Huang, Norden E; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C C; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Peng, Chung Kang; Meijer, Johanna H; Wang, Yung-Hung; Long, Steven R; Wu, Zhauhua
2016-04-13
The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through convolutional integral transforms based on additive expansions of an a priori determined basis, mostly under linear and stationary assumptions. Thus, for non-stationary processes, the best one could do historically was to use the time-frequency representations, in which the amplitude (or energy density) variation is still represented in terms of time. For nonlinear processes, the data can have both amplitude and frequency modulations (intra-mode and inter-mode) generated by two different mechanisms: linear additive or nonlinear multiplicative processes. As all existing spectral analysis methods are based on additive expansions, either a priori or adaptive, none of them could possibly represent the multiplicative processes. While the earlier adaptive HHT spectral analysis approach could accommodate the intra-wave nonlinearity quite remarkably, it remained that any inter-wave nonlinear multiplicative mechanisms that include cross-scale coupling and phase-lock modulations were left untreated. To resolve the multiplicative processes issue, additional dimensions in the spectrum result are needed to account for the variations in both the amplitude and frequency modulations simultaneously. HHSA accommodates all the processes: additive and multiplicative, intra-mode and inter-mode, stationary and non-stationary, linear and nonlinear interactions. The Holo prefix in HHSA denotes a multiple dimensional representation with both additive and multiplicative capabilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E.; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C. C.; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Huang; Peng, Chung Kang; Meijer, Johanna H.; Wang, Yung-Hung; Long, Steven R.; Wu, Zhauhua
2016-01-01
The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through convolutional integral transforms based on additive expansions of an a priori determined basis, mostly under linear and stationary assumptions. Thus, for non-stationary processes, the best one could do historically was to use the time- frequency representations, in which the amplitude (or energy density) variation is still represented in terms of time. For nonlinear processes, the data can have both amplitude and frequency modulations (intra-mode and inter-mode) generated by two different mechanisms: linear additive or nonlinear multiplicative processes. As all existing spectral analysis methods are based on additive expansions, either a priori or adaptive, none of them could possibly represent the multiplicative processes. While the earlier adaptive HHT spectral analysis approach could accommodate the intra-wave nonlinearity quite remarkably, it remained that any inter-wave nonlinear multiplicative mechanisms that include cross-scale coupling and phase-lock modulations were left untreated. To resolve the multiplicative processes issue, additional dimensions in the spectrum result are needed to account for the variations in both the amplitude and frequency modulations simultaneously. HHSA accommodates all the processes: additive and multiplicative, intra-mode and inter-mode, stationary and nonstationary, linear and nonlinear interactions. The Holo prefix in HHSA denotes a multiple dimensional representation with both additive and multiplicative capabilities.
Huang, Norden E.; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C. C.; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Peng, Chung Kang; Meijer, Johanna H.; Wang, Yung-Hung; Long, Steven R.; Wu, Zhauhua
2016-01-01
The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through convolutional integral transforms based on additive expansions of an a priori determined basis, mostly under linear and stationary assumptions. Thus, for non-stationary processes, the best one could do historically was to use the time–frequency representations, in which the amplitude (or energy density) variation is still represented in terms of time. For nonlinear processes, the data can have both amplitude and frequency modulations (intra-mode and inter-mode) generated by two different mechanisms: linear additive or nonlinear multiplicative processes. As all existing spectral analysis methods are based on additive expansions, either a priori or adaptive, none of them could possibly represent the multiplicative processes. While the earlier adaptive HHT spectral analysis approach could accommodate the intra-wave nonlinearity quite remarkably, it remained that any inter-wave nonlinear multiplicative mechanisms that include cross-scale coupling and phase-lock modulations were left untreated. To resolve the multiplicative processes issue, additional dimensions in the spectrum result are needed to account for the variations in both the amplitude and frequency modulations simultaneously. HHSA accommodates all the processes: additive and multiplicative, intra-mode and inter-mode, stationary and non-stationary, linear and nonlinear interactions. The Holo prefix in HHSA denotes a multiple dimensional representation with both additive and multiplicative capabilities. PMID:26953180
A two dimensional power spectral estimate for some nonstationary processes. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Gregory L.
1989-01-01
A two dimensional estimate for the power spectral density of a nonstationary process is being developed. The estimate will be applied to helicopter noise data which is clearly nonstationary. The acoustic pressure from the isolated main rotor and isolated tail rotor is known to be periodically correlated (PC) and the combined noise from the main and tail rotors is assumed to be correlation autoregressive (CAR). The results of this nonstationary analysis will be compared with the current method of assuming that the data is stationary and analyzing it as such. Another method of analysis is to introduce a random phase shift into the data as shown by Papoulis to produce a time history which can then be accurately modeled as stationary. This method will also be investigated for the helicopter data. A method used to determine the period of a PC process when the period is not know is discussed. The period of a PC process must be known in order to produce an accurate spectral representation for the process. The spectral estimate is developed. The bias and variability of the estimate are also discussed. Finally, the current method for analyzing nonstationary data is compared to that of using a two dimensional spectral representation. In addition, the method of phase shifting the data is examined.
Aboy, Mateo; Márquez, Oscar W; McNames, James; Hornero, Roberto; Trong, Tran; Goldstein, Brahm
2005-08-01
We describe an algorithm to estimate the instantaneous power spectral density (PSD) of nonstationary signals. The algorithm is based on a dual Kalman filter that adaptively generates an estimate of the autoregressive model parameters at each time instant. The algorithm exhibits superior PSD tracking performance in nonstationary signals than classical nonparametric methodologies, and does not assume local stationarity of the data. Furthermore, it provides better time-frequency resolution, and is robust to model mismatches. We demonstrate its usefulness by a sample application involving PSD estimation of intracranial pressure signals (ICP) from patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der
2008-02-01
SummaryThis paper describes an investigation of the influence of uniformly distributed groundwater recharge on asymptotic macrodispersion in two-dimensional heterogeneous media. This is performed using a nonstationary spectral approach [Li, S.-G., McLaughlin, D., 1991. A nonstationary spectral method for solving stochastic groundwater problems: unconditional analysis. Water Resour. Res. 27 (7), 1589-1605; Li, S.-G., McLaughlin, D., 1995. Using the nonstationary spectral method to analyze flow through heterogeneous trending media. Water Resour. Res. 31 (3), 541-551] based on Fourier-Stieltjes representations for the perturbed quantities. To solve the problem analytically, focus is placed on the case where the local longitudinal dispersivity αL is much smaller than the integral scale of log transmissivity λ (i.e., αL/ λ ≪ 1). The closed-form expressions are obtained for describing the spectrum of flow velocity, the variability of flow velocity and asymptotic macrodispersion, in terms of the statistical properties and the integral scale of log transmissivity, local transport parameters and a parameter β [Rubin, Y., Bellin, A., 1994. The effects of recharge on flow nonuniformity and macrodispersion. Water Resour. Res. 30 (4), 939-948] used to characterize the degree of flow nonuniformity due to the groundwater recharge. The impact of β on these results is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Huai-lai; Wang, Chang-cheng; Marfurt, Kurt J.; Jiang, Yi-wei; Bi, Jian-xia
2016-04-01
Maximizing vertical resolution is a key objective in seismic data processing. Early deconvolution and spectral balancing algorithms assumed that the seismic source wavelet was temporally invariant, or stationary. In practice, seismic scattering and attenuation give rise to non-stationary seismic source wavelets. To address this issue, most conventional time-varying deconvolution wavelet shaping and spectral modelling techniques using the stationary polynomial fitting assume the wavelet to be locally stationary within a small number of overlapping analysis windows while the fitting coefficients are invariant with all the frequencies. In this paper, we show an improvement obtained by modelling smoothly varying spectra of the seismic wavelet using non-stationary polynomial fitting in the time-frequency domain. We first decompose each seismic trace using a generalized S-transform that provides a good time-frequency distribution for the estimation of the time-varying wavelet spectra. We then model the slowly varying source wavelet spectrum at each time sample by a smooth low-order polynomial. Finally, we spectrally balance the modelled wavelet to flatten the seismic response, thereby increasing vertical resolution. We calibrate the algorithm on a simple synthetic and then apply it to a 3-D land survey acquired in western China, showing the value on both vertical slices through seismic amplitude and attribute time slices. Our new algorithm significantly improves the vertical resolution of the seismic signal, while not increasing the noise.
Spatially resolved spectral-imaging device
Bloom, Joshua Simon; Tyson, John Anthony
2016-02-09
A spatially resolved spectral device comprising a dispersive array to receive an incident light comprising a principal ray. The dispersive array comprising a plurality of dichroic layers, each of the plurality of dichroic layers disposed in a path of a direction of the principal ray. Each of the plurality of dichroic layers configured to at least one of reflect or transmit a different wavelength range of the incident light. The device further comprising a detection array operatively coupled with the dispersive array. The detection array comprising a photosensitive component including a plurality of detection pixels, each of the plurality of detection pixels having a light-receiving surface disposed parallel to the direction of the principal ray to detect a respective one of the different wavelength ranges of incident light reflected from a corresponding one of the plurality of dichroic layers.
Riedel, K.S.; Sidorenko, A. ); Bretz, N. ); Thomson, D.J. )
1994-03-01
Several analysis methods for nonstationary fluctuations are described and applied to the edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities of limiter H-mode plasmas. The microwave scattering diagnostic observes poloidal [ital k][sub [theta
Time-Resolved Spectral Optical Breast Tomography
2005-06-01
four- dimensional (4D) data is formed. The spectral information adds an additional dimension of the data. The optimal approach to analyze this huge... dimensional near-infrared tomogra- UK, 2001). phy of the breast: initial simulation, phantom, and clinical 38. J.-F. Cardoso, "Blind signal separation...detector signal acquisition scheme providing a variety of spatial and angular views essential for three- dimensional (3D) object localization. Each
EMCCD-based spectrally resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
Bestvater, Felix; Seghiri, Zahir; Kang, Moon Sik; Gröner, Nadine; Lee, Ji Young; Im, Kang-Bin; Wachsmuth, Malte
2010-11-08
We present an implementation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with spectrally resolved detection based on a combined commercial confocal laser scanning/fluorescence correlation spectroscopy microscope. We have replaced the conventional detection scheme by a prism-based spectrometer and an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera used to record the photons. This allows us to read out more than 80,000 full spectra per second with a signal-to-noise ratio and a quantum efficiency high enough to allow single photon counting. We can identify up to four spectrally different quantum dots in vitro and demonstrate that spectrally resolved detection can be used to characterize photophysical properties of fluorophores by measuring the spectral dependence of quantum dot fluorescence emission intermittence. Moreover, we can confirm intracellular cross-correlation results as acquired with a conventional setup and show that spectral flexibility can help to optimize the choice of the detection windows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hay, J.; Ernoult, M.
1980-08-01
In order to install microphones closer to the trajectory of a swiftly moving noise source and deduce the directivities comparable to those measured in the far field but less sensitive to propagation conditions, a special class of nonstationary random processes has been studied. Conventional short time spectral analysis is discussed (periodogram smoothing and autoregressive model evaluation), and a time frequency spectrum is defined which is shown capable of giving back the correct results of the stationary case (far field). Knowing the motion of the source helps in improving the spectral resolution and particularly the spatial resolution of a synthetic antenna. The so-called 'de-Dopplerization' signal processing provides resolutions similar to those obtained in static tests. Some results of experiments on a point source and a jet are given to illustrate these reflections.
Spectrally resolved femtosecond photon echo spectroscopy of astaxanthin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ajitesh; Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Gupta, Aditya; Goswami, Debabrata
2011-08-01
We have studied the coherence and population dynamics of Astaxanthin solution in methanol and acetonitrile by spectrally resolving their photon echo signals. Our experiments indicate that methanol has a much stronger interaction with the ultrafast dynamics of Astaxanthin in comparison to that of acetonitrile.
Spectrally resolved femtosecond photon echo spectroscopy of astaxanthin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ajitesh; Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Gupta, Aditya; Goswami, Debabrata
2010-12-01
We have studied the coherence and population dynamics of Astaxanthin solution in methanol and acetonitrile by spectrally resolving their photon echo signals. Our experiments indicate that methanol has a much stronger interaction with the ultrafast dynamics of Astaxanthin in comparison to that of acetonitrile.
Time resolved spectral behavior of bright BATSE precursors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burlon, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Greiner, J.; Celotti, A.
2009-10-01
Aims: Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are sometimes preceded by dimmer emission episodes, called “precursors”, whose nature is still a puzzle: they could either have the same origin as the main emission episode or they could be due to another mechanism. We investigate if precursors have some spectral distinctive feature with respect to the main GRB episodes. Methods: To this aim we compare the spectral evolution of the precursor with that of the main GRB event. We also study if and how the spectral parameters, and in particular the peak of the ν Fν spectrum of time resolved spectra, correlates with the flux. This allows us to test if the spectra of the precursor and of the main event belong to the same correlation (if any). We searched GRBs with precursor activity in the complete sample of 2704 bursts detected by BATSE finding that 12% of GRBs have one or more precursors. Among these we considered the bursts with time resolved spectral analysis performed by Kaneko et al. ( 2006, ApJS, 166, 298), selecting those having at least two time resolved spectra for the precursor. Results: We find that precursors and main events have very similar spectral properties. The spectral evolution within precursors has similar trends as the spectral evolution observed in the subsequent peaks. Also the typical spectral parameters of the precursors are similar to those of the main GRB events. Moreover, in several cases we find that within the precursors the peak energy of the spectrum is correlated with the flux similarly to what happens in the main GRB event. This strongly favors models in which the precursor is due to the same fireball physics of the main emission episodes. Figures 8 to 41 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Dual spectrally resolved interferometry to improve measurement range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Y. B.; Kim, B. K.; Joo, K.-N.
2015-05-01
In this investigation, a simple optical configuration and technique to improve the performance of spectrally-resolved interferometry (SRI) is proposed and experimentally verified. SRI has the fundamental limitation in the measurement range caused by the spectral bandwidth of an optical source and the spectral resolution of a spectrometer to detect the spectral interference density. Especially, the minimum measurable range of SRI is determined by the bandwidth of the source and this minimum measurable range becomes a dead zone in SRI. The proposed method can eliminate the dead zone without the minimum measurable distance and extend the measurable range of spectrally resolved interferometry (SRI) twice based on the bandwidth separation by a dichroic beam splitter (DBS). The benefit of this dichroic SRI is that it can be simply implemented with a DBS and another reference mirror from the typical SRI. Feasibility experiments were performed to verify the principle of the dichroic SRI and the result confirmed the effectiveness of this method as the extended measuring range.
Spectral angle resolved scattering of thin film coatings.
Schröder, Sven; Unglaub, David; Trost, Marcus; Cheng, Xinbin; Zhang, Jinlong; Duparré, Angela
2014-02-01
The light scattering of interference coatings is strongly dependent on the wavelength. In addition to the general strong increase of scattering as the wavelengths get shorter, dramatic scatter effects in and around the resonance regions can occur. This is discussed in detail for highly reflective and chirped mirrors. A new instrument is presented which enables spectral angle resolved scatter measurements of high-quality optical components to be performed between 250 and 1500 nm.
Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.
2015-03-01
Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.
Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin
2012-03-01
We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.
The Sun's spectrally resolved center-to-limb variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenflo, Jan Olof
2016-05-01
The center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the Sun's continuous spectrum is well known and has served as a major observational constraint on models of the solar atmosphere. The CLV however also varies dramatically with wavelength inside each spectral line. Here we report on two new atlases that show the properties of the CLV with high spectral resolution. One is a fully resolved spectral atlas from 4084 to 9950 Å of the ratio between the near limb spectrum, at 10 arcsec inside the limb, and the disk center spectrum, both recorded with the FTS at NSO/Kitt Peak. The other atlas gives the same kind of information but covers the whole range of limb distances by giving the ratio spectra for the nine μ positions 0.1, 0.2, …, 0.9. This set of nine atlases for different μ have been recorded over the last couple of years with the solar facility at IRSOL (Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno) in Switzerland. We find that the CLV is spectrally as richly structured as the ordinary intensity spectrum, but the structuring is different and contains diagnostic information that is not contained in the intensity spectrum. Here we illustrate the properties of the new spectral structures and discuss what they mean.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Nikolai V.; Lariontsev, E. G.; Pashinin, Pavel P.; Sidorov, S. S.; Chekina, S. N.
2004-04-01
It is found experimentally that the application of a magnetic field to the active element of a monolithic ring Nd:YAG chip laser in nonstationary lasing regimes can result in nonidentical spectral parameters of counterpropagating radiation waves (spectral nonreciprocity) in quasi-periodic and chaotic lasing regimes. The value of the spectral nonreciprocity depends on the coupling coefficient of counterpropagating waves, the excess over the pump threshold, and the optical nonreciprocity of the ring cavity. The obtained results are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulation.
Spectrally resolved coherent transient signal for ultracold rubidium molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eimer, F.; Weise, F.; Merli, A.; Birkner, S.; Sauer, F.; Wöste, L.; Lindinger, A.; Aç§Anoç§Lu, R.; Koch, C. P.; Salzmann, W.; Mullins, T.; Götz, S.; Wester, R.; Weidemüller, M.
2009-09-01
We present spectrally resolved pump-probe experiments on the photoassociation of ultracold rubidium atoms with shaped ultrashort laser pulses. The pump pulse causes a free-bound transition leading to a coherent transient signal of rubidium molecules in the first excited state. In order to achieve a high frequency resolution the bandwidth of the pump pulse is reduced to a few wavenumbers. The frequency dependence of the transient signal close to the D1 atomic resonance is investigated for characteristic pump-probe delay times. The observed spectra, which show a pronounced dip for pump-probe coincidence, are interpreted using quantum dynamical calculations.
Wall-resolved spectral cascade-transport turbulence model
Brown, C. S.; Shaver, D. R.; Lahey, R. T.; ...
2017-07-08
A spectral cascade-transport model has been developed and applied to turbulent channel flows (Reτ= 550, 950, and 2000 based on friction velocity, uτ ; or ReδΜ= 8,500; 14,800 and 31,000, based on the mean velocity and channel half-width). This model is an extension of a spectral model previously developed for homogeneous single and two-phase decay of isotropic turbulence and uniform shear flows; and a spectral turbulence model for wall-bounded flows without resolving the boundary layer. Data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow was used to help develop this model and to assess its performance in the 1Dmore » direction across the channel width. The resultant spectral model is capable of predicting the mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and energy spectrum distributions for single-phase wall-bounded flows all the way to the wall, where the model source terms have been developed to account for the wall influence. We implemented the model into the 3D multiphase CFD code NPHASE-CMFD and the latest results are within reasonable error of the 1D predictions.« less
Time-resolved spectral analysis of Radachlorin luminescence in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belik, V. P.; Gadzhiev, I. M.; Semenova, I. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.
2017-05-01
We report results of spectral- and time-resolved study of Radachlorin photosensitizer luminescence in water in the spectral range of 950-1350nm and for determination of the photosensitizer triplet state and the singlet oxygen lifetimes responsible for singlet oxygen generation and degradation. At any wavelength within the explored spectral range the luminescence decay contained two major contributions: a fast decay at the ns time scale and a slow evolution at the μs time scale. The fast decay was attributed to electric dipole fluorescence transitions in photosensitizer molecules and the slow evolution to intercombination phosphorescence transitions in singlet oxygen and photosensitizer molecules. Relatively high-amplitude ns peak observed at all wavelengths suggests that singlet oxygen monitoring with spectral isolation methods alone, without additional temporal resolution can be controversial. In the applied experimental conditions the total phosphorescence signal at any wavelength contained a contribution from the photosensitizer triplet state decay, while at 1274nm the singlet oxygen phosphorescence dominated. The results obtained can be used for optimization of the methods of singlet oxygen monitoring and imaging.
Time-resolved spectral analysis of Radachlorin luminescence in water.
Belik, V P; Gadzhiev, I M; Semenova, I V; Vasyutinskii, O S
2017-05-05
We report results of spectral- and time-resolved study of Radachlorin photosensitizer luminescence in water in the spectral range of 950-1350nm and for determination of the photosensitizer triplet state and the singlet oxygen lifetimes responsible for singlet oxygen generation and degradation. At any wavelength within the explored spectral range the luminescence decay contained two major contributions: a fast decay at the ns time scale and a slow evolution at the μs time scale. The fast decay was attributed to electric dipole fluorescence transitions in photosensitizer molecules and the slow evolution to intercombination phosphorescence transitions in singlet oxygen and photosensitizer molecules. Relatively high-amplitude ns peak observed at all wavelengths suggests that singlet oxygen monitoring with spectral isolation methods alone, without additional temporal resolution can be controversial. In the applied experimental conditions the total phosphorescence signal at any wavelength contained a contribution from the photosensitizer triplet state decay, while at 1274nm the singlet oxygen phosphorescence dominated. The results obtained can be used for optimization of the methods of singlet oxygen monitoring and imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography using the reciprocity approach
Dehghani, Hamid; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.
2008-01-01
Spectrally resolved bioluminescence optical tomography is an approach to recover images of, for example, Luciferase activity within a volume using multiwavelength emission data from internal bioluminescence sources. The underlying problem of uniqueness associated with nonspectrally resolved intensity-based bioluminescence tomography is demonstrated and it is shown that using a non-negative constraint inverse algorithm, an accurate solution for the source distribution can be calculated from the measured data. Reconstructed images of bioluminescence are presented using both simulated complex and heterogeneous small animal models as well as real multiwavelength data from a tissue-simulating phantom. The location of the internal bioluminescence source using experimental data is obtained with 0.5 mm accuracy and it is shown that small (2.5 mm diameter) sources of up to 12.5 mm deep, within a complex mouse model, can be resolved accurately using a single view data collection strategy. Finally, using the reciprocity approach for image reconstruction, a dramatic improvement in computational time is shown without loss to image accuracy with both experimental and simulated data, potentially reducing computing time from 402 to 3.75 h. PMID:19070220
Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence for bioaerosols standoff detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buteau, Sylvie; Stadnyk, Laurie; Rowsell, Susan; Simard, Jean-Robert; Ho, Jim; Déry, Bernard; McFee, John
2007-09-01
An efficient standoff biological warfare detection capability could become an important asset for both defence and security communities based on the increasing biological threat and the limits of the presently existing protection systems. Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has developed, by the end of the 90s, a standoff bioaerosol sensor prototype based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). This LIDAR system named SINBAHD monitors the spectrally resolved LIF originating from inelastic interactions with bioaerosols present in atmospheric cells customizable in size and in range. SINBAHD has demonstrated the capability of near real-time detection and classification of bioaerosolized threats at multi-kilometre ranges. In spring 2005, DRDC has initiated the BioSense demonstration project, which combines the SINBAHD technology with a geo-referenced Near InfraRed (NIR) LIDAR cloud mapper. SINBAHD is now being used to acquire more signatures to add in the spectral library and also to optimize and test the new BioSense algorithm strategy. In September 2006, SINBAHD has participated in a two-week trial held at DRDC-Suffield where different open-air wet releases of live and killed bioagent simulants, growth media and obscurants were performed. An autoclave killing procedure was performed on two biological materials (Bacillus subtilis var globigii or BG, and Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt) before being aerosolized, disseminated and spectrally characterized with SINBAHD. The obtained results showed no significant impact of this killing process on their normalised spectral signature in comparison with their live counterparts. Correlation between the detection signals from SINBAHD, an array of slit samplers and a FLuorescent Aerosol Particle Sensor (C-FLAPS) was obtained and SINBAHD's sensitivity could then be estimated. At the 2006 trial, a detection limit of a few tens of Agent Containing Particles per Liter of Air (ACPLA) was obtained
Spectrally resolved motional Stark effect measurements on ASDEX Upgrade
Reimer, R.; Dinklage, A.; Wolf, R.; Fischer, R.; Hobirk, J.; Löbhard, T.; Mlynek, A.; Reich, M.; Sawyer, L.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade
2013-11-15
A spectrally resolved Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic has been installed at ASDEX Upgrade. The MSE data have been fitted by a forward model providing access to information about the magnetic field in the plasma interior [R. Reimer, A. Dinklage, J. Geiger et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 50, 731–735 (2010)]. The forward model for the beam emission spectra comprises also the fast ion D{sub α} signal [W. W. Heidbrink and G. J. Sadler, Nucl. Fusion 34, 535–615 (1994)] and the smearing on the CCD-chip. The calculated magnetic field data as well as the revealed (dia)magnetic effects are consistent with the results from equilibrium reconstruction solver. Measurements of the direction of the magnetic field are affected by unknown and varying polarization effects in the observation.
Spectrally resolved infrared radiances from AIRS observation and GCM simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.
2007-12-01
Global multi-year spectrally resolved infrared radiances observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sound (AIRS) satellite instrument and simulated from the General Circulation Models (GCMs) of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL) are processed to obtain long-term global and regional means as well as the associated spatial and temporal variability. The accumulated radiance data comprise a host of phenomena that are still largely unrecognized but reveal important physical processes. For instance, the correlation between the radiances and the Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) discloses the roles of water vapor in both upper (via its v2 band) and lower (via the continuum in the window region) troposphere, and that of clouds regarding the so called "super greenhouse effect" in Tropics. A comparison between observed and simulated radiances demonstrates that radiance affords a stricter and more insightful metric than the broadband flux. A seemingly good agreement of OLR flux may arise from cancellation of errors of opposite signs in different spectral regions; radiance biases are indicative of physical causes because the radiances at each frequency are sensitive to factor(s) at different levels. Model validation at the radiance level thus provides a complementary and integrative perspective to that obtained using meteorological variables. It is demonstrated that the radiance discrepancies between the GFDL model and the observation are consistent with the model biases in temperature, water vapor and clouds.
Arosa, Yago; Lago, Elena López; Varela, Luis Miguel; de la Fuente, Raúl
2016-07-25
In this paper we apply spectrally resolved white light interferometry to measure refractive and group index over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1000 nm. The output of a Michelson interferometer is spectrally decomposed by a homemade prism spectrometer with a high resolution camera. The group index is determined directly from the phase extracted from the spectral interferogram while the refractive index is estimated once its value at a given wavelength is known.
Structural investigations of human hairs by spectrally resolved ellipsometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Danny; Schulz, Benjamin; Rübhausen, Michael; Wessel, Sonya; Wepf, Roger
2006-01-01
Human hair is a biological layered system composed of two major layers, the cortex and the cuticle. We show spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurements of the ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ of single human hairs. The spectra reflect the layered nature of hair and the optical anisotropy of the hair's structure. In addition, measurements on strands of human hair show a high reproducibility of the ellipsometric parameters for different hair fiber bundles from the same person. Based on the measurements, we describe a dielectric model of hair that explains the spectra in terms of the dielectric properties of the major parts of hair and their associated layer thicknesses. In addition, surface roughness effects modeled by a roughness layer with a complex refractive index given by an effective medium approach can be seen to have a significant effect on the measurements. We derive values for the parameters of the cuticle surface roughness layer of the thickness dACu=273 to 360 nm and the air inclusion fA=0.6 to 5.7%.
Structural investigations of human hairs by spectrally resolved ellipsometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, Benjamin; Chan, D.; Ruebhausen, M.; Wessel, S.; Wepf, R.
2006-03-01
Human hair is a biological layered system composed of two major layers, the cortex and the cuticle. We show spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurements of the ellipsometric parameters ψ and δ of single human hairs. The spectra reflect the layered nature of hair and the optical anisotropy of the hair’s structure. In addition, measurements on strands of human hair show a high reproducibility of the ellipsometric parameters for different hair fiber bundles from the same person. Based on the measurements, we develop a model of the dielectric function of hair that explains the spectra. This model includes the dielectric properties of the cuticle and cortex as well as their associated layer thicknesses. In addition, surface roughness effects modelled by a roughness layer with an complex refractive index given by an effective medium approach can have a significant effect on the measurements. We derive values for the parameters of the cuticle surface roughness layer of the thickness dACu= 273-360 nm and the air inclusion fA= 0.6 -5.7%. [1] accepted for publication in J. Biomed Opt., 2005
Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.
2014-12-22
The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solution using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.
Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; ...
2014-12-22
The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solutionmore » using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.
2014-12-01
The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solution using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. To validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. These observations are consistent with the model.
Spectrally Resolved Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the XenonBiosensor
Hilty, Christian; Lowery, Thomas; Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander
2005-07-15
Due to its ability to non-invasively record images, as well as elucidate molecular structure, nuclear magnetic resonance is the method of choice for applications as widespread as chemical analysis and medical diagnostics. Its detection threshold is, however, limited by the small polarization of nuclear spins in even the highest available magnetic fields. This limitation can, under certain circumstances, be alleviated by using hyper-polarized substances. Xenon biosensors make use of the sensitivity gain of hyperpolarized xenon to provide magnetic resonance detection capability for a specific low-concentration target. They consist of a cryptophane cage, which binds one xenon atom, and which has been connected via a linker to a targeting moiety such as a ligand or antibody. Recent work has shown the possibility of using the xenon biosensor to detect small amounts of a substance in a heterogeneous environment by NMR. Here, we demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) provides the capability to obtain spectrally and spatially resolved images of the distribution of immobilized biosensor, opening the possibility for using the xenon biosensor for targeted imaging.
SPECTRALLY RESOLVED PURE ROTATIONAL LINES OF WATER IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Kaeufl, Hans Ulrich
2010-10-20
We present ground-based high-resolution N-band spectra ({Delta}v = 15 km s{sup -1}) of pure rotational lines of water vapor in two protoplanetary disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars AS 205N and RNO 90, selected based on detections of rotational water lines by the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope, we spectrally resolve individual lines and show that they have widths of 30-60 km s{sup -1}, consistent with an origin in Keplerian disks at radii of {approx}1 AU. The water lines have similar widths to those of the CO at 4.67 {mu}m, indicating that the mid-infrared water lines trace similar radii. The rotational temperatures of the water are 540 and 600 K in the two disks, respectively. However, the line ratios show evidence of non-LTE excitation, with low-excitation line fluxes being overpredicted by two-dimensional disk LTE models. Due to the limited number of observed lines and the non-LTE line ratios, an accurate measure of the water ortho/para (O/P) ratio is not available, but a best estimate for AS 205N is O/P =4.5 {+-} 1.0, apparently ruling out a low-temperature origin of the water. The spectra demonstrate that high-resolution spectroscopy of rotational water lines is feasible from the ground, and further that ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is likely to significantly improve our understanding of the inner disk chemistry revealed by recent Spitzer observations.
Anticipating HESSI's Spatially Resolved View of Spectral Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newton, Elizabeth K.; Giblin, Timothy; Tom, Metcalf
2000-01-01
The spectral evolution of observed flares' hard X-ray emission is found to conform to certain patterns in color-color diagrams. By combining the spectral resolution of BATSE data with the spatial resolution of HXT data, we are able to address the nature of flare energy release and anticipate what kind of observations HESSI may make of the energy release/particle acceleration site in flares.
Debnath, Sanjit Kumar; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad
2006-09-20
In spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI), the white-light interferogram is decomposed into its monochromatic constituent. The phase of the monochromatic constituents can be determined using a phase-shifting technique over a range of wavelengths. These phase value shave fringe order ambiguity. However, the variation of the phase with respect to the wavenumber is linear and its slope gives the absolute value of the optical-path difference. Since the path difference is related to the height of the test object at a point, a line profile can be determined without ambiguity. The slope value, though less precise helps us determine the fringe order. The fringe order combined with the monochromatic phase value gives the absolute profile, which has the precision of phase-shifting interferometry. The presence of noise in the phase may lead to the misidentification of fringe order, which in turn gives unnecessary jumps in the precise profile. The experimental details of measurement on standard samples with SRWLI are discussed in this paper.
Zhang, Zhengyang; Kenny, Samuel J; Hauser, Margaret; Li, Wan; Xu, Ke
2015-10-01
By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing photoswitching, we synchronously obtained the fluorescence spectra and positions of ∼10(6) single molecules in labeled cells in minutes, which consequently enabled spectrally resolved, 'true-color' super-resolution microscopy. The method, called spectrally resolved stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (SR-STORM), achieved cross-talk-free three-dimensional (3D) imaging for four dyes 10 nm apart in emission spectrum. Excellent resolution was obtained for every channel, and 3D localizations of all molecules were automatically aligned within one imaging path.
Time-resolved spectral investigations of laser light induced microplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nánai, L.; Hevesi, I.
1992-01-01
The dynamical and spectral properties of an optical breakdown microplasma created by pulses of different lasers on surfaces of insulators (KCI), metals (Cu) and semiconductors (V 2O 5), have been investigated. Experiments were carried out in air and vacuum using different wavelengths (λ = 0.694μm, type OGM-20,λ = 1.06μm with a home-made laser based on neodymium glass crystal, and λ = 10.6μm, similarly home-made) and pulse durations (Q-switched and free-running regimes). To follow the integral, dynamical and spectral characteristics of the luminous spot of microplasma we have used fast cameras (SFR-2M, IMACON-HADLAND), a high speed spectral camera (AGAT-2) and a spectrograph (STE-1). It has been shown that the microplasma consists of two parts: fast front (peak) with τ≈100 ns and slow front (tail) with τ≈1μs durations. The detonation front speed is of the order of ≈10 5 cm s -1 and follows the temporal dependence of to t0.4. It depends on the composition of the surrounding gas and its pressure and could be connected with quick evaporation of the material investigated (peak) and optical breakdown of the ambient gaseous atmosphere (tail). From the delay in appearance of different characteristic spectral lines of the target material and its gaseous surrounding we have shown that the evolution of the microplasma involves evaporation and ionization of the atoms of the parent material followed by optical breakdown due to the incident and absorbed laser light, together with microplasma expansion.
Resolving spectral components of gamma-bright AGN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Mahmoud; Wagner, Stefan
2016-07-01
Spectral Energy Distributions of Gamma-ray AGN reveal two broad components. While inverse Compton radiation related to the synchrotron emitting leptonic component is an unavoidable contribution there is an extensive debate about potential contributions by other processes. Furthermore, both the properties of the synchrotron emitting leptons as well as the densities of upscattered photon fields spatially vary within any individual AGN. This suggests that inverse Compton contributions emerging from different locations within any individual AGN add up to the spatially unresolved Gamma-ray emission detected by Fermi and Cherenkov telescopes. We constructed a sample of sources from the 3FGL catalog whose spectral properties suggest a multi-component nature, analysed the full Fermi data set and compare the resulting spectra with VHE observations. A subset of our sample displays gamma-ray spectra which cannot be produced by single emitting component. We study the variability properties of the different contributions and decompose the gamma-emission in time and energy space. Multifrequency observations are used to associate the different contributions in the overall spectral energy distributions. Inferences for the sample of gamma-ray Blazars will be presented.
Time-resolved High Spectral Resolution Observation of 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ji; Prato, Lisa; Mawet, Dimitri
2017-03-01
Many brown dwarfs (BDs) exhibit photometric variability at levels from tenths to tens of percents. The photometric variability is related to magnetic activity or patchy cloud coverage, characteristic of BDs near the L–T transition. Time-resolved spectral monitoring of BDs provides diagnostics of cloud distribution and condensate properties. However, current time-resolved spectral studies of BDs are limited to low spectral resolution (R ∼ 100) with the exception of the study of Luhman 16 AB at a resolution of 100,000 using the VLT+CRIRES. This work yielded the first map of BD surface inhomogeneity, highlighting the importance and unique contribution of high spectral resolution observations. Here, we report on the time-resolved high spectral resolution observations of a nearby BD binary, 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB. We find no coherent spectral variability that is modulated with rotation. Based on simulations, we conclude that the coverage of a single spot on 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB is smaller than 1% or 6.25% if spot contrast is 50% or 80% of its surrounding flux, respectively. Future high spectral resolution observations aided by adaptive optics systems can put tighter constraints on the spectral variability of 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB and other nearby BDs.
Spectrally resolved fast transient brain states in electrophysiological data
Vidaurre, Diego; Quinn, Andrew J.; Baker, Adam P.; Dupret, David; Tejero-Cantero, Alvaro; Woolrich, Mark W.
2016-01-01
The brain is capable of producing coordinated fast changing neural dynamics across multiple brain regions in order to adapt to rapidly changing environments. However, it is non-trivial to identify multiregion dynamics at fast sub-second time-scales in electrophysiological data. We propose a method that, with no knowledge of any task timings, can simultaneously identify and describe fast transient multiregion dynamics in terms of their temporal, spectral and spatial properties. The approach models brain activity using a discrete set of sequential states, with each state distinguished by its own multiregion spectral properties. This can identify potentially very short-lived visits to a brain state, at the same time as inferring the state's properties, by pooling over many repeated visits to that state. We show how this can be used to compute state-specific measures such as power spectra and coherence. We demonstrate that this can be used to identify short-lived transient brain states with distinct power and functional connectivity (e.g., coherence) properties in an MEG data set collected during a volitional motor task. PMID:26631815
Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck effect
Etesami, S. R.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.
2015-09-28
Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) holds promise for new spintronic devices with low-energy consumption. The underlying physics, essential for a further progress, is yet to be fully clarified. This study of the time resolved longitudinal SSE in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet concludes that a substantial contribution to the spin current stems from small wave-vector subthermal exchange magnons. Our finding is in line with the recent experiment by S. R. Boona and J. P. Heremans [Phys. Rev. B 90, 064421 (2014)]. Technically, the spin-current dynamics is treated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation also including magnons back-action on thermal bath, while the formation of the time dependent thermal gradient is described self-consistently via the heat equation coupled to the magnetization dynamics.
Spectral characteristics of time resolved magnonic spin Seebeck effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etesami, S. R.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.
2015-09-01
Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) holds promise for new spintronic devices with low-energy consumption. The underlying physics, essential for a further progress, is yet to be fully clarified. This study of the time resolved longitudinal SSE in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet concludes that a substantial contribution to the spin current stems from small wave-vector subthermal exchange magnons. Our finding is in line with the recent experiment by S. R. Boona and J. P. Heremans [Phys. Rev. B 90, 064421 (2014)]. Technically, the spin-current dynamics is treated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation also including magnons back-action on thermal bath, while the formation of the time dependent thermal gradient is described self-consistently via the heat equation coupled to the magnetization dynamics.
A fluorescence LIDAR sensor for hyper-spectral time-resolved remote sensing and mapping.
Palombi, Lorenzo; Alderighi, Daniele; Cecchi, Giovanna; Raimondi, Valentina; Toci, Guido; Lognoli, David
2013-06-17
In this work we present a LIDAR sensor devised for the acquisition of time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectra. The gating time for the acquisition of the fluorescence spectra can be sequentially delayed in order to achieve fluorescence data that are resolved both in the spectral and temporal domains. The sensor can provide sub-nanometric spectral resolution and nanosecond time resolution. The sensor has also imaging capabilities by means of a computer-controlled motorized steering mirror featuring a biaxial angular scanning with 200 μradiant angular resolution. The measurement can be repeated for each point of a geometric grid in order to collect a hyper-spectral time-resolved map of an extended target.
Investigation of spectrally resolved actinic flux in mountainous terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, J. E.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, J. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Rieder, H. E.; Simic, S.; Webb, A.; Weihs, P.
2009-09-01
Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion more than 30 year ago, the scientific community has shown an increasing interest in UV radiation. However for photochemical reactions and various biological processes actinic flux is more important. Therefore, three measurement campaigns had been conducted in alpine areas of Austria (Innsbruck and Hoher Sonnblick). The goal was to investigate the impact of alpine terrain in combination with snow cover on spectral actinic flux under clear sky conditions. This contribution uses the ground-based UV actinic flux measurements to evaluate two different calculation methods. The modified (with topography) 3-D radiative transfer model GRIMALDI was used to calculate the distribution of actinic flux at the ground for selected clear sky situations. To estimate the impact of 3-D effects on actinic flux, the measurement results are also compared with the output of 1-D-model (SDISORT) runs. Apart from border problems due to periodic boundary conditions the spatial distribution of actinic flux is well reproduced by the 3-D-model. Shadowing effects and increasing actinic flux with altitude are realistically reproduced in the calculated 3-D-radiation field.
Marine fluorescence from high spectrally resolved satellite measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolanin, Aleksandra; Dinter, Tilman; Rozanov, Vladimir; Noël, Stefan; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.; Bracher, Astrid
2014-05-01
When chlorophyll molecules absorb light, most of this energy is transformed into chemical energy in a process of photosynthesis. However, a fraction of the energy absorbed is reemitted as fluorescence. As a result of its relationship to photosynthetic e?ciency, information about chlorophyll fluorescence can be used to assess the physiological state of phytoplankton (Falkowski and Kolber,1995). In-situ measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence are widespread in physiological and ecophysiological studies. When retrieved from space, chlorophyll fluorescence can improve our knowledge of global biogeochemical cycles and phytoplankton productivity (Behrenfeld et al., 2009; Huot et al., 2013) by providing high coverage and periodicity. So far, the only satellite retrieval of sun-induced marine fluorescence, Fluorescence Line Height (FLH), was designed for MODIS (Abbott and Letelier, 1999), and later also applied to the similar sensor MERIS (Gower et al., 2004). However, it could so far not be evaluated on global scale. Here, we present a different approach to observe marine chlorophyll fluorescence, based on the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique (Perner and Platt, 1979) applied to the hyperspectral data from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). Since fluorescence, as a trans-spectral process, leads to the shift of the wavelength of the radiation, it can be observed in the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines. In our retrieval, we evaluate the filling-in of the Zeeman triplet Fraunhofer line FeI at 684.3 nm, which is located very close to the emission peak of marine fluorescence (~685 nm). In order to conduct the chlorophyll fluorescence retrieval with the DOAS method, we calculated the reference spectra for chlorophyll fluorescence, based on simulations performed with the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014
Elimination of the direction ambiguity and the dead zone in spectrally resolved interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Young Ho; Seo, Yong Bum; Joo, Ki-Nam
2016-03-01
We propose a very simple and effective technique to eliminate the direction ambiguity and the dead zone, which limit the measurable range in spectrally resolved interferometry (SRI). By using a dispersive material, the nonlinear spectral phase caused by the dispersion can provide useful information and determine the direction of measuring distances. In addition, the dead zone is removed by two complementary measurement results in dichroic SRI. As the results of feasibility experiments, it was confirmed that the nonlinearity of the spectral phase successfully determined the direction of the measuring distances. Moreover, the final linear distances in the whole measurement range without the dead zone was obtained in dichroic SRI with two LEDs.
