sub-diffraction-limit resolution by localizing a sparse subset of stochastically activated emitters in each frame. Its temporal resolution is limited by the maximal emitter density that can be handled by the image reconstruction algorithms. Multiple algorithms have been developed to accurately locate the emitters even when they have significant overlaps. Currently, compressive-sensing-based algorithm (CSSTORM) achieves the highest emitter density. However, CSSTORM is extremely computationally expensive, which limits its practical application. Here, we develop a new algorithm (MempSTORM) based on two-dimensional spectrum analysis. With the same localization accuracy and recall rate, MempSTORM is 100 times faster than CSSTORM with ℓ(1)-homotopy. In addition, MempSTORM can be implemented on a GPU for parallelism, which can further increase its computational speed and make it possible for online super-resolution reconstruction of high-density emitters.

  12. Super-Resolution Optical Disc with High Readout Stability Using a Zinc Oxide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Mori, Go; Tajima, Hideharu; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Akira

    2004-07-01

    We report a new super-resolution read-only-memory (ROM) disc with high readout stability using a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film. A ZnO film utilized in our experiment showed a change in optical constant depending on temperature. By applying this characteristic to a ROM disc, we obtained a linear bit density two times higher than that of conventional ROM discs in our experimental optical pickup system with a 408-nm-wavelength laser and a 0.65-numerical-aperture (NA) objective lens. The readout stability was improved by employing a Si film. A high readout cyclability of more than 1.0× 105 was obtained. Moreover, the super-resolution readout function was confirmed in another optical pickup system with a 408-nm-wavelength laser and a 0.85-NA objective lens.

  13. Effect of readout magnetic-field direction on trilayer magnetically induced super resolution media (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanoi, K.; Tanaka, T.; Sugimoto, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Shono, K.

    1997-04-01

    Among the proposed magnetically induced super resolution media, double-mask rear aperture detection (RAD) has the greatest potential for use in high-density land/groove recording.1 We proposed a trilayer double-mask RAD media that does not require a large initializing magnetic field.2 In this paper, we report the land/groove recording on the trilayer media for a 0.4 μm mark length and 0.7 μm track pitch. We found that crosstalk drastically changed depending on the direction of the readout magnetic field, and that the crosswrite is related to crosstalk. When applying the readout magnetic field in the erasing direction, the value of crosstalk was about -25 dB and a large crosswrite effect was observed. Conversely, the crosstalk was below -45 dB and no crosswrite effect was observed when applying the magnetic field in the writing direction. CNRs had almost the same value of 48 dB for both the above cases. To investigate the mask formation while applying the readout field in the writing direction, we precisely observed the wave form of the isolated marks. The carrier level rose twice with increasing readout field. However, the position of the leading edge mainly changed when increasing the field. We think that the low crosstalk is attributable to the enhancement of the front mask area. The trilayer media enables an areal density of 3 Gbit/in.2

  14. Position dependent spatial and spectral resolution measurement of distributed readout superconducting imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Martin, D. D. E.; Wigmore, J. K.; Jerjen, I.; Venn, R.; Groot, P. J.

    2008-04-01

    We present direct measurements of spatial and spectral resolution of cryogenic distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs). The spatial and spectral resolutions have been experimentally determined by scanning a 10μm spot of monochromatic visible light across the detector. The influences of the photon energy, bias voltage, and absorber length and width on the spatial and spectral resolutions have been examined. The confinement of quasiparticles in the readout sensors (superconducting tunnel junctions) as well as the detector's signal amplitude can be optimized by tuning the bias voltage, thereby improving both the spatial and spectral resolutions. Changing the length of the absorber affects the spatial and spectral resolutions in opposite manner, making it an important parameter to optimize the DROID for the application at hand. The results have been used to test expressions for photon energy, position, and spatial and spectral resolutions which have been derived by using an existing one-dimensional model. The model is found to accurately describe the experimental data, but some limitations have been identified. In particular, the model's assumption that the two sensors have identical response characteristics and noise, the approximation of the detailed quasiparticle dynamics in the sensors by border conditions, and the use of a one-dimensional diffusion process is not always adequate.

  15. Response function of super-resolution readout of an optical disc studied by coupled electromagnetic-thermal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Haruyuki; Shima, Takayuki; Kuwahara, Masashi; Fujita, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Munehisa; Aono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    To fully understand the properties of the readout signal in the super-resolution state, we implemented a multi-physics simulation of the propagation of electromagnetic waves and heat conduction in an optical disc that incorporates an InSb active layer. Response functions were obtained by calculating the light intensity reflected from a single small-pit structure. It was found that a typical response function in the super-resolution state has an asymmetric double-peak structure with high-spatial-frequency components. The complex profile of the response function indicated that the position of protrusions in the readout signal does not exactly correspond to that of the refractive index profile of the pit arrangement. We demonstrated that the measured readout signals also exhibit this particular characteristic and are roughly reproduced by the signals estimated from the response functions.

  16. Response function of super-resolution readout of an optical disc studied by coupled electromagnetic–thermal simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Haruyuki; Shima, Takayuki; Kuwahara, Masashi; Fujita, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Munehisa; Aono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    To fully understand the properties of the readout signal in the super-resolution state, we implemented a multi-physics simulation of the propagation of electromagnetic waves and heat conduction in an optical disc that incorporates an InSb active layer. Response functions were obtained by calculating the light intensity reflected from a single small-pit structure. It was found that a typical response function in the super-resolution state has an asymmetric double-peak structure with high-spatial-frequency components. The complex profile of the response function indicated that the position of protrusions in the readout signal does not exactly correspond to that of the refractive index profile of the pit arrangement. We demonstrated that the measured readout signals also exhibit this particular characteristic and are roughly reproduced by the signals estimated from the response functions.

  17. High-density channel model and detection method for signal readout from super-resolution near-field structure discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosogai, Shota; Ansai, Tsutomu; Yoshinari, Takehisa; Tanabe, Takaya

    2016-09-01

    Although a readout method using the super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) effect can overcome diffraction limits, readout characteristics for greatly surpassed high-density conditions do not become clear, because a high-density channel function having a differential response property is superimposed on a normal readout function. We propose a high-density channel model to indicate the properties of the super-RENS effect directly. This model can be expressed as a differential response function using the finite impulse response (FIR) filter model. It expresses the super-RENS readout process, which is divided on the basis of recording densities such as high and normal Blu-ray Disc™ densities. We estimated the properties of super-RENS readout signals by comparison between theoretical expressions and experiments. Results show that good signal quality require readout signals having sharp peaks and smaller offsets. We also evaluated the channel model by adding an adaptive FIR filter and a Viterbi decoder by simulations. Results show that the super-RENS disc can achieve a fourfold higher recording density if the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is improved to 6 dB in the case of partial response (PR) (1 + D + D 2).

  18. Super-resolution readout property of bismuth-doped antimony-based thin film as a functional mask for read-only memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinmiao; Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Yang; Wei, Jingsong

    2012-09-01

    Bismuth-doped antimony-based (Sb100- x Bi x , x=2.46) thin films were presented as a functional mask for super-resolution readout of read-only memory (ROM). The pit size of the ROM was 390 nm, and super-resolution readout was realized on a dynamic tester with laser wavelength of 780 nm and the numerical aperture of the focusing objective lens of 0.45. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 22 dB, readout threshold power of 0.8 mW and super-resolution readout cycles of 2×104 was achieved. The influence of film thickness and readout power on CNR was investigated. The reflectivity and transmittance of the film with different temperature at wavelength of 780 nm were detected, and the super-resolution mechanism of the bismuth-doped antimony-based thin films as the functional mask layer was discussed.

  19. Time resolution of time-of-flight detector based on multiple scintillation counters readout by SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Rossella, M.; Shirabe, S.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new timing detector measuring ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons is under development for the MEG II experiment, aiming at a time resolution σt ∼ 30 ps. The resolution is expected to be achieved by measuring each positron time with multiple counters made of plastic scintillator readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the time resolution for ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons using prototype counters. Counters with dimensions of 90 × 40 × 5mm3 readout by six SiPMs (three on each 40 × 5mm2 plane) were built with SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics and AdvanSiD and tested in a positron beam at the DAΦNE Beam Test Facility. The time resolution was found to improve nearly as the square root of the number of counter hits. A time resolution σt = 26.2 ± 1.3 ps was obtained with eight counters with Hamamatsu SiPMs. These results suggest that the design resolution is achievable in the MEG II experiment.

  20. The physical understanding on dynamic readout/detection of super-resolution pits with nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jingsong; Ding, Chenliang; Zhang, Xinghao

    2015-12-01

    The physical mechanism and understanding behind dynamic readout/detection of super-resolution pits with a nonlinear reverse-saturation absorption active layer, such as an InSb active layer, is presented on the basis of experimental results of open-aperture z-scan measurements and pump-probe transient time response analysis. The super-resolution of an InSb active layer is a result of the formation of a sub-wavelength scatterer region at the center of the focused spot. The frequency response function also verifies that the cutoff frequency with an InSb active layer is clearly extended compared to when an InSb active layer is not used. The findings are useful for understanding the physical process of the far-field super-resolution effect with nonlinear reverse-saturation absorption characteristics.

  1. First test results from a high-resolution CdZnTe pixel detector with VLSI readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Burnham, Jill A.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kecman, Branislav; Matthews, Brian; Schindler, Steven M.; Fitzsimmons, Michael

    1999-10-01

    We are developing a CdZnTe pixel detector with a custom low- noise analog VLSI readout for use in the High-Energy Focusing Telescope balloon experiment, as well as for future space astronomy applications. The goal of the program is to achieve good energy resolution (< 1 keV FWHM at 60 keV) and low threshold in a sensor with approximately 500 micrometers pixels. We have fabricated several prototype detector assemblies with 2 mm thick, 680 by 650 micrometers pitch CdZnTe pixel sensors indium bump bonded a VLSI readout chip developed at Caltech. Each readout circuit in the 8 X 8 prototype is matched to the detector pixel size, and contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifiers, and a peak stretcher/discriminator. In the first 8 X 8 prototype, we have demonstrated the low-noise preamplifier by routing the output signals off-chip for shaping and pulse-height analysis. Pulse height spectra obtained using a 241Am source, collimated to illuminate a single pixel, show excellent energy resolution of 1.1 keV FWHM for the 60 keV line at room temperature. Line profiles are approximately Gaussian and dominated by electronic noise, however a small low energy tail is evident for the 60 keV line. We obtained slightly improved resolution of 0.9 keV FWHM at 60 keV by cooling the detector to 5 degree(s)C, near the expected balloon- flight operating temperature. Pulse height spectra obtained with the collimated source positioned between pixels show the effect of signal sharing for events occurring near the boundary. We are able to model the observed spectra using a Monte-Carlo simulation that includes the effects of photon interaction, charge transport and diffusion, pixel and collimator geometry, and electronic noise. By using the model to simulate the detector response to uncollimated radiation (including the effect of finite trigger threshold for reconstruction of the total energy of multi-pixel events), we find the energy resolution to be degraded by only 10% for full

  2. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75 ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, A.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonacini, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    2013-12-01

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm2 for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection efficiency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45×40 square pixels of 300×300 μm2 and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low-jitter PLL, readout and control circuits. This contribution will describe the complete design of the final TDCpix ASIC. It will discuss design choices, the challenges faced and some of the lessons learned. Furthermore, experimental results from the testing of circuit prototypes will be presented. These demonstrate the achievement of key performance figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms with a laser sent to the center of the pixel and the capability of time stamping charged particles with an overall resolution below 200 ps rms.

  3. Interferometric readout of a monolithic accelerometer, towards the fm /√{ Hz } resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heijningen, J. V.; Bertolini, A.; van den Brand, J. F. J.

    2016-07-01

    The European Gravitational wave Observatory Virgo is undergoing an upgrade to increase its strain sensitivity to about 3 ×10-24 1 /√{ Hz } in the detection band of 10 Hz-10 kHz. The upgrade for this detector necessitates seismically isolating sensing optics in a vacuum environment that were on an optical bench outside vacuum in previous Virgo configurations. For this purpose, Nikhef has designed and built the five compact isolators, called MultiSAS. To measure the residual motion of the optical components and the transfer function of the isolator in full assembly, no (commercial) sensor is available that has sufficient sensitivity. A novel vibration sensor has been built at Nikhef that features an interferometric readout for a horizontal monolithic accelerometer. It will be able to measure in the vicinity of the fm/Hz regime from 10 Hz onwards. Current results show unprecedented (self) noise levels around 35 fm/Hz from 25 Hz onwards. In spite of these excellent results, it is still higher than the modeled noises. Several possible unmodeled noise sources and possible solutions have been identified.

  4. Dependence of the energy resolution of a scintillating crystal on the readout integration time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, V.; Chao, D.; Chiodi, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F.; Lunadei, R.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.

    2012-09-01

    The possibilty of performing high-rate calorimetry with a slow scintillating crystal is studied. In this experimental situation, to avoid pulse pile-up, it can be necessary to base the energy measurement on only a fraction of the emitted light, thus spoiling the energy resolution. This effect was experimentally studied with a BGO crystal and a photomultiplier followed by an integrator, by measuring the maximum amplitude of the signals. The experimental data show that the energy resolution is exclusively due to the statistical fluctuations of the number of photoelectrons contributing to the maximum amplitude. When such number is small its fluctuations are even smaller than those predicted by Poisson statistics. These results were confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation which allows to estimate, in a general case, the energy resolution, given the total number of photoelectrons, the scintillation time and the integration time.

  5. Time resolution of the plastic scintillator strips with matrix photomultiplier readout for J-PET tomograph.

    PubMed

    Moskal, P; Rundel, O; Alfs, D; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Giergiel, K; Gorgol, M; Jasińska, B; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Korcyl, G; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Sharma, N G; Słomski, A; Silarski, M; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wiślicki, W; Witkowski, P; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2016-03-01

    Recent tests of a single module of the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomography system (J-PET) consisting of 30 cm long plastic scintillator strips have proven its applicability for the detection of annihilation quanta (0.511 MeV) with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 0.266 ns. The achieved resolution is almost by a factor of two better with respect to the current TOF-PET detectors and it can still be improved since, as it is shown in this article, the intrinsic limit of time resolution for the determination of time of the interaction of 0.511 MeV gamma quanta in plastic scintillators is much lower. As the major point of the article, a method allowing to record timestamps of several photons, at two ends of the scintillator strip, by means of matrix of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is introduced. As a result of simulations, conducted with the number of SiPM varying from 4 to 42, it is shown that the improvement of timing resolution saturates with the growing number of photomultipliers, and that the [Formula: see text] configuration at two ends allowing to read twenty timestamps, constitutes an optimal solution. The conducted simulations accounted for the emission time distribution, photon transport and absorption inside the scintillator, as well as quantum efficiency and transit time spread of photosensors, and were checked based on the experimental results. Application of the [Formula: see text] matrix of SiPM allows for achieving the coincidence resolving time in positron emission tomography of [Formula: see text]0.170 ns for 15 cm axial field-of-view (AFOV) and [Formula: see text]0.365 ns for 100 cm AFOV. The results open perspectives for construction of a cost-effective TOF-PET scanner with significantly better TOF resolution and larger AFOV with respect to the current TOF-PET modalities. PMID:26895187

  6. Time resolution of the plastic scintillator strips with matrix photomultiplier readout for J-PET tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, P.; Rundel, O.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Giergiel, K.; Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B.; Kamińska, D.; Kapłon, Ł.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Sharma, N. G.; Słomski, A.; Silarski, M.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Witkowski, P.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2016-03-01

    Recent tests of a single module of the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomography system (J-PET) consisting of 30 cm long plastic scintillator strips have proven its applicability for the detection of annihilation quanta (0.511 MeV) with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 0.266 ns. The achieved resolution is almost by a factor of two better with respect to the current TOF-PET detectors and it can still be improved since, as it is shown in this article, the intrinsic limit of time resolution for the determination of time of the interaction of 0.511 MeV gamma quanta in plastic scintillators is much lower. As the major point of the article, a method allowing to record timestamps of several photons, at two ends of the scintillator strip, by means of matrix of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is introduced. As a result of simulations, conducted with the number of SiPM varying from 4 to 42, it is shown that the improvement of timing resolution saturates with the growing number of photomultipliers, and that the 2× 5 configuration at two ends allowing to read twenty timestamps, constitutes an optimal solution. The conducted simulations accounted for the emission time distribution, photon transport and absorption inside the scintillator, as well as quantum efficiency and transit time spread of photosensors, and were checked based on the experimental results. Application of the 2× 5 matrix of SiPM allows for achieving the coincidence resolving time in positron emission tomography of ≈ 0.170 ns for 15 cm axial field-of-view (AFOV) and ≈ 0.365 ns for 100 cm AFOV. The results open perspectives for construction of a cost-effective TOF-PET scanner with significantly better TOF resolution and larger AFOV with respect to the current TOF-PET modalities.

  7. Time resolution of the plastic scintillator strips with matrix photomultiplier readout for J-PET tomograph.

    PubMed

    Moskal, P; Rundel, O; Alfs, D; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Giergiel, K; Gorgol, M; Jasińska, B; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Korcyl, G; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Sharma, N G; Słomski, A; Silarski, M; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wiślicki, W; Witkowski, P; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2016-03-01

    Recent tests of a single module of the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomography system (J-PET) consisting of 30 cm long plastic scintillator strips have proven its applicability for the detection of annihilation quanta (0.511 MeV) with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 0.266 ns. The achieved resolution is almost by a factor of two better with respect to the current TOF-PET detectors and it can still be improved since, as it is shown in this article, the intrinsic limit of time resolution for the determination of time of the interaction of 0.511 MeV gamma quanta in plastic scintillators is much lower. As the major point of the article, a method allowing to record timestamps of several photons, at two ends of the scintillator strip, by means of matrix of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is introduced. As a result of simulations, conducted with the number of SiPM varying from 4 to 42, it is shown that the improvement of timing resolution saturates with the growing number of photomultipliers, and that the [Formula: see text] configuration at two ends allowing to read twenty timestamps, constitutes an optimal solution. The conducted simulations accounted for the emission time distribution, photon transport and absorption inside the scintillator, as well as quantum efficiency and transit time spread of photosensors, and were checked based on the experimental results. Application of the [Formula: see text] matrix of SiPM allows for achieving the coincidence resolving time in positron emission tomography of [Formula: see text]0.170 ns for 15 cm axial field-of-view (AFOV) and [Formula: see text]0.365 ns for 100 cm AFOV. The results open perspectives for construction of a cost-effective TOF-PET scanner with significantly better TOF resolution and larger AFOV with respect to the current TOF-PET modalities.

  8. Readout Durability Improvement of Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Discs with PtOx-SiO2 Recording and GeNy Interfacial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Yamakawa, Yuzo; Tominaga, Junji

    2007-02-01

    Two dielectric materials were added to a super-resolution near-field optical disc structure (super-RENS) to improve the readout durability. PtOx-SiO2 (Pt8.4Si21.1O70.5) layers showed O2 desorption for temperatures above 200 °C and were usable as write-once recording layers. The GeNy interfacial layers located between the Sb75Te25 and (ZnS)85(SiO2)15 layers suppressed degradation in the reflected light intensity from the disc, i.e., maintained the recorded structure as is, to at least 5× 104 readout cycles using a recorded pattern designed to accelerate disc deterioration. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) obtained for 100-nm marks (laser wavelength: 405 nm, numerical aperture: 0.65) was about 43 dB. It was possible to readout 2.6× 105 cycles before the CNR decreased by 3 dB. This represents an improvement of a factor of 70 over the readout durability of a conventional super-RENS structure.

  9. The Detector and Readout Systems of the Micro-X High Resolution Microcalorimeter X-Ray Imaging Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikus, P.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Ewin, A. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Galeazzi, M.; Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. D.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket experiment will deploy an imaging transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeter spectrometer to observe astrophysical sources in the 0.2-3.0 keV band. The instrument has been designed at a systems level, and the first items of flight hardware are presently being built. In the first flight, planned for January 2011, the spectrometer will observe a recently discovered Silicon knot in the Puppis-A supernova remnant. Here we describe the design of the Micro-X science instrument, focusing on the instrument's detector and detector assembly. The current design of the 2-dimensional spectrometer array contains 128 close-packed pixels with a pitch of 600 μm. The conically approximated Wolter-1 mirror will map each of these pixels to a 0.95 arcmin region on the sky; the field of view will be 11.4 arcmin. Targeted energy resolution of the TESs is about 2 eV over the full observing band. A SQUID time-division multiplexer (TDM) will read out the array. The detector time constants will be engineered to approximately 2 ms to match the TDM, which samples each pixel at 32.6 kHz, limited only by the telemetry system of the rocket. The detector array and two SQUID stages of the TDM readout system are accommodated in a lightweight Mg enclosure, which is mounted to the 50 mK stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A third SQUID amplification stage is located on the 1.6 K liquid He stage of the cryostat. An on-board 55-Fe source will fluoresce a Ca target, providing 3.69 and 4.01 keV calibration lines that will not interfere with the scientifically interesting energy band.

  10. Portable emittance measurement device

    SciTech Connect

    Liakin, D.; Seleznev, D.; Orlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Kropachev, G.; Kulevoy, T.; Yakushin, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the portable emittance measurements device is developed. It provides emittance measurements both with ''pepper-pot'' and ''two slits'' methods. Depending on the method of measurements, either slits or pepper-pot mask with scintillator are mounted on the two activators and are installed in two standard Balzer's cross chamber with CF-100 flanges. To match the angle resolution for measured beam, the length of the stainless steel pipe between two crosses changes is adjusted. The description of the device and results of emittance measurements at the ITEP ion source test bench are presented.

  11. Super-Resolution Readout of 50 nm Read-Only-Memory Pits Using Optics Based on High-Definition Digital Versatile Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Nakano, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuma; Kim, Jooho; Tominaga, Junji

    2008-07-01

    A super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS; ZnS-SiO2/Sb75Te25/ZnS-SiO2) and a read-only-memory (ROM) substrate with its pit wide in the radial direction (200 nm) are combined. The readout of 50-nm-long pits was examined, and the pit length is less than one third the resolution limit of the optics (laser wavelength: 405 nm, numerical aperture: 0.65) used. The carrier-to-noise ratio obtained was 39 dB, and it was possible to observe the reproduced waveform clearly. The results indicate that the capacity along the tangential direction can be increased by a factor of 4.

  12. CAD-II: the second version current-mode readout ASIC for high-resolution timing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z. X.; Deng, Z.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y. N.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the second version of a fully current-mode front-end ASIC, CAD (Current Amplifier and Discriminator), for MRPC detectors for TOF applications. Several upgrades have been made in this new version, including: 1). Using differential input stages with input impedance down to 30 Ω and LVDS compatible outputs; 2). Much higher current gain and bandwidth of 4.5 A/A and 380 MHz 3). Fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS process instead of 0.35 μ m CMOS technology used in CAD-I. The detailed design of the ASIC will be described as well as the measurement results. The single-ended input impedance could be as low as 32 Ω and the power consumption was measured to be 15 mW per channel. Input referred RMS noise current was about 0.56 μ A. The threshold could be set as low as 4.5 μ A referred to input, corresponding to 9 fC for the typical MRPC detector signal with 2 ns width. Sub-10 ps resolution has been measured for input signal above 200 μ A.

  13. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application.

  14. Brownian Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekov, Roumen

    2016-06-01

    A Brownian harmonic oscillator, which dissipates energy either by friction or via emission of electromagnetic radiation, is considered. This Brownian emitter is driven by the surrounding thermo-quantum fluctuations, which are theoretically described by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is shown how the Abraham-Lorentz force leads to dependence of the half-width on the peak frequency of the oscillator amplitude spectral density. It is found that for the case of a charged particle moving in vacuum at zero temperature, its root-mean-square velocity fluctuation is a universal constant, equal to roughly 1/18 of the speed of light. The relevant Fokker-Planck and Smoluchowski equations are also derived.

  15. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1995-01-01

    Providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure.

  16. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  17. Super-resolution high sensitivity AC Magnetic Field Imaging with NV Centers in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Erik; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Trifonov, Alexei; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    The Nitrogen-Vacancy center in diamond (NV center), a defect consisting of a nitrogen atom next to a missing atom, has been successfully applied to sense magnetic field, electric field, temperature and can also be used as fluorescence marker and single photon emitter. We will present super-resolution imaging of NV centers and simultaneous sensing of AC magnetic fields with high sensitivity. To demonstrate the applicability of super-resolution magnetic field imaging, we resolve several NV centers with an optical resolution smaller than 20 nm and probe locally the gradient of a externally applied magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate the detection of magnetic field signals from 1H protons with subdiffraction image resolution. We will also show that our super-resolution magnetometer will benefit from a new readout method based on a spin-to-charge mapping that we have developed to increase the readout contrast.

  18. Beam characteristics and a new operation method of a HARP field-emitter image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanba, Masakazu; Yamagishi, Toshio; Okazaki, Saburo; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Takayama, Katsumi; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Itoh, Shigeo

    1999-04-01

    A new type of image sensor featuring a unique structure is studied with the aim of achieving both super-high sensitivity and ultrahigh-definition. This image sensor combines a field emitter array (FEA) and a high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor target. We investigated the conditions for improving resolution in a vacuum chamber by inserting a mesh electrode between the FEA and the target. The results indicate that the resolution can be improved by strengthening the accelerating electric field between the FEA gate and the mesh, and by placing the mesh closer to the FEA. We also propose a new parallel readout system that is suitable for an ultrahigh-definition image sensor. Dividing the target into multiple segments and reading out signals for each segment simultaneously enables us to decrease the drive frequency. In our first attempt, we synthesized a good 60 X 60 pixel image from two 30 X 60 pixel segments.

  19. High resolution BPMS with integrated gain correction system

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, M.; Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Voy, D.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-08-01

    High resolution beam position monitors (BPM) are an essential tool to achieve and reproduce a low vertical beam emittance at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The ATF damping ring (DR) BPMs are currently upgraded with new high resolution read-out electronics. Based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, the upgrade includes an automatic gain calibration system to correct for slow drift effects and ensure high reproducible beam position readings. The concept and its technical realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  20. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  1. Aberration corrected emittance exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, E. A.; Graves, W. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (rf) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by multiple orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dogleg emittance exchange setup with a five cell rf deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of an EEX line with emittances differing by four orders of magnitude, i.e., an initial transverse emittance of 1 pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of 10 nm-rad.

  2. Emittance Theory for Cylindrical Fiber Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    A fibrous rare earth selective emitter is approximated as an infinitely long, cylinder. The spectral emittance, e(sub x), is obtained L- by solving the radiative transfer equations with appropriate boundary conditions and uniform temperature. For optical depth, K(sub R), where alpha(sub lambda), is the extinction coefficient and R is the cylinder radius, greater than 1 the spectral emittance depths, K(sub R) alpha(sub lambda)R, is nearly at its maximum value. There is an optimum cylinder radius, R(sub opt) for maximum emitter efficiency, n(sub E). Values for R(sub opt) are strongly dependent on the number of emission bands of the material. The optimum radius decreases slowly with increasing emitter temperature, while the maximum efficiency and useful radiated power increase rapidly with increasing, temperature.

  3. Floating emitter solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chih, Sah (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

  4. Scalar Readout Model for Super-Rens Focused Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assafrao, A. C.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.

    2011-12-01

    A scalar readout model is presented to investigate the readout characteristics of the super resolution near field (SRens) disc. The super resolution effect is described by means of a threshold model, where the super resolution material imparts a phase change on the focused spot if the laser density energy is high enough to trigger the SRens effect. This approach results in a very fast way of computing the basic characteristics of the SRens readout signal, being suitable for large investigations. Moreover, many simulation results have been experimentally confirmed by other groups, which further validates the model. Thus, this simplified model is an useful tool for a better comprehension of the readout signal of the super resolution effect in optical data storage and other super resolution applications.

  5. A PET detector module with monolithic crystal, single end readout, SiPM array and high depth-of-interaction resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, R.; Yang, C.

    2016-08-01

    Depth of interaction (DOI) technology can improve the spatial resolution of nuclear medicine imaging system which uses scintillation detectors such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this paper, a prototype detector module with DOI capability is established to make complementary characteristic tests on an existing method and to improve the experimental performance using the same method. We investigate the gamma incident surface and incident angle effects on the positioning method with our model in simulations and evaluate its 3-D positioning results in experiment. It shows that the positioning results are highly affected by the gamma incident surface and incident angle. The 137Cs energy resolution is 12.1% and the DOI resolution is estimated at 2.26 mm in average by our detector in experiment.

  6. Demountable readout technologies for optical image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2007-04-01

    We describe a generic microchannel plate intensifier design for use with a variety of demountable readout devices manufactured using standard multi-layer PCB techniques. We present results obtained using a 50 Ω multi-element design optimized for high speed operation and a four electrode multi-layer device developed from the wedge and strip anode with enhanced image resolution. The benefits of this intensifier design are discussed and a project to develop a detector system for bio-medical applications using a demountable readout device with integrated multi-channel ASIC-based electronics is announced.

  7. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.

    2006-04-01

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods.

  8. Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2005-03-22

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  9. Emittance Measurements of Trapped Electrons from a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, N.; Berry, M.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-06-28

    Recent electron beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator experiments carried out at SLAC showed trapping of plasma electrons. These trapped electrons appeared on an energy spectrometer with smaller transverse size than the beam driving the wake. A connection is made between transverse size and emittance; due to the spectrometer's resolution, this connection allows for placing an upper limit on the trapped electron emittance. The upper limit for the lowest normalized emittance measured in the experiment is 1 mm {center_dot} mrad.

  10. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  11. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  12. Detection of high energy muons with sub-20 ps timing resolution using L(Y)SO crystals and SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaglia, A.; Gundacker, S.; Lecoq, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Para, A.; Pauwels, K.; Auffray, E.

    2016-09-01

    Precise timing capability will be a key aspect of particle detectors at future high energy colliders, as the time information can help in the reconstruction of physics events at the high collision rate expected there. Other than being used in detectors for PET, fast scintillating crystals coupled to compact Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) constitute a versatile system that can be exploited to realize an ad-hoc timing device to be hosted in a larger high energy physics detector. In this paper, we present the timing performance of LYSO:Ce and LSO:Ce codoped 0.4% Ca crystals coupled to SiPMs, as measured with 150 GeV muons at the CERN SPS H2 extraction line. Small crystals, with lengths ranging from 5 mm up to 30 mm and transverse size of 2 × 2mm2 or 3 × 3mm2 , were exposed to a 150 GeV muon beam. SiPMs from two different companies (Hamamatsu and FBK) were used to detect the light produced in the crystals. The best coincidence time resolution value of (14.5 ± 0.5) ps , corresponding to a single-detector time resolution of about 10 ps, is demonstrated for 5 mm long LSO:Ce,Ca crystals coupled to FBK SiPMs, when time walk corrections are applied.

  13. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  14. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  15. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices.

  16. VCSELs for interferometric readout of MEMS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Peake, Gregory M.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Baker, Michael S.; Okandan, Murat

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of single-frequency VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) for sensing the position of a moving MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) object with resolution much less than 1nm. Position measurement is the basis of many different types of MEMS sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure sensors. Typically, by switching from a traditional capacitive electronic readout to an interferometric optical readout, the resolution can be improved by an order of magnitude with a corresponding improvement in MEMS sensor performance. Because the VCSEL wavelength determines the scale of the position measurement, laser wavelength (frequency) stability is desirable. This paper discusses the impact of VCSEL amplitude and frequency noise on the position measurement.

  17. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  18. XAMPS Detectors Readout ASIC for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragone, A; Pratte, J.F.; Rehak, P.; Carini, G.A.; Herbst, R.; O'Connor, P.; Siddons, D.P.; /BNL, NSLS

    2008-12-18

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a good position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.

  19. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  20. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  1. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  2. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 Mrk 841: insights into the warm absorber and warm emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinotti, A. L.; Costantini, E.; Petrucci, P. O.; Boisson, C.; Mouchet, M.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Matt, G.; Ponti, G.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2010-02-01

    Context. The Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 841 was observed five times between 2001 and 2005 by the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. The source is well known for showing spectral complexity in the variable iron line and in the soft X-ray excess. Aims: The availability of multiple exposures obtained by the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) cameras allows thorough study of the complex absorption and emission spectral features in the soft X-ray band. This paper reports on the first study of Mrk 841 soft X-ray spectrum at high spectral resolution. Methods: The three combined exposures obtained in January 2001 and the two obtained in January and July 2005 were analysed with the SPEX software. Results: We detect a two-phase warm absorber. A medium ionisation component (log ξ ~ 1.5-2.2 erg s cm-1) is responsible for a deep absorption feature in the unresolved transition array of the Fe M-shell and for several absorption lines in the OVI-VIII band, and a higher ionisation phase with log ξ ~ 3 erg s cm-1 is required to fit absorption in the NeIX-X band. The ionisation state and the column density of the gas present moderate variation from 2001 to 2005 for both phases. The high ionisation component of the warm absorber has no effect on the Fe K band. No significant velocity shift of the absorption lines is measured in the RGS data. Remarkably, the 2005 spectra show emission features consistent with photoionisation in a high-density (ne ≥ 1011 cm-3) gas. A prominent OVII line triplet was clearly observed in January 2005 and narrow radiative recombination continua (RRC) of OVII and CVI were observed in both 2005 data sets. A broad Gaussian line around 21.7 Å was also required to fit all the data sets. The derived radial distance for the emission lines seems to suggest that the photoionisation takes place within the optical broad line region of the source.

  3. Cancer from internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.

  4. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  5. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  6. Thermophotovoltaic emitter development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Many refractory oxide ceramics in fibrous form are efficient converters of the heat of combustion into radiant energy. Rare earth oxide ceramics, which are refractory and stable in flames, exhibit selective emission in the near IR where semiconductor photoconverters are efficient in converting radiant energy directly into electrical power. Ytterbia emitters and silicon photoconverters, in particular, constitute the basis for a high performance thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system. Ceramic fiber fabrication techniques are described that yield mechanically durable emitters in classical mantle geometries and in a novel planar form. This work has been supported by the Basic Research Group of the Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois.

  7. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  8. The fine grained detector readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retière, F.; T2K/FGD Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Fine Grained Detector (FGD) readout electronics was designed to record a snapshot of the detector activity before, during and after the neutrino beam spill produced by the J-PARC accelerator complex in Tokai, Japan. The FGD is a key element of T2K near detector currently being constructed. It will act as an active target detecting charged particles produced within its scintillator bars. The original feature of the FGD electronics is to readout Multi-Pixel Photon Counters by recording waveforms using Switch Capacitor Array chips (AFTER ASIC) designed for T2K Time Projection Chamber. In these proceedings, we describe the architecture of the FGD electronics. Beam results show that the physics requirements are met or exceeded. The relatively slow sampling frequency of the AFTER ASIC does not impair the timing resolution significantly. In addition, the very good efficiency of the system for detecting Michel electrons produced by pions or muons decay has been demonstrated.

  9. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  10. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  11. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  12. Millisecond readout CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Mark; McCurnin, Thomas W.; Stradling, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a fast-scanning CCD readout system to record a 1024 X 256 pixel image and transport the image to a recording station within 1 ms of the experimental event. The system is designed to have a dynamic range of greater than 1000 with adequate sensitivity to read single-electron excitations of a CRT phosphor when amplified by a microchannel plate image intensifier. This readout camera is intended for recording images from oscilloscopes, streak, and framing cameras. The sensor is a custom CCD chip, designed by LORAL Aeroneutronics. This CCD chip is designed with 16 parallel output ports to supply the necessary image transfer speed. The CCD is designed as an interline structure to allow fast clearing of the image and on-chip fast sputtering. Special antiblooming provisions are also included. The camera is designed to be modular and to allow CCD chips of other sizes to be used with minimal reengineering of the camera head.

  13. Millisecond readout CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, M.; McCurnin, T. W.; Stradling, G.

    We have developed a prototype of a fast-scanning CCD readout system to record a 1024 x 256 pixel image and transport the image to a recording station within 1 ms of the experimental event. The system is designed to have a dynamic range of greater than 1000 with adequate sensitivity to read single-electron excitations of a CRT phosphor when amplified by a microchannel plate image intensifier. This readout camera is intended for recording images from oscilloscopes, streak, and framing cameras. The sensor is a custom CCD chip, designed by LORAL Aeroneutronics. This CCD chip is designed with 16 parallel output ports to supply the necessary image transfer speed. The CCD is designed as an interline structure to allow fast clearing of the image and on-chip fast shuttering. Special antiblooming provisions are also included. The camera is designed to be modular and to allow CCD chips of other sizes to be used with minimal reengineering of the camera head.

  14. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  15. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Thick Film Selective Emitter Emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Clark, Eric B.; Chen, Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A temperature gradient across a thick (greater than or equal to .1 mm) film selective emitter will produce a significant reduction in the spectral emittance from the no temperature gradient case. Thick film selective emitters of rare earth doped host materials such as yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) are examples where temperature gradient effects are important. In this paper a model is developed for the spectral emittance assuming a linear temperature gradient across the film. Results of the model indicate that temperature gradients will result in reductions the order of 20% or more in the spectral emittance.

  16. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  17. Reappraisal of solid selective emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    New rare earth oxide emitters show greater efficiency than previous emitters. As a result, based on a simple model the efficiency of these emitters was calculated. Results indicate that the emission band of the selective emitter must be at relatively low energy (less than or equal to .52 eV) to obtain maximum efficiency at moderate emitter temperatures (less than or equal to 1500 K). Thus low bandgap energy PV materials are required to obtain an efficient thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. Of the 4 specific rare earths (Nd, Ho, Er, Yb) studied Ho has the largest efficiency at moderate temperatures (72 percent at 1500 K). A comparison was made between a selective emitter TPV system and a TPV system that uses a thermal emitter plus a band pass filter to make the thermal emitter behave like a selective emitter. Results of the comparison indicate that only for very optimistic filter and thermal emitter properties will the filter TPV system have a greater efficiency than the selective emitter system.