Comparing spectral resolvability in chinchillas and human listeners using phase discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shofner, William P.; Sparks, Kathryn; Wu, Yuanxing Esther; Pham, Ellen
2004-05-01
A tone complex made of harmonic components that are added in cosine-starting phase can be discriminated from complexes comprised of identical harmonics that are added with random-starting phases. Phase discrimination occurs when unresolved harmonics interact within a single auditory channel. When harmonics are resolved, there is less interaction among components resulting in poorer phase discrimination performance. Thus, phase discrimination indirectly reflects spectral resolvability. Performance in a phase discrimination task was measured in chinchillas and human listeners to compare spectral resolvability between the two groups. Subjects discriminated a cosine-phase tone complex from random-phase tone complexes in a go/no-go behavioral paradigm. Tone complexes were comprised of a 250-Hz fundamental frequency and N consecutive higher harmonics, where N was 5, 10, 20, and 40. Performance was evaluated in terms of d'. The results show that the measured d' increased as N increased, and values of d' for each N condition were similar between chinchillas and human listeners. Values of the criterion for each N condition were also similar between chinchillas and humans. The results do not support the hypothesis that spectral resolvability is poorer in chinchillas, but suggest that resolvability is similar between the two groups. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.
Time-resolved and spectral-resolved optical imaging to study brain hemodynamics in songbirds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottin, Stéphane; Montcel, Bruno; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Ramstein, Stéphane; Vignal, Clémentine; Mathevon, Nicolas
2011-07-01
Contrary to the intense debate about brain oxygen dynamics and its uncoupling in mammals, very little is known in birds. In zebra finches, picosecond optical tomography (POT) with a white laser and a streak camera can measure in vivo oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes following physiological stimulation (familiar calls and songs). POT demonstrated sufficient sub-micromolar sensitivity to resolve the fast changes in hippocampus and auditory forebrain areas with 250 μm resolution. The time-course is composed of (i) an early 2s-long event with a significant decrease in Hb and HbO2, respectively -0.7 μMoles/L and -0.9 μMoles/L (ii) a subsequent increase in blood oxygen availability with a plateau of HbO2 (+0.3μMoles/L) and (iii) pronounced vasodilatation events immediately following the end of the stimulus. One of the findings of our work is the direct link between the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals previously published in birds and our results. Furthermore, the early vasoconstriction event and post-stimulus ringing seem to be more pronounced in birds than in mammals. These results in bird, a tachymetabolic vertebrate with a long lifespan, can potentially yield new insights for example in brain aging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Soden, Brian; Liu, Xu
2015-04-01
Radiative feedback is normally discussed in terms of Watts per square meter per K, i.e., the change of broadband flux due to the change of certain climate variable in response to 1K change in global-mean surface temperature. However, the radiative feedback has an intrinsic dimension of spectrum and spectral radiative feedback can be defined in terms of Watts per square meter per K per frequency (or per wavelength). A set of all-sky and clear-sky longwave (LW) spectral radiative kernels (SRK) are constructed using a recently developed spectral flux simulator based on the PCRTM (Principal-Component-based Radiative Transfer Model). The LW spectral radiative kernels are validated against the benchmark partial radiative perturbation method. The LW broadband feedbacks derived using this SRK method are consistent with the published results using the broadband radiative kernels. The SRK is then applied to 12 GCMs in CMIP3 archives and 12 GCMs in CMIP5 archives to derive the spectrally resolved Planck, lapse rate, and LW water vapor feedbacks. The inter-model spreads of the spectral lapse-rate feedbacks among the CMIP3 models are noticeably different than those among the CMIP5 models. In contrast, the inter-model spread of spectral LW water vapor feedbacks changes little from the CMIP3 to CMIP5 simulations, when the specific humidity is used as the state variable. Spatially the far-IR band is more responsible for the changes in lapse-rate feedbacks from the CMIP3 to CMIP5 than the window band. When relative humidity (RH) is used as state variable, virtually all GCMs have little broadband RH feedbacks as shown in Held & Shell (2012). However, the RH feedbacks can be significantly non-zero over different LW spectral regions and the spectral details of such RH feedbacks vary significantly from one GCM to the other. Finally an interpretation based on a one-layer atmospheric model is presented to illustrate under what statistical circumstances the linear technique can be applied
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Rongyi; Hu, Kun; Li, Yao; Gao, Shuyuan; Zhou, Weihu
2017-02-01
Spectrally resolved interferometry (SRI) technology is a high precision laser interferometry technology, whose short non-ambiguity range (NAR) increases the precision requirement of pre-measurement in absolute distance measurement. In order to improve NAR of femtosecond laser SRI, the factors affecting NAR are studied in measurement system, and synthetic NAR method is presented based on excess fraction method to solve this question. A theoretical analysis is implemented and two Fabry-Perot Etalons with different free spectral range are selected to carry out digital simulation experiments. The experiment shows that NAR can be improved using synthetic NAR method and the precision is the same with that of fundamental femtosecond laser SRI.
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Sherani, Aiman; Hammond, Adam T.
2016-01-01
A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals. PMID:27910631
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.
2016-11-01
A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.
Dahlberg, Peter D; Boughter, Christopher T; Faruk, Nabil F; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E; Hammond, Adam T
2016-11-01
A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunt, Richard R.; Giebink, Noel C.; Belak, Anna A.; Benziger, Jay B.; Forrest, Stephen R.
2009-03-01
We demonstrate spectrally resolved photoluminescence quenching as a means to determine the exciton diffusion length of several archetype organic semiconductors used in thin film devices. We show that aggregation and crystal orientation influence the anisotropy of the diffusion length for vacuum-deposited polycrystalline films. The measurement of the singlet diffusion lengths is found to be in agreement with diffusion by Förster transfer, whereas triplet diffusion occurs primarily via Dexter transfer.
DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF RADIATION/THERMAL FRONTS WITH FULL RESOLVED SPECTRAL OPACITY VARIATION.
L. AUER; R. LOWRIE
2000-12-01
The radiation transport and linearized thermal energy equations have been analyzed to find the temporal dependence of the component modes in a radiation/thermal front. The fully resolved spectral variation of the opacity as a function of energy, as well as the exact time and angular dependence, is treated in this work. As we are able to study arbitrarily complicated opacity spectra, we stress the importance of the new results as a check on the effect of using opacity averages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yujie; Douraghy, Ali; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Stout, David; Tian, Jie; Herschman, Harvey; Chatziioannou, Arion F.
2009-11-01
Bioluminescence imaging has been extensively applied to in vivo small animal imaging. Quantitative three-dimensional bioluminescent source information obtained by using bioluminescence tomography can directly and much more accurately reflect biological changes as opposed to planar bioluminescence imaging. Preliminary simulated and experimental reconstruction results demonstrate the feasibility and promise of bioluminescence tomography. However, the use of multiple approximations, particularly the diffusion approximation theory, affects the quality of in vivo small animal-based image reconstructions. In the development of new reconstruction algorithms, high-order approximation models of the radiative transfer equation and spectrally resolved data introduce new challenges to the reconstruction algorithm and speed. In this paper, an SP3-based (the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation) spectrally resolved reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The simple linear relationship between the unknown source distribution and the spectrally resolved data is established in this algorithm. A parallel version of this algorithm is realized, making BLT reconstruction feasible for the whole body of small animals especially for fine spatial domain discretization. In simulation validations, the proposed algorithm shows improved reconstruction quality compared with diffusion approximation-based methods when high absorption, superficial sources and detection modes are considered. In addition, comparisons between fine and coarse mesh-based BLT reconstructions show the effects of numerical errors in reconstruction image quality. Finally, BLT reconstructions using in vivo mouse experiments further demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the SP3-based reconstruction algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horilova, Julia; Cunderlikova, Beata; Marcek Chorvatova, Alzbeta
2015-05-01
Early detection of cancer is crucial for the successful diagnostics of its presence and its subsequent treatment. To improve cancer detection, we tested the progressive multimodal optical imaging of U87MG cells in culture. A combination of steady-state spectroscopic methods with the time-resolved approach provides a new insight into the native metabolism when focused on endogenous tissue fluorescence. In this contribution, we evaluated the metabolic state of living U87MG cancer cells in culture by means of endogenous flavin fluorescence. Confocal microscopy and time-resolved fluorescence imaging were employed to gather spectrally and time-resolved images of the flavin fluorescence. We observed that flavin fluorescence in U87MG cells was predominantly localized outside the cell nucleus in mitochondria, while exhibiting a spectral maximum under 500 nm and fluorescence lifetimes under 1.4 ns, suggesting the presence of bound flavins. In some cells, flavin fluorescence was also detected inside the cell nuclei in the nucleoli, exhibiting longer fluorescence lifetimes and a red-shifted spectral maximum, pointing to the presence of free flavin. Extra-nuclear flavin fluorescence was diminished by 2-deoxyglucose, but failed to increase with 2,4-dinitrophenol, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, indicating that the cells use glycolysis, rather than oxidative phosphorylation for functioning. These gathered data are the first step toward monitoring the metabolic state of U87MG cancer cells.
Nonstationary envelope process and first excursion probability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, J.-N.
1972-01-01
The definition of stationary random envelope proposed by Cramer and Leadbetter, is extended to the envelope of nonstationary random process possessing evolutionary power spectral densities. The density function, the joint density function, the moment function, and the crossing rate of a level of the nonstationary envelope process are derived. Based on the envelope statistics, approximate solutions to the first excursion probability of nonstationary random processes are obtained. In particular, applications of the first excursion probability to the earthquake engineering problems are demonstrated in detail.
Spectrally-resolved measurement of concentrated light distributions for Fresnel lens concentrators.
Besson, P; White, P McVey; Dominguez, C; Voarino, P; Garcia-Linares, P; Lemiti, M; Schriemer, H; Hinzer, K; Baudrit, M
2016-01-25
A test method that measures spectrally resolved irradiance distribution for a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) optical system is presented. In conjunction with electrical I-V curves, it is a means to visualize and characterize the effects of chromatic aberration and nonuniform flux profiles under controllable testing conditions. The indoor characterization test bench, METHOD (Measurement of Electrical, Thermal and Optical Devices), decouples the temperatures of the primary optical element (POE) and the cell allowing their respective effects on optical and electrical performance to be analysed. In varying the temperature of the POE, the effects on electrical efficiency, focal distance, spectral sensitivity, acceptance angle and multi-junction current matching profiles can be quantified. This work presents the calibration procedures to accurately image the spectral irradiance distribution of a CPV system and a study of system behavior over lens temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Victoria, Marta; Domínguez, César; Jost, Norman; Vallerotto, Guido; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel
2017-09-01
The experimental method to determine the spectrally-resolved optical efficiency of concentrating optics is described in this paper. The measurement uses a multi-junction solar cell as light sensor and a series of band-pass filters to isolate the optical performance of different narrow spectral bands throughout the spectrum of interest. Additional bias light is provided to saturate the subcells whose spectral response is out of the transmittance of every band-pass filter. The method allows the characterization of the combined transmittance, reflectance and absorbance of every material composing the optics including optical couplers and thin layers such as antireflective coatings. The two application cases included illustrate the potential of this novel characterization technique. Firstly, a novel refractive concentrator, the Achromatic Doublet on Glass (ADG) Fresnel lens is measured. Secondly, the method is applied to analyze the degradation of outdoor exposed glass molded Secondary Optical Elements (SOE).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolka, Jozef; Mateasik, Anton
2006-08-01
Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an efficient substance used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is a precursor of light-sensitive products that can selectively accumulate in malignant cells following the altered activity of the heme biosynthetic pathway enzymes in such cells. These products are synthesized in mitochondria and distributed to various cellular structures [1]. The localization of ALA products in subcellular structures depends on their chemical characteristics as well as on the properties of the intracellular environment [2]. Characterization of such properties is possible by means of fluorescent probes like JC-1 and carboxy SNARF-1. However, the emission spectra of these probes are overlapped with spectral pattern of typical ALA product -protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Spectral overlap of fluorescence signals prevents to clearly separate a distribution of probes from PpIX distribution what can completely mess the applicability of these probes in characterization of cell properties. The spectrally resolved confocal laser microscopy can be used to overcome this problem. In this study, a distribution of ALA metabolic products in relation to the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular pH was examined. Human cell lines (KYSE-450, KYSE-70) from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were used. Cells were incubated with 1mM solution of ALA for four hours. Two fluorescent probes, carboxy SNARF-1 and JC-1 , were used to monitor intracellular pH levels and to determine membrane potential changes, respectively. The samples were scanned by spectrally resolved laser scanning microscope. Spectral linear unmixing method was used to discriminate and separate regions of accumulation of ALA metabolic products of JC-1 and carboxy SNARF-1.
Spectrally resolved fully phase-encoded three-dimensional fast spin-echo imaging.
Artz, Nathan S; Hernando, Diego; Taviani, Valentina; Samsonov, Alexey; Brittain, Jean H; Reeder, Scott B
2014-02-01
To develop and test the feasibility of a spectrally resolved fully phase-encoded (SR-FPE) three-dimensional fast spin-echo technique and to demonstrate its application for distortion-free imaging near metal and chemical species separation. In separate scans at 1.5 T, a hip prosthesis phantom and a sphere filled with gadolinium solution were imaged with SR-FPE and compared to conventional three-dimensional-fast spin-echo. Spectral modeling was performed on the SR-FPE data to generate the following parametric maps: species-specific signal (ρspecies), B0 field inhomogeneity, and R*2. The prosthesis phantom was also scanned using a 16-channel coil at 1.5 T. The fully sampled k-space data were retrospectively undersampled to demonstrate the feasibility of parallel imaging acceleration in all three phase-encoding directions, in combination with corner-cutting and half-Fourier sampling. Finally, SR-FPE was performed with an acetone/water/oil phantom to test chemical species separation. High quality distortion-free images and parametric maps were generated from SR-FPE. A 4 h SR-FPE scan was retrospectively accelerated to 12 min while preserving spectral information and 7.5 min without preserving spectral data. Chemical species separation was demonstrated in the acetone/water/oil phantom. This work demonstrates the feasibility of SR-FPE to perform chemical species separation and spectrally resolved imaging near metal without distortion, in scan times appropriate for the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spectral ageing in the era of big data: integrated versus resolved models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harwood, Jeremy J.
2017-04-01
Continuous injection models of spectral ageing have long been used to determine the age of radio galaxies from their integrated spectrum; however, many questions about their reliability remain unanswered. With various large area surveys imminent (e.g. LOw Frequency ARray, MeerKAT, Murchison Widefield Array) and planning for the next generation of radio interferometers are well underway (e.g. next generation VLA, Square Kilometre Array), investigations of radio galaxy physics are set to shift away from studies of individual sources to the population as a whole. Determining if and how integrated models of spectral ageing can be applied in the era of big data is therefore crucial. In this paper, I compare classical integrated models of spectral ageing to recent well-resolved studies that use modern analysis techniques on small spatial scales to determine their robustness and validity as a source selection method. I find that integrated models are unable to recover key parameters and, even when known a priori, provide a poor, frequency-dependent description of a source's spectrum. I show a disparity of up to a factor of 6 in age between the integrated and resolved methods but suggest, even with these inconsistencies, such models still provide a potential method of candidate selection in the search for remnant radio galaxies and in providing a cleaner selection of high redshift radio galaxies in z - α selected samples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.
2004-01-01
The flow fields of unheated, supersonic free jets from convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles operating at M = 0.99, 1.4, and 1.6 were measured using spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering technique. The axial component of velocity and temperature data as well as density data obtained from a previous experiment are presented in a systematic way with the goal of producing a database useful for validating computational fluid dynamics codes. The Rayleigh scattering process from air molecules provides a fundamental means of measuring flow properties in a non-intrusive, particle free manner. In the spectrally resolved application, laser light scattered by the air molecules is collected and analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The difference between the incident laser frequency and the peak of the Rayleigh spectrum provides a measure of gas velocity. The temperature is measured from the spectral broadening caused by the random thermal motion and density is measured from the total light intensity. The present point measurement technique uses a CW laser, a scanning FPI and photon counting electronics. The 1 mm long probe volume is moved from point to point to survey the flow fields. Additional arrangements were made to remove particles from the main as well as the entrained flow and to isolate FPI from the high sound and vibration levels produced by the supersonic jets. In general, velocity is measured within +/- 10 m/s accuracy and temperature within +/- 10 K accuracy.
Application of spectral unmixing in multi-wavelength time-resolved spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chorvat, D., Jr.; Mateasik, A.; Kirchnerova, J.; Chorvatova, A.
2007-09-01
We present a new approach for analysis of multi-wavelength time-resolved spectroscopy data, based on sequential spectral unmixing. Principal component analysis was used to identify the number and spectral profiles of the main components of intrinsic flavin signal in multi-wavelength time-resolved fluorescence recordings from isolated living cardiac myocytes. To determine these components, natural variations in the cardiomyocyte autofluorescence spectra were induced by modulators of mitochondrial metabolism and respiration. Using aforementioned approach we have identified two main components of intrinsic flavin emission in cardiac myocytes. The first component show emission maximum at 486-504 nm and mean lifetime of 1.2 nanoseconds, the second component with peak at 522 nm has two-exponential decay with fluorescence lifetimes of 0.3 and 3.1 nanoseconds. Comparison of gathered new results to our previous studies of flavins in vitro and in cardiac cells clearly points to the fact that the estimated spectral components correspond to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) bound to enzyme(s) of mitochondrial metabolic chain, and to free FAD, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andree, Stefan; Luckmann, Heiko; Reble, Carina; Gersonde, Ingo; Helfmann, Jürgen
2011-07-01
A novel fiber probe for spatially resolved reflectance measurements is presented, which uses simultaneously read-out spectrometers for each source-detector separation. Therefore, with this fiber probe and a Monte Carlo simulation, it is possible to determine spectrally resolved absorption and reduced scattering coefficients from various skinsites. The absolute calibration is done by using an integrating sphere but a phantom based calibration procedure was undertaken to compare the results of different calibration techniques. For tissue measurements, a standard SMA adaptor with a one inch diameter face can be used to provide a stable base for placing the probe onto the tissue and the possibility to apply pressure. The evaluation process was carried out by comparing the measured absorption and scattering of silicone and liquid phantoms to their reference values, obtained by integrating sphere spectroscopy. In addition, preliminary skin measurements are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, P. K.; Ghosh, Nirmalya
2016-12-01
Fourier domain low coherence interferometry is a promising method for quantification of the depth distribution of the refractive index in a layered scattering medium such as biological tissue. Here, we have explored backscattering spectral interferometric measurement in combination with multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to probe and quantify multifractality in depth distribution of the refractive index in tissue. The depth resolution of the experimental system was validated on model systems comprising of polystyrene microspheres and mica sheet, and was initially tested on turbid collagen layer, the main building blocks of the connective tissue. Following successful evaluation, the method was applied on ex vivo tissues of human cervix. The derived multifractal parameters of depth-resolved index fluctuations of tissue, namely, the generalized Hurst exponent and the width of the singularity spectrum showed interesting differences between tissues having different grades of precancers. The depth-resolved index fluctuations exhibited stronger multifractality with increasing pathological grades, demonstrating its promise as a potential biomarker for precancer detection.
The sensitivity of the EMAC model to spectrally resolved irradiances during the Archean.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunze, Markus; Godolt, Mareike; Hamann-Reinus, Anke; Langematz, Ulrike; Rauer, Heike; Jöckel, Patrick
The contradiction of a reduced solar luminosity by 15-25% during the Archean and the geo-logic evidence for relative high surface temperatures that allowed the presence of liquid water is known as the faint young sun problem. It is supposed that the cooling induced by a fainter sun was offset by higher levels of greenhouse gases during the Archean. We present a study in which we investigate this problem using the Chemistry Climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy At-mospheric Chemistry) with a constructed, spectrally resolved irradiance dataset valid for the Archean. As proxy for the irradiance of our young sun we use the G0V-dwarf star β com. We test differently scaled spectrally resolved irradiances in an offline version of the FUBrad radiation scheme, to analyse the sensitivity of the input data on the heating rates in the middle atmo-sphere. We then use the EMAC model to analyse the sensitivity of the model dynamics to the spectrally resolved irradiances and other parameters valid for the late Archean Earth, such as the composition of the atmosphere and the land sea mask. Our experimental setup includes a control run, which has a zero land fraction, a slab ocean, the present day atmospheric composition, and the present day solar luminosity. Three sensitivity experiments are performed for: (1) 20% reduced solar irradiance, (2) 15% reduced solar irra-diance, and (3) increased CO2 concentration. We concentrate on the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere with emphasis on the middle atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenault, David B.; Pezzaniti, J. L.; Roche, Michael; Hyatt, Brian
2016-05-01
A full sky imaging spectro-polarimeter has been developed that measures spectrally resolved (~2.5 nm resolution) radiance and polarization (𝑠0, 𝑠1, 𝑠2 Stokes Elements) of natural sky down-welling over approximately 2π sr between 400nm and 1000nm. The sensor is based on a scanning push broom hyperspectral imager configured with a continuously rotating polarizer (sequential measurement in time polarimeter). Sensor control and processing software (based on Polaris Sensor Technologies Grave' camera control software) has a straight-forward and intuitive user interface that provides real-time updated sky down-welling spectral radiance/polarization maps and statistical analysis tools.
Zaręba, Jan K; Białek, Michał J; Janczak, Jan; Nyk, Marcin; Zoń, Jerzy; Samoć, Marek
2015-11-16
Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiencies are usually measured at single wavelengths. In the present work, we provide a proof of concept of spectrally resolved powder SHG measured for a newly obtained series of three non-centrosymmetric coordination polymers (CPs). CPs are constructed from tetrahedral linker-tetraphenylmethane-based tetraphosphonate octaethyl ester and cobalt(II) ions of mixed, octahedral (Oh), and tetrahedral (Td), geometries and different sets of donors (CoO6 vs CoX3O). Isostructurality of the obtained materials allowed for the determination of anion-dependent tunability of SHG optical spectra and their relationship with solid-state absorption spectra.
Spectrally resolved fluorescence cross sections of BG and BT with a 266-nm pump wavelength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkins, Joshua; Thomas, Michael E.; Joseph, Richard I.
2007-04-01
The spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections of Bacillus globigii (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were measured with a 266nm Nd:YAG laser source. The aerosol samples were prepared in dilute aqueous suspensions for measurement and the absolute cross section was found by use of the Raman scattering line from water. Integrated cross sections for BT and BG were found to be 1.1864 × 10 -12 cm2(spore sr) and 3.251 × 10 -13 cm2/ (spore sr) respectively.
Dichroic spectrally-resolved interferometry to overcome the measuring range limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Ki-Nam
2015-09-01
In this investigation, a simple method to eliminate the dead zone without the minimum measurable distance and extend the measurable range of spectrally resolved interferometry (SRI) twice based on the bandwidth separation by a dichroic beam splitter (DBS) is proposed. The main advantage of this dichroic SRI is that it can be simply implemented with a dichroic beam splitter and another reference mirror from the typical SRI. Feasibility experiments were performed to verify the principle of the dichroic SRI and the result confirmed the effectiveness of this method as the extended measuring range. Some practical error sources are considered and the alternative solutions are also discussed.
Measuring evolution of a photon in an interferometer with spectrally resolved modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bula, Marek; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; JavÅ¯rek, Dalibor; Lemr, Karel; Michálek, Václav; Soubusta, Jan
2016-11-01
In the year 2013, Danan et al. published a paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240402] demonstrating a counterintuitive behavior of photons in nested Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The authors then proposed an explanation based on the two-state vector formalism. This experiment and the authors' explanation raised a vivid debate within the scientific community. In this paper, we contribute to the ongoing debate by presenting an alternative experimental implementation of the Danan et al. scheme. We show that no counterintuitive behavior is observed when performing direct spectrally resolved detection.
Spectrally resolved four-wave mixing experiments on bulk GaAs with 14-fs pulses
Wehner, M.U.; Steinbach, D.; Wegener, M.; Marschner, T.; Stolz, W.
1996-05-01
We investigate the coherent dynamics at the band edge of GaAs at low temperatures for carrier densities ranging from 4.3{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} to 4.4{times}10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} by means of spectrally resolved transient four-wave mixing with 14-fs pulses. At large nonequilibrium carrier densities we observe oscillations with an energy-dependent oscillation period related to interference among continuum states. The experimental findings are compared with a simple model. This comparison delivers a weak energy dependence of dephasing in the initial buildup phase of screening. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowron, John William
Both confocal microscopes and photoluminescence wafer mapping systems are well-developed technologies, however the application of confocal techniques to photoluminescence microscopy is not common in the literature. While developing this microscope a novel design for a spectrally-resolved detection arm was implemented. The microscope shows full confocal capabilities in reflected light operation, good spectral sensitivity in the visible region and a range of possible spectral resolutions between 10 nm and 0.1 nm, however the axial response in photoluminescence operation was found to be broader than expected by a factor of two. Calculations were performed to model and understand the new microscope. Simulations of the axial-response of an infinity-connected microscope in reflected light agreed well with experimental data. A new prediction showed that under certain circumstances the maximum signal is not always obtained at best focus. This prediction was confirmed later by experiment. These calculations were extended to understand the broadening observed in photoluminescence imaging. Three factors were considered: absorption in the material, diffusion of photo-excited carriers and the high refractive index of the material. The utility of the microscope was demonstrated by using it to image several different samples. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging was demonstrated for a stained biological specimen. Auto-fluorescence imaging was demonstrated using an ultra-violet laser and spectrally-resolved images were used to distinguish between various materials in the specimen. Confocal image stacking was demonstrated in photoluminescence on a CuO sample. Confocal photoluminescence images were shown to have higher spatial resolution than non-confocal images. Quantitative information was obtained for a SiC sample containing several polytypes. The optical measurements were then correlated with X-ray diffraction measurements in order to arrive at a polytype identification scheme
Improvement of spectrally resolved interferometry without direction ambiguity and dead zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Young Ho; Joo, Ki-Nam
2016-08-01
Spectrally-resolved interferometry (SRI) is a very useful technique to measure distances and surface profiles based on the analysis of the spectral interferogram. The most attractive feature of SRI is to obtain the spectral phase to extract the measuring distance at once without any scanning mechanism opposed to the low coherence scanning interferometry although phase shifting techniques can be involved in SRI to improve the measurement accuracy in some cases. However, the measurement range of SRI is relatively small because of the fundamental measuring range limitations such as the maximum measurable range and the minimum measurable range. Moreover, the important issue in SRI is the direction ambiguity because it always provides the positive values, regardless of the direction. In case of measuring optical path difference (OPD) when the reference path is longer than the measurement path, the measurement result of SRI is the same as the distance in the opposite case. Then, SRI only uses one direction to measure distances or surface profiles for the linearity of the measurement results due to these fundamental characteristics although its whole measuring range is two times longer. In this investigation, we propose a very simple and effective technique to eliminate the direction ambiguity and the dead zone, which limit the measurable range in SRI. By using a dispersive material, the nonlinear spectral phase caused by the dispersion can provide useful information and determine the direction of measuring distances. In addition, the dead zone can be successfully removed by two complementary measurement results in dichroic SRI.
The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering
Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Vorberger, J.; Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K.; Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T.; Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A.; and others
2015-05-15
We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Němec, P.; Pásztor, F.; Brajer, M.; Němec, I.
2017-04-01
Determination of the molecular first hyperpolarizability by hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) is usually significantly complicated by a presence of the multiphoton excited fluorescence which has to be separated from HRS to obtain a meaningful values of the hyperpolarizability. We show, by performing a spectrally-resolved measurement, that the intensity and spectral shape of the fluorescence can depend strongly on the fundamental laser wavelength. Consequently, a properly selected excitation wavelength can significantly simplify the process of separation of HRS from the detected signal. We tested the developed experimental setup with a polarization-insensitive detection by measuring HRS generated in water and in aqueous solutions of 2-aminopyrimidine (AMP) and its monocation (HAMP). The effective hyperpolarizability of AMP and HAMP was measured experimentally and compared with that obtained by quantum chemical calculations. The polarization-resolved HRS measurement was performed for AMP and the experimentally obtained depolarization ratio agrees well with that predicted theoretically, which confirms that routine density functional theory computations of static hyperpolarizability tensor components can be considered as a sufficient approach suitable for non-interacting molecules dissolved in water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levitt, James A.; Chung, Pei-Hua; Suhling, Klaus
2015-09-01
Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging have been used to measure the polarity of lipid-rich regions in living HeLa cells stained with Nile red. The emission peak from the solvatochromic dye in lipid droplets is at a shorter wavelength than other, more polar, stained internal membranes, and this is indicative of a low polarity environment. We estimate that the dielectric constant, ɛ, is around 5 in lipid droplets and 25<ɛ<40 in other lipid-rich regions. Our spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data show that intracellular Nile red exhibits complex, multiexponential fluorescence decays due to emission from a short lifetime locally excited state and a longer lifetime intramolecular charge transfer state. We measure an increase in the average fluorescence lifetime of the dye with increasing emission wavelength, as shown using phasor plots of the FLIM data. We also show using these phasor plots that the shortest lifetime decay components arise from lipid droplets. Thus, fluorescence lifetime is a viable contrast parameter for distinguishing lipid droplets from other stained lipid-rich regions. Finally, we discuss the FLIM of Nile red as a method for simultaneously mapping both polarity and relative viscosity based on fluorescence lifetime measurements.
Spectrally resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography
Cong, Wenxiang; Shen, Haiou; Wang, Ge
2011-01-01
The nanophosphors, or other similar materials, emit near-infrared (NIR) light upon x-ray excitation. They were designed as optical probes for in vivo visualization and analysis of molecular and cellular targets, pathways, and responses. Based on the previous work on x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) and x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT), here we propose a spectrally-resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography (SXLCT or SXFCT) approach to quantify a spatial distribution of nanophosphors (other similar materials or chemical elements) within a biological object. In this paper, the x-ray scattering is taken into account in the reconstruction algorithm. The NIR scattering is described in the diffusion approximation model. Then, x-ray excitations are applied with different spectra, and NIR signals are measured in a spectrally resolving fashion. Finally, a linear relationship is established between the nanophosphor distribution and measured NIR data using the finite element method and inverted using the compressive sensing technique. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the proposed approach. PMID:21721815
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana
2014-09-01
Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.
The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scatteringa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraus, D.; Vorberger, J.; Helfrich, J.; Gericke, D. O.; Bachmann, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Barbrel, B.; Blažević, A.; Carroll, D. C.; Cayzac, W.; Döppner, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Frank, A.; Frydrych, S.; Gamboa, E. J.; Gauthier, M.; Göde, S.; Granados, E.; Gregori, G.; Hartley, N. J.; Kettle, B.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Notley, M. M.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Ravasio, A.; Riley, D.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Schumaker, W.; Siegenthaler, K.; Spindloe, C.; Wagner, F.; Wünsch, K.; Glenzer, S. H.; Roth, M.; Falcone, R. W.
2015-05-01
We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yijing; Thom, Maria; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Desjardins, Adrien; Ourselin, Sebastien; Vercauteren, Tom
2017-02-01
In glioma resection surgery, the detection of tumour is often guided by using intraoperative fluorescence imaging notably with 5-ALA-PpIX, providing fluorescent contrast between normal brain tissue and the gliomas tissue to achieve improved tumour delineation and prolonged patient survival compared with the conventional white-light guided resection. However, the commercially available fluorescence imaging system relies on surgeon's eyes to visualise and distinguish the fluorescence signals, which unfortunately makes the resection subjective. In this study, we developed a novel multi-scale spectrally-resolved fluorescence imaging system and a computational model for quantification of PpIX concentration. The system consisted of a wide-field spectrally-resolved quantitative imaging device and a fluorescence endomicroscopic imaging system enabling optical biopsy. Ex vivo animal tissue experiments as well as human tumour sample studies demonstrated that the system was capable of specifically detecting the PpIX fluorescent signal and estimate the true concentration of PpIX in brain specimen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Irfanullah, Mir; Basu, Santanu Kumar; Madhu, Sheri; De, Suman; Jadhav, Sameer; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Chowdhury, Arindam
2017-03-01
While fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool amongst chemists and biologists for the detection of various analyte within cellular environments, non-uniform spatial distribution of sensors within cells often restricts extraction of reliable information on relative abundance of analytes in different subcellular regions. As an alternative to existing sensing methodologies such as ratiometric or FRET imaging, where relative proportion of analyte with respect to the sensor can be obtained within cells, we propose a methodology using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy, via which both the relative abundance of sensor as well as their relative proportion with respect to the analyte can be simultaneously extracted for local subcellular regions. This method is exemplified using a BODIPY sensor, capable of detecting mercury ions within cellular environments, characterized by spectral blue-shift and concurrent enhancement of emission intensity. Spectral emission envelopes collected from sub-microscopic regions allowed us to compare the shift in transition energies as well as integrated emission intensities within various intracellular regions. Construction of a 2D scatter plot using spectral shifts and emission intensities, which depend on the relative amount of analyte with respect to sensor and the approximate local amounts of the probe, respectively, enabled qualitative extraction of relative abundance of analyte in various local regions within a single cell as well as amongst different cells. Although the comparisons remain semi-quantitative, this approach involving analysis of multiple spectral parameters opens up an alternative way to extract spatial distribution of analyte in heterogeneous systems. The proposed method would be especially relevant for fluorescent probes that undergo relatively nominal shift in transition energies compared to their emission bandwidths, which often restricts their usage for quantitative ratiometric imaging in
FTS atlas of the Sun's spectrally resolved center-to-limb variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenflo, J. O.
2015-01-01
The Sun's spectrum varies with center-to-limb distance, which is usually parameterized by μ = cosθ, where θ is the heliocentric angle. This variation is governed by the underlying temperature-density structure of the solar atmosphere. While the center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the continuous spectrum is well known and has been widely used for atmospheric modeling, there has been no systematic exploration of the spectrally resolved CLV. Here we make use of two spectral atlases recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the McMath-Pierce facility at Kitt Peak. One spectral atlas obtained 10 arcsec inside the solar limb was recorded in 1978-79 as part of the first survey of the Second Solar Spectrum, while the other atlas is the well used reference NSO/Kitt Peak FTS atlas for the disk center. Both atlases represent fully resolved spectra without any spectral stray light. We then construct an atlas of the limb/disk-center ratio between the two spectra over the wavelength range 4084-9950 Å. This ratio spectrum, which expresses the CLV amplitude relative to the continuum, is as richly structured as the intensity spectrum itself, but the line profiles differ greatly in both shape and amplitude. It is as if we are dealing with a new, unfamiliar spectrum of the Sun, distinctly different from both the intensity spectrum (which we here refer to with the acronym SS1) and the linear polarization of the Second Solar Spectrum (for which we use acronym SS2). In analogy we refer to the new ratio spectrum as SS3. While there is hardly any resemblance between SS3 and SS2, we are able to identify a non-linear mapping that can translate SS1 to SS3 in the case of weak to medium-strong spectral lines that are mainly formed in LTE (being directly coupled to the local temperature-density structure). This non-linear mapping is successfully modeled in terms of two free parameters that are found to vary approximately linearly over the entire wavelength range covered. These
Noninvasive tumor detection using spectrally-resolved in-vivo imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostenich, Gennady; Kimel, Sol; Malik, Zvi; Orenstein, Arie
2000-11-01
A novel spectral image-analysis system was used for tumor fluorescence and reflectance imaging in an animal model and in patients. Transcutaneous fluorescence imaging was carried out on Balb/c mice bearing subcutaneous C26 colon carcinoma after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a metabolic precursor of protoporphyrin-IX (PP), and of a novel photosensitizer tetrahydroporphyrin (THP). Tumors were clearly observable by fluorescence detection using green light excitation. Tumor versus normal tissue uptake of the photosensitizing agents was determined by monitoring fluorescence intensity. Maximal PP accumulation in tumor was observed 3 h after i.p. injection of ALA, whereas THP showed selective accumulation in tumor 24 h after administration. Reflectance spectroscopy was employed to study pigmented human skin lesions (nevus, pigmented BCC and pigmented melanoma). In the near-infrared region (800-880 nm) pigmented BCC and melanoma exhibited a differently shaped reflectance spectrum compared to normal skin and nevus. Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging, in combination with mathematical algorithms (such as normalization, spectral similarity mapping and division) allowed unambiguous detection of malignancies. Optical biopsy results from a total of 51 patients showed 45 benign nevi, 3 pigmented BCC and 3 malignant melanomas, as confirmed by histology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Amanda; Adams, Daniel; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles
2010-10-01
Characterization of the nonlinear refractive index of a material is important in order to fully understand the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses. The most common method to obtaining the nonlinear refractive index is Z-scan. However, since it averages over pulse duration and beam profile, Z-scan is not reliable when there is time- and intensity-dependence of the nonlinear response. The new method we are exploring to make these nonlinear refractive index measurements is spatially and spectrally resolved interferometry (SSRI). SSRI is a method that can give a simultaneous measurement of the spatial wave-front across the frequency or temporal profile of the pulse. The SSRI method proves better in measuring response at specific y and t, allowing it to measure both delayed response and saturation effects. The ability to make a measurement in both dimensions enables understanding of spatiotemporal dynamics in other experiments as cross-wave polarization and filamentation.
Line-scanning microscopy for time-gated and spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging.
Nakamura, Ryosuke; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro; Kobayashi, Akio; Kanematsu, Yasuo
2008-04-01
Laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy for efficient acquisition of time-gated and spectrally resolved fluorescence images was developed based on line illumination of the laser beam and detection of the fluorescence image through a slit. In this optical arrangement, the fluorescence image was obtained by scanning only one axis perpendicular to the excitation line, and the acquisition time was significantly reduced compared with conventional laser-scanning confocal microscopy. A multidimensional fluorescence dataset consisting of fluorescence intensities as a function of x-position, y-position, fluorescence wavelength, and delay time after photoexcitation was analyzed and decomposed based on the parallel factor analysis model. The performance of the line-scanning microscopy was examined by applying it to the analysis of one of the plant defense responses, accumulation of antimicrobial compounds of phytoalexin in oat (Avena sativa), induced by the elicitor treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moran, Andrew M.; Nome, Rene A.; Scherer, Norbert F.
2007-11-01
The experimental design and theoretical description of a novel five-pulse laser spectroscopy is presented with an application to a pyridinium charge transfer complex in acetonitrile and methanol. In field-resolved polarizability response spectroscopy (PORS), an electronically resonant laser pulse first excites a solvated chromophore (reactant) and off-resonant Raman spectra of the resulting nuclear motions are measured as a function of the reaction time. The present apparatus differs from our earlier design by performing the Raman probe measurement (with fixed pulse delays) in the frequency domain. In addition, the full electric fields of the signals are measured by spectral interferometry to separate nonresonant and Raman responses. Our theoretical model shows how the PORS signal arises from nuclear motions that are displaced/driven by the photoinduced reaction. The field-resolved off-resonant (of the solute's electronic transitions) probing favors detection of solvent (as opposed to solute) dynamics coupled to the reaction. The sign of the signal represents the relative strengths of polarization responses associated with the ground and photoexcited solutions. Signatures of nonresonant and PORS signal contributions to the experimental results are analyzed with numerical calculations based on a theoretical model we have developed for reaction-induced PORS. Our model identifies two mechanisms of PORS signal generation: (i) structural relaxation induced resonance; (ii) dephasing induced resonance. In the charge transfer reaction investigated, the solvent-dependent and time-evolving (solvent) polarizability spectral density (PSD) is readily obtained. The general trend of an initial broadband inertial nuclear response followed by a decrease in the linewidth of the PSD establishes that the measured PSD is inconsistent with the approximation of a linear response. Furthermore, the explicit time evolution of the PSD is important for properly describing solvent control of
Spectrally-resolved Soft X-ray Observations and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry; McTiernan, James; Woods, Thomas N.
2015-04-01
Solar X-ray observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating and particle acceleration, during solar flares and quiescent periods. How the corona is heated to its ~1-3 MK nominal temperature remains one of the fundamental unanswered questions of solar physics; heating of plasma to tens of MK during solar flares -- particularly to the hottest observed temperatures of up to ~50 MK -- is also still poorly understood. Soft X-ray emission (~0.1-10 keV; or ~0.1-10 nm) is particularly sensitive to hot coronal plasma and serves as a probe of the thermal processes driving coronal plasma heating. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding these energetic processes, but there have historically been very few such observations. We present new solar soft X-ray spectra from the Amptek X123-SDD, measuring quiescent solar X-ray emission from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution from two SDO/EVE calibration sounding rocket underflights in 2012 and 2013. Combined with observations from RHESSI, GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, and SDO/AIA, the temperature distribution derived from these data suggest significant hot (5-10 MK) emission from active regions, and the 2013 spectra suggest a low-FIP enhancement of only ~1.6 relative to the photosphere, 40% of the usually-observed value from quiescent coronal plasma. We explore the implications of these findings on coronal heating. We discuss future missions for spectrally-resolved soft X-ray observations using the X123-SDD, including the upcoming MinXSS 3U CubeSat using the X123-SDD and scheduled for deployment in mid-2015, and the CubIXSS 6U CubeSat mission concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdés, Pablo A.; Jacobs, Valerie L.; Leblond, Frederic; Wilson, Brian C.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.