  18. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  19. Emittance and lifetime measurement with damping wigglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. M.; Shaftan, T.; Cheng, W. X.; Guo, W.; Ilinsky, P.; Li, Y.; Podobedov, B.; Willeke, F.

    2016-03-01

    National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a new third-generation storage ring light source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The storage ring design calls for small horizontal emittance (<1 nm-rad) and diffraction-limited vertical emittance at 12 keV (8 pm-rad). Achieving low value of the beam size will enable novel user experiments with nm-range spatial and meV-energy resolution. The high-brightness NSLS-II lattice has been realized by implementing 30-cell double bend achromatic cells producing the horizontal emittance of 2 nm rad and then halving it further by using several Damping Wigglers (DWs). This paper is focused on characterization of the DW effects in the storage ring performance, namely, on reduction of the beam emittance, and corresponding changes in the energy spread and beam lifetime. The relevant beam parameters have been measured by the X-ray pinhole camera, beam position monitors, beam filling pattern monitor, and current transformers. In this paper, we compare the measured results of the beam performance with analytic estimates for the complement of the 3 DWs installed at the NSLS-II.

  20. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l(sub 15/2)) - ( (4)l(sub13/2)), for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l(sub 7))-((5)l(sub 8)) for Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  1. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  2. Hodoscope readout system

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.Y.

    1973-12-01

    A readout system has been provided for reading out a radiation multidetector device with a reduced number of signal sensors. A radiation hodoscope, such as an array of scintillation counters, multiwire proportional counter array, or a set of multidetectors which do not receive signals simultaneously, is divided into equal numbered groups. A first group of signal terminals is connected to the equal numbered groups of detectors so that a signal from any one of the detectors of a group will be fed to one of the first group of terminals. A second group of signal terminals is connected to the detector groups so that a signal from a particular numbered detector of each of the detector groups is connected to one of the second group of terminals. Both groups of signal terminals are, in turn, coupled to signal sensors so that when a signal is simultaneously observed in one of the first group of terminals and one of the second group of tenniinals the specific detector detecting a radiation event is determined. The sensors are arranged in such a manner that a binary code is developed from their outputs which can be stored in a digital storage means according to the location of the event in the multidetector device. (Official Gazette)

  3. Imaging of alpha emitters in a field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Nicholl, Adrian; Hrnecek, Erich; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Cameras sensitive to ultraviolet light can be applied to detection of surface contamination induced by alpha particle emitters. When absorbed in air, alpha particles excite nitrogen molecules and the radiative relaxation creates a faint light emission. This radioluminescence can be used for detection purposes, provided that background lighting levels are low. In this work, three low-light sensitive camera technologies (CCD, EMCCD and ICCD) were utilized in a nuclear facility, and their performance in detecting alpha emitters was investigated. The results show that low readout noise is essential for the detection of radioluminescence, as it allows short exposure times to be used. The ICCD camera was found to perform slightly better than the EMCCD camera in the field, while both enable the detection of MBq level alpha activities in 100 s in the test configuration (camera-target distance 0.5 m). Overall, the cameras and techniques used in this study are shown to be effective in detecting alpha emitters in a standard glovebox. This technology can be applied to nuclear security, safety and safeguards, when stand-off detection of alpha emitters is required.

  4. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  5. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  6. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  7. Fully digital readout of segmented solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, K. H.; Badura, E.; Bräuning, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Märtin, R.; Minami, S.; Ott, W.; Spillmann, U.; Stöhlker, Th; Weber, G.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the digital readout of semiconductor detectors in combination with digital filters was investigated. Both non-segmented high-purity germanium and segmented planar lithium-drifted silicon detectors were used. In each case, photons from a stationary americium (241Am) gamma source were detected. The resulting preamplifier output pulses were digitized at a fixed sampling frequency and stored entirely. Digital filters were applied to the stored waveforms to extract time and energy information. The performance of different digital filters was compared. The optimum energy resolution obtained was comparable with the value resulting from an analogue readout system based on standard nuclear instrumentation module and versatile module Europe bus electronics.

  8. FXR LIA Optimization - Time-resolved OTR Emittance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P; LeSage, G

    2005-07-21

    The Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory utilizes a high current, long pulse linear induction accelerator to produce high doses of x-ray radiation. Accurate characterization of the transverse beam emittance is required in order to facilitate accelerator modeling and tuning efforts and, ultimately, to optimize the final focus spot size, yielding higher resolution radiographs. In addition to conventional magnet scan, pepper-pot, and multiple screen techniques, optical transition radiation (OTR) has been proven as a useful emittance measurement diagnostic and is particularly well suited to the FXR accelerator. We shall discuss the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam using OTR, and we will present our experimental apparatus and analysis software. We shall also develop the theoretical background of beam emittance and transition radiation.

  9. The NA62 Liquid Krypton calorimeter readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Ryjov, V.; De Simone, N.; Venditti, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at the CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator studies the ultra-rare decays of charged kaons. The high-resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the former NA48 experiment [2] is a key component of the experiment photon-veto system. The new LKr readout system comprises 14,000 14-bit ADC acquisition channels, 432× 1 Gbit Ethernet data request and readout links routed by 28× 10 Gbit network switches to the experiment computer farm, and timing, trigger and control (TTC) distribution system. This paper presents the architecture of the LKr readout and TTC systems, the overall performance and the first successfully collected experiment physics data.

  10. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  11. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  12. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-02-20

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  13. Thin-Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy using a photovoltaic cell is called thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. One way to make this an efficient process is to have the thermal energy source be an efficient selective emitter of radiation. The emission must be near the band-gap energy of the photovoltaic cell. One possible method to achieve an efficient selective emitter is the use of a thin film of rare-earth oxides. The determination of the efficiency of such an emitter requires analysis of the spectral emittance of the thin film including scattering and reflectance at the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Emitter efficiencies (power emitted in emission band/total emitted power) in the range 0.35-0.7 are predicted. There is an optimum optical depth to obtain maximum efficiency. High emitter efficiencies are attained only for low (less than 0.05) substrate emittance values, both with and without scattering. The low substrate emittance required for high efficiency limits the choice of substrate materials to highly reflective metals or high-transmission materials such as sapphire.

  14. EMITTANCE COMPENSATION FOR MAGNETIZED BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    KEWISCH,J.; CHANG, X.

    2007-06-25

    Emittance compensation is a well established technique for minimizing the emittance of an electron beam from a RF photo-cathode gun. Longitudinal slices of a bunch have a small emittance, but due to the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and time dependent RF fields they are not focused in the same way, so that the direction of their phase ellipses diverges in phase space and the projected emittance is much larger. Emittance compensation reverses the divergence. At the location where the slopes of the phase ellipses coincide the beam is accelerated, so that the space charge forces are reduced. A recipe for emittance compensation is given in. For magnetized beams (where the angular momentum is non-zero) such emittance compensation is not sufficient because variations in the slice radius lead to variations in the angular speed and therefore to an increase of emittance in the rotating game. We describe a method and tools for a compensation that includes the beam magnetization.

  15. Timepix3: a 65K channel hybrid pixel readout chip with simultaneous ToA/ToT and sparse readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Campbell, M.; De Gaspari, M.; Llopart, X.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zappon, F.; Zivkovic, V.; Brezina, C.; Desch, K.; Fu, Y.; Kruth, A.

    2014-05-01

    The Timepix3, hybrid pixel detector (HPD) readout chip, a successor to the Timepix \\cite{timepix2007} chip, can record time-of-arrival (ToA) and time-over-threshold (ToT) simultaneously in each pixel. ToA information is recorded in a 14-bit register at 40 MHz and can be refined by a further 4 bits with a nominal resolution of 1.5625 ns (640 MHz). ToT is recorded in a 10-bit overflow controlled counter at 40 MHz. Pixels can be programmed to record 14 bits of integral ToT and 10 bits of event counting, both at 40 MHz. The chip is designed in 130 nm CMOS and contains 256 × 256 pixel channels (55 × 55 μm2). The chip, which has more than 170 M transistors, has been conceived as a general-purpose readout chip for HPDs used in a wide range of applications. Common requirements of these applications are operation without a trigger signal, and sparse readout where only pixels containing event information are read out. A new architecture has been designed for sparse readout and can achieve a throughput of up to 40 Mhits/s/cm2. The flexible architecture offers readout schemes ranging from serial (one link) readout (40 Mbps) to faster parallel (up to 8 links) readout of 5.12 Gbps. In the ToA/ToT operation mode, readout is simultaneous with data acquisition thus keeping pixels sensitive at all times. The pixel matrix is formed by super pixel (SP) structures of 2 × 4 pixels. This optimizes resources by sharing the pixel readout logic which transports data from SPs to End-of-Column (EoC) using a 2-phase handshake protocol. To reduce power consumption in applications with a low duty cycle, an on-chip power pulsing scheme has been implemented. The logic switches bias currents of the analog front-ends in a sequential manner, and all front-ends can be switched in 800 ns. The digital design uses a mixture of commercial and custom standard cell libraries and was verified using Open Verification Methodology (OVM) and commercial timing analysis tools. The analog front-end and a

  16. Nanostructure-Induced Distortion in Single-Emitter Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kangmook; Ropp, Chad; Barik, Sabyasachi; Fourkas, John; Shapiro, Benjamin; Waks, Edo

    2016-09-14

    Single-emitter microscopy has emerged as a promising method of imaging nanostructures with nanoscale resolution. This technique uses the centroid position of an emitter's far-field radiation pattern to infer its position to a precision that is far below the diffraction limit. However, nanostructures composed of high-dielectric materials such as noble metals can distort the far-field radiation pattern. Previous work has shown that these distortions can significantly degrade the imaging of the local density of states in metallic nanowires using polarization-resolved imaging. But unlike nanowires, nanoparticles do not have a well-defined axis of symmetry, which makes polarization-resolved imaging difficult to apply. Nanoparticles also exhibit a more complex range of distortions, because in addition to introducing a high dielectric surface, they also act as efficient scatterers. Thus, the distortion effects of nanoparticles in single-emitter microscopy remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that metallic nanoparticles can significantly distort the accuracy of single-emitter imaging at distances exceeding 300 nm. We use a single quantum dot to probe both the magnitude and the direction of the metallic nanoparticle-induced imaging distortion and show that the diffraction spot of the quantum dot can shift by more than 35 nm. The centroid position of the emitter generally shifts away from the nanoparticle position, which is in contradiction to the conventional wisdom that the nanoparticle is a scattering object that will pull in the diffraction spot of the emitter toward its center. These results suggest that dielectric distortion of the emission pattern dominates over scattering. We also show that by monitoring the distortion of the quantum dot diffraction spot we can obtain high-resolution spatial images of the nanoparticle, providing a new method for performing highly precise, subdiffraction spatial imaging. These results provide a better understanding of the

  17. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOEpatents

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  18. Performance of Pixel-Readout Micro-Pixel Chamber with Analog-Readout System Used as X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Hideaki; Ono, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Hideki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Matsumoto, Hironori; Hyodo, Yoshiaki; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Tanimori, Toru

    2007-12-01

    We developed an analog-readout system for a pixel-readout micro-pixel chamber (μ-PIC) to be used as an astronomical X-ray polarimeter, and demonstrated that the sensitivity of the new system reached up to that predicted by a simulation. A pixel-readout μ-PIC is a micro-pattern gaseous detector with a fine position resolution and good stability at sufficient gain operation, and is suited for astronomical X-ray polarimetry. However, as shown by Katagiri et al. (2007), the sensitivity to X-ray polarization was found to be statistically lower by a significant amount than that expected from the simulation of Ueno et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 525 (2004) 28] because of the readout system and background produced by the scattering of the X-ray beam in air. We therefore developed a new readout system and carried out a beam test with aluminum tubes that reduced the background. As a result, we demonstrated that for collimated beams, the modulation factors, which are indicators of the sensitivity to X-ray polarization, were 0.24± 0.08 at 8 keV and 0.18± 0.07 at 15 keV in a neon-based gas mixture, and 0.18± 0.04 at 15 keV in an argon-based mixture. These values are consistent with those predicted by the simulation within errors.

  19. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  20. Linear readout of object manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2016-06-01

    Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.

  1. Simultaneous parallel inclined readout image technique.

    PubMed

    Paley, Martyn N J; Lee, Kuan J; Wild, James M; Griffiths, Paul D; Whitby, Elspeth H

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity-encoded phase undersampling has been combined with simultaneous slice excitation to produce a parallel MRI method with a high volumetric acquisition acceleration factor without the need for auxiliary stepped field coils. Dual-slice excitation was produced by modulating both spin and gradient echo sequences at +/-6 kHz. Frequency aliasing of simultaneously excited slices was prevented by using an additional gradient applied along the slice axis during data acquisition. Data were acquired using a four-channel receiver array and x4 sensitivity encoding on a 1.5 T MR system. The simultaneous parallel inclined readout image technique has been successfully demonstrated in both phantoms and volunteers. A multiplicative image acquisition acceleration factor of up to x8 was achieved. Image SNR and resolution was dependent on the ratio of the readout gradient to the additional slice gradient. A ratio of approximately 2:1 produced acceptable image quality. Use of RF pulses with additional excitation bands should enable the technique to be extended to volumetric acquisition acceleration factors in the range of x16-24 without the SNR limitations of pure partially parallel phase reduction methods.

  2. Coherent Hot-Electron Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Nobuya; Furuya, Kazuhito

    2001-01-01

    The structure and principle of an electron emitter ejecting electron waves with ultimate value of product of wavefront spread and current density in a solid-state condition is proposed. By introducing an additional electrode, the gate, to a double-barrier resonant-tunneling emitter, an electron flux with a single wavelength, a wide wavefront spread and high current density can be achieved. We justify the principle by electrostatic theory. This emitter might also be used for various types of solid-state spectroscopy.

  3. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  4. Beam emittance measurements in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski,A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nemesure, S.; Russo, t.; Steski, D.; Sivertz, M.

    2009-05-04

    The RHIC proton polarimeters can operate in scanning mode, giving polarization profiles and transverse beam intensity profile (beam emittance) measurements. The polarimeters function as wire scanners, providing a very good signal/noise ratio and high counting rate. This allows accurate bunch-by-bunch emittance measurements during fast target sweeps (<1 s) through the beam. Very thin carbon strip targets make these measurements practically non-destructive. Bunch by bunch emittance measurements are a powerful tool for machine set-up; in RHIC, individual proton beam transverse emittances can only be measured by CNI polarimeter scans. We discuss the consistency of these measurements with Ionization Profile Monitors (IPMs) and vernier scan luminosity measurements. Absolute accuracy limitations and cross-calibration of different techniques are also discussed.

  5. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  6. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  7. Fast Low-Cost Multiple Sensor Readout System

    DOEpatents

    Carter-Lewis, David; Krennich, Frank; Le Bohec, Stephane; Petry, Dirk; Sleege, Gary

    2004-04-06

    A low resolution data acquisition system is presented. The data acquisition system has a plurality of readout modules serially connected to a controller. Each readout module has a FPGA in communication with analog to digital (A/D) converters, which are connected to sensors. The A/D converter has eight bit or lower resolution. The FPGA detects when a command is addressed to it and commands the A/D converters to convert analog sensor data into digital data. The digital data is sent on a high speed serial communication bus to the controller. A graphical display is used in one embodiment to indicate if a sensor reading is outside of a predetermined range.

  8. A cylindrical SPECT camera with de-centralized readout scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habte, F.; Stenström, P.; Rillbert, A.; Bousselham, A.; Bohm, C.; Larsson, S. A.

    2001-09-01

    An optimized brain single photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT) camera is being designed at Stockholm University and Karolinska Hospital. The design goal is to achieve high sensitivity, high-count rate and high spatial resolution. The sensitivity is achieved by using a cylindrical crystal, which gives a closed geometry with large solid angles. A de-centralized readout scheme where only a local environment around the light excitation is readout supports high-count rates. The high resolution is achieved by using an optimized crystal configuration. A 12 mm crystal plus 12 mm light guide combination gave an intrinsic spatial resolution better than 3.5 mm (140 keV) in a prototype system. Simulations show that a modified configuration can improve this value. A cylindrical configuration with a rotating collimator significantly simplifies the mechanical design of the gantry. The data acquisition and control system uses early digitization and subsequent digital signal processing to extract timing and amplitude information, and monitors the position of the collimator. The readout system consists of 12 or more modules each based on programmable logic and a digital signal processor. The modules send data to a PC file server-reconstruction engine via a Firewire (IEEE-1394) network.

  9. A cylindrical GEM detector with analog readout for the BESIII experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, A.; Baldini, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotto, G.; Mori, F. De; Destefanis, M.; Dong, J.; Dong, M.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Hu, J. F.; Johansson, T.; Leng, C.; Li, H.; Liu, Z.; Maggiora, M.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Morello, G.; Ouyan, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Rivetti, A.; Rosner, C.; Savrié, M.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wu, L.; Ji, X.; Ye, M.; Zallo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zotti, L.

    2016-07-01

    A cylindrical GEM detector with analog readout is under development for the upgrade of the Inner Tracker of the BESIII experiment at IHEP (Beijing). The new detector will match the requirements for momentum resolution (σpt /pt ~ 0.5 % at 1 GeV) and radial resolution (σxy ~ 120 μm) of the existing drift chamber and will improve significantly the spatial resolution along the beam direction (σz ~ 150 μm) with very small material budget (less than 1.5% of X0). With respect to the state of the art the following innovations will be deployed: a lighter mechanical structure based on Rohacell, a new XV anode readout plane with jagged strip layout to reduce the parasitic capacitance, and the use of the analogue readout inside a high intensity magnetic field to have good spatial resolution without increasing the number of channels.

  10. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Daniel T.

    1990-01-01

    A support is provided for use in a therminonic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  11. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Daniel T.

    1990-01-01

    A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially at its temperatures changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housng, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  12. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.

    1989-07-01

    A support is discussed which was provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs.

  13. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.T.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a support provided for use in a therminonic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs.

  14. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.T.

    1989-07-06

    This document discusses a support provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs. 7 figs.

  15. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.T.

    1990-10-16

    A support is presented for use in a thermionic converted to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially at its temperatures changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a large metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs.

  16. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  17. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  18. Emittance concept and growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present an introduction to the subjects of emittance and space-charge effects in charged-particle beams. This is followed by a discussion of three important topics that are at the frontier of this field. The first is a simple model, describing space-charge-induced emittance growth, which yields scaling formulas and some physical explanations for some of the surprising results. The second is a discussion of beam halo, an introduction to the particle-core model, and a brief summary of its results. The third topic is an introduction to the hypothesis of equipartitioning for collisionless particle beams.

  19. A data readout approach for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi-Ru; Cao, Ping; Gao, Li-Wei; Zheng, Jia-Jun

    2015-07-01

    With increasing physical event rates and the number of electronic channels, traditional readout schemes meet the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of the crate backplane. In this paper, a high-speed data readout method based on the Ethernet is presented to make each readout module capable of transmitting data to the DAQ. Features of explicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture give the readout system the advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments. Furthermore, to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility, a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing. To receive the customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration. To optimize the interface and to improve the data throughput between CPU and FPGA, a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed readout method, a simplified readout module is designed and implemented. Test results show that this module can support up to 70 Mbps data throughput from the readout module to DAQ. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107) and Independent Projects of State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (201301)

  20. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  1. Development of TORCH readout electronics for customised MCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Fohl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2016-04-01

    The TORCH detector is being developed for low-momentum particle identification, combining time-of-flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve charged particle pi/K/p separation up to 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10m. This requires a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on an existing scalable design, production and testing of a TORCH readout system has been undertaken over the past year, and a novel customized Micro Channel Plate (MCP) photomultiplier device with 128-channels has been instrumented. This paper will report on the development of the readout system which is being used to measure time-of-flight in a test-beam, and its performance. We will also discuss the communication and data alignment between the TORCH system and the TimePix3 telescope in order to provide track reconstruction.

  2. Emittance of investment casting molds

    SciTech Connect

    Havstad, M.A.

    1994-07-15

    This document describes measurements of the directional spectral emittance of four ceramic mold materials. The work was performed with the samples at {approximately} 900{degree}C in a vacuum vessel pumped to {approximately}3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}Torr. Results conform to expectations derived from prior work done with similar samples.

  3. Ultra Low Emittance Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson,J.

    2008-06-23

    This paper outlines the special issues for reaching sub-nm emittance in a storage ring. Effects of damping wigglers, intra-beam scattering and lifetime issues, dynamic aperture optimization, control of optics, and their interrelations are covered in some detail. The unique choices for the NSLS-II are given as one example.

  4. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  5. Magnetic field emission gun with zirconiated emitter.

    PubMed

    Troyon, M

    1989-03-01

    A magnetic-field-superimposed field emission gun with low aberrations and equipped with a zirconiated tungsten emitter has been developed for applications where very stable high probe currents are required. It has been tested on a conventional electron microscope at 10 kV and on an electron beam testing system at 1 kV. Probe current i = 250 nA in a probe size d = 0.4 micron is obtained at 10 kV; at 1 kV the resolution is 0.1 micron with i = 5 nA, and 0.4 micron with i = 30 nA. For these probe currents, the spatial broadening effect due to electron-electron interactions in the beam is the preponderant factor limiting the probe size.

  6. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J. R.; Jensen, K. L.; Shiffler, D. A.; Petillo, J. J.

    2015-05-18

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays.

  7. Optimization of receiver arrangements for passive emitter localization methods.

    PubMed

    Flückiger, M; Neild, A; Nelson, B J

    2012-03-01

    Passive localization of an object from its emission can be based on time difference of arrival or phase shift measurements for different receiver groups in sensor arrays. The accuracy of the localization primarily depends on accurate time and/or phase measurements. The frequency of the emission and the number and arrangement of the receivers mainly effect the resolution of the emitter localization. In this paper optimal receiver positions for passive localization methods are proposed, resulting in a maximal resolution for the emitter location estimate. The optimization is done by analyzing the uncertainty of the emitted signal, including its frequency. The technique has been developed specifically for ultrasound signals obtained from omnidirectional transducers, although the results apply for other application using passive localization techniques.

  8. Superconducting thin-film gyroscope readout for Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, James M.; Cheung, W. Stephen; Gill, Dale K.

    1987-01-01

    The high-resolution gyroscope readout system for the Stanford Gravity Probe-B experiment, whose purpose is to measure two general relativistic precessions of gyroscopes in earth orbit, is described. In order to achieve the required resolution in angle (0.001 arcsec), the readout system combines high-precision mechanical fabrication and measurement techniques with superconducting thin-film technology, ultralow magnetic fields, and SQUID detectors. The system design, performance limits achievable with current technology, and the results of fabrication and laboratory testing to date are discussed.

  9. Electric field distribution of electron emitter surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, M.; Takenobu, S.; Ohmae, N.; Umeno, M.

    1987-03-01

    The electric field distribution of a tungsten field emitter surface and a LaB6 thermionic emitter surface has been studied. The computer simulation of electric field distribution on the emitter surface was carried out with a charge simulation method. The electric field distribution of the LaB6 thermionic emitter was experimentally evaluated by the Schottky plot. Two independent equations are necessary for obtaining local electric field and work function; the Fowler-Nordheim equation and the equation of total energy distribution of emitted electron being used to evaluate the electric field distribution of the tungsten field emitter. The experimental results agreed with the computer simulation.

  10. Report of the sensor readout electronics panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Carson, J.; Kleinhans, W.; Kosonocky, W.; Kozlowski, L.; Pecsalski, A.; Silver, A.; Spieler, H.; Woolaway, J.

    1991-01-01

    The findings of the Sensor Readout Electronics Panel are summarized in regard to technology assessment and recommended development plans. In addition to two specific readout issues, cryogenic readouts and sub-electron noise, the panel considered three advanced technology areas that impact the ability to achieve large format sensor arrays. These are mega-pixel focal plane packaging issues, focal plane to data processing module interfaces, and event driven readout architectures. Development in each of these five areas was judged to have significant impact in enabling the sensor performance desired for the Astrotech 21 mission set. Other readout issues, such as focal plane signal processing or other high volume data acquisition applications important for Eos-type mapping, were determined not to be relevant for astrophysics science goals.

  11. A multiplex readout method for position sensitive boron coated straw neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Gong, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing; Kang, Kejun

    2015-10-01

    A 1 m×1 m boron coated straw neutron detector is expected to be used to build the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) in Tsinghua University. A multiplex readout method based on summing circuits in columns and rows is studied for this large area position sensitive detector. In this method, the outputs of charge sensitive preamplifiers are combined by columns and rows at two ends of the detector, and then the shaped signals are sampled by flash ADCs. With the position reconstructed algorithm implemented in FPGA which analyzes the charge division and column and row number of signals, the 3-D position information of neutron events can be obtained. The position resolution and counting rate performance of this method are analyzed, and the comparison to the delay-line readout method is also given. With the multiplex readout method, the scale of readout electronics can be greatly reduced and a good position resolution can be reached. A readout electronics system for a detector module which consists 4 × 10 straw tubes is designed based on this method, and the test with neutron beam shows an average 3-D spatial resolution of 4 × 4 × 6.8mm3.

  12. Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. The imaging device can also include an electronic shutter formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate, and/or a storage section to allow for simultaneous integration. In addition, the imaging device can include a multiresolution imaging circuit to provide images of varying resolution. The multiresolution circuit could also be employed in an array where the photosensitive portion of each pixel cell is a photodiode. This latter embodiment could further be modified to facilitate low light imaging.

  13. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  14. Beam emittance measurements at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Manfred; Eddy, Nathan; Hu, Martin; Scarpine, Victor; Syphers, Mike; Tassotto, Gianni; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zagel, James; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    We give short overview of various beam emittance measurement methods, currently applied at different machine locations for the Run II collider physics program at Fermilab. All these methods are based on beam profile measurements, and we give some examples of the related instrumentation techniques. At the end we introduce a multi-megawatt proton source project, currently under investigation at Fermilab, with respect to the beam instrumentation challenges.

  15. Metamaterial selective emitters for photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMeo, Dante F.; Pfeister, Nicole A.; Shemelya, Corey M.; Vandervelde, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    This work demonstrates metamaterial (MM) selective thermal emitters for potential use with energy harvesting photodiodes, such as thermophotovoltaic cells. Preliminary structures have been designed, simulated, and fabricated using CST Microwave Studio and microfabrication techniques including electron beam evaporation, atomic layer deposition, and electron beam lithography, respectively. Samples were tested to determine the effect of top layer metal thickness on the absorption of these devices. Preliminary simulation and testing was also performed to design a device for operation at 500°C.

  16. Metal halide perovskite light emitters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Cho, Himchan; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after layer-type metal halide perovskites were successfully developed, 3D metal halide perovskites (shortly, perovskites) were recently rediscovered and are attracting multidisciplinary interest from physicists, chemists, and material engineers. Perovskites have a crystal structure composed of five atoms per unit cell (ABX3) with cation A positioned at a corner, metal cation B at the center, and halide anion X at the center of six planes and unique optoelectronic properties determined by the crystal structure. Because of very narrow spectra (full width at half-maximum ≤20 nm), which are insensitive to the crystallite/grain/particle dimension and wide wavelength range (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 780 nm), perovskites are expected to be promising high-color purity light emitters that overcome inherent problems of conventional organic and inorganic quantum dot emitters. Within the last 2 y, perovskites have already demonstrated their great potential in light-emitting diodes by showing high electroluminescence efficiency comparable to those of organic and quantum dot light-emitting diodes. This article reviews the progress of perovskite emitters in two directions of bulk perovskite polycrystalline films and perovskite nanoparticles, describes current challenges, and suggests future research directions for researchers to encourage them to collaborate and to make a synergetic effect in this rapidly emerging multidisciplinary field. PMID:27679844

  17. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  18. An interpolating 2D pixel readout structure for synchrotron X-ray diffraction in protein crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besch, H. J.; Junk, M.; Meißner, W.; Sarvestani, A.; Stiehler, R.; Walenta, A. H.

    1997-02-01

    The high rates available now at synchrotron beam lines ask for detectors allowing online measurements with good spatial resolution and a precise intensity measurement. For this purpose gaseous detectors operating in the single photon counting mode are well suited. An interpolating 2D pixel readout structure will be presented. It has been tested as backplane of a MSGC or a CAT-detector (recently developed by the group of M. Lemonnier at LURE), and it operates on the principle of resistive charge partition, allowing asynchronous readout. A resolution of 200 μm is reached. Under similar conditions the energy resolution from the signals of the readout structure presented is nearly the same as that of standard readout. In combination with a CAT an energy resolution of 20% is reached. A prototype of 64 channels with a sensitive area of 14 mm × 14 mm was tested at the synchrotron at LURE (Orsay). Diffraction patterns from a collagenase protein crystal were measured and rocking curves were obtained with an angular resolution of 1.5 × 10 -5.

  19. Readout of silicon strip detectors with position and timing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Irmler, C.; Pernicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-noise front-end amplifiers for silicon strip detectors are already available for decades, providing excellent signal-to-noise ratio and thus very precise spatial resolution, but at the cost of a long shaping time in the microsecond range. Due to occupancy and pile-up issues, modern experiments need much faster electronics. With submicron ASICs, adequate readout and data processing, it is possible to obtain not only spatial hit data, but also accurate timing information—a feature which is rarely exploited so far. We present the concept of a silicon vertex detector readout system intended for an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). The APV25 front-end chip, originally developed for CMS at CERN, is used in a way where it delivers multiple samples along the shaped waveform, such that not only the analog pulse height, but also the timing of each particle hit can be determined. We developed a complete readout system including an FADC +Processor VME module which performs zero-suppression in FPGAs. The hit time measurement is also planned on the same module. As fast amplifiers are inherently more susceptible to noise, which largely depends on the load capacitance, the front-end chips should be located as close to the detector as possible. On the other hand, the material budget, especially in a low-energy electron-positron machine such as Belle, should be minimized. We tried to merge those demands with a fully functional "Flex_Module", where thinned APV25 readout chips are mounted on the silicon sensor.

  20. High-speed position readout for microchannel plate-based space plasma instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, D. O.; Chaudery, Rahil; Rees, Kerrin

    2007-04-01

    Position sensitive micro-channel plate (MPC) detectors are attractive for space plasma instruments but have a number of limitations. Most of the techniques have limited global rate handling and require the MCP to run at high gain with MCP lifetime implications. In addition, available mass and power resources limit the number of channels of readout electronics. A fast position sensing technique was developed that is well suited for MCP-based space plasma applications. The output charge from the MCP falling on an anode pixel is capacitively split into two separate channels of readout electronics. Choosing an appropriate readout pattern, the charge is forced to split unequally, introducing a time walk between the signals from the following leading edge discriminator. Identifying the active channels and the order of their arrival time provides unique identification of the position of the incoming event. The pixels are interleaved so that each readout channel can be connected to several pixels, reducing the total number of readout channels. The timing logic and signal processing is carried out within an FPGA with additional processor/spacecraft interfaces also built in. The system dead time within the FPGA has been simulated and found to be less than 100 ns. The performance of the system can be optimised depending on the resolution, rate handling and lifetime requirements of the instrument. Details of the readout technique and its implementation in a space plasma analyser are presented.

  1. Transverse Emittance Reduction with Tapered Foil

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Yi; Chao, Alex; Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The idea of reducing transverse emittance with tapered energy-loss foil is proposed by J.M. Peterson in 1980s and recently by B. Carlsten. In this paper, we present the physical model of tapered energy-loss foil and analyze the emittance reduction using the concept of eigen emittance. The study shows that, to reduce transverse emittance, one should collimate at least 4% of particles which has either much low energy or large transverse divergence. The multiple coulomb scattering is not trivial, leading to a limited emittance reduction ratio. Small transverse emittances are of essential importance for the accelerator facilities generating free electron lasers, especially in hard X-ray region. The idea of reducing transverse emittance with tapered energy-loss foil is recently proposed by B. Carlsten [1], and can be traced back to J.M. Peterson's work in 1980s [2]. Peterson illustrated that a transverse energy gradient can be produced with a tapered energy-loss foil which in turn leads to transverse emittance reduction, and also analyzed the emittance growth from the associated multiple coulomb scattering. However, what Peterson proposed was rather a conceptual than a practical design. In this paper, we build a more complete physical model of the tapered foil based on Ref. [2], including the analysis of the transverse emittance reduction using the concept of eigen emittance and confirming the results by various numerical simulations. The eigen emittance equals to the projected emittance when there is no cross correlation in beam's second order moments matrix [3]. To calculate the eigen emittances, it requires only to know the beam distribution at the foil exit. Thus, the analysis of emittance reduction and the optics design of the subsequent beam line section can be separated. In addition, we can combine the effects of multiple coulomb scattering and transverse energy gradient together in the beam matrix and analyze their net effect. We find that,when applied to an

  2. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A

    2008-03-01

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cm x 40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system. PMID:18404939

  3. Beam Loss and Longitudinal Emittance Growth in SIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M.; Hofmann, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Spiller, P.; Hülsmann, P.; Franchetti, G.; Damerau, H.; König, H. Günter; Klingbeil, H.; Kumm, M.; Moritz, P.; Schütt, P.; Redelbach, A.

    2005-06-01

    Beam losses of several percent occur regularly in SIS. The onset occurs during the RF capture of the beam. Previous studies have revealed that the losses can come from the RF bucket at the start of acceleration being over filled due to the longitudinal bucket acceptance being too small, or due to the mismatch between the mean energy from the UNILAC and synchronous energy of the SIS. The beam losses as measured by a DC beam transformer however show in addition to the sharp initial drop, for the above reasons, a much slower decay in the beam intensity. The speculated cause comes from the incoherent transverse tune shift of the bunched beam, which forces particles into transverse resonant conditions. The longitudinal emittance growth is also another important issue for SIS. Past measurements from Schottky-noise pick-ups have shown a factor of 3-5 increase in the longitudinal emittance depending on the extraction energy; a large factor when compared against expectations from theory. These factors were calculated from the ratio between the normalized relative momentum spread of the DC beam before RF capture and after debunching. In this present work, tomographical techniques have been used to reconstruct the phasespace from a series of bunch profile measurements from a Beam Position Monitor (BPM). Therefore one can find the rate of growth in the longitudinal emittance from a series of high resolution BPM measurements along the RF ramp. Furthermore the initial phasespace density matrix from these reconstructions has been used to generate the initial population of macroparticles for the ESME longitudinal dynamics Particle-In-Cell code, thereby enabling a comparison between the longitudinal emittance growth of the beam under ideal conditions and that of the experiment. The longitudinal emittance growth (rms) during the acceleration (˜540ms) was approximately 20%, and that during the RF capture was estimated to have an upper limit of about 40%. Later measurements have also

  4. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation. PMID:23564969

  5. Emittance Growth in the NLCTA First Chicane

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    In this paper, the emittance growth in the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator) first chicane region is evaluated by simulation studies. It is demonstrated that the higher order fields of the chicane dipole magnet and the dipole corrector magnet (which is attached on the quadrupoles) are the main contributions for the emittance growth, especially for the case with a large initial emittance ({gamma}{epsilon}{sub 0} = 5 {micro}m for instance). These simulation results agree with the experimental observations.

  6. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  7. PROTON BEAM EMITTANCE GROWTH AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.; PTITSYN, V.

    2007-06-25

    With significant beam intensity improvement in RHIC polarized proton runs in 2005 and 2006, the emittance growth becomes a luminosity limiting factor. The beam emittance growth has a dependence on the dynamic pressure rise, which in RHIC proton runs is mainly caused by the electron cloud. The beam instability is usually absent, and the emittance growth rate is much slower than the ones caused by the head-tail instability. It is suspected that the emittance growth is caused by the electron cloud below the instability threshold.

  8. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  9. The capacitive division image readout: a novel imaging device for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Leach, S. A.; Moore, L.

    2013-09-01

    The Capacitive Division Image Readout (C-DIR) is a simple and novel image readout for photon counting detectors offering major performance advantages. C-DIR is a charge centroiding device comprising three elements; (i) a resistive anode providing event charge localization, event current return path and electrical isolation from detector high voltage, (ii) a dielectric substrate which capacitively couples the event transient signal to the third element, (iii) the readout device; an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which divides the signal among the readout charge measurement nodes. The resistive anode and dielectric substrate constitute the rear interface of the detector and capacitively couple the signal to the external C-DIR readout device. The C-DIR device is a passive, multilayer printed circuit board type device comprising a matrix of isolated electrodes whose geometries define the capacitive network. C-DIR is manufactured using conventional PCB geometries and is straightforward and economical to construct. C-DIR's robustness and simplicity belie its performance advantages. Its capacitive nature avoids partition noise, the Poisson noise associated with collection of discrete charges. The dominant noise limiting position resolution is electronic noise. However C-DIR also presents a low input capacitance to the readout electronics, minimising this noise component thus maximising spatial resolution. Optimisation of the C-DIR pattern-edge geometry can provide ~90% linear dynamic range. We present data showing image resolution and linearity of the C-DIR device in a microchannel plate detector and describe various electronic charge measurement scheme designed to exploit the full performance potential of the C-DIR device.

  10. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-11-05

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the beam profile will be described.

  11. Low Emittance, High Brilliance Relativistic Electron Beams from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, E.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Anania, M. P.; Cipiccia, S.; Issac, R. C.; Raj, G.; Vieux, G.; Welsh, G. H.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2010-11-19

    Progress in laser wakefield accelerators indicates their suitability as a driver of compact free-electron lasers (FELs). High brightness is defined by the normalized transverse emittance, which should be less than 1{pi} mm mrad for an x-ray FEL. We report high-resolution measurements of the emittance of 125 MeV, monoenergetic beams from a wakefield accelerator. An emittance as low as 1.1{+-}0.1{pi} mm mrad is measured using a pepper-pot mask. This sets an upper limit on the emittance, which is comparable with conventional linear accelerators. A peak transverse brightness of 5x10{sup 15} A m{sup -1} rad{sup -1} makes it suitable for compact XUV FELs.

  12. High-sensitivity SQUIDs with dispersive readout for scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, J. M.; Foroughi, F.; Arps, J.; Kammerloher, E.; Bethke, P.; Gibson, G. W., Jr.; Fung, Y. K. K.; Klopfer, B.; Nowack, K.; Kratz, P. A.; Huber, M. E.; Moler, K. A.; Kirtley, J. R.; Bluhm, H.

    2014-03-01

    In a scanning SQUID microscope, the high magnetic flux sensitivity is utilized to image magnetic properties of sample surfaces. As an alternative to the widely used DC SQUIDs, we present Nb SQUIDs for scanning with dispersive microwave readout, featuring significantly higher bandwidth and sensitivity. An on-chip shunt capacitor in parallel with the junction and flux pickup loops forms an LC resonator whose resonance depends on the flux in the SQUID. The readout utilizes a phase-sensitive detection of the reflected drive signal at the SQUID's resonance frequency. Highest sensitivities are achieved by making use of the inherent nonlinearity of the device at high excitation powers. We present a study of the characteristics and noise measurements of our sensors at 4 K. Extrapolations from our results to 300 mK indicate that flux sensitivities as low as 50 nΦ0Hz- 1 / 2 could be possible. Using high-resolution lithography, our sensors promise sub-micron spatial resolution. Integrated into a scanning microscope, they will provide a powerful tool for the study of weak magnetic effects and quantum coherent phenomena. This work was supported by NSF IMR-MIP grant No. 0957616 and the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach - Foundation.

  13. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  14. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  15. Thermophotovoltaic Generators Using Selective Metallic Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Samaras, John E.; Avery, James E.; Ewell, Richard

    1995-01-01

    In the literature to date on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generators, two types of infrared emitter's have been emphasized : gray body emitters and rare earth oxide selective emitters. The gray body emitter is defined as an emitter with a spectral emissivity independent of wavelength whereas the rare earth oxide selective emitter is idealized as a delta function emitter with a high emissivity at a select wavelength and a near zero emissivity at all other wavelengths. Silicon carbide is an example of a gray body emitter and ER-YAG is an example of a selective emitter. The Welsbach mantle in a common lantern is another example of an oxide selective emitter. Herein, we describe an alternative type of selective emitter, a selective metallic emitter. These metallic emitters are characterized by a spectral emissivity curve wherein the emissivity monotonically increases with shorter infrared wavelengths as is shown. The metal of curve "A", tungsten, typifies this class of selective metallic emitter's. In a thermophotovoltaic generator, a photovoltaic cell typically converts infrared radiation to electricity out to some cut-off wavelength. For example, Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) TPV cells respond out to 1.7 microns. The problem with gray body emitters is that they emit at all wavelengths. Therefore, a large fraction of the energy emitted will be outside of the response band of the TPV cell. The argument for the selective emitter is that, ideally, all the emitted energy can be in the cells response band. Unfortunately, rare earth oxide emitters are not ideal. In order to suppress the emissivity toward zero away from the select wavelength, the use of thin fiber's is necessary. This leads to a fragile emitter typical of a lantern mantle. Even given a thin ER-YAG emitter, the measured emissivity at the select wavelength of 1.5 microns has been reported to be 0.6 while the off wavelength background emissivity falls to only 0.2 at 5 microns. This gives a selectivity ratio of only 3

  16. Code-division-multiplexed readout of large arrays of TES microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Alpert, B. K.; Bennett, D. A.; Denison, E. V.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Gard, J. D.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Joe, Y. I.; O'Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Swetz, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    Code-division multiplexing (CDM) offers a path to reading out large arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters with excellent energy and timing resolution. We demonstrate the readout of X-ray TESs with a 32-channel flux-summed code-division multiplexing circuit based on superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers. The best detector has energy resolution of 2.28 ± 0.12 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV and the array has mean energy resolution of 2.77 ± 0.02 eV over 30 working sensors. The readout channels are sampled sequentially at 160 ns/row, for an effective sampling rate of 5.12 μs/channel. The SQUID amplifiers have a measured flux noise of 0.17 μΦ0/√Hz (non-multiplexed, referred to the first stage SQUID). The multiplexed noise level and signal slew rate are sufficient to allow readout of more than 40 pixels per column, making CDM compatible with requirements outlined for future space missions. Additionally, because the modulated data from the 32 SQUID readout channels provide information on each X-ray event at the row rate, our CDM architecture allows determination of the arrival time of an X-ray event to within 275 ns FWHM with potential benefits in experiments that require detection of near-coincident events.

  17. Selective Emitter Pumped Rare Earth Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Patton, Martin O. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A selective emitter pumped rare earth laser provides an additional type of laser for use in many laser applications. Rare earth doped lasers exist which are pumped with flashtubes or laser diodes. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform thermal energy input to a spectral band matching the absorption band of a rare earth in the laser in order to produce lasing.

  18. Bright Single Photon Emitter in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienhard, Benjamin; Schroeder, Tim; Mouradian, Sara; Dolde, Florian; Trong Tran, Toan; Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk

    Efficient, on-demand, and robust single photon emitters are of central importance to many areas of quantum information processing. Over the past 10 years, color centers in solids have emerged as excellent single photon emitters. Color centers in diamond are among the most intensively studied single photon emitters, but recently silicon carbide (SiC) has also been demonstrated to be an excellent host material. In contrast to diamond, SiC is a technologically important material that is widely used in optoelectronics, high power electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. It is commercially available in sizes up to 6 inches and processes for device engineering are well developed. We report on a visible-spectrum single photon emitter in 4H-SiC. The emitter is photostable at both room and low temperatures, and it enables 2 million photons/second from unpatterned bulk SiC. We observe two classes of orthogonally polarized emitters, each of which has parallel absorption and emission dipole orientations. Low temperature measurements reveal a narrow zero phonon line with linewidth < 0.1 nm that accounts for more than 30% of the total photoluminescence spectrum. To our knowledge, this SiC color emitter is the brightest stable room-temperature single photon emitter ever observed.

  19. Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffith, R L; McDonald, J W; Torres, P III; Vergel de Dios, G

    2003-07-08

    The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise.

  20. Robust multiplatform RF emitter localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, position based services has increase. Thus, recent developments in communications and RF technology have enabled system concept formulations and designs for low-cost radar systems using state-of-the-art software radio modules. This research is done to investigate a novel multi-platform RF emitter localization technique denoted as Position-Adaptive RF Direction Finding (PADF). The formulation is based on the investigation of iterative path-loss (i.e., Path Loss Exponent, or PLE) metrics estimates that are measured across multiple platforms in order to autonomously adapt (i.e. self-adjust) of the location of each distributed/cooperative platform. Experiments conducted at the Air-Force Research laboratory (AFRL) indicate that this position-adaptive approach exhibits potential for accurate emitter localization in challenging embedded multipath environments such as in urban environments. The focus of this paper is on the robustness of the distributed approach to RF-based location tracking. In order to localize the transmitter, we use the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) data to approximate distance from the transmitter to the revolving receivers. We provide an algorithm for on-line estimation of the Path Loss Exponent (PLE) that is used in modeling the distance based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements. The emitter position estimation is calculated based on surrounding sensors RSS values using Least-Square Estimation (LSE). The PADF has been tested on a number of different configurations in the laboratory via the design and implementation of four IRIS wireless sensor nodes as receivers and one hidden sensor as a transmitter during the localization phase. The robustness of detecting the transmitters position is initiated by getting the RSSI data through experiments and then data manipulation in MATLAB will determine the robustness of each node and ultimately that of each configuration. The parameters that are used in the functions are

  1. Directional emittance surface measurement system and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puram, Chith K. (Inventor); Daryabeigi, Kamran (Inventor); Wright, Robert (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and process for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using a radiometric infrared imaging system. A surface test sample is coated onto a copper target plate provided with selective heating within the desired incremental temperature range to be tested and positioned onto a precision rotator to present selected inclination angles of the sample relative to the fixed positioned and optically aligned infrared imager. A thermal insulator holder maintains the target plate on the precision rotator. A screen display of the temperature obtained by the infrared imager, and inclination readings are provided with computer calculations of directional emittance being performed automatically according to equations provided to convert selected incremental target temperatures and inclination angles to relative target directional emittance values. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and an epoxy resin measurements obtained are in agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory and with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  2. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  3. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  4. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  5. Low Emittance Electron Beam Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhoplav, Rodion

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the properties of a low emittance electron beam produced by laser pulses incident onto an rf gun photocathode. The experiments were carried out at the A0 photoinjector at Fermilab. Such beam studies are necessary for fixing the design of new Linear Colliders as well as for the development of Free Electron Lasers. An overview of the A0 photoinjector is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 we describe the A0 photoinjector laser system. A stable laser system is imperative for reliable photoinjector operation. After the recent upgrade, we have been able to reach a new level of stability in the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the pulse amplitude, and of the temporal and transverse profiles. In Chapter 3 we present a study of transverse emittance versus the shape of the photo-cathode drive-laser pulse. For that purpose a special temporal profile laser shaping device called a pulse-stacker was developed. In Chapter 4 we discuss longitudinal beam dynamics studies using a two macro-particle bunch; this technique is helpful in analyzing pulse compression in the magnetic chicane, as well as velocity bunching effects in the rf-gun and the 9-cell accelerating cavity. In Chapter 5 we introduce a proposal for laser acceleration of electrons. We have developed a laser functioning on the TEM*01 mode, a mode with a longitudinal electric field component which is suitable for such a process. Using this technique at energies above 40 MeV, one would be able to observe laser-based acceleration.

  6. Implementation and assessment of diffusion-weighted partial Fourier readout-segmented echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Frost, Robert; Porter, David A; Miller, Karla L; Jezzard, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Single-shot echo-planar imaging has been used widely in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging due to the difficulties in correcting motion-induced phase corruption in multishot data. Readout-segmented EPI has addressed the multishot problem by introducing a two-dimensional nonlinear navigator correction with online reacquisition of uncorrectable data to enable acquisition of high-resolution diffusion data with reduced susceptibility artifact and T*(2) blurring. The primary shortcoming of readout-segmented EPI in its current form is its long acquisition time (longer than similar resolution single-shot echo-planar imaging protocols by approximately the number of readout segments), which limits the number of diffusion directions. By omitting readout segments at one side of k-space and using partial Fourier reconstruction, readout-segmented EPI imaging times could be reduced. In this study, the effects of homodyne and projection onto convex sets reconstructions on estimates of the fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and diffusion orientation in fiber tracts and raw T(2)- and trace-weighted signal are compared, along with signal-to-noise ratio results. It is found that projections onto convex sets reconstruction with 3/5 segments in a 2 mm isotropic diffusion tensor image acquisition and 9/13 segments in a 0.9 × 0.9 × 4.0 mm(3) diffusion-weighted image acquisition provide good fidelity relative to the full k-space parameters. This allows application of readout-segmented EPI to tractography studies, and clinical stroke and oncology protocols.

  7. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  8. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, A.H.

    1998-11-01

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Austin H.

    1998-11-09

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation.

  10. An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K

    2009-10-24

    This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM.

  11. An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Y. C.; Sun, F. W.; MacDonald, L. R.; Otis, B. P.; Miyaoka, R. S.; McDougald, W.; Lewellen, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983

  12. Applications using high-Tc superconducting terahertz emitters

    PubMed Central

    Nakade, Kurama; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Saiwai, Yoshihiko; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Klemm, Richard A.; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Using recently-developed THz emitters constructed from single crystals of the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, we performed three prototype tests of the devices to demonstrate their unique characteristic properties for various practical applications. The first is a compact and simple transmission type of THz imaging system using a Stirling cryocooler. The second is a high-resolution Michelson interferometer used as a phase-sensitive reflection-type imaging system. The third is a system with precise temperature control to measure the liquid absorption coefficient. The detailed characteristics of these systems are discussed. PMID:26983905

  13. Applications using high-Tc superconducting terahertz emitters.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Kurama; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Saiwai, Yoshihiko; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Klemm, Richard A; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2016-03-17

    Using recently-developed THz emitters constructed from single crystals of the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, we performed three prototype tests of the devices to demonstrate their unique characteristic properties for various practical applications. The first is a compact and simple transmission type of THz imaging system using a Stirling cryocooler. The second is a high-resolution Michelson interferometer used as a phase-sensitive reflection-type imaging system. The third is a system with precise temperature control to measure the liquid absorption coefficient. The detailed characteristics of these systems are discussed.

  14. Applications using high-Tc superconducting terahertz emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakade, Kurama; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Saiwai, Yoshihiko; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Klemm, Richard A.; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Using recently-developed THz emitters constructed from single crystals of the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, we performed three prototype tests of the devices to demonstrate their unique characteristic properties for various practical applications. The first is a compact and simple transmission type of THz imaging system using a Stirling cryocooler. The second is a high-resolution Michelson interferometer used as a phase-sensitive reflection-type imaging system. The third is a system with precise temperature control to measure the liquid absorption coefficient. The detailed characteristics of these systems are discussed.

  15. Hyper Suprime-Cam: CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam is planned to employ about 120 2k×4k fully-depleted CCDs with 4 signal outputs for each. The data size of an image becomes larger than 2Gbytes. All of the CCDs are designed to be readout parallel within 20 seconds, and the readout noise is expected to be 5e. The frontend electronics will be mounted in a vacuumed cryostat, and connected to the backend electronics mounted on the outside of the cryostat. The frontend electronics includes entire analog circuits for CCD including CCD drivers, preamplifiers and ADC. The backend electronics consists of newly developed gigabit Ethernet modules combined with 2Gbytes memory modules, and several supporting boards. We will present the current status of the CCD readout electronics developments for HSC.

  16. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.

  17. Low-background direct readout array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Anderson, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development and evaluation of an integrated array of antimony-doped silicon detectors is described. The spectral range of extrinsic silicon-integrated arrays useful for low-background IR astronomical applications is extended to about 31 microns with this development. The 58 x 62-element array is accessed by a direct readout multiplexer. The device is evaluated with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readout electronics system in a low-background test dewar. Acceptance testing indicates single-pixel NEPs in the mid-10 to the -18th W/sq rt Hz range, and good global uniformity statistics.

  18. Spectral contents readout of birefringent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.

    1989-01-01

    The technical objective of this research program was to develop a birefringent sensor, capable of measuring strain/stress up to 2000 F and a readout system based on Spectral Contents analysis. As a result of the research work, a data acquisition system was developed, capable of measuring strain birefringence in a sensor at 2000 F, with multi-point static and dynamic capabilities. The system uses a dedicated spectral analyzer for evaluation of stress-birefringence and a PC-based readout. Several sensor methods were evaluated. Fused silica was found most satisfactory. In the final evaluation, measurements were performed up to 2000 F and the system performance exceeded expectations.

  19. Multinozzle Emitter Arrays for Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Pan; Wang, Hung-Ta; Yang, Peidong; Wang, Daojing

    2011-06-16

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is the enabling technology for proteomics and metabolomics. However, dramatic improvements in both sensitivity and throughput are still required to achieve routine MS-based single cell proteomics and metabolomics. Here, we report the silicon-based monolithic multinozzle emitter array (MEA), and demonstrate its proof-of-principle applications in high-sensitivity and high-throughput nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. Our MEA consists of 96 identical 10-nozzle emitters in a circular array on a 3-inch silicon chip. The geometry and configuration of the emitters, the dimension and number of the nozzles, and the micropillar arrays embedded in the main channel, can be systematically and precisely controlled during the microfabrication process. Combining electrostatic simulation and experimental testing, we demonstrated that sharpened-end geometry at the stem of the individual multinozzle emitter significantly enhanced the electric fields at its protruding nozzle tips, enabling sequential nanoelectrospray for the high-density emitter array. We showed that electrospray current of the multinozzle emitter at a given total flow rate was approximately proportional to the square root of the number of its spraying-nozzles, suggesting the capability of high MS sensitivity for multinozzle emitters. Using a conventional Z-spray mass spectrometer, we demonstrated reproducible MS detection of peptides and proteins for serial MEA emitters, achieving sensitivity and stability comparable to the commercial capillary emitters. Our robust silicon-based MEA chip opens up the possibility of a fully-integrated microfluidic system for ultrahigh-sensitivity and ultrahigh-throughput proteomics and metabolomics.

  20. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  1. New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasell, Douglas K

    2011-10-29

    Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to {approx}50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.

  2. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  3. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Kaiming; Wang, Xinlei; Qiao, Jun; Xu, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs) are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes. PMID:26828490

  4. Design issues of a low cost lock-in amplifier readout circuit for an infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheepers, L.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the past, high resolution thermal sensors required expensive cooling techniques making the early thermal imagers expensive to operate and cumbersome to transport, limiting them mainly to military applications. However, the introduction of uncooled microbolometers has overcome many of earlier problems and now shows great potential for commercial optoelectric applications. The structure of uncooled microbolometer sensors, especially their smaller size, makes them attractive in low cost commercial applications requiring high production numbers with relatively low performance requirements. However, the biasing requirements of these microbolometers cause these sensors to generate a substantial amount of noise on the output measurements due to self-heating. Different techniques to reduce this noise component have been attempted, such as pulsed biasing currents and the use of blind bolometers as common mode reference. These techniques proved to either limit the performance of the microbolometer or increase the cost of their implementation. The development of a low cost lock-in amplifier provides a readout technique to potentially overcome these challenges. High performance commercial lock-in amplifiers are very expensive. Using this as a readout circuit for a microbolometer will take away from the low manufacturing cost of the detector array. Thus, the purpose of this work was to develop a low cost readout circuit using the technique of phase sensitive detection and customizing this as a readout circuit for microbolometers. The hardware and software of the readout circuit was designed and tested for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the microbolometer signal. An optical modulation system was also developed in order to effectively identify the desired signal from the noise with the use of the readout circuit. A data acquisition and graphical user interface sub system was added in order to display the signal recovered by the readout circuit. The readout

  5. Improved Readout For Micromagnet/Hall-Effect Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1993-01-01

    Two improved readout circuits for micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories designed to eliminate current shunts introducing errors into outputs of older readout circuits. Incorporate additional switching transistors to isolate Hall sensors as needed.

  6. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  7. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  8. Raman-based microarray readout: a review.

    PubMed

    Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    For a quarter of a century, microarrays have been part of the routine analytical toolbox. Label-based fluorescence detection is still the commonest optical readout strategy. Since the 1990s, a continuously increasing number of label-based as well as label-free experiments on Raman-based microarray readout concepts have been reported. This review summarizes the possible concepts and methods and their advantages and challenges. A common label-based strategy is based on the binding of selective receptors as well as Raman reporter molecules to plasmonic nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay, which results in surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of the reporter molecule. Alternatively, capture of the analytes can be performed by receptors on a microarray surface. Addition of plasmonic nanoparticles again leads to a surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal, not of a label but directly of the analyte. This approach is mostly proposed for bacteria and cell detection. However, although many promising readout strategies have been discussed in numerous publications, rarely have any of them made the step from proof of concept to a practical application, let alone routine use. Graphical Abstract Possible realization of a SERS (Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering) system for microarray readout. PMID:26973235

  9. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  10. Energy efficiency of electron plasma emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Zalesski, V. G.

    2011-12-15

    Electron emission influence from gas-discharge plasma on plasma emitter energy parameters is considered. It is shown, that electron emission from plasma is accompanied by energy contribution redistribution in the gas-discharge from plasma emitter supplies sources-the gas-discharge power supply and the accelerating voltage power supply. Some modes of electron emission as a result can be realized: 'a probe measurements mode,' 'a transitive mode,' and 'a full switching mode.'.

  11. Emission current formation in plasma electron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzdev, V. A.; Zalesski, V. G.

    2010-12-15

    A model of the plasma electron emitter is considered, in which the current redistribution over electrodes of the emitter gas-discharge structure and weak electric field formation in plasma are taken into account as functions of the emission current. The calculated and experimental dependences of the switching parameters, extraction efficiency, and strength of the electric field in plasma on the accelerating voltage and geometrical sizes of the emission channel are presented.

  12. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  13. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  14. Development of a pixel readout chip for BTeV

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Christian et al.

    1998-11-01

    A description is given of the R&D program underway at Fermilab to develop a pixel readout ASIC appropriate for use at the Tevatron collider. Results are presentetd frOm tests performed on the first prototype pixel readout chip deigned at Fermilab, and a new readout architecture is described.

  15. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, H. B.; Johnston, S. R.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A.

    2013-07-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the nanotube acting as a mixer, we detect the amplitude of its mechanical motion at room temperature with an intermediate frequency of 6 MHz and a timeconstant of 780 ns, both up to five orders of magnitude faster than achieved before. The transient response of the mechanical motion indicates a ring-down time faster than our enhanced time resolution, placing an upper bound on the contribution of energy relaxation processes to the room temperature mechanical quality factor.

  16. Position algorithm for monolithic scintillation crystals based on charge projection readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Bettiol, M.; Preziosi, E.; Cinti, M. N.; Borrazzo, C.; Pellegrini, R.; Di Castro, E.; Fabbri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging devices commonly use multi-element photo detection systems, composed of an array of N × N elements, each one providing an individual signal. Many strategies have been developed to reduce the number of readout channels, one of the main approaches is the Rows and Columns (R/C) projection logic. In this paper we proposed a modified version of Raised To the Power (RTP) algorithm adapted to R/C logic. In order to validate its efficiency a linear scanning irradiation on two 49× 49 mm2 LaBr3:Ce (0.5%) crystals with different thickness (4 mm and 10 mm) was carried out. Imaging performance analysis was made in terms of position linearity, Field-of-View (FoV) enlargement and spatial resolution. Imaging results from Anger Logic, RTP algorithm based on single element readout and RTP algorithm based on R/C readout were compared. A notable advantage of using RTP algorithms instead of Anger Logic was found: the FoV widens from about 30% to more than 70% of the detector area whereas the spatial resolution is highly improved, especially for off-center interactions, both for 4 mm-thick and 10 mm-thick crystals. Furthermore, imaging performance with the R/C readout is just slightly different from the single element one (FoV reduction less than 7% and SR worsening less than 10%). The R/C adapted RTP algorithm opens doors to high imaging performance with a substantial reduction of complexity and cost in the readout electronics.

  17. Characterisation and modelling of transition edge sensor distributed read-out imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.; Goldie, David J.

    2006-04-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation and modelling of Transition Edge Sensor (TES)-based Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), for use as position-sensitive detectors in X-ray astronomy. Latest experimental results from prototype DROIDs using Ir TESs with Au absorbers are reported. Through modelling and the development of signal processing algorithms we are able to design the DROID for optimum spectral and spatial resolution depending upon application.

  18. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  19. Fast imaging readout and electronics—a novel high-speed imaging system for micro-channel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Rees, K.

    2002-01-01

    The band-width of charge division readout anodes used with micro-channel plates (MCP) is usually limited by the speed of the acquisition electronics. We present a novel charge division anode that does not require analogue to digital conversion. The Fast Imaging Readout and Electronics is a new concept in high-speed imaging using an MCP detector. The imaging system described comprises an MCP intensifier coupled to a charge division image readout using high-speed, multichannel electronics. It has a projected spatial resolution of up to 128×128 pixels, though the image format is inherently flexible, and the potential for rates up to 100 million events per second with nanosecond timing resolution. The readout pattern has a planar electrode structure and the collected charge from each event is shared amongst all electrodes, grouped in pairs. The unique design of the readout obviates the need for charge measurement, usually the dominant process determining the event-processing deadtime. Instead, high-speed signal comparators, each of which act on the signals from an electrode pair, are used to define a binary code from which the position co-ordinate is directly mapped. We describe a proof of the concept of prototype anode and associated electronics using a novel application of very high-speed digital circuitry. We present preliminary results showing signal waveforms measured using a one-dimensional 16-pixel anode pattern.

  20. A fine-focusing x-ray source using carbon-nanofiber field emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, W.; Sugita, S.; Sakai, Y.; Goto, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohga, Y.; Kita, S.; Ohara, T.

    2010-08-01

    A fine-focusing x-ray source has been constructed employing a field electron emitter prepared by growing carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) on a metal tip. The x-ray source is composed of a CNF field electron emitter, an electrostatic lens, two magnetic lenses, and a W-target for generating x-rays by electron impact. The CNFs provided field electrons with a current density of J ˜5×109 A/m2, which was evaluated with the aid of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The electron beam extracted from the CNF emitter was accelerated to the energies of E =10-25 keV, and then focused by the lenses. By recording the x-ray images of test charts, the optimum resolution of the x-ray source was estimated to be approximately Dx=0.5 μm.

  1. FIPSER: Performance study of a readout concept with few digitization levels for fast signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limyansky, B.; Reese, R.; Cressler, J. D.; Otte, A. N.; Taboada, I.; Ulusoy, C.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the performance of a readout system, Fixed Pulse Shape Efficient Readout (FIPSER), to digitize signals from detectors with a fixed pulse shape. In this study we are mainly interested in the readout of fast photon detectors like photomultipliers or Silicon photomultipliers. But the concept can be equally applied to the digitization of other detector signals. FIPSER is based on the flash analog to digital converter (FADC) concept, but has the potential to lower costs and power consumption by using an order of magnitude fewer discrete voltage levels. Performance is bolstered by combining the discretized signal with the knowledge of the underlying pulse shape. Simulated FIPSER data was reconstructed with two independent methods. One using a maximum likelihood method and the other using a modified χ2 test. Both methods show that utilizing 12 discrete voltage levels with a sampling rate of 4 samples per full width half maximum (FWHM) of the pulse achieves an amplitude resolution that is better than the Poisson limit for photon-counting experiments. The time resolution achieved in this configuration ranges between 0.02 and 0.16 FWHM and depends on the pulse amplitude. In a situation where the waveform is composed of two consecutive pulses the pulses can be separated if they are at least 0.05-0.30 FWHM apart with an amplitude resolution that is better than 20%.

  2. The front-end readout electronics for the bar PANDA Focussing-Lightguide Disc DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, E.; Föhl, K.; Glazier, D.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Murray, M.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.

    2009-11-01

    One of the key detectors of the upcoming bar PANDA experiment for particle identification will be the Focussing-Lightguide Disc DIRC, based on a novel detector technique. It will use a fused silica disc as a solid radiator to generate Cherenkov light by the passing of charged particles. These photons will be transported by total-internal-reflection to the rim, where LiF crystals will be used to perform dispersion corrections. Focussing lightguides will map propagation angles to spatial positions on the surface of photon detectors. Fast single photon detection devices will be used to measure azimuthal angles and spatial positions, which can be used to reconstruct kinematic properties of the passing particles. The expected average interaction rate of 20 MHz yields a photon detection rate of 1.3 MHz, as it is foreseen to use 128 MCP-PMT, each with 32 channels, for continuous readout. Moderate timing resolution of 300 ps improves signal from noise separation. The readout design requirements for the Focussing-Lightguide Disc DIRC will be introduced. The current candidate for implementation of the front-end readout electronic system will be described and several alternative readout scenarios will be discussed. Finally, a summary and an outlook for further developments and tests will be given.

  3. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  4. Vector diffraction analysis of optical disk readout.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Jia, H; Xu, D

    2000-12-01

    The optical disk readout signals from ROM disks are presented by use of a rigorous three-dimensional vector diffraction method. The optical disk is modeled as a crossed metal grating without restriction on the form of the information marks, and the permittivity of the metal is taken into account. The diffracted field from the disk is obtained by means of decomposing the focused incident beam into a spectrum of plane waves and then calculating the diffracted plane waves for each respective incident component. The readout signal is obtained by integration of the energy-flux density of the diffracted field according to the detection scheme of the optical disk system. A typical digital versatile disk (DVD) system is applied with this theory, and the result is far from that of scalar diffraction theory. PMID:18354657

  5. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  6. Current limiting of field emitter array cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Field Emitter Array (FEA) cathode possesses high emission potential (approx.30A/cm/sup 2/) at low applied voltages (100-200 volts) but performance has been hampered by non-uniform emission across the array. Poor emission uniformity is mainly related to small variations in emitter tip geometry (of the order of 10-100A), which cannot be rectified by present fabrication techniques. To improve emission uniformity from the arrays, this dissertation investigated the use of current-limiting resistors, individually dedicated to and in series with each emitter, to compensate for the differences in emission. A thin film of silicon was deposited on the backside of a ZrO/sub 2/-W composite chip (the substrate on which emitter structure was based) to form series resistors. Characterization of the silicon film was carried out in a SEM with a micromanipulator capable of making contact with a single tungsten pin so that direct I-V measurement of individual series resistors was possible. To supplement the experimental effort, a mathematical mode of the Current-Limited Field Emitter Array (CLFEA) cathode was devised. A study of the model indicated the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plot of resistor current-limited emission from an array would have an upturning curvature.

  7. Integrated photonic crystal selective emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Yehia, Omar; Bermel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Converting blackbody thermal radiation to electricity via thermophotovoltaics (TPV) is inherently inefficient. Photon recycling using cold-side filters offers potentially improved performance but requires extremely close spacing between the thermal emitter and the receiver, namely a high view factor. Here, we propose an alternative approach for thermal energy conversion, the use of an integrated photonic crystal selective emitter (IPSE), which combines two-dimensional photonic crystal selective emitters and filters into a single device. Finite difference time domain and current transport simulations show that IPSEs can significantly suppress sub-bandgap photons. This increases heat-to-electricity conversion for photonic crystal based emitters from 35.2 up to 41.8% at 1573 K for a GaSb photovoltaic (PV) diode with matched bandgaps of 0.7 eV. The physical basis of this enhancement is a shift from a perturbative to a nonperturbative regime, which maximized photon recycling. Furthermore, combining IPSEs with nonconductive optical waveguides eliminates a key difficulty associated with TPV: the need for precise alignment between the hot selective emitter and cool PV diode. The physical effects of both the IPSE and waveguide can be quantified in terms of an extension of the concept of an effective view factor.

  8. Longitudinal emittance measurements at REX-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. A.; Zocca, F.; Jones, R. M.; Pasini, M.; Posocco, P. A.; Voulot, D.; Wenander, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of the longitudinal emittance at the Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) at ISOLDE, CERN. The rms longitudinal emittance was measured as 0.34±0.08 π ns keV/u at the output of the RFQ and as 0.36±0.04 π ns keV/ u in front of the third 7-gap split-ring resonator (7G3) using the three-gradient technique; systematic errors are not included but are estimated at approximately 10%. The 86% emittance was measured a factor of approximately 4.4 times larger than the rms emittance at 1.48±0.2 and 1.55±0.12 π ns keV/ u at the RFQ and 7G3, respectively. The REX switchyard magnet was used as a spectrometer to analyse the energy spread of the beam as it was manipulated by varying the voltage of the rebuncher (ReB) and 7G3 cavities operating at non-accelerating phases. The transfer matrix for a multi-gap bunching cavity is derived and suitably truncated to allow for the accurate reconstruction of the beam parameters from measurement. The technique for measuring the energy spread was rigorously simulated and validated. A silicon detector, in its development phase, was also exploited to measure the longitudinal beam properties. The measured longitudinal emittance is compatible with the acceptance of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting linac upgrade.

  9. Field-emitter arrays for vacuum microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.; Holland, C. E.; Rosengreen, A.; Brodie, Ivor

    1991-01-01

    An ongoing program on microfabricated field-emitter arrays has produced a gated field-emitter tip structure with submicrometer dimensions and techniques for fabricating emitter arrays with tip packaging densities of up to 1.5 x 10 exp 7 tips/sq cm. Arrays have been fabricated over areas varying from a few micrometers up to 13 cm in diameter. Very small overall emitter size, materials selection, and rigorous emitter-tip processing procedures have contributed to reducing the potential required for field emission to tens of volts. Emission current densities of up to 100 A/sq cm have been achieved with small arrays of tips, and 100-mA total emission is commonly produced with arrays 1 mm in diameter containing 10,000 tips. Transconductances of 5.0 micro-S per tip have been demonstrated, indicating that 50 S/sq cm should be achievable with tip densities of 10 exp 7 tips/sq cm. Details of the cathode arrays and a variety of performance characteristics are discussed.

  10. Integrated photonic crystal selective emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Yehia, Omar; Bermel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Converting blackbody thermal radiation to electricity via thermophotovoltaics (TPV) is inherently inefficient. Photon recycling using cold-side filters offers potentially improved performance but requires extremely close spacing between the thermal emitter and the receiver, namely a high view factor. Here, we propose an alternative approach for thermal energy conversion, the use of an integrated photonic crystal selective emitter (IPSE), which combines two-dimensional photonic crystal selective emitters and filters into a single device. Finite difference time domain and current transport simulations show that IPSEs can significantly suppress sub-bandgap photons. This increases heat-to-electricity conversion for photonic crystal based emitters from 35.2 up to 41.8% at 1573 K for a GaSb photovoltaic (PV) diode with matched bandgaps of 0.7 eV. The physical basis of this enhancement is a shift from a perturbative to a nonperturbative regime, which maximized photon recycling. Furthermore, combining IPSEs with nonconductive optical waveguides eliminates a key difficulty associated with TPV: the need for precise alignment between the hot selective emitter and cool PV diode. The physical effects of both the IPSE and waveguide can be quantified in terms of an extension of the concept of an effective view factor.

  11. ETAII 6 MEV PEPPERPOT EMITTANCE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A C; Richardson, R; Weir, J

    2004-10-18

    We measured the beam emittance at the ETAII accelerator using a pepper-pot diagnostic at nominal parameters of 6 MeV and 2000 Amperes. During the coarse of these experiments, a ''new tune'' was introduced which significantly improved the beam quality. The source of a background pedestal was investigated and eliminated. The measured ''new tune'' emittance is {var_epsilon}= 8.05 {plus_minus} 0. 53 cm - mr or a normalized emittance of {var_epsilon}{sub n} = 943 {plus_minus} 63 mm - mr In 1990 the ETAII programmatic emphasis was on free electron lasers and the paramount parameter was whole beam brightness. The published brightness for ETAII after its first major rebuild was J = 1 - 3 x 10{sup 8} A/(m - rad){sup 2} at a current and energy of 1000-1400 Amperes and 2.5 MeV. The average normalized emittance derived from table 2 of that report is 864 mm-mr corresponding to a real emittance of 14.8 cm-mr.

  12. Variable emittance behavior of smart radiative coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Fan, Desong; Li, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Smart radiative coating on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate was prepared by the sol-gel La{}1-xSr x MnO3 (x = 0.125, 0.175 and 0.2) nanoparticles and the binder composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose. The crystallized structure, grain size, chemical compositions, magnetization and the surface morphology were characterized. The thermal radiative properties of coating in the infrared range was evaluated from infrared reflectance spectra at various temperatures. A single perovskite structure is detected in sol-gel nanoparticles with size 200 nm. Magnetization measurement reveals that room temperature phase transition samples can be obtained by appropriate Sr substitution. The influence of surface conditions and sintering temperature on the emittance of coating was observed. For rough coatings with root-mean-square roughness 640 nm (x = 0.125) and 800 nm (x = 0.175) , its emittance increment is 0.24 and 0.26 in in the temperature range of 173-373 K. Increasing sintering temperature to 1673 K, coating emittance variation improves to 0.3 and 0.302 respectively. After mechanical polishing treatment, the emittance increment of coatings are enhanced to 0.31 and 0.3, respectively. The results suggested that the emittance variation can be enhanced by reducing surface roughness and increasing sintering temperature of coating.

  13. Electron emitter pulsed-type cylindrical IEC

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Gu, Y.; Stubbers, R.; Zich, R.; Sved, J.; Anderl, R.; Hartwell, J.

    1997-12-31

    A cylindrical version of the single grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device (termed the C-device) has been developed for use as a 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutron source for neutron activation analysis. The C-device employs a hollow-tube type cathode with similar anodes backed up by ``reflector`` dishes. The resulting discharge differs from a conventional hollow cathode discharge, by creating an explicit ion beam which is ``pinched`` in the cathode region. Resulting fusion reactions generate {approximately}10{sup 6} neutron/s. A pulsed version is under development for applications requiring higher fluxes. Several pulsing techniques are under study, including an electron emitter (e-emitter) assisted discharge in a thorated tungsten wire emitter located behind a slotted area in the reflector dishes. Pulsing is initiated after establishing a low power steady-state discharge by pulsing the e-emitter current using a capacitor switch type circuit. The resulting electron jet, coupled with the discharge by the biased slot array, creates a strong pulse in the pinched ion beam. The pulse length/repetition rate are controlled by the e-emitter pulse circuit. Typical parameters in present studies are {approximately}30{micro}s, 10Hz and 1-amp ion current. Corresponding neutron measurements are an In-foil type activation counter for time averaged rates. Results for a wide variety of operating conditions are presented.

  14. Spatial uniformity of the current emitted by an array of passively fed electrospray porous emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Garcia, C.; Krejci, D.; Lozano, P.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) have a broad range of applications ranging from focused ion beams (FIB) to spacecraft propulsion. For space thrusters, having a beam of ions of high velocity and low energy spread results in high specific impulse (a measure of the efficiency of propellant consumption) and high power efficiency. For FIB applications, these traits benefit focusing and resolution respectively. Since typical current levels emitted by individual ILIS range from tens of nA to a few μA, both applications often require using arrays of emitters in order to increase the total beam current; i.e. the thrust level in the case of a thruster or the throughput in ion milling applications. So far, most studies of emitter arrays have dealt with experimental measurements of global, spatially-averaged, properties and theoretical analyses generally assume that all emitters operate in a similar manner, so that scaling of the current is linear with the number of emitters. In this work we use a current probe to explore the uniformity properties of the current emitted by an array of porous emitters. We present measurements of the current density of both the array and individual tips, and analyze the reason and implications of the experimental observations.