2014-03-01
Fluorescence-guidance is a useful adjunct to maximize brain tumor resection but current commercial systems are limited by subjective assessment of fluorescence, low sensitivity and non-spectrally-resolved detection. We present a quantitative, spectrally-resolved system integrated onto a commercial neurosurgical microscope that performs spectrallyresolved detection and corrects for effects of tissue optical absorption and scattering on the detected fluorescence signal to image the true fluorophore concentration. Pre-clinical studies in rodent glioma models using multiple fluorophores (PpIX, fluorescein) and clinical studies demonstrate improved residual tumor tissue detection. This quantitative, spectrally-resolved technique opens the door to simultaneous image-guided surgery of multiple fluorophores in the visible and near infrared.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Stephen
2011-01-01
We are developing arrays of transition-edge sensor (TES) X-ray detectors optimized for high count-rate solar astronomy applications where characterizing the high velocity motions of X-ray jets in solar flares is of particular interest. These devices are fabricated on thick Si substrates and consist of 35x35micron^2 TESs with 4.5micron thick, 60micron pitch, electroplated absorbers. We have tested devices fabricated with different geometric stem contact areas with the TES and surrounding substrate area, which allows us to investigate the loss of athermal phonons to the substrate. Results show a correlation between the stem contact area and a non-Gaussian broadening in the spectral line shape consistent with athermal phonon loss. When the contact area is minimized we have obtained remarkable board-band spectral resolving capabilities of 1.3 plus or minus 0.leV at an energy of 1.5 keV, 1.6 plus or minus 0.1 eV at 5.9 keV and 2.0 plus or minus 0.1 eV at 8 keV. This, coupled with a capability of accommodating 100's of counts per second per pixel makes these devices an exciting prospect of future x-ray astronomy applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doubrovski, V. A.; Dvoretski, K. N.; Dolmashkin, A. A.
2010-08-01
The spectral dependence of the resolving power of an acoustooptic method of monitoring agglutination of human blood erythrocytes is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, in principle, the resolving power of this method can be increased by several dozen times. The results of the work can be used to create instruments for determining the human blood type in the AB0 system and in the Rhesus system.
Climatic impact of spectrally resolved irradiances during the late Archean as modeled with EMAC-FUB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Godolt, M.; Hamann-Reinus, A.; Rauer, H.; Joeckel, P.
2011-12-01
During the Archean eon the surface temperatures of the Earth are assumed to have been high enough to support liquid water, despite a lower luminosity of the young Sun. This fact, known as the faint young Sun paradox, can be explained by assuming higher concentrations of greenhouse gases during the early stages of the Earth. But there is still an ongoing debate about the possible range of greenhouse gas concentrations that are consistent with the geologic evidence. We present a study in which we investigate this problem using the Chemistry Climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) in a resolution of T42/L39 with the high-resolution shortwave radiation scheme FUBRad (EMAC-FUB). We are using a constructed, spectrally resolved irradiance dataset valid for the Archean Sun, and analyze the climatic impact of the reduced solar luminosity, an anoxic environment, an increased CO2 concentration, and the different land mass. In total six simulations have been performed, where two simulations only differ by the O2 and O3 content and otherwise have present day conditions. Four simulations use a global ocean, as the distribution and fraction of the continents are highly uncertain during the Archean, and anoxic conditions. Three simulations use a reduced solar luminosity, where two CO2 scenarios are tested (3 ± PAL and 10 ± PAL). As proxy for the early Sun during the late Archean at 2.5 Ga (109 years ago) we take the dwarf star β Com. The spectrally resolved irradiances are compiled from measurements and modeled data, and scaled to a total solar irradiance (TSI) of 82 % the present TSI (i.e. 1121 W m-2). We show that in an anoxic environment with reduced solar luminosity at 2.5 Ga, a global ocean, and present day greenhouse gases, it is still possible to have liquid water in tropical latitudes, even though the global, annual mean surface temperature is below the freezing point of water. When the CO2 concentration is increased, the region of open water widens. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoneman, M. R.; Singh, D. R.; Raicu, V.
2010-02-01
Resonance Energy Transfer (RET) between a donor molecule in an electronically excited state and an acceptor molecule in close proximity has been frequently utilized for studies of protein-protein interactions in living cells. Typically, the cell under study is scanned a number of times in order to accumulate enough spectral information to accurately determine the RET efficiency for each region of interest within the cell. However, the composition of these regions may change during the course of the acquisition period, limiting the spatial determination of the RET efficiency to an average over entire cells. By means of a novel spectrally resolved two-photon microscope, we were able to obtain a full set of spectrally resolved images after only one complete excitation scan of the sample of interest. From this pixel-level spectral data, a map of RET efficiencies throughout the cell is calculated. By applying a simple theory of RET in oligomeric complexes to the experimentally obtained distribution of RET efficiencies throughout the cell, a single spectrally resolved scan reveals stoichiometric and structural information about the oligomer complex under study. This presentation will describe our experimental setup and data analysis procedure, as well as an application of the method to the determination of RET efficiencies throughout yeast cells (S. cerevisiae) expressing a G-protein-coupled receptor, Sterile 2 α factor protein (Ste2p), in the presence and absence of α-factor - a yeast mating pheromone.
Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-09-21
Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97-1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20-4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17-0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the
Spectrally resolved detection of sodium in the atmosphere of HD 189733b with the HARPS spectrograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyttenbach, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Pepe, F.
2015-05-01
Context. Atmospheric properties of exoplanets can be constrained with transit spectroscopy. At low spectral resolution, this technique is limited by the presence of clouds. The signature of atomic sodium (Na i), known to be present above the clouds, is a powerful probe of the upper atmosphere, where it can be best detected and characterized at high spectral resolution. Aims: Our goal is to obtain a high-resolution transit spectrum of HD 189733b in the region around the resonance doublet of Na i at 589 nm, to characterize the absorption signature that was previously detected from space at low resolution. Methods: We analyzed archival transit data of HD 189733b obtained with the HARPS spectrograph (ℛ = 115 000) at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. We performed differential spectroscopy to retrieve the transit spectrum and light curve of the planet, implementing corrections for telluric contamination and planetary orbital motion. We compared our results to synthetic transit spectra calculated from isothermal models of the planetary atmosphere. Results: We spectrally resolve the Na i D doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.64 ± 0.07% (D2) and 0.40 ± 0.07% (D1) and FWHMs of 0.52 ± 0.08 Å. This corresponds to a detection at the 10σ level of excess of absorption of 0.32 ± 0.03% in a passband of 2 × 0.75 Å centered on each line. We derive temperatures of 2600 ± 600 K and 3270 ± 330 K at altitudes of 9800 ± 2800 and 12 700 ± 2600 km in the Na i D1 and D2 line cores, respectively. We measure a temperature gradient of ~0.2 K km-1 in the region where the sodium absorption dominates the haze absorption from a comparison with theoretical models. We also detect a blueshift of 0.16 ± 0.04 Å (4σ) in the line positions. This blueshift may be the result of winds blowing at 8 ± 2 km s-1 in the upper layers of the atmosphere. Conclusions: We demonstrate the relevance of studying exoplanet atmospheres with high-resolution spectrographs mounted on 4-m-class telescopes. Our
Application of a Phase-resolving, Directional Nonlinear Spectral Wave Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, J. R.; Sheremet, A.; Tian, M.; Hanson, J. L.
2014-12-01
We describe several applications of a phase-resolving, directional nonlinear spectral wave model. The model describes a 2D surface gravity wave field approaching a mildly sloping beach with parallel depth contours at an arbitrary angle accounting for nonlinear, quadratic triad interactions. The model is hyperbolic, with the initial wave spectrum specified in deep water. Complex amplitudes are generated based on the random phase approximation. The numerical implementation includes unidirectional propagation as a special case. In directional mode, it solves the system of equations in the frequency-alongshore wave number space. Recent enhancements of the model include the incorporation of dissipation caused by breaking and propagation over a viscous mud layer and the calculation of wave induced setup. Applications presented include: a JONSWAP spectrum with a cos2s directional distribution, for shore-perpendicular and oblique propagation, a study of the evolution of a single directional triad, and several preliminary comparisons to wave spectra collected at the USACE-FRF in Duck, NC which show encouraging results although further validation with a wider range of beach slopes and wave conditions is needed.
Wind growth and wave breaking in higher-order spectral phase resolved wave models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leighton, R.; Walker, D. T.
2016-02-01
Wind growth and wave breaking are a integral parts of the wave evolution. Higher-OrderSpectral models (HoS) describing the non-linear evolution require empirical models for these effects. In particular, the assimilation of phase-resolved remotesensing data will require the prediction and modeling of wave breaking events.The HoS formulation used in this effort is based on fully nonlinear model of O. Nwogu (2009). The model for wave growth due to wind is based on the early normal and tangential stress model of Munk (1947). The model for wave breaking contains two parts. The first part initiates the breaking events based on the local wave geometry and the second part is a model for the pressure field, which acting against the surface normal velocity extracts energy from the wave. The models are tuned to balance the wind energy input with the breaking wave losses and to be similarfield observations of breaking wave coverage. The initial wave field, based on a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum for 10 meter wind speed of 5-15 m/s, defined over a region of up to approximate 2.5 km on a side with the simulation running for several hundreds of peak wave periods. Results will be presented describing the evolution of the wave field.Sponsored by Office of Naval Research, Code 322
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haralampus-Grynaviski, Nicole Marie
A unique spectrally-resolved confocal microscope is developed for use in biophysical applications. This microscope enables the rapid collection of the complete emission spectra for every pixel in a fluorescence image. The basic optical design and function of the device are assessed through examination of fluorescently labeled beads, using both one- and two-photon excitation. The spatial resolution of the device is found to approach the diffraction limit in the lateral plane and ˜2 mum in the axial plane. This device can readily distinguish between overlapping emissions which are not easily differentiated using standard filter techniques. The potential of this device to be used as a detection method in DNA sequence experiments is demonstrated. Images of a human skin tissue section and a mouse kidney section are presented which demonstrate the structure and spectra of biologic samples can be resolved. The emission properties of human ocular lipofuscin, LF, a heterogeneous auto-fluorescent material associated with age-related macular degeneration is investigated in detail. Isolated LF granules show substantial variation in emission spectra. Near-field scanning microscopy experiments find the emissive regions on a single LF granule are homogeneous on the ˜150 nm scale and confirm results obtained on the microscope developed here. For ˜100 studied LF deposits, the histogram of the measured peak emission is centered around 18,000 cm-1 (555 nm). The average emission spectra for large LF aggregates (peak 17,150 cm-1) is red-shifted compared to the average emission from small individual granules (peak 17,600 cm-1). The average LF granule emission observed here is similar to previously reported bulk LF emission and the emission of a previously identified LF chromophore, A2E. Individual LF granules show a broad range in emission maximum whether the LF is isolated from multiple donors or examined within the cells of a single donor. Multiple as yet unidentified chromophores
Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo
2016-03-01
The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300-2500 nm at incidence angles 15-60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0-60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350-1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article "Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators" in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.
Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo
2015-01-01
The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300−2500 nm at incidence angles 15–60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0–60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350–1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article “Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators” in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. PMID:26862556
MRI-coupled spectrally-resolved fluorescence tomography for in vivo imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Scott C.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Tuttle, Stephen B.; Jiang, Shudong; Springett, Roger; Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.
2008-02-01
A unique fluorescence imaging system incorporates multi-channel spectrometer-based optical detection directly into clinical MRI for simultaneous MR and spectrally-resolved fluorescence tomography acquisition in small animal and human breast-sized volumes. A custom designed MRI rodent coil adapted to accommodate optical fibers in a circular geometry for contact mode acquisition provides small animal imaging capabilities, and human breast-sized volumes are imaged using a clinical breast coil modified with an optical fiber patient array. Spectroscopy fibers couple light emitted from the tissue surface to sixteen highly sensitive CCD-based spectrometers operating in parallel. Tissue structural information obtained from standard and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images is used to spatially constrain the diffuse fluorescence tomography reconstruction algorithm, improving fluorescence imaging capabilities qualitatively and quantitatively. Simultaneous acquisition precludes the use of complex co-registration processes. Calibration procedures for the optical acquisition system are reviewed and the imaging limits of the system are investigated in homogeneous and heterogeneous gelatin phantoms containing Indocyanine Green (ICG). Prior knowledge of fluorescence emission spectra is used to de-couple fluorescence emission from residual excitation laser cross-talk. Preliminary in vivo data suggests improved fluorescence imaging in mouse brain tumors using MR-derived spatial priors. U-251 human gliomas were implanted intracranially into nude mice and combined contrast enhanced MRI/fluorescence tomography acquisition was completed at 24 hour intervals over the course of 72 hours after administration of an EGFR targeted NIR fluorophore. Reconstructed images demonstrate an inability to recover reasonable images of fluorescence activity without the use of MRI spatial priors.
Debnath, Sanjit K; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kothiyal, Mahendra P; Hariharan, Parameswaran
2010-12-01
Spectrally resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy has been used for measurements of the thickness profile of a transparent thin-film layer deposited upon a patterned structure exhibiting steps and discontinuities. We describe a simple technique, using an approach based on spectrally resolved optical coherence tomography, that makes it possible to obtain directly a thickness profile along a line by inverse Fourier transformation of the complex spectral interference function.
Debnath, Sanjit K.; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kothiyal, Mahendra P.; Hariharan, Parameswaran
2010-12-01
Spectrally resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy has been used for measurements of the thickness profile of a transparent thin-film layer deposited upon a patterned structure exhibiting steps and discontinuities. We describe a simple technique, using an approach based on spectrally resolved optical coherence tomography, that makes it possible to obtain directly a thickness profile along a line by inverse Fourier transformation of the complex spectral interference function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Tang, Jing; Wu, Yuxiang
Observations of spectral transitions from the hard state to the soft state in bright X-ray binaries show strong evidence that the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate plays a dominant role in determining the luminosity at which the spectral transition occurs. This indicates that in many cases, especially accretion in transients during outbursts, the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate is the primary parameter driving high energy phenomena. Although this goes beyond the scope of current stationary model of disk and jet, it tells us that it is the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate that we need to trace observationally. Since state transition is a broadband phenomenon, multi-wavelength observations of spectral transitions of different rate-of-changes of mass accretion rate are expect to reveal the accretion geometry and broadband radiation mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xingfang; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Zhongzhu
2017-08-01
A spatially and spectrally resolved ultra-narrowband absorber with a dielectric grating and metal substrate has been reported. The absorber shows that the absorption rate is more than 0.99 with the absorption bandwidth less than 1.5 nm at normal incidence for TE polarization (electric field is parallel to grating grooves). The angular width of the absorption is about 0.27∘. The wavelength-angle sensitivity and absorption-angle sensitivity are 13.4 nm per degree and 296.3% per degree, respectively. The simulation results also show the spatially and spectrally resolved ultra-narrowband absorption is originated from the guide-mode resonance. In addition, the wavelength-angle sensitivity can be improved by enlarging the grating period according to the guide-mode resonance mechanism. The proposed absorber has potential applications in optical filters, angle measurement and thermal emitters.
A Comparison of PSD Enveloping Methods for Nonstationary Vibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, Tom
2015-01-01
There is a need to derive a power spectral density (PSD) envelope for nonstationary acceleration time histories, including launch vehicle data, so that components can be designed and tested accordingly. This paper presents the results of the three methods for an actual flight accelerometer record. Guidelines are given for the application of each method to nonstationary data. The method can be extended to other scenarios, including transportation vibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caspi, A.; Shih, A.; Warren, H. P.; DeForest, C. E.; Woods, T. N.
2015-12-01
Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics and evolution of these energetic processes; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport. A better understanding of the thermal plasma informs our interpretation of hard X-ray (HXR) observations of nonthermal particles, improving our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-SDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. An X123-CdTe cadmium-telluride detector is also included for ~5-100 keV HXR spectroscopy with ~0.5-1 keV FWHM resolution. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a pinhole aperture and X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide full-Sun imaging from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. We discuss scaled versions of these instruments, with greater sensitivity and dynamic range, and significantly improved spectral and spatial resolutions for the imager, for deployment on larger platforms such as Small Explorer missions.
Nonstationary interference and scattering from random media
Nazikian, R.
1991-12-01
For the small angle scattering of coherent plane waves from inhomogeneous random media, the three dimensional mean square distribution of random fluctuations may be recovered from the interferometric detection of the nonstationary modulational structure of the scattered field. Modulational properties of coherent waves scattered from random media are related to nonlocal correlations in the double sideband structure of the Fourier transform of the scattering potential. Such correlations may be expressed in terms of a suitability generalized spectral coherence function for analytic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Gregory Frantz
2013-03-01
In extragalactic astronomy, a central challenge is that we cannot directly watch what happens to galaxies before and after they are observed. This dissertation focuses on linking predictions of galaxy time-evolution directly with observations, evaluating how interactions, mergers, and other processes affect the appearance of elliptical galaxies. The primary approach is to combine hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, including all major components, with dust radiative transfer to predict their observational signatures The current paradigm implies that a quiescent elliptical emerges following a formative starburst event. These trigger accretion onto the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), which then radiates as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, it is not clear the extent to which SMBH growth is fueled by these events nor how important is their energy input at setting the appearance of the remnant. This thesis presents results drawing from three phases in the formation of a typical elliptical: 1) I evaluate how to disentangle AGN from star formation signatures in mid-infrared spectra during a dust-enshrouded starburst, making testable predictions for robustly tracing SMBH growth with the James Webb Space Telescope; 2) I develop a model for the rate of merger-induced post-starburst galaxies selected from optical spectra, resolving tension between their observed rarity and merger rates from other estimates; and 3) I present results from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of elliptical galaxies in galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 2, the precursors of present-day massive clusters with M ~ 1015 solar masses, demonstrating that their stars formed over an extended period and ruling out the simplest model for their formation history. These results lend support to a stochastic formation history for ellipticals driven by mergers or interactions. However, significant uncertainties remain in how to evaluate the implications of galaxy appearance, in particular their
Spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between independent photon sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Rui-Bo; Gerrits, Thomas; Fujiwara, Mikio; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2015-11-01
Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between independent photon sources (HOMI-IPS) is the fundamental block for quantum information processing, such as quantum gate, Shor's algorithm, Boson sampling, etc. All the previous HOMI-IPS experiments were carried out in time-domain, however, the spectral information during the interference was lost, due to technical difficulties. Here, we investigate the HOMI-IPS in spectral domain using the recently developed fast fiber spectrometer, and demonstrate the spectral distribution during the HOM interference between two heralded single-photon sources, and two thermal sources. This experiment can not only deepen our understanding of HOMI-IPS in the spectral domain, but also be utilized to improve the visibility by post-processing spectral filtering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinetti, G.; Meadows, V. S.; Crisp, D.; Fong, W.; Snively, H.; Velusamy, T.
2003-05-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission is to detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. However, the first generation of instruments for studying extrasolar planets are expected to provide only disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal to noise. As a part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL, V. Meadows, PI) we are exploring what can be learned about a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra at a number of spectral resolutions at visible and IR wavelengths. We are using a spectrum resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model (SMART, D. Crisp) and atmospheric and surface data for Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. These results are then processed with a model that resamples the spatially resolved spectra to create a synthetic, disk-averaged view of the planet from a specific viewing geometry. To validate these methods, we have compared observational data with our synthetic spectra of Mars and Earth. We will present a complete study of Mars, and the first results for Earth, including disk-averaged synthetic spectra, images and the spectral variability at visible and mid-IR wavelengths as a function of viewing angle. We have also simulated an increasingly frozen Mars, and have studied the detectability of CO2 ice in the disk averaged spectrum, using a TPF instrument simulator. We have determined that surface CO2 ice can be spectrally identified in a TPF mid-IR spectrum of a disk-averaged Mars, even at low resolution, if the ice cap extends down to at least 50 degrees latitude from the pole. This work is supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.
Spectrally resolved eclipse maps of the accretion disk in UX Ursae Majoris
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutten, Rene G. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Horne, Keith; Kuulkers, E.; Van Paradijs, J.
1993-01-01
An effort is made to observationally constrain accretion disks on the basis of light curves from the eclipsing cataclysmic variable UX Ursae Majoris, reconstructing the spectral energy distribution across the face of an accretion disk. The spectral resolution obtained suffices to reveal not only the radial dependence of absorption and emission line features within the disk, but also the spectral details of the bright spot that is formed where the accretion stream from the secondary star collides with the disk. The importance of such constraints for theoretical models is noted.
Early Stage Expansion and Time-Resolved Spectral Emission of Laser-Induced Plasma from Polymer
2009-01-01
thus its interaction with ambient air. These influences can significantly alter spectral emission of the plasma. For organic samples especially...to the analysis of organic materials. In this paper, we report observations of early stage expansion and interaction with ambient air of the plasma...ablation interaction is absent. Subsequent to the early stage expansion, we observe for each studied ablation regime, spectral emission from CN, a typical
Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.
2014-08-22
We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Card, A.; Mokim, M.; Ganikhanov, F.
2016-02-01
We show resolution of fine spectral features within several Raman active vibrational modes in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Measurements are performed using a femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique that is capable of delivering equivalent spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1. The Raman spectra retrieved from our measurements show several spectral components corresponding to vibrations of different symmetry with distinctly different damping rates. In particular, linewidths for unassigned optical phonon mode triplet centered at around 820 cm-1 are found to be 7.5 ± 0.2 cm-1, 9.1 ± 0.3 cm-1, and 11.2 ± 0.3 cm-1. Results of our experiments will ultimately help to design an all-solid-state source for sub-optical-wavelength waveform generation that is based on stimulated Raman scattering.
Nonstationary de Sitter Cosmological Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibohal, Ng
This paper proposes a class of nonstationary de Sitter, rotating and nonrotating, solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological term of variable function Λ*(u). It is found that the space-time of the rotating nonstationary de Sitter model is algebraically special in the Petrov classification of the gravitational field with a null vector, which is a geodesic, shear-free, expanding as well as nonzero twist. However, that of the nonrotating nonstationary model is conformally flat, with nonempty space.
Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer
Bahk, Seung -Whan; Dorrer, Christopher; Roides, Rick G.; ...
2016-03-18
Here, a simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.
Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer.
Bahk, Seung-Whan; Dorrer, Christophe; Roides, Rick G; Bromage, Jake
2016-03-20
A simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.
Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer
Bahk, Seung -Whan; Dorrer, Christopher; Roides, Rick G.; Bromage, Jake
2016-03-18
Here, a simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.
Spectral Characterization of A Resolved M dwarf-M dwarf Binary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamiya, Tomoki; Burgasser, Adam J.; Aganze, Christian; Mercado, Gretel; Suarez, Adrian
2016-06-01
We report characterization of the resolved binary M dwarf SDSS J155526.53+095409.5AB through spectroscopic and imaging analysis. Classification of resolved near-infrared spectra with IRTF/SpeX and tools in the SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit (SPLAT) indicate component types of M3.5 and M8, separated by about 4''. We match the data to atmosphere models using an Monte Carlo Markov Chain routine to determine preliminary physical properties for each component (temperature, surface gravity and metallicity), and obtain estimates for the distance (106±11 pc) and projected separation (419±45 AU).Funding acknowledgement: This project is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G.
Studies of multifrequency phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for spectral fingerprinting
McGown, L.B.
1989-01-01
During the first project period, we have explored several different aspects of phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (PRFS) for the fingerprinting of complex samples. It should be noted that our goal is not only fingerprinting'' per se, but also includes the characterization of complex samples with respect to dynamic interactions of luminescent molecules with each other and with sample matrix constituents. Each area of investigation is discussed in the following sections.
Spectrally-resolved measurements of aerosol extinction at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores, M.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.
2012-12-01
Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. Aerosol extinction includes both the scattering and absorption of light, and these vary with wavelength, aerosol diameter, and aerosol composition. Historically, aerosol absorption has been measured using filter-based or extraction methods that are prone to artifacts. There have been few investigations of ambient aerosol optical properties at the blue end of the visible spectrum and into the ultraviolet. Brown carbon is particularly important in this spectral region, because it both absorbs and scatters light, and encompasses a large and variable group of organic compounds from biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol. We have developed a laboratory instrument that combines new, high-power LED light sources with high-finesse optical cavities to achieve sensitive measurements of aerosol optical extinction. This instrument contains two broadband channels, with spectral coverage from 360 - 390 nm and 385 - 420 nm. Using this instrument, we report aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet and near-visible spectral region as a function of chemical composition and structure. We have measured the extinction cross-sections between 360 - 420 nm with 0.5 nm resolution using different sizes and concentrations of polystyrene latex spheres, ammonium sulfate, and Suwannee River fulvic acid. Fitting the real and imaginary part of the refractive index allows the absorption and scattering to be determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, H.; Regan, S. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Gregori, G.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.
2007-12-01
The electron temperature (Te) and average ionization (Z) of nearly Fermi-degenerate, direct-drive, shock-heated, and compressed plastic planar foils were investigated using noncollective spectrally resolved x-ray scattering on the OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Plastic (CH) and Br-doped CH foils were driven with six beams, having an overlapped intensity of ˜1×1014W /cm2 and generating ˜15 Mbar pressure in the foil. The plasma conditions of the foil predicted with a one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics code are Te˜10eV, Z ˜1, mass density ρ ˜4g/cm3, and electron density ne˜3×1023cm-3. The uniformly compressed portion of the target was probed with 9.0-keV x rays from a ZnHeα backlighter created with 18 additional tightly focused beams. The x rays scattered at either 90° or 120° were dispersed with a Bragg crystal spectrometer and recorded with an x-ray framing camera. An examination of the scattered x-ray spectra reveals that an upper limit of Z ˜2 and Te=20eV are inferred from the spectral line shapes of the elastic Rayleigh and inelastic Compton components. Low average ionizations (i.e., Z <2) cannot be accurately diagnosed in this experiment due to the difficulties in distinguishing delocalized valence and free electrons. Trace amounts of Br in the CH foil (i.e., 2% atomic concentration) are shown to increase the sensitivity of the noncollective, spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to changes in the average ionization. The experimentally inferred electron temperatures are comparable to the 1-D predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Jaedu; Jeon, Seung Woan; Zheng, Jie; Kim, Chang-Seok; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin
2014-03-01
We developed a spectrally-resolved fluorescence tomography (FT) system using a new source and detection unit. On the source side, we utilized a near-infrared (NIR) swept laser-based technology and on the detection side, we developed a digital micromirror device (DMD) based spectrally-resolved detection unit. We demonstrated the development of a NIR swept laser centered at 800 nm for FT, which covers the maximum absorption wavelength of a NIR fluorescence dye, indo-cyanine green (ICG) in plasma. Two different ICG samples whose absorption characteristics were slightly different were used to demonstrate the performance of the NIR swept laser-based FT system, and this FT system was able to show the difference of absorption between the ICG samples. In addition, we also developed a prototype spectrally-resolved detection unit based on the DMD. This detection system provided a spectral resolution of 15 nm and the possibility of simultaneous detection of multiple fluorescence spectra.
Westphal, Peter; Kaltenbach, Johannes-Maria; Wicker, Kai
2016-04-01
A good understanding of the corneal birefringence properties is essential for polarimetric glucose monitoring in the aqueous humor of the eye. Therefore, we have measured complete 16-element Mueller matrices of single-pass transitions through nine porcine corneas in-vitro, spectrally resolved in the range 300…1000 nm. These ellipsometric measurements have been performed at several angles of incidence at the apex and partially at the periphery of the corneas. The Mueller matrices have been decomposed into linear birefringence, circular birefringence (i.e. optical rotation), depolarization, and diattenuation. We found considerable circular birefringence, strongly increasing with decreasing wavelength, for most corneas. Furthermore, the decomposition revealed significant dependence of the linear retardance (in nm) on the wavelength below 500 nm. These findings suggest that uniaxial and biaxial crystals are insufficient models for a general description of the corneal birefringence, especially in the blue and in the UV spectral range. The implications on spectral-polarimetric approaches for glucose monitoring in the eye (for diabetics) are discussed.
Westphal, Peter; Kaltenbach, Johannes-Maria; Wicker, Kai
2016-01-01
A good understanding of the corneal birefringence properties is essential for polarimetric glucose monitoring in the aqueous humor of the eye. Therefore, we have measured complete 16-element Mueller matrices of single-pass transitions through nine porcine corneas in-vitro, spectrally resolved in the range 300…1000 nm. These ellipsometric measurements have been performed at several angles of incidence at the apex and partially at the periphery of the corneas. The Mueller matrices have been decomposed into linear birefringence, circular birefringence (i.e. optical rotation), depolarization, and diattenuation. We found considerable circular birefringence, strongly increasing with decreasing wavelength, for most corneas. Furthermore, the decomposition revealed significant dependence of the linear retardance (in nm) on the wavelength below 500 nm. These findings suggest that uniaxial and biaxial crystals are insufficient models for a general description of the corneal birefringence, especially in the blue and in the UV spectral range. The implications on spectral-polarimetric approaches for glucose monitoring in the eye (for diabetics) are discussed. PMID:27446644
Two-dimensional spectrally resolved position-sensitive proportional counter for plasma imaging
Thorn, D.; Beiersdorfer, P.
2004-10-01
We describe a 160x100 mm two-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter for use in high-temperature plasma spectroscopy. The detector employs a novel design based on a printed circuit board for the cathode plane and a single-wire switchback design for the anode plane. The spacial resolution for one dimension is 200 {mu}m and for the other dimension is 2-5 mm. The integral nonlinearity is 0.08% for the first and 1% for the second dimension. We demonstrate the utility of the new detector with a spacially resolved measurement of the Lyman-{alpha} transitions in hydrogenic Ar{sup 17+}.
Blum, Christian; Meixner, Alfred J; Subramaniam, Vinod
2004-12-01
It is known from ensemble spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures that variants of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP) occur in interconvertible spectroscopically distinct forms which are obscured in ensemble room temperature spectroscopy. By analyzing the fluorescence of the GFP variants EYFP and EGFP by spectrally resolved single-molecule spectroscopy we were able to observe spectroscopically different forms of the proteins and to dynamically monitor transitions between these forms at room temperature. In addition to the predominant EYFP B-form we have observed the blue-shifted I-form thus far only seen at cryogenic temperatures and have followed transitions between these forms. Further we have identified for EYFP and for EGFP three more, so far unknown, forms with red-shifted fluorescence. Transitions between the predominant forms and the red-shifted forms show a dark time which indicates the existence of a nonfluorescent intermediate. The spectral position of the newly-identified red-shifted forms and their formation via a nonfluorescent intermediate hint that these states may account for the possible photoactivation observed in bulk experiments. The comparison of the single-protein spectra of the red-shifted EYFP and EGFP forms with single-molecule fluorescence spectra of DsRed suggest that these new forms possibly originate from an extended chromophoric pi-system analogous to the DsRed chromophore.
Resolving spectral information from time domain induced polarization data through 2-D inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Binley, Andrew; Gazoty, Aurélie; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Auken, Esben
2013-02-01
Field-based time domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) surveys are usually modelled by taking into account only the integral chargeability, thus disregarding spectral content. Furthermore, the effect of the transmitted waveform is commonly neglected, biasing inversion results. Given these limitations of conventional approaches, a new 2-D inversion algorithm has been developed using the full voltage decay of the IP response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and receiver transfer function. This allows reconstruction of the spectral information contained in the TD decay series. The inversion algorithm is based around a 2-D complex conductivity kernel that is computed over a range of frequencies and converted to the TD through a fast Hankel transform. Two key points in the implementation ensure that computation times are minimized. First, the speed of the Jacobian computation, time transformed from frequency domain through the same transformation adopted for the forward response is optimized. Secondly, the reduction of the number of frequencies where the forward response and Jacobian are calculated: cubic splines are used to interpolate the responses to the frequency sampling necessary in the fast Hankel transform. These features, together with parallel computation, ensure inversion times comparable with those of direct current algorithms. The algorithm has been developed in a laterally constrained inversion scheme, and handles both smooth and layered inversions; the latter being helpful in sedimentary environments, where quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. In the layered inversion approach, a general method to derive the thickness derivative from the complex conductivity Jacobian is also proposed. One synthetic example of layered inversion and one field example of smooth inversion show the capability of the algorithm and illustrates a complete uncertainty
Spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for hydrogen-oxygen rocket plume studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seasholtz, R. G.; Zupanc, F. J.; Schneider, S. J.
1991-01-01
A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic has been developed to measure gas density, temperature, and velocity in the exhaust plume of 100 N thrust class hydrogen-oxygen rockets. The spectrum of argon-ion laser light scattered by the gas molecules in the plume (predominantly water vapor) is measured with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. The gas density is determined from the total scattered power, the gas temperature from the spectral width, and the velocity from the shift in the peak of the spectrum from the frequency of the incident laser light. The diagnostic has been demonstrated in a rocket test cell and a discussion of results is given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.
2010-01-01
On 2008 May 2, Chandra observed the X-ray spectrum of xi Boo (G8 V+K4 V), resolving the binary for the first time in X-rays and allowing the coronae of the two stars to be studied separately. With the contributions of ξ Boo A and B to the system's total X-ray emission now observationally established (88.5% and 11.5% respectively), consideration of mass loss measurements for GK dwarfs of various activity levels (including one for xi Boo) leads to the surprising conclusion that xi Boo B may dominate the wind from the binary, with xi Boo A's wind being very weak despite its active corona. Emission measure (EM) distributions and coronal abundances are computed for both stars and compared with Chandra measurements of other moderately active stars with G8-K5 spectral types, all of which exhibit a narrow peak in EM near log T = 6.6, indicating that the coronal heating process in these stars has a strong preference for this temperature. As is the case for the Sun and many other stars, our sample of stars shows coronal abundance anomalies dependent on the first ionization potential (FIP) of the element. We see no dependence of the degree of FIP effect on activity, but there is a dependence on spectral type, a correlation that becomes more convincing when moderately active main-sequence stars with a broader range of spectral types are considered. This clear dependence of coronal abundances on spectral type weakens if the stellar sample is allowed to be contaminated by evolved stars, interacting binaries or extremely active stars with logLX 29, explaining why this correlation has not been recognized in the past.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.
2010-01-01
On 2008 May 2, Chandra observed the X-ray spectrum of xi Boo (G8 V+K4 V), resolving the binary for the first time in X-rays and allowing the coronae of the two stars to be studied separately. With the contributions of ξ Boo A and B to the system's total X-ray emission now observationally established (88.5% and 11.5% respectively), consideration of mass loss measurements for GK dwarfs of various activity levels (including one for xi Boo) leads to the surprising conclusion that xi Boo B may dominate the wind from the binary, with xi Boo A's wind being very weak despite its active corona. Emission measure (EM) distributions and coronal abundances are computed for both stars and compared with Chandra measurements of other moderately active stars with G8-K5 spectral types, all of which exhibit a narrow peak in EM near log T = 6.6, indicating that the coronal heating process in these stars has a strong preference for this temperature. As is the case for the Sun and many other stars, our sample of stars shows coronal abundance anomalies dependent on the first ionization potential (FIP) of the element. We see no dependence of the degree of FIP effect on activity, but there is a dependence on spectral type, a correlation that becomes more convincing when moderately active main-sequence stars with a broader range of spectral types are considered. This clear dependence of coronal abundances on spectral type weakens if the stellar sample is allowed to be contaminated by evolved stars, interacting binaries or extremely active stars with logLX 29, explaining why this correlation has not been recognized in the past.
Modeling nonstationary longitudinal data.
Núñez-Antón, V; Zimmerman, D L
2000-09-01
An important theme of longitudinal data analysis in the past two decades has been the development and use of explicit parametric models for the data's variance-covariance structure. A variety of these models have been proposed, of which most are second-order stationary. A few are flexible enough to accommodate nonstationarity, i.e., nonconstant variances and/or correlations that are not a function solely of elapsed time between measurements. We review five nonstationary models that we regard as most useful: (1) the unstructured covariance model, (2) unstructured antedependence models, (3) structured antedependence models, (4) autoregressive integrated moving average and similar models, and (5) random coefficients models. We evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of each model, emphasizing when it is inappropriate or unlikely to be useful. We present three examples to illustrate the fitting and comparison of the models and to demonstrate that nonstationary longitudinal data can be modeled effectively and, in some cases, quite parsimoniously. In these examples, the antedependence models generally prove to be superior and the random coefficients models prove to be inferior. We conclude that antedependence models should be given much greater consideration than they have historically received.
Spectral and time-resolved measurements of marine oil pollution by YAG laser fluorosensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Susumu; Hitomi, Kazuo; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi
1998-08-01
This paper describes a compact imaging lidar system capable of detecting fluorescence of substances excited by the third harmonic generator of the YAG laser using CCD camera with gated image intensifier. The system mounted on a small airplane or ships will provide the spreading image of oil spills and classification of substances for clean-up operations. From image data of the water Raman scatters, we present a method to measure the extinction coefficients for the oil film thickness measurement. As the reference to interpret the data obtained in the field, the time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of fuel oils and industrial chemical substances were measured with a streak scope in the laboratory within the wavelength of 350 to 575 nm and with decay time up to 500 ns.
Time-resolved spectral correlations of long-duration γ-ray bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firmani, C.; Cabrera, J. I.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Bosnjak, Z.
2009-03-01
For a sample of long γ-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshift, we study the distribution of the evolutionary tracks on the rest-frame luminosity-peak energy Liso - E'p diagram. We are interested in exploring the extension of the `Yonetoku' correlation to any phase of the prompt light curve, and in verifying how the high-signal prompt duration time, T'f, in the rest frame correlates with the residuals of such correlation. For our purpose, we separately analyse two samples of time-resolved spectra corresponding to 32 GRBs with peak fluxes Fp > 1.8 photcm-2 s-1 from the Swift-BAT detector, and seven bright GRBs from the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO)-BATSE detector previously processed by Kaneko et al. After constructing the Liso - E'p diagram, we discuss the relevance of selection effects, finding that they could significantly affect the correlation. However, we find that these effects are much less significant in the Liso T'f - E'p diagram, where the intrinsic scatter reduces significantly. We apply further corrections in order to reduce the intrinsic scatter even more. For the subsamples of GRBs (seven from Swift and five from CGRO) with measured jet break time, tj, we analyse the effects of correcting Liso by jet collimation. We find that (i) the scatter around the correlation is reduced, and (ii) this scatter is dominated by the internal scatter of the individual evolutionary tracks. These results suggest that the time-integrated `Amati' and `Ghirlanda' correlations are consequences of the time-resolved features, not of selection effects, and therefore call for a physical origin. We finally remark the relevance of looking inside the nature of the evolutionary tracks.
PEAK FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR RADIO TYPE-I BURSTS FROM HIGHLY RESOLVED SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS
Iwai, K.; Masuda, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.
2013-05-01
Solar radio type-I bursts were observed on 2011 January 26 by high resolution observations with the radio telescope AMATERAS in order to derive their peak flux distributions. We have developed a two-dimensional auto burst detection algorithm that can distinguish each type-I burst element from complex noise storm spectra that include numerous instances of radio frequency interference (RFI). This algorithm removes RFI from the observed radio spectra by applying a moving median filter along the frequency axis. Burst and continuum components are distinguished by a two-dimensional maximum and minimum search of the radio dynamic spectra. The analysis result shows that each type-I burst element has one peak flux without double counts or missed counts. The peak flux distribution of type-I bursts derived using this algorithm follows a power law with a spectral index between 4 and 5.
Zhang, Yun; Dong, Bo; Bai, Yulei; Ye, Shuangli; Lei, Zhenkun; Zhou, Yanzhou
2015-10-19
An updated B-scan method is proposed for measuring the evolution of thermal deformation fields in polymers. In order to measure the distributions of out-of-plane deformation and normal strain field, phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography (PC-SOCT) was performed with the depth range and resolution of 4.3 mm and 10.7 μm, respectively, as thermal loads were applied to three different multilayer samples. The relation between temperature and material refractive index was predetermined before the measurement. After accounting for the refractive index, the thermal deformation fields in the polymer were obtained. The measured thermal expansion coefficient of silicone sealant was approximately equal to its reference value. This method allows correctly assessing the mechanical properties in semitransparent polymers.
Gas temperature and density measurements based on spectrally resolved Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seasholtz, Richard G.; Lock, James A.
1992-01-01
The use of molecular Rayleigh scattering for measurements of gas density and temperature is evaluated. The technique used is based on the measurement of the spectrum of the scattered light, where both temperature and density are determined from the spectral shape. Planar imaging of Rayleigh scattering from air using a laser light sheet is evaluated for ambient conditions. The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for the shot-noise limited density and temperature measurement uncertainties are calculated for an ideal optical spectrum analyzer and for a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static, imaging mode. With this technique, a single image of the Rayleigh scattered light can be analyzed to obtain density (or pressure) and temperature. Experimental results are presented for planar measurements taken in a heated air stream.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemonik, Yonah; Mitra, Aditi
2017-09-01
Results are presented for the time evolution of fermions initially in a nonzero temperature normal phase, following the switch on of an attractive interaction. The dynamics are studied in the disordered phase close to the critical point, where the superfluid fluctuations are large. The analysis is conducted within a two-particle irreducible, large N approximation. The system is considered from the perspective of critical quenches where it is shown that the fluctuations follow universal model A dynamics. A signature of this universality is found in a singular correction to the fermion lifetime, given by a scaling form t(3 -d )/2Sd(ɛ2t ) , where d is the spatial dimension, t is the time since the quench, and ɛ is the fermion energy. The singular behavior of the spectral density is interpreted as arising due to incoherent Andreev reflections off superfluid fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; Screaton, E. J.