  15. Readout Electronics for Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa

    Hyper Suprime-Cam(HSC)isa1GigapixelCCD camerafora wide-fieldgalaxy surveyatthe Subaru8-mTelescope. It will be mounted on the prime focus of the SubaruTelescope and is scheduled to receive its first light in 2012. The primary science is to conduct a weak lensing survey over ∼ 2,000 square degrees. The HSC has a 1.5-degree-diameter fieldofview, 7timeslarger than thatofits predecessor Suprime-Cam.It consistsofalarge corrector lens systemand afocalplane equippedwith116piecesof2kx4kfully depletedCCDs. Combinedwiththesuperbimagequalityand large aperture of the Subaru telescope, the surveyusing HSC can cover a cosmological volume and reach the limiting magnitude of at least one magnitudefainter than the other surveys conducted using 4-m class telescopes. The readout electronics of the HSC consist of two parts: one is the analog front-end electronics (FEE) and the other is the digital back-end electronics (BEE). The FEE is placed in a vacuum dewar together with the CCDs, and processes the analog CCD signal into 16-bit digital data. The BEE is small and light enough to be integrated into the camera unit, and employs three linksofGigabit Ethernetto readouta 2.3-GByte singleexposure within10 secondsatfast readout operation. The readout noise from the electronics is smaller than that from CCDs.

  16. EMIR high-dynamic range readout modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Miguel; Gago, Fernando; Garzón, Francisco; Díaz, José J.; Barreto, Mary; Patrón, Jesús; González-Fenández, Carlos; Hammersley, Peter L.; López, Luis; Castro, Nieves

    2012-07-01

    EMIR is the NIR imager and multiobject spectrograph being built as a common user instrument for the GTC and it is currently entering in the integration and verification phase at system level. EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the IAC. In this paper we describe the readout modes of EMIR detector, a Hawaii2 FPA, after two full calibrations campaigns. Besides the standard set of modes (reset-read, CDS, Fowler, Follow-up the ramp), the modified SDSU-III hardware and home made software will also offer high dynamic range readout modes, which will improve the ability of the instrument to sound densely populated areas which often are made of objects with large differences in brightness. These new high dynamic range modes are: single readout with very short integration time, window mode and combination of both. The results show that the new modes behave linearly with different exposition times, improve the maximum frame rate and increase the saturation limit in image mode for EMIR instrument.

  17. Qubit readout with the Josephson Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeill, Guilhem

    Recent demonstrations of error correction in many qubit circuits, as well as efforts to build a logical qubit, have shown the need for a simple and scalable superconducting quantum bit (qubit) readout. Current solutions based on heterodyne detection and cryogenic amplification of microwave readout tones may prove difficult to scale, while photon counting presents an attractive alternative. However, the development of counters operating at these frequencies has proved technically challenging. In this thesis, we describe the development of the Josephson Photomultiplier (JPM), a microwave photon counting circuit. We discuss the JPM theoretically, and describe the fabrication of the JPM using standard thin film lithography techniques. We measure its properties as a microwave photon counter using a qubit as an in-situ calibrated source of photons. We measure a JPM quantum efficiency at the few percent level. We then use the JPM to perform readout of a transmon qubit in both the dispersive and bright regimes. We observe raw measurement fidelities of 35% and 62% respectively. We discuss how the JPM and measurement protocol could be further optimized to achieve fidelities in excess of 90%.

  18. Embedded controller for GEM detector readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dominik, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the embedded controller used for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector. The controller is based on the embedded Mini ITX mainboard, running the GNU/Linux operating system. The controller offers two interfaces to communicate with the FPGA based readout system. FPGA configuration and diagnostics is controlled via low speed USB based interface, while high-speed setup of the readout parameters and reception of the measured data is handled by the PCI Express (PCIe) interface. Hardware access is synchronized by the dedicated server written in C. Multiple clients may connect to this server via TCP/IP network, and different priority is assigned to individual clients. Specialized protocols have been implemented both for low level access on register level and for high level access with transfer of structured data with "msgpack" protocol. High level functionalities have been split between multiple TCP/IP servers for parallel operation. Status of the system may be checked, and basic maintenance may be performed via web interface, while the expert access is possible via SSH server. System was designed with reliability and flexibility in mind.

  19. Performance of the readout electronics chain of the MICE Electron Muon Ranger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietti, D.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Hasan, S.; Mattera, A.; Prest, M.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Graulich, J. S.; Masciocchi, F.; Wisting, H.; Giannini, G.; Iugovaz, D.; Reia, S.; Mascagna, V.; Vallazza, E.

    2010-04-01

    The MICE experiment intends to assess the feasibility of a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider and is based on the muon cooling technique: the muons pass through a series of absorbers decreasing their momentum while maintaining the beam size and reducing the emittance. At the end of the cooling section a detector able to distinguish single particles is required and is based on a KLOE-like front layer followed by fully active plastic scintillators, a calorimeter which in fact acts also as a tracker: the Electron Muon Ranger (EMR). The EMR detector consists of 50 planes organized in a x-y way, each one containing 59 scintillator bars with a triangular cross section. Each bar is readout by a single WLS fiber, inserted and glued in the bar hole, and connected to a 64 channel photomultiplier. On the other side of the bars, the fiber is connected to a single channel photomultiplier (one per plane) for the calibration and charge measurements. This paper presents the frontend and readout electronics of EMR which is based on VLSI ASICs and digital sampling to cope with the MICE rate. The analog info is provided by the single channel PMT whose signal is digitized by a VME waveform digitizer. The paper also describes the tests of the final electronics with the EMR prototype and of the first five long triangular bars at the CERN PS.

  20. Head erosion with emittance growth in PWFA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S. Z.; Adli, E.; England, R. J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M. D.; Walz, D. R.; Muggli, P.; An, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W.; Vafaei, N.

    2012-12-21

    Head erosion is one of the limiting factors in plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). We present a study of head erosion with emittance growth in field-ionized plasma from the PWFA experiments performed at the FACET user facility at SLAC. At FACET, a 20.3 GeV bunch with 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons is optimized in beam transverse size and combined with a high density lithium plasma for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. A target foil is inserted upstream of the plasma source to increase the bunch emittance through multiple scattering. Its effect on beamplasma interaction is observed with an energy spectrometer after a vertical bend magnet. Results from the first experiments show that increasing the emittance has suppressed vapor field-ionization and plasma wakefields excitation. Plans for the future are presented.

  1. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  2. Image Resolution in Optical Nanoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P.J.; Lidke, Keith A.; Bates, Mark; Puig, Daniela Leyton; Grünwald, David; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Rieger, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Resolution in optical nanoscopy depends on the localization uncertainty of single fluorescent labels, the density of labels covering the sample, and the sample’s spatial structure. Currently there is no integral, practical resolution measure that takes all factors into account. Here we introduce such a measure that can be computed directly from the image. We demonstrate its validity and benefits on 2D and 3D localization microscopy images of tubulin and actin filaments. Our approach makes it possible to compare achieved resolutions in images taken with different nanoscopy methods, optimize and rank different emitter localization and labeling strategies, define a stopping criterion for data acquisition, describe image anisotropy and heterogeneity, and, surprisingly, estimate the average number of localizations per emitter. Our findings challenge the current focus on obtaining the best localization precision, but instead show how the best image resolution can be achieved as fast as possible. PMID:23624665

  3. Superresolution microscopy with quantum emitters.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Osip; Levitt, Jonathan M; Tenne, Ron; Itzhakov, Stella; Deutsch, Zvicka; Oron, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The optical diffraction limit imposes a bound on imaging resolution in classical optics. Over the last twenty years, many theoretical schemes have been presented for overcoming the diffraction barrier in optical imaging using quantum properties of light. Here, we demonstrate a quantum superresolution imaging method taking advantage of nonclassical light naturally produced in fluorescence microscopy due to photon antibunching, a fundamentally quantum phenomenon inhibiting simultaneous emission of multiple photons. Using a photon counting digital camera, we detect antibunching-induced second and third order intensity correlations and perform subdiffraction limited quantum imaging in a standard wide-field fluorescence microscope.

  4. Improved Readout Scheme for SQUID-Based Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    An improved readout scheme has been proposed for high-resolution thermometers, (HRTs) based on the use of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to measure temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibilities. The proposed scheme would eliminate counting ambiguities that arise in the conventional scheme, while maintaining the superior magnetic-flux sensitivity of the conventional scheme. The proposed scheme is expected to be especially beneficial for HRT-based temperature control of multiplexed SQUIDbased bolometer sensor arrays. SQUID-based HRTs have become standard for measuring and controlling temperatures in the sub-nano-Kelvin temperature range in a broad range of low-temperature scientific and engineering applications. A typical SQUIDbased HRT that utilizes the conventional scheme includes a coil wound on a core made of a material that has temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range of interest. The core and the coil are placed in a DC magnetic field provided either by a permanent magnet or as magnetic flux inside a superconducting outer wall. The aforementioned coil is connected to an input coil of a SQUID. Changes in temperature lead to changes in the susceptibility of the core and to changes in the magnetic flux detected by the SQUID. The SQUID readout instrumentation is capable of measuring magnetic-flux changes that correspond to temperature changes down to a noise limit .0.1 nK/Hz1/2. When the flux exceeds a few fundamental flux units, which typically corresponds to a temperature of .100 nK, the SQUID is reset. The temperature range can be greatly expanded if the reset events are carefully tracked and counted, either by a computer running appropriate software or by a dedicated piece of hardware.

  5. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  6. Field emitter technologies for nanovision science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, H.; Neo, Y.; Aoki, T.; Nagao, M.; Yoshida, T.; Kanemaru, S.

    2009-10-01

    We have been investigating an ultra fine field emission display (FED) and an ultra fine CdTe X-ray image sensor for creating nanovision science. For an ultra fine FED with a sub-micron pixel, we have developed a volcano-structured double-gated field emitter arrays with a capability of focusing electron beam without serous reduction in emission current. For an ultra fine X-ray image sensor, we have proposed and demonstrated a novel CdTe X-ray sensor consisting of a CdTe diode and field emitter array.

  7. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  8. Technology for producing carbon field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Khatapova, R.M.; Demskaya, L.L.; Romanova, V.K.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes methods for producing field emitters from carbon filaments. Coating of Ni and two-layer coatings of Ni-Mo with a thickness of 10-40 um are applied to the carbon filaments by electrochemical deposition so that they can be spot welded to a metal holder. A technology for attaching carbon filaments with a refractory adhesive composition is also described. Field emitters with point radius of curvature of 0.2-0.4 um are made from three types of carbon filament.

  9. Coupling single emitters to quantum plasmonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the controlled coupling of single-photon emitters to propagating surface plasmons has been intensely studied, which is fueled by the prospect of a giant photonic nonlinearity on a nanoscaled platform. In this article, we will review the recent progress on coupling single emitters to nanowires towards the construction of a new platform for strong light-matter interaction. The control over such a platform might open new doors for quantum information processing and quantum sensing at the nanoscale and for the study of fundamental physics in the ultrastrong coupling regime.

  10. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  11. A SiPM-based TOF-PET detector with high speed digital DRS4 readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzhin, A.; Albrow, M.; Los, S.; Martens, M.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Kao, C.-M.; Niessen, K.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Piana, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Ritt, S.

    2013-03-01

    We have developed γ-ray detectors with good time resolution, to supplement positron emission tomography (PET) with time of flight (TOF) for better localization of the positron annihilation. This will improve the quality of medical images and reduce exposure times. We report results of LYSO scintillating crystals (3×3×15 mm3) irradiated with a 22Na source and coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout with a waveform digitizer. Improved time resolution, 188 ps FWHM, was obtained with the signal trimmed by a clipping capacitance.

  12. Nanoelectrospray Emitter Arrays Providing Interemitter Electric Field Uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-07-15

    Arrays of electrospray ionization (ESI) emitters have been reported previously as a means of achieving the enhanced ionization efficiencies. A key challenge when working with multiple, closely spaced ESI emitters is overcoming the deleterious effects caused by electrical interference among neighboring emitters. Individual emitters experience different electric fields depending on their relative position in the array, such that it becomes difficult to operate all of the emitters optimally for a given applied potential. In this work, we have developed multi-nanoESI emitters arranged with a circular pattern, which enable the constituent emitters to experience a uniform electric field. The performance of the circular emitter array was compared to a single emitter and to a previously developed linear emitter array, which verified that improved electric field uniformity was achieved with the circular arrangement. The circular arrays were also interfaced with a mass spectrometer via a matching multi-capillary inlet, and the results were compared with those obtained using a single emitter. By minimizing inter-emitter electric field inhomogeneities, much larger arrays having closer emitter spacing should be feasible.

  13. Antenna-coupled Photoemission from Single Quantum Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Palash

    Optical antennas are analogs of their radiowave and microwave counterparts, and can be defined as devices that serve to efficiently convert free-propagating optical radiation to localized energy, and vice-versa. Colloidal metal nanoparticles with their strong plasmonic optical response offer a convenient realization of optical antennas. Such nanoparticle antennas serve to spatially enhance and localize fields, and modify the excitation rate and the radiative decay rate when placed close to single emitters (molecules, quantum dots, etc.). In addition, they can also cause undesirable losses, leading to an increase in the non-radiative decay rates of these emitters. This interplay of rates can lead to a strong modification of the emission characteristics over the intrinsic behavior. We study photoemission from single emitters coupled to antennas of different geometries made from colloidal metal nanoparticles. We demonstrate enhancements of fluorescence from single quantum emitters by a factor 10 to 100, with the highest enhancements resulting for molecules with very low intrinsic quantum yields. Such enhancements afford an improvement in resolution for fluorescence imaging down to lambda/40. We also investigate changes to fluorescence blinking of a colloidal quantum dots (QD) coupled to an antenna, as a function of antenna-QD distance. We find that power-law blinking is preserved unaltered even as the antenna drastically modifies the excitonic decay rate in the QD, and reduces the blinking probability. This resilience of the power-law to change provides evidence that blinking statistics are not swayed by environment-induced variations in kinetics, and offers clues towards identifying the as-yet unknown mechanism behind universal fluorescence intermittency. Finally, in analogy with traditional electromagnetic antennas, we excite proto-typical optical antennas using electrons (current) instead of photons (fields). We excite localized plasmons using low energy tunneling

  14. Determination and error analysis of emittance and spectral emittance measurements by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Kumar, R.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. From the theory of remote sensing of surface temperatures, an equation of the upper bound of absolute error of emittance was determined. It showed that the absolute error decreased with an increase in contact temperature, whereas, it increased with an increase in environmental integrated radiant flux density. Change in emittance had little effect on the absolute error. A plot of the difference between temperature and band radiance temperature vs. emittance was provided for the wavelength intervals: 4.5 to 5.5 microns, 8 to 13.5 microns, and 10.2 to 12.5 microns.

  15. Semiconductor arrays with multiplexer readout for gamma-ray imaging: results for a 48 × 48 Ge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. B.; Augustine, F. L.; Barrett, H. H.; Dereniak, E. L.; Matherson, K. L.; Meyers, T. J.; Perry, D. L.; Venzon, J. E.; Woolfenden, J. M.; Young, E. T.

    1994-12-01

    We are developing a new kind of gamma-ray imaging device that has sub-millimeter spatial resolution and excellent energy resolution. The device is composed of a slab of semiconductor detector partitioned into an array of detector cells by photolithography and connected to a monolithic circuit chip called a multiplexer (MUX) for readout. Our application is for an ultra-high-resolution SPECT system for functional brain imaging using an injected radiotracer. We report here on results obtained with a Hughes 48 × 48 Ge PIN-photodiode array with MUX readout, originally developed as an infrared focal-plane-array imaging sensor. The device functions as an array of individual gamma-ray detectors with minimal interpixel crosstalk. Linearity of energy response is excellent up to at least 140 keV. The array exhibits excellent energy resolution, ˜ 2 keV at ≤ 140 keV or 1.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The energy resolution is dominated by MUX readout noise and so should improve with MUX optimization for gamma-ray detection. The spatial resolution of the 48 × 48 Ge array is essentially the same as the pixel spacing, 125 μm. The quantum efficiency is limited by the thin Ge detector (0.25 mm), but this approach is readily applicable to thicker Ge detectors and room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe.

  16. Data encoding efficiency in pixel detector readout with charge information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Wang, Xinkang

    2016-04-01

    The average minimum number of bits needed for lossless readout of a pixel detector is calculated, in the regime of interest for particle physics where only a small fraction of pixels have a non-zero value per frame. This permits a systematic comparison of the readout efficiency of different encoding implementations. The calculation is compared to the number of bits used by the FE-I4 pixel readout chip of the ATLAS experiment.

  17. Pixel readout electronics for LHC and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanquart, L.; Bonzom, V.; Comes, G.; Delpierre, P.; Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Keil, M.; Lindner, M.; Meuser, S.; Wermes, N.

    2000-01-01

    The demanding requirements for pixel readout electronics for high-energy physics experiments and biomedical applications are reviewed. Some examples of the measured analog performance of prototype chips are given. The readout architectures of the PIxel Readout for the ATlas Experiment (PIRATE) chip suited for LHC experiments and of the Multi Picture Element Counter (MPEC) counting chip targeted for biomedical applications are presented. First results with complete chip-sensor assemblies are also shown.

  18. A study of emittance growth in the recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswamy Gounder et al.

    2001-07-20

    We investigate processes contributing to emittance growth in the Fermilab Recycler Ring. In addition to beam-gas multiple scattering, we also examine other external factors such as Main Injector ramping affecting the emittance growth.

  19. Emittance Characteristics of High-Brightness H- Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Keller, R.; Thomae, R. W.; Thomason, J.; Sherman, J.; Alessi, J.

    2002-11-01

    A survey of emittance characteristics from high-brightness, H- ion sources has been undertaken. Representative examples of each important type of H- source for accelerator application are investigated: A magnetron surface plasma source (BNL) a multi-cusp-surface-conversion source (LANL) a Penning source (RAL-ISIS) and a multi-cusp-volume source (LBNL). Presently, comparisons between published emittance values from different ion sources are difficult largely because of different definitions used in reported emittances and the use of different data reduction techniques in analyzing data. Although seldom discussed in the literature, rms-emittance values often depend strongly on the method employed to separate real beam from background. In this work, the problem of data reduction along with software developed for emittance analysis is discussed. Raw emittance data, obtained from the above laboratories, is analyzed using a single technique and normalized rms and 90% area-emittance values are determined along with characteristic emittance versus beam fraction curves.

  20. THz imaging system with the IJJ emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Manabu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Sawamura, Masashi; Delfanazari, Kaveh; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) emitter consisted of thousands of IJJs uniformly stacked in single crystalline high-Tc superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O8 + δ (Bi-2212) [L. Ozyuzer et al., Science 318, (2007) 1291.] is expected to be a novel source of the continuous terahertz electromagnetic waves (THz-waves). The maximum emission power of tens of microwatts recently obtained with the mesa structure of IJJs seems to be sufficient to make use of the IJJ emitter for some practical applications such as THz imaging. According to the cavity resonance condition, we can control the radiation frequency by changing the geometrical size of the mesa. In this study, we develop the THz imaging system with IJJ emitter. In the presentation, we will show some transparent images of standard specimens obtained by the raster scanning method. Also, we will mention some problems to be solved for the future applications of the IJJ emitter. CREST-JST, WPI-MANA, Strategic Initiative A (University of Tsukuba).

  1. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55{degrees}C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30{degrees}C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 {mu}m {plus minus} 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 {mu}m {plus minus} 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96{degrees}C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600{degrees}C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values.

  2. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55{degrees}C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30{degrees}C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 {mu}m {plus_minus} 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 {mu}m {plus_minus} 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96{degrees}C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600{degrees}C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values.

  3. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  4. Emitters of N-photon bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, C. Sánchez; Del Valle, E.; Tudela, A. González; Müller, K.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Tejedor, C.; Finley, J. J.; Laussy, F. P.

    2014-07-01

    Controlling the output of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks in photonics, with landmarks such as the development of the laser and single-photon sources. The ever growing range of quantum applications is making it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups (or `bundles') of N photons (where N is an integer). Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state-of-the-art samples. The emission can be tuned with the system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as an N-photon gun. Here, we develop the theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications.

  5. Beam emittance from ARPES for photoinjectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkay, Katherine; Spentzouris, Linda; Nemeth, Karoly; Droubay, Timothy; Chambers, Scott; Joly, Alan; Hess, Wayne

    2014-03-01

    A commonly-used beam emittance measurement for photoinjector sources involves accelerating a low-charge beam to a few megavolts in an electron gun, then using a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic to image the transverse charge distribution. The emission distribution at the cathode surface could in principle be deduced through simulations, but cannot be measured directly with this method. In the quest to develop ultra-bright photoinjectors, it would be advantageous to be able to measure the emission distribution directly, and use this as a screening process to characterize different photocathode candidates. Angle-resolved photoemission sepctroscopy (ARPES), used widely in surface science, has been proposed [H. Padmore (private communication)] as a method to measure the photocathode intrinsic emittance. A promising novel photocathode, a thin layer of MgO on Ag was recently fabricated and ARPES measurements were carried out [T.C. Droubay et al., PRL (in press)]. The analysis of these data and resulting emittance will be presented. Implications for its use in simulations and design of future photoinjectors will also be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Science (DE-AC02-06CH11357) and the National Science Foundation (No. PHY-0969989). The measurements were carried out at the EMSL user facility at PNNL.

  6. Emittance growth from space-charge forces

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    Space-charge-induced emittance growth has become a topic of much recent interest for designing the low-velocity sections of high- intensity, high-brightness accelerators and beam-transport channels. In this paper we review the properties of the space-charge force, and discuss the concepts of matching, space-charge and emittance-dominated beams, and equilibrium beams and their characteristics. This is followed by a survey of some of the work over the past 25 years to identify the mechanisms of this emittance growth in both ion and electron accelerators. We summarize the overall results in terms of four distinct mechanisms whose characteristics we describe. Finally, we show numerical simulation results for the evolution of initial rms-mismatched laminar beams. The examples show that for space-charge dominated beams, the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a highly choatic filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. In the examples we have studied the halo contains only a few percent of the particles, but contributes about half of the emittance growth. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Light modulated electron beam driven radiofrequency emitter

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1979-10-10

    The disclosure relates to a light modulated electron beam-driven radiofrequency emitter. Pulses of light impinge on a photoemissive device which generates an electron beam having the pulse characteristics of the light. The electron beam is accelerated through a radiofrequency resonator which produces radiofrequency emission in accordance with the electron, hence, the light pulses.

  8. Light modulated switches and radio frequency emitters

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon T.; Tallerico, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a light modulated electron beam driven radiofrequency emitter. Pulses of light impinge on a photoemissive device which generates an electron beam having the pulse characteristics of the light. The electron beam is accelerated through a radiofrequency resonator which produces radiofrequency emission in accordance with the electron, hence, the light pulses.

  9. A Readout Mechanism for Latency Codes

    PubMed Central

    Zohar, Oran; Shamir, Maoz

    2016-01-01

    Response latency has been suggested as a possible source of information in the central nervous system when fast decisions are required. The accuracy of latency codes was studied in the past using a simplified readout algorithm termed the temporal-winner-take-all (tWTA). The tWTA is a competitive readout algorithm in which populations of neurons with a similar decision preference compete, and the algorithm selects according to the preference of the population that reaches the decision threshold first. It has been shown that this algorithm can account for accurate decisions among a small number of alternatives during short biologically relevant time periods. However, one of the major points of criticism of latency codes has been that it is unclear how can such a readout be implemented by the central nervous system. Here we show that the solution to this long standing puzzle may be rather simple. We suggest a mechanism that is based on reciprocal inhibition architecture, similar to that of the conventional winner-take-all, and show that under a wide range of parameters this mechanism is sufficient to implement the tWTA algorithm. This is done by first analyzing a rate toy model, and demonstrating its ability to discriminate short latency differences between its inputs. We then study the sensitivity of this mechanism to fine-tuning of its initial conditions, and show that it is robust to wide range of noise levels in the initial conditions. These results are then generalized to a Hodgkin-Huxley type of neuron model, using numerical simulations. Latency codes have been criticized for requiring a reliable stimulus-onset detection mechanism as a reference for measuring latency. Here we show that this frequent assumption does not hold, and that, an additional onset estimator is not needed to trigger this simple tWTA mechanism. PMID:27812332

  10. Electron gun using carbon-nanofiber field emitter.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Haga, A; Sugita, S; Kita, S; Tanaka, S-I; Okuyama, F; Kobayashi, N

    2007-01-01

    An electron gun constructed using carbon-nanofiber (CNF) emitters and an electrostatic Einzel lens system has been characterized for the development of a high-resolution x-ray source. The CNFs used were grown on tungsten and palladium tips by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Electron beams with the energies of 10

  11. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    D'Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-01-26

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the <5% level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. As a result, this paper describes a detailed breakdown ofmore » the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.« less

  12. Characterisation of the PXIE Allison-type emittance scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D`Arcy, R.; Alvarez, M.; Gaynier, J.; Prost, L.; Scarpine, V.; Shemyakin, A.

    2016-04-01

    An Allison-type emittance scanner has been designed for PXIE at FNAL with the goal of providing fast and accurate phase space reconstruction. The device has been modified from previous LBNL/SNS designs to operate in both pulsed and DC modes with the addition of water-cooled front slits. Extensive calibration techniques and error analysis allowed confinement of uncertainty to the < 5 % level (with known caveats). With a 16-bit, 1 MHz electronics scheme the device is able to analyse a pulse with a resolution of 1 μs, allowing for analysis of neutralisation effects. This paper describes a detailed breakdown of the R&D, as well as post-run analysis techniques.

  13. High-density Au nanorod optical field-emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, R. G.; Yang, Y.; Keathley, P. D.; Swanwick, M. E.; Velásquez-García, L. F.; Kärtner, F. X.; Graves, W. S.; Berggren, K. K.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the design, fabrication, characterization, and operation of high-density arrays of Au nanorod electron emitters, fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography, and excited by ultrafast femtosecond near-infrared radiation. Electron emission characteristic of multiphoton absorption has been observed at low laser fluence, as indicated by the power-law scaling of emission current with applied optical power. The onset of space-charge-limited current and strong optical field emission has been investigated so as to determine the mechanism of electron emission at high incident laser fluence. Laser-induced structural damage has been observed at applied optical fields above 5 GV m-1, and energy spectra of emitted electrons have been measured using an electron time-of-flight spectrometer.

  14. Asynchronous data readout system for multichannel ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Y.; Atkin, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The data readout system of multichannel data-driven ASIC, requiring high-speed (320 Mb/s) output data serialization is described. Its structure, based on a limited number of FIFO blocks, provides a lossless data transfer. The solution has been realized as a separate test IP block in the prototyped 8 channel ASIC, intended for the muon chamber of CBM experiment at FAIR. The block was developed for the UMC 0.18 μm MMRF CMOS process and prototyped via Europractice. Main parameters of the chip are given.

  15. On the dynamic two-dimensional charge diffusion of the interpolating readout structure employed in the MicroCAT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H.; Besch, H. J.; Menk, R. H.; Orthen, A.; Sarvestani, A.; Walenta, A. H.; Walliser, H.

    2002-04-01

    An essential part of the MicroCAT detector is its interpolating readout concept. A theoretical description of the charge diffusion process on the two-dimensional resistive readout structure and its influence on the position reconstruction is carried out. The corresponding inhomogeneous, time-dependent diffusion equation, with the geometric boundary conditions of the readout cells taken properly into account, is solved numerically. Signals realistically distributed in space and time are used as input to simulate the detector response. The time development of two-dimensional charge distributions is investigated. Charge losses to neighbouring cells and distortions due to the linear four-node-encoding algorithm used for reconstructing the impact position of a photon are considered. Since the thermal noise of the resistive layer leads to a limited position accuracy, the spatial resolution is calculated as a function of the integration time, the event position and the gas gain for different resistivities of the readout structure. The time dependence of the simulated signals allows an estimation of the expected rate capability of a given readout structure. In order to verify the theoretical predictions a measurement using an injection of charge pulses in known positions was performed.

  16. Two-dimensional GEM imaging detector with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, G. P.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Marinho, P. R. B.

    2003-11-01

    A 100×100 mm 2 2D imaging detector, based on a triple-GEM gaseous multiplier, striped x- y readout anode and discrete delay-line readout, is presented. The fast (2.1 ns tap -1) delay-line circuit was designed to match the anode-charge signal profile, namely its rise-time and length. The detector's imaging capability was systematically studied in Ar/CO 2 (70/30) with 5.9 keV X-rays; x- y resolution of σ=0.05 and 0.1 mm for top and bottom anode strips, respectively, and integral non-linearity of ˜0.15% are demonstrated.

  17. Readout electronics for the Wide Field of view Cherenkov/Fluorescence Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, R.; Bai, L.; Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Yang, C.; Cao, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), supported by IHEP of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a multipurpose project with a complex detectors array for high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray detection. The Wide Field of view Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA), as one of the components of the LHAASO project, aim to tag each primary particle that causes an air shower. The WFCTA is a portable telescope array used to detect cosmic ray spectra. The design of the readout electronics of the WFCTA is described in this paper Sixteen photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), together with their readout electronics are integrated into a single sub-cluster. To maintain good resolution and linearity over a wide dynamic range, a dual-gain amplification configuration on an analog board is used The digital board contains two 16channel 14-bit, 50 Msps analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and its power consumption, noise level, and relative deviation are all tested.

  18. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmans, Richard; Nural, Akchurin

    2013-09-01

    This document constitutes the final report on the project Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. The project was carried out by a consortium of US and Italian physicists, led by Dr. Richard Wigmans (Texas tech University). This consortium built several particle detectors and tested these at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The idea arose to use scintillating crystals as dual-readout calorimeters. Such crystals were of course already known to provide excellent energy resolution for the detection of particles developing electromagnetic (em) showers. The efforts to separate the signals from scintillating crystals into scintillation and Cerenkov components led to four different methods by which this could be accomplished. These methods are based on a) the directionality, b) spectral differences, c) the time structure, and d) the polarization of the signals.

  19. Test of a LYSO calorimeter prototype readout by large-area Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, D.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Vallazza, E.; Cecchi, C.; Germani, S.; Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.

    2014-06-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger-Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (˜ 106). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9 ˜ 18X0 LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4 × 4 mm2 SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter has been tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100-500 MeV energy range.

  20. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  1. Characterization and performance of monolithic detector blocks with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout for PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro; Sarasola Martín, Icíar; Cañadas, Mario; de Acilu, Paz García; Cuypers, Robin; Manuel Pérez, José; Willmott, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We are developing a human brain PET scanner prototype compatible with MRI based on monolithic scintillator crystals, APD matrices and a dedicated ASIC front-end readout. In this work we report on the performance of individual detector modules and on the operation of such modules in PET coincidence. Results will be presented on the individual characterization of detector blocks and its ASIC front-end readout, with measured energy resolutions of 13% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV and spatial resolutions of the order of 2 mm FWHM. First results on PET coincidence performance indicate spatial resolutions as good as 2.1 mm FWHM for SSRB/FBP reconstruction of tomographic data obtained using a simple PET demonstrator based on a pair of monolithic detector blocks with ASIC readout.

  2. Facet engineering of high power single emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/sq.cm (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

  3. What is so super about super-emitters? Characterizing methane high emitters from natural gas infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala Araiza, D.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    Methane emissions across the natural gas supply chain are dominated at any one time by a few high-emitters (super-emitters or fat-tail of the distribution), often underrepresented in published datasets used to construct emission inventories. Characterization of high-emitters is essential for improving emission estimates based on atmospheric data (top-down) and emission inventories (bottom-up). The population of high-emitters (e.g. 10-20% of sites that account for 80-90% of the emissions) is temporally and spatially dynamic. As a consequence, it is challenging to design sampling methods and construct estimates that accurately represent their frequency and magnitude of emissions. We present new methods to derive facility-specific emission distribution functions that explicitly integrate the influence of the relatively rare super-emitters. These methods were applied in the Barnett Shale region to construct a custom emission inventory that is then compared to top-down emission estimates for the region. We offer a methodological framework relevant to the design of future sampling campaigns, in which these high-emitters are seamlessly incorporated to representative emissions distributions. This framework can be applied to heterogeneous oil and gas production regions across geographies to obtain accurate regional emission estimates. Additionally, we characterize emissions relative to the fraction of a facility's total methane throughput; an effective metric to identify sites with excess emissions resulting from avoidable operating conditions, such as malfunctioning equipment (defined here as functional super-emitters). This work suggests that identifying functional super-emitters and correcting their avoidable operating conditions would result in significant emission reductions. However, due to their spatiotemporal dynamic behavior, achieving and maintaining uniformly low emissions across the entire population of sites will require mitigation steps (e.g. leak detection

  4. FITPix COMBO—Timepix detector with integrated analog signal spectrometric readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, M.; Kraus, V.; Georgiev, V.; Granja, C.

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix has proven a powerful tool in radiation detection and imaging. Energy loss and directional sensitivity as well as particle type resolving power are possible by high resolution particle tracking and per-pixel energy and quantum-counting capability. The spectrometric resolving power of the detector can be further enhanced by analyzing the analog signal of the detector common sensor electrode (also called back-side pulse). In this work we present a new compact readout interface, based on the FITPix readout architecture, extended with integrated analog electronics for the detector's common sensor signal. Integrating simultaneous operation of the digital per-pixel information with the common sensor (called also back-side electrode) analog pulse processing circuitry into one device enhances the detector capabilities and opens new applications. Thanks to noise suppression and built-in electromagnetic interference shielding the common hardware platform enables parallel analog signal spectroscopy on the back side pulse signal with full operation and read-out of the pixelated digital part, the noise level is 600 keV and spectrometric resolution around 100 keV for 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Self-triggering is implemented with delay of few tens of ns making use of adjustable low-energy threshold of the particle analog signal amplitude. The digital pixelated full frame can be thus triggered and recorded together with the common sensor analog signal. The waveform, which is sampled with frequency 100 MHz, can be recorded in adjustable time window including time prior to the trigger level. An integrated software tool provides control, on-line display and read-out of both analog and digital channels. Both the pixelated digital record and the analog waveform are synchronized and written out by common time stamp.

  5. Side readout of long scintillation crystal elements with digital SiPM for TOF-DOI PET

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Jung Yeol E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S. E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Side readout of scintillation light from crystal elements in positron emission tomography (PET) is an alternative to conventional end-readout configurations, with the benefit of being able to provide accurate depth-of-interaction (DOI) information and good energy resolution while achieving excellent timing resolution required for time-of-flight PET. This paper explores different readout geometries of scintillation crystal elements with the goal of achieving a detector that simultaneously achieves excellent timing resolution, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and photon sensitivity. Methods: The performance of discrete LYSO scintillation elements of different lengths read out from the end/side with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPMs) has been assessed. Results: Compared to 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals read out from their ends with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 162 ± 6 ps FWHM and saturated energy spectra, a side-readout configuration achieved an excellent CRT of 144 ± 2 ps FWHM after correcting for timing skews within the dSiPM and an energy resolution of 11.8% ± 0.2% without requiring energy saturation correction. Using a maximum likelihood estimation method on individual dSiPM pixel response that corresponds to different 511 keV photon interaction positions, the DOI resolution of this 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} crystal side-readout configuration was computed to be 0.8 mm FWHM with negligible artifacts at the crystal ends. On the other hand, with smaller 3 × 3 × 5 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals that can also be tiled/stacked to provide DOI information, a timing resolution of 134 ± 6 ps was attained but produced highly saturated energy spectra. Conclusions: The energy, timing, and DOI resolution information extracted from the side of long scintillation crystal elements coupled to dSiPM have been acquired for the first time. The authors conclude in this proof of concept study that such detector configuration has the potential to enable

  6. Lanthanides post-functionalized nanocrystalline metal-organic frameworks for tunable white-light emission and orthogonal multi-readout thermometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Yan, Bing

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate tunable white-light emission and multi-readout thermometry in two respective nanocrystalline luminescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are prepared via postsynthetic functionalization with lanthanide cations of a robust UiO type MOF bearing the 2,2'-bipyridyl moiety (UiO-67-bpydc, 1). The white-light emitting framework Eu(3+)@1 can be conveniently applied as a thin film onto a commercial UV-LED chip for practical white lighting applications. The multi-readout orthogonal thermometry is illustrated in relation to the emission intensity ratio as well as the decay time and luminescence color of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)@1 nanocrystals. This work highlights the opportunity for designing white-light emitters and nanothermometers based on lanthanide functionalized MOFs. PMID:25660360

  7. Studying fringe field effect of a field emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayfullin, M. F.; Nikiforov, K. A.

    2014-10-01

    Field emitter arrays on heavy As-doped Si wafer are studied in vacuum nanoelectronics diode configuration. Different shapes of emitters are considered: cone-shaped point-emitters and cylinder-shaped sharp-edge-emitters are compared. Micro scale field enhancement factor on the edge of cylindrical emitter was calculated via home-developed Matlab application and the results are presented. Two types of anode geometry are proposed: plane anode and spherical anode. Experimental and modelling results of surface electric field distribution are presented. The spherical shape of anode allows higher voltage (and higher field emission current) without destructive arcs risk.

  8. CZT detectors with 3D readout for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, James L.; Pelling, Michael R.; Skelton, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing 10 mm thick CZT detectors with 3-D readout for ~100 keV to ~1.5 MeV gamma-rays. Multiple-site gamma-ray interactions are fully measured, i.e., the energy and 3-D position of each site are determined. Spatial resolution is 1 mm FWHM. Anode pixel readout with 1 mm pitch is used for x- and y-positions and charge drift times for z-positions. Drift time measurements are triggered by the cathode signal and end when each interaction site's charge cloud reaches an anode pixel. Post-event processing corrects for signal loss due to charge trapping and accurately determines gamma-ray energies, with a goal of 1% energy resolution at 662 keV. Compton kinematic analysis can identify the initial interaction site in most cases as well as constrain the incident gamma-ray direction. Tests were made with a prototype detector, measuring 10 x 10 x 10 mm3 and operated at 1000 V bias. The measured drift time resolution of 25 nsec FWHM at 662 keV and 60 nsec at 122 keV corresponds to z-position resolution of 0.25 and 0.60 mm FWHM, respectively. The technique is described and results of modeling and tests are presented.

  9. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  10. Direct readout of gaseous detectors with tiled CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visschers, J. L.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; van der Graaf, H.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Timmermans, J.

    2007-03-01

    A coordinated design effort is underway, exploring the three-dimensional direct readout of gaseous detectors by an anode plate equipped with a tiled array of many CMOS pixel readout ASICs, having amplification grids integrated on their topsides and being contacted on their backside.

  11. Temperature Distributions in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, Jay; Marrese, Colleen; Thornber, Ben; Dang, Lisa; Johnson, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the emitter. To support development of cathode life models we have developed a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements ofthe external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. Initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode with the same geometry as a cathode that failed after operating at 12 A emission current for 27800 hours are discussed.

  12. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system.

  13. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.

    2004-12-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  14. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-03-15

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  15. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  16. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  17. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

  18. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  19. Large-area lanthanum hexaboride electron emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, D. M.; Hirooka, Y.; Sketchley, T. A.

    1985-09-01

    The characteristics of lanthanum-boron thermionic electron emitters are discussed, and a large-area, continuously operating cathode assembly and heater are described. Impurity production and structural problems involving the support of the LaB6 have been eliminated in the presented configuration. The performance of the cathode in a plasma discharge, where surface modification occurs by ion sputtering, is presented. Problem areas which affect lifetime and emission current capability are discussed.

  20. Carbon nanotube emitters and field emission triode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhiqin; Zhang, Binglin; Yao, Ning; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Huizhong; Deng, Jicai

    2006-05-01

    Based on our study on field emission from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), we experimentally manufactured field emission display (FED) triode with a MWNTs cold cathode, and demonstrated an excellent performance of MWNTs as field emitters. The measured luminance of the phosphor screens was 1.8*10^(3) cd/m2 for green light. The emission is stable with a fluctuation of only 1.5% at an average current of 260 'mu'A.

  1. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  2. Terahertz waveguide emitter with subwavelength confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martl, Michael; Darmo, Juraj; Dietze, Daniel; Unterrainer, Karl; Gornik, Erich

    2010-01-01

    The generation of broadband terahertz pulses on the facet of waveguides is presented as an alternative to widely used coupling techniques. Dielectric loaded subwavelength waveguide structures with lateral confinement are investigated with respect to propagating modes and waveguide losses. The results show the terahertz waveguide emitter to be a promising tool for terahertz spectroscopy in the near field and for the probing of microstructured devices such as quantum cascade lasers.

  3. Ultrafast electronic readout of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres coupled to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneis, Andreas; Gaudreau, Louis; Seifert, Max; Karl, Helmut; Brandt, Martin S.; Huebl, Hans; Garrido, Jose A.; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Holleitner, Alexander W.

    2015-02-01

    Non-radiative transfer processes are often regarded as loss channels for an optical emitter because they are inherently difficult to access experimentally. Recently, it has been shown that emitters, such as fluorophores and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, can exhibit a strong non-radiative energy transfer to graphene. So far, the energy of the transferred electronic excitations has been considered to be lost within the electron bath of the graphene. Here we demonstrate that the transferred excitations can be read out by detecting corresponding currents with a picosecond time resolution. We detect electronically the spin of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and control the non-radiative transfer to graphene by electron spin resonance. Our results open the avenue for incorporating nitrogen-vacancy centres into ultrafast electronic circuits and for harvesting non-radiative transfer processes electronically.

  4. Calculation of day and night emittance values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1983, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown over Death Valley, California on both a midday and predawn flight within a two-day period. The availability of calibrated digital data permitted the calculation of day and night surface temperature and surface spectral emittance. Image processing of the data included panorama correction and calibration to radiance using the on-board black bodies and the measured spectral response of each channel. Scene-dependent isolated-point noise due to bit drops, was located by its relatively discontinuous values and replaced by the average of the surrounding data values. A method was developed in order to separate the spectral and temperature information contained in the TIMS data. Night and day data sets were processed. The TIMS is unique in allowing collection of both spectral emittance and thermal information in digital format with the same airborne scanner. For the first time it was possible to produce day and night emittance images of the same area, coregistered. These data add to an understanding of the physical basis for the discrimination of difference in surface materials afforded by TIMS.

  5. Low Emittance Electron Gun for XFEL Application

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Ivkovic, S.

    2009-08-04

    The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland is planning to build a cost-effective X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility for 0.1-10 nm wavelength and 10-100 fsec pulse length, requiring only 6 GeV electron energy. The facility will consist of a Low Emittance electron Gun (LEG) with high gradient acceleration and advanced accelerator technology for preserving the emittance during acceleration and bunch compression. To demonstrate feasibility of the project, a 4 MeV test stand followed by a new 250 MeV test stand will be used at PSI. An emittance of <0.1 mm-mrad is desired, and this extreme value has prompted the development of several novel features: gated field emitting array, a pulsed high gradient gun, combined photo-field emission, pulsed solenoid focusing and a two-frequency cavity. The LEG should give stable emission of >200 pC, with >700 keV energy and >125 MV/m gradient.

  6. An ultracold low emittance electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, G.; Harvey, M.; Murray, A. J.; Bellan, L.; Bertsche, W.; Appleby, R. B.; Mete, O.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2014-06-01

    Ultracold atom-based electron sources have recently been proposed as an alternative to the conventional photo-injectors or thermionic electron guns widely used in modern particle accelerators. The advantages of ultracold atom-based electron sources lie in the fact that the electrons extracted from the plasma (created from near threshold photo-ionization of ultracold atoms) have a very low temperature, i.e. down to tens of Kelvin. Extraction of these electrons has the potential for producing very low emittance electron bunches. These features are crucial for the next generation of particle accelerators, including free electron lasers, plasma-based accelerators and future linear colliders. The source also has many potential direct applications, including ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and electron microscopy, due to its intrinsically high coherence. In this paper, the basic mechanism of ultracold electron beam production is discussed and our new research facility for an ultracold, low emittance electron source is introduced. This source is based on a novel alternating current Magneto-Optical Trap (the AC-MOT). Detailed simulations for a proposed extraction system have shown that for a 1 pC bunch charge, a beam emittance of 0.35 mm mrad is obtainable, with a bunch length of 3 mm and energy spread 1%.

  7. Digital pixel readout integrated circuit architectures for LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Atia; Yazici, Melik; Kayahan, Huseyin; Ceylan, Omer; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses digital pixel readout integrated circuit architectures for long wavelength infrared (LWIR) in CMOS technology. Presented architectures are designed for scanning and staring arrays type detectors respectively. For scanning arrays, digital time delay integration (TDI) is implemented on 8 pixels with sampling rate up to 3 using CMOS 180nm technology. Input referred noise of ROIC is below 750 rms electron meanwhile power dissipation is appreciably under 30mW. ROIC design is optimized to perform at room as well as cryogenic temperatures. For staring type arrays, a digital pixel architecture relying on coarse quantization with pulse frequency modulation (PFM) and novel approach of extended integration is presented. It can achieve extreme charge handling capacity of 2.04Ge- with 20 bit output resolution and power dissipation below 350 nW in CMOS 90nm technology. Efficient mechanism of measuring the time to estimate the remaining charge on integration capacitor in order to achieve low SNR has employed.

  8. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  9. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  10. Electrostatic readout of DNA microarrays with charged microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, Nathan G.; Salaita, Khalid; Groves, Jay T.

    2008-06-29

    DNA microarrays are used for gene-expression profiling, single-nucleotide polymorphism detection and disease diagnosis. A persistent challenge in this area is the lack of microarray screening technology suitable for integration into routine clinical care. In this paper, we describe a method for sensitive and label-free electrostatic readout of DNA or RNA hybridization on microarrays. The electrostatic properties of the microarray are measured from the position and motion of charged microspheres randomly dispersed over the surface. We demonstrate nondestructive electrostatic imaging with 10-μm lateral resolution over centimeter-length scales, which is four-orders of magnitude larger than that achievable with conventional scanning electrostatic force microscopy. Changes in surface charge density as a result of specific hybridization can be detected and quantified with 50-pM sensitivity, single base-pair mismatch selectivity and in the presence of complex background. Lastly, because the naked eye is sufficient to read out hybridization, this approach may facilitate broad application of multiplexed assays.

  11. Scanning electrochemical microscopy as a readout tool for protein electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiqin; Wittstock, Gunther; Shao, Yuanhua; Girault, Hubert H

    2007-07-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to image silver-stained proteins on a poly(vinylidene difluoride) membrane. The method is based on measuring the current at a scanning microelectrode in the feedback mode. The electrochemical feedback is caused by the redox-mediated etching of the isolated 5 - 10-nm-diameter silver nanoparticles formed during the staining process. Several parameters, such as the redox mediator and the staining protocol, were optimized to ensure a high resolution and a low detection limit, i.e., 0.5 ng of bovine serum albumin (4 x 10(-14) mol) distributed on an area of 1 mm(2) (4 x 10(-16) mol x cm(-2)). Images of beta-lactoglobulin A and myoglobin bands after gel electrophoretic separation and electroblotting were obtained in order to demonstrate that SECM can be employed as a sensitive and quantitative readout method for detection of proteins after gel electrophoresis. An additional advantage is that the silver staining can be removed, allowing further downstream mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:17539601

  12. Low-Energy Emittance Studies with the new Allison Emittance Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Blokland, Willem; Gorlov, Timofey V; Han, Baoxi; Long, Cary D; Pennisi, Terry R; Assadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The new SNS Allison emittance scanner measures emittances of 65 kV ion beams over a range of +/- 116 mrad. Its versatile control system allows for time-dependent emittance measurements using an external trigger to synchronize with pulsed ion beam systems. After an adjustable initial delay, the system acquires an array of equally-delayed beam current measurements, each averaged over a certain time span, where all three time parameters are user selectable. The zero offset of the beam current measurements is determined by averaging a fraction of 1 ms shortly before the start of the ion beam pulse. This paper discusses the optimization of the angular range. In addition it presents the first results and reports an unresolved artefact. Data are presented on the time evolution of emittance ellipses during 0.8 ms long H- beam pulses emerging from the SNS test LEBT, which is important for loss considerations in the SNS accelerator. Additional data explore the emittance growth observed with increasing beam current and/or increasing RF-power.

  13. Integrated multi-crate FERA readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Kistryn, S.; Bee, C.P.; Eberhardt, P.

    1997-12-31

    We discuss a moderate-size readout system based entirely on FERA compatible units. The implementation of a specially developed FERA Extender module is presented, whose main feature is the ability to distribute the system over many CAMAC crates. This provides a convenient way of splitting the FERA bus into several virtually independent sub-systems driven by individual gate signals. Tagging of the event fragments from each sub-system with an event number incremented on the arrival of each master gate, provides a convenient means of reconstructing the full event at a later stage. An example of the external supplementary FERA control logic required for a complex multi-crate and multi-gate system controlled by a single FERA Manager, is also discussed together with some remarks on the system performance.

  14. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  15. 3D reconstruction of nuclear reactions using GEM TPC with planar readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bihałowicz, Jan Stefan

    2015-02-24

    The research program of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) laboratory under construction in Magurele, Romania facilities the need of developing a gaseous active-target detector providing 3D reconstruction of charged products of nuclear reactions induced by gamma beam. The monoenergetic, high-energy (E{sub γ} > 19 MeV) gamma beam of intensity 10{sup 13}γ/s allows studying nuclear reactions in astrophysics. A Time Projection Chamber with crossed strip readout (eTPC) is proposed as one of the imaging detectors. The special feature of the readout electrode structure is a 2D reconstruction based on the information read out simultaneously from three arrays of strips that form virtual pixels. It is expected to reach similar spatial resolution as for pixel readout at largely reduced cost of electronics. The paper presents the current progress and first results of the small scale prototype TPC which is a one of implementation steps towards eTPC detector proposed in the Technical Design Report of Charged Particles Detection at ELI-NP.

  16. An induced charge readout scheme incorporating image charge splitting on discrete pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, D. O.; Lapington, J. S.

    2003-11-01

    Top hat electrostatic analysers used in space plasma instruments typically use microchannel plates (MCPs) followed by discrete pixel anode readout for the angular definition of the incoming particles. Better angular definition requires more pixels/readout electronics channels but with stringent mass and power budgets common in space applications, the number of channels is restricted. We describe here a technique that improves the angular definition using induced charge and an interleaved anode pattern. The technique adopts the readout philosophy used on the CRRES and CLUSTER I instruments but has the advantages of the induced charge scheme and significantly reduced capacitance. Charge from the MCP collected by an anode pixel is inductively split onto discrete pixels whose geometry can be tailored to suit the scientific requirements of the instrument. For our application, the charge is induced over two pixels. One of them is used for a coarse angular definition but is read out by a single channel of electronics, allowing a higher rate handling. The other provides a finer angular definition but is interleaved and hence carries the expense of lower rate handling. Using the technique and adding four channels of electronics, a four-fold increase in the angular resolution is obtained. Details of the scheme and performance results are presented.

  17. Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

    2012-03-01

    Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size

  18. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  19. Polyaniline: a conductive polymer coating for durable nanospray emitters

    PubMed

    Maziarz; Lorenz; White; Wood

    2000-07-01

    Despite the tremendous sensitivity and lower sample requirements for nanospray vs. conventional electrospray, metallized nanospray emitters have suffered from one of two problems: low mechanical stability (leading to emitter failure) or lengthy, tedious production methods. Here, we describe a simple alternative to metallized tips using polyaniline (PANI), a synthetic polymer well known for its high conductivity, anticorrosion properties, antistatic properties, and mechanical stability. A simple method for coating borosilicate emitters (1.2 mm o.d.) pulled to fine tapers (4 +/- 1 microm) with water-soluble and xylene-soluble dispersions of conductive polyaniline (which allows for electrical contact at the emitter outlet) is described. The polyaniline-coated emitters show high durability and are resistant to electrical discharge, likely because of the thick (yet optically transparent) coatings; a single emitter can be used over a period of days for multiple samples with no visible indication of the destruction of the polyaniline coating. The optical transparency of the coating also allows the user to visualize the sample plug loaded into the emitter. Examples of nanospray using coatings of the water-soluble and xylene-soluble polyaniline dispersions are given. A comparison of PANI-coated and gold-coated nanospray emitters to conventional electrospray ionization (ESI) show that PANI-coated emitters provide similar enhanced sensitivity that gold-coated emitters exhibit vs. conventional ESI.

  20. Wavelength locking of single emitters and multi-emitter modules: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanson, Dan; Rappaport, Noam; Peleg, Ophir; Berk, Yuri; Dahan, Nir; Klumel, Genady; Baskin, Ilya; Levy, Moshe

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength-stabilized high-brightness single emitters are commonly used in fiber-coupled laser diode modules for pumping Yb-doped lasers at 976 nm, and Nd-doped ones at 808 nm. We investigate the spectral behavior of single emitters under wavelength-selective feedback from a volume Bragg (or hologram) grating (VBG) in a multi-emitter module. By integrating a full VBG model as a multi-layer thin film structure with commercial raytracing software, we simulated wavelength locking conditions as a function of beam divergence and angular alignment tolerances. Good correlation between the simulated VBG feedback strength and experimentally measured locking ranges, in both VBG misalignment angle and laser temperature, is demonstrated. The challenges of assembling multi-emitter modules based on beam-stacked optical architectures are specifically addressed, where the wavelength locking conditions must be achieved simultaneously with high fiber coupling efficiency for each emitter in the module. It is shown that angular misorientation between fast and slow-axis collimating optics can have a dramatic effect on the spectral and power performance of the module. We report the development of our NEON-S wavelength-stabilized fiber laser pump module, which uses a VBG to provide wavelength-selective optical feedback in the collimated portion of the beam. Powered by our purpose-developed high-brightness single emitters, the module delivers 47 W output at 11 A from an 0.15 NA fiber and a 0.3 nm linewidth at 976 nm. Preliminary wavelength-locking results at 808 nm are also presented.

  1. Distributed read-out imaging devices for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, Roland H.; Martin, Didier D.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Verhoeve, Peter; Rando, Nicola; Peacock, Anthony J.; Brammertz, G.; Krumrey, Michael K.; Goldie, D. J.; Venn, R.

    2000-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the performance of Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), 1- and 2-D photon-counting imaging spectrometers, based on Ta/Al-based STJs placed on a Ta absorber. Results obtained with highly collimated illumination with 10 keV X-ray photons clearly demonstrate the imaging capabilities of 2-D DROIDs. The derived spatial FWHM resolution is 7 micrometers for a 200 X 200 micrometers 2 absorber. With a 1-D DROID we have measured an intrinsic energy resolution of 15 eV FWHM for 6 keV photons. At high energies (E > 6 keV) the resolution is limited by spatial fluctuations in the qp recombination rate.

  2. The prototype readout electronics system for the External Target Experiment in CSR of HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Kang, L.; Li, M.; Liu, S.; Zhou, J.; An, Q.

    2014-07-01

    A prototype readout electronics system was designed for the External Target Experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The kernel parts include the 128-channel 100 ps high-resolution time digitization module, the 16-channel 25 ps high-resolution time and charge measurement module, and the trigger electronics, as well as the clock generation circuits, which are all integrated within the PXI-6U crate. The laboratory test results indicate that a good resolution is achieved, better than the requirement. We also have conducted initial commissioning tests with the detectors to confirm the functions of the system. Through the research of this prototype electronics, preparation for the future extended system is made.

  3. Capacitive level meters for cryogenic liquids with continuous read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichkov, I. V.; Drobin, V. M.

    The operation of a variety of liquid level meters is briefly considered. Currently used continuous read-out level meters, whose operation is based on the difference between the dielectric constants of the gas and the liquid measured, are compared. The requirements for cryogenic application of these level meters are discussed. An electronic circuit for capacitance measurements with high stability and resolution better than 20 ppm is described along with construction details of capacitance transducers both for liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The parameters of two particular level meters are reported as follows. For liquid nitrogen: measuring length 50 cm; overall error < 1% at full scale deviation (FSD); short time instabilities < 0.01% FSD; resolution better than 0.05 mm. For liquid helium: measuring length 60 cm; overall error < 5% FSD; short time instabilities < 0.2% FSD; resolution better than 1 mm.

  4. Delay modeling of bipolar ECL/EFL (Emitter-Coupled Logic/Emitter-Follower-Logic) circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Andrew T.

    1986-08-01

    This report deals with the development of a delay-time model for timing simulation of large circuits consisting of Bipolar ECL(Emitter-Coupled Logic) and EFL (Emitter-Follower-Logic) networks. This model can provide adequate information on the performance of the circuits with a minimum expenditure of computation time. This goal is achieved by the use of proper circuit transient models on which analytical delay expressions can be derived with accurate results. The delay-model developed in this report is general enough to handle complex digital circuits with multiple inputs or/and multiple levels. The important effects of input slew rate are also included in the model.

  5. Ultra-low-power radiation hard ADC for particle detector readout applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, E. O.; Swaminathan, V.; Sivakumar, B.; Barnaby, H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Radiation hard analog to digital converter (ADC) has been designed for future high energy physics experiments. The ADC has been designed in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process and it achieves 12-bit resolution, 25 MS/s sampling speed, 15 mW power consumption and hardness to at least 1.8 Megarad(Si) of total ionizing dose (TID). 16 ADC channels will be placed on one packaged silicon chip. The readout of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector in the planned High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is one possible application for this ADC.

  6. High-Density Read-Only Memory Disc with Ag11In12Sb51Te26 Super-Resolution Mask Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yang; Xu, Wen-Dong; Shi, Hong-Ren; Wei, Jing-Song; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2004-10-01

    A novel read-only memory (ROM) disc with an Ag11In12Sb51Te26 super-resolution mask layer is proposed and investigated for the first time to our knowledge. The carrier-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB could be obtained from small pits (380 nm), which are below the readout resolution limit (400 nm), in our dynamic setup with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and numerical aperture of 0.40. Dependences of carrier-to-noise ratio on readout power, readout velocity and film thickness are studied. The results show that the optimum film thickness is 20-50 nm and the corresponding carrier-to-noise ratio is more than 40 dB at readout power of 4 mW and readout velocity of 2 m/s in our experiment. The super-resolution readout mechanism for this ROM disc is also discussed.

  7. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  8. The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others.

  9. Rare Earth Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie T.; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study presents a spectral emittance model for films and cylinders of rare earth doped yttrium aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical film spectral emittances was found for erbium and holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. For operating conditions of interest, the film emitter experiences a linear temperature variation whereas the cylinder emitter has a more advantageous uniform temperature. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For holminum aluminum garnet film the efficiency is 0.35 at 1446K but only 0.27 at 1270 K.

  10. Ballasted and electrically steerable carbon nanotube field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M. T.; Li, C.; Qu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B.; Pribat, D.; Milne, W. I.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our on-going efforts toward the development of stable ballasted carbon nanotube-based field emitters employing hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowires and thin film silicon-on-insulator substrates. The semiconducting channel in each controllably limits the emission current thereby preventing detrimental burn-out of individual emitters that occurs due to unavoidable statistical variability in emitter characteristics, particularly in their length. Fabrication details and emitter characterization are discussed in addition to their field emission performance. The development of a beam steerable triode electron emitter formed from hexagonal carbon nanotube arrays with central focusing nanotube electrodes, is also described. Numerical ab-initio simulations are presented to account for the empirical emission characteristics. Our engineered ballasted emitters have shown some of the lowest reported lifetime variations (< 0.7%) with on-times of < 1 ms, making them ideally-suited for next-generation displays, environmental lighting and portable x-rays sources.

  11. Infrared spectral normal emittance/emissivity comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Filtz, J.-R.; Hameury, J.; Girard, F.; Battuello, M.; Ishii, J.; Hollandt, J.; Monte, C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) of the United States, Germany, France, Italy and Japan, have joined in an inter-laboratory comparison of their infrared spectral emittance scales. This action is part of a series of supplementary inter-laboratory comparisons (including thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) sponsored by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) Task Group on Thermophysical Quantities (TG-ThQ). The objective of this collaborative work is to strengthen the major operative National Measurement Institutes' infrared spectral emittance scales and consequently the consistency of radiative properties measurements carried out worldwide. The comparison has been performed over a spectral range of 2 μm to 14 μm, and a temperature range from 23 °C to 800 °C. Artefacts included in the comparison are potential standards: oxidized Inconel, boron nitride, and silicon carbide. The measurement instrumentation and techniques used for emittance scales are unique for each NMI, including the temperature ranges covered as well as the artefact sizes required. For example, all three common types of spectral instruments are represented: dispersive grating monochromator, Fourier transform and filter-based spectrometers. More than 2000 data points (combinations of material, wavelength and temperature) were compared. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the data points were in agreement, with differences to weighted mean values less than the expanded uncertainties calculated from the individual NMI uncertainties and uncertainties related to the comparison process. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Active spacecraft potential control: An ion emitter experiment. [Cluster mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, W.; Goldstein, R.; Hamelin, M.; Maehlum, B. N.; Troim, J.; Olsen, R. C.; Pedersen, A.; Grard, R. J. L.; Schmidt, R.; Rudenauer, F.

    1988-01-01

    The cluster spacecraft are instrumented with ion emitters for charge neutralization. The emitters produce indium ions at 6 keV. The ion current is adjusted in a feedback loop with instruments measuring the spacecraft potential. The system is based on the evaporation of indium in the apex field of a needle. The design of the active spacecraft potential control instruments, and the ion emitters is presented.

  13. Emittance calculations for the Stanford Linear Collider injector

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; Helm, R.H.; Lee, M.J.; Miller, R.H.; Blocker, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    A series of measurements have been performed to determine the emittance of the high intensity, single bunch beam that is to be injected into the Stanford Linear Collider. On-line computer programs were used to control the Linac for the purpose of data acquisition and to fit the data to a model in order to deduce the beam emittance. This paper will describe the method of emittance calculation and present some of the measurement results.

  14. Sub-nm emittance lattice design for CANDLE storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Zanyan, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.

    2016-10-01

    The most effective way to increase the brilliance of synchrotron light sources is the reduction of beam emittance. Following the recent developments in low emittance lattice design, a new sub-nm emittance lattice based on implementation of multi-band achromat concept and application of longitudinal gradient bending magnets was developed for CANDLE storage ring. The paper presents the main design considerations, linear and non-linear beam dynamics aspects of the new lattice proposed.

  15. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  16. Atmospheric corrections for TIMS estimated emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, T. A.; Levandowski, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The estimated temperature of the average of 500 lines of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data of the Pacific Ocean, from flight line 94, collected on 30 Sep. 1988, at 1931 GMT is shown. With no atmospheric corrections, estimated temperature decreases away from nadir (the center of the scan line). A LOWTRAN modeled correction, using local radiosonde data and instrument scan angle information, results in reversed limb darkening effects for most bands, and does not adequately correct all bands to the same temperature. The atmosphere tends to re-radiate energy at the wavelengths at which it most absorbs, and thus the overall difference between corrected and uncorrected temperatures is approximately 40 C, despite the average LOWTRAN calculated transmittance of only 60 percent between 8.1 and 11.6 microns. An alternative approach to atmospheric correction is a black body normalization. This is done by calculating a normalization factor for each pixel position and wavelength, which when applied results in a single calculated temperature, as would be expected for a gray body with near uniform emittance. The black body adjustment is based on the atmospheric conditions over the sea. The ground elevation profile along the remaining 3520 scan lines (approximately 10 km) of flight line 94, up the slopes of Kilauea, determined from aircraft pressure and laser altimeter data is shown. This flight line includes a large amount of vegetation that is clearly discernible on the radiance image, being much cooler than the surrounding rocks. For each of the 3520 scan lines, pixels were classified as vegetation or 'other'. A moving average of 51 lines was applied to the composite vegetation emittance for each scan line, to reduce noise. Assuming vegetation to be like water, and to act as gray body with an emittance of 0.986 across the spectrum, it is shown that that the LOWTRAN induced artifacts are severe, and other than for the 0.9.9 micron channel, not significantly

  17. Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. O.

    1986-03-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) techniques involved in determining the parameters of multiple wavefronts arriving at an antenna array are discussed. A MUSIC algorithm is described, which provides asymptotically unbiased estimates of (1) the number of signals, (2) directions of arrival (or emitter locations), (3) strengths and cross correlations among the incident waveforms, and (4) the strength of noise/interference. The example of the use of the algorithm as a multiple frequency estimator operating on time series is examined. Comparisons of this method with methods based on maximum likelihood and maximum entropy, as well as conventional beamforming, are presented.

  18. Summary report on transverse emittance preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Vos, L.

    1997-12-01

    During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

  19. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad

    2014-02-24

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  20. Phase Change Super Resolution near Field Structure ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Inoh; Kim, Jooho; Park, Changmin; Ro, Myongdo; Lee, Jinkyung; Jung, Moonil; Park, Insik

    2005-05-01

    We confirmed a super resolution phenomenon and a typical super resolution near field structure threshold phenomenon in a read only memory (ROM)-type sample disk. We found that this super resolution phenomenon originates from a phase-change layer and is closely related to the thermal properties of the super resolution layer. We also improved the readout stability using a co-sputtered layer with phase change (GST) and dielectric materials (ZnS-SiO2).

  1. Efficient low-temperature thermophotovoltaic emitters from metallic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Prashant; Han, Sang Eon; Stein, Andreas; Norris, David J

    2008-10-01

    We examine the use of metallic photonic crystals as thermophotovoltaic emitters. We coat silica woodpile structures, created using direct laser writing, with tungsten or molybdenum. Optical reflectivity and thermal emission measurements near 650 degrees C demonstrate that the resulting structures should provide efficient emitters at relatively low temperatures. When matched to InGaAsSb photocells, our structures should generate over ten times more power than solid emitters while having an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency above 32%. At such low temperatures, these emitters have promise not only in solar energy but also in harnessing geothermal and industrial waste heat.

  2. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  3. Injection of large transverse emittance EBIS beams in booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.

    2011-10-10

    During the commissioning of EBIS beams in Booster in November 2010 and in April, May and June 2011, it was found that the transverse emittances of the EBIS beams just upstream of Booster were much larger than expected. Beam emittances of 11{pi} mm milliradians had been expected, but numbers 3 to 4 times larger were measured. Here and throughout this note the beam emittance, {pi}{epsilon}{sub 0}, is taken to be the area of the smallest ellipse that contains 95% of the beam. We call this smallest ellipse the beam ellipse. If the beam distribution is gaussian, the rms emittance of the distribution is very nearly one sixth the area of the beam ellipse. The normalized rms emittance is the rms emittance times the relativistic factor {beta}{gamma} = 0.06564. This amounts to 0.12{pi} mm milliradians for the 11{pi} mm milliradian beam ellipse. In [1] we modeled the injection and turn-by-turn evolution of an 11{pi} mm milliradian beam ellipse in the horizontal plane in Booster. It was shown that with the present injection system, up to 4 turns of this beam could be injected and stored in Booster without loss. In the present note we extend this analysis to the injection of larger emittance beams. We consider only the emittance in the horizontal plane. Emittance in the vertical plane and the effects of dispersion are treated in [2].

  4. Analysis of Slice Transverse Emittance Evolution ina Photocathode RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Ding, Y.; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-10-17

    The slice transverse emittance of an electron beam is of critical significance for an x-ray FEL. In a photocathode RF gun, the slice transverse emittance is not only determined by the emission process, but also influenced strongly by the non-linear space charge effect. In this paper, we study the slice transverse emittance evolution in a photocathode RF gun using a simple model that includes effects of RF acceleration, focusing, and space charge force. The results are compared with IMPACT-T space charge simulations and may be used to understand the development of the slice emittance in an RF gun.

  5. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  6. Focal plane infrared readout circuit with automatic background suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Shaw, Timothy J. (Inventor); Wrigley, Chris J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A circuit for reading out a signal from an infrared detector includes a current-mode background-signal subtracting circuit having a current memory which can be enabled to sample and store a dark level signal from the infrared detector during a calibration phase. The signal stored by the current memory is subtracted from a signal received from the infrared detector during an imaging phase. The circuit also includes a buffered direct injection input circuit and a differential voltage readout section. By performing most of the background signal estimation and subtraction in a current mode, a low gain can be provided by the buffered direct injection input circuit to keep the gain of the background signal relatively small, while a higher gain is provided by the differential voltage readout circuit. An array of such readout circuits can be used in an imager having an array of infrared detectors. The readout circuits can provide a high effective handling capacity.

  7. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, M. A.; Omran, H.; Naous, R.; Sultan, A.; Fahmy, H. A. H.; Lu, W. D.; Salama, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  8. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    PubMed Central

    Zidan, M. A.; Omran, H.; Naous, R.; Sultan, A.; Fahmy, H. A. H.; Lu, W. D.; Salama, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques. PMID:26738564

  9. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar.

    PubMed

    Zidan, M A; Omran, H; Naous, R; Sultan, A; Fahmy, H A H; Lu, W D; Salama, K N

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  10. Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery

    2014-02-24

    Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described. PMID:24663746

  11. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  12. Conformational readout of RNA by small ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kligun, Efrat; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules have highly versatile structures that can fold into myriad conformations, providing many potential pockets for binding small molecules. The increasing number of available RNA structures, in complex with proteins, small ligands and in free form, enables the design of new therapeutically useful RNA-binding ligands. Here we studied RNA ligand complexes from 10 RNA groups extracted from the protein data bank (PDB), including adaptive and non-adaptive complexes. We analyzed the chemical, physical, structural and conformational properties of binding pockets around the ligand. Comparing the properties of ligand-binding pockets to the properties of computed pockets extracted from all available RNA structures and RNA-protein interfaces, revealed that ligand-binding pockets, mainly the adaptive pockets, are characterized by unique properties, specifically enriched in rare conformations of the nucleobase and the sugar pucker. Further, we demonstrate that nucleotides possessing the rare conformations are preferentially involved in direct interactions with the ligand. Overall, based on our comprehensive analysis of RNA-ligand complexes, we suggest that the unique conformations adopted by RNA nucleotides play an important role in RNA recognition by small ligands. We term the recognition of a binding site by a ligand via the unique RNA conformations “RNA conformational readout.” We propose that “conformational readout” is a general way by which RNA binding pockets are recognized and selected from an ensemble of different RNA states. PMID:23618839

  13. Development of the readout controller for KASINICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seoung-hyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Lee, Sungho; Kong, Kyung-Nam; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2006-06-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) which will be installed on the 61 cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. KASINICS is equipped with a ALADDIN III Quadrant (512×512 InSb array, manufactured by Raytheon). For this instrument, we make a new IR array control electronics system. The controller consists of DSP, Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a VME bus system. The DSP board includes TMS320C6713, FPGA, and 384MB SDRAM. Clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. USB 2.0 is used for the communication with the PC and UART for the serial communication with peripherals. Each of two video boards has 4 video channels. The Bias board provides 16 voltage sources and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. Our goal of readout speed is 10 frames sec -1. We have successfully finished operational tests of the controller using a 256×256 ROIC (CRC744). We are now upgrading the system for the ALADDIN III array. We plan to operate KASINICS by the end of 2006.

  14. Optimal signal processing for continuous qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Shilin; Tsang, Mankei

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of a quantum two-level system, or a qubit in modern terminology, often involves an electromagnetic field that interacts with the qubit, before the field is measured continuously and the qubit state is inferred from the noisy field measurement. During the measurement, the qubit may undergo spontaneous transitions, further obscuring the initial qubit state from the observer. Taking advantage of some well-known techniques in stochastic detection theory, here we propose a signal processing protocol that can infer the initial qubit state optimally from the measurement in the presence of noise and qubit dynamics. Assuming continuous quantum-nondemolition measurements with Gaussian or Poissonian noise and a classical Markov model for the qubit, we derive analytic solutions to the protocol in some special cases of interest using Itō calculus. Our method is applicable to multihypothesis testing for robust qubit readout and relevant to experiments on qubits in superconducting microwave circuits, trapped ions, nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, semiconductor quantum dots, or phosphorus donors in silicon.

  15. Information Flow in the Readout of a Superconducting Quantum Bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, I.; Vijay, R.; Metcalfe, M.; Boaknin, E.; Rigetti, C.; Frunzio, L.; Shoelkopf, R.; Devoret, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    Quantum computation requires efficient and well controlled coupling between qubits. Superconducting qubits can be strongly coupled using passive electrical circuit elements, but one of the major remaining challenges is to eliminate uncontrolled coupling to parasitic degrees of freedom. I will present experimental results on charge qubits integrated with a novel readout device -- the Josephson bifurcation amplifier (JBA). New experiments using the improved readout fidelity and speed of the JBA quantify parasitic losses and shed light on their mechanism.

  16. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2003-12-10

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  17. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptman, John

    2006-10-27

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification.

  18. Narrowband infrared emitters for combat ID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Puscasu, Irina; Daly, James; Fallon, Keith; Loges, Peter; Greenwald, Anton; Johnson, Edward

    2007-04-01

    There is a strong desire to create narrowband infrared light sources as personnel beacons for application in infrared Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) systems. This demand has augmented dramatically in recent years with the reports of friendly fire casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. ICx Photonics' photonic crystal enhanced TM (PCE TM) infrared emitter technology affords the possibility of creating narrowband IR light sources tuned to specific IR wavebands (near 1-2 microns, mid 3-5 microns, and long 8-12 microns) making it the ideal solution for infrared IFF. This technology is based on a metal coated 2D photonic crystal of air holes in a silicon substrate. Upon thermal excitation the photonic crystal modifies the emitted yielding narrowband IR light with center wavelength commensurate with the periodicity of the lattice. We have integrated this technology with microhotplate MEMS devices to yield 15mW IR light sources in the 3-5 micron waveband with wall plug efficiencies in excess of 10%, 2 orders of magnitude more efficient that conventional IR LEDs. We have further extended this technology into the LWIR with a light source that produces 9 mW of 8-12 micron light at an efficiency of 8%. Viewing distances >500 meters were observed with fielded camera technologies, ideal for ground to ground troop identification. When grouped into an emitter panel, the viewing distances were extended to 5 miles, ideal for ground to air identification.

  19. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Capece, Angela M.; Katz, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al2O3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values.

  20. Muon Emittance Exchange with a Potato Slicer

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Perera, L. P.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2015-04-15

    We propose a novel scheme for final muon ionization cooling with quadrupole doublets followed by emittance exchange in vacuum to achieve the small beam sizes needed by a muon collider. A flat muon beam with a series of quadrupole doublet half cells appears to provide the strong focusing required for final cooling. Each quadrupole doublet has a low beta region occupied by a dense, low Z absorber. After final cooling, normalized transverse, longitudinal, and angular momentum emittances of 0.100, 2.5, and 0.200 mm-rad are exchanged into 0.025, 70, and 0.0 mm-rad. A skew quadrupole triplet transforms a round muon bunch with modest angular momentum into a flat bunch with no angular momentum. Thin electrostatic septa efficiently slice the flat bunch into 17 parts. The 17 bunches are interleaved into a 3.7 meter long train with RF deflector cavities. Snap bunch coalescence combines the muon bunch train longitudinally in a 21 GeV ring in 55 µs, one quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period. A linear long wavelength RF bucket gives each bunch a different energy causing the bunches to drift in the ring until they merge into one bunch and can be captured in a short wavelength RF bucket with a 13% muon decay loss and a packing fraction as high as 87 %.