2017-05-01
Cross correlations of seismic noise can potentially record large changes in subsurface velocity due to permafrost dynamics and be valuable for long-term Arctic monitoring. We applied seismic interferometry, using moving window cross-spectral analysis (MWCS), to 2 years of ambient noise data recorded in central Alaska to investigate whether seismic noise could be used to quantify relative velocity changes due to seasonal active-layer dynamics. The large velocity changes (>75%) between frozen and thawed soil caused prevalent cycle-skipping which made the method unusable in this setting. We developed an improved MWCS procedure which uses a moving reference to measure daily velocity variations that are then accumulated to recover the full seasonal change. This approach reduced cycle-skipping and recovered a seasonal trend that corresponded well with the timing of active-layer freeze and thaw. This improvement opens the possibility of measuring large velocity changes by using MWCS and permafrost monitoring by using ambient noise.
Advanced microscopy :time-resolved multi-spectral imaging of single biomolecules.
Hayden, Carl C.; Chandler, David W.; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Luong, A. Khai
2005-12-01
Over the past few years we have developed the ability to acquire images through a confocal microscope that contain, for each pixel, the simultaneous fluorescence lifetime and spectra of multiple fluorophores within that pixel. We have demonstrated that our system has the sensitivity to make these measurements on single molecules. The spectra and lifetimes of fluorophores bound to complex molecules contain a wealth of information on the conformational dynamics and local chemical environments of the molecules. However, the detailed record of spectral and temporal information our system provides from fluorophores in single molecules has not been previously available. Therefore, we have studied several fluorophores and simple fluorophore-molecule systems that are representative of the use of fluorophores in biological systems. Experiments include studies of a simple fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system, green fluorescent probe variants and quantum dots. This work is intended to provide a basis for understanding how fluorophores report on the chemistry of more complex biological molecules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crannell, Carol Jo; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The high-energy components of solar flares radiate at a wide range of wavelengths. We are using spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved hard X-ray, gamma-ray, and microwave observations of solar flares to investigate flare models and to understand the flare acceleration process. The hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations are obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft that was launched on February 5, 2002. The microwave observations are obtained with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), which has been dedicated to daily observations of solar flares in microwaves with a five-element interferometer since June 1992. These studies are expected to yield exciting new insights into the fundamental physics of the flare acceleration processes.
Crooker, S. A.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L.; Liu, F.; Ruden, P. P.
2014-10-13
We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100 mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (ΔI/I ∼ 11%) than at the low-energy red end (∼4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhee, June-Koo; Sosnowski, Thomas S.; Tien, An-Chun; Norris, Theodore B.
1996-08-01
We demonstrate a real-time femtosecond-laser-pulse analyzer by using a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique (STRUT) for characterization of the phase and the intensity. The STRUT provides simple but reliable analysis of femtosecond pulses by employing a narrow-bandpass dielectric filter in one arm of a conventional single-shot upconversion autocorrelator and analyzing the spatiotemporal upconversion signal with a monochromator. The resulting spatiotemporal and spatiospectral image presents clear and complete information about femtosecond pulses produced by either oscillators or amplifiers. Characterization of 2-nJ, 60-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator pulses is achieved with 0.5 s data acquisition time and 0.2-s computational time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Y.; Chorvat, D., Jr.; Poirier, N.; Miró, J.; Dahdah, N.; Chorvatova, A.
2007-09-01
Rejection of transplanted hearts remains an important reason for death of transplanted children. Finding diagnostic tools for its detection can therefore improve the prognosis in this population of patients. Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) by cardiac catheterization is currently accepted as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of rejection. Here, we investigate new approach to monitor mitochondrial metabolic state of cardiac cells using spectrally-resolved autofluorescence lifetime detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), or NAD(P)H, the principal electron donor in mitochondrial oxidative energy metabolism responsible for vital ATP supply of cardiomyocytes. NAD(P)H autofluorescence is long used for non-invasive fluorescent probing the metabolic state of the heart. In this contribution we report dynamic characteristics of NAD(P)H fluorescence decays in living human cardiomyocytes from EMB, following excitation by UV-pulsed laser diode and detection by spectrally-resolved time-correlated single photon counting. At least a 3-exponential decay model, with 0.5-0.7 ns, 1.9-2.4 ns and 9.0-15.0 ns lifetimes, is necessary to describe cardiomyocyte autofluorescence in human cells. When gathered data were compared to those recorded under same conditions in rats, autofluorescence in human hearts was found significantly lower in comparison to rat ones. Rotenone, the inhibitor of the Complex I of the respiratory chain, increased the fluorescence in human cardiac cells, making them more comparable to experimental rat model. These results suggest that human cardiac cells are more metabolically active than the rat ones in the same conditions. Presented work proposes a new tool for evaluation of oxidative metabolism changes in transplanted hearts.
Nagloo, Nicolas; Collin, Shaun P; Hemmi, Jan M; Hart, Nathan S
2016-05-01
Crocodilians are apex amphibious predators that occupy a range of tropical habitats. In this study, we examined whether their semi-aquatic lifestyle and ambush hunting mode are reflected in specific adaptations in the peripheral visual system. Design-based stereology and microspectrophotometry were used to assess spatial resolving power and spectral sensitivity of saltwater (Crocodylus porosus) and freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni). Both species possess a foveal streak that spans the naso-temporal axis and mediates high spatial acuity across the central visual field. The saltwater crocodile and freshwater crocodile have a peak spatial resolving power of 8.8 and 8.0 cycles deg(-1), respectively. Measurement of the outer segment dimensions and spectral absorbance revealed five distinct photoreceptor types consisting of three single cones, one twin cone and a rod. The three single cones (saltwater/freshwater crocodile) are violet (424/426 nm λmax), green (502/510 nm λmax) and red (546/554 nm λmax) sensitive, indicating the potential for trichromatic colour vision. The visual pigments of both members of the twin cones have the same λmax as the red-sensitive single cone and the rod has a λmax at 503/510 nm (saltwater/freshwater). The λmax values of all types of visual pigment occur at longer wavelengths in the freshwater crocodile compared with the saltwater crocodile. Given that there is a greater abundance of long wavelength light in freshwater compared with a saltwater environment, the photoreceptors would be more effective at detecting light in their respective habitats. This suggests that the visual systems of both species are adapted to the photic conditions of their respective ecological niche. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hipp, Martin; Fliesser, Walter; Neger, Theo
1999-08-01
An optimization of the discharge parameters of high pressure mercury lamps with respect to improved emission properties and longer lifetimes has to be performed using results of advanced model calculations. However, the reliability of these models critically depends on the availability of accurate experimental data. The aim of this work was to provide spatially resolved particle densities of neutral mercury atoms by side-on spectral interferometry. The main challenge was to find an optical arrangement that enables one to compensate for the strong wavefront distortion in the object arm caused by the extreme curvature of the bulb of the discharge lamp, a general problem in classical interferometry. The interferograms could be taken with a time-resolution of 150 microsecond(s) at any phase of the discharge current that varied with 50 Hz. The applied spectro- interferometric technique was a phase method developed at the institute. It supplies a highly resolved phase of the light wavefronts passing the plasma using FFT algorithms. By an Abel-inversion of the side-on data mercury density profiles could be presented for cross-sections ranging up to 10 mm as consequence of the specially designed test and reference beams in the used Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; ...
2017-04-13
Cross correlations of seismic noise can potentially record large changes in subsurface velocity due to permafrost dynamics and be valuable for long-term Arctic monitoring. We applied seismic interferometry, using moving window cross-spectral analysis (MWCS), to 2 years of ambient noise data recorded in central Alaska to investigate whether seismic noise could be used to quantify relative velocity changes due to seasonal active-layer dynamics. The large velocity changes (>75%) between frozen and thawed soil caused prevalent cycle-skipping which made the method unusable in this setting. We developed an improved MWCS procedure which uses a moving reference to measure daily velocity variationsmore » that are then accumulated to recover the full seasonal change. This approach reduced cycle-skipping and recovered a seasonal trend that corresponded well with the timing of active-layer freeze and thaw. Lastly, this improvement opens the possibility of measuring large velocity changes by using MWCS and permafrost monitoring by using ambient noise.« less
SPATIALLY AND SPECTRALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF A ZEBRA PATTERN IN A SOLAR DECIMETRIC RADIO BURST
Chen Bin; Bastian, T. S.; Gary, D. E.; Jing Ju
2011-07-20
We present the first interferometric observation of a zebra-pattern radio burst with simultaneous high spectral ({approx}1 MHz) and high time (20 ms) resolution. The Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Subsystem Testbed (FST) and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) were used in parallel to observe the X1.5 flare on 2006 December 14. By using OVSA to calibrate the FST, the source position of the zebra pattern can be located on the solar disk. With the help of multi-wavelength observations and a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation, the zebra source is explored in relation to the magnetic field configuration. New constraints are placed on the source size and position as a function of frequency and time. We conclude that the zebra burst is consistent with a double-plasma resonance model in which the radio emission occurs in resonance layers where the upper-hybrid frequency is harmonically related to the electron cyclotron frequency in a coronal magnetic loop.
Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Observations of a Zebra Pattern in a Solar Decimetric Radio Burst
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Bastian, T. S.; Gary, D. E.; Jing, Ju
2011-07-01
We present the first interferometric observation of a zebra-pattern radio burst with simultaneous high spectral (≈1 MHz) and high time (20 ms) resolution. The Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Subsystem Testbed (FST) and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) were used in parallel to observe the X1.5 flare on 2006 December 14. By using OVSA to calibrate the FST, the source position of the zebra pattern can be located on the solar disk. With the help of multi-wavelength observations and a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation, the zebra source is explored in relation to the magnetic field configuration. New constraints are placed on the source size and position as a function of frequency and time. We conclude that the zebra burst is consistent with a double-plasma resonance model in which the radio emission occurs in resonance layers where the upper-hybrid frequency is harmonically related to the electron cyclotron frequency in a coronal magnetic loop.
"Cat"-ology: Spectrally resolved neurophotonics in the mammalian brain and phantom studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Kandice
Physicists provide significant contributions to the field of Biology and Medical Sciences by applying basic physics principles to the field. Specifically, in this work, we probed the light-matter interactions in the NIR region to understand physiological processes in the mammalian brain. We sought to improve on existing principles and propose a new technique by which we can decipher these processes spectrally. This technique touted to be independent of the light transport regime allowed us to examine the hemodynamics and neuronal activity. The aim was then to test this technique and see if it produces results that were comparable to the well established Fd-NIRS in distinguishing physiological processes. Secondly, we wanted to prove that this technique was light transport regime independent which is not the case for the Fd-NIRS. The cat was chosen as an ideal test subject as its anatomy is such that photons are not fully diffusive before being detected as the total size of the grey matter in the cat is roughly 3mm thick. Additionally, we had a priori information about the activation of the visual cortex as a response to specific stimuli.
Phenomenology of spectrally and temporally resolved infrared emissions from bomb detonations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Kevin; Dills, Anthony; Tuttle, Ron; Perram, Glen
2002-10-01
The remote sensing of infrared signatures from exothermic reactions during military operations, including missile launches, muzzle flashes, and bomb detonations has been studied using fast FTIR techniques. Battle space characterization includes the ability to classify the munitions type, size, and other characteristics. One possible approach to munitions classification is to understand the spectral and temporal signatures from explosive ordinance. To investigate this possibility, experimental data has been collected remotely from ground-based sensors, processed, and analyzed for several conventional munitions. Field observations of 56 detonation events included a set of aircraft delivered ordnance and a series of static ground detonations for a variety of bomb sizes, types and environmental conditions. The emission is well represented by a gray body with continuously decreasing temperature and characteristic decay times of 1-4 s, providing only limited variability with detonation conditions. However, the fireball size times the emissivity as a function of time can be determined from the spectra without imaging and provides a more sensitive signature. The degree of temporal overlap as a function of frequency for a pair of detonation events provides a very sensitive discriminator for explosion conditions. The temporal overlap decreases with increasing emission frequency for all the observed events, indicating more information content at higher frequencies. Finally, the temporal nature of the emissions has been analyzed, providing a significant reduction in the dimensionality of the data.
Dang, Wei; Mao, Pengcheng; Weng, Yuxiang
2013-07-01
We report an improved setup of femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy (FNOPAS) with a 210 fs temporal response. The system employs a Cassegrain objective to collect and focus fluorescence photons, which eliminates the interference from the coherent photons in the fluorescence amplification by temporal separation of the coherent photons and the fluorescence photons. The gain factor of the Cassegrain objective-assisted FNOPAS is characterized as 1.24 × 10(5) for Rhodamine 6G. Spectral corrections have been performed on the transient fluorescence spectra of Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine 640 in ethanol by using an intrinsic calibration curve derived from the spectrum of superfluorescence, which is generated from the amplification of the vacuum quantum noise. The validity of spectral correction is illustrated by comparisons of spectral shape and peak wavelength between the corrected transient fluorescence spectra of these two dyes acquired by FNOPAS and their corresponding standard reference spectra collected by the commercial streak camera. The transient fluorescence spectra of the Rhodamine 6G were acquired in an optimized phase match condition, which gives a deviation in the peak wavelength between the retrieved spectrum and the reference spectrum of 1.0 nm, while those of Rhodamine 640 were collected in a non-optimized phase match condition, leading to a deviation in a range of 1.0-3.0 nm. Our results indicate that the improved FNOPAS can be a reliable tool in the measurement of transient fluorescence spectrum for its high temporal resolution and faithfully corrected spectrum.
Spatially resolved Spitzer-IRS spectral maps of the superwind in M82
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beirão, P.; Armus, L.; Lehnert, M. D.; Guillard, P.; Heckman, T.; Draine, B.; Hollenbach, D.; Walter, F.; Sheth, K.; Smith, J. D.; Shopbell, P.; Boulanger, F.; Surace, J.; Hoopes, C.; Engelbracht, C.
2015-08-01
We have mapped the superwind/halo region of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 in the mid-infrared with Spitzer - IRS. The spectral regions covered include the H2 S(1)-S(3), [Ne II], [Ne III] emission lines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. We estimate the total warm H2 mass and the kinetic energy of the outflowing warm molecular gas to be between Mwarm ˜ 5 and 17 × 106 M⊙ and EK ˜ 6 and 20 × 1053 erg. Using the ratios of the 6.2, 7.7 and 11.3 μm PAH features in the IRS spectra, we are able to estimate the average size and ionization state of the small grains in the superwind. There are large variations in the PAH flux ratios throughout the outflow. The 11.3/7.7 and the 6.2/7.7 PAH ratios both vary by more than a factor of 5 across the wind region. The northern part of the wind has a significant population of PAH's with smaller 6.2/7.7 ratios than either the starburst disc or the southern wind, indicating that on average, PAH emitters are larger and more ionized. The warm molecular gas to PAH flux ratios (H2/PAH) are enhanced in the outflow by factors of 10-100 as compared to the starburst disc. This enhancement in the H2/PAH ratio does not seem to follow the ionization of the atomic gas (as measured with the [Ne III]/[Ne II] line flux ratio) in the outflow. This suggests that much of the warm H2 in the outflow is excited by shocks. The observed H2 line intensities can be reproduced with low-velocity shocks (v < 40 km s-1) driven into moderately dense molecular gas (102 < nH < 104 cm-3) entrained in the outflow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munro, Eugene
2013-12-01
In this paper, we will solve the Hamiltonian constraint describing a curved general relativistic spacetime to find initial data describing how a black hole exists in vacuum. This has been done before by other researchers [Ansorg, 2004], and we will be adapting our own methods to an existing pseudo spectral Poisson solver [Gourgoulhon, 2001]. The need for this adaptation arises from improper numerical handling, done by pseudo spectral-methods, of a large part the Hamiltonian constraint equation due to the presence of the black hole singularity. To resolve a portion of this issue up to a given order, we will determine irregularities by executing a polynomial expansion on the Hamiltonian constraint, analytically solving the troublesome components of the equation and subtracting those out of the numerical process. This technique will increase the equation's differentiability and allow the numerical solver to run more efficiently. We will cover all the calculations needed to describe one black hole with arbitrary spin and linear momentum. Our process is easily expanded into cases with n black holes [Brandt, 1997], which we will show in chapter 2. We will implement a spherical harmonic decomposition of the black hole conformal factor, using them as basis functions by which to further expand and dissect the Hamiltonian Constraint equation. In the end, the expansion and subtraction method will be done out to the order of r4, where r is the spherical radius assuming the black hole is at the coordinate origin, making the Hamiltonian equation, which, unaltered, is a C 2 equation, become a C7 equation. Smoothing the Hamiltonian improves numerical precision, especially near the BH where the most interesting physics occurs. The method used in this paper can be further implemented to higher orders of r to yield even smoother conditions. We will test the numerical results of using this method against the existing solver that uses the publicly available Lorene numerical libraries
Time Resolved X-Ray Spectral Analysis of Class II YSOs in NGC 2264 During Optical Dips and Bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarcello, Mario Giuseppe; Flaccomio, Ettore; Micela, Giuseppina; Argiroffi, Costanza; Venuti, Laura
2016-07-01
Pre-Main Sequence stars are variable sources. The main mechanisms responsible for their variability are variable extinction, unsteady accretion, and rotational modulation of both hot and dark photospheric spots and X-ray active regions. In stars with disks this variability is thus related to the morphology of the inner circumstellar region (<0.1 AU) and that of photosphere and corona, all impossible to be spatially resolved with present day techniques. This has been the main motivations of the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC2264, a set of simultaneous observations of NGC2264 with 15 different telescopes.We analyze the X-ray spectral properties of stars with disks extracted during optical bursts and dips in order to unveil the nature of these phenomena. Stars are analyzed in two different samples. In stars with variable extinction a simultaneous increase of optical extinction and X-ray absorption is searched during the optical dips; in stars with accretion bursts we search for soft X-ray emission and increasing X-ray absorption during the bursts. In 9/33 stars with variable extinction we observe simultaneous increase of X-ray absorption and optical extinction. In seven dips it is possible to calculate the NH/AV ratio in order to infer the composition of the obscuring material. In 5/27 stars with optical accretion bursts, we observe soft X-ray emission during the bursts that we associate to the emission of accreting gas. It is not surprising that these properties are not observed in all the stars with dips and bursts since favorable geometric configurations are required. The observed variable absorption during the dips is mainly due to dust-free material in accretion streams. In stars with accretion bursts we observe in average a larger soft X-ray spectral component not observed in non accreting stars. This indicates that this soft X-ray emission arises from the accretion shocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Xianglei; Yang, Wenze; Loeb, Norman G.; Ramaswamy, V.
2008-01-01
Spectrally resolved outgoing IR flux, the integrand of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), has its unique value in evaluating model simulations. Here we describe an algorithm of deriving such clear-sky outgoing spectral flux through the whole IR region from the collocated Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Clouds & the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements over the tropical oceans. Based on the scene types and corresponding angular distribution models (ADMs) used in the CERES Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) dataset, spectrally-dependent ADMs are developed and used to estimate the spectral flux at each AIRS channel. A multivariate linear prediction scheme is then used to estimate spectral fluxes at frequencies not covered by the AIRS instrument. The whole algorithm is validated using synthetic spectra as well as the CERES OLR measurements. Using the GFDL AM2 model simulation as a case study, the application of the derived clear-sky outgoing spectral flux in model evaluation is illustrated. By comparing the observed and simulated spectral flux in 2004, compensating errors in the simulated OLR from different absorption bands can be revealed, so does the errors from frequencies within a given absorption band. Discrepancies between the simulated and observed spatial distributions and seasonal evolutions of the spectral fluxes at different spectral ranges are further discussed. The methodology described in this study can be applied to other surface types as well as cloudy-sky observations and corresponding model evaluations.
Mancini, R. C.; Johns, H. M.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Nagayama, T.; Hsu, S. C.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Hakel, P.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.
2014-12-15
We present spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved narrow- and broad-band x-ray images of polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on OMEGA. These self-emission images were obtained during the deceleration phase and bang time using several multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging instruments fielded along two or three quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight, including equatorial and polar views. The instruments recorded images based on K-shell lines from a titanium tracer located in the shell as well as continuum emission. These observations constitute the first such data obtained for PDD implosions. The image data show features attributed to laser imprinting and zero-order hydrodynamics. Equatorial-view images show a “double bun” structure that is consistent with synthetic images obtained from post-processing 2D and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment. Polar-view images show a pentagonal, petal pattern that correlates with the PDD laser illumination used on OMEGA, thus revealing a 3D aspect of PDD OMEGA implosions not previously observed. Differences are noted with respect to a PDD experiment performed at National Ignition Facility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjork, Bryce J.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Changala, Bryan; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Cossel, Kevin; Okumura, Mitchio; Ye, Jun
2014-06-01
The chemical kinetics of transient free radicals, such as HOCO and Criegee intermediates, play important roles in combustion and atmospheric processes. Establishing accurate kinetics models for these complex systems require knowledge of the reaction rates and lifetimes of all molecules along a particular reaction pathway. However, standard spectroscopic techniques lack a combination of sensitivity, frequency resolution, and adequate temporal resolution to survey these reactions on the μs timescale. To answer this challenge, we have developed time-resolved frequency comb spectroscopy (TRFCS). This novel technique allows for the detection of transient intermediates with high time-resolution and sensitivity while also permitting the direct determination of rotational state distributions of all relevant molecules. We demonstrate this technique in the mid-infrared spectral region, at 3.7 μm, by studying the photolysis of deuterated acrylic acid. We simultaneously observe the time-dependent concentrations of photoproducts trans-DOCO, HOD, and D_2O, identified through their unique rovibrational structure, with 5 × 1010 molecules cm-3 sensitivity, and with a time resolution of 25 μs. We aim to apply this technique to detect directly the formation of the DOCO intermediate in the OD + CO chemical reaction at atmospherically relevant pressures, in order to validate statistical rate models of this reaction.
Kholodtsova, Maria N; Daul, Christian; Loschenov, Victor B; Blondel, Walter C P M
2016-06-13
This paper presents a new approach to estimate optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients µa and µs) of biological tissues from spatially-resolved spectroscopy measurements. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based algorithm was implemented and firstly modified to deal with spatial and spectral resolutions of the data, and to solve the corresponding inverse problem. Secondly, the optimization was improved by fitting exponential decays to the two best points among all clusters of the "particles" randomly distributed all over the parameter space (µs, µa) of possible solutions. The consequent acceleration of all the groups of particles to the "best" curve leads to significant error decrease in the optical property estimation. The study analyzes the estimated optical property error as a function of the various PSO parameter combinations, and several performance criteria such as the cost-function error and the number of iterations in the algorithms proposed. The final one led to error values between ground truth and estimated values of µs and µa less than 6%.
Engberg, David L J; Johnson, Lars J S; Jensen, Jens; Thuvander, Mattias; Hultman, Lars
2017-08-12
Mass spectral overlaps in atom probe tomography (APT) analyses of complex compounds typically limit the identification of elements and microstructural analysis of a material. This study concerns the TiSiN system, chosen because of severe mass-to-charge-state ratio overlaps of the (14)N(+) and (28)Si(2+) peaks as well as the (14)N2(+) and (28)Si(+) peaks. By substituting (14)N with (15)N, mass spectrum peaks generated by ions composed of one or more N atoms will be shifted toward higher mass-to-charge-state ratios, thereby enabling the separation of N from the predominant Si isotope. We thus resolve thermodynamically driven Si segregation on the nanometer scale in cubic phase Ti1-xSix(15)N thin films for Si contents 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.19 by APT, as corroborated by transmission electron microscopy. The APT analysis yields a composition determination that is in good agreement with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analyses. Additionally, a method for determining good voxel sizes for visualizing small-scale fluctuations is presented and demonstrated for the TiSiN system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Burgasser, Adam J.
2015-11-01
We present high resolution Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics imaging of 43 late-M, L and T dwarf systems with Keck/NIRC2. These include 17 spectral binary candidates, systems whose spectra suggest the presence of a T dwarf secondary. We resolve three systems: 2MASS J1341-3052, SDSS J1511+0607 and SDSS J2052-1609 the first two are resolved for the first time. All three have projected separations <8 AU and estimated periods of 14-80 years. We also report a preliminary orbit determination for SDSS J2052-1609 based on six epochs of resolved astrometry between 2005 and 2010. Among the 14 unresolved spectral binaries, 5 systems were confirmed binaries but remained unresolved, implying a minimum binary fraction of {47}-11+12% for this sample. Our inability to resolve most of the spectral binaries, including the confirmed binaries, supports the hypothesis that a large fraction of very low mass systems have relatively small separations and are missed with direct imaging. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Information retrieval for nonstationary data records
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, M. Y.
1971-01-01
A review and a critical discussion are made on the existing methods for analysis of nonstationary time series, and a new algorithm for splitting nonstationary time series, is applied to the analysis of sunspot data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Alireza; Dinter, Tilman; Vountas, Marco; Schmitt, Bettina; Peeken, Ilka; Burrows, John P.; Bracher, Astrid
The goal of this study is to improve Phyto-DOAS, the retrieval method of identification of major Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) using ocean-color data provided by a high spectrally-resolved satellite sensor, SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography) on board ENVISAT. Phyto-DOAS is an extension of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy), originally developed to retrieve atmospheric trace gases, for remote identification of oceanic phytoplankton. So far Phyto-DOAS has been successfully exploited to identify Cyanobacteria and Diatom over global ocean (Bracher et al. 2009). The main challenge for retrieving more PFTs by Phyto-DOAS is to overcome the overlapping effects of different PFTs absorption spectra. Different PFTs are composed of different types and concentrations of pigments, but also have pigments in common, e.g. Chl-a, which cause correlation effects in the standard Phyto-DOAS retrieval. In this study two ideas have been implemented to overcome this limitation of Phyto-DOAS: Firstly, using the method of fourth-derivative spectroscopy (Aguirre-Gomez et al. 1995) the peak positions of the main pigment components in each absorption spectrum have been derived. After comparing the corresponding results of major PFTs, the optimized fit-window for DOAS-retrieval of each PFT is determined. Secondly, the simultaneous fitting of different PFTs has been implemented (over the year 2008) to include the real oceanic situation in the retrieval. Within this step the provided optimized fit-windows have been tested to produce higher fit quality. Validation of the global PFTs biomass distribution has been performed using in-situ data sets obtained during several transatlantic cruises in the year 2008.
Nonstationary statistical theory for multipactor
Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.
2010-06-15
This work presents a new and general approach to the real dynamics of the multipactor process: the nonstationary statistical multipactor theory. The nonstationary theory removes the stationarity assumption of the classical theory and, as a consequence, it is able to adequately model electron exponential growth as well as absorption processes, above and below the multipactor breakdown level. In addition, it considers both double-surface and single-surface interactions constituting a full framework for nonresonant polyphase multipactor analysis. This work formulates the new theory and validates it with numerical and experimental results with excellent agreement.
Nonstationary atmospheric boundary layer turbulence simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fichtl, G. H.; Perlmutter, M.
1974-01-01
Report on a new and general technique for simulating atmospheric turbulence-like random processes which are statistically homogeneous along the horizontal and nonhomogeneous along the vertical. This technique is general in the sense that it can be used for a broad class of similar problems. Like the other presently available schemes, the techniques presented are based on the Dryden hypothesis and Taylor's frozen eddy hypothesis; however, they go a step further by utilizing certain self-similarity properties of the Dryden spectral density function which permits the development of height invariant filters. These filters are in turn used to generate vertically homogeneous (statistically) random processes from which turbulence at any specified level in the boundary layer can be simulated, thus facilitating the simulation of a nonstationary turbulence process along the flight path of an aircraft during take-off or landing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinsen, Kevin; Thilker, David
2013-11-01
In this work we present our experience from the first year of theSkyNet Pan-STARRS1 Optical Galaxy Survey (POGS) project. This citizen-scientist driven research project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) middleware and thousands of Internet-connected computers to measure the resolved galactic structural properties of ˜100,000 low redshift galaxies. We are combining the spectral coverage of GALEX, Pan-STARRS1, SDSS, and WISE to generate a value-added, multi-wavelength UV-optical-NIR galaxy atlas for the nearby Universe. Specifically, we are measuring physical parameters (such as local stellar mass, star formation rate, and first-order star formation history) on a resolved pixel-by-pixel basis using spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting techniques in a distributed computing mode. Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing.
Debnath, Sanjit K; Kothiyal, Mahendra P; Schmit, Joanna; Hariharan, Parameswaran
2006-05-29
We describe how spectrally-resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy with a windowed 8-step algorithm can be used for rapid and accurate measurements of the thickness profile of transparent thin film layers with a wide range of thicknesses deposited upon patterned structures exhibiting steps and discontinuities. An advantage of this technique is that it can be implemented with readily available hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.
2015-10-01
We investigate the potential of linear dispersion-diffusion analysis in providing direct guidelines for turbulence simulations through the under-resolved DNS (sometimes called implicit LES) approach via spectral/hp methods. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is assessed in particular as a representative of these methods. We revisit the eigensolutions technique as applied to linear advection and suggest a new perspective to the role of multiple numerical modes, peculiar to spectral/hp methods. From this new perspective, "secondary" eigenmodes are seen to replicate the propagation behaviour of a "primary" mode, so that DG's propagation characteristics can be obtained directly from the dispersion-diffusion curves of the primary mode. Numerical dissipation is then appraised from these primary eigencurves and its effect over poorly-resolved scales is quantified. Within this scenario, a simple criterion is proposed to estimate DG's effective resolution in terms of the largest wavenumber it can accurately resolve in a given hp approximation space, also allowing us to present points per wavelength estimates typically used in spectral and finite difference methods. Although strictly valid for linear advection, the devised criterion is tested against (1D) Burgers turbulence and found to predict with good accuracy the beginning of the dissipation range on the energy spectra of under-resolved simulations. The analysis of these test cases through the proposed methodology clarifies why and how the DG formulation can be used for under-resolved turbulence simulations without explicit subgrid-scale modelling. In particular, when dealing with communication limited hardware which forces one to consider the performance for a fixed number of degrees of freedom, the use of higher polynomial orders along with moderately coarser meshes is shown to be the best way to translate available degrees of freedom into resolution power.
Quantification of heart rate variability by discrete nonstationary non-Markov stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yulmetyev, Renat; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail
2002-04-01
We develop the statistical theory of discrete nonstationary non-Markov random processes in complex systems. The objective of this paper is to find the chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for time correlation functions (TCF) in terms of nonstationary effects. The developed theory starts from careful analysis of time correlation through nonstationary dynamics of vectors of initial and final states and nonstationary normalized TCF. Using the projection operators technique we find the chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for discrete nonstationary TCF and for the set of nonstationary discrete memory functions (MF's). The last one contains supplementary information about nonstationary properties of the complex system on the whole. Another relevant result of our theory is the construction of the set of dynamic parameters of nonstationarity, which contains some information of the nonstationarity effects. The full set of dynamic, spectral and kinetic parameters, and kinetic functions (TCF, short MF's statistical spectra of non-Markovity parameter, and statistical spectra of nonstationarity parameter) has made it possible to acquire the in-depth information about discreteness, non-Markov effects, long-range memory, and nonstationarity of the underlying processes. The developed theory is applied to analyze the long-time (Holter) series of RR intervals of human ECG's. We had two groups of patients: the healthy ones and the patients after myocardial infarction. In both groups we observed effects of fractality, standard and restricted self-organized criticality, and also a certain specific arrangement of spectral lines. The received results demonstrate that the power spectra of all orders (n=1,2,...) MF mn(t) exhibit the neatly expressed fractal features. We have found out that the full sets of non-Markov, discrete and nonstationary parameters can serve as reliable and powerful means of diagnosis of the cardiovascular system states and can
Quantification of heart rate variability by discrete nonstationary non-Markov stochastic processes.
Yulmetyev, Renat; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail
2002-04-01
We develop the statistical theory of discrete nonstationary non-Markov random processes in complex systems. The objective of this paper is to find the chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for time correlation functions (TCF) in terms of nonstationary effects. The developed theory starts from careful analysis of time correlation through nonstationary dynamics of vectors of initial and final states and nonstationary normalized TCF. Using the projection operators technique we find the chain of finite-difference non-Markov kinetic equations for discrete nonstationary TCF and for the set of nonstationary discrete memory functions (MF's). The last one contains supplementary information about nonstationary properties of the complex system on the whole. Another relevant result of our theory is the construction of the set of dynamic parameters of nonstationarity, which contains some information of the nonstationarity effects. The full set of dynamic, spectral and kinetic parameters, and kinetic functions (TCF, short MF's statistical spectra of non-Markovity parameter, and statistical spectra of nonstationarity parameter) has made it possible to acquire the in-depth information about discreteness, non-Markov effects, long-range memory, and nonstationarity of the underlying processes. The developed theory is applied to analyze the long-time (Holter) series of RR intervals of human ECG's. We had two groups of patients: the healthy ones and the patients after myocardial infarction. In both groups we observed effects of fractality, standard and restricted self-organized criticality, and also a certain specific arrangement of spectral lines. The received results demonstrate that the power spectra of all orders (n=1,2, ...) MF m(n)(t) exhibit the neatly expressed fractal features. We have found out that the full sets of non-Markov, discrete and nonstationary parameters can serve as reliable and powerful means of diagnosis of the cardiovascular system states and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlak, M.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Pelzl, J.
2016-03-01
Spectrally resolved modulated infrared radiometry (SR-MIRR) with super-band gap photoexcitation is introduced as a self-consistent method for semiconductor characterization (CdSe crystals grown under different conditions). Starting from a theoretical model combining the contributions of the photothermal (PT) and photocarrier (PC) signal components, an expression is derived for the thermal-to-plasma wave transition frequency ftc which is found to be wavelength-independent. The deviation of the PC component from the model at high frequency is quantitatively explained by a quasi-continuous distribution of carrier recombination lifetimes. The integral, broad frequency band (0.1 Hz-1 MHz) MIRR measurements simultaneously yielded the thermal diffusivity a, the effective IR optical absorption coefficient βeff, and the bulk carrier lifetime τc. Spectrally resolved frequency scans were conducted with interchangeable IR bandpass filters (2.2-11.3 μm) in front of the detector. The perfect spectral match of the PT and PC components is the direct experimental evidence of the key assumption in MIRR that de-exciting carriers are equivalent to blackbody (Planck) radiators. The exploitation of the β spectrum measured by MIRR allowed determining the background (equilibrium) free carrier concentration n0. At the shortest wavelength (3.3 μm), the photoluminescence (PL) component supersedes the PC one and has distinct features. The average sample temperature influences the PC component but not the PT one.
General interference law for nonstationary, separable optical fields.
Manea, Vladimir
2009-09-01
An approach to the theory of partial coherence for nonstationary optical fields is presented. Starting with a spectral representation, a favorable decomposition of the optical signals is discussed that supports a natural extension of the mathematical formalism. The coherence functions are redefined, but still as temporal correlation functions, allowing the obtaining of a more general form of the interference law for partially coherent optical signals. The general theory is applied in some relevant particular cases of nonstationary interference, namely, with quasi-monochromatic beams of different frequencies and with phase-modulated quasi-monochromatic beams of similar frequency spectra. All the results of the general treatment are reducible to the ones given in the literature for the case of stationary interference.
On a class of nonstationary stochastic processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miamee, A. G.; Hardin, Jay C.
1989-01-01
A new class of nonstationary stochastic processes is introduced and some of the essential properties of its members are investigated. This class is richer than the class of stationary processes and has the potential of modeling some nonstationary time series. The relation between these newly defined processes with other important classes of nonstationary processes is investigated. Several examples of linearly correlated processes which are not stationary, periodically correlated, or harmonizable are given.
Johns, H. M.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.; ...
2016-01-25
In warm target direct-drive ICF implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility, plastic microballoons doped with a titanium tracer layer in the shell and filled with deuterium gas were imploded using a low-adiabat shaped laser pulse. Continuum radiation emitted in the core is transmitted through the tracer layer and the resulting spectrum recorded with a gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI). Titanium K-shell line absorption spectra observed in the data are due to transitions in L-shell titanium ions driven by the backlighting continuum. The MMI data consist of an array of spectrally resolved images of the implosion. These 2-D space-resolvedmore » titanium spectral features constrain the plasma conditions and areal density of the titanium doped region of the shell. The MMI data were processed to obtain narrow-band images and space resolved spectra of titanium spectral features. Shell areal density maps, ρL(x,y), extracted using a new method using both narrow-band images and space resolved spectra are confirmed to be consistent within uncertainties. We report plasma conditions in the titanium-doped region of electron temperature (Te) = 400±28eV, electron number density (Ne) = 8.5x1024±2.5x1024 cm-3, and average areal density <ρR> = 86±7mg/cm2. Fourier analysis of areal density maps reveals shell modulations caused by hydrodynamic instability growth near the fuel-shell interface in the deceleration phase. We observe significant structure in modes l = 2-9, dominated by l = 2. We extract a target breakup fraction of 7.1±1.5% from our Fourier analysis. A new method for estimating mix width is evaluated against existing literature and our target breakup fraction. We estimate a mix width of 10.5±1μm.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Chuen-Fa; Li, Shu-Guang; Liu, Chien-Jung; Hsu, Shaohua Marko
2010-02-01
SummaryThis study presents a hybrid spectral method (HSM) to estimate flow uncertainty in large-scale highly nonstationary groundwater systems. Taking advantages of spectral theories in solving unmodeled small-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity, the proposed HSM integrates analytical and numerical spectral solutions in the calculation procedures to estimate flow uncertainty. More specifically, the HSM involves two major computational steps after the mean flow equation is solved. The first step is to apply an analytical-based approximate spectral method (ASM) to predict nonstationary flow variances for entire modeling area. The perturbation-based numerical method, nonstationary spectral method (NSM), is then employed in the second step to correct the regional solution in local areas, where the variance dynamics is considered to be highly nonstationary (e.g., around inner boundaries or strong sources/sinks). The boundary conditions for the localized numerical solutions are based on the ASM closed form solutions at boundary nodes. Since the regional closed form solution is instantaneous and the more expensive perturbation-based numerical analysis is only applied locally around the strong stresses, the proposed HSM can be very efficient, making it possible to model strongly nonstationary variance dynamics with complex flow situations in large-scale groundwater systems. In this study the analytical-based ASM solutions was first assessed to quantify the solution accuracy under transient and inner boundary flow conditions. This study then illustrated the HSM accuracy and effectiveness with two synthetic examples. The HSM solutions were systematically compared with the corresponding numerical solutions of NSM and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), and the analytical-based solutions of ASM. The simulation results have revealed that the HSM is computationally efficient and can provide accurate variance estimations for highly nonstationary large-scale groundwater flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lederer, Susan
2017-01-01
NASA's ODPO has recently collected data of unresolved objects at GEO with the 3.8m UKIRT infrared telescope on Mauna Kea and the 1.3m MCAT visible telescope on Ascension Island. Analyses of SWIR data of rocket bodies and HS-376 solar-panel covered buses demonstrate the uniqueness of spectral signatures. Data of 3 classes of rocket bodies show similarities amongst a given class, but distinct differences from one class to another, suggesting that infrared reflectance spectra could effectively be used toward characterizing and constraining potential parent bodies of uncorrelated targets (UCTs). The Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA JSC is designed to collect photometric signatures in the laboratory that can be used for comparison with telescopic data. NASA also has a spectral database of spacecraft materials for use with spectral unmixing models. Spectral unmixing of the HS-376 bus data demonstrates how absorption features and slopes can be used to constrain material characteristics of debris. Broadband photometry likewise can be compared with MCAT data of non-resolved debris images. Similar studies have been applied to IDCSP satellites to demonstrate how color-color photometry can be compared with lab data to constrain bulk materials signatures of spacecraft and debris.
ISM DUST GRAINS AND N-BAND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN THE SPATIALLY RESOLVED SUBARCSECOND BINARY UY Aur
Skemer, Andrew J.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Males, Jared R.; Greene, Thomas P.; Beck, Tracy L.
2010-03-10
The 10 {mu}m silicate feature is an essential diagnostic of dust-grain growth and planet formation in young circumstellar disks. The Spitzer Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of this feature, but due to its small (85 cm) aperture, it cannot spatially resolve small/medium-separation binaries ({approx}<3''; {approx}< 420 AU) at the distances of the nearest star-forming regions ({approx}140 pc). Large, 6-10 m ground-based telescopes with mid-infrared instruments can resolve these systems. In this paper, we spatially resolve the 0.''88 binary, UY Aur, with MMTAO/BLINC-MIRAC4 mid-infrared spectroscopy. We then compare our spectra to Spitzer/IRS (unresolved) spectroscopy, and resolved images from IRTF/MIRAC2, Keck/OSCIR, and Gemini/Michelle, which were taken over the past decade. We find that UY Aur A has extremely pristine, interstellar medium (ISM)-like grains and that UY Aur B has an unusually shaped silicate feature, which is probably the result of blended emission and absorption from foreground extinction in its disk. We also find evidence for variability in both UY Aur A and UY Aur B by comparing synthetic photometry from our spectra with resolved imaging from previous epochs. The photometric variability of UY Aur A could be an indication that the silicate emission itself is variable, as was recently found in EX Lupi. Otherwise, the thermal continuum is variable, and either the ISM-like dust has never evolved, or it is being replenished, perhaps by UY Aur's circumbinary disk.