  1. Emittance measurements from the LLUMC proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Gillespie, G. H.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-12-01

    A new method of calculating beam emittances at the extraction point of a particle accelerator is presented. The technique uses the optimization programs NPSOL and MINOS developed at Stanford University in order to determine the initial values of beam size, divergence and correlation parameters (i.e. beam sigma matrix, σij) that best fit measured beam parameters. These σij elements are then used to compute the Twiss parameters α, β, and the phase space area, ε, of the beam at the extraction point. Beam size measurements in X and Y throughout the transport line were input to the optimizer along with the magnetic elements of bends, quads, and drifts. The σij parameters were optimized at the accelerator's extraction point by finding the best agreement between these measured beam sizes and those predicted by TRANSPORT. This expands upon a previous study in which a "trial and error" technique was used instead of the optimizer software, and which yielded similar results. The Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab™) program used for this paper integrates particle beam optics and other codes into a single intuitive graphically-based computing environment. This new software provides a seamless interface between the NPSOL and MINOS optimizer and TRANSPORT calculations. The results of these emittance searches are presented here for the eight clinical energies between 70 and 250 MeV currently being used at LLUMC.

  2. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  3. Group-III Nitride Field Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Berishev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Field-emission devices (cold cathodes) having low electron affinities can be fabricated through lattice-mismatched epitaxial growth of nitrides of elements from group III of the periodic table. Field emission of electrons from solid surfaces is typically utilized in vacuum microelectronic devices, including some display devices. The present field-emission devices and the method of fabricating them were developed to satisfy needs to reduce the cost of fabricating field emitters, make them compatible with established techniques for deposition of and on silicon, and enable monolithic integration of field emitters with silicon-based driving circuitry. In fabricating a device of this type, one deposits a nitride of one or more group-III elements on a substrate of (111) silicon or other suitable material. One example of a suitable deposition process is chemical vapor deposition in a reactor that contains plasma generated by use of electron cyclotron resonance. Under properly chosen growth conditions, the large mismatch between the crystal lattices of the substrate and the nitride causes strains to accumulate in the growing nitride film, such that the associated stresses cause the film to crack. The cracks lie in planes parallel to the direction of growth, so that the growing nitride film becomes divided into microscopic growing single-crystal columns. The outer ends of the fully-grown columns can serve as field-emission tips. By virtue of their chemical compositions and crystalline structures, the columns have low work functions and high electrical conductivities, both of which are desirable for field emission of electrons. From examination of transmission electron micrographs of a prototype device, the average column width was determined to be about 100 nm and the sharpness of the tips was determined to be characterized by a dimension somewhat less than 100 nm. The areal density of the columns was found to about 5 x 10(exp 9)/sq cm . about 4 to 5 orders of magnitude

  4. Simple Bulk Readout of Digital Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays.

    PubMed

    Morinishi, Leanna S; Blainey, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Digital assays are powerful methods that enable detection of rare cells and counting of individual nucleic acid molecules. However, digital assays are still not routinely applied, due to the cost and specific equipment associated with commercially available methods. Here we present a simplified method for readout of digital droplet assays using a conventional real-time PCR instrument to measure bulk fluorescence of droplet-based digital assays. We characterize the performance of the bulk readout assay using synthetic droplet mixtures and a droplet digital multiple displacement amplification (MDA) assay. Quantitative MDA particularly benefits from a digital reaction format, but our new method applies to any digital assay. For established digital assay protocols such as digital PCR, this method serves to speed up and simplify assay readout. Our bulk readout methodology brings the advantages of partitioned assays without the need for specialized readout instrumentation. The principal limitations of the bulk readout methodology are reduced dynamic range compared with droplet-counting platforms and the need for a standard sample, although the requirements for this standard are less demanding than for a conventional real-time experiment. Quantitative whole genome amplification (WGA) is used to test for contaminants in WGA reactions and is the most sensitive way to detect the presence of DNA fragments with unknown sequences, giving the method great promise in diverse application areas including pharmaceutical quality control and astrobiology. PMID:26436576

  5. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Briegel, C.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Zhang, D.; Terunuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-17

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented. The next generation of linear colliders require ultra-low vertical emittance of <2 pm-rad. The damping ring at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is designed to demonstrate this mission critical goal. A high resolution beam position monitor (BPM) system for the damping ring is one of the key tools for realizing this goal. The BPM system needs to provide two distnict measurements. First, a very high resolution ({approx}100-200nm) closed-orbit measurement which is averaged over many turns and realized with narrowband filter techniques - 'narrowband mode'. This is needed to monitor and steer the beam along an optimum orbit and to facilitate beam-based alignment to minimize non-linear field effects. Second, is the ability to make turn by turn (TBT) measurements to support optics studies and corrections necessary to achieve the design performance. As the TBT measurement necessitates a wider bandwidth, it is often referred to as 'wideband mode'. The BPM upgrade was initiated as a KEK/SLAC/FNAL collaboration in the frame of the Global Design Initiative of the International Linear Collider. The project was realized and completed using Japan-US funds with Fermilab as the core partner.

  6. Test beam campaigns for the CMS Phase I Upgrade pixel readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannagel, S.; CMS Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The current CMS silicon pixel detector as the innermost component of the CMS experiment is performing well at LHC design luminosity, but would be subject to severe inefficiencies at LHC peak luminosities of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. Therefore, an upgrade of the CMS pixel detector is planned, including a new readout chip. The chip design comprises additional on-chip buffer cells as well as high-speed data links and low-threshold comparators in the pixel cells. With these changes the upgraded pixel detector will be able to maintain or even improve the efficiency of the current detector at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. The effects of these design changes on e.g. position resolution and charge collection efficiency were studied in detail using a precision tracking telescope at the DESY test beam facilities. The high telescope track resolution enables precise studies of tracking efficiency, charge sharing and collection even within single pixel cells of the device under test. This publication focuses on the improved performance and capabilities of the new pixel readout chip and summarizes results from test beam campaigns with both unirradiated and irradiated devices. The functionality of the chip design with its improved charge threshold, redesigned data transmission and buffering scheme has been verified.

  7. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  8. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Biebel, O.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2016-07-01

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 μm is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector [1]. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 μm thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 μm pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 μm (FWHM 235 μm) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Å.

  9. SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics for compact gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, N.; Imando, T. Ait; Nagai, A.; Pinot, L.; Puill, V.; Callier, S.; Janvier, B.; Esnault, C.; Verdier, M.-A.; Raux, L.; Vandenbussche, V.; Charon, Y.; Menard, L.

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the design and features of a very compact and light gamma camera based on SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics dedicated to tumor localization during radio-guided cancer surgery. This gamma camera, called MAGICS, is composed of four (2×2) photo-detection elementary modules coupled to an inorganic scintillator. The 256 channels photo-detection system covers a sensitive area of 54×53 m2. Each elementary module is based on four (2×2) SiPM monolithic arrays, each array consisting of 16 SiPM photo-sensors (4×4) with 3×3 mm2 sensitive area, coupled to a miniaturized readout electronics and a dedicated ASIC. The overall dimensions of the electronics fit the size of the detector, enabling to assemble side-by-side several elementary modules in a close-packed arrangement. The preliminary performances of the system are very encouraging, showing an energy resolution of 9.8% and a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm at 122 keV.

  10. High-speed optical shutter coupled to fast-readout CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, George J.; Pena, Claudine R.; McDonald, Thomas E., Jr.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Numkena, Dustin M.; Turko, Bojan T.; Ziska, George; Millaud, Jacques E.; Diaz, Rick; Buckley, John; Anthony, Glen; Araki, Takae; Larson, Eric D.

    1999-04-01

    A high frame rate optically shuttered CCD camera for radiometric imaging of transient optical phenomena has been designed and several prototypes fabricated, which are now in evaluation phase. the camera design incorporates stripline geometry image intensifiers for ultra fast image shutters capable of 200ps exposures. The intensifiers are fiber optically coupled to a multiport CCD capable of 75 MHz pixel clocking to achieve 4KHz frame rate for 512 X 512 pixels from simultaneous readout of 16 individual segments of the CCD array. The intensifier, Philips XX1412MH/E03 is generically a Generation II proximity-focused micro channel plate intensifier (MCPII) redesigned for high speed gating by Los Alamos National Laboratory and manufactured by Philips Components. The CCD is a Reticon HSO512 split storage with bi-direcitonal vertical readout architecture. The camera main frame is designed utilizing a multilayer motherboard for transporting CCD video signals and clocks via imbedded stripline buses designed for 100MHz operation. The MCPII gate duration and gain variables are controlled and measured in real time and up-dated for data logging each frame, with 10-bit resolution, selectable either locally or by computer. The camera provides both analog and 10-bit digital video. The camera's architecture, salient design characteristics, and current test data depicting resolution, dynamic range, shutter sequences, and image reconstruction will be presented and discussed.

  11. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  12. Sharpening of field emitter tips using high-energy ions

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.

    1999-11-30

    A process for sharpening arrays of field emitter tips of field emission cathodes, such as found in field-emission, flat-panel video displays. The process uses sputtering by high-energy (more than 30 keV) ions incident along or near the longitudinal axis of the field emitter to sharpen the emitter with a taper from the tip or top of the emitter down to the shank of the emitter. The process is particularly applicable to sharpening tips of emitters having cylindrical or similar (e.g., pyramidal) symmetry. The process will sharpen tips down to radii of less than 12 nm with an included angle of about 20 degrees. Because the ions are incident along or near the longitudinal axis of each emitter, the tips of gated arrays can be sharpened by high-energy ion beams rastered over the arrays using standard ion implantation equipment. While the process is particularly applicable for sharpening of arrays of field emitters in field-emission flat-panel displays, it can be effectively utilized in the fabrication of other vacuum microelectronic devices that rely on field emission of electrons.

  13. Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed.

  14. Spectral beam combining of multi-single emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baohua; Guo, Weirong; Guo, Zhijie; Xu, Dan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Thomas; Chen, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Spectral beam combination expands the output power while keeps the beam quality of the combined beam almost the same as that of a single emitter. Spectral beam combination has been successfully achieved for high power fiber lasers, diode laser arrays and diode laser stacks. We have recently achieved the spectral beam combination of multiple single emitter diode lasers. Spatial beam combination and beam transformation are employed before beams from 25 single emitter diode lasers can be spectrally combined. An average output power about 220W, a spectral bandwidth less than 9 nm (95% energy), a beam quality similar to that of a single emitter and electro-optical conversion efficiency over 46% are achieved. In this paper, Rigorous Coupled Wave analysis is used to numerically evaluate the influence of emitter width, emitter pitch and focal length of transform lens on diffraction efficiency of the grating and spectral bandwidth. To assess the chance of catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD), the optical power in the internal cavity of a free running emitter and the optical power in the grating external cavity of a wavelength locked emitter are theoretically analyzed. Advantages and disadvantages of spectral beam combination are concluded.

  15. Emitter space charge layer transit time in bipolar junction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustagi, S. C.; Chattopadhyaya, S. K.

    1981-04-01

    The charge defined emitter space charge layer transit times of double diffused transistors have been calculated using a regional approach, and compared with the corresponding base transit times. The results obtained for emitter space-charge layer transit times have been discussed with reference to the capacitance analysis of Morgan and Smit (1960) for graded p-n junctions.

  16. KLauS: a low power Silicon Photomultiplier charge readout ASIC in 0.18 UMC CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Schimansky, D.; Shen, W.; Stankova, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the development of a low power Silicon Photomultiplier charge readout ASIC for an imaging calorimeter at a future linear collider. The analog front-end is designed to achieve sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for single pixel signals using low gain SiPMs, while allowing charge measurements over the full dynamic range of the sensors. The front-end consists of an input stage, two charge measurement branches and a fast comparator. A SAR ADC with a resolution of 10 bit digitizes the pulse height information. An additional pipelined SAR stage allows to increase the quantization resolution to 12 bit for calibration measurements.

  17. Characterization of M-π-n CdTe pixel detectors coupled to HEXITEC readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, M. C.; Kalliopuska, J.; Pohjonen, H.; Andersson, H.; Nenonen, S.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of the anode-side of an M-π-n CdTe diode, where the pn-junction is diffused into the detector bulk, produces large improvements in the spatial and energy resolution of CdTe pixel detectors. It has been shown that this fabrication technique produces very high inter-pixel resistance and low leakage currents are obtained by physical isolation of the pixels of M-π-n CdTe detectors. In this paper the results from M-π-n CdTe detectors stud bonded to a spectroscopic readout ASIC are reported. The CdTe pixel detectors have 250 μm pitch and an area of 5 × 5 mm2 with thicknesses of 1 and 2 mm. The polarization and energy resolution dependence of the M-π-n CdTe detectors as a function of detector thickness are discussed.

  18. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters with On-Chip dc-SQUID Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Ferring, A.; Fleischmann, A.; Wegner, M.; Enss, C.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are low-temperature particle detectors that are typically read out by using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). But since MMCs are sensitive to the input circuitry and the noise performance of the SQUID, the energy resolution of MMCs have not yet reached their fundamental limit. A possible solution to overcome present limits is to maximize the flux coupling by minimizing parasitic inductance in the input circuit. To show the suitability of this approach, we realized a 64 pixel MMC detector array with integrated dc-SQUID readout, i.e., detector and SQUID are on the same chip. We observed an influence of the power dissipation of the SQUID on the detector temperature. We achieved a baseline energy resolution of Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} = 25 mathrm {eV} and Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} = 30 mathrm {eV} for X-rays with energies up to 6 mathrm {keV}.

  19. Avalanche current read-out circuit for low jitter parallel photon timing.

    PubMed

    Crotti, M; Rech, I; Gulinatti, A; Ghioni, M

    2013-08-01

    We propose a novel circuit for single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) current read-out, for photon timing applications. The circuit consists of a single transistor trans-impedance amplifier with a GHz bandwidth: the feedback loop fixes the SPAD anode voltage and allows us to obtain a high time resolution with a very high equivalent current threshold (almost 700 μA). The trans-impedance stage is followed by a low pass filter that reduces the crosstalk of other on-chip detectors and makes the designed structure suitable for multi-detector systems. The discrete components prototype presented in this letter achieves a state-of-art resolution of 34.4 ps FWHM, presents negligible crosstalk between the different pixels and opens the way for the development of an integrated structure with a large number of channels.

  20. The front-end readout and DAQ system of LASGA in China space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian hua; Gan, Weiqun; Hu, Yiming; Chang, Jin; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-07-01

    LASGA (Large Area Solar GAmma-ray spectrometer) , which will be installed in China space station, will cover the energy of X/Gamma ray between 10KeV to 2.5GeV. The energy resolution of LASGA is better than 2.8%@662kev and the spatial resolution is about 1.5 degree @1GeV. LASGA consists of anti-coincidence plastic scintillation detector, X-ray detector, silicon strip tracker and Gamma ray detector. The effective area of the detector is about 400mm*400mm. LASGA has two different observed target: solar X/Gamma ray and Gamma ray from galactic center, which depends on whether the space station is in the shadow area or not. In this paper, we will introduce the front-end readout and data acquisition system of LASGA.

  1. Radiative interactions with micromachined surfaces: Spectral polarized emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Zemel, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The spectral, angular, polarized emittance (SAPE) is a simple means for observing the allowed electromagnetic energy states associated with periodic structures whose dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the observed light. Other methods for measuring absorption are far more time consuming when a broad survey is of interest. An extensive body of SAPE data was obtained on 350-- 400{degrees}C intrinsic silicon lamellar gratings. Current approximations to the vector wave equation such as guided wave, modal and Bloch wave methods provided insight into our experiments. A qualitative picture of the stationary electromagnetic states (SES) of lamellar gratings has been developed which agrees with experiment for a number of polarizations, and angular orientations of the emission k vector relative to the gratings. However, one type of emission does not fit any simple model we have examined and raises intriguing questions about emission from grating structures. A new, higher angular resolution emissometer (0.8{degrees} instead of 5{degrees}) has been completed. This system significantly increases the wavelength range from the current 3--14 {mu}m range to 2-25{mu}m, a doubling of the spectral regime. The system is currently in a shakedown'' mode. Preliminary data indicates that the new emissometer meets the design goals. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  2. R&D on a novel spectro-imaging polarimeter with Micromegas detectors and a Caliste readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attié, D.; Blondel, C.; Boilevin-Kayl, L.; Desforges, D.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gevin, O.; Jeanneau, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Peyaud, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micromegas detectors, part of the Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) family, are used in a very wide range of applications in the High Energy Physics community but also in astroparticle and neutrino physics. In most of the Micromegas applications the design of the detector vessel and the readout plane is extremely coupled. A way of dissociating these two components would be by separating the amplification structure and the detector volume from the readout plane and electronics. This is achieved with the so called piggyback Micromegas detectors. They open up new possibilities of applications in terms of adaptability to new electronics. In particular piggyback resistive Micromegas can be easily coupled to modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests have been carried out with a Medipix chip where the protection of the resistive layer has been proved. The results of very recent tests coupling piggyback Micromegas with the readout module of Caliste are presented. Caliste is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV in the context of a spatial micro spectro-imaging polarimetrer. In the current application, with the Piggyback Micromegas, we use the readout module only as the sensitive detector. We benefit of the good spatial resolution thanks to the high density readout pixels (~600 μm pixel pitch), to the low noise, to the low power and to the radiation hard integrated front-end IDEF-X electronics. The advantage of such a device is to have a high gain, low noise, low threshold, and robust detector operating at room temperature. This would be very attractive for spatial applications, for instance X-ray polarisation.

  3. Radiative Performance of Rare Earth Garnet Thin Film Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present the first emitter efficiency results for the thin film 40 percent Er-1.5 percent Ho YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Y3Al5O12) and 25 percent Ho YAG selective emitter at 1500 K with a platinum substrate. Spectral emittance and emissive power measurements were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.2 microns). Emitter efficiency and power density are significantly improved with the addition of multiple rare earth dopants. Predicted efficiency results are presented for an optimized (equal power density in the Er, (4)I(sub 15/2)-(4)I(sub 13/2) at 1.5 microns, and Ho, (5)I(sub 7)-(5)I(sub 8) at 2.0 micron emission bands) Er-Ho YAG thin film selective emitter.

  4. Emittance of positron beams produced in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A.; Link, A.; Anderson, S.; Gronberg, J.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Wilks, S.; Sheppard, J. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Baldis, H. A.; Marley, E.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Fedosejev, R.; Kerr, S.

    2013-01-15

    The first measurement of the emittance of intense laser-produced positron beams has been made. The emittance values were derived through measurements of positron beam divergence and source size for different peak positron energies under various laser conditions. For one of these laser conditions, we used a one dimensional pepper-pot technique to refine the emittance value. The laser-produced positrons have a geometric emittance between 100 and 500 mm{center_dot}mrad, comparable to the positron sources used at existing accelerators. With 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} positrons per bunch, this low emittance beam, which is quasi-monoenergetic in the energy range of 5-20 MeV, may be useful as an alternative positron source for future accelerators.

  5. Vacuum Rabi spectra of a single quantum emitter.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yasutomo; Ohta, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Naoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-10

    We report the observation of the vacuum Rabi splitting of a single quantum emitter by measuring its direct spontaneous emission into free space. We use a semiconductor quantum dot inside a photonic crystal nanocavity, in conjunction with an appropriate cavity design and filtering with a polarizer and an aperture, enabling the extraction of the inherently weak emitter's signal. The emitter's vacuum Rabi spectra exhibit clear differences from those measured by detecting the cavity photon leakage. Moreover, we observe an asymmetric vacuum Rabi spectrum induced by interference between the emitter and cavity detection channels. Our observations lay the groundwork for accessing various cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena that manifest themselves only in the emitter's direct spontaneous emission. PMID:25910123

  6. Vacuum Rabi spectra of a single quantum emitter.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yasutomo; Ohta, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Naoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-10

    We report the observation of the vacuum Rabi splitting of a single quantum emitter by measuring its direct spontaneous emission into free space. We use a semiconductor quantum dot inside a photonic crystal nanocavity, in conjunction with an appropriate cavity design and filtering with a polarizer and an aperture, enabling the extraction of the inherently weak emitter's signal. The emitter's vacuum Rabi spectra exhibit clear differences from those measured by detecting the cavity photon leakage. Moreover, we observe an asymmetric vacuum Rabi spectrum induced by interference between the emitter and cavity detection channels. Our observations lay the groundwork for accessing various cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena that manifest themselves only in the emitter's direct spontaneous emission.

  7. Self-consistent, unbiased root-mean-square emittance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Welton, R. F.; Keller, R.

    2004-05-01

    We present a self-consistent method for analyzing measured emittance data that yields unbiased estimates for the root-mean-square (rms) emittance. The self-consistent, unbiased elliptical exclusion analysis uses an ellipse to determine the bias from the data outside the ellipse, before calculating the rms emittance from the bias-subtracted data within the ellipse. Increasing the ellipse size until the rms emittance estimate saturates allows for determining the minimum elliptical area that includes all real signals, even those buried in the noise. Variations of the ellipse shape and orientations are used to test the robustness of the results. Background fluctuations cause fluctuations in the rms emittance estimate, which are an estimate of the uncertainty incurred through the analysis.

  8. Transit time and charge storage measurements in heavily doped emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugroschel, A.; Park, J. S.; Hwang, B. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A first direct measurement of the minority-carrier transit time in a transparent heavily doped emitter layer is reported. The value was obtained by a high-frequency conductance method recently developed and used for low-doped Si. The transit time coupled with the steady-state current enables the determination of the quasi-static charge stored in the emitter and the quasi-static emitter capacitance. Using a transport model, from the measured transit time, the value for the minority-carrier diffusion coefficient and mobility is estimated. The measurements were done using a heavily doped emitter of the Si p(+)-n-p bipolar transistor. The new result indicates that the position-averaged minority-carrier diffusion coefficients may be much smaller than the corresponding majority-carrier values for emitters having a concentration ranging from about 3 x 10 to the 19th per cu cm to 10 to the 20th per cu cm.

  9. GTF Transverse and Longitudinal Emittance Data Analysis Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. Measurements at the GTF include quadrupole scan transverse emittance measurements and linac phase scan longitudinal emittance measurements. Typically the beam size is measured on a screen as a function of a quadrupole current or linac phase and the beam matrix is then fit to the measured data. Often the emittance which is the final result of the measurement is the only number reported. However, the method used to reduce the data to the final emittance value can have a significant effect on the result. This paper describes in painful detail the methods used to analyze the transverse and longitudinal emittance data collected at the GTF.

  10. Radiation risks from inhaled alpha emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jack A.

    2001-06-01

    The alpha emitter that gives rise to the greatest concern over its link to the induction of lung cancer is radon. As noted by the ICRP, attempts to relate the risk of cancer induction to the dose delivered by the alpha particles result in a value for this risk which is unrealistically high. Instead, an estimate based on the epidemiology of radon in mines is preferred. The logical result, that the weighting factor for these alpha particles should be very much lesser than the recommended value of 20, appears to have been ignored. It will be shown that there are two fundamental reasons for this large discrepancy. The first is that the implied "linear non-threshold" hypothesis is not supported by recent investigations. The second is that the concept of "dose" is meaningless at the levels of exposure considered in this context. Alternative proposals in terms of fluence and the effect cross-section will be presented.

  11. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don Mayo; Walter, Kevin Carl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  12. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Design and test of a Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber with Long readout-strip (LMRPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong-Jie; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Shao, Ming; Zhao, Yan-E.; Chen, Hong-Fang

    2009-02-01

    A new kind (two end readout) of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber with long readout-strip (LMRPC) is developed to be used at the large-area Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity at RHIC/STAR experiment for Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement. The LMRPC has an active area of 87 cm × 17 cm, 10 gas gaps of 250 μm arranged in 2 stacks, with readout strips of 2.5 cm wide and 90 cm long. The considerations in LMRPC design related to its performance are discussed in this paper. The cosmic ray test results of a prototype LMRPC show a detection efficiency >95% and the time resolution ~70 ps.

  13. An application of the grazing-angle incidence hard x-ray optical nanoscope in ultra-high density digital data read-out device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezirganyan, Hakob P.; Bezirganyan, Siranush E.; Bezirganyan, Petros H., Jr.; Bezirganyan, Hayk H., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We present in this theoretical paper a set-up of grazing-angle incidence hard x-ray nanoscope (GIXN), which is the essential part of ultra-high density digital data read-out device. The GIXN consists of the asymmetrically cut single crystal, which is operating like an image magnifier. The X-ray high-resolution diffractive optical lens (zone plate) and spatially resolving detector (CCD camera) are arranged like in classical schemes of the X-ray imaging microscopy. Proposed nanoscope operates based on grazing-angle incidence x-ray backscattering diffraction (GIXB) technique applied in the specular beam suppression mode. Grazing-angle incident X-ray configuration allows the handling of data from very large surface area of the X-ray optical memory disk (X-ROM) and, consequently, the data read-out speed is much faster than in optical data read-out systems.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hα emitters at z=2.23 (Matsuda+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Smail, I.; Geach, J. E.; Best, P. N.; Sobral, D.; Tanaka, I.; Nakata, F.; Ohta, K.; Kurk, J.; Iwata, I.; Bielby, R.; Wardlow, J. L.; Bower, R. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Kodama, T.; Yamada, T.; Mawatari, K.; Casali, M.

    2012-04-01

    The three target fields (2QZ cluster, 0200+015 and SSA 13) were observed between 2006 May and 2010 April with WFCAM on UKIRT, using the K band and H2S1 filters. To check contamination in our emitter sample from foreground and background line emitters, we obtained B- and z -band images of the target fields with Subaru/Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). We observed the 2QZ cluster field in 2009 November and the 0200+015 field in 2010 November. For the SSA 13 field, we used archival data. The 0200+015 field was also observed with the Ks band and H2S1 filters using Subaru/Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) in 2007 August as part of engineering tests (performed by IT). In addition, we carried out a long-slit spectroscopic observation of a bright emitter candidate in the 0200+015 field with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) in 2010 September. (3 data files).

  15. Determination and error analysis of emittance and spectral emittance measurements by remote sensing. [of leaves, soil and plant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental determinations of the emittance of soils and leaves are reviewed, and an error analysis of emittance and spectral emittance measurements is developed as an aid to remote sensing applications. In particular, an equation for the upper bound of the absolute error in an emittance determination is derived. The absolute error is found to decrease with an increase in contact temperature and to increase with an increase in environmental integrated radiant flux density. The difference between temperature and band radiance temperature is plotted as a function of emittance for the wavelength intervals 4.5 to 5.5 microns, 8 to 13.5 microns and 10.2 to 12.5 microns.

  16. Physical electrostatics of small field emitter arrays/clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Richard G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to improve qualitative understanding of electrostatic influences on apex field enhancement factors (AFEFs) for small field emitter arrays/clusters. Using the "floating sphere at emitter-plate potential" (FSEPP) model, it re-examines the electrostatics and mathematics of three simple systems of identical post-like emitters. For the isolated emitter, various approaches are noted. An adequate approximation is to consider only the effects of sphere charges and (for significantly separated emitters) image charges. For the 2-emitter system, formulas are found for charge-transfer ("charge-blunting") effects and neighbor-field effects, for widely spaced and for "sufficiently closely spaced" emitters. Mutual charge-blunting is always the dominant effect, with a related (negative) fractional AFEF-change δtwo. For sufficiently small emitter spacing c, |δtwo| varies approximately as 1/c; for large spacing, |δtwo| decreases as 1/c3. In a 3-emitter equispaced linear array, differential charge-blunting and differential neighbor-field effects occur, but differential charge-blunting effects are dominant, and cause the "exposed" outer emitters to have higher AFEF (γ0) than the central emitter (γ1). Formulas are found for the exposure ratio Ξ = γ0/γ1, for large and for sufficiently small separations. The FSEPP model for an isolated emitter has accuracy around 30%. Line-charge models (LCMs) are an alternative, but an apparent difficulty with recent LCM implementations is identified. Better descriptions of array electrostatics may involve developing good fitting equations for AFEFs derived from accurate numerical solution of Laplace's equation, perhaps with equation form(s) guided qualitatively by FSEPP-model results. In existing fitting formulas, the AFEF-reduction decreases exponentially as c increases, which is different from the FSEPP-model formulas. This discrepancy needs to be investigated, using systematic Laplace-based simulations and appropriate results

  17. The influence of emitter conditioning on the performance of a tungsten <111> cold field emission gun operating at 300 kV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, I. M.; Li, W.; Walther, T.

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution, we examine the influence of emitter conditioning for a <111> tungsten cold field emission gun on the emission and beam characteristics of a double aberration corrected electron microscope. By varying the post flash build-up parameters we can control the effective emitter tip radius. A sharp emitter yields an energy resolution of 0.31eV but relatively low beam current whereas an increased tip radius results in a reduction in energy resolution to 0.4eV but much higher potential beam current. Consequently, careful control of the build-up parameters can be used as a means of tailoring the emission to suit specific instrumental requirements.

  18. A low-noise 64-channel front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 64-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a leakage current compensation circuit, a CR-RC shaper, two S-K filters, an inverse proportional amplifier, a peak-detect-and-hold circuit, a discriminator and trigger logic, a time sequence control circuit and a driving buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented in TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm×8.0 mm. The overall gain of the readout channel is 200 mV/fC, the power consumption is less than 8 mW/channel, the linearity error is less than 1%, the inconsistency among the channels is less than 2.86%, and the equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 66 e- at zero farad plus 14 e- per picofarad. By connecting this readout ASIC to an 8×8 pixel CdZnTe detector, we obtained an energy spectrum, the energy resolution of which is 4.5% at the 59.5 keV line of 241Am source.

  19. A digital 25 µm pixel-pitch uncooled amorphous silicon TEC-less VGA IRFPA with massive parallel Sigma-Delta-ADC readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Dirk; Russ, Marco; Würfel, Daniel; Lerch, Renee; Yang, Pin; Bauer, Jochen; Vogt, Holger

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an advanced 640 x 480 (VGA) IRFPA based on uncooled microbolometers with a pixel-pitch of 25μm developed by Fraunhofer-IMS. The IRFPA is designed for thermal imaging applications in the LWIR (8 .. 14μm) range with a full-frame frequency of 30 Hz and a high sensitivity with NETD < 100 mK @ f/1. A novel readout architecture which utilizes massively parallel on-chip Sigma-Delta-ADCs located under the microbolometer array results in a high performance digital readout. Sigma-Delta-ADCs are inherently linear. A high resolution of 16 bit for a secondorder Sigma-Delta-modulator followed by a third-order digital sinc-filter can be obtained. In addition to several thousand Sigma-Delta-ADCs the readout circuit consists of a configurable sequencer for controlling the readout clocking signals and a temperature sensor for measuring the temperature of the IRFPA. Since packaging is a significant part of IRFPA's price Fraunhofer-IMS uses a chip-scaled package consisting of an IR-transparent window with antireflection coating and a soldering frame for maintaining the vacuum. The IRFPAs are completely fabricated at Fraunhofer-IMS on 8" CMOS wafers with an additional surface micromachining process. In this paper the architecture of the readout electronics, the packaging, and the electro-optical performance characterization are presented.

  20. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18-20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  1. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-12-14

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  2. Novel concept of TDI readout circuit for LWIR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byunghyuck; Yoon, Nanyoung; Lee, Hee Chul; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2000-07-01

    Noise property is the prime consideration in readout circuit design. The output noise caused by the photon noise, which dominates total noise in BLIP detectors, is limited by the integration time that an element looks at a specific point in the scene. Large integration time leads to a low noise performance. Time-delay integration (TDI) is used to effectively increase the integration time and reduce the photon noise. However, it increases the number of dead pixels and requires large integration capacitors and low noise output stage of the readout circuit. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a new concept of readout circuit, which performs background suppression, cell-to-cell background current non-uniformity compensation, and dead pixel correction using memory, ADC, DAC, and current copier cell. In simulation results, comparing with the conventional TDI readout circuit, the integration capacitor size can be reduced to 1/5 and trans-impedance gain can be increased by five times. Therefore, the new TDI readout circuit does not require large area and low noise output stage. And the error of skimming current is less than 2%, and the fixed pattern noise induced by cell-to-cell background current variation is reduced to less than 1%.

  3. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, S. Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Areti, V.H.; Foster, G.W.; Joshi, U.; Treptow, K. )

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Hyper Suprime-Cam: development of the CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Aihara, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Okura, Yuki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Utsumi, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) employs 116 of 2k×4k CCDs with 464 signal outputs in total. The image size exceeds 2 GBytes, and the data can be readout every 10 seconds which results in the data rate of 210 Mbytes / sec. The data is digitized to 16-bit. The readout noise of the electronics at the readout time of 20 seconds is ~0.9 ADU, and the one with CCD is ~1.5 ADU which corresponds to ~4.5 e. The linearity error fits within +/- 0.5 % up to 150,000 e. The CCD readout electronics for HSC was newly developed based on the electronics for Suprime-Cam. The frontend electronics (FEE) is placed in the vacuum dewar, and the backend electronics (BEE) is mounted on the outside of the dewar on the prime focus unit. The FEE boards were designed to minimize the outgas and to maximize the heat transfer efficiency to keep the vacuum of the dewar. The BEE boards were designed to be simple and small as long as to achieve the readout time within 10 seconds. The production of the system has been finished, and the full set of the boards are being tested with several CCDs installed in the HSC dewar. We will show the system design, performance, and the current status of the development.

  5. Electronic Image Readout Devices Used In Conjunction With Picosecond Streak Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavailler, C.; Genoud, M.; Fleurot, N.; Launspach, J.; Mazataud, D.; Mens, A.

    1985-02-01

    Understanding the laser-matter interaction experiments require a dynamic recording of the phenomena as well as a good knowledge of the laser pulse occuring during the irradiation of the target ; those measurements are made with streak cameras the increasing number of which leads to processing problems when the results are recorded on films. Furthermore, since physicists wish to have those temporal information immediatly, we unfolded automatic image readout devices fitted specially to streak cameras. The first one used an ISOCON tube operating with a slow sweep (0.5 s frame)1-2. The sensitivity of the tube was very good but its dynamic range was too limited when seeing pulsed images at low light level. So we developped two electronic readout chains with solid state devices which behave better for that kind of light. The first one was designed to get the most information along the temporal axis of the camera sweep (1024 points) in one or two spatial channels ; this device operates a linear 1024 photodiodes array the signal of which is digitized on 12 bits. We have obtained a temporal resolution better than 15 ps and a dynamic range over 500 ; this system is mainly useful to study laser pulses (rise time, temporal profile...)3. For applications requiring two dimension images, we studied and realized a device operating a CCD array and a fiber optics reducer (40-18 mm) adapting the image of the streak camera screen to the dimensions of the input fiber optics of the CCD. A comparison has been made on different CCD cameras on a test setup which simulates the experimental conditions, in order to choose the CCD which would fit the best for that purpose ; we present these results here, as well as those of the associated readout chains.

  6. A fast embedded readout system for large-area Medipix and Timepix systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogna, A. S.; Balzer, M.; Smale, S.; Hartmann, J.; Bormann, D.; Hamann, E.; Cecilia, A.; Zuber, M.; Koenig, T.; Zwerger, A.; Weber, M.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a novel readout electronics for an X-ray sensor based on a Si crystal bump-bonded to an array of 3 × 2 Medipix ASICs. The pixel size is 55 μm × 55 μm with a total number of ~ 400k pixels and a sensitive area of 42 mm × 28 mm. The readout electronics operate Medipix-2 MXR or Timepix ASICs with a clock speed of 125 MHz. The data acquisition system is centered around an FPGA and each of the six ASICs has a dedicated I/O port for simultaneous data acquisition. The settings of the auxiliary devices (ADCs and DACs) are also processed in the FPGA. Moreover, a high-resolution timer operates the electronic shutter to select the exposure time from 8 ns to several milliseconds. A sophisticated trigger is available in hardware and software to synchronize the acquisition with external electro-mechanical motors. The system includes a diagnostic subsystem to check the sensor temperature and to control the cooling Peltier cells and a programmable high-voltage generator to bias the crystal. A network cable transfers the data, encapsulated into the UDP protocol and streamed at 1 Gb/s. Therefore most notebooks or personal computers are able to process the data and to program the system without a dedicated interface. The data readout software is compatible with the well-known Pixelman 2.x running both on Windows and GNU/Linux. Furthermore the open architecture encourages users to write their own applications. With a low-level interface library which implements all the basic features, a MATLAB or Python script can be implemented for special manipulations of the raw data. In this paper we present selected images taken with a microfocus X-ray tube to demonstrate the capability to collect the data at rates up to 120 fps corresponding to 0.76 Gb/s.

  7. A silicon photo-multiplier signal readout using strip-line and waveform sampling for Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Eclov, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Los, S.; Kao, C.-M.

    2016-09-01

    A strip-line and waveform sampling based readout is a signal multiplexing method that can efficiently reduce the readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time characteristics of photo-detectors such as the SiPM. We have applied this readout method for SiPM-based time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) detectors. We have prototyped strip-line boards in which 8 SiPMs (pitch 5.2 mm) are connected by using a single strip-line, and the signals appearing at the ends of the strip-line are acquired by using the DRS4 waveform sampler at a nominal sampling frequency of 1-5 GS/s. Experimental tests using laser and LYSO scintillator are carried out to assess the performance of the strip-line board. Each SiPM position, which is inferred from the arrival time difference of the two signals at the ends of the strip-line, is well identified with 2.6 mm FWHM resolution when the SiPMs are coupled to LYSO crystals and irradiated by a 22Na source. The average energy and coincidence time resolution corresponding to 511 keV photons are measured to be ∼32% and ∼510 ps FWHM, respectively, at a 5.0 GS/s DRS4 sampling rate. The results show that the sampling rate can be lowered to 1.5 GS/s without performance degradation. These encouraging initial test results indicate that the strip-line and waveform sampling readout method is applicable for SiPM-based TOF PET development.

  8. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications.

  9. Quantum Algorithmic Readout in Multi-Ion Clocks.

    PubMed

    Schulte, M; Lörch, N; Leroux, I D; Schmidt, P O; Hammerer, K

    2016-01-01

    Optical clocks based on ensembles of trapped ions promise record frequency accuracy with good short-term stability. Most suitable ion species lack closed transitions, so the clock signal must be read out indirectly by transferring the quantum state of the clock ions to cotrapped logic ions of a different species. Existing methods of quantum logic readout require a linear overhead in either time or the number of logic ions. Here we describe a quantum algorithmic readout whose overhead scales logarithmically with the number of clock ions in both of these respects. The scheme allows a quantum nondemolition readout of the number of excited clock ions using a single multispecies gate operation which can also be used in other areas of ion trap technology such as quantum information processing, quantum simulations, metrology, and precision spectroscopy. PMID:26799016

  10. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  11. A Triggerless readout system for the bar PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemens, M.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    One of the physics goals of the future bar PANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this concept, each detector subsystem preprocesses the signal, so that in a later stage, high-level phyiscs constraints can be applied to select events of interest. A dedicated clock source using a protocol called SODANET over optical fibers ensures proper synchronisation between the components. For this new type of readout, a new way of simulating the detector response also needed to be developed, taking into account the effects of pile-up caused by the 20 MHz interaction rate.

  12. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  13. Ultralow Magnetic Fields and Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mester, J. C.; Lockhart, J. M.; Muhlfelder, B.; Murray, D. O.; Taber, M. A.

    We describe the generation of an ultralow magnetic field of < 10-11Tesla in the flight dewar of the Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission. The field was achieved using expanded-superconducting-shield techniques and is maintained with the aid of a magnetic materials control program. A high performance magnetic shield system is required for the proper function of gyroscope readout. The readout system employs a dc SQUID to measure the London moment generated by the superconducting gyro rotor in order to resolve sub-milliarcsecond changes in the gyro spin direction. In addition to a low residual dc magnetic field, attenuation of external field variation is required to be 1012 at the gyro positions. We discuss the measurement of the dc magnetic field and ac attenuation factor and the performance of the readout system

  14. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications. PMID:22559560

  15. Chirality of nanophotonic waveguide with embedded quantum emitter for unidirectional spin transfer.

    PubMed

    Coles, R J; Price, D M; Dixon, J E; Royall, B; Clarke, E; Kok, P; Skolnick, M S; Fox, A M; Makhonin, M N

    2016-01-01

    Scalable quantum technologies may be achieved by faithful conversion between matter qubits and photonic qubits in integrated circuit geometries. Within this context, quantum dots possess well-defined spin states (matter qubits), which couple efficiently to photons. By embedding them in nanophotonic waveguides, they provide a promising platform for quantum technology implementations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the naturally occurring electromagnetic field chirality that arises in nanobeam waveguides leads to unidirectional photon emission from quantum dot spin states, with resultant in-plane transfer of matter-qubit information. The chiral behaviour occurs despite the non-chiral geometry and material of the waveguides. Using dot registration techniques, we achieve a quantum emitter deterministically positioned at a chiral point and realize spin-path conversion by design. We further show that the chiral phenomena are much more tolerant to dot position than in standard photonic crystal waveguides, exhibit spin-path readout up to 95±5% and have potential to serve as the basis of spin-logic and network implementations. PMID:27029961

  16. Chirality of nanophotonic waveguide with embedded quantum emitter for unidirectional spin transfer

    PubMed Central

    Coles, R. J.; Price, D. M.; Dixon, J. E.; Royall, B.; Clarke, E.; Kok, P.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.; Makhonin, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable quantum technologies may be achieved by faithful conversion between matter qubits and photonic qubits in integrated circuit geometries. Within this context, quantum dots possess well-defined spin states (matter qubits), which couple efficiently to photons. By embedding them in nanophotonic waveguides, they provide a promising platform for quantum technology implementations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the naturally occurring electromagnetic field chirality that arises in nanobeam waveguides leads to unidirectional photon emission from quantum dot spin states, with resultant in-plane transfer of matter-qubit information. The chiral behaviour occurs despite the non-chiral geometry and material of the waveguides. Using dot registration techniques, we achieve a quantum emitter deterministically positioned at a chiral point and realize spin-path conversion by design. We further show that the chiral phenomena are much more tolerant to dot position than in standard photonic crystal waveguides, exhibit spin-path readout up to 95±5% and have potential to serve as the basis of spin-logic and network implementations. PMID:27029961

  17. Chirality of nanophotonic waveguide with embedded quantum emitter for unidirectional spin transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, R. J.; Price, D. M.; Dixon, J. E.; Royall, B.; Clarke, E.; Kok, P.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.; Makhonin, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    Scalable quantum technologies may be achieved by faithful conversion between matter qubits and photonic qubits in integrated circuit geometries. Within this context, quantum dots possess well-defined spin states (matter qubits), which couple efficiently to photons. By embedding them in nanophotonic waveguides, they provide a promising platform for quantum technology implementations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the naturally occurring electromagnetic field chirality that arises in nanobeam waveguides leads to unidirectional photon emission from quantum dot spin states, with resultant in-plane transfer of matter-qubit information. The chiral behaviour occurs despite the non-chiral geometry and material of the waveguides. Using dot registration techniques, we achieve a quantum emitter deterministically positioned at a chiral point and realize spin-path conversion by design. We further show that the chiral phenomena are much more tolerant to dot position than in standard photonic crystal waveguides, exhibit spin-path readout up to 95+/-5% and have potential to serve as the basis of spin-logic and network implementations.

  18. Emittance Adapter for a Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /Frascati

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of reaching very small horizontal and vertical emittances inside an undulator in a storage ring, by means of a local exchange of the apparent horizontal and vertical emittances, performed with a combination of skew quadrupoles and one solenoid in a dedicated insertion line in the storage ring. The insertion leaves the ring parameters and its optical properties unaffected. This scheme could greatly relax the emittance requirements for a diffraction limited synchrotron light source. The lattice derivation and design is described.

  19. Surface-modified GaAs terahertz plasmon emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmo, J.; Strasser, G.; Muller, T.; Bratschitsch, R.; Unterrainer, K.

    2002-07-01

    We studied the THz emission from n-GaAs plasmon emitters modified by low-temperature-grown (LT) GaAs surface layers. The THz emission is increased since the LT GaAs pins the Fermi level at a midgap position, increasing the surface depletion field. For a THz emitter with a 70-nm-thick LT GaAs layer we observe without external fields a THz emission intensity of 140 nW. In addition, the long-term performance of the modified emitters is improved by the LT GaAs surface layer.

  20. Optical Properties of Selective Emitter Materials for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of new "selective emitter" materials for possible use in high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic power systems. These are systems which directly convert heat to radiation at a wavelength closely matched to the bandgap energy of the solar cell. Candidate materials which have strong absorption lines fairly close to the bandgap of good solar-cell materials were chosen for study. Their emittance was measured as a function of wavelength to evaluate their promise as selective TPV emitters. Useful and informative results were obtained. Some of these results were presented at a January 1996 solar energy conference of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

  1. Remote detection of single emitters via optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Then, Patrick; Razinskas, Gary; Feichtner, Thorsten; Haas, Philippe; Wild, Andreas; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto; Cerullo, Giulio; Hecht, Bert

    2014-05-01

    The integration of lab-on-a-chip technologies with single-molecule detection techniques may enable new applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology, and medicine. We describe a method based on the reciprocity theorem of electromagnetic theory to determine and optimize the detection efficiency of photons emitted by single quantum emitters through truncated dielectric waveguides of arbitrary shape positioned in their proximity. We demonstrate experimentally that detection of single quantum emitters via such waveguides is possible, confirming the predicted behavior of the detection efficiency. Our findings blaze the trail towards efficient lensless single-emitter detection compatible with large-scale optofluidic integration.

  2. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 #6;± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  3. New Low Emittance Lattice for the Super-B Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Bettoni, S.; Paoloni, E.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-21

    New low emittance lattices have been designed for the asymmetric SuperB accelerator, aiming at a luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Main optics features are two alternating arc cells with different horizontal phase advance, decreasing beam emittance and allowing at the same time for easy chromaticity correction in the arcs. Emittance can be further reduced by a factor of two for luminosity upgrade. Spin rotation schemes for the e{sup -} beam have been studied to provide longitudinal polarization at the IP, and implementation into the lattice is in progress.

  4. The dust nature of micro field emitters in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V.; Petrov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Field emission currents emitted by micro-emitters are a limiting factor for the operational gradients of accelerating radio frequency (rf) cavities. Within the rf field emission theory the existence of needle like micro field emitters with very high length relative to the radius and corresponding high enhancement factor (β) is assumed. In this article the hypothesis that micro field emitters consists of long chains of conductive micro-particles is considered. Five different forces acting onto the particles in a high rf field are considered and the respective equations are derived. Some experimental observations and their explanation within this hypothesis are discussed.

  5. Thermal limit to the intrinsic emittance from metal photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun Nasiatka, J.; Wan, Weishi; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard A.; Smedley, John

    2015-09-28

    Measurements of the intrinsic emittance and transverse momentum distributions obtained from a metal (antimony thin film) photocathode near and below the photoemission threshold are presented. Measurements show that the intrinsic emittance is limited by the lattice temperature of the cathode as the incident photon energy approaches the photoemission threshold. A theoretical model to calculate the transverse momentum distributions near this photoemission threshold is presented. An excellent match between the experimental measurements and the theoretical calculations is demonstrated. These measurements are relevant to low emittance electron sources for Free Electron Lasers and Ultrafast Electron Diffraction experiments.

  6. Observation of Picometer Vertical Emittance with a Vertical Undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Dowd, R.; Tan, Y.-R. E.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Taylor, G. N.; Rassool, R. P.

    2012-11-01

    Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic.

  7. Method and apparatus for multispray emitter for mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-12-14

    A method and apparatus that utilizes two or more emitters simultaneously to form an electrospray of a sample that is then directed into a mass spectrometer, thereby increasing the total ion current introduced into an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer, given a liquid flow rate of a sample. The method and apparatus are most conveniently constructed as an array of spray emitters fabricated on a single chip, however, the present invention encompasses any apparatus wherein two or more emitters are simultaneously utilized to form an electrospray of a sample that is then directed into a mass spectrometer.

  8. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  9. Design and testing of an all-digital readout integrated circuit for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael; Berger, Robert; Colonero, Curtis; Gregg, Mark; Model, Joshua; Mooney, Daniel; Ringdahl, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The digital focal plane array (DFPA) project demonstrates the enabling technologies necessary to build readout integrated circuits for very large infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs). Large and fast FPAs are needed for a new class of spectrally diverse sensors. Because of the requirement for high-resolution (low noise) sampling, and because of the sample rate needed for rapid acquisition of high-resolution spectra, it is highly desirable to perform analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion right at the pixel level. A dedicated A/D converter located under every pixel in a one-million-plus element array, and all-digital readout integrated circuits will enable multi- and hyper-spectral imaging systems with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution and wide area coverage. DFPAs provide similar benefits to standard IR imaging systems as well. We have addressed the key enabling technologies for realizing the DFPA architecture in this work. Our effort concentrated on demonstrating a 60-micron footprint, 14-bit A/D converter and 2.5 Gbps, 16:1 digital multiplexer, the most basic components of the sensor. The silicon test chip was fabricated in a 0.18-micron CMOS process, and was designed to operate with HgxCd1-xTe detectors at cryogenic temperatures. Two A/D designs, one using static logic and one using dynamic logic, were built and tested for performance and power dissipation. Structures for evaluating the bit-error-rate of the multiplexer on-chip and through a differential output driver were implemented for a complete performance assessment. A unique IC probe card with fixtures to mount into an evacuated, closed-cycle helium dewar were also designed for testing up to 2.5 Gbps at temperatures as low as 50 K.

  10. Temperature compensation method using readout signals of ring laser gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Li, Geng; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Guangzong; Wei, Guo; Zhang, Pengfei; Long, Xingwu

    2015-05-18

    Traditional compensation methods using temperature-related parameters have little effect when the ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias changes rapidly. To solve this problem, a novel RLG bias temperature compensation method using readout signals is proposed in this paper. Combined with the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm, the novel method can improve the precision of the RLG bias. Experiments show that by utilizing the readout signals in the LS-SVM model, the RLG bias stability can be significantly raised compared to the original data. The novel method proposed in this paper is shown to be feasible, even when the RLG bias changes rapidly.

  11. Common read-out receiver card for ALICE Run2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, H.; Kebschull, U.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE at CERN LHC uses custom FPGA-based computer plug-in cards as interface between the optical detector read-out link and the PC clusters of Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High-Level Trigger (HLT). The cards used at DAQ and HLT during Run1 have been developed as independent projects and are now facing similar problems with obsolete major interfaces and limited link speeds and processing capabilities. A new common card has been developed to enable the upgrade of the read-out chain towards higher link rates while providing backward compatibility with the current architecture. First prototypes could be tested successfully and raised interest from other collaborations.

  12. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  13. Probing the Speed Limits of Transmon Dispersive Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Theo; Kurpiers, Philipp; Mondal, Mintu; Pechal, Marek; Wallraff, Andreas

    In circuit QED, faster and more accurate measurement of a qubit's state is necessary to achieve better feedback control, to accomplish more complex quantum algorithms and simulations, and to cross the threshold for fault tolerant quantum computing. In this talk, we discuss our experimental progress to minimize the time needed to readout the state of a dispersively coupled transmon qubit with high fidelity. We outline a signal-to-noise ratio model, illuminate the constraints and find optimal parameters for maximizing measurement speed, while maintaining high readout fidelity. Utilizing a Purcell Filter increases the generality of our results as it becomes possible to reach these speeds with a broader set of system parameters.

  14. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Bello, Michele; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni Di

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the "electronic collimation", i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a "cone" of possible incident directions are obtained (event with "incomplete geometry"). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  15. Image processing system design for microcantilever-based optical readout infrared arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qiang; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-12-01

    Compared with the traditional infrared imaging technology, the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS has many advantages, such as low cost, small size, producing simple. In addition, the theory proves that the technology's high thermal detection sensitivity. So it has a very broad application prospects in the field of high performance infrared detection. The paper mainly focuses on an image capturing and processing system in the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS. The image capturing and processing system consists of software and hardware. We build our image processing core hardware platform based on TI's high performance DSP chip which is the TMS320DM642, and then design our image capturing board based on the MT9P031. MT9P031 is Micron's company high frame rate, low power consumption CMOS chip. Last we use Intel's company network transceiver devices-LXT971A to design the network output board. The software system is built on the real-time operating system DSP/BIOS. We design our video capture driver program based on TI's class-mini driver and network output program based on the NDK kit for image capturing and processing and transmitting. The experiment shows that the system has the advantages of high capturing resolution and fast processing speed. The speed of the network transmission is up to 100Mbps.

  16. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni

    2013-04-19

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the 'electronic collimation', i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a 'cone' of possible incident directions are obtained (event with 'incomplete geometry'). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  17. Radiopurity assessment of the tracking readout for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-05-01

    The ``Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon Time-Projection Chamber'' (NEXT) is intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe, which requires a severe suppression of potential backgrounds; therefore, an extensive screening and selection process is underway to control the radiopurity levels of the materials to be used in the experimental set-up of NEXT. The detector design combines the measurement of the topological signature of the event for background discrimination with the energy resolution optimization. Separate energy and tracking readout planes are based on different sensors: photomultiplier tubes for calorimetry and silicon multi-pixel photon counters for tracking. The design of a radiopure tracking plane, in direct contact with the gas detector medium, was specially challenging since the needed components like printed circuit boards, connectors, sensors or capacitors have typically, according to available information in databases and in the literature, activities too large for experiments requiring ultra-low background conditions. Here, the radiopurity assessment of tracking readout components based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterr&aposaneo de Canfranc (Spain) is described. According to the obtained results, radiopure enough printed circuit boards made of kapton and copper, silicon photomultipliers and other required components, fulfilling the requirement of an overall background level in the region of interest of at most 8×10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, have been identified.

  18. Anode-coupled readout for light collection in Liquid Argon TPCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Z.; Toups, M.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper will discuss a new method of signal read-out from photon detectors in ultra-large, underground liquid argon time projection chambers. In this design, the signal from the light collection system is coupled via capacitive plates to the TPC wire-planes. This signal is then read out using the same cabling and electronics as the charge information. This greatly benefits light collection: it eliminates the need for an independent readout, substantially reducing cost; it reduces the number of cables in the vapor region of the TPC that can produce impurities; and it cuts down on the number of feed-throughs in the cryostat wall that can cause heat-leaks and potential points of failure. We present experimental results that demonstrate the sensitivity of a LArTPC wire plane to photon detector signals. We also simulate the effect of a 1 μs shaping time and a 2 MHz sampling rate on these signals in the presence of noise, and find that a single photoelectron timing resolution of ~30 ns can be achieved.

  19. HETDEX: Evolution of Lyman Alpha Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Gronwall, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S.; Gawiser, E.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will produce a sample of 800,000 Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) over the 1.9

  20. Vertical Arc for ILC Low Emittance Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    The design and parameters of a vertical arc for the ILC Low Emittance Transport (LET) are reviewed. A 1 TeV CM ILC which relies upon 30 MV/m accelerating cavities with a packing fraction of 65% will require almost 48 km of main linac, which suggests that the total site length including BDS and bunch compressors will be on the order of 53 km. If built in a laser-straight tunnel with the low-energy ends near the surface, and assuming a perfectly spherical ''cue ball'' planetary surface with radius 6370 km, the collider halls will necessarily be 55 meters below grade, as shown in the top plot of Figure 1. Such depths would demand extensive use of deep tunneling, which would potentially drive up the cost and difficulty of ILC construction. An alternate solution is to use discrete vertical arcs at a few locations to allow a ''piecewise straight'' construction in which the depth of the tunnel below grade does not vary by more than a few meters. This approach is shown schematically in the bottom plot of Figure 1. In this Note we consider the issues for a design with one such vertical arc at the 250 GeV/c point (ie, midway down the linac for 1 TeV CM), and a second arc at the entrance to the BDS (ie, the entire BDS lies in one plane, with vertical arcs at each end).

  1. Targeted radiotherapy using Auger electron emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, J. A.; Wheldon, T. E.

    1996-10-01

    Auger-emitting radionuclides have potential for the therapy of cancer due to their high level of cytotoxicity and short-range biological effectiveness. Biological effects are critically dependent on the sub-cellular (and sub-nuclear) localization of Auger emitters. Mathematical modelling studies suggest that there are theoretical advantages in the use of radionuclides with short half-lives (such as ) in preference to those (such as ) with long half-lives. In addition, heterogeneity of radionuclide uptake is predicted to be a serious limitation on the ultimate therapeutic effect of targeted Auger therapy. Possible methods of targeting include the use of analogues of DNA precursors such as iodo-deoxyuridine and molecules which bind DNA such as steroid hormones or growth factors. A longer term possibility may be the use of molecules such as oligonucleotides which can discriminate at the level of DNA sequence. It seems likely that the optimal clinical role of targeted Auger therapy will be as one component of a multi-modality therapeutic strategy for the treatment of selected malignant diseases.

  2. Analysis of a laser post-process on a buckypaper field emitter for high and uniform electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi Wen; Miao, H. Y.; Zhang, Mei; Liang, Richard; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2009-08-01

    This study reports a laser irradiation process to enhance the field emission properties of buckypaper, which is a thin sheet of high-loading carbon nanotube networks. The scanning laser treated the selected regions of buckypaper to activate carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters. This post-process causes a decrease in turn-on field and increases the field enhancement factor (β), luminance intensity, and uniformity of buckypaper emitters. The phosphorescence luminance intensity and uniformity of buckypaper emitters are measured and characterized. The low turn-on field of 0.56 V µm-1, highest average luminance intensity of 235.9/255, and uniformity of 99.8% are achieved by adjusting the machining parameters of laser power, laser lens motion speed, laser resolution, laser beam size, and pattern orientation. Those parameters relate to the field emission properties of β, turn-on electric field, luminance intensity, and uniformity. Using design of experiment (DOE) methodology, the optimal parameter settings for high and uniform electron emission of a buckypaper emitter are obtained within fewer experimental runs.

  3. Optimization of Metamaterial Selective Emitters for Use in Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiester, Nicole A.

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, both financial and environmental, has motivated many to look into sustainable energy sources. Thermophotovoltaics (TPVs), specialized photovoltaic cells focused on the infrared range, offer an opportunity to achieve both primary energy capture, similar to traditional photovoltaics, as well as secondary energy capture in the form of waste heat. However, to become a feasible energy source, TPV systems must become more efficient. One way to do this is through the development of selective emitters tailored to the bandgap of the TPV diode in question. This thesis proposes the use of metamaterial emitters as an engineerable, highly selective emitter that can withstand the temperatures required to collect waste heat. Metamaterial devices made of platinum and a dielectric such as alumina or silicon nitride were initially designed and tested as perfect absorbers. High temperature robustness testing demonstrates the device's ability to withstand the rigors of operating as a selective emitter.

  4. Measurement of Emittance of Beam in the Debuncher During Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1991-12-11

    The emittance of antiprotons in the debuncher was measured using two methods during normal stacking conditions. With 2.3 seconds of cooling the vertical emittance was found to be 3.6 {pi} mm-mr using scraper D:TJ308, and 2.9 {pi} mm-mr using the profile on SEM806. With 6.9 seconds of cooling time time the measured horizontal emittance was 2.1 {pi} mm-mr using D:RJ306 v.s. 1.9 {pi} mm-mr using SEM806; but with 2.3 seconds of cooling the measured emittance in the debuncher was larger than in the DTOA line, 4.5 {pi} mm-mr v.s. 2.8 {pi} mm-mr. This suggests that some beam is being scraped on a horizontal aperture restriction someplace in the extraction process.

  5. Halo Formation And Emittance Growth of Positron Beams in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; O'Connell, C.L.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA

    2011-10-25

    An ultrarelativistic 28.5 GeV, 700-{micro}m-long positron bunch is focused near the entrance of a 1.4-m-long plasma with a density n{sub e} between {approx}10{sup 13} and {approx}5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}. Partial neutralization of the bunch space charge by the mobile plasma electrons results in a reduction in transverse size by a factor of {approx}3 in the high emittance plane of the beam {approx}1 m downstream from the plasma exit. As n{sub e} increases, the formation of a beam halo containing {approx}40% of the total charge is observed, indicating that the plasma focusing force is nonlinear. Numerical simulations confirm these observations. The bunch with an incoming transverse size ratio of {approx}3 and emittance ratio of {approx}5 suffers emittance growth and exits the plasma with approximately equal sizes and emittances.

  6. Emission Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Silicon Emitter Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takayuki; Kanemaru, Seigo; Tanoue, Hisao; Itoh, Junji

    1995-12-01

    An ion implantation technique has been applied to control the energy band structure of Si field-emitter tip surface. B+ or P+ ions were implanted after fabrication of a gated emitter structure. No changes in emitter structure were observed after ion implantation and successive annealing at 800° C. Current-voltage ( I-V ) characteristics of n, p, p/n and n/p emitter tips were measured: p/n indicates an n-type tip with B+ ions implanted into the tip surface. It was found from the experimental results that n and p/n tips had I-V characteristics in agreement with the Fowler-Nordheim theory. The p and n/p tips, on the other hand, exhibited a current saturation property in high electric field. The present saturation mechanism is explained by considering the energy band structure of the tip surface.

  7. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  8. Non-blinking single-photon emitters in silica.

    PubMed

    Rabouw, Freddy T; Cogan, Nicole M B; Berends, Anne C; Stam, Ward van der; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Koenderink, A Femius; Krauss, Todd D; Donega, Celso de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Samples for single-emitter spectroscopy are usually prepared by spin-coating a dilute solution of emitters on a microscope cover slip of silicate based glass (such as quartz). Here, we show that both borosilicate glass and quartz contain intrinsic defect colour centres that fluoresce when excited at 532 nm. In a microscope image the defect emission is indistinguishable from spin-coated emitters. The emission spectrum is characterised by multiple peaks with the main peak between 2.05 and 2.20 eV, most likely due to coupling to a silica vibration with an energy that varies between 160 and 180 meV. The defects are single-photon emitters, do not blink, and have photoluminescence lifetimes of a few nanoseconds. Photoluminescence from such defects may previously have been misinterpreted as originating from single nanocrystal quantum dots. PMID:26892489

  9. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-01

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  10. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Connolly, R; Liu, C.; Summers, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  11. Emittance measurement at the NSLS x-ray ring

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, J.; Stefan, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    A pinhole camera for imaging x-ray synchrotron radiation from a dipole magnet is now in operation at the NSLS X-Ray Ring. The pinhole camera detector is a 0.5 mm thick YAG phosphor screen viewed by a video camera. Both the theoretical pinhole diffraction pattern and the measured modulation transfer function (MTF) of the phosphor and camera have been deconvolved from the measured profile in order to derive the true transverse profile of the electron beam. This profile was then fit to a 2-dimensional Gaussian. The electron beam emittance as a function of the phase space acceptance of the pinhole camera has been derived, so the horizontal and vertical electron emittances can be deduced from the major and minor sigmas of the fit Gaussian. In the X-Ray Ring, the vertical emittance is kept small to maximize the synchrotron radiation brightness. The ratio of the measured vertical to horizontal emittance is 0.001.

  12. Non-blinking single-photon emitters in silica

    PubMed Central

    Rabouw, Freddy T.; Cogan, Nicole M. B.; Berends, Anne C.; Stam, Ward van der; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Koenderink, A. Femius; Krauss, Todd D.; Donega, Celso de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Samples for single-emitter spectroscopy are usually prepared by spin-coating a dilute solution of emitters on a microscope cover slip of silicate based glass (such as quartz). Here, we show that both borosilicate glass and quartz contain intrinsic defect colour centres that fluoresce when excited at 532 nm. In a microscope image the defect emission is indistinguishable from spin-coated emitters. The emission spectrum is characterised by multiple peaks with the main peak between 2.05 and 2.20 eV, most likely due to coupling to a silica vibration with an energy that varies between 160 and 180 meV. The defects are single-photon emitters, do not blink, and have photoluminescence lifetimes of a few nanoseconds. Photoluminescence from such defects may previously have been misinterpreted as originating from single nanocrystal quantum dots. PMID:26892489

  13. Non-blinking single-photon emitters in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabouw, Freddy T.; Cogan, Nicole M. B.; Berends, Anne C.; Stam, Ward Van Der; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Koenderink, A. Femius; Krauss, Todd D.; Donega, Celso De Mello

    2016-02-01

    Samples for single-emitter spectroscopy are usually prepared by spin-coating a dilute solution of emitters on a microscope cover slip of silicate based glass (such as quartz). Here, we show that both borosilicate glass and quartz contain intrinsic defect colour centres that fluoresce when excited at 532 nm. In a microscope image the defect emission is indistinguishable from spin-coated emitters. The emission spectrum is characterised by multiple peaks with the main peak between 2.05 and 2.20 eV, most likely due to coupling to a silica vibration with an energy that varies between 160 and 180 meV. The defects are single-photon emitters, do not blink, and have photoluminescence lifetimes of a few nanoseconds. Photoluminescence from such defects may previously have been misinterpreted as originating from single nanocrystal quantum dots.

  14. Emittance of TD-NiCr after simulated reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. K.; Dicus, D. L.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of simulated reentry heating on the emittance of TD-NiCr were investigated. Groups of specimens with three different preconditioning treatments were exposed to 6, 24, and 30 half-hour simulated reentry exposure cycles in a supersonic arc tunnel at each of three conditions intended to produce surface temperatures of 1255, 1365, and 1475 K. Emittance was determined at 1300 K on specimens which were preconditioned only and specimens after completion of reentry simulation exposure. Oxide morphology and chemistry were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. A consistent relationship was established between oxide morphology and total normal emittance. Specimens with coarser textured oxides tended to have lower emittances than specimens with finer textured oxides.

  15. Beam dynamics in rf guns and emittance correction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, Luca

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a general review of beam dynamics in a laser-driven rf gun. The peculiarity of such an accelerating structure versus other conventional multi-cell linac structures is underlined on the basis of the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem, which is found to give a theoretical background for the well known Kim's model. A basic explanation for some proposed methods to correct rf induced emittance growth is also derived from the theorem. We also present three emittance correction techniques for the recovery of space-charge induced emittance growth, namely the optimum distributed disk-like bunch technique, the use of rf spatial harmonics to correct spherical aberration induced by space charge forces and the technique of emittance filtering by clipping the electron beam. The expected performances regarding the beam quality achievable with different techniques, as predicted by scaling laws and simulations, are analyzed, and, where available, compared to experimental results.

  16. Non-blinking single-photon emitters in silica

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rabouw, Freddy T.; Cogan, Nicole M. B.; Berends, Anne C.; Stam, Ward van der; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Koenderink, A. Femius; Krauss, Todd D.; Donega, Celso de Mello

    2016-02-19

    Samples for single-emitter spectroscopy are usually prepared by spin-coating a dilute solution of emitters on a microscope cover slip of silicate based glass (such as quartz). Here, we show that both borosilicate glass and quartz contain intrinsic defect colour centres that fluoresce when excited at 532 nm. In a microscope image the defect emission is indistinguishable from spin-coated emitters. The emission spectrum is characterised by multiple peaks with the main peak between 2.05 and 2.20 eV, most likely due to coupling to a silica vibration with an energy that varies between 160 and 180 meV. The defects are single-photon emitters,more » do not blink, and have photoluminescence lifetimes of a few nanoseconds. Furthermore, photoluminescence from such defects may previously have been misinterpreted as originating from single nanocrystal quantum dots.« less

  17. Single-knob beam line for transverse emittance partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C.; Kester, O. K.; Groening, L.; Leibrock, H.; Maier, M.; Rottländer, P.

    2013-04-01

    Flat beams feature unequal emittances in the horizontal and vertical phase space. Such beams were created successfully in electron machines by applying effective stand-alone solenoid fringe fields in the electron gun. Extension of this method to ion beams was proposed conceptually. The present paper is on the decoupling capabilities of an ion beam emittance transfer line. The proposed beam line provides a single-knob tool to partition the horizontal and vertical rms emittances, while keeping the product of the two emittances constant as well as the transverse rms Twiss parameters (αx,y and βx,y) in both planes. It is shown that this single knob is the solenoid field strength.

  18. Spectroscopic research on infrared emittance of coal ash deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Saljnikov, Aleksandar; Komatina, Mirko; Gojak, Milan; Vucicevic, Biljana; Goricanec, Darko; Stevanovic, Zoran

    2009-11-15

    This paper deals with thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a pulverized coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant. Normal emittance spectra in the near to medium infrared (2.5-25 {mu}m) region and total normal emittances were measured on four kinds of ground ash deposits. Measurements were conducted in the 570-1460 K temperature range which is common for boiler furnaces, by both heating and cooling the ash samples, with the aim to study the effect of their thermal history. Dependence of emittance on wavelength, temperature and chemical composition was studied, too. Samples were tested for transparency (opacity) to verify the accuracy of results. It was determined that the thicknesses used for the ash powders are opaque for infrared radiation for thicknesses in the order of a millimeter. Tests have shown that spectral emittance increases with an increase of wavelength with a characteristic pattern common for all samples. Spectral normal emittance increases strongly with temperature at shorter wavelengths and remains high and unchanged at longer ones. Emittance spectra are not very sensitive to chemical composition of ashes especially beyond {lambda} {approx} 5 {mu}m. With an increase of temperature, total emittance of the powdered sample decreases to a minimum value around 1200 K. Further temperature rise induces an increase of total emittance due to sintering in the ash. On cooling, the emittance increases monotonically following the hysteresis. Quantitative directions for evaluating thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits for the merits of the safety design of boiler furnaces were proposed. That comprises correlating the experimentally obtained emittance spectra with curves of simple analytical form, i.e., a continuous function of minimum emittance vs. wavelength. The proposed method can be extended to other specimens from the same furnace and used to determine correlations for thermal calculation of old and design of new furnaces

  19. Final report for Frequency selective surfaces for rugged thermophotovoltaic emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, James

    2001-04-05

    Ion Optics created an array of regularly spaced holes in a thin conductive surface film on a dielectric substrate. When heated, this pattern behaved as a selective emitter, with more than 50% of total radiation in a well-defined peak with a center frequency determined by geometrical spacing. Peak wavelength did not alter with change in temperature, and materials easily survived 10 hours at 1000 C in air. The selective emitter will increase efficiency of thermophotovoltaic power converters.

  20. Analysis of emittance growth in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; Huang, X.; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.

    2006-05-01

    Multi-particle simulations are performed to study emittance growth in the Fermilab Booster. Analysis shows that the source of vertical emittance growth comes mostly from random errors in skew quadrupoles in the presence of a strong transverse space-charge force. [1] Random errors in dipole rolls and the Montague resonance do contribute but to lesser extent. The effect of random errors in the quadrupoles is small because the betatron envelope tunes are reasonably far away from the half-integer stopband.

  1. Lambertian thermal emitter based on plasmonic enhanced absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Ming; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a narrow band thermal emission at 10 μm is demonstrated using a one dimensional metasurface. The proposed metasurface structure provides magnetic resonance mode that enhances the phonon absorption of SiO2. The proposed metasurface thermal emitter shows a Lambertian distribution. Additionally, 5.8-folds enhancement of emissivity is achieved by optimizing the cavity thickness of the metasurfaces. This type of thermal emitter will be useful for IR sensing applications. PMID:27505801

  2. Study of ultra-low emittance design for SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. -H.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; /SLAC

    2015-09-17

    Since its 2003 construction, the SPEAR3 synchrotron light source at SLAC has continuously improved its performance by raising beam current, top-off injection, and smaller emittance. This makes SPEAR3 one of the most productive light sources in the world. Now, to further enhance the performance of SPEAR3, we are looking into the possibility of converting SPEAR3 to an ultra-low emittance storage ring within its site constraint.

  3. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  4. A 48x48 CdZnTe array with multiplexer readout

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, D.G.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report results of gamma-ray imaging and energy-resolution tests of a 48x48 CdZnTe array. The detectors have 125 {micro}m square pixel electrodes produced by photolithography and are indium-bump-bonded to a multiplexer readout circuit. Using a collimated beam of 140 keV gamma rays of 120 {micro}m diameter centered on one pixel, they found that the majority of events produced significant charge deposition in nearby pixels. Charge and energy are transported out of the pixel by charge diffusion, photoelectron range, Compton scattering, and escape of K x-rays. These effects also distort single-pixel spectra, although photopeaks are still discernible at 140 keV. When signals from neighboring pixels are summed together to correct for this charge spreading, an energy resolution of 10 keV is obtained at 140 keV. Corrections will be simpler and energy resolution should be better for the 380 {micro}m pixels of the 64x64 CdZnTe arrays the authors are constructing for an ultra-high-resolution brain imager.

  5. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  6. Adaptive Readout Technique For A Sixteen Channel Peak Sensing ADC In the FERA Format

    SciTech Connect

    Yaver, H.; Maier, M.R.; Lindstrom, D.; Ludewigt, B.A.

    1998-11-01

    An adaptive, variable block-size readout technique for use with multiple, sixteen-channel CAMAC ADCs with a FERA-bus readout has been developed and designed. It can be used to read data from experiments with or without coincidence, i.e. singles, without having to change the readout protocol. Details of the implementation are discussed and initial results are presented. Further applications of the adaptive readout are also discussed.

  7. Compact, Low-power and Precision Timing Photodetector Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.; Schwiening, Jochen; Vavra, Jaroslav; /SLAC

    2011-06-14

    Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and single-photon detection requires a digitizer capable of integrated recording of dense arrays of sensor elements with high analog bandwidth (precision timing) and large record depth, in a cost-effective, compact and low-power way. Simply stated, one cannot do better than having a high-fidelity 'oscilloscope on a chip' for every sensor channel. A firs version of the Buffered Large Analog Bandwidth (BLAB1) ASIC has been designed based upon the lessons learned from the development of the Large Analog Bandwidth Recorder and Digitizer with Ordered Readout (LABRADOR) ASIC. While this LABRADOR ASIC has been very successful and forms the readout basis of a generation of new, large-scale radio neutrino detectors, its limited sampling depth is a major drawback. To address this shortcoming, a prototype intended for photodetector readout has been designed and fabricated with 64k deep sampling at multi-GSa/s operation. An evaluation system has been constructed for instrumentation of Time-Of-Propagation (TOP) and focusing DIRC prototypes and test results will be reported.

  8. Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF2:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF2:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 microR. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed.

  9. A generic readout environment for prototype pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turqueti, Marcos; Rivera, Ryan; Prosser, Alan; Kwan, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Pixel detectors for experimental particle physics research have been implemented with a variety of readout formats and potentially generate massive amounts of data. Examples include the PSI46 device for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which implements an analog readout, the Fermilab FPIX2.1 device with a digital readout, and the Fermilab Vertically Integrated Pixel device. The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the various needs of these devices to support laboratory test bench as well as test beam applications. The system is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and is characterized by its flexibility, versatility and scalability by virtue of several key architectural features. These include a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and a core group of boards that provide specific processing and readout capabilities for the system. System software based on distributed computing techniques supports an expandable network of CAPTANs. In this paper, we describe the system architecture and give an overview of its capabilities.

  10. MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Spatial distribution read-out system for thermoluminescence sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Imaeda, K.; Ninagawa, K.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    A spatial distribution read-out system of thermoluminescence (TL) sheets is developed. This system consists of high gain image intensifier, a CCD-TV camera, a video image processor and a host computer. This system has been applied to artificial TL sheets (BaSO4:Eu doped) for detecting high energy electromagnetic shower and heavy nuclei tracks.

  12. Optical Readout of Micro-Accelerometer Code Features

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.; Polosky, Marc A.; Shagam, Richard N.; Sullivan, Charles T.

    1999-07-08

    Micromachine accelerometers offer a way to enable critical functions only when a system encounters a particular acceleration environment. This paper describes the optical readout of a surface micromachine accelerometer containing a unique 24-bit code. The readout uses waveguide-based optics, which are implemented as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The PIC is flip-chip bonded over the micromachine, for a compact package. The shuttle moves 500 {micro}m during readout, and each code element is 17 {micro}m wide. The particular readout scheme makes use of backscattered radiation from etched features in the accelerometer shuttle. The features are etched to create corner reflectors that return radiation back toward the source for a one bit. For a zero bit, the shuttle is not etched, and the radiation scatters forward, away from the detector. This arrangement provides a large signal difference between a one and zero signal, since the zero signal returns virtually no signal to the detector. It is thus superior to schemes that interrogate the code vertically, which have a limited contrast between a one and a zero. Experimental results are presented for mock shuttle features etched into a silicon substrate. To simulate the shuttle moving under a fixed PIC, a commercially available waveguide source was scanned over the mock code.