ISM Dust Grains and N-band Spectral Variability in the Spatially Resolved Subarcsecond Binary UY Aur
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skemer, Andrew J.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Greene, Thomas P.; Males, Jared R.; Beck, Tracy L.
2010-03-01
The 10 μm silicate feature is an essential diagnostic of dust-grain growth and planet formation in young circumstellar disks. The Spitzer Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of this feature, but due to its small (85 cm) aperture, it cannot spatially resolve small/medium-separation binaries (lsim3''; <~ 420 AU) at the distances of the nearest star-forming regions (~140 pc). Large, 6-10 m ground-based telescopes with mid-infrared instruments can resolve these systems. In this paper, we spatially resolve the 0farcs88 binary, UY Aur, with MMTAO/BLINC-MIRAC4 mid-infrared spectroscopy. We then compare our spectra to Spitzer/IRS (unresolved) spectroscopy, and resolved images from IRTF/MIRAC2, Keck/OSCIR, and Gemini/Michelle, which were taken over the past decade. We find that UY Aur A has extremely pristine, interstellar medium (ISM)-like grains and that UY Aur B has an unusually shaped silicate feature, which is probably the result of blended emission and absorption from foreground extinction in its disk. We also find evidence for variability in both UY Aur A and UY Aur B by comparing synthetic photometry from our spectra with resolved imaging from previous epochs. The photometric variability of UY Aur A could be an indication that the silicate emission itself is variable, as was recently found in EX Lupi. Otherwise, the thermal continuum is variable, and either the ISM-like dust has never evolved, or it is being replenished, perhaps by UY Aur's circumbinary disk. The observations reported here were partially obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility, which is operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lausch, D.; Mehl, T.; Petter, K.; Svarstad Flø, A.; Burud, I.; Olsen, E.
2016-02-01
In this contribution, spectral photoluminescence (SPL) imaging detecting both the spectral distribution and the lateral position is applied on recombination active defects in multicrystalline silicon solar cells and wafers. The result is analysed by a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) algorithm using the spectral photoluminescence response and their positions. (i) Without any pre-assumptions made, the algorithm distinguishes four different recombination active defect types. Looking at the spatial distribution, it is shown that two of these defect types coincide with two defect types that have been distinguished on solar cell level using an analysis of forward and reverse biased electroluminescence (denoted as Type-A and -B) previously. (ii) Using SPL, all previously classified defects can also be distinguished at the wafer level. Therefore, the defects limiting the solar cell efficiency are already present in the wafer material and not introduced by the solar cell process. This is of particular interest for the question of how to predict the solar cell efficiency based on the PL measurements at the wafer level. The SPL is able to distinguish between the recombination activity of the dominant Type-A and -B defects that cannot be distinguished by classical PL measurements of the band-to-band recombination at the wafer level. The technique also highlights the changes in recombination activity of the given defects throughout the fabrication process. (iii) Additionally, it is shown that the spectral peak positions of Type-A defects coincide with the known D3 and D4 lines and of Type-B defects with the D1 line on both solar cell and wafer level. Two further defects are captured by the MCR algorithm denoted as Type-VID3 and Type-D07 defects occurring as spot-like defects in isolated positions. Their spectral PL response is analysed as well.
Johns, H. M.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.; Mayes, D. C.; Tommasini, R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Delettrez, J. A.
2016-01-25
In warm target direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility, plastic micro-balloons doped with a titanium tracer layer in the shell and filled with deuterium gas were imploded using a low-adiabat shaped laser pulse. Continuum radiation emitted in the core is transmitted through the tracer layer and the resulting spectrum recorded with a gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI). Titanium K-shell line absorption spectra observed in the data are due to transitions in L-shell titanium ions driven by the backlighting continuum. The MMI data consist of an array of spectrally resolved images of the implosion. These 2-D space-resolved titanium spectral features constrain the plasma conditions and areal density of the titanium doped region of the shell. The MMI data were processed to obtain narrow-band images and space resolved spectra of titanium spectral features. Shell areal density maps, ρL(x,y), extracted using a new method using both narrow-band images and space resolved spectra are confirmed to be consistent within uncertainties. We report plasma conditions in the titanium-doped region of electron temperature (Te) = 400 ± 28 eV, electron number density (N_{e}) = 8.5 × 10^{24} ± 2.5 × 10^{24} cm^{–3}, and average areal density <ρR> = 86 ± 7 mg/cm^{2}. Fourier analysis of areal density maps reveals shell modulations caused by hydrodynamic instability growth near the fuel-shell interface in the deceleration phase. We observe significant structure in modes l = 2–9, dominated by l = 2. We extract a target breakup fraction of 7.1 ± 1.5% from our Fourier analysis. Furthermore, a new method for estimating mix width is evaluated against existing literature and our target breakup fraction. We estimate a mix width of 10.5 ±1 μm.
The analysis of nonstationary vibration data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piersol, Allan G.
1987-01-01
The general methodology for the analysis of arbitrary nonstationary random data is reviewed. A specific parametric model, called the product model, that has applications to space vehicle launch vibration data analysis is discussed. Illustrations are given using the nonstationary launch vibration data measured on the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle.
Pawlak, M.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Pelzl, J.
2016-03-28
Spectrally resolved modulated infrared radiometry (SR-MIRR) with super-band gap photoexcitation is introduced as a self-consistent method for semiconductor characterization (CdSe crystals grown under different conditions). Starting from a theoretical model combining the contributions of the photothermal (PT) and photocarrier (PC) signal components, an expression is derived for the thermal-to-plasma wave transition frequency f{sub tc} which is found to be wavelength-independent. The deviation of the PC component from the model at high frequency is quantitatively explained by a quasi-continuous distribution of carrier recombination lifetimes. The integral, broad frequency band (0.1 Hz–1 MHz) MIRR measurements simultaneously yielded the thermal diffusivity a, the effective IR optical absorption coefficient β{sub eff}, and the bulk carrier lifetime τ{sub c}. Spectrally resolved frequency scans were conducted with interchangeable IR bandpass filters (2.2–11.3 μm) in front of the detector. The perfect spectral match of the PT and PC components is the direct experimental evidence of the key assumption in MIRR that de-exciting carriers are equivalent to blackbody (Planck) radiators. The exploitation of the β spectrum measured by MIRR allowed determining the background (equilibrium) free carrier concentration n{sub 0}. At the shortest wavelength (3.3 μm), the photoluminescence (PL) component supersedes the PC one and has distinct features. The average sample temperature influences the PC component but not the PT one.
Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura
2014-05-01
We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potop, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Rinkel, J.; Brambilla, A.; Peyrin, F.; Verger, L.
2014-03-01
Recent advances in the domain of energy-resolved semiconductor detectors stimulate research in X-ray computed tomography (CT). However, the imperfections of these detectors induce errors that should be considered for further applications. Charge sharing and pile-up effects due to high photon fluxes can degrade image quality or yield wrong material identification. Basis component decomposition provides separate images of principal components, based on the energy related information acquired in each energy bin. The object is typically either decomposed in photoelectric and Compton physical effects or in basis materials functions. This work presents a simulation study taking into account the properties of an energy-resolved CdTe detector with flexible energy thresholds in the context of materials decomposition CT. We consider the effects of a first order pile-up model with triangular pulses of a non-paralyzable detector and a realistic response matrix. We address the problem of quantifying mineral content in bone based on a polynomial approach for material decomposition in the case of two and three energy bins. The basis component line integrals are parameterized directly in the projection domain and a conventional filtered back-projection reconstruction is performed to obtain the material component images. We use figures of merit such as noise and bias to select the optimal thresholds and quantify the mineral content in bone. The results obtained with an energy resolved detector for two and three energy bins are compared with the ones obtained for the dual-kVp technique using an integrating-mode detector with filters and voltages optimized for bone densitometry.
Non-Markovian dynamics of an open quantum system with nonstationary coupling
Kalandarov, S. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Kanokov, Z.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.
2011-04-15
The spectral, dissipative, and statistical properties of the damped quantum oscillator are studied in the case of non-Markovian and nonstationary system-heat bath coupling. The dissipation of collective energy is shown to be slowed down, and the decoherence rate and entropy grow with modulation frequency.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-08
Here, we compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1–35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-08
Here, we compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1–35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to longmore » times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.« less
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2017-02-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-08
Here, we compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1–35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Hönig, Sebastian F.; González-Martín, Omaira; Esquej, Pilar
2015-04-20
We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at http://denebola.org/ahc/deblendIRS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Youngblood, Allison; Linsky, Jeffrey; MUSCLES Treasury Survey Team
2016-01-01
The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to near-UV; 5 - 3200 Ang) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential "biomarker" gases. It has been shown that the atmospheric signatures of potentially habitable planets around low-mass stars may be significantly different from planets orbiting Sun-like stars owing to the different UV spectral energy distribution. I will present results from a panchromatic survey (Hubble/Chandra/XMM/optical) of M and K dwarf exoplanet hosts, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems). We reconstruct the Lyman-alpha and extreme-UV (100-900 Ang) radiation lost to interstellar attenuation and create 5 Angstrom to 5 micron stellar irradiance spectra; these data will be publically available as a High-Level Science Product on MAST. We find that all low-mass exoplanet host stars exhibit significant chromospheric/transition region/coronal emission -- no "UV inactive" M dwarfs are observed. The F(far-UV)/F(near-UV) flux ratio, a driver for possible abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, increases by ~3 orders of magnitude as the habitable zone moves inward from 1 to 0.1 AU, while the incident far-UV (912 - 1700 Ang) and XUV (5 - 900 Ang) radiation field strengths decrease by factors of a few across this range. Far-UV flare activity is common in 'optically inactive' M dwarfs; statistics from the entire sample indicate that large UV flares (E(300 - 1700 Ang) >= 10^31 erg) occur several times per day on typical M dwarf exoplanet hosts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Díaz Santos, Tanio; Hönig, Sebastian F.; González-Martín, Omaira; Esquej, Pilar
2015-04-01
We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at http://denebola.org/ahc/deblendIRS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmalz, M.; Key, G.
2012-09-01
Accurate spectral signature classification is key to reliable nonresolved detection and recognition of spaceborne objects. In classical signature-based recognition applications, classification accuracy has been shown to depend on accurate spectral endmember discrimination. Unfortunately, signatures are corrupted by noise and clutter that can be nonergodic in astronomical imaging practice. In previous work, we have shown that object class separation and classifier refinement results can be severely corrupted by input noise, leading to suboptimal classification. We have also shown that computed pattern recognition, like its human counterpart, can benefit from processes such as learning or forgetting, which in spectral signature classification can support adaptive tracking of input nonergodicities. In this paper, we model learning as the acquisition or insertion of a new pattern into a classifier's knowledge base. For example, in neural nets (NNs), this insertion process could correspond to the superposition of a new pattern onto the NN weight matrix. Similarly, we model forgetting as the deletion of a pattern currently stored in the classifier knowledge base, for example, as a pattern deletion operation on the NN weight matrix, which is a difficult goal with classical neural nets (CNNs). In particular, this paper discusses the implementation of feedback control for pattern insertion and deletion in lattice associative memories (LAMs) and dynamically adaptive statistical data fusion (DASDAF) paradigms, in support of signature classification. It is shown that adaptive classifiers based on LNN or DASDAF technology can achieve accurate signature classification in the presence of nonergodic Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise, at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Demonstration involves classification of multiple closely spaced, noise corrupted signatures from a NASA database of space material signatures at SNR > 0.1:1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.
2017-06-01
In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, D. K.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Zaragoza, G.
1999-01-01
Evidence of non-LTE effects in mesospheric water vapor as determined by infrared spectral emission measurements taken from the space shuttle is reported. A cryogenic Michelson interferometer in the CIRRIS-1A shuttle payload yielded high quality, atmospheric infrared spectra. These measurements demonstrate the enhanced daytime emissions of H2O (020-010) which are the result of non-LTE processes and in agreement with non-LTE models. The radiance ratios of H2O (010 to 000) and (020 to 010) Q(1) transitions during daytime are compared with non-LTE model calculations to assess the vibration-to-vibration exchange rate between H2O and O2 in the mesosphere. An exchange rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -12)cc/s is derived.
De la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H; Ruiz, Pablo D; Huntley, Jonathan M
2006-10-16
We describe a system for measuring sub-surface displacement fields within a scattering medium using a phase contrast version of spectral Optical Coherence Tomography. The system provides displacement maps within a 2-D slice extending into the sample with a sensitivity of order 10 nm. The data for a given deformation state is recorded in a single image, potentially allowing sub-surface displacement and strain mapping of moving targets. The system is based on low cost components and has no moving parts. The theoretical basis for the system is presented along with experimental results from a simple well-controlled geometry consisting of independently-tilting glass sheets. Results are validated using standard two-beam interferometry. A modified system was used to measure through-the-thickness phase changes within a porcine cornea due to displacements produced by an increase in the intraocular pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, D. K.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Zaragoza, G.
1999-01-01
Evidence of non-LTE effects in mesospheric water vapor as determined by infrared spectral emission measurements taken from the space shuttle is reported. A cryogenic Michelson interferometer in the CIRRIS-1A shuttle payload yielded high quality, atmospheric infrared spectra. These measurements demonstrate the enhanced daytime emissions of H2O (020-010) which are the result of non-LTE processes and in agreement with non-LTE models. The radiance ratios of H2O (010 to 000) and (020 to 010) Q(1) transitions during daytime are compared with non-LTE model calculations to assess the vibration-to-vibration exchange rate between H2O and O2 in the mesosphere. An exchange rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -12)cc/s is derived.
Evaluation of a procedure for the analysis of nonstationary vibroacoustic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Himelblau, Harry; Piersol, Allan G.
1989-01-01
Numerical techniques for the spectral analysis of vibration data from space-vehicle launches are described and demonstrated. A nonstationary product model described by Bendat and Piersol (1986) and its locally stationary version (Silverman, 1957) are applied to Space Shuttle flight data, and the results are presented in extensive graphs. It is shown that the nonstationary model can analyze data from longer sampling periods and thus significantly reduce random error; this in turn leads to vibration spectra lower than those obtained with short-duration models.
Nonstationary oscillations in gyrotrons revisited
Dumbrajs, O.; Kalis, H.
2015-05-15
Development of gyrotrons requires careful understanding of different regimes of gyrotron oscillations. It is known that in the planes of the generalized gyrotron variables: cyclotron resonance mismatch and dimensionless current or cyclotron resonance mismatch and dimensionless interaction length complicated alternating sequences of regions of stationary, periodic, automodulation, and chaotic oscillations exist. In the past, these regions were investigated on the supposition that the transit time of electrons through the interaction space is much shorter than the cavity decay time. This assumption is valid for short and/or high diffraction quality resonators. However, in the case of long and/or low diffraction quality resonators, which are often utilized, this assumption is no longer valid. In such a case, a different mathematical formalism has to be used for studying nonstationary oscillations. One example of such a formalism is described in the present paper.
Pan, C B; Zha, F X; Song, Y X; Shao, J; Dai, Y; Chen, X R; Ye, J Y; Wang, S M
2015-07-15
Femtosecond laser drilled holes of GaSbBi were characterized by the joint measurements of photoconductivity (PC) spectroscopy and laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping. The excitation light in PC was focused down to 60 μm presenting the spectral information of local electronic property of individual holes. A redshift of energy band edge of about 6-8 meV was observed by the PC measurement when the excitation light irradiated on the laser drilled holes. The spatial resolving of photoelectric property was achieved by the LBIC mapping which shows "pseudo-holes" with much larger dimensions than the geometric sizes of the holes. The reduced LBIC current with the pseudo-holes is associated with the redshift effect indicating that the electronic property of the rim areas of the holes is modified by the femtosecond laser drilling.
Arifler, Dizem; Schwarz, Richard A.; Chang, Sung K.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca
2009-01-01
Reflectance spectroscopy is a promising technology for detection of epithelial precancer. Fiber-optic probes that selectively collect scattered light from both the epithelium and the underlying stroma are likely to improve diagnostic performance of in vivo reflectance spectroscopy by revealing diagnostic features unique to each layer. We present Monte Carlo models with which to evaluate fiber-optic probe geometries with respect to sampling depth and depth resolution. We propose a probe design that utilizes half-ball lens coupled source and detector fibers to isolate epithelial scattering from stromal scattering and hence to resolve spectral information from the two layers. The probe is extremely compact and can provide easy access to different organ sites. PMID:16045217
Non-Stationary Signals: Phase-Energy APPROACH—THEORY and Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, R.; Ingman, D.; Braun, S.
2001-11-01
Modern time-frequency methods are intended to deal with a variety of non-stationary signals. One specific class, prevalent in the area of rotating machines, is that of harmonic signals of varying frequencies and amplitude. This paper presents a new adaptive phase-energy (APE) approach for time-frequency representation of varying harmonic signals. It is based on the concept of phase (frequency) paths and the instantaneous power spectral density (PSD). It is this path which represents the dynamic behaviour of the system generating the observed signal. The proposed method utilises dynamic filters based on an extended Nyquist theorem, enabling to extract signal components with optimal signal-to-noise ratio. The APE detects the most energetic harmonic components (frequency paths) in the analysed signal. Tests on simulated signals show the superiority of the APE in resolution and resolving power as compared to STFT and wavelets wave-packet decomposition. The dynamic filters also enable the reconstruction of the signal components (paths) from the noisy signal. A quantitative comparison was performed both for the detected path in the time-frequency plane as well as for the reconstructed signal, demonstrating the performance of the APE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caponi, Lorenzo; Formenti, Paola; Massabó, Dario; Di Biagio, Claudia; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Chevaillier, Servanne; Landrot, Gautier; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Piketh, Stuart; Saeed, Thuraya; Seibert, Dave; Williams, Earle; Balkanski, Yves; Prati, Paolo; Doussin, Jean-François
2017-06-01
This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) between 375 and 850 nm for 12 individual samples of mineral dust from different source areas worldwide and in two size classes: PM10. 6 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10.6 µm) and PM2. 5 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 µm). The experiments were performed in the CESAM simulation chamber using mineral dust generated from natural parent soils and included optical and gravimetric analyses. The results show that the MAE values are lower for the PM10. 6 mass fraction (range 37-135 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) than for the PM2. 5 (range 95-711 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) and decrease with increasing wavelength as λ-AAE, where the Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) averages between 3.3 and 3.5, regardless of size. The size independence of AAE suggests that, for a given size distribution, the dust composition did not vary with size for this set of samples. Because of its high atmospheric concentration, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive with black and brown carbon even during atmospheric transport over heavy polluted regions, when dust concentrations are significantly lower than at emission. The AAE values of mineral dust are higher than for black carbon (˜ 1) but in the same range as light-absorbing organic (brown) carbon. As a result, depending on the environment, there can be some ambiguity in apportioning the aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) based on spectral dependence, which is relevant to the development of remote sensing of light-absorbing aerosols and their assimilation in climate models. We suggest that the sample-to-sample variability in our dataset of MAE values is related to regional differences in the mineralogical composition of the parent soils. Particularly in the PM2. 5 fraction, we found a strong linear correlation between the dust light-absorption properties and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helfrich, J.; Kraus, D.; Ortner, A.; Frydrych, S.; Schaumann, G.; Hartley, N. J.; Gregori, G.; Kettle, B.; Riley, D.; Carroll, D. C.; Notley, M. M.; Spindloe, C.; Roth, M.
2015-03-01
We have resolved the solid-liquid phase transition of carbon at pressures around 150 GPa. High-pressure samples of different temperatures were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and varying the initial density from 1.30 g/cm3 to 2.25 g/cm3. In this way, temperatures from 5700 K to 14,500 K could be achieved for relatively constant pressure according to hydrodynamic simulations. From measuring the elastic X-ray scattering intensity of vanadium K-alpha radiation at 4.95 keV at a scattering angle of 126°, which is very sensitive to the solid-liquid transition, we can determine whether the sample had transitioned to the fluid phase. We find that samples of initial density 1.3 g/cm3 and 1.85 g/cm3 are liquid in the compressed states, whereas samples close to the ideal graphite crystal density of 2.25 g/cm3 remain solid, probably in a diamond-like state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhenwei; Wan, Baonian; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Juan
2005-08-01
By using a rotating hexahedral mirror placed in front of the objective lens and two sets of visible and ultraviolet monochromators coupled with a branchy quartz fiber bundle, a spacetime resolved spectroscopic system has been developed on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak. A center monitoring system has been used including a Helium-Neon laser and a photodiode detector to indicate the absolute position of the measurement in order to reduce the error caused by the uncertain emissive position of the plasma. By using the asymmetric Abel inversion, the spacetime resolved local emission coefficients of the spectroscopic line emissions have been obtained. Presented in this article are simultaneous measurements of two spectral line emissions such as CV-227.1 nm and OV-278.1 nm during a single plasma discharge on the HT-7. Experimental results indicate that the time resolution is better than 3 ms, the space resolution is better than 1.5 cm, the ratio of signal to background is better than 10:1, and the relative error of chord-integrated emission profile is less than 10%. Compared to traditional multichannel detecting systems, this system has considerably improved measurement efficiency, reduced uncertainty, and is therefore suitable for transport studies of global particles and impurities.
Resolving the Large Scale Spectral Variability of the Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.
2004-01-01
An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below approximately 1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonized thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable soft excess is seen to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the core soft emission is attributed to recombination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. This new analysis underlines the importance of fully accounting for absorption in characterizing AGN X-ray spectra.
Lee, Jin Seok; Arunkumar, P; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Hyungeui; Im, Won Bin
2014-02-15
The white light-emitting diode (WLED) is a state-of-the-art solid state technology, which has replaced conventional lighting systems due to its reduced energy consumption, its reliability, and long life. However, the WLED presents acute challenges in device engineering, due to its lack of color purity, efficacy, and thermal stability of the lighting devices. The prime cause for inadequacies in color purity and luminous efficiency is the spectral overlapping of red components with yellow/green emissions when generating white light by pumping a blue InGaN chip with yellow YAG:Ce³⁺ phosphor, where red phosphor is included, to compensate for deficiencies in the red region. An innovative strategy was formulated to resolve this spectral overlapping by alternatively arranging phosphor-in-glass (PiG) through cutting and reassembling the commercial red CaAlSiN₃:Eu²⁺ and green Lu₃Al₅O₁₂:Ce³⁺ PiG. PiGs were fabricated using glass frits with a low softening temperature of 600°C, which exhibited excellent thermal stability and high transparency, improving life time even at an operating temperature of 200°C. This strategy overcomes the spectral overlapping issue more efficiently than the randomly mixed and patented stacking design of multiple phosphors for a remote-type WLED. The protocol for the current design of PiG possesses excellent thermal and chemical stability with high luminous efficiency and color purity is an attempt to make smarter solid state lighting for high-powered remote-type white light-emitting devices.
Sato, Shigeo; Arai, Yuuki; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki
2014-01-01
When a nitrogen microwave-induced plasma produced with an Okamoto-cavity was employed as a source for the nitridation of steel samples, the characteristics of the plasma were investigated by analyzing a spatially-resolved emission image of nitrogen excited species obtained with a two-dimensionally imaging spectrograph. Our previous study had reported on an excellent performance of the Okamoto-cavity microwave-induced plasma (MIP), enabling a nitrided layer having a several-micrometer-thickness to form on an iron substrate, even if the treatment is completed within 1 min, which is superior to a conventional plasma nitriding using low-pressure glow discharges requiring a prolonged treatment time. In this paper, the reason for this is discussed based on a spectrometric investigation. The emission images of band heads of nitrogen molecule and nitrogen molecule ion extended toward the axial/radial directions of the plasma at larger microwave powers supplied to the MIP, thus elevating the number density of the excited species of nitrogen, which would activate any chemical reaction on the iron substrate. However, a drastic increase in the growth rate of the nitrided layer when increasing the microwave power from 600 to 700 W, which had been observed in our previous study, could not be explained only from such a variation in the excited species of nitrogen. This result is probably because the growth process is dominantly controlled by thermal diffusion of nitrogen atom after it enters into the iron substrate, where the substrate temperature is the most important parameter concerning the mobility in the iron lattice. Therefore, the Okamoto-cavity MIP could contribute to a thermal source through radiative heating as well as a source of nitrogen excited species, especially in the growth process of the nitrided layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohnaka, K.
2013-05-01
Aims: We present a high-spatial and high-spectral resolution observation of the well-studied K giant Aldebaran with AMBER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our aim is to spatially resolve the outer atmosphere (so-called MOLsphere) in individual CO first overtone lines and derive its physical properties, which are important for understanding the mass-loss mechanism in normal (i.e., non-Mira) K-M giants. Methods: Aldebaran was observed between 2.28 and 2.31 μm with a projected baseline length of 10.4 m and a spectral resolution of 12 000. Results: The uniform-disk diameter observed in the CO first overtone lines is 20-35% larger than is measured in the continuum. We have also detected a signature of inhomogeneities in the CO-line-forming region on a spatial scale of ~45 mas, which is more than twice as large as the angular diameter of the star itself. While the MARCS photospheric model reproduces the observed spectrum well, the angular size in the CO lines predicted by the MARCS model is significantly smaller than observed. This is because the MARCS model with the parameters of Aldebaran has a geometrical extension of only ~2% (with respect to the stellar radius). The observed spectrum and interferometric data in the CO lines can be simultaneously reproduced by placing an additional CO layer above the MARCS photosphere. This CO layer is extended to 2.5 ± 0.3 R⋆ with CO column densities of 5 × 1019-2 × 1020 cm-2 and a temperature of 1500 ± 200 K. Conclusions: The high spectral resolution of AMBER has enabled us to spatially resolve the inhomogeneous, extended outer atmosphere (MOLsphere) in the individual CO lines for the first time in a K giant. Our modeling of the MOLsphere of Aldebaran suggests a rather small gradient in the temperature distribution above the photosphere up to 2-3 R⋆. Based on AMBER observations made with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer of the European Southern Observatory. Program ID: 090.D-0459(A).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterrett, M. W.; Cirtain, J. W.
2013-12-01
Rarely have active regions on the Sun been studied at wavelengths less than 10 nm while simultaneously maintaining both high spatial and high spectral measurements. Marshall's Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) will measure the soft X-ray solar spectrum within a wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm (0.5 - 2.0 keV) while maintaining a 5 arcsec spatial resolution. The wavelength range of 0.6 - 2.4 nm can provide insight into the heating roles of two of the likely coronal heating mechanisms: nanoflare and Alfven wave heating. The key difference in nanoflares and Alfven wave heating is the high temperature components of plasmas inside single magnetic strands. If the observed frequency of the heating event is low, it is determined to be a nanoflare. If the frequency of the heating event is high, it is Alfvenic in nature. To discriminate between these two distinct events requires that the components of the local high-temperature plasma be measured. MaGIXS is a proposed sounding rocket experiment. Currently in its prototype phase, MaGIXS is being aligned and characterized in hopes of a 2015 launch. To measure the attributes of high-temperature plasma, MaGIXS will employ the use of a matched pair of parabolic mirrors in conjunction with a planar varied-line-space silicon wafer grating. The two mirrors act as a collimator and re-focusing system, molding the beam to desired specifications and removing off-axis optical aberrations in the process. The grating has a HeNe alignment feature which allows the grating to be aligned at atmospheric pressure while focusing the HeNe laser beam near the center of MaGIXS wavelength range. This presentation will cover the alignment procedure of the mirrors, and the results of preliminary testing using both white light and X-ray sources.
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang
2009-02-01
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.
Kawamura, Shoji; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kasai, Daisuke; Tezuka, Ayumi; Shoji, Ayako; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Imai, Hiroo; Kawata, Masakado
2016-10-01
The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) shows remarkable variation of photoreceptor cells in the retina, especially those sensitive to middle-to-long wavelengths of light. Microspectrophotometry (MSP) has revealed varying "green", "green-yellow" and "yellow" cone cells among guppies in Trinidad and Venezuela (Cumana). In the guppy genome, there are four "long-wave" opsin loci (LWS-1, -2, -3 and -4). Two LWS-1 alleles have potentially differing spectral sensitivity (LWS-1/180Ser and LWS-1/180Ala). In addition, two "middle-wave" loci (RH2-1 and -2), two "short-wave" loci (SWS2-A and -B), and a single "ultraviolet" locus (SWS1) as well as a single "rhodopsin" locus (RH1) are present. However, the absorption spectra of these photopigments have not been measured directly and the association of cell types with these opsins remains speculative. In the present study, we reconstituted these opsin photopigments in vitro. The wavelengths of maximal absorbance (λmax) were 571nm (LWS-1/180Ser), 562nm (LWS-1/180Ala), 519nm (LWS-3), 516nm (LWS-2), 516nm (RH2-1), 476nm (RH2-2), 438nm (SWS2-A), 408nm (SWS2-B), 353nm (SWS1) and 503nm (RH1). The λmax of LWS-3 is much shorter than the value expected (560nm) from the "five-sites" rule. The two LWS-1 alleles could explain difference of the reported MSP λmax values for the yellow cone class between Trinidad and Cumana guppies. Absence of the short-wave-shifted LWS-3 and the green-yellow cone in the green swordtail supports the hypothesis that this cell class of the guppy co-expresses the LWS-1 and LWS-3. These results reveal the basis of variability in the guppy visual system and provide insight into the behavior and ecology of these tropical fishes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elgass, Kirstin; Zell, Martina; Maurino, Veronica G.; Schleifenbaum, Frank
2011-02-01
Leaf cells of living plants exhibit strong fluorescence from chloroplasts, the reaction centers of photosynthesis. Mutations in the photosystems change their structure and can, thus, be monitored by recording the fluorescence spectra of the emitted chlorophyll light. These measurements have, up to now, mostly been carried out at low temperatures (77 K), as these conditions enable the differentiation between the fluorescence of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII). In contrast, at room temperature, energy transfer processes between the various photosynthetic complexes result in very similar fluorescence emissions, which mainly consist of fluorescence photons emitted by PSII hindering a discrimination based on spectral ROIs (regions of interest). However, by statistical analysis of high resolution fluorescence spectra recorded at room temperature, it is possible to draw conclusions about the relative PSI/PSII ratio. Here, the possibility of determining the relative PSI/PSII ratio by fluorescence spectroscopy is demonstrated in living maize plants. Bundle-sheath chloroplasts of mature maize plants have a special morphologic characteristic; they are agranal, or exhibit only rudimentary grana, respectively. These chloroplasts are depleted in PSII activity and it could be shown that PSII is progressively reduced during leaf differentiation. A direct comparison of PSII activity in isolated chloroplasts is nearly impossible, since the activity of PSII in both mesophyll- and bundle-sheath chloroplasts decays with time after isolation and it takes significantly longer to isolate bundle-sheath chloroplasts. Considering this fact the measurement of PSI/PSII ratios with the 77K method, which includes taking fluorescence spectra from a diluted suspension of isolated chloroplasts at 77K, is questionable. These spectra are then used to analyze the distribution of energy between PSI and PSII. After rapid cooling to 77K secondary biochemical influences, which attenuate the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isabelle, Martin; Davis, Scott; Li, Zan; Gunn, Jason; Hoopes, P. J.; Pereira, S.; Mosse, C. A.; Hasan, T.; Pogue, B. W.
2012-02-01
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with verteporfin is currently being investigated to treat pancreatic cancer in patients who are not surgical candidates. Clinically, interstitial light delivery is administered through a fiber, via percutaneous needle implantation guided by ultrasound and/or verified by CT. Tumor response to PDT is based on photosensitizer (PS) dose, light dose, light dose rate and the timing of light application following PS injection. However, studies have shown that even when matching administered PDT treatment parameters such as drug dose and light level, there can be significant inter-patient variation in tissue damage post-PDT, and this has been primarily attributed to imprecise PS concentration at the target tissue site. In order to achieve optimal tumor response from PDT without causing major damage to surrounding tissue, it would be advantageous to measure the PS concentration in the target tissue just prior to light application. From these measurements, the clinician can adapt the light application dose to the measured target tissue PS concentration (i.e. insufficient target tissue PS concentrations compensated by higher light doses and vice versa.) in order to provide an optimal light dose for each patient. In animal studies, a spectrometer-based in-vivo fluorescence dosimetry system has been used to assess accumulated PS levels (verteporfin) in situ. Measurements are taken from skin, leg muscle, buccal mucosa and tumor tissue locations one hour after injection of the photosensitizer. Real-time spectral fitting, subtraction of background autofluorescence and ratiometric analysis is performed on the raw data to extract out only the photosensitizer fluorescence and therefore concentration. Using a pre-measured calibration data set of varying concentrations for verteporfin in tissue phantoms composed of intralipid and whole blood, it was possible detect concentrations of the photosensitizer below 0.5nM. In the clinical studies being
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Livne, Amir
2017-08-01
Spectral CT based on energy-resolving photon counting detectors is expected to deliver additional diagnostic value at a lower dose than current state-of-the-art CT [1]. The capability of simultaneously providing a number of spectrally distinct measurements not only allows distinguishing between photo-electric and Compton interactions but also discriminating contrast agents that exhibit a K-edge discontinuity in the absorption spectrum, referred to as K-edge Imaging [2]. Such detectors are based on direct converting sensors (e.g. CdTe or CdZnTe) and high-rate photon counting electronics. To support the development of Spectral CT and show the feasibility of obtaining rates exceeding 10 Mcps/pixel (Poissonian observed count-rate), the ChromAIX ASIC has been previously reported showing 13.5 Mcps/pixel (150 Mcps/mm2 incident) [3]. The ChromAIX has been improved to offer the possibility of a large area coverage detector, and increased overall performance. The new ASIC is called ChromAIX2, and delivers count-rates exceeding 15 Mcps/pixel with an rms-noise performance of approximately 260 e-. It has an isotropic pixel pitch of 500 μm in an array of 22×32 pixels and is tile-able on three of its sides. The pixel topology consists of a two stage amplifier (CSA and Shaper) and a number of test features allowing to thoroughly characterize the ASIC without a sensor. A total of 5 independent thresholds are also available within each pixel, allowing to acquire 5 spectrally distinct measurements simultaneously. The ASIC also incorporates a baseline restorer to eliminate excess currents induced by the sensor (e.g. dark current and low frequency drifts) which would otherwise cause an energy estimation error. In this paper we report on the inherent electrical performance of the ChromAXI2 as well as measurements obtained with CZT (CdZnTe)/CdTe sensors and X-rays and radioactive sources.
Chonis, Taylor S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Overzier, Roderik A.; Song, Mimi; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Adams, Joshua J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Zeimann, Gregory R.
2013-10-01
We present new results on the spectrally resolved Lyα emission of three Lyα-emitting field galaxies at z ∼ 2.4 with high Lyα equivalent width (>100 Å) and Lyα luminosity (∼10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}). At 120 km s{sup –1} (FWHM) spectral resolution, the prominent double-peaked Lyα profile straddles the systemic velocity, where the velocity zero point is determined from spectroscopy of the galaxies' rest-frame optical nebular emission lines. The average velocity offset from systemic of the stronger redshifted emission component for our sample is 176 km s{sup –1} while the average total separation between the redshifted and main blueshifted emission components is 380 km s{sup –1}. These measurements are a factor of ∼2 smaller than for UV-continuum-selected galaxies that show Lyα in emission with lower Lyα equivalent widths. We compare our Lyα spectra to the predicted line profiles of a spherical 'expanding shell' Lyα radiative transfer grid that models large-scale galaxy outflows. Specifically, blueward of the systemic velocity where two galaxies show a weak, highly blueshifted (by ∼1000 km s{sup –1}) tertiary emission peak, the model line profiles are a relatively poor representation of the observed spectra. Since the neutral gas column density has a dominant influence over the shape of the Lyα line profile, we caution against equating the observed Lyα velocity offset with a physical outflow velocity, especially at lower spectral resolution where the unresolved Lyα velocity offset is a convoluted function of several degenerate parameters. Referring to rest-frame ultraviolet and optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we find that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play an important role in inducing a starburst that results in copious Lyα emission as well as perturbing the gas distribution and velocity field, both of which have strong influence over the Lyα emission line profile.
Tamaki, Ryo Shoji, Yasushi; Okada, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Kenjiro
2014-08-18
Two-step photon absorption processes in a self-organized In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cell have been investigated by monitoring the mid-infrared (IR) photoinduced modulation of the external quantum efficiency (ΔEQE) at low temperature. The first step interband and the second step intraband transitions were both spectrally resolved by scanning photon energies of visible to near-IR CW light and mid-IR pulse lasers, respectively. A peak centered at 0.20 eV corresponding to the transition to virtual bound states and a band above 0.42 eV probably due to photoexcitation to GaAs continuum states were observed in ΔEQE spectra, when the interband transition was above 1.4 eV, directly exciting wetting layers or GaAs spacer layers. On the other hand, resonant excitation of the ground state of QDs at 1.35 eV resulted in a reduction of EQE. The sign of ΔEQE below 1.40 eV changed from negative to positive by increasing the excitation intensity of the interband transition. We ascribe this to the filling of higher energy trap states.
Brandstetter, Markus; Genner, Andreas; Schwarzer, Clemens; Mujagic, Elvis; Strasser, Gottfried; Lendl, Bernhard
2014-02-10
We present the time-resolved comparison of pulsed 2nd order ring cavity surface emitting (RCSE) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and pulsed 1st order ridge-type distributed feedback (DFB) QCLs using a step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Laser devices were part of QCL arrays and fabricated from the same laser material. Required grating periods were adjusted to account for the grating order. The step-scan technique provided a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm(-1) and a time resolution of 2 ns. As a result, it was possible to gain information about the tuning behavior and potential mode-hops of the investigated lasers. Different cavity-lengths were compared, including 0.9 mm and 3.2 mm long ridge-type and 0.97 mm (circumference) ring-type cavities. RCSE QCLs were found to have improved emission properties in terms of line-stability, tuning rate and maximum emission time compared to ridge-type lasers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Okada, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Kenjiro
2014-08-01
Two-step photon absorption processes in a self-organized In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cell have been investigated by monitoring the mid-infrared (IR) photoinduced modulation of the external quantum efficiency (ΔEQE) at low temperature. The first step interband and the second step intraband transitions were both spectrally resolved by scanning photon energies of visible to near-IR CW light and mid-IR pulse lasers, respectively. A peak centered at 0.20 eV corresponding to the transition to virtual bound states and a band above 0.42 eV probably due to photoexcitation to GaAs continuum states were observed in ΔEQE spectra, when the interband transition was above 1.4 eV, directly exciting wetting layers or GaAs spacer layers. On the other hand, resonant excitation of the ground state of QDs at 1.35 eV resulted in a reduction of EQE. The sign of ΔEQE below 1.40 eV changed from negative to positive by increasing the excitation intensity of the interband transition. We ascribe this to the filling of higher energy trap states.
Meevasana, W.
2010-04-30
Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has revealed a dispersion anomaly at high binding energy near 0.3-0.5 eV in various families of the high-temperature superconductors. For further studies of this anomaly we present a new two-dimensional fitting-scheme and apply it to high-statistics ARPES data of the strongly-overdoped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} cuprate superconductor. The procedure allows us to extract the self-energy in an extended energy and momentum range. It is found that the spectral function of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} can be parameterized using a small set of tight-binding parameters and a weakly-momentum-dependent self-energy up to 0.7 eV in binding energy and over the entire first Brillouin zone. Moreover the analysis gives an estimate of the momentum dependence of the matrix element, a quantity, which is often neglected in ARPES analyses.
AXISYMMETRIC, NONSTATIONARY BLACK HOLE MAGNETOSPHERES: REVISITED
Song, Yoo Geun; Park, Seok Jae E-mail: sjpark@kasi.re.kr
2015-10-10
An axisymmetric, stationary, general-relativistic, electrodynamic engine model of an active galactic nucleus was formulated by Macdonald and Thorne that consisted of a supermassive black hole surrounded by a plasma magnetosphere and a magnetized accretion disk. Based on this initial formulation, a nonstationary, force-free version of their model was constructed by Park and Vishniac (PV), with the simplifying assumption that the poloidal component of the magnetic field line velocity be confined along the radial direction in cylindrical polar coordinates. In this paper, we derive the new, nonstationary “Transfield Equation,” which was not specified in PV. If we can solve this “Transfield Equation” numerically, then we will understand the axisymmetric, nonstationary black hole magnetosphere in more rigorous ways.
Ion dynamics at a non-stationary shock: MMS observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johlander, Andreas; Schwartz, Steven; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Gingell, Imogen; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Giles, Barbara; Torbert, Roy; Russell, Christopher
2017-04-01
Collisionless shocks act to slow down and thermalize plasma. In astrophysical plasmas, shocks are very efficient particle accelerators and are likely the source of high-energy cosmic rays. Non-stationarity in shocks can have an impact on particle heating and acceleration processes. High time-resolution measurements from the four closely-spaced Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft allows us to resolve processes at the Earth's bow shock at sub-gyroscales. We use data from particle and field instruments to, in detail, describe the ion dynamics in one crossing of a non-stationary shock. We characterize the type of non-stationarity and determine its role in ion kinetics and ion acceleration.
Zaręba, J K; Janczak, J; Samoć, M; Nyk, M
2017-07-25
The reaction of a phosphonate-diester tetraphenylmethane-based tecton, tetrakis[4-(diethoxyphosphoryl)phenyl]methane, (L) with cobalt(ii) chloride afforded a centrosymmetric coordination polymer (CP), [L·2Co(H2O)4(2+)·2CoCl4(2-)]n, 2-Cl, possessing simultaneously octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) metal centers. This material served as a model compound for the demonstration of factors influencing the spectral dependence of one of the nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena, the third-harmonic generation (THG). The spectrally-resolved THG (SR-THG) measurements in the range from 1125 to 1750 nm revealed that a maximum of THG response is obtained when the fundamental beam is around 1300 nm. The SR-THG study was combined with an analysis of the self-absorption effects of pumping and of third-harmonic radiation; based on these results, we put forward a hypothesis that the THG action spectrum is influenced more by the ability of the material to self-absorb the third harmonic rather than by the extent of self-absorption of the pumping radiation. Apart from investigations of NLO properties, we have explored coordination and particularly the supramolecular interactions that build up the 2-Cl CP. Despite the tetrahedral, spatial shape of the ligand L, CP 2-Cl has a two-dimensional net. The structure was found to be strongly supported by O-HCl hydrogen bonds, since each CoCl4(2-) complex anion is an acceptor of eight of such interactions within a distorted square grid layer of cobalt(ii) ions. While coordination and hydrogen-bonded nets are both featuring the sql topology when treated separately, the consideration of both of them as topological paths yields a trinodal 4,4,6-connected net, described by the point symbol (4(2)·8(4))(4(5)·6)2(4(6)·6(6)·8(3))2. SR-THG and structural studies of 2-Cl have been also supported by far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis-NIR solid state absorption analysis, thermogravimetry and preliminary magnetic characterization.
Analysis of planetary gear transmission in non-stationary operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaari, Fakher; Abbes, Mohamed Slim; Rueda, Fernando Viadero; del Rincon, Alfonso Fernandez; Haddar, Mohamed
2013-03-01
Planetary gearboxes operate usually in nonstationary conditions generated mainly by variable loads applied to these transmissions. In order to understand the dynamic behavior of planetary gearboxes in such conditions, a mathematic model is developed including driving unit, transmission and load. The variability of load induces a variable speed of the transmission which is taken into account when characterizing the main dynamic parameter of the transmission which is the mesh stiffness function. This function is not periodic following the variability of the transmission speed. The computation of the dynamic response shows an intimate relation between the vibration amplitude level and the load value. As the load increase the vibration level increase. A combined amplitude and frequency modulation is observed which is well characterized using Short Time Fourier transform more suited than the spectral analysis.
Conditional adaptive Bayesian spectral analysis of nonstationary biomedical time series.
Bruce, Scott A; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J; Krafty, Robert T
2017-05-08
Many studies of biomedical time series signals aim to measure the association between frequency-domain properties of time series and clinical and behavioral covariates. However, the time-varying dynamics of these associations are largely ignored due to a lack of methods that can assess the changing nature of the relationship through time. This article introduces a method for the simultaneous and automatic analysis of the association between the time-varying power spectrum and covariates, which we refer to as conditional adaptive Bayesian spectrum analysis (CABS). The procedure adaptively partitions the grid of time and covariate values into an unknown number of approximately stationary blocks and nonparametrically estimates local spectra within blocks through penalized splines. CABS is formulated in a fully Bayesian framework, in which the number and locations of partition points are random, and fit using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Estimation and inference averaged over the distribution of partitions allows for the accurate analysis of spectra with both smooth and abrupt changes. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the association between the time-varying spectrum of heart rate variability and self-reported sleep quality in a study of older adults serving as the primary caregiver for their ill spouse. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cimini, D.; Fiorenza, C.; Coppola, E.; Bernardini, L.; Marzano, F. S.; Visconti, G.
2003-04-01
A part of the study of future climate changes is based on the forecast provided by Numerical Prediction Models (NPM). Testing NPM output for the past is therefore a major issue for climate studies. Different approaches are possible, based on comparison between numerical output and atmospheric and oceanic measurements, such as air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature. More recently, another approach has been proposed [Haskins et al, 1995; 1997; 1998; Goody et al., 1998], which makes use of direct observations, such as outgoing long-wave radiance, instead of retrieved products. In order to accomplish this goal, it?s necessary to obtain an equivalent set of data from numerical models and observations. High-resolution spectrally resolved outgoing long-wave radiance from the Earth-Atmosphere system has been measured in the last decades by satellite-borne interferometers [Hanel et al., 1971; 1972; Kobayashi et al., 1999]. On the model side, we built an equivalent synthetic dataset by processing the output of a NPM with a Radiative Tranfer Model (RTM) code. Although, since NPM do not generally provide detailed information about the microphysics of hydrometeors, which is necessary to compute exactly the radiation extinction by clouds, we have chosen to reduce our analysis to clear-sky cases. Thus, we needed to detect and remove cloud-contaminated cases from the observation dataset [Fiorenza et al. 2002]. As suggested by [Leith, 1975; Polyak, 1996], by comparing first and second order statistics from the synthetic and measured datasets of outgoing long-wave radiance spectra we are able to test the performances of a NPM in describing not only the main behaviour of the Earth-Atmosphere system, but also its variability and climate sensitivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hama, Yukihiro; Koyama, Yoshinori; Barrett, Tristan; Urano, Yasuteru; Choyke, Peter L.
2007-02-01
Target-specific contrast agents are being developed for the molecular imaging of cancer. Optically detectable target-specific agents are promising for clinical applications because of their high sensitivity and specificity. Pre clinical testing is needed, however, to validate the actual sensitivity and specificity of these agents in animal models, and involves both conventional histology and immunohistochemistry, which requires large numbers of animals and samples with costly handling. However, a superior validation tool takes advantage of genetic engineering technology whereby cell lines are transfected with genes that induce the target cell to produce fluorescent proteins with characteristic emission spectra thus, identifying them as cancer cells. Multicolor fluorescence imaging of these genetically engineered probes can provide rapid validation of newly developed exogenous probes that fluoresce at different wavelengths. For example, the plasmid containing the gene encoding red fluorescent protein (RFP) was transfected into cell lines previously developed to either express or not-express specific cell surface receptors. Various antibody-based or receptor ligand-based optical contrast agents with either green or near infrared fluorophores were developed to concurrently target and validate cancer cells and their positive and negative controls, such as β-D-galactose receptor, HER1 and HER2 in a single animal/organ. Spectrally resolved fluorescence multicolor imaging was used to detect separate fluorescent emission spectra from the exogenous agents and RFP. Therefore, using this in vivo imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the target-specific optical contrast agents, thus reducing the number of animals needed to conduct these experiments.
Measurement of Non-Stationary Characteristics of a Landfall Typhoon at the Jiangyin Bridge Site.
He, Xuhui; Qin, Hongxi; Tao, Tianyou; Liu, Wenshuo; Wang, Hao
2017-09-22
The wind-sensitive long-span suspension bridge is a vital element in land transportation. Understanding the wind characteristics at the bridge site is thus of great significance to the wind- resistant analysis of such a flexible structure. In this study, a strong wind event from a landfall typhoon called Soudelor recorded at the Jiangyin Bridge site with the anemometer is taken as the research object. As inherent time-varying trends are frequently captured in typhoon events, the wind characteristics of Soudelor are analyzed in a non-stationary perspective. The time-varying mean is first extracted with the wavelet-based self-adaptive method. Then, the non-stationary turbulent wind characteristics, e.g.; turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral scale, and power spectral density, are investigated and compared with the results from the stationary analysis. The comparison highlights the importance of non-stationary considerations of typhoon events, and a transition from stationarity to non-stationarity for the analysis of wind effects. The analytical results could help enrich the database of non-stationary wind characteristics, and are expected to provide references for the wind-resistant analysis of engineering structures in similar areas.
Double wavelet transform of frequency-modulated nonstationary signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozhokin, S. V.; Suslova, I. M.
2013-12-01
A mathematical model is proposed for a frequency-modulated signal in the form of a system of Gaussian peaks randomly distributed in time. An analytic expression is obtained for continuous wavelet transform (CWT) of the model signal. For signals with time-varying sequence of peaks, the main ridge of the skeleton characterized by frequency ν{max/MFB} ( t) is analyzed. The value of ν{max/MFB} ( t) is determined for any instant t from the condition of the CWT maximum in the spectral range of the main frequency band (MFB). Double CWT of function ν{max/MFB} ( t) is calculated for a frequency-modulated signal with a transition regions of smooth frequency variation (trend) as well as with varying frequency oscillations relative to the trend. The duration of transition periods of the signal is determined using spectral integrals E ν( t). The instants of emergence and decay of low-frequency spectral components of the signal are determined. The double CWT method can be used for analyzing cardiac rhythms and neural activity, as well as nonstationary processes in quantum radio physics and astronomy.
EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit
Lee, Geun-Soo
2012-07-03
Acne remains a severe problem for both patients and clinicians. Various approaches using photosurgery and phototherapy have been reported with varying degrees of success and robustness of results. An improved intense pulsed light (IPL) system has become available with interesting beam characteristic which might improve IPL treatment of inflammatory acne in the Asian skin, Fitzpatrick type III/IV. The 18 study subjects comprised 15 females and 3 males with active mild to moderately severe inflammatory acne (mean age 25.3 ± 7.70 yr, range 17-47 yr, Burton scale 1-4, all Fitzpatrick type III Asian skin). They were treated once (8 subjects) or twice (10 subjects) with an IPL system offering both square pulse and time resolved spectral distribution technologies (420 nm cut-off filter, 30 ms pulse, 8 - 12 J/cm(2), 2-3 passes). Clinical photography was taken at baseline and at 4 weeks after the final treatment. Percentage of acne clearance was assessed by an independent dermatological panel and graded from zero to 5, 5 being total clearance. All subjects completed the study. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transient, with virtually no downtime or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) experienced by any subject. All subjects had some improvement and no exacerbation was seen in any subject. Clearance was evaluated by the panel as grade 4 in 5 subjects, grade 3 in 8, grade 2 in 4 and grade 1 in 1, so that 14 of 18 subjects (78%) had clearance of at least 60%. Patient evaluation was in general slightly better than that of the panel. The special beam characteristics of the IPL system used in the present preliminary study achieved good to very good results in the treatment of acne in the Fitzpatrick type III Asian skin without PIH induction. The results suggested that acne treatment in the Asian skin using this system is both safe and effective, and merits larger population studies to further optimize parameters and standardize top-up treatments.
2012-01-01
Background and aims: Acne remains a severe problem for both patients and clinicians. Various approaches using photosurgery and phototherapy have been reported with varying degrees of success and robustness of results. An improved intense pulsed light (IPL) system has become available with interesting beam characteristic which might improve IPL treatment of inflammatory acne in the Asian skin, Fitzpatrick type III/IV. Subjects and Methods: The 18 study subjects comprised 15 females and 3 males with active mild to moderately severe inflammatory acne (mean age 25.3 ± 7.70 yr, range 17–47 yr, Burton scale 1-4, all Fitzpatrick type III Asian skin). They were treated once (8 subjects) or twice (10 subjects) with an IPL system offering both square pulse and time resolved spectral distribution technologies (420 nm cut-off filter, 30 ms pulse, 8 – 12 J/cm2, 2–3 passes). Clinical photography was taken at baseline and at 4 weeks after the final treatment. Percentage of acne clearance was assessed by an independent dermatological panel and graded from zero to 5, 5 being total clearance. Results: All subjects completed the study. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transient, with virtually no downtime or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) experienced by any subject. All subjects had some improvement and no exacerbation was seen in any subject. Clearance was evaluated by the panel as grade 4 in 5 subjects, grade 3 in 8, grade 2 in 4 and grade 1 in 1, so that 14 of 18 subjects (78%) had clearance of at least 60%. Patient evaluation was in general slightly better than that of the panel. Conclusions: The special beam characteristics of the IPL system used in the present preliminary study achieved good to very good results in the treatment of acne in the Fitzpatrick type III Asian skin without PIH induction. The results suggested that acne treatment in the Asian skin using this system is both safe and effective, and merits larger population studies to further
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murchie, Scott L.; Erard, Stephane; Langevin, Yves; Britt, Daniel T.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Mustard, John F.; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.
1991-01-01
The Phobos 2 mission provided multispectral observations of Phobos over a large wavelength range and with relatively high spectral resolution. Here, researchers integrate results from three multispectral detectors by determining the ultraviolet-visible near infrared spectral properties of color and brightness features recognized in VSK TV images. Researchers present evidence that there are two fundamental spectral units within the region of overlapping coverage by the detectors. They describe the units' spectral and reflectance properties and discuss the implications of these results for the composition of Phobos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konrad, Alexander; Metzger, Michael; Kern, Andreas M.; Brecht, Marc; Meixner, Alfred J.
2016-07-01
Using a Fabry-Pérot-microresonator with controllable cavity lengths in the λ/2-regime, we show the controlled modification of the vibronic relaxation dynamics of a fluorescent dye molecule in the spectral and time domain. By altering the photonic mode density around the fluorophores we are able to shape the fluorescence spectrum and enhance specifically the probability of the radiative transitions from the electronic excited state to distinct vibronic excited states of the electronic ground state. Analysis and correlation of the spectral and time resolved measurements by a theoretical model and a global fitting procedure allows us to reveal quantitatively the spectrally distributed radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics of the respective dye molecule under ambient conditions at the ensemble level.Using a Fabry-Pérot-microresonator with controllable cavity lengths in the λ/2-regime, we show the controlled modification of the vibronic relaxation dynamics of a fluorescent dye molecule in the spectral and time domain. By altering the photonic mode density around the fluorophores we are able to shape the fluorescence spectrum and enhance specifically the probability of the radiative transitions from the electronic excited state to distinct vibronic excited states of the electronic ground state. Analysis and correlation of the spectral and time resolved measurements by a theoretical model and a global fitting procedure allows us to reveal quantitatively the spectrally distributed radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics of the respective dye molecule under ambient conditions at the ensemble level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR02380K
Anomalous radiation from a nonstationary plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gradov, O. M.; Larsson, J.; Lindgren, T.; Stenflo, L.; Tegeback, R.; Uddholm, P.
1980-01-01
This paper considers the anomalous growth of the radiation intensity, which is caused by an EM wave incident on an inhomogeneous nonstationary plasma. The amplitude of the reflected signal can thus during relatively short time intervals be larger than that of the incident wave. The reason is that the plasma parameters can pass through values, for which linear resonance of leaking surface waves exist. An analytical expression is obtained for the maximum value of the intensity of the reflected wave for two different plasma density profiles, interacting with waves of different polarization. It is shown that the effect can occur repeatedly in a nonstationary plasma with a nonmonotonous density profile, if the region, where the inhomogeneity gradient changes sign, increases.
Resonance tunneling through a nonstationary potential
Sokolovskii, D.G.; Sumetskii, M.Y.
1986-02-01
The authors considerd how the probability of resonance tunneling is changed when there is superimposed on the stationary potential a nonstationary perturbation, which may be greater than or of the order of the width of a level in the well. The influence of nonstationary perturbation of the potential on tunneling was investigated numerically for the model of a barrier of zero radius, in which it was shown that at certain frequencies there can be complete reflection from the barrier. The authors write down quasiclassical solutions of the Schrodinger equation with the considered potential. Matching rules are obtained in neighborhoods of turning points and an equation is derived for the transmission probability amplitude. Quantization rules in the well are presented and an expression for the probability of nonresonance tunneling is given.
Sequential decision analysis for nonstationary stochastic processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, B.
1974-01-01
A formulation of the problem of making decisions concerning the state of nonstationary stochastic processes is given. An optimal decision rule, for the case in which the stochastic process is independent of the decisions made, is derived. It is shown that this rule is a generalization of the Bayesian likelihood ratio test; and an analog to Wald's sequential likelihood ratio test is given, in which the optimal thresholds may vary with time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Pampa; Nath, Sudipta
2010-10-01
The main aspects of power system delivery are reliability and quality. If all the customers of a power system get uninterrupted power through the year then the system is considered to be reliable. The term power quality may be referred to as maintaining near sinusoidal voltage at rated frequency at the consumers end. The power component definitions are defined according to the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 both for single phase and three phase unbalanced systems based on Fourier Transform (FFT). In the presence of nonstationary power quality (PQ) disturbances results in accurate values due to its sensitivity to the spectral leakage problem. To overcome these limitations the power quality components are calculated using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In order to handle the uncertainties associated with electric power systems operations fuzzy logic has been incorporated in this paper. A new power quality index has been introduced here which can assess the power quality under nonstationary disturbances.
Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.
2015-12-01
Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.
First-excursion probability in non-stationary random vibration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, J.-N.
1973-01-01
The first-excursion probability of a non-stationary Gaussian process with zero mean has been studied. Within the framework of the point process approach, a variety of analytical approximations applicable to stationary random processes is extended herein to non-stationary random processes. The extension is possible owing to a recent definition of non-stationary envelope processes proposed by the author. With the aid of numerical examples, merits of each approximation are examined by comparing with the results of simulation. It is found that under non-stationary excitations with short duration, the Markov approximation is the best among all the approximations discussed in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batehup, R.; McGregor, S.; Gallant, A. J. E.
2015-08-01
Reconstructions of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ideally require high-quality, annually-resolved and long-running paleoclimate proxy records in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, located in ENSO's centre-of-action. However, to date, the paleoclimate records that have been extracted in the region are short or temporally and spatially sporadic, limiting the information that can be provided by these reconstructions. Consequently, most ENSO reconstructions exploit the downstream influences of ENSO on remote locations, known as teleconnections, where longer records from paleoclimate proxies exist. However, using teleconnections to reconstruct ENSO relies on the assumption that the relationship between ENSO and the remote location is stationary in time. Increasing evidence from observations and climate models suggests that some teleconnections are, in fact, non-stationary, potentially threatening the validity of those paleoclimate reconstructions that exploit teleconnections. This study examines the implications of non-stationary teleconnections on modern multi-proxy reconstructions of ENSO. The sensitivity of the reconstructions to non-stationary teleconnections were tested using a suite of idealized pseudoproxy experiments that employed output from a fully coupled global climate model. Reconstructions of the variance in the Niño 3.4 index, representing ENSO variability, were generated using four different methods to which surface temperature data from the GFDL CM2.1 was applied as a pseudoproxy. As well as sensitivity of the reconstruction to the method, the experiments tested the sensitivity of the reconstruction to the number of non-stationary pseudoproxies and the location of these proxies. ENSO reconstructions in the pseudoproxy experiments were not sensitive to non-stationary teleconnections when global, uniformly-spaced networks of a minimum of approximately 20 proxies were employed. Neglecting proxies from ENSO's center-of-action still produced
Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei
2013-12-14
The emergence of sub-wavenumber high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BBSFG-VS) [Velarde et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 135, 241102] has offered new opportunities in obtaining and understanding the spectral lineshape and temporal effects on the surface vibrational spectroscopy. Particularly, the high accuracy in the HR-BBSFG-VS spectral lineshape measurement provides detailed information on the complex coherent vibrational dynamics through spectral measurement. Here we present a unified formalism of the theoretical and experimental approaches for obtaining the accurate lineshape of the SFG response, and then present a analysis on the higher and lower spectral resolution SFG spectra as well as their temporal effects of the cholesterol molecules at the air/water interface. With the high spectral resolution and accurate lineshape, it is shown that the parameters from the sub-wavenumber resolution SFG spectra can be used not only to understand but also to quantitatively reproduce the temporal effects in the lower resolution SFG measurement. These not only provide a unified picture in understanding both the frequency-domain and the time-domain SFG response of the complex molecular interface, but also provide novel experimental approaches that can directly measure them.
Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards
Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.
2016-04-11
Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field ofmore » hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.« less
Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, L. K.; Vogel, R. M.
2015-11-01
Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Generalized Pareto (GP) model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series X, with corresponding failure time series T, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with rich opportunities for future extensions.
Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards
Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.
2016-04-11
Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.
Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.
2016-04-01
Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.
Multiaxis Rainflow Fatigue Methods for Nonstationary Vibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, T.
2016-01-01
Mechanical structures and components may be subjected to cyclical loading conditions, including sine and random vibration. Such systems must be designed and tested accordingly. Rainflow cycle counting is the standard method for reducing a stress time history to a table of amplitude-cycle pairings prior to the Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage calculation. The damage calculation is straightforward for sinusoidal stress but very complicated for random stress, particularly for nonstationary vibration. This paper evaluates candidate methods and makes a recommendation for further study of a hybrid technique.
Multiaxis Rainflow Fatigue Methods for Nonstationary Vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irvine, T.
2016-09-01
Mechanical structures and components may be subjected to cyclical loading conditions, including sine and random vibration. Such systems must be designed and tested according. Rainflow cycle counting is the standard method for reducing a stress time history to a table of amplitude-cycle pairings prior to the Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage calculation. The damage calculation is straightforward for sinusoidal stress but very complicated for random stress, particularly for nonstationary vibration. This paper evaluates candidate methods and makes a recommendation for further study of a hybrid technique.
Lanzanò, Luca; Sui, Li; Costanzo, Evelina; Gulino, Marisa; Scordino, Agata; Tudisco, Salvatore; Musumeci, Francesco
2009-01-01
Delayed luminescence from a single dry soybean seed was investigated in both spectral and time domains, under different excitation wavelengths. Emission spectra were collected, under 337 nm laser excitation, from native and artificially deteriorated seeds and the time-dependence of different spectral components was analyzed in detail. The single seed viability was evaluated through observation of germination properties after imbibition and compared with different parameters related to the luminescence kinetics. The significant correlation found between single seed delayed luminescence parameters and germination capability strongly validates the connection of this phenomenon with the functional state of the system and suggests the development of a non-invasive technique for seed quality determination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, James H.; Grossbard, Neil J.
1996-04-01
Images of atmospheric airglow emissions are often characterized by known or assumed power spectral density functions that have an asymptotic negative power law slope dependency. Various filter synthesis methods are routinely employed to generate synthetic scenes from random arrays by passing stochastic data through filters that provide a desired correlation structure and power spectral dependency. A 2-D array, or vertical sheet, of nonstationary synthetic structure is produced by means of a nonlinear 'stretched space' transformation. Since computations that apply multidimensional transforms to large data arrays consume enormous computer resources and run times, an alternative autoregressive method is employed to reduce the heavy computational burden. Future editions of the Phillips Laboratory Strategic High Altitude Atmospheric Radiance Code (SHARC) will feature an ability to compute structured radiance. The method explored provides a process for rapidly generating large arrays of 2-D nonstationary structure.
Improved Statistical Signal Processing of Nonstationary Random Processes Using Time-Warping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisdom, Scott Thomas
A common assumption used in statistical signal processing of nonstationary random signals is that the signals are locally stationary. Using this assumption, data is segmented into short analysis frames, and processing is performed using these short frames. Short frames limit the amount of data available, which in turn limits the performance of statistical estimators. In this thesis, we propose a novel method that promises improved performance for a variety of statistical signal processing algorithms. This method proposes to estimate certain time-varying parameters of nonstationary signals and then use this estimated information to perform a time-warping of the data that compensates for the time-varying parameters. Since the time-warped data is more stationary, longer analysis frames may be used, which improves the performance of statistical estimators. We first examine the spectral statistics of two particular types of nonstationary random processes that are useful for modeling ship propeller noise and voiced speech. We examine the effect of time-varying frequency content on these spectral statistics, and in addition show that the cross-frequency spectral statistics of these signals contain significant additional information that is not usually exploited using a stationary assumption. This information, combined with our proposed method, promises improvements for a wide variety of applications in the future. We then describe and test an implementation of our time-warping method, the fan-chirp transform. We apply our method to two applications, detection of ship noise in a passive sonar application and joint denoising and dereverberation of speech. Our method yields improved results for both applications compared to conventional methods.
Decoupled tracking and thermal monitoring of non-stationary targets.
Tan, Kok Kiong; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Sunan; Wong, Yoke San; Lee, Tong Heng
2009-10-01
Fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance address pertinent economic issues relating to production systems as an efficient technique can continuously monitor key health parameters and trigger alerts when critical changes in these variables are detected, before they lead to system failures and production shutdowns. In this paper, we present a decoupled tracking and thermal monitoring system which can be used on non-stationary targets of closed systems such as machine tools. There are three main contributions from the paper. First, a vision component is developed to track moving targets under a monitor. Image processing techniques are used to resolve the target location to be tracked. Thus, the system is decoupled and applicable to closed systems without the need for a physical integration. Second, an infrared temperature sensor with a built-in laser for locating the measurement spot is deployed for non-contact temperature measurement of the moving target. Third, a predictive motion control system holds the thermal sensor and follows the moving target efficiently to enable continuous temperature measurement and monitoring.
Viswanathan; Buldyrev; Garger; Kashpur; Lucena; Shlyakhter; Stanley; Tschiersch
2000-09-01
We analyze nonstationary 137Cs atmospheric activity concentration fluctuations measured near Chernobyl after the 1986 disaster and find three new results: (i) the histogram of fluctuations is well described by a log-normal distribution; (ii) there is a pronounced spectral component with period T=1yr, and (iii) the fluctuations are long-range correlated. These findings allow us to quantify two fundamental statistical properties of the data: the probability distribution and the correlation properties of the time series. We interpret our findings as evidence that the atmospheric radionuclide resuspension processes are tightly coupled to the surrounding ecosystems and to large time scale weather patterns.
Time-frequency representation of a highly nonstationary signal via the modified Wigner distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zoladz, T. F.; Jones, J. H.; Jong, J.
1992-01-01
A new signal analysis technique called the modified Wigner distribution (MWD) is presented. The new signal processing tool has been very successful in determining time frequency representations of highly non-stationary multicomponent signals in both simulations and trials involving actual Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high frequency data. The MWD departs from the classic Wigner distribution (WD) in that it effectively eliminates the cross coupling among positive frequency components in a multiple component signal. This attribute of the MWD, which prevents the generation of 'phantom' spectral peaks, will undoubtedly increase the utility of the WD for real world signal analysis applications which more often than not involve multicomponent signals.
Lubchenko, Vassiliy; Silbey, Robert J
2013-10-24
We propose a novel type of spectral diffusion experiment that enables one to decouple spatial characteristics of the environmental fluctuations, such as their concentration, from the interaction with the chromophore. Traditional hole broadening experiments do not allow for such decoupling in the common case when the chromophore-environment interaction is scale invariant. Here we propose to simultaneously follow the spectral trails of a small number of nearby chromophores--two or more--which thereby sense a highly overlapping set of the fluctuations. To this end, we estimate the combined probability distribution for the frequencies of a set of chromophores contained within the same sample. The present setup introduces a new length scale, i.e., the interchromophore distance, which breaks the aforementioned scale invariance and enables one to determine independently the concentration of the environmental fluctuations and their coupling to the chromophores, by monitoring the time after which spectral diffusion of distinct chromophores becomes uncorrelated. We illustrate these results with structural excitations in low temperature glasses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Wang, Ruikang K.; Jacques, Steven L.; Nuttall, Alfred L.
2012-02-01
We describe a novel method for the detection of the tiny motions of the middle ear (ME) ossicles and their morphological features with a spectral-domain phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and its variations are the most extensively used methods for studding the vibrational modes of the ME. However, most techniques are limited to single point analysis methods, and do not have the ability to provide depth resolved simultaneous imaging of multiple points on the ossicles especially with the intact eardrum. Consequently, the methods have the limited ability to provide relative vibration information at these points. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using PS-OCT for simultaneous depth resolved imaging of both vibration information and morphological features in a cadaver human middle ear with high sensitivity and resolution. This technique has the potential to provide meaningful vibration of ossicles with a vibration sensitivity of ~0.5nm at 1kHz acoustic stimulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of depth-resolved vibration imaging of ossicles with a PS-OCT system at sub-nanometer scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Farina, Andrea; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Durduran, Turgut; Pagliazzi, Marco; Lindner, Claus; Farzam, Parisa; Mora, Mireia; Squarcia, Mattia; Urbano-Ispizua, A.
2015-07-01
We report on the design, performance assessment, and first in vivo measurement of a Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical system for broadband (600-1350 nm) nm measurement of absorption and scattering spectra of biological tissues for non-invasive clinical diagnostics. Two strategies to reduce drift and enhance responsivity are adopted. The system was enrolled in a first in vivo test phase on healthy volunteers, carrying out non-invasive, in vivo quantification of key tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, collagen) and tissue micro-structure (scatterer size and density).
Appropriate model selection methods for nonstationary generalized extreme value models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hanbeen; Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Heo, Jun-Haeng
2017-04-01
Several evidences of hydrologic data series being nonstationary in nature have been found to date. This has resulted in the conduct of many studies in the area of nonstationary frequency analysis. Nonstationary probability distribution models involve parameters that vary over time. Therefore, it is not a straightforward process to apply conventional goodness-of-fit tests to the selection of an appropriate nonstationary probability distribution model. Tests that are generally recommended for such a selection include the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), corrected Akaike's information criterion (AICc), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and likelihood ratio test (LRT). In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed to compare the performances of these four tests, with regard to nonstationary as well as stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions. Proper model selection ratios and sample sizes were taken into account to evaluate the performances of all the four tests. The BIC demonstrated the best performance with regard to stationary GEV models. In case of nonstationary GEV models, the AIC proved to be better than the other three methods, when relatively small sample sizes were considered. With larger sample sizes, the AIC, BIC, and LRT presented the best performances for GEV models which have nonstationary location and/or scale parameters, respectively. Simulation results were then evaluated by applying all four tests to annual maximum rainfall data of selected sites, as observed by the Korea Meteorological Administration.
Tunneling through nonstationary barriers and Euclidean resonance
Ivlev, B.
2004-09-01
The phenomenon of Euclidean resonance (a strong enhancement of quantum tunneling through a nonstationary potential barrier) is applied to disintegration of atoms and molecules through tunnel barriers formed by applied constant and time-dependent electric fields. There are two different channels for such disintegration, electronic and ionic. The electronic mechanism is associated with the ionization of a molecule into an electron and a positive ion. The required frequencies are in a wide range between 100 MHz and the infrared. This mechanism may constitute a method of selective destruction of chemical bonds. The ionic mechanism consists of dissociation of a molecule into two ions. Since an ion is more massive than an electron, the necessary frequency is about 1 MHz. This provides the theoretical possibility of a different method of isotope separation by radio frequency waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S.; Harris, W.
2014-12-01
We present initial results, calibration and data reduction process from observations of wide-field targets using Khayyam at Mt. Hamilton, a new instrument based on a reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) at the focus of the Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT). SHS instruments are common path two-beam Fourier transform spectrometers that produce 2-D spatial interference patterns without the requirement for moving parts. The utility of SHS comes from its combination of a wide input acceptance angle (0.5-1°), high resolving power (of order ~105), compact format, high dynamic range, and relaxed optical tolerances compared with other interferometer designs. This combination makes them extremely useful for velocity resolved for observations of wide field targets from both small and large telescopes. This report focuses on the tunable instrument at Mt Hamilton, The CAT provides a test case for on-axis use of SHS, and the impact of the resulting field non-uniformity caused by the spider pattern will be discussed. Observations of several targets will be presented that demonstrate the capabilities of SHS, including comet C/2014 E2 (Jacques), Jupiter, and both the day sky and night glow. Raw interferometric data and transformed power spectra will be shown and evaluated in terms of instrumental stability.
Credibility of statistical downscaling under nonstationary climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvi, Kaustubh; Ghosh, Subimal; Ganguly, Auroop R.
2016-03-01
Statistical downscaling (SD) establishes empirical relationships between coarse-resolution climate model simulations with higher-resolution climate variables of interest to stakeholders. These statistical relations are estimated based on historical observations at the finer resolutions and used for future projections. The implicit assumption is that the SD relations, extracted from data are stationary or remain unaltered, despite non-stationary change in climate. The validity of this assumption relates directly to the credibility of SD. Falsifiability of climate projections is a challenging proposition. Calibration and verification, while necessary for SD, are unlikely to be able to reproduce the full range of behavior that could manifest at decadal to century scale lead times. We propose a design-of-experiments (DOE) strategy to assess SD performance under nonstationary climate and evaluate the strategy via a transfer-function based SD approach. The strategy relies on selection of calibration and validation periods such that they represent contrasting climatic conditions like hot-versus-cold and ENSO-versus-non-ENSO years. The underlying assumption is that conditions such as warming or predominance of El Niño may be more prevalent under climate change. In addition, two different historical time periods are identified, which resemble pre-industrial and the most severe future emissions scenarios. The ability of the empirical relations to generalize under these proxy conditions is considered an indicator of their performance under future nonstationarity. Case studies over two climatologically disjoint study regions, specifically India and Northeast United States, reveal robustness of DOE in identifying the locations where nonstationarity prevails as well as the role of effective predictor selection under nonstationarity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Walter; Corliss, Jason; Bétrémieux, Yan; Roesler, Fred
2012-09-01
Scattered solar and collisionally stimulated H Ly-α emission is a proven diagnostic for the study of the Sun, comets, the interplanetary medium, planet atmospheres, and corona. Here we discuss the construction and testing of a narrow bandpass instrument designed to observe H Ly-α emission at a resolving power of R~100,000 from targets with an angular extent of ≤½ degree. The instrument is an all-reflective form of the spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS), a self-scanning Fourier Transform Spectrometer. It will be incorporated into the focal plane of a suborbital telescope that is scheduled for a March 2013 launch. Initial alignment and vibrational testing was performed with the instrument aligned to a visible analog line. The results showed alignment stability under vibration, but revealed several unacceptable resonances that have been corrected in the mechanical design.
Ground roll attenuation using non-stationary matching filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Shebao; Chen, Yangkang; Bai, Min; Yang, Wencheng; Wang, Erying; Gan, Shuwei
2015-12-01
Conventional approaches based on adaptive subtraction for ground roll attenuation first predict an initial model for ground rolls and then adaptively subtract it from the original data using a stationary matching filter (MF). Because of the non-stationary property of seismic data and ground rolls, the application of a traditional stationary MF is not physically plausible. Thus, in the case of highly non-stationary seismic reflections and ground rolls, a stationary MF cannot obtain satisfactory results. In this paper, we apply a non-stationary matching filter (NMF) to adaptively subtract the ground rolls. The NMF can be obtained by solving a highly under-determined inversion problem using non-stationary autoregression. We apply the proposed approach to one synthetic example and two field data examples, and demonstrate a much improved performance compared with the traditional MF approach.
Zhu, Li; Stryjewski, Wieslaw J; Soper, Steven A
2004-07-15
We examined the feasibility of using a two-color time-resolved detection scheme with microdevices for DNA sequencing applications. A home-built dual-color optical-fiber-based time-resolved near-infrared (IR) fluorescence microscope successfully coupled lifetime discrimination with color discrimination, increasing fluorescence multiplexing capabilities. The instrument was constructed by using two pulsed-diode lasers (680/780-nm excitation) and two avalanche photodiodes as the basic building blocks. The data were processed using electronics configured in a time-correlated single-photon counting format. The use of near-IR fluorescence detection greatly simplified the hardware and allowed low detection limits (< 0.1nM). We examined the separation of a single-base tract on a microchip and compared the performance with that of conventional capillary gel electrophoresis. The microchip was fabricated in glass and contained an effective separation length of 7.0 cm. It was found that, without incorporating a solid-phase reversible immobilization cleanup procedure, the calculated lifetime of the dye label on the microchip was longer and the standard deviation was larger than those of the same sample analyzed using capillary electrophoresis. Using cleanup steps, the accuracy and precision of the measurements improved. Lifetimes of four near-IR dyes (AlexaFluor680, IRD700, IRD800, and IRD40) used in this study were determined to be 986 ps (RSD=2.1%), 1551 ps (RSD=1.8%), 520 ps (RSD=3.3%), and 788 ps (RSD=4.9%), respectively, in a microchannel filled with poly(dimethylacrylamide) (POP-6) gel. The lifetimes calculated using maximum likelihood estimators provided favorable precision on the microchip, where small numbers of photocounts were collected. An M13mp18 template was sequenced on the microchip using a two-color two-lifetime format with POP-6 as the sieving polymer. Read lengths of 294 bp with calling accuracies of 90.8 and 83.7% were achieved in each color channel. The
Comparison of four nonstationary hydrologic design methods for changing environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Lei; Xiong, Lihua; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xia, Jun; Du, Tao
2017-08-01
The hydrologic design of nonstationary flood extremes is an emerging field that is essential for water resources management and hydrologic engineering design to cope with changing environment. This paper aims to investigate and compare the capability of four nonstationary hydrologic design strategies, including the expected number of exceedances (ENE), design life level (DLL), equivalent reliability (ER), and average design life level (ADLL), with the last three methods taking into consideration the design life of the project. The confidence intervals of the calculated design floods were also estimated using the nonstationary bootstrap approach. A comparison of these four methods was performed using the annual maximum flood series (AMFS) of the Weihe River basin, Jinghe River basin, and Assunpink Creek basin. The results indicated that ENE, ER and ADLL yielded the same or very similar design values and confidence intervals for both increasing and decreasing trends of AMFS considered. DLL also yields similar design values if the relationship between DLL and ER/ADLL return periods is considered. Both ER and ADLL are recommended for practical use as they have associated design floods with the design life period of projects and yield reasonable design quantiles and confidence intervals. Furthermore, by assuming that the design results using either a stationary or nonstationary hydrologic design strategy should have the same reliability, the ER method enables us to solve the nonstationary hydrologic design problems by adopting the stationary design reliability, thus bridging the gap between stationary and nonstationary design criteria.
Morales, Fermín; Cartelat, Aurélie; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Moya, Ismael; Cerovic, Zoran G
2005-12-14
Synchrotron radiation and the time-correlated single-photon counting technique were used to investigate the spectral and time-resolved characteristics of blue-green fluorescence (BGF) of artichoke leaves. Leaves emitted BGF under ultraviolet (UV) excitation; the abaxial side was much more fluorescent than the adaxial side, and in both cases, the youngest leaves were much more fluorescent than the oldest ones. The BGF of artichoke leaves was dominated by the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids. A decrease in the percentage of BGF attributable to the very short kinetic component (from 42 to 20%), in the shape of the BGF excitation spectra, and chlorogenic acid concentrations indicate that there is a loss of hydroxycinnamic acid with leaf age. Studies on excitation, emission, and synchronized fluorescence spectra of leaves and trichomes and chlorogenic acid contents indicate that chlorogenic acid is one of the main blue-green fluorophores in artichoke leaves. Results of the present study indicate that 20-42% (i.e., the very short kinetic component) of the overall BGF is emitted by chlorogenic acid. Time-resolved BGF measurements could be a means to extract information on chlorogenic acid fluorescence from the overall leaf BGF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krikun, Vladimir A.; Salyuk, Pavel A.
2016-10-01
The variation of the different parameters of the exciting radiation and the registration of the fluorescence of the investigated object allows to obtain multidimensional spectral images: from three-dimensional (length of the exciting radiation, the wavelength of the emitted radiation, the fluorescence intensity) to eight and more dimensions (in addition to three of these dimensions: spatial coordinates x, y, z; time of measurements; the duration and the intensity of the exciting radiation and etc.). In the case of measurements in natural conditions is highly desirable that the result of the processing performed during a single measurement for the operation in real time. In this paper we consider the approach described for the treatment of fluorescence measurements of dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll-a in seawater. Joint analysis of the various pairs of wavelengths of excitation / emission fluorescence, fluorescence analysis at different durations of the exciting radiation and the time-spatial analysis of the received signal allow identifying different types of fluorescent dissolved organic matter and estimate their stage of biodegradation, to study the functional state of phytoplankton cells. So it is possible to provide real-time investigation of environmental indicators of seawater.
Epple, Franz M; Ehn, Sebastian; Thibault, Pierre; Koehler, Thomas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Herzen, Julia; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz
2015-03-01
Grating-based differential phase-contrast imaging has proven to be feasible with conventional X-ray sources. The polychromatic spectrum generally limits the performance of the interferometer but benefit can be gained with an energy-sensitive detector. In the presented work, we employ the energy-discrimination capability to correct for phase-wrapping artefacts. We propose to use the phase shifts, which are measured in distinct energy bins, to estimate the optimal phase shift in the sense of maximum likelihood. We demonstrate that our method is able to correct for phase-wrapping artefacts, to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio and to reduce beam hardening due to the modelled energy dependency. The method is evaluated on experimental data which are measured with a laboratory Talbot-Lau interferometer equipped with a conventional polychromatic X-ray source and an energy-sensitive photon-counting pixel detector. Our work shows, that spectral imaging is an important step to move differential phase-contrast imaging closer to pre-clinical and clinical applications, where phase wrapping is particularly problematic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weigelt, G.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Schertl, D.; Clementel, N.; Corcoran, M. F.; Damineli, A.; de Wit, W.-J.; Grellmann, R.; Groh, J.; Guieu, S.; Gull, T.; Heininger, M.; Hillier, D. J.; Hummel, C. A.; Kraus, S.; Madura, T.; Mehner, A.; Merand, A.; Millour, F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Ohnaka, K.; Patru, F.; Petrov, R. G.; Rengaswamy, S.; Richardson, N. D.; Rivinius, T.; Schoeller, M.; Teodoro, M.; Wittkowski, M.