  13. Sources of noise in magneto-optical readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The various sources of noise which are often encountered in magneto-optical readout systems are analyzed. Although the focus is on magneto-optics, most sources of noise are common among the various optical recording systems and one can easily adapt the results to other media and systems. A description of the magneto-optical readout system under consideration is given, and the standard methods and the relevant terminology of signal and noise measurement are described. The characteristics of thermal noise, which originates in the electronic circuitry of the readout system, are described. The most fundamental of all sources of noise, the shot noise, is considered, and a detailed account of its statistical properties is given. Shot noise, which is due to random fluctuations in photon arrival times, is an ever-present noise in optical detection. Since the performance of magneto-optical recording devices in use today is approaching the limit imposed by the shot noise, it is important that the reader have a good grasp of this particular source of noise. A model for the laser noise is described, and measurement results which yield numerical values for the strength of the laser power fluctuations are presented. Spatial variations of the disk reflectivity and random depolarization phenomena also contribute to the overall level of noise in readout; these and related issues are treated. Numerical simulation results describing some of the more frequently encountered sources of noise which accompany the recorded waveform itself, namely, jitter noise and signal-amplitude fluctuation noise are presented.

  14. Triple-stack multigap resistive plate chamber with strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkin, V.; Basilev, S.; Buryakov, M.; Golovatyuk, V.; Lobastov, S.; Petrov, V.; Rumyantsev, M.; Schipunov, A.; Shutov, A.; Slepnev, I.; Slepnev, V.

    2016-07-01

    A triple-stack MRPC for the TOF system of the BM@N and the MPD experiments at the future collider NICA was tested. We use three stacks of glass to have symmetrical construction which allows to decrease dispersion and reflections of the signal from the readout strip.

  15. Development of a radiation-hardened SRAM with EDAC algorithm for fast readout CMOS pixel sensors for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.; Li, B.; Chen, N.; Wang, J.; Zheng, R.; Gao, W.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2014-08-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) are attractive for use in the innermost particle detectors for charged particle tracking due to their good trade-off between spatial resolution, material budget, radiation hardness, and readout speed. With the requirements of high readout speed and high radiation hardness to total ionizing dose (TID) for particle tracking, fast readout CPS are composed by integrating a data compression block and two SRAM IP cores. However, the radiation hardness of the SRAM IP cores is not as high as that of the other parts in CPS, and thus the radiation hardness of the whole CPS chip is lowered. Especially, when CPS are migrated into 0.18-μm processes, the single event upset (SEU) effects should be also considered besides TID and single event latchup (SEL) effects. This paper presents a radiation-hardened SRAM with enhanced radiation hardness to SEU. An error detection and correction (EDAC) algorithm and a bit-interleaving storage strategy are adopted in the design. The prototype design has been fabricated in a 0.18-μm process. The area of the new SRAM is increased 1.6 times as compared with a non-radiation-hardened SRAM due to the integration of EDAC algorithm and the adoption of radiation hardened layout. The access time is increased from 5 ns to 8 ns due to the integration of EDAC algorithm. The test results indicate that the design satisfy requirements of CPS for charged particle tracking.

  16. A buffer direct injection and direct injection readout circuit with mode selection design for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Kang, Lai-Li; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a solution to the excessive area penalty associated with traditional buffer direct injection (BDI) for single pixel. The proposed solution reduces the area and power consumption of BDI to combine the direct injection (DI) within a shared architecture, while a dual-mode readout circuit expands the functionality and performance of the array readout circuit of infrared sensor. An experimental array of 10 × 8 readout circuits was fabricated using TSMC 2P4M 0.35 μm 5 V technology. Measurements were obtained using a main clock with a frequency of 3 MHz and power consumption of 9.94 mW. The minimum input current was 119 pA in BDI and 1.85 pA in DI. The signal swing was 2 V, the root mean square noise voltage was 1.84 mV, and the signal-to-noise ratio was 60 dB. This approach is applicable to mid- and long-band sensors to increase injection efficiency and resolution.

  17. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Yi; Luo, Ming; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping

    2009-02-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good timing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of ~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  18. Decoupling Intensity Radiated by the Emitter in Distance Estimation from Camera to IR Emitter

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Angel E.; Galilea, José Luis Lázaro; Fernández, Pedro; Infante, Arturo Luis; Pompa-Chacón, Yamilet; Vázquez, Carlos Andrés Luna

    2013-01-01

    Various models using radiometric approach have been proposed to solve the problem of estimating the distance between a camera and an infrared emitter diode (IRED). They depend directly on the radiant intensity of the emitter, set by the IRED bias current. As is known, this current presents a drift with temperature, which will be transferred to the distance estimation method. This paper proposes an alternative approach to remove temperature drift in the distance estimation method by eliminating the dependence on radiant intensity. The main aim was to use the relative accumulated energy together with other defined models, such as the zeroth-frequency component of the FFT of the IRED image and the standard deviation of pixel gray level intensities in the region of interest containing the IRED image. By using the abovementioned models, an expression free of IRED radiant intensity was obtained. Furthermore, the final model permitted simultaneous estimation of the distance between the IRED and the camera and the IRED orientation angle. The alternative presented in this paper gave a 3% maximum relative error over a range of distances up to 3 m. PMID:23727954

  19. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  4. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  5. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Gangyao; Li, Jun; Huang, Alex Q.; Melcher, Jerry; Atcitty, Stan

    2008-01-01

    A novel MOS-conmore » trolled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO) is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA) and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5  A / cm 2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100  W / cm 2 conduction and the 100  W / cm 2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV) and higher frequency (10 kHz) are needed.« less

  6. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-04-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100 MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50 MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (˜10 GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80 MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0 Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors.

  7. On readout of vibrational qubits using quantum beats

    SciTech Connect

    Shyshlov, Dmytro; Babikov, Dmitri; Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-12-14

    Readout of the final states of qubits is a crucial step towards implementing quantum computation in experiment. Although not scalable to large numbers of qubits per molecule, computational studies show that molecular vibrations could provide a significant (factor 2–5 in the literature) increase in the number of qubits compared to two-level systems. In this theoretical work, we explore the process of readout from vibrational qubits in thiophosgene molecule, SCCl{sub 2}, using quantum beat oscillations. The quantum beats are measured by first exciting the superposition of the qubit-encoding vibrational states to the electronically excited readout state with variable time-delay pulses. The resulting oscillation of population of the readout state is then detected as a function of time delay. In principle, fitting the quantum beat signal by an analytical expression should allow extracting the values of probability amplitudes and the relative phases of the vibrational qubit states. However, we found that if this procedure is implemented using the standard analytic expression for quantum beats, a non-negligible phase error is obtained. We discuss the origin and properties of this phase error, and propose a new analytical expression to correct the phase error. The corrected expression fits the quantum beat signal very accurately, which may permit reading out the final state of vibrational qubits in experiments by combining the analytic fitting expression with numerical modelling of the readout process. The new expression is also useful as a simple model for fitting any quantum beat experiments where more accurate phase information is desired.

  8. Interpolating cathode pad readout in gas proportional detectors for high multiplicity particle tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, B.; Radeka, V.; Smith, G.C.; O`Brien, E.

    1992-02-01

    Experiments which are planned for the Superconducting Super Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will involve interactions in which detectors will need to identify and localize hundreds or even thousands of particle tracks simultaneously. Most types of conventional position sensitive, proportional detectors with projective geometry are not able to unravel the individual tracks in these environments. We have been investigating several forms of sub-divided cathode readout to address this problem. We report here on geometric charge division using chevron shaped cathode pads which lie in rows underneath each anode wire. Investigations have quantified the non-linear effects due to avalanche angular localization, and how these become negligible with proper design of the pad. Differential nm-linearity of {plus_minus}5%, and position resolution in the region of 50{mu}m rms, have been achieved.

  9. Interpolating cathode pad readout in gas proportional detectors for high multiplicity particle tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, B.; Radeka, V.; Smith, G.C.; O'Brien, E.

    1992-02-01

    Experiments which are planned for the Superconducting Super Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider will involve interactions in which detectors will need to identify and localize hundreds or even thousands of particle tracks simultaneously. Most types of conventional position sensitive, proportional detectors with projective geometry are not able to unravel the individual tracks in these environments. We have been investigating several forms of sub-divided cathode readout to address this problem. We report here on geometric charge division using chevron shaped cathode pads which lie in rows underneath each anode wire. Investigations have quantified the non-linear effects due to avalanche angular localization, and how these become negligible with proper design of the pad. Differential nm-linearity of {plus minus}5%, and position resolution in the region of 50{mu}m rms, have been achieved.

  10. Integrating metal-oxide-decorated CNT networks with a CMOS readout in a gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjoong; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Dai-Hong; Perello, David; Park, Young June; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Yun, Minhee; Kim, Suhwan

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a tin-oxide-decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) network gas sensor system on a single die. We have also demonstrated the deposition of metallic tin on the CNT network, its subsequent oxidation in air, and the improvement of the lifetime of the sensors. The fabricated array of CNT sensors contains 128 sensor cells for added redundancy and increased accuracy. The read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) was combined with coarse and fine time-to-digital converters to extend its resolution in a power-efficient way. The ROIC is fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS process, and the whole sensor system consumes 30 mA at 5 V. The sensor system was successfully tested in the detection of ammonia gas at elevated temperatures.

  11. Development of front-end readout electronics for silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yi; Su, Hong; Kong, Jie; Dong, Cheng-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Xiao-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Front-end readout electronics have been developed for silicon strip detectors at our institute. In this system an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) ATHED is used to realize multi-channel energy and time measurements. The slow control of ASIC chips is achieved by parallel port and the timing control signals of ASIC chips are implemented with the CPLD. The data acquisition is carried out with a PXI-DAQ card. The software has a user-friendly GUI developed with LabWindows/CVI in the Windows XP operating system. The test results show that the energy resolution is about 1.14% for alpha at 5.48 MeV and the maximum channel crosstalk of the system is 4.60%. The performance of the system is very reliable and is suitable for nuclear physics experiments.

  12. A high accuracy gyroscope readout test facility for the relativity gyroscope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, B.; Van Kann, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is under construction for ground-based testing of a gyroscope system to be used in a satellite test of general relativity. The immediate goal is a readout capable of measuring the direction of the gyroscope spin axis to an angular resolution of one arcsecond over a limited range. A combination of SQUID magnetometers and persistent current loops are used to measure the London moment of the spinning superconducting rotor levitated electrostatically. To obtain a trapped flux signal in the gyroscope sufficiently smaller than the London moment signal, the apparatus makes use of a new magnetic field shielding technique for obtaining large superconductor shielded regions below 0.1 millionth of a Gauss.

  13. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  14. PETA4: a multi-channel TDC/ADC ASIC for SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, I.; Fischer, P.; Ritzert, M.

    2013-12-01

    The PETA4 ASIC is the latest member of a family of chips targeted mainly at the readout of Silicon Photomultipliers in PET, with possible use in other detector applications. PETA4 houses 36 channels on a 5 × 5mm2 die and is fabricated in the UMC 180nm technology. It uses bump bonds with a convenient pitch of ≈ 270μm to allow the construction of very compact modules at moderate substrate cost. The chip requires nearly no external components by integrating everything (PLL loop filter, bandgap reference, bias DACs,...) on chip. Power consumption is <= 40mW per channel, depending on digital speed and bias settings. Every channel has two independent frontends: an established differential amplifier which has shown to be insensitive to pickup in the target application of PET/MRI, and a single-ended frontend with very low input impedance (Zin ≈ 7Ω) for high channel count operation. A fast discriminator with tunable threshold and a noise of <= 300μV self-triggers time stamping with a bin width of 50ps as well as an integrator with programmable integration time. The amplitude signal is converted by a ≈ 9-bit SAR ADC. After conversion, events with sufficient amplitude are queued for serial readout. The previous chip version PETA3 has achieved a CRT time resolution of ≈ 200ps when reading out scintillation light from a 3 × 3×5mm3 LYSO crystal coupled at room temperature to a 3 × 3mm2 SiPM from FBK. Energy resolution for LYSO is ≈ 12.5%FWHM. LYSO crystals of 1.3mm size could be clearly identified with SiPMs of 4 × 4mm2 when using a light spreader. The architecture of PETA4 and its performance in the lab and with SiPMs will be presented.

  15. Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) as Readout Devices for Scintillating Fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Shera, Suzanne; Shamo, Denis

    1998-01-01

    New gamma ray and charged particle telescope designs based on scintillating fiber arrays could provide low cost, high resolution, lightweight, very large area and multi radiation length instrumentation for planned NASA space exploration. The scintillating fibers low visible light output requires readout sensors with single photon detection sensitivity and low noise. The sensitivity of silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) matches well the spectral output of the scintillating fibers. Moreover, APDs have demonstrated single photon capability. The global aim of our work is to make available to NASA a novel optical detector concept to be used as scintillating fiber readouts and meeting the requirements of the new generations of space-borne gamma ray telescopes. We proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using RMD's small area APDs ((mu)APD) as scintillating fiber readouts and to study possible alternative (mu)APD array configurations for space borne readout scintillating fiber systems, requiring several hundred thousand to one million channels. The evaluation has been conducted in accordance with the task description and technical specifications detailed in the NASA solicitation "Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD as readout devices for scintillating fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes" (#8-W-7-ES-13672NAIS) posted on October 23, 1997. The feasibility study we propose builds on recent developments of silicon APD arrays and light concentrators advances at RMD, Inc. and on more than 5 years of expertise in scintillating fiber detectors. In a previous program we carried out the initial research to develop a high resolution, small pixel, solid-state, silicon APD array which exhibited very high sensitivity in the UV-VIS spectrum. This (mu)APD array is operated in Geiger mode and results in high gain (greater than 10(exp 8)), extremely low noise, single photon detection capability, low quiescent power (less than 10 (mu)W/pixel for 30 micrometers sensitive

  16. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-01-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μW. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μW. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e−RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature. PMID:26744545

  17. Design of a Standing-Wave Multi-Cavity Beam-Monitor for Simultaneous Beam Position and Emittance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Miller, Roger; Nantista, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    A high precision emittance measurement requires precise beam position at the measurement location. At present there is no existing technique, commercial or otherwise, for non-destructive pulse-to-pulse simultaneous beam position and emittance measurement. FAR-TECH, Inc. is currently developing a high precision cavity-based beam monitor for simultaneous beam position and emittance measurements pulse-to-pulse, without beam interception and without moving parts. The design and anlysis of a multi-cavity standing wave structure for a pulse-to-pulse emittance measurement system in which the quadrupole and the dipole standing wave modes resonate at harmonics of the beam operating frequency is presented. Considering the Next Linear Collider beams, an optimized 9-cavity standing wave system is designed for simultaneous high precision beam position and emittance measurements. It operates with the π - quadrupole mode resonating at 16th harmonic of the NLC bunch frequency, and the 3 π /4 dipole mode at 12th harmonic (8.568 GHz). The 9-cavity system design indicates that the two dipoles resonate almost at the same frequency 8.583 GHz and the quadrupole at 11.427 GHz according to the scattering parameter calculations. The design can be trivially scaled so that the dipole frequency is at 8.568 GHz, and the quadrupole frequency can then be tuned during fabrication to achieve the desired 11.424 GHz. The output powers from these modes are estimated for the NLC beams. An estimated rms-beam size resolution is sub micro-meters and beam positions in sub nano-meters.

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Parallel readout of two-element CdZnTe detectors with real-time digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhubin, Shi; Linjun, Wang; Kaifeng, Qin; Jiahua, Min; Jijun, Zhang; Xiaoyan, Liang; Jian, Huang; Ke, Tang; Yiben, Xia

    2010-12-01

    Readout electronics, especially digital electronics, for two-element CdZnTe (CZT) detectors in parallel are developed. The preliminary results show the detection efficiency of the two-element CZT detectors in parallel with analog electronics is as many as 1.8 and 2.1 times the single ones, and the energy resolution (FWHM) is limited by that of the single one by the means of analog electronics. However, the digital method for signal processing will be sufficiently better by contrast with an analog method especially in energy resolution. The energy resolution by the means of digital electronics can be improved by about 26.67%, compared to that only with analog electronics, while their detection efficiency is almost the same. The cause for this difference is also discussed.

  19. Gamma-ray astronomy using a high pressure gas scintillation drift chamber with a waveshifting fiber readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Edberg, T. K.; Parsons, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Weiss, S.; Smith, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a balloon-borne hard X-ray telescope called SIGHT (Scintillation Imaging Gas-filled Hard X-ray Telescope). SIGHT is a high sensitivity, good energy resolution instrument that images in the 30 to 300 keV region. We discuss the development of a large area, 20 atmosphere, position sensitive xenon gas scintillation drift chamber which is the gamma-ray detector at the heart of the telescope package. Results of the development of the novel waveshifting fiber readout for this chamber are presented.

  20. On the comparison of analog and digital SiPM readout in terms of expected timing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Lecoq, P.

    2015-07-01

    In time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) and in particular for the EndoTOFPET-US Project (Frisch, 2013 [1]), and other applications for high energy physics, the multi-digital silicon photomultiplier (MD-SiPM) was recently proposed (Mandai and Charbon, 2012 [2]), in which the time of every single photoelectron is being recorded. If such a photodetector is coupled to a scintillator, the largest and most accurate timing information can be extracted from the cascade of the scintillation photons, and the most probable time of positron emission determined. The readout concept of the MD-SiPM is very different from that of the analog SiPM, where the individual photoelectrons are merely summed up and the output signal fed into the readout electronics. We have developed a comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool that describes the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal. In previous studies we have compared MC simulations with coincidence time resolution (CTR) measurements and found good agreement within less than 10% for crystals of different lengths (from 3 mm to 20 mm) coupled to SiPMs from Hamamatsu. In this work we will use the developed MC tool to directly compare the highest possible time resolution for both the analog and digital readout of SiPMs with different scintillator lengths. The presented studies reveal that the analog readout of SiPMs with microcell signal pile-up and leading edge discrimination can lead to nearly the same time resolution as compared to the maximum likelihood time estimation applied to MD-SiPMs. Consequently there is no real preference for either a digital or analog SiPM for the sake of achieving highest time resolution. However, the best CTR in the analog SiPM is observed for a rather small range of optimal threshold values, whereas the MD-SiPM provides stable CTR after roughly 20 registered photoelectron timestamps in

  1. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Study of a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li-Ying; Li, Qi-Te; Faisal, Q.; Ge, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Ye, Yan-Lin

    2009-05-01

    The design principle for a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout is described. A prototype chamber of a size of 10 cm ×10 cm was made together with the readout electronics circuit. A very clean signal with very low background noise was obtained by applying a transformer between the delay-line and the pre-amplifier in order to match the resistance. Along the anode wire direction a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm was achieved with a 55Fe-5.9 keV X ray source. The simple structure, large effective area and high position resolution allow the application of a gas chamber of this kind to many purposes.

  2. Combining Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation and a Non Contact Continuous Flow Surface Sampling Probe/Electrospray Emitter for Mass Spectrometry-Based Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection into a continuous flow surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter for mass spectrometry based chemical imaging. The flow probe/emitter device was placed in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collected was immediately aspirated into the probe and on to the electrospray emitter, ionized and detected with the mass spectrometer. Freehand drawn ink lines and letters and an inked fingerprint on microscope slides were analyzed. The circular laser ablation area was about 210 m in diameter and under the conditions used in these experiments the spatial resolution, as determined by the size of the surface features distinguished in the chemical images, was about 100 m.

  3. Read-only memory disk with AgOx super-resolution mask layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yang; Xu, Wendong; Shi, Hongren; Gan, Fuxi

    2005-02-01

    A novel read-only memory (ROM) disk with an AgOx mask layer was proposed and studied in this letter. The AgOx films sputtered on the premastered substrates, with pits depth of 50 nm and pits length of 380 nm, were studied by an atomic force microscopy. The transmittances of these AgOx films were also measured by a spectrophotometer. Disk measurement was carried out by a dynamic setup with a laser wavelength of 632.8 nm and a lens numerical aperture (NA) of 0.40. The readout resolution limit of this setup was ?/(4NA) (400 nm). Results showed that the super-resolution readout happened only when the oxygen flow ratios were at suitable values for these disks. The best super-resolution performance was achieved at the oxygen flow ratio of 0.5 with the smoothest film surface. The super-resolution readout mechanism of these ROM disks was analyzed as well.

  4. Process for making a cesiated diamond film field emitter and field emitter formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

    1999-03-30

    A process for making a cesiated diamond film comprises (a) depositing a quantity of cesium iodide on the diamond film in a vacuum of between about 10{sup {minus}4} Torr and about 10{sup {minus}7} Torr, (b) increasing the vacuum to at least about 10{sup {minus}8} Torr, and (c) imposing an electron beam upon the diamond film, said electron beam having an energy sufficient to dissociate said cesium iodide and to incorporate cesium into interstices of the diamond film. The cesiated diamond film prepared according to the process has an operating voltage that is reduced by a factor of at least approximately 2.5 relative to conventional, non-cesiated diamond film field emitters. 2 figs.

  5. Process for making a cesiated diamond film field emitter and field emitter formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kwan, Simon W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for making a cesiated diamond film comprises (a) depositing a quantity of cesium iodide on the diamond film in a vacuum of between about 10.sup.-4 Torr and about 10.sup.-7 Torr, (b) increasing the vacuum to at least about 10.sup.-8 Torr, and (c) imposing an electron beam upon the diamond film, said electron beam having an energy sufficient to dissociate said cesium iodide and to incorporate cesium into interstices of the diamond film. The cesiated diamond film prepared according to the process has an operating voltage that is reduced by a factor of at least approximately 2.5 relative to conventional, non-cesiated diamond film field emitters.

  6. Transverse emittance dilution due to coupler kicks in linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brandon; Hoffstaetter, Georg H.

    2007-11-01

    One of the main concerns in the design of low emittance linear accelerators (linacs) is the preservation of beam emittance. Here we discuss one possible source of emittance dilution, the coupler kick, due to transverse electromagnetic fields in the accelerating cavities of the linac caused by the power coupler geometry. In addition to emittance growth, the coupler kick also produces orbit distortions. It is common wisdom that emittance growth from coupler kicks can be strongly reduced by using two couplers per cavity mounted opposite each other or by having the couplers of successive cavities alternate from above to below the beam pipe so as to cancel each individual kick. While this is correct, including two couplers per cavity or alternating the coupler location requires large technical changes and increased cost for superconducting cryomodules where cryogenic pipes are arranged parallel to a string of several cavities. We therefore analyze consequences of alternate coupler placements. We show here that alternating the coupler location from above to below compensates the emittance growth as well as the orbit distortions. For sufficiently large Q values, alternating the coupler location from before to after the cavity leads to a cancellation of the orbit distortion but not of the emittance growth, whereas alternating the coupler location from before and above to behind and below the cavity cancels the emittance growth but not the orbit distortion. We show that cancellations hold for sufficiently large Q values. These compensations hold even when each cavity is individually detuned, e.g., by microphonics. Another effective method for reducing coupler kicks that is studied is the optimization of the phase of the coupler kick so as to minimize the effects on emittance from each coupler. This technique is independent of the coupler geometry but relies on operating on crest. A final technique studied is symmetrization of the cavity geometry in the coupler region with

  7. Large-format distributed read-out imaging devices for X-ray imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, Roland; Kozorezov, A.; Martin, D.; Brammertz, G.; Verhoeve, P.; Peacock, A.; Scholze, F.; Goldie, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the performance of Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), based on two Ta/Al-based superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) placed on either side of a Ta absorber strip. We focus our discussion on the prospects of building large-format photon-counting imaging spectrometers for applications at optical, UV and soft X-ray energies. Tunnel-limited spectroscopic resolutions have already been demonstrated for optical photons. With a 20×100 μm2 absorber we have measured an intrinsic energy resolution of 2 eV FWHM for 500 eV photons. This demonstrates that at soft X-ray energies resolutions close to the tunnel limit are also feasible for this type of detectors. A detailed analysis of pulse-shapes with numerical models allows us to assess the main parameters that determine the performance of these detectors. Extrapolation of these models indicates that it is possible to extend the length of the absorber to 1.5 mm, without a serious degradation of the detector's performance. .

  8. Large-format distributed readout imaging devices for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, Roland H.; Kozorezov, Alex G.; Martin, Didier D.; Brammertz, G.; Verhoeve, Peter; Peacock, Anthony J.; Scholze, Frank; Goldie, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the performance of one-dimensional Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), based on two Ta/Al-based STJs placed on either side of a Ta absorber strip. We focus our discussion on the prospects of building large-format photon-counting imaging spectrometers for applications at soft X-ray energies. Tunnel-limited spectroscopical resolutions have already been demonstrated for optical photons. With a 20 x 100 micrometers 2 absorber we have measured an intrinsic energy resolution of 2.1 eV FWHM for 500 eV photons. This demonstrates that at soft X-ray energies resolutions close to the tunnel limit are also feasible for these type of detectors. A detailed analysis of pulse-shapes with analytical models allows us to assess the main parameters that determine the performance of these detectors. In particular, we discuss the dependence of the quasiparticle diffusion constant on the temperature of the absorber. Extrapolation of these models indicates that it is possible to extend the length of the absorber to 1.5 mm, without a serious degradation of the detector's performance.

  9. 1 ns time to digital converters for the KM3NeT data readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC- Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  10. Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors with PMT readout for rare event search experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Lin, J.; Mikhailik, V. B.; Kraus, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors (CPSD) for rare event search experiments require reliable, efficient and robust photon detectors that can resolve individual photons in a scintillation event. We report on a cryogenic detector containing a scintillating crystal, equipped with an NTD-Ge phonon sensor and a photon detector based on a low-temperature photomultiplier tube (PMT) that is powered by a Cockcroft-Walton generator. Here we present results from the characterisation of two detector modules, one with CaWO4, the other with CaMoO4 as scintillator. The energy resolutions (FWHM) at 122.1 keV for the scintillation/PMT channel are 19.9% and 29.7% respectively for CaWO4 and CaMoO4 while the energy resolutions (FWHM) for the phonon channels are 2.17 keV (1.8%) and 0.97 keV (0.79%). These characteristics compare favourably with other CPSDs currently used in cryogenic rare-event search experiments. The detection module with PMT readout benefits from the implementation of a well-understood, reliable, and commercially available component and improved time resolution, while retaining the major advantages of conventional CPSD, such as high sensitivity, resolving power and discrimination ability.

  11. Tuning the Magnetic Transport of an Induction LINAC using Emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T L; Brown, C G; Ong, M M; Paul, A C; Wargo, P E; Zentler, J M

    2006-08-11

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Flash X-Ray (FXR) machine is a linear induction accelerator used to produce a nominal 18 MeV, 3 kA, 65 ns pulse width electron beam for hydrodynamic radiographs. A common figure of merit for this type of radiographic machine is the x-ray dose divided by the spot area on the bremsstrahlung converter where a higher FOM is desired. Several characteristics of the beam affect the minimum attainable x-ray spot size. The most significant are emittance (chaotic transverse energy), chromatic aberration (energy variation), and beam motion (transverse instabilities and corkscrew motion). FXR is in the midst of a multi-year optimization project to reduce the spot size. This paper describes the effort to reduce beam emittance by adjusting the fields of the transport solenoids and position of the cathode. If the magnetic transport is not correct, the beam will be mismatched and undergo envelope oscillations increasing the emittance. We measure the divergence and radius of the beam in a drift section after the accelerator by imaging the optical transition radiation (OTR) and beam envelope on a foil. These measurements are used to determine an emittance. Relative changes in the emittance can be quickly estimated from the foil measurements allowing for an efficient, real-time study. Once an optimized transport field is determined, the final focus can be adjusted and the new x-ray spot measured. A description of the diagnostics and analysis is presented.

  12. Study of Abnormal Vertical Emittance Growth in ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Alabau, M.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Le Meur, G.; Rimbault, C.; Touze, F.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.K.; Appleby, R.; Scarfe, A.; Kuroda, S.; White, G.R.; Woodley, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Since several years, the vertical beam emittance measured in the Extraction Line (EXT) of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK, that will transport the electron beam from the ATF Damping Ring (DR) to the future ATF2 Final Focus beam line, is significantly larger than the emittance measured in the DR itself, and there are indications that it grows rapidly with increasing beam intensity. This longstanding problem has motivated studies of possible sources of this anomalous emittance growth. One possible contribution is non-linear magnetic fields in the extraction region experimented by the beam while passing off-axis through magnets of the DR during the extraction process. In this paper, simulations of the emittance growth are presented and compared to observations. These simulations include the effects of predicted non-linear field errors in the shared DR magnets and orbit displacements from the reference orbit in the extraction region. Results of recent measurements using closed orbit bumps to probe the relation between the extraction trajectory and the anomalous emittance growth are also presented.

  13. Modeling field emitter arrays using nonlinear line charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Debabrata; Singh, Gaurav; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2016-09-01

    Modeling high aspect ratio field emitter arrays is a computational challenge due to the enormity of the resources involved. The line charge model (LCM) provides an alternate semi-analytical tool that has been used to model both infinite as well as finite sized arrays. It is shown that the linearly varying charge density used in the LCM generically mimics ellipsoidal emitters rather than a Cylindrical-Post-with-an-Ellipsoidal-Tip (CPET) that is typical of nanowires. Furthermore, generalizing the charge density beyond the linear regime allows for modeling shapes that are closer to a CPET. Emitters with a fixed base radius and a fixed apex radius are studied with a view to understanding the effect of nonlinearity on the tip enhancement factor and the emitter current in each case. Furthermore, an infinite square array of the CPET emitters is studied using the nonlinear line charge model, each having a height h =1500 μm and a base radius b =1.5 μm . It is found that for moderate external field strengths ( 0.3 -0.4 V /μm ), the array current density falls sharply for lattice spacings smaller than 4/3 h . Beyond this value, the maximal array current density can be observed over a range of lattice spacings and falls gradually thereafter.

  14. Measurement of Transverse Emittance in the Fermilab Booster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, William Sproull

    A new beam profile monitor has been built and installed in the Fermilab Booster synchrotron. It nondestructively measures the beam's vertical density distribution on a fast turn-by-turn basis. This enables one to measure the beam's transverse emittance and to observe emittance growth as it occurs. For high intensities (>2 times 10^{12 } protons), the normalized 95% emittance was observed to grow from 6pi mm-mrad at injection to 16pi mm-mrad at extraction. The initial (<5 msec) emittance growth and beam losses are shown to be caused by the space charge tune shift onto integer and 1/2 integer resonance lines. The growth near injection accounts for approximately 40% of the observed emittance increase throughout the acceleration cycle. The remaining 60% is due to two factors: slow linear growth due to betatron-motion driven by noise in the rf system; and faster growth after the transition energy that is caused by coupling of the longitudinal beam motion into the transverse planes.

  15. Field emitter arrays for plasma and microwave source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K. L.

    1999-05-01

    Field emitter arrays (FEAs) stand to strongly impact device performance when physical size, weight, power consumption, beam current, and/or high pulse repetition frequencies are an issue. FEAs are capable of instant ON/OFF performance, high brightness, high current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, and low voltage operation characteristics. Advanced microwave power tubes, and in particular, inductive output amplifiers, are by far the most technically challenging use to date. Other important uses include, e.g., electron sources for micropropulsion systems-Hall thrusters-and tethers for satellites, and (the most widely pursued application) field emission displays. The characteristics of field emitters that make them attractive to such applications shall be surveyed. A thorough analytical model of a field emitter array, beginning with a review of the nature of field emission and continuing with an analytical model of a single emitter and the operation of an array of emitters, shall be presented. In particular, attention shall be directed towards those features of FEAs that render them attractive as cold cathode candidates for electron beam generation. Tip characteristics, such as emission distribution, and array operation, such as space charge effects, will be analyzed in the context of the model. Finally, restricting attention to microwave applications, the performance of a tapered-helix inductive output amplifier to highlight the advantages of high frequency emission gating of the electron beam in a power tube shall be investigated.

  16. Emittance measurements in Grumman 1 MeV beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Debiak, T.; Gammel, G.; Melnychuk, S.

    1992-12-01

    The emittance of a 30 keV H{sup {minus}} beam has been measured with an Allison type electrostatic analyser at two positions separated by 85 cm along the Grumman 1 MeV beamline LEBT at low currents (about 4 mA, no Cs{sub 2}O additive in the source) and at higher currents (10-15 mA, with Cs{sub 2}O additive in the source). No emittance growth was observed between the two positions, but, at the higher current level, the emittance was about 60% higher than at the low current level ({Sigma}{sub n},rms = .0045 {pi} cm-mrad vs. 0070 {pi} cm-mrad). Argon was then introduced up to a partial pressure of 4x10{sup {minus}5} torr, and the emittance decreased back to a range corresponding to that found at the lower currents. However, beam noise was observed at the downstream position, and there is evidence for a small amount of emittance growth (<20%) between the two positions.

  17. Design and construction of a imaging instrument for studying ion emission from pure ion emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.E.

    1993-09-01

    The development of new ion sources is important in the area of surface analysis to make it easier to perform more sensitive and accurate analyses. In surface analysis a primary ion beam composed of a single species can help when predicting and interpreting the results. Therefore, much interest and effort has been focused on producing pure ion emitters. An instrument has been designed and constructed to view the current densities of the ions being emitted from pure ion emitters. The instrument electrostatically accelerates and focuses the ion beam onto a microchannel plate detector equipped with a phosphor screen for viewing the images. These images are used to identify areas of enhanced ion emission. Once these areas are identified, the investigator can use other instruments to analyze them, and hopefully develop a better understanding of the chemistry and physics involved in the ion emission process. A computer based control system has been integrated into the system to simplify the operation of the instrument and provide safety features to protect the hardware from damage. A closed-circuit video camera system is used to allow the images to be remotely viewed during imaging procedures. Experiments show that the instrument has a lower detection limit of 7.45 {times} 10{sup 3} ions/sec/mm{sup 2} and a spatial resolution of approximately 3 {minus} 4 {mu}m. Results from imaging cesium zeolite and perrhenate ion sources indicate that the ions are primarily being emitted from the surface of the sources and not from the interfacial region between the substrate and the emitter material.

  18. AN ATLAS OF z = 5.7 AND z = 6.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Trouille, L. E-mail: cowie@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: trouille@astro.wisc.ed E-mail: kakazu@astro.caltech.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present an atlas of 88 z {approx} 5.7 and 30 z {approx} 6.5 Ly{alpha} emitters obtained from a wide-field narrowband survey. We combined deep narrowband imaging in 120 A bandpass filters centered at 8150 A and 9140 A with deep BVRIz broadband imaging to select high-redshift galaxy candidates over an area of 4180 arcmin{sup 2}. The goal was to obtain a uniform selection of comparable depth over the seven targeted fields in the two filters. For the GOODS-North region of the Hubble Deep Field-North field, we also selected candidates using a 120 A filter centered at 9210 A. We made spectroscopic observations with Keck DEIMOS of nearly all the candidates to obtain the final sample of Ly{alpha} emitters. At the 3.3 A resolution of the DEIMOS observations the asymmetric profile for Ly{alpha} emission can be clearly seen in the spectra of nearly all the galaxies. We show that the spectral profiles are surprisingly similar for many of the galaxies and that the composite spectral profiles are nearly identical at z = 5.7 and z = 6.5. We analyze the distributions of line widths and Ly{alpha} equivalent widths and find that the lines are marginally narrower at the higher redshift, with median values of 0.77 A at z = 6.5 and 0.92 A at z = 5.7. The line widths have a dependence on the Ly{alpha} luminosity of the form {approx}L {sup 0.3}{sub {alpha}}. We compare the surface densities and the luminosity functions at the two redshifts and find that there is a multiplicative factor of two decrease in the number density of bright Ly{alpha} emitters from z = 5.7 to z = 6.5, while the characteristic luminosity is unchanged.

  19. A Resonant Cavity Approach to Non-Invasive, Pulse-to-Pulse EmittanceMeasurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Nantista, C.D.; Miller, R.H.; Weidemann, A.W.; /FARTECH, San Diego /SLAC

    2010-06-15

    We present a resonant cavity approach for non-invasive, pulse-to-pulse, beam emittance measurements of non-circular multi-bunch beams. In a resonant cavity, desired field components can be enhanced up to Q{sub L{lambda}}/{pi}, where Q{sub L{lambda}} is the loaded quality factor of the resonant mode {lambda}, when the cavity resonant mode matches the bunch frequency of a bunch-train beam pulse. In particular, a quad-cavity, with its quadrupole mode (TM{sub 220} for rectangular cavities) at beam operating frequency, rotated 45{sup o} with respect to the beamline, extracts the beam quadrupole moment exclusively, utilizing the symmetry of the cavity and some simple networks to suppress common modes. Six successive beam quadrupole moment measurements, performed at different betatron phases in a linear transport system determine the beam emittance, i.e. the beam size and shape in the beam's phase space, if the beam current and position at these points are known. In the presence of x-y beam coupling, ten measurements are required. One measurement alone provides the rms-beam size of a large aspect ratio beam. The resolution for such a measurement of rms-beam size with the rectangular quad-cavity monitor presented in this article is estimated to be on the order of ten microns. A prototype quad-cavity was fabricated and preliminary beam tests were performed at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Results were mainly limited by beam jitter and uncertainty in the beam position measurement at the cavity location. This motivated the development of a position-emittance integrated monitor.

  20. Time and position resolution of the scintillator strips for a muon system at future colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukic, Strahinja

    2016-03-31

    In this study, prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for a muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been observed, as well as time resolution of 0.45 ns and position resolution along the strip of 7.7 cm.