2016-01-01
The mass loss from massive stars is not understood well. Eta Carinae is a unique object for studying the massive stellar wind during the luminous blue variable phase. It is also an eccentric binary with a period of 5.54 yr. The nature of both stars is uncertain, although we know from X-ray studies that there is a wind-wind collision whose properties change with orbital phase. Aims. We want to investigate the structure and kinematics of Car's primary star wind and wind-wind collision zone with a high spatial resolution of approx.6 mas (approx.14 au) and high spectral resolution of R = 12 000. Methods. Observations of Car were carried out with the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and the AMBER instrument between approximately five and seven months before the August 2014 periastron passage. Velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis images were reconstructed from the spectrally dispersed interferograms. Interferometric studies can provide information on the binary orbit, the primary wind, and the wind collision. Results. We present velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis images reconstructed in more than 100 di erent spectral channels distributed across the Br(gamma) 2.166 micron emission line. The intensity distribution of the images strongly depends on wavelength. At wavelengths corresponding to radial velocities of approximately -140 to -376 km/s measured relative to line center, the intensity distribution has a fan-shaped structure. At the velocity of -277 km/s, the position angle of the symmetry axis of the fan is 126. The fan-shaped structure extends approximately 8.0 mas (approx.18:8 au) to the southeast and 5.8 mas (approx.13:6 au) to the northwest, measured along the symmetry axis at the 16% intensity contour. The shape of the intensity distributions suggests that the obtained images are the first direct images of the innermost wind-wind collision zone. Therefore, the observations provide velocity-dependent image structures that can be used to test three
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weigelt, G.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Schertl, D.; Clementel, N.; Corcoran, M. F.; Damineli, A.; de Wit, W.-J.; Grellmann, R.; Groh, J.; Guieu, S.;
2016-01-01
The mass loss from massive stars is not understood well. Eta Carinae is a unique object for studying the massive stellar wind during the luminous blue variable phase. It is also an eccentric binary with a period of 5.54 yr. The nature of both stars is uncertain, although we know from X-ray studies that there is a wind-wind collision whose properties change with orbital phase. Aims. We want to investigate the structure and kinematics of Car's primary star wind and wind-wind collision zone with a high spatial resolution of approx.6 mas (approx.14 au) and high spectral resolution of R = 12 000. Methods. Observations of Car were carried out with the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and the AMBER instrument between approximately five and seven months before the August 2014 periastron passage. Velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis images were reconstructed from the spectrally dispersed interferograms. Interferometric studies can provide information on the binary orbit, the primary wind, and the wind collision. Results. We present velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis images reconstructed in more than 100 di erent spectral channels distributed across the Br(gamma) 2.166 micron emission line. The intensity distribution of the images strongly depends on wavelength. At wavelengths corresponding to radial velocities of approximately -140 to -376 km/s measured relative to line center, the intensity distribution has a fan-shaped structure. At the velocity of -277 km/s, the position angle of the symmetry axis of the fan is 126. The fan-shaped structure extends approximately 8.0 mas (approx.18:8 au) to the southeast and 5.8 mas (approx.13:6 au) to the northwest, measured along the symmetry axis at the 16% intensity contour. The shape of the intensity distributions suggests that the obtained images are the first direct images of the innermost wind-wind collision zone. Therefore, the observations provide velocity-dependent image structures that can be used to test three
VLTI-AMBER velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis imaging of η Carinae with a spectral resolution of 12 000. Studies of the primary star wind and innermost wind-wind collision zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigelt, G.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Schertl, D.; Clementel, N.; Corcoran, M. F.; Damineli, A.; de Wit, W.-J.; Grellmann, R.; Groh, J.; Guieu, S.; Gull, T.; Heininger, M.; Hillier, D. J.; Hummel, C. A.; Kraus, S.; Madura, T.; Mehner, A.; Mérand, A.; Millour, F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Ohnaka, K.; Patru, F.; Petrov, R. G.; Rengaswamy, S.; Richardson, N. D.; Rivinius, T.; Schöller, M.; Teodoro, M.; Wittkowski, M.
2016-10-01
Context. The mass loss from massive stars is not understood well. η Carinae is a unique object for studying the massive stellar wind during the luminous blue variable phase. It is also an eccentric binary with a period of 5.54 yr. The nature of both stars is uncertain, although we know from X-ray studies that there is a wind-wind collision whose properties change with orbital phase. Aims: We want to investigate the structure and kinematics of η Car's primary star wind and wind-wind collision zone with a high spatial resolution of ~6 mas (~14 au) and high spectral resolution of R = 12 000. Methods: Observations of η Car were carried out with the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and the AMBER instrument between approximately five and seven months before the August 2014 periastron passage. Velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis images were reconstructed from the spectrally dispersed interferograms. Interferometric studies can provide information on the binary orbit, the primary wind, and the wind collision. Results: We present velocity-resolved aperture-synthesis images reconstructed in more than 100 different spectral channels distributed across the Brγ 2.166 μm emission line. The intensity distribution of the images strongly depends on wavelength. At wavelengths corresponding to radial velocities of approximately -140 to - 376 km s-1 measured relative to line center, the intensity distribution has a fan-shaped structure. At the velocity of - 277 km s-1, the position angle of the symmetry axis of the fan is ~126°. The fan-shaped structure extends approximately 8.0 mas (~18.8 au) to the southeast and 5.8 mas (~13.6 au) to the northwest, measured along the symmetry axis at the 16% intensity contour. The shape of the intensity distributions suggests that the obtained images are the first direct images of the innermost wind-wind collision zone. Therefore, the observations provide velocity-dependent image structures that can be used to test three
Yveborg, Moa; Danielsson, Mats; Bornefalk, Hans
2012-04-21
We are developing a photon-counting silicon strip detector with 0.4 × 0.5 mm² detector elements for clinical CT applications. Except for the limited detection efficiency of approximately 0.8 for a spectrum of 80 kVp, the largest discrepancies from ideal spectral behaviour have been shown to be Compton interactions in the detector and electronic noise. Using the framework of cascaded system analysis, we reconstruct the 3D MTF and NPS of a silicon strip detector including the influence of scatter and charge sharing inside the detector. We compare the reconstructed noise and signal characteristics with a reconstructed 3D MTF and NPS of an ideal energy-integrating detector system with unity detection efficiency, no scatter or charge sharing inside the detector, unity presampling MTF and 1 × 1 mm² detector elements. The comparison is done by calculating the dose-normalized detectability index for some clinically relevant imaging tasks and spectra. This work demonstrates that although the detection efficiency of the silicon detector rapidly drops for the acceleration voltages encountered in clinical computed tomography practice, and despite the high fraction of Compton interactions due to the low atomic number, silicon detectors can perform on a par with ideal energy-integrating detectors for routine imaging tasks containing low-frequency components. For imaging tasks containing high-frequency components, the proposed silicon detector system can perform approximately 1.1-1.3 times better than a fully ideal energy-integrating system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardetto, N.; Mérand, A.; Mourard, D.; Storm, J.; Gieren, W.; Fouqué, P.; Gallenne, A.; Graczyk, D.; Kervella, P.; Neilson, H.; Pietrzynski, G.; Pilecki, B.; Breitfelder, J.; Berio, P.; Challouf, M.; Clausse, J.-M.; Ligi, R.; Mathias, P.; Meilland, A.; Perraut, K.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Spang, A.; Stee, P.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; ten Brummelaar, T.
2016-09-01
Context. The B-W method is used to determine the distance of Cepheids and consists in combining the angular size variations of the star, as derived from infrared surface-brightness relations or interferometry, with its linear size variation, as deduced from visible spectroscopy using the projection factor. The underlying assumption is that the photospheres probed in the infrared and in the visible are located at the same layer in the star whatever the pulsation phase. While many Cepheids have been intensively observed by infrared beam combiners, only a few have been observed in the visible. Aims: This paper is part of a project to observe Cepheids in the visible with interferometry as a counterpart to infrared observations already in hand. Methods: Observations of δ Cep itself were secured with the VEGA/CHARA instrument over the full pulsation cycle of the star. Results: These visible interferometric data are consistent in first approximation with a quasi-hydrostatic model of pulsation surrounded by a static circumstellar environment (CSE) with a size of θCSE = 8.9 ± 3.0 mas and a relative flux contribution of fCSE = 0.07 ± 0.01. A model of visible nebula (a background source filling the field of view of the interferometer) with the same relative flux contribution is also consistent with our data at small spatial frequencies. However, in both cases, we find discrepancies in the squared visibilities at high spatial frequencies (maximum 2σ) with two different regimes over the pulsation cycle of the star, φ = 0.0 - 0.8 and φ = 0.8-1.0. We provide several hypotheses to explain these discrepancies, but more observations and theoretical investigations are necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn. Conclusions: For the first time we have been able to detect in the visible domain a resolved structure around δ Cep. We have also shown that a simple model cannot explain the observations, and more work will be necessary in the future, both on observations and
Nonstationary Analysis of Annual Maximum Streamflow of Canada
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yew Gan, Thian; Tan, Xuezhi
2016-04-01
Both natural climate change and anthropogenic impacts may cause nonstationarities in hydrological ex-tremes. In this study, long-term annual maximum streamflow (AMS) records from 145 stations over Canada were used to investigate the nonstationary characteristics of AMS, which include abrupt changes and monotonic temporal trends. The nonparameteric Pettitt test was applied to detect abrupt changes, while temporal monotonic trend analysis in AMS series was conducted using the nonparameteric Mann-Kendall and Spearman tests, as well as a parametric Pearson test. Nonstationary frequency analysis of the AMS series was done using a group of nonstationary probability distributions. The nonstationary characteristics of Ca-nadian AMS were further investigated in terms of the Hurst exponent (H), which represents the long-term persistence (LTP) of streamflow data. The results presented here indicate that for Canadian AMS data, abrupt changes are detected more frequently than monotonic trends, partly because many rivers began to be regulated in the twentieth century. Drainage basins that have experienced significant land-use changes are more likely to show temporal trends in AMS, compared to pristine basins with stable land-use conditions. The nonstationary characteristics of AMS were accounted for by fitting the data with probability distributions with time-varying parameters. Large H found in almost 2/ 3 of the Canadian AMS dataset indicates strong LTP, which may partly represent the presence of long-term memories in many Canadian river basins. Furthermore, H values of AMS data are positively correlated with the basin area of Canadian rivers. It seems that non-stationary frequency analysis, instead of the traditional stationary hydrologic frequency analysis, should be employed in the future. Reference: Tan, X., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Nonstationary analysis of annual maximum streamflow of Canada, Journal of Climate, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00538.1
Bayesian soft X-ray tomography using non-stationary Gaussian Processes
Li, Dong; Svensson, J.; Thomsen, H.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Medina, F.
2013-08-15
In this study, a Bayesian based non-stationary Gaussian Process (GP) method for the inference of soft X-ray emissivity distribution along with its associated uncertainties has been developed. For the investigation of equilibrium condition and fast magnetohydrodynamic behaviors in nuclear fusion plasmas, it is of importance to infer, especially in the plasma center, spatially resolved soft X-ray profiles from a limited number of noisy line integral measurements. For this ill-posed inversion problem, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution over all possible solutions under given model assumptions. Specifically, the use of a non-stationary GP to model the emission allows the model to adapt to the varying length scales of the underlying diffusion process. In contrast to other conventional methods, the prior regularization is realized in a probability form which enhances the capability of uncertainty analysis, in consequence, scientists who concern the reliability of their results will benefit from it. Under the assumption of normally distributed noise, the posterior distribution evaluated at a discrete number of points becomes a multivariate normal distribution whose mean and covariance are analytically available, making inversions and calculation of uncertainty fast. Additionally, the hyper-parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through a Bayesian Occam's Razor formalism and thereby automatically adjust the model complexity. This method is shown to produce convincing reconstructions and good agreements with independently calculated results from the Maximum Entropy and Equilibrium-Based Iterative Tomography Algorithm methods.
Non-stationary random ground vibration due to loads moving along a railway track
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Feng; Gao, Qiang; Lin, J. H.; Williams, F. W.
2006-11-01
The pseudo-excitation method (PEM) and the precise integration algorithm are combined to compute the non-stationary random ground vibration caused by loads moving along a railway track at constant speed. The rails are modeled as a single infinite Euler beam connected to sleepers and hence to ballast. This ballast rests on the ground, which is assumed to consist of layered transversely isotropic soil. The equations of motion of the system are established in a Cartesian coordinate system which moves with the loads. The non-stationary power spectral density and the time-dependent standard deviation can be derived conveniently by means of PEM, while the precise integration algorithm for two-point boundary value problems is applied to the solution of the equations of motion in the frequency/wavenumber domain. By virtue of the transverse isotropic property of the layered soils, the threefold iteration process in the frequency/wavenumber domain is reduced into a twofold iteration process. Hence the computational efficiency is improved considerably.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozhokin, S. V.
2010-09-01
Quantitative parameters characterizing transient processes of mastering and forgetting of photostimulation (PST) rhythms for a nonstationary electroencephalogram (EEG) are developed on the basis of a continuous wavelet transformation. Nonstationarity factor K nst(μ), as well as rhythm mastering K M (μ) and confinement K C (μ) factors are calculated for various spectral ranges μ. Photoflash mastering time τ M = τ S + τ I , which is the sum of latent silence period τ S after PST actuation and the rhythm increasing period τ I is calculated. In the case of PST, the EEG rhythm retardation time τ R relative to the beginning of PST is calculated. Rhythm forgetting time τ F = τ P + τ D after PST actuation is the sum of the preservation time τ P of the corresponding rhythm over a certain time interval and its decay period τ D . The lag time τ L of the EEG signal relative to the PST signal after its removal is determined. The proposed method is used in quantitative analysis and classification of transient processes characterizing the properties of the central nervous system. Possible applications of the method in analysis of various nonstationary signals in physics are discussed.
Nonstationary 3D motion of an elastic spherical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarlakovskii, D. V.; Fedotenkov, G. V.
2015-03-01
A 3D model of motion of a thin elastic spherical Timoshenko shell under the action of arbitrarily distributed nonstationary pressure is considered. An approach for splitting the system of equations of 3D motion of the shell is proposed. The integral representations of the solution with kernels in the form of influence functions, which can be determined analytically by using series expansions in the eigenfunctions and the Laplace transform, are constructed. An algorithm for solving the problem on the action of nonstationary normal pressure on the shell is constructed and implemented. The obtained results find practical use in aircraft and rocket construction and in many other industrial fields where thin-walled shell structural members under nonstationary working conditions are widely used.
Theory, implementation and applications of nonstationary Gabor frames.
Balazs, P; Dörfler, M; Jaillet, F; Holighaus, N; Velasco, G
2011-10-15
Signal analysis with classical Gabor frames leads to a fixed time-frequency resolution over the whole time-frequency plane. To overcome the limitations imposed by this rigidity, we propose an extension of Gabor theory that leads to the construction of frames with time-frequency resolution changing over time or frequency. We describe the construction of the resulting nonstationary Gabor frames and give the explicit formula for the canonical dual frame for a particular case, the painless case. We show that wavelet transforms, constant-Q transforms and more general filter banks may be modeled in the framework of nonstationary Gabor frames. Further, we present the results in the finite-dimensional case, which provides a method for implementing the above-mentioned transforms with perfect reconstruction. Finally, we elaborate on two applications of nonstationary Gabor frames in audio signal processing, namely a method for automatic adaptation to transients and an algorithm for an invertible constant-Q transform.
DIFFEOMORPHIC POINT SET REGISTRATION USING NON-STATIONARY MIXTURE MODELS.
Wassermann, D; Ross, J; Washko, G; Westin, C-F; Estépar, R San José
2013-01-01
This paper investigates a diffeomorphic point-set registration based on non-stationary mixture models. The goal is to improve the non-linear registration of anatomical structures by representing each point as a general non-stationary kernel that provides information about the shape of that point. Our framework generalizes work done by others that use stationary models. We achieve this by integrating the shape at each point when calculating the point-set similarity and transforming it according to the calculated deformation. We also restrict the non-rigid transform to the space of symmetric diffeomorphisms. Our algorithm is validated in synthetic and human datasets in two different applications: fiber bundle and lung airways registration. Our results shows that non-stationary mixture models are superior to Gaussian mixture models and methods that do not take into account the shape of each point.
Learning dynamics from nonstationary time series: Analysis of electroencephalograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gribkov, Dmitrii; Gribkova, Valentina
2000-06-01
We propose an empirical modeling technique for a nonstationary time series analysis. Proposed methods include a high-dimensional (N>3) dynamical model construction in the form of delay differential equations, a nonparametric method of respective time delay calculation, the detection of quasistationary regions of the process by reccurence analysis in the space of model coefficients, and final fitting of the model to quasistationary segments of observed time series. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for nonstationary signal classification in the space of model coefficients. Applying the empirical modeling technique to electroencephalogram (EEG) records analysis, we find evidence of high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics in quasistationary EEG segments. Reccurence analysis of model parameters reveals long-term correlations in nonstationary EEG records. Using the dynamical model as a nonlinear filter, we find that different emotional states of subjects can be clearly distinguished in the space of model coefficients.
Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.
2011-01-01
Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.
Learning geotemporal nonstationary failure and recovery of power distribution.
Wei, Yun; Ji, Chuanyi; Galvan, Floyd; Couvillon, Stephen; Orellana, George; Momoh, James
2014-01-01
Smart energy grid is an emerging area for new applications of machine learning in a nonstationary environment. Such a nonstationary environment emerges when large-scale failures occur at power networks because of external disruptions such as hurricanes and severe storms. Power distribution networks lie at the edge of the grid, and are especially vulnerable to external disruptions. Quantifiable approaches are lacking and needed to learn nonstationary behaviors of large-scale failure and recovery of power distribution. This paper studies such nonstationary behaviors in three aspects. First, a novel formulation is derived for an entire life cycle of large-scale failure and recovery of power distribution. Second, spatial-temporal models of failure and recovery of power distribution are developed as geolocation-based multivariate nonstationary GI(t)/G(t)/∞ queues. Third, the nonstationary spatial-temporal models identify a small number of parameters to be learned. Learning is applied to two real-life examples of large-scale disruptions. One is from Hurricane Ike, where data from an operational network is exact on failures and recoveries. The other is from Hurricane Sandy, where aggregated data is used for inferring failure and recovery processes at one of the impacted areas. Model parameters are learned using real data. Two findings emerge as results of learning: 1) failure rates behave similarly at the two different provider networks for two different hurricanes but differently at the geographical regions and 2) both the rapid and slow-recovery are present for Hurricane Ike but only slow recovery is shown for a regional distribution network from Hurricane Sandy.
Nonstationary Rayleigh-Taylor instability in supernova ejecta
Ribeyre, X.; Hallo, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Bouquet, S.; Sanz, J.
2007-11-15
This paper studies the effect of a nonstationary shell acceleration on the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in supernovae remnants (SNRs). Two groups of solutions describing acceleration and deceleration phase of the SNR shell are obtained. Using a special transformation (co-moving coordinate frame), an exact dispersion relation for nonstationary RTI is derived. It is shown that compressible and incompressible branches are separated for the spherically symmetric flow and only the former is unstable. The exact analytic solution is compared to a simpler WKB-like analysis and a good agreement is shown, which proves that this analysis can be useful and easily extended to further applications.
Modeling multivariate covariance nonstationary time series and their dependency structure
Gersch, W.
1985-08-01
The parametric modeling of covariance nonstationary time series and the computation of their changing interdependency structure from the fitted model are treated. The nonstationary time series are modeled by a multivariate time varying autoregressive (AR) model. The time evolution of the AR parameters is expressed as linear combinations of discrete Legendre orthogonal polynomial functions of time. The model is fitted by a Householder transformation-AIC order determination, regression subset selection method. The computation of the instantaneous dependence, feedback and causality structure of the time series from the fitted model, is discussed. An example of the modeling and determination of instantaneous causality in a human implanted electrode seizure event EEG is shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buonassisi, T.; Istratov, A. A.; Pickett, M. D.; Marcus, M. A.; Hahn, G.; Riepe, S.; Isenberg, J.; Warta, W.; Willeke, G.; Ciszek, T. F.; Weber, E. R.
2005-07-01
Synchrotron-based, spectrally resolved x-ray beam-induced current (SR-XBIC) is introduced as a technique to locally measure the minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductor devices. Equivalence with well-established diffusion length measurement techniques is demonstrated. The strength of SR-XBIC is that it can be combined in situ with other synchrotron-based analytical techniques, such as x-ray fluorescence microscopy (μ-XRF) and x-ray absorption microspectroscopy (μ-XAS), yielding information about the distribution, elemental composition, chemical nature, and effect on minority carrier diffusion length of individual transition metal species in multicrystalline silicon. SR-XBIC, μ-XRF, and μ-XAS measurements were performed on intentionally contaminated multicrystalline silicon, revealing a strong correlation between local concentrations of copper and nickel silicide precipitates and a decrease of minority carrier diffusion length. In addition, the reduction of minority carrier diffusion length due to submicron-sized Cu3Si and NiSi2 precipitates could be decoupled from the influence of homogeneously distributed nanoprecipitates and point defects.
Fusing Heterogeneous Data for Detection Under Non-stationary Dependence
2012-07-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of detection for dependent, non-stationary signals where the non-stationarity is encoded in the dependence ...allows for a more general description of inter-sensor dependence . We design a copula-based detector using the Neyman-Pearson framework. Our approach
Redefine Water Infrastructure Adaptation to a Nonstationary Climate (Editorial)
The statement “Climate Stationarity is Dead” by Milly et al. (2008) stresses the need to evaluate and when necessary, incorporate non-stationary hydroclimatic changes into water resources and infrastructure planning and engineering. Variations of this theme echo in several other ...
Redefine Water Infrastructure Adaptation to a Nonstationary Climate (Editorial)
The statement “Climate Stationarity is Dead” by Milly et al. (2008) stresses the need to evaluate and when necessary, incorporate non-stationary hydroclimatic changes into water resources and infrastructure planning and engineering. Variations of this theme echo in several other ...
Time reversibility from visibility graphs of nonstationary processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacasa, Lucas; Flanagan, Ryan
2015-08-01
Visibility algorithms are a family of methods to map time series into networks, with the aim of describing the structure of time series and their underlying dynamical properties in graph-theoretical terms. Here we explore some properties of both natural and horizontal visibility graphs associated to several nonstationary processes, and we pay particular attention to their capacity to assess time irreversibility. Nonstationary signals are (infinitely) irreversible by definition (independently of whether the process is Markovian or producing entropy at a positive rate), and thus the link between entropy production and time series irreversibility has only been explored in nonequilibrium stationary states. Here we show that the visibility formalism naturally induces a new working definition of time irreversibility, which allows us to quantify several degrees of irreversibility for stationary and nonstationary series, yielding finite values that can be used to efficiently assess the presence of memory and off-equilibrium dynamics in nonstationary processes without the need to differentiate or detrend them. We provide rigorous results complemented by extensive numerical simulations on several classes of stochastic processes.
Dynamic Factor Analysis of Nonstationary Multivariate Time Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molenaar, Peter C. M.; And Others
1992-01-01
The dynamic factor model proposed by P. C. Molenaar (1985) is exhibited, and a dynamic nonstationary factor model (DNFM) is constructed with latent factor series that have time-varying mean functions. The use of a DNFM is illustrated using data from a television viewing habits study. (SLD)
The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.
2007-11-01
At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarcello, M. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Micela, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Sciortino, S.; Venuti, L.; Stauffer, J.; Rebull, L.; Cody, A. M.
2017-06-01
Context. Pre-main sequence stars are variable sources. The main mechanisms responsible for their variability are variable extinction, unsteady accretion, and rotational modulation of both hot and dark photospheric spots and X-ray-active regions. In stars with disks, this variability is related to the morphology of the inner circumstellar region (≤0.1 AU) and that of the photosphere and corona, all impossible to be spatially resolved with present-day techniques. This has been the main motivation for the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264, a set of simultaneous observations of NGC 2264 with 15 different telescopes. Aims: In this paper, we focus on the stars with disks. We analyze the X-ray spectral properties extracted during optical bursts and dips in order to unveil the nature of these phenomena. Stars without disks are studied in a companion paper. Methods: We analyze simultaneous CoRoT and Chandra/ACIS-I observations to search for coherent optical and X-ray flux variability in stars with disks. Then, stars are analyzed in two different samples. In stars with variable extinction, we look for a simultaneous increase of optical extinction and X-ray absorption during the optical dips; in stars with accretion bursts, we search for soft X-ray emission and increasing X-ray absorption during the bursts. Results: We find evidence for coherent optical and X-ray flux variability among the stars with variable extinction. In 9 of the 24 stars with optical dips, we observe a simultaneous increase of X-ray absorption and optical extinction. In seven dips, it is possible to calculate the NH/AV ratio in order to infer the composition of the obscuring material. In 5 of the 20 stars with optical accretion bursts, we observe increasing soft X-ray emission during the bursts that we associate to the emission of accreting gas. It is not surprising that these properties are not observed in all the stars with dips and bursts, since favorable geometric configurations are
LMXB X-ray Transients: Revealing Basic Accretion Parameters in Non-stationary Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Wenda
2014-08-01
X-ray observations of low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs), especially those black hole transient systems, have been very important in shaping up our understanding of black hole accretion and testing accretion theory in a broad range of accretion regimes. We show strong evidence for non-stationary accretion regimes in the X-ray observations of spectral states and multi-wavelength observations of disk-jet coupling in more than 100 outbursts of 36 black hole and neutron star transients in the past decade or so. The occurrence of spectral state transitions and the peak episodic jet power during the rising phase of transient outbursts are found correlated with rate-of-increase of the X-ray luminosity, indicating the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate, in addition to the mass accretion rate, must be considered when interpreting observations of spectral state transitions and disk-jet coupling in these X-ray transients. This is supported by observations since the increase of the mass accretion rate due to its rate-of-change on the observational time scale of interest is significant during outbursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orzekowsky-Schroeder, Regina; Klinger, Antje; Schüth, Anna; Freidank, Sebastian; Hüttmann, Gereon; Gebert, Andreas; Vogel, Alfred
2010-02-01
We present a novel experimental setup to intravitally induce and monitor tissue lesions intravitally at a subcellular level in murine small intestinal mucosa. Using single 355-nm, 500-ps laser pulses coupled to a two-photon microscope, we induced optical breakdown with subsequent cavitation bubble formation in the tissue. Imaging was based on spectrally resolved two-photon excited tissue autofluorescence, while online-dosimetry of the induced microbubbles was done by a cw probe-beam scattering technique. From the scattering signal, the bubble size and dynamics could be deduced on a ns time scale. In turn, this signal could be used to control the damage size. This was important for reproducible production of minute effects in the tissue, despite strong biological variations in tissue response to pulsed laser irradiation. After producing local UV damage, cells appeared dark, probably due to destruction of mitochondria and loss of NAD(P)H fluorescence. Within 10 min after cell damage, epithelial cells adjacent to the injured area migrated into the wound to cover the denuded area, resulting in extrusion of the damaged cells from the epithelial layer. Using the nuclear acid stain propidium iodide, we could show that UV pulses induced cell membrane damage with subsequent necrosis, rather than apoptosis. For lesions without disruption of the basement membrane, we did not detect migration of immune cells toward the injured area within observation periods of up to 5 hours. This model will be used in further studies to investigate the intrinsic repair system and immune response to laserinduced lesions of intestinal epithelium in vivo.
Nonstationary distributions of wave intensities in wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Yeontaek; Jo, Sanggyu; Kwon, Young-Sam; Nazarenko, Sergey
2017-09-01
We obtain a general solution for the probability density function (PDF) of wave intensities in non-stationary wave turbulence. The solution is expressed in terms of the initial PDF and the wave action spectrum satisfying the wave-kinetic equation. We establish that, in the absence of wave breaking, the wave statistics converge to a Gaussian distribution in forced-dissipated wave systems while approaching a steady state. Also, we find that in non-stationary systems, if the statistic is Gaussian initially, it will remain Gaussian for all time. Generally, if the statistic is not initially Gaussian, it will remain non-Gaussian over the characteristic nonlinear evolution time of the wave spectrum. In freely decaying wave turbulence, substantial deviations from Gaussianity may persist infinitely long.
Forecasting critical transitions using data-driven nonstationary dynamical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwasniok, Frank
2015-12-01
An approach to predicting critical transitions from time series is introduced. A nonstationary low-order stochastic dynamical model of appropriate complexity to capture the transition mechanism under consideration is estimated from data. In the simplest case, the model is a one-dimensional effective Langevin equation, but also higher-dimensional dynamical reconstructions based on time-delay embedding and local modeling are considered. Integrations with the nonstationary models are performed beyond the learning data window to predict the nature and timing of critical transitions. The technique is generic, not requiring detailed a priori knowledge about the underlying dynamics of the system. The method is demonstrated to successfully predict a fold and a Hopf bifurcation well beyond the learning data window.
Compounding approach for univariate time series with nonstationary variances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer, Rudi; Barkhofen, Sonja; Guhr, Thomas; Stöckmann, Hans-Jürgen; Kuhl, Ulrich
2015-12-01
A defining feature of nonstationary systems is the time dependence of their statistical parameters. Measured time series may exhibit Gaussian statistics on short time horizons, due to the central limit theorem. The sample statistics for long time horizons, however, averages over the time-dependent variances. To model the long-term statistical behavior, we compound the local distribution with the distribution of its parameters. Here, we consider two concrete, but diverse, examples of such nonstationary systems: the turbulent air flow of a fan and a time series of foreign exchange rates. Our main focus is to empirically determine the appropriate parameter distribution for the compounding approach. To this end, we extract the relevant time scales by decomposing the time signals into windows and determine the distribution function of the thus obtained local variances.
Non-stationary stochastic vibration analysis of fuzzy truss system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Juan; Chen, Jian-jun; Gao, Wei; Zhai, Tian-song
2006-11-01
A new method (fuzzy factor method based on the fuzzy sets theory) for the dynamic response analysis of fuzzy truss system under non-stationary stochastic excitation is presented. Considering the fuzziness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions simultaneously, the fuzzy correlation function matrix of the structural displacement response in time domain is derived using the fuzzy factor method and the optimisation method; then from the structural non-stationary stochastic response in the frequency domain, the fuzzy mean square values of the displacement and stress response are developed by the fuzzy factor method. The influences of the fuzziness of the physical parameters and geometric dimensions on the fuzziness of the mean square values of the structural displacement and stress response are illustrated via two engineering examples and some important conclusions are obtained.
Quantum tunneling of the non-stationary BTZ black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Juan; Yang, Shu Zheng
2009-07-01
The semi-classical tunneling method is extended to study the Hawking tunneling radiation from the non-stationary BTZ black hole via general tortoise coordination transformation and WKB approximation. In this paper, we simplify the spin-0 scalar field equation and the spin-1/2 Dirac equation at the event horizon of this black hole, and then the quantum tunneling probability and Hawking temperature are obtained. Finally, the correctional tunneling rate is researched, and the results show that after considering the changed background space-time of the non-stationary BTZ black hole, the tunneling rate depends not only on the entropy change but also on the integral about {\\dot r}_H .
Hawking's radiation in non-stationary rotating de Sitter background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibohal, N.; Ibungochouba, T.
2011-05-01
Hawking's radiation effect of Klein-Gordon scalar field, Dirac particles and Maxwell's electromagnetic field in the non-stationary rotating de Sitter cosmological space-time is investigated by using a method of generalized tortoise co-ordinates transformation. The locations and the temperatures of the cosmological horizons of the non-stationary rotating de Sitter model are derived. It is found that the locations and the temperatures of the rotating cosmological model depend not only on the time but also on the angle. The stress-energy regularization techniques are applied to the two dimensional analog of the de Sitter metrics and the calculated stress-energy tensor contains the thermal radiation effect.
ADSL Transceivers Applying DSM and Their Nonstationary Noise Robustness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
den Bogaert, Etienne Van; Bostoen, Tom; Verlinden, Jan; Cendrillon, Raphael; Moonen, Marc
2006-12-01
Dynamic spectrum management (DSM) comprises a new set of techniques for multiuser power allocation and/or detection in digital subscriber line (DSL) networks. At the Alcatel Research and Innovation Labs, we have recently developed a DSM test bed, which allows the performance of DSM algorithms to be evaluated in practice. With this test bed, we have evaluated the performance of a DSM level-1 algorithm known as iterative water-filling in an ADSL scenario. This paper describes the results of, on the one hand, the performance gains achieved with iterative water-filling, and, on the other hand, the nonstationary noise robustness of DSM-enabled ADSL modems. It will be shown that DSM trades off nonstationary noise robustness for performance improvements. A new bit swap procedure is then introduced to increase the noise robustness when applying DSM.
Climate variance influence on the non-stationary plankton dynamics.
Molinero, Juan Carlos; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Bonnet, Delphine
2013-08-01
We examined plankton responses to climate variance by using high temporal resolution data from 1988 to 2007 in the Western English Channel. Climate variability modified both the magnitude and length of the seasonal signal of sea surface temperature, as well as the timing and depth of the thermocline. These changes permeated the pelagic system yielding conspicuous modifications in the phenology of autotroph communities and zooplankton. The climate variance envelope, thus far little considered in climate-plankton studies, is closely coupled with the non-stationary dynamics of plankton, and sheds light on impending ecological shifts and plankton structural changes. Our study calls for the integration of the non-stationary relationship between climate and plankton in prognostic models on the productivity of marine ecosystems.
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Estimation of Parameters from Discrete Random Nonstationary Time Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayasu, H.; Nakamura, T.
For the analysis of nonstationary stochastic time series we introduce a formulation to estimate the underlying time-dependent parameters. This method is designed for random events with small numbers that are out of the applicability range of the normal distribution. The method is demonstrated for numerical data generated by a known system, and applied to time series of traffic accidents, batting average of a baseball player and sales volume of home electronics.
Nonstationary Root Causes of Cobb’s Paradox
2010-07-01
Stability, Change Management , Configuration Management image designed by Miracle Riese » Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...growth due to nonstationary environments. conFiGuRAtion AnD cHAnGe MAnAGeMent This article is not deliberately focused on a single weapon system or...political climate, or changes in leadership or ownership. Therefore, change management deals with nonphysical aspects of a system, such as
Quantum entanglement for two qubits in a nonstationary cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Lozovik, Yurii E.
2016-11-01
The quantum entanglement and the probability of the dynamical Lamb effect for two qubits caused by nonadiabatic fast change of the boundary conditions are studied. The conditional concurrence of the qubits for each fixed number of created photons in a nonstationary cavity is obtained as a measure of the dynamical quantum entanglement due to the dynamical Lamb effect. We discuss the physical realization of the dynamical Lamb effect, based on superconducting qubits.
Schack, B; Bareshova, E; Grieszbach, G; Witte, H
1995-05-01
Dynamic methods in the spectral domain are necessary to analyse biological signals because of the frequently nonstationary character of the signals. The paper presents an adaptive procedure of fitting time-dependent ARMA models to nonstationary signals, which is suitable for on-line calculations. The properties of the model parameter estimations are examined, and in the stationary case are compared with the results of convergent estimation methods. On this basis time-varying spectral parameters with high temporal and spectral resolution are calculated, and the possibility of their application is shown in EEG analysis and laser-Doppler-flowmetry.
Mapping the nonstationary internal tide with satellite altimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaron, Edward D.
2017-01-01
Temporal variability of the internal tide has been inferred from the 23 year long combined records of the TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeters by combining harmonic analysis with an analysis of along-track wavenumber spectra of sea-surface height (SSH). Conventional harmonic analysis is first applied to estimate and remove the stationary components of the tide at each point along the reference ground tracks. The wavenumber spectrum of the residual SSH is then computed, and the variance in a neighborhood around the wavenumber of the mode-1 baroclinic M2 tide is interpreted as the sum of noise, broadband nontidal processes, and the nonstationary tide. At many sites a bump in the spectrum associated with the internal tide is noted, and an empirical model for the noise and nontidal processes is used to estimate the nonstationary semidiurnal tidal variance. The results indicate a spatially inhomogeneous pattern of tidal variability. Nonstationary tides are larger than stationary tides throughout much of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans.
Burst of reflected electrons in nonstationary quasi-perpendicular shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsukiyo, S.; Scholer, M.
2013-05-01
One-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulations are performed to investigate energetic electron bursts produced at a nonstationary quasi-perpendicular shock. Some of the incoming electrons are intermittently energized and reflected by interacting with nonstationary electromagnetic fields in the shock front. The reflected electrons form an upstream non-thermal population. The reflection process is strongly affected by the non-coplanar magnetic field which is temporarily rather strong in the transition region of a highly nonstationary shock. Oblique whistler waves in the shock transition region generated due to dispersion effect or due to modified two-stream instability may pitch angle scatter the electrons and thus blur the loss-cone feature of the reflected electrons. Some electrons are trapped by the waves while staying in the transition region and energized through the shock drift acceleration mechanism. They are suddenly released toward upstream when the magnetic overshoot begins to collapse in a reformation cycle resulting in the clumps of the reflected electrons in a phase space. It is also discussed how upstream physical quantities associated with the reflected electrons can give information about the shock front nonstationarity as well as about local small scale wave activities in the transition region.
Dynamics of energetic electrons in nonstationary quasi-perpendicular shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Scholer, Manfred
2012-11-01
A one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) code is utilized to investigate energetic electron bursts produced at a nonstationary quasi-perpendicular shock. A number of electrons are intermittently energized by interacting with nonstationary electromagnetic fields in the shock front. Some of the energetic electrons are reflected at the shock and form an upstream non-thermal population. The reflection process is strongly affected by the non-coplanar magnetic field component which is temporarily rather strong in the transition region of a highly nonstationary shock. Oblique whistler waves in the transition region influence the distribution function of the reflected electrons. Waves excited by the modified two-stream instability may pitch angle scatter the electrons and thus blur the loss cone feature of the reflected electrons. Dispersive standing whistler waves are also emitted locally in the foot even when a Mach number exceeds a critical value. These whistler waves may also scatter the electrons to blur the loss cone. Furthermore, the whistler waves produce clumps of the reflected electrons in a phase space. Some electrons are trapped by the ion holes produced downstream as a remnant of a self-reformation process of the shock front and accelerated through a drift mechanism. It is also discussed how physical quantities associated with the reflected electrons observed upstream of the shock can give information about the shock front nonstationarity as well as about local small scale wave activities in the transition region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, Marco; Balasubramanian, Prabakaran; Ferrari, Giovanni
2016-10-01
The nonlinear vibrations of a water-filled circular cylindrical shell subjected to radial harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of the lowest resonances are investigated experimentally and numerically by using a seamless aluminium sample. The experimental boundary conditions are close to simply supported edges. The presence of exact one-to-one internal resonance, giving rise to a travelling wave response around the shell circumference and non-stationary vibrations, is experimentally observed and the nonlinear response is numerically reproduced. The travelling wave is measured by means of state-of-the-art laser Doppler vibrometers applied to multiple points on the structure simultaneously. Chaos is detected in the frequency region where the travelling wave response is present. The reduced-order model is based on the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory retaining in-plane inertia and the nonlinear equations of motion are numerically studied (i) by using a code based on arclength continuation method that allows bifurcation analysis in case of stationary vibrations, (ii) by a continuation code based on direct integration and Poincaré maps that evaluates also the maximum Lyapunov exponent in case of non-stationary vibrations. The comparison of experimental and numerical results is particularly satisfactory.
Theory of spatially and spectrally partially coherent pulses.
Lajunen, Hanna; Vahimaa, Pasi; Tervo, Jani
2005-08-01
A coherent-mode representation for spatially and spectrally partially coherent pulses is derived both in the space-frequency domain and in the space-time domain. It is shown that both the cross-spectral density and the mutual coherence function of partially coherent pulses can be expressed as a sum of spatially and spectrally and temporally completely coherent modes. The concept of the effective degree of coherence for nonstationary fields is introduced. As an application of the theory, the propagation of Gaussian Schell-model pulsed beams in the space-frequency domain is considered and their coherent-mode representation is presented.
Spectral Analysis and Filter Theory in Applied Geophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buttkus, Burkhard; Newcomb, R. C.
This book gives a comprehensive picture of the present stage of development of spectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics. The principles and theories behind classical and modern methods are described and the effectiveness of these methods is assessed; selected examples of their practical application in geophysics are discussed. The modern methods include, for example, spectral analysis by fitting random models to the data, the maximum-entropy and maximum-likelihood spectral analysis procedures, the Wiener and Kalman filters, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive procedures for non-stationary processes. This book represents a valuable aid in education and research and for solving practical problems in geophysics and related disciplines.
Discontinuous Galerkin schemes for nonstationary convection-diffusion problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dautov, R. Z.; Fedotov, E. M.
2016-11-01
In this paper we analyse an approximation of linear nonstationary convection- diffusion problem based on combination of discontinues Galerkin method for time discretisation in conjunction with hybridized discontinues Galerkin for spatial approximation. Such discrete schemes can be used for the solution of equations degenerating in the leading part and are formulated in term of solution of the problem, its gradient, the diffusional flux, and the restriction of the solution to the boundaries of elements. Conditions responsible for the solvability, stability and accuracy of the schemes are presented.
Measurements of bubbles in sea water by nonstationary sound scattering.
Akulichev, V A; Bulanov, V A
2011-11-01
Methods for the characterization of bubbles in sea water by acoustic scattering are analyzed. Nonstationary linear and nonlinear sound scattering methods are proposed. The transient linear and nonlinear sound scattering allows the scattering by resonant gas bubbles to be distinguished from the scattering by other microinhomogeneities. The application of parametric arrays in oceanic experiments, together with the broadband frequency analysis of the backscattering coefficient, allows information about bubbles in sea water to be obtained. Experimental results on sound scattering and gas bubble distribution functions are presented for different conditions in the ocean.
Nonstationary phase of the plio-pleistocene Asian monsoon
Clemens, S.C.; Murray, D.W.; Prell, W.L.
1996-11-08
Paleoclimate records indicate that the strength of the Asian summer monsoon is sensitive to orbital forcing at the obliquity and precession periods (41,000 and 23,000 years, respectively) and the extent of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Over the past 2.6 million years, the timing (phase) of strong monsoons has changed by {approximately}83 degrees in the precession and {approximately}124 degrees in the obliquity bands relative to the phase of maximum global ice volume (inferred from the marine oxygen isotope record). These results suggest that one or both of these systems is nonstationary relative to orbital forcing. 1 ref., 4 figs.
Suborbital spaceplane optimization using non-stationary Gaussian processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dufour, Robin; de Muelenaere, Julien; Elham, Ali
2014-10-01
This paper presents multidisciplinary design optimization of a sub-orbital spaceplane. The optimization includes three disciplines: the aerodynamics, the structure and the trajectory. An Adjoint Euler code is used to calculate the aerodynamic lift and drag of the vehicle as well as their derivatives with respect to the design variables. A new surrogate model has been developed based on a non-stationary Gaussian process. That model was used to estimate the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle during the trajectory optimization. The trajectory of thevehicle has been optimized together with its geometry in order to maximize the amount of payload that can be carried by the spaceplane.
Nonstationary Feller process with time-varying coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoliver, Jaume
2016-01-01
We study the nonstationary Feller process with time varying coefficients. We obtain the exact probability distribution exemplified by its characteristic function and cumulants. In some particular cases we exactly invert the distribution and achieve the probability density function. We show that for sufficiently long times this density approaches a Γ distribution with time-varying shape and scale parameters. Not far from the origin the process obeys a power law with an exponent dependent of time, thereby concluding that accessibility to the origin is not static but dynamic. We finally discuss some possible applications of the process.
Nonstationary Feller process with time-varying coefficients.
Masoliver, Jaume
2016-01-01
We study the nonstationary Feller process with time varying coefficients. We obtain the exact probability distribution exemplified by its characteristic function and cumulants. In some particular cases we exactly invert the distribution and achieve the probability density function. We show that for sufficiently long times this density approaches a Γ distribution with time-varying shape and scale parameters. Not far from the origin the process obeys a power law with an exponent dependent of time, thereby concluding that accessibility to the origin is not static but dynamic. We finally discuss some possible applications of the process.
Nonstationary Dynamics Data Analysis with Wavelet-SVD Filtering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Marty; Groutage, Dale; Bessette, Denis (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Nonstationary time-frequency analysis is used for identification and classification of aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic dynamics. Time-frequency multiscale wavelet processing generates discrete energy density distributions. The distributions are processed using the singular value decomposition (SVD). Discrete density functions derived from the SVD generate moments that detect the principal features in the data. The SVD standard basis vectors are applied and then compared with a transformed-SVD, or TSVD, which reduces the number of features into more compact energy density concentrations. Finally, from the feature extraction, wavelet-based modal parameter estimation is applied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine
2013-01-01
The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis conducted include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WDD's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near-infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Ray O.
2012-01-01
The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to
Liu, Xin; Wang, Hongkai; Yan, Zhuangzhi
2016-01-01
Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) plays an important role in drug delivery research. However, the majority of current reconstruction methods focus on solving the stationary FMT problems. If the stationary reconstruction methods are applied to the time-varying fluorescence measurements, the reconstructed results may suffer from a high level of artifacts. In addition, based on the stationary methods, only one tomographic image can be obtained after scanning one circle projection data. As a result, the movement of fluorophore in imaged object may not be detected due to the relative long data acquisition time (typically >1 min). In this paper, we apply extended kalman filter (EKF) technique to solve the non-stationary fluorescence tomography problem. Especially, to improve the EKF reconstruction performance, the generalized inverse of kalman gain is calculated by a second-order iterative method. The numerical simulation, phantom, and in vivo experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the method. The experimental results indicate that by using the proposed EKF-based second-order iterative (EKF-SOI) method, we cannot only clearly resolve the time-varying distributions of fluorophore within imaged object, but also greatly improve the reconstruction time resolution (~2.5 sec/frame) which makes it possible to detect the movement of fluorophore during the imaging processes. PMID:27895993
Liu, Xin; Wang, Hongkai; Yan, Zhuangzhi
2016-11-01
Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) plays an important role in drug delivery research. However, the majority of current reconstruction methods focus on solving the stationary FMT problems. If the stationary reconstruction methods are applied to the time-varying fluorescence measurements, the reconstructed results may suffer from a high level of artifacts. In addition, based on the stationary methods, only one tomographic image can be obtained after scanning one circle projection data. As a result, the movement of fluorophore in imaged object may not be detected due to the relative long data acquisition time (typically >1 min). In this paper, we apply extended kalman filter (EKF) technique to solve the non-stationary fluorescence tomography problem. Especially, to improve the EKF reconstruction performance, the generalized inverse of kalman gain is calculated by a second-order iterative method. The numerical simulation, phantom, and in vivo experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the method. The experimental results indicate that by using the proposed EKF-based second-order iterative (EKF-SOI) method, we cannot only clearly resolve the time-varying distributions of fluorophore within imaged object, but also greatly improve the reconstruction time resolution (~2.5 sec/frame) which makes it possible to detect the movement of fluorophore during the imaging processes.
Non-stationary measurements of Chiral Magnetic Effect
Shevchenko, V.I.
2013-12-15
We discuss the Chiral Magnetic Effect from the quantum theory of measurements point of view for non-stationary measurements. The effect of anisotropy for fluctuations of electric currents in a magnetic field is addressed. It is shown that anisotropy caused by nonzero axial chemical potential is indistinguishable in this framework from anisotropy caused by finite measurement time or finite lifetime of the magnetic field, and in all cases it is related to abelian triangle anomaly. Possible P-odd effects in central heavy-ion collisions (where the Chiral Magnetic Effect is absent) are discussed in this context. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Mikhail Polikarpov (1952–2013). -- Highlights: •Asymmetry in the response function for vector currents of massless fermions in the magnetic field is computed. •Asymmetry caused by axial chemical potential is practically indistinguishable from the one caused by non-stationarity. •The CME current is non-dissipative in the stationary case and dissipative in the non-stationary case. •Importance of studies of P-odd signatures in central collisions is emphasized.
Stationary to nonstationary transition in crossed-field devices
Marini, Samuel; Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato
2016-03-15
The previous results based on numerical simulations showed that a cold electron beam injected in a crossed field gap does not reach a time independent stationary state in the space charge limited regime [P. J. Christenson and Y. Y. Lau, Phys. Plasmas 1, 3725 (1994)]. In this work, the effect of finite injection temperature in the transition from stationary to nonstationary states is investigated. A fully kinetic model for the electron flow is derived and used to determine the possible stationary states of the system. It is found that although there is always a stationary solution for any set of parameters, depending on the injection temperature the electron flow becomes very sensitive to fluctuations and the stationary state is never reached. By investigating the nonlinear dynamics of a characteristic electron, a theory based on a single free parameter is constructed to predict when the transition between stationary and nonstationary states occurs. In agreement with the previous numerical results, the theory indicates that for vanishing temperatures the system never reaches the time independent stationary state in the space charge limited regime. Nevertheless, as the injection temperature is raised it is found a broad range of system parameters for which the stationary state is indeed attained. By properly adjusting the free parameter in the theory, one can be able to describe, to a very good accuracy, when the transition occurs.
Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas
Shotorban, B.
2011-06-15
Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.
Nonstationary hydrological time series forecasting using nonlinear dynamic methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulibaly, Paulin; Baldwin, Connely K.
2005-06-01
Recent evidence of nonstationary trends in water resources time series as result of natural and/or anthropogenic climate variability and change, has raised more interest in nonlinear dynamic system modeling methods. In this study, the effectiveness of dynamically driven recurrent neural networks (RNN) for complex time-varying water resources system modeling is investigated. An optimal dynamic RNN approach is proposed to directly forecast different nonstationary hydrological time series. The proposed method automatically selects the most optimally trained network in any case. The simulation performance of the dynamic RNN-based model is compared with the results obtained from optimal multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models. It is shown that the dynamically driven RNN model can be a good alternative for the modeling of complex dynamics of a hydrological system, performing better than the MARS model on the three selected hydrological time series, namely the historical storage volumes of the Great Salt Lake, the Saint-Lawrence River flows, and the Nile River flows.
Nonstationary decision model for flood risk decision scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spence, Caitlin M.; Brown, Casey M.
2016-11-01
Hydroclimatic stationarity is increasingly questioned as a default assumption in flood risk management (FRM), but successor methods are not yet established. Some potential successors depend on estimates of future flood quantiles, but methods for estimating future design storms are subject to high levels of uncertainty. Here we apply a Nonstationary Decision Model (NDM) to flood risk planning within the decision scaling framework. The NDM combines a nonstationary probability distribution of annual peak flow with optimal selection of flood management alternatives using robustness measures. The NDM incorporates structural and nonstructural FRM interventions and valuation of flows supporting ecosystem services to calculate expected cost of a given FRM strategy. A search for the minimum-cost strategy under incrementally varied representative scenarios extending across the plausible range of flood trend and value of the natural flow regime discovers candidate FRM strategies that are evaluated and compared through a decision scaling analysis (DSA). The DSA selects a management strategy that is optimal or close to optimal across the broadest range of scenarios or across the set of scenarios deemed most likely to occur according to estimates of future flood hazard. We illustrate the decision framework using a stylized example flood management decision based on the Iowa City flood management system, which has experienced recent unprecedented high flow episodes. The DSA indicates a preference for combining infrastructural and nonstructural adaptation measures to manage flood risk and makes clear that options-based approaches cannot be assumed to be "no" or "low regret."
Nonstationary multistate Coulomb and multistate exponential models for nonadiabatic transitions
Ostrovsky, V. N.
2003-07-01
The nonstationary Schroedinger equation is considered in a finite basis of states. The model Hamiltonian matrix corresponds to a single diabatic potential curve with a Coulombic {approx}1/t time dependence. An arbitrary number of other diabatic potential curves are flat, i.e., time independent and have arbitrary energies. Related states are coupled by constant interactions with the Coulomb state. The resulting nonstationary Schroedinger equation is solved by the method of contour integral. Probabilities of transitions to any other state are obtained as t{yields}{infinity} in a simple analytical form for the case when the Coulomb state is populated initially (at instant of time t{yields}+0). The formulas apply both to the cases when a horizontal diabatic potential curve is crossed by the Coulomb one and to a noncrossing situation. In the limit of weak coupling, the transition probabilities are interpreted in terms of a sequence of pairwise Landau-Zener-type transitions. Mapping of the Coulomb model onto an exactly solvable exponential multistate model is established. For the special two-state case, the well-known Nikitin model is recovered.
Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.
Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi
2011-10-01
We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Nikolai V.; Chekina, S. N.
2007-02-01
The effect of a constant magnetic field on the nonlinear radiation dynamics of a monolithic chip ring Nd:YAG laser pumped by modulated radiation is studied experimentally. It is found that the application of a constant magnetic field to the active element of the solid-state ring laser operating in the non-stationary regime results in the displacement of the regions of existence of quasi-periodic and chaotic lasing regimes to the low-frequency region of pump power modulation. In addition, the application of a magnetic field to the active element of the laser gives rise to the spectral nonreciprocity.
Gott, Aimee N; Eckley, Idris A; Aston, John A D
2015-12-20
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a dynamic four-dimensional imaging modality. However, in almost all fMRI analyses, the time series elements of this data are assumed to be second-order stationary. In this paper, we examine, using time series spectral methods, whether such stationary assumptions can be made and whether estimates of non-stationarity can be used to gain understanding into fMRI experiments. A non-stationary version of replicated stationary time series analysis is proposed that takes into account the replicated time series that are available from nearby voxels in a region of interest (ROI). These are used to investigate non-stationarities in both the ROI itself and the variations within the ROI. The proposed techniques are applied to simulated data and to an anxiety-inducing fMRI experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Ke; Wang, KeSheng; Zhang, Mian; Ni, Qing; Zuo, Ming J.
2017-03-01
The planetary gearbox, due to its unique mechanical structures, is an important rotating machine for transmission systems. Its engineering applications are often in non-stationary operational conditions, such as helicopters, wind energy systems, etc. The unique physical structures and working conditions make the vibrations measured from planetary gearboxes exhibit a complex time-varying modulation and therefore yield complicated spectral structures. As a result, traditional signal processing methods, such as Fourier analysis, and the selection of characteristic fault frequencies for diagnosis face serious challenges. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a signal selection scheme for fault-emphasized diagnostics based upon two order tracking techniques. The basic procedures for the proposed scheme are as follows. (1) Computed order tracking is applied to reveal the order contents and identify the order(s) of interest. (2) Vold-Kalman filter order tracking is used to extract the order(s) of interest—these filtered order(s) constitute the so-called selected vibrations. (3) Time domain statistic indicators are applied to the selected vibrations for faulty information-emphasized diagnostics. The proposed scheme is explained and demonstrated in a signal simulation model and experimental studies and the method proves to be effective for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Glaura C.; Reisen, Valderio A.
2007-03-01
This paper deals with different bootstrap approaches and bootstrap confidence intervals in the fractionally autoregressive moving average (ARFIMA(p,d,q)) process [J. Hosking, Fractional differencing, Biometrika 68(1) (1981) 165-175] using parametric and semi-parametric estimation techniques for the memory parameter d. The bootstrap procedures considered are: the classical bootstrap in the residuals of the fitted model [B. Efron, R. Tibshirani, An Introduction to the Bootstrap, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993], the bootstrap in the spectral density function [E. Paparoditis, D.N Politis, The local bootstrap for periodogram statistics. J. Time Ser. Anal. 20(2) (1999) 193-222], the bootstrap in the residuals resulting from the regression equation of the semi-parametric estimators [G.C Franco, V.A Reisen, Bootstrap techniques in semiparametric estimation methods for ARFIMA models: a comparison study, Comput. Statist. 19 (2004) 243-259] and the Sieve bootstrap [P. Bühlmann, Sieve bootstrap for time series, Bernoulli 3 (1997) 123-148]. The performance of these procedures and confidence intervals for d in the stationary and non-stationary ranges are empirically obtained through Monte Carlo experiments. The bootstrap confidence intervals here proposed are alternative procedures with some accuracy to obtain confidence intervals for d.
Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series for Biological Rhythms Research.
Leise, Tanya L
2017-06-01
This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistics topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article on time series analysis for biological rhythms, we describe some methods for assessing the rhythmic properties of time series, including tests of whether a time series is indeed rhythmic. Because biological rhythms can exhibit significant fluctuations in their period, phase, and amplitude, their analysis may require methods appropriate for nonstationary time series, such as wavelet transforms, which can measure how these rhythmic parameters change over time. We illustrate these methods using simulated and real time series.
Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas'yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.
2016-06-01
Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.
Nonstationary elementary-field light randomly triggered by Poisson impulses.
Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R
2013-05-01
A stochastic theory of nonstationary light describing the random emission of elementary pulses is presented. The emission is governed by a nonhomogeneous Poisson point process determined by a time-varying emission rate. The model describes, in the appropriate limits, stationary, cyclostationary, locally stationary, and pulsed radiation, and reduces to a Gaussian theory in the limit of dense emission rate. The first- and second-order coherence theories are solved after the computation of second- and fourth-order correlation functions by use of the characteristic function. The ergodicity of second-order correlations under various types of detectors is explored and a number of observables, including optical spectrum, amplitude, and intensity correlations, are analyzed.
System for monitoring non-coincident, nonstationary process signals
Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.
2005-01-04
An improved system for monitoring non-coincident, non-stationary, process signals. The mean, variance, and length of a reference signal is defined by an automated system, followed by the identification of the leading and falling edges of a monitored signal and the length of the monitored signal. The monitored signal is compared to the reference signal, and the monitored signal is resampled in accordance with the reference signal. The reference signal is then correlated with the resampled monitored signal such that the reference signal and the resampled monitored signal are coincident in time with each other. The resampled monitored signal is then compared to the reference signal to determine whether the resampled monitored signal is within a set of predesignated operating conditions.
Response of a rigid aircraft to nonstationary atmospheric turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Steiner, R.
1973-01-01
The plunging response of an aircraft to a type of nonstationary turbulent excitation is considered. The latter consists of stationary Gaussian noise modulated by a well-defined envelope function. The intent of the investigation is to model the excitation experienced by an airplane flying through turbulence of varying intensity and to examine the influence of intensity variations on exceedance frequencies of the gust velocity and the airplane's plunging velocity and acceleration. One analytical advantage of the proposed model is that the Gaussian assumption for the gust excitation is retained. The analysis described herein is developed in terms of an envelope function of arbitrary form; however, numerical calculations are limited to the case of harmonic modulation.
Rare switching events in non-stationary systems.
Becker, Nils B; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein
2012-05-07
Physical systems with many degrees of freedom can often be understood in terms of transitions between a small number of metastable states. For time-homogeneous systems with short-term memory these transitions are fully characterized by a set of rate constants. We consider the question how to extend such a coarse-grained description to non-stationary systems and to systems with finite memory. We identify the physical regimes in which time-dependent rates are meaningful, and state microscopic expressions that can be used to measure both externally time-dependent and history-dependent rates in microscopic simulations. Our description can be used to generalize Markov state models to time-dependent Markovian or non-Markovian systems.
Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge
Korolev, Yu. D. Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas’yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.
2016-06-15
Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.
Local adaptive filtering of images corrupted by nonstationary noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Vladimir V.; Fevralev, Dmitriy V.; Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Pogrebnyak, Oleksiy B.; Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.
2009-02-01
In various practical situations of remote sensing image processing it is assumed that noise is nonstationary and no a priory information on noise dependence on local mean or about local properties of noise statistics is available. It is shown that in such situations it is difficult to find a proper filter for effective image processing, i.e., for noise removal with simultaneous edge/detail preservation. To deal with such images, a local adaptive filter based on discrete cosine transform in overlapping blocks is proposed. A threshold is set locally based on a noise standard deviation estimate obtained for each block. Several other operations to improve performance of the locally adaptive filter are proposed and studied. The designed filter effectiveness is demonstrated for simulated data as well as for real life radar remote sensing and marine polarimetric radar images.
Speeding up the antidynamical Casimir effect with nonstationary qutrits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodonov, A. V.; Díaz-Guevara, J. J.; Napoli, A.; Militello, B.
2017-09-01
The antidynamical Casimir effect (ADCE) is a term coined to designate the coherent annihilation of excitations due to resonant external perturbation of system parameters, allowing for extraction of quantum work from nonvacuum states of some field. Originally proposed for a two-level atom (qubit) coupled to a single-cavity mode in the context of the nonstationary quantum Rabi model, it suffered from a very low transition rate and correspondingly narrow resonance linewidth. In this paper we show analytically and numerically that the ADCE rate can be increased by at least one order of magnitude by replacing the qubit by an artificial three-level atom (qutrit) in a properly chosen configuration. For the cavity thermal state we demonstrate that the dynamics of the average photon number and atomic excitation is completely different from the qubit's case, while the behavior of the total number of excitations is qualitatively similar yet significantly faster.
Nonstationary temporal Wiener filtering of gated blood pool studies
King, M.A.; Miller, T.R.; Doherty, P.W.; Bianco, J.A.
1985-05-01
Temporal filtering of dynamic images can significantly improve the image quality of gated blood pool (GBP) studies and serves as a necessary preprocessing step in the formation of cardiac functional images based on derivatives of pixel time activity curves. Generally, either linear combination of the frames, or a simple frequency domain low pass filter have been employed. The work described in this paper introduces the Wiener temporal filter which adjusts to match the temporal characteristic of the image at each pixel. For temporal data degraded by signal-dependent Poisson noise, the frequency domain form of the filter is presented. Use of nonstationary temporal Wiener filtering was found to improve the quality of cines formed from GBP studies and yielded better separation of cardiac from non-cardiac regions in functional images the peak ejection and filling rates.
Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.
2008-06-01
We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.
Tunable quantum entanglement of three qubits in a nonstationary cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amico, Mirko; Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.
2017-09-01
We investigate the tunable quantum entanglement and the probabilities of excitations in a system of three qubits in a nonstationary cavity due to the dynamical Lamb effect, caused by nonadiabatic fast change of the boundary conditions of the cavity. The transition amplitudes and the probabilities of excitation of qubits due to the dynamical Lamb effect have been evaluated. The conditional concurrence and the conditional residual tangle for each fixed amount of created photons are introduced and calculated as measures of the pairwise or three-way dynamical quantum entanglement of the qubits. We also give a prescription on how to increase the values of those quantities by controlling the frequency of the cavity photons. A physical realization of the system with three superconducting qubits, coupled to a coplanar waveguide entangled due to the nonadiabatic fast change of boundary conditions of the cavity is proposed.
Spectral and correlation analysis with applications to middle-atmosphere radars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rastogi, Prabhat K.
1989-01-01
The correlation and spectral analysis methods for uniformly sampled stationary random signals, estimation of their spectral moments, and problems arising due to nonstationary are reviewed. Some of these methods are already in routine use in atmospheric radar experiments. Other methods based on the maximum entropy principle and time series models have been used in analyzing data, but are just beginning to receive attention in the analysis of radar signals. These methods are also briefly discussed.
A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology.
Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik
2015-11-01
Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1-0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology.
Scaling in non-stationary time series. (I)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ignaccolo, M.; Allegrini, P.; Grigolini, P.; Hamilton, P.; West, B. J.
2004-05-01
Most data processing techniques, applied to biomedical and sociological time series, are only valid for random fluctuations that are stationary in time. Unfortunately, these data are often non-stationary and the use of techniques of analysis resting on the stationary assumption can produce a wrong information on the scaling, and so on the complexity of the process under study. Herein, we test and compare two techniques for removing the non-stationary influences from computer generated time series, consisting of the superposition of a slow signal and a random fluctuation. The former is based on the method of wavelet decomposition, and the latter is a proposal of this paper, denoted by us as step detrending technique. We focus our attention on two cases, when the slow signal is a periodic function mimicking the influence of seasons, and when it is an aperiodic signal mimicking the influence of a population change (increase or decrease). For the purpose of computational simplicity the random fluctuation is taken to be uncorrelated. However, the detrending techniques here illustrated work also in the case when the random component is correlated. This expectation is fully confirmed by the sociological applications made in the companion paper. We also illustrate a new procedure to assess the existence of a genuine scaling, based on the adoption of diffusion entropy, multiscaling analysis and the direct assessment of scaling. Using artificial sequences, we show that the joint use of all these techniques yield the detection of the real scaling, and that this is independent of the technique used to detrend the original signal.
A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology
Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik
2015-01-01
Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1–0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology. PMID:26272507
Verley, Gatien; Chétrite, Raphaël; Lacoste, David
2012-03-23
We discuss the consequences of a variant of the Hatano-Sasa relation in which a nonstationary distribution is used in place of the usual stationary one. We first show that this nonstationary distribution is related to a difference of traffic between the direct and dual dynamics. With this formalism, we extend the definition of the adiabatic and nonadiabatic entropies introduced by M. Esposito and C. Van den Broeck in Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 090601 (2010) for the stationary case. We also obtain interesting second-law-like inequalities for transitions between nonstationary states.
Spectral and Spread Spectral Teleportation
Humble, Travis S
2010-01-01
We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state is teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of a teleported waveform can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread spectral variant of teleportation. We present analytical fidelities for spectral and spread spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are prepared using a proposed experimental approach, and we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.
Spectral multigrid methods for the solution of homogeneous turbulence problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
New three-dimensional spectral multigrid algorithms are analyzed and implemented to solve the variable coefficient Helmholtz equation. Periodicity is assumed in all three directions which leads to a Fourier collocation representation. Convergence rates are theoretically predicted and confirmed through numerical tests. Residual averaging results in a spectral radius of 0.2 for the variable coefficient Poisson equation. In general, non-stationary Richardson must be used for the Helmholtz equation. The algorithms developed are applied to the large-eddy simulation of incompressible isotropic turbulence.
Spectrum of Doppler ultrasound signals from nonstationary blood flow.
Bastos, C C; Fish, P J; Vaz, F
1999-01-01
A new formulation for the Doppler signal generation process in pulsatile flow has been developed enabling easier identification and quantification of the mechanisms involved in spectral broadening and the development of a simple estimation formula for the measured rms spectral width. The accuracy of the estimation formula was tested by comparing it with the spectral widths found by using conventional spectral estimation on simulated Doppler signals from pulsatile flow. The influence of acceleration, sample volume size, and time window duration on the Doppler spectral width was investigated for flow with blunt and parabolic velocity profiles passing through Gaussian-shaped sample volumes. Our results show that, for short duration windows, the spectral width is dominated by window broadening and that acceleration has a small effect on the spectral width. For long duration windows, the effect of acceleration must be taken into account. The size of the sample volume affects the spectral width of the Doppler signal in two ways: by intrinsic broadening and by the range of velocities passing through it. These effects act in opposite directions. The simple spectral width estimation formula was shown to have excellent agreement with widths calculated using the model and indicates the potential for correcting not only for window and nonstationarity broadening but also for intrinsic broadening.
Seismic spatial effects on long-span bridge response in nonstationary inhomogeneous random fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiahao, Lin; Yahui, Zhang; Yan, Zhao
2005-06-01
The long-span bridge response to nonstationary multiple seismic random excitations is investigated using the PEM (pseudo excitation method). This method transforms the nonstationary random response analysis into ordinary direct dynamic analysis, and therefore, the analysis can be solved conveniently using the Newmark, Wilson-θ schemes or the precise integration method. Numerical results of the seismic response for an actual long-span bridge using the proposed PEM are given and compared with the results based on the conventional stationary analysis. From the numerical comparisons, it was found that both the seismic spatial effect and the nonstationary effect are quite important, and that both stationary and nonstationary seismic analysis should pay special attention to the wave passage effect.
Application of distribution-free nonstationary regional frequency analysis based on L-moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sung, Jang Hyun; Kim, Young-Oh; Jeon, Jong-June
2017-08-01
Regional frequency analysis (RFA) based on L-moments is widely used in the analysis of hydrological process. However, L-moments are defined by order statistics from a stationary distribution and thus theoretically good properties of RFA do not hold under a nonstationary distribution. In this study, a procedure was proposed for an RFA based on L-moments for nonstationary hydrological processes. The proposed method uses a distribution-free de-trended method to apply the conventional RFA based on L-moments. The conventional and the proposed RFAs for annual maximum precipitation in South Korea were compared, and the simulation results indicated that the proposed RFA could provide proper information regarding heterogeneity in a nonstationary distribution. The estimated results of return levels, the median in the nonstationary RFA, were higher than in the conventional RFA.
Non-stationary spin-filtering effects in correlated quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.
2017-09-01
The influence of external magnetic field switching ;on; and ;off; on the non-stationary spin-polarized currents in the system of correlated single-level quantum dot coupled to non-magnetic electronic reservoirs has been analyzed. It was shown that considered system can be used for the effective spin filtering by analyzing its non-stationary characteristics in particular range of applied bias voltage.
A frequency measurement algorithm for non-stationary signals by using wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Seong-Heon; Oh, Dong Keun
2016-11-01
Scalogram is widely used to measure instantaneous frequencies of non-stationary signals. However, the basic property of the scalogram is observed only for stationary sinusoidal functions. A property of the scalogram for non-stationary signal is analytically derived in this paper. Based on the property, a new frequency measurement algorithm is proposed. In addition, a filter that can separate two similar frequency signals is developed based on the wavelet transform.
Nonstationary current-driven dynamics of vortex domain walls in films with in-plane anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovik, M. N.; Filippov, B. N.; Korzunin, L. G.
2017-02-01
Micromagnetic simulation of a current-driven vortex domain wall motion in a film with in-plane anisotropy was carried out. The current density values j >jc were considered corresponding to the nonstationary motion, with the domain wall structure dynamic transformation occurred. A nonlinear dependence of the jc value on the film thickness was obtained. The nonstationary motion regime existence restricted the possibility to increase the domain wall velocity by increasing j and decreasing the damping parameter.
A Novel Data-Driven Learning Method for Radar Target Detection in Nonstationary Environments
2016-05-01
Dec. 2006, pp. 1113–1118. [21] J. Z. Kolter and M. A. Maloof, “Dynamic weighted majority: An ensemble method for drifting concepts,” J. Mach. Learn...762 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 5, MAY 2016 A Novel Data-Driven Learning Method for Radar Target Detection in Nonstationary...Therefore, to overcome such shortcomings, we develop a data-driven method for target detec- tion in nonstationary environments. In this method , the
Analyzing nonstationary financial time series via hilbert-huang transform (HHT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
An apparatus, computer program product and method of analyzing non-stationary time varying phenomena. A representation of a non-stationary time varying phenomenon is recursively sifted using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to extract intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The representation is filtered to extract intrinsic trends by combining a number of IMFs. The intrinsic trend is inherent in the data and identifies an IMF indicating the variability of the phenomena. The trend also may be used to detrend the data.
Moryakov, A. V. Pylyov, S. S.
2012-12-15
This paper presents the formulation of the problem and the methodical approach for solving large systems of linear differential equations describing nonstationary processes with the use of CUDA technology; this approach is implemented in the ANGEL program. Results for a test problem on transport of radioactive products over loops of a nuclear power plant are given. The possibilities for the use of the ANGEL program for solving various problems that simulate arbitrary nonstationary processes are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigernes, Fred; Lorentzen, Dag Arne; Heia, Karsten; Svenøe, Trond
2000-06-01
A small spectral imaging system is presented that images static or moving objects simultaneously as a function of wavelength. The main physical principle is outlined and demonstrated. The instrument is capable of resolving both spectral and spatial information from targets throughout the entire visible region. The spectral domain has a bandpass of 12 . One can achieve the spatial domain by rotating the system s front mirror with a high-resolution stepper motor. The spatial resolution range from millimeters to several meters depends mainly on the front optics used and whether the target is fixed (static) or movable relative to the instrument. Different applications and examples are explored, including outdoor landscapes, industrial fish-related targets, and ground-level objects observed in the more traditional way from an airborne carrier (remote sensing). Through the examples, we found that the instrument correctly classifies whether a shrimp is peeled and whether it can disclose the spectral and spatial microcharacteristics of targets such as a fish nematode (parasite). In the macroregime, we were able to distinguish a marine vessel from the surrounding sea and sky. A study of the directional spectral albedo from clouds, mountains, snow cover, and vegetation has also been included. With the airborne experiment, the imager successfully classified snow cover, leads, and new and rafted ice, as seen from 10.000 ft (3.048 m).
Teaching geographical hydrology in a non-stationary world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendriks, Martin R.; Karssenberg, Derek
2010-05-01
Understanding hydrological processes in a non-stationary world requires knowledge of hydrological processes and their interactions. Also, one needs to understand the (non-linear) relations between the hydrological system and other parts of our Earth system, such as the climate system, the socio-economic system, and the ecosystem. To provide this knowledge and understanding we think that three components are essential when teaching geographical hydrology. First of all, a student needs to acquire a thorough understanding of classical hydrology. For this, knowledge of the basic hydrological equations, such as the energy equation (Bernoulli), flow equation (Darcy), continuity (or water balance) equation is needed. This, however, is not sufficient to make a student fully understand the interactions between hydrological compartments, or between hydrological subsystems and other parts of the Earth system. Therefore, secondly, a student also needs to be knowledgeable of methods by which the different subsystems can be coupled; in general, numerical models are used for this. A major disadvantage of numerical models is their complexity. A solution may be to use simpler models, provided that a student really understands how hydrological processes function in our real, non-stationary world. The challenge for a student then lies in understanding the interactions between the subsystems, and to be able to answer questions such as: what is the effect of a change in vegetation or land use on runoff? Thirdly, knowledge of field hydrology is of utmost importance. For this a student needs to be trained in the field. Fieldwork is very important as a student is confronted in the field with spatial and temporal variability, as well as with real life uncertainties, rather than being lured into believing the world as presented in hydrological textbooks and models, e.g. the world under study is homogeneous, isotropic, or lumped (averaged). Also, students in the field learn to plan and
Discriminant non-stationary signal features' clustering using hard and fuzzy cluster labeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoraani, Behnaz; Krishnan, Sridhar
2012-12-01
Current approaches to improve the pattern recognition performance mainly focus on either extracting non-stationary and discriminant features of each class, or employing complex and nonlinear feature classifiers. However, little attention has been paid to the integration of these two approaches. Combining non-stationary feature analysis with complex feature classifiers, this article presents a novel direction to enhance the discriminatory power of pattern recognition methods. This approach, which is based on a fusion of non-stationary feature analysis with clustering techniques, proposes an algorithm to adaptively identify the feature vectors according to their importance in representing the patterns of discrimination. Non-stationary feature vectors are extracted using a non-stationary method based on time-frequency distribution and non-negative matrix factorization. The clustering algorithms including the K-means and self-organizing tree maps are utilized as unsupervised clustering methods followed by a supervised labeling. Two labeling methods are introduced: hard and fuzzy labeling. The article covers in detail the formulation of the proposed discriminant feature clustering method. Experiments performed with pathological speech classification, T-wave alternans evaluation from the surface electrocardiogram, audio scene analysis, and telemonitoring of Parkinson's disease problems produced desirable results. The outcome demonstrates the benefits of non-stationary feature fusion with clustering methods for complex data analysis where existing approaches do not exhibit a high performance.
Extracting stationary segments from non-stationary synthetic and cardiac signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, María. G.; Ledezma, Carlos A.; Perpiñán, Gilberto; Wong, Sara; Altuve, Miguel
2015-01-01
Physiological signals are commonly the result of complex interactions between systems and organs, these interactions lead to signals that exhibit a non-stationary behaviour. For cardiac signals, non-stationary heart rate variability (HRV) may produce misinterpretations. A previous work proposed to divide a non-stationary signal into stationary segments by looking for changes in the signal's properties related to changes in the mean of the signal. In this paper, we extract stationary segments from non-stationary synthetic and cardiac signals. For synthetic signals with different signal-to-noise ratio levels, we detect the beginning and end of the stationary segments and the result is compared to the known values of the occurrence of these events. For cardiac signals, RR interval (cardiac cycle length) time series, obtained from electrocardiographic records during stress tests for two populations (diabetic patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and control subjects), were divided into stationary segments. Results on synthetic signals reveal that the non-stationary sequence is divided into more stationary segments than needed. Additionally, due to HRV reduction and exercise intolerance reported on diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy patients, non-stationary RR interval sequences from these subjects can be divided into longer stationary segments compared to the control group.
Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey
2016-07-01
In this paper within the framework of the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) we consider the dynamic properties of the solar activity by analyzing the Zurich sunspot numbers. As is well-known astrophysics objects are the non-stationary open systems, whose evolution are the quite individual and have the alternation effects. The main difference of FNS compared to other related methods is the separation of the original signal reflecting the dynamics of solar activity into three frequency bands: system-specific "resonances" and their interferential contributions at lower frequencies, chaotic "random walk" ("irregularity-jump") components at larger frequencies, and chaotic "irregularity-spike" (inertial) components in the highest frequency range. Specific parameters corresponding to each of the bands are introduced and calculated. These irregularities as well as specific resonance frequencies are considered as the information carriers on every hierarchical level of the evolution of a complex natural system with intermittent behavior, consecutive alternation of rapid chaotic changes in the values of dynamic variables on small time intervals with small variations of the values on longer time intervals ("laminar" phases). The jump and spike irregularities are described by power spectra and difference moments (transient structural functions) of the second order. FNS allows revealing the most crucial points of the solar activity dynamics by means of "spikiness" factor. It is shown that this variable behaves as the predictor of crucial changes of the sunspot number dynamics, particularly when the number comes up to maximum value. The change of averaging interval allows revealing the non-stationary effects depending by 11-year cycle and by inside processes in a cycle. To consider the cross correlations between the different variables of solar activity we use the Zurich sunspot numbers and the sequence of corona's radiation energy. The FNS-approach allows extracting the
Wavelet analysis for non-stationary, nonlinear time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulte, Justin A.
2016-08-01
Methods for detecting and quantifying nonlinearities in nonstationary time series are introduced and developed. In particular, higher-order wavelet analysis was applied to an ideal time series and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) time series. Multiple-testing problems inherent in wavelet analysis were addressed by controlling the false discovery rate. A new local autobicoherence spectrum facilitated the detection of local nonlinearities and the quantification of cycle geometry. The local autobicoherence spectrum of the QBO time series showed that the QBO time series contained a mode with a period of 28 months that was phase coupled to a harmonic with a period of 14 months. An additional nonlinearly interacting triad was found among modes with periods of 10, 16 and 26 months. Local biphase spectra determined that the nonlinear interactions were not quadratic and that the effect of the nonlinearities was to produce non-smoothly varying oscillations. The oscillations were found to be skewed so that negative QBO regimes were preferred, and also asymmetric in the sense that phase transitions between the easterly and westerly phases occurred more rapidly than those from westerly to easterly regimes.
Nonstationary model of an axisymmetric mirror trap with nonequilibrium plasma
Yurov, D. V. Prikhodko, V. V. Tsidulko, Yu. A.
2016-03-15
The DOL nonstationary model intended to describe plasma processes in axisymmetric magnetic mirror traps is considered. The model uses averaging over the bounce period in order to take into account the dependence of plasma parameters on the coordinate along the facility axis. Examples of calculations of trap parameters by means of the DOL code based on this model are presented. Among the features of the DOL model, one can single out two points: first, the capability of calculating the terms of the collision integral with the use of a non-Maxwellian scattering function while evaluating the distribution function of fast ions and, second, concerning the background plasma, the capability of calculating the longitudinal particle and energy fluxes in confinement modes with the particle mean free path being on the order of the trap length. The influence of the scattering function approximation used to calculate the collision integral on the solution to the kinetic equation is analyzed. The dependences of plasma parameters on the power of heating injectors and the length of the fast-ion turning zone are presented as calculation examples. The longitudinal profile of the fusion reaction rate in the case of a trap with a long fast-ion turning zone is shown to depend strongly on the input parameters of the model.
Nonstationary model of an axisymmetric mirror trap with nonequilibrium plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurov, D. V.; Prikhodko, V. V.; Tsidulko, Yu. A.
2016-03-01
The DOL nonstationary model intended to describe plasma processes in axisymmetric magnetic mirror traps is considered. The model uses averaging over the bounce period in order to take into account the dependence of plasma parameters on the coordinate along the facility axis. Examples of calculations of trap parameters by means of the DOL code based on this model are presented. Among the features of the DOL model, one can single out two points: first, the capability of calculating the terms of the collision integral with the use of a non-Maxwellian scattering function while evaluating the distribution function of fast ions and, second, concerning the background plasma, the capability of calculating the longitudinal particle and energy fluxes in confinement modes with the particle mean free path being on the order of the trap length. The influence of the scattering function approximation used to calculate the collision integral on the solution to the kinetic equation is analyzed. The dependences of plasma parameters on the power of heating injectors and the length of the fast-ion turning zone are presented as calculation examples. The longitudinal profile of the fusion reaction rate in the case of a trap with a long fast-ion turning zone is shown to depend strongly on the input parameters of the model.
Stochastic study of solute transport in a nonstationary medium.
Hu, Bill X
2006-01-01
A Lagrangian stochastic approach is applied to develop a method of moment for solute transport in a physically and chemically nonstationary medium. Stochastic governing equations for mean solute flux and solute covariance are analytically obtained in the first-order accuracy of log conductivity and/or chemical sorption variances and solved numerically using the finite-difference method. The developed method, the numerical method of moments (NMM), is used to predict radionuclide solute transport processes in the saturated zone below the Yucca Mountain project area. The mean, variance, and upper bound of the radionuclide mass flux through a control plane 5 km downstream of the footprint of the repository are calculated. According to their chemical sorption capacities, the various radionuclear chemicals are grouped as nonreactive, weakly sorbing, and strongly sorbing chemicals. The NMM method is used to study their transport processes and influence factors. To verify the method of moments, a Monte Carlo simulation is conducted for nonreactive chemical transport. Results indicate the results from the two methods are consistent, but the NMM method is computationally more efficient than the Monte Carlo method. This study adds to the ongoing debate in the literature on the effect of heterogeneity on solute transport prediction, especially on prediction uncertainty, by showing that the standard derivation of solute flux is larger than the mean solute flux even when the hydraulic conductivity within each geological layer is mild. This study provides a method that may become an efficient calculation tool for many environmental projects.
Progress in Operational Analysis of Launch Vehicles in Nonstationary Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, George; Kaouk, Mo; Cao, Timothy
2013-01-01
This paper presents recent results in an ongoing effort to understand and develop techniques to process launch vehicle data, which is extremely challenging for modal parameter identification. The primary source of difficulty is due to the nonstationary nature of the situation. The system is changing, the environment is not steady, and there is an active control system operating. Hence, the primary tool for producing clean operational results (significant data lengths and data averaging) is not available to the user. This work reported herein uses a correlation-based two step operational modal analysis approach to process the relevant data sets for understanding and development of processes. A significant drawback for such processing of short time histories is a series of beating phenomena due to the inability to average out random modal excitations. A recursive correlation process coupled to a new convergence metric (designed to mitigate the beating phenomena) is the object of this study. It has been found in limited studies that this process creates clean modal frequency estimates but numerically alters the damping.
Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.
1996-01-01
The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.
Nonstationary brain source separation for multiclass motor imagery.
Gouy-Pailler, Cédric; Congedo, Marco; Brunner, Clemens; Jutten, Christian; Pfurtscheller, Gert
2010-02-01
This paper describes a method to recover task-related brain sources in the context of multiclass brain--computer interfaces (BCIs) based on noninvasive EEG. We extend the method joint approximate diagonalization (JAD) for spatial filtering using a maximum likelihood framework. This generic formulation: 1) bridges the gap between the common spatial patterns (CSPs) and blind source separation of nonstationary sources; and 2) leads to a neurophysiologically adapted version of JAD, accounting for the successive activations/deactivations of brain sources during motor imagery (MI) trials. Using dataset 2a of BCI Competition IV (2008) in which nine subjects were involved in a four-class two-session MI-based BCI experiment, a quantitative evaluation of our extension is provided by comparing its performance against JAD and CSP in the case of cross-validation, as well as session-to-session transfer. While JAD, as already proposed in other works, does not prove to be significantly better than classical one-versus-rest CSP, our extension is shown to perform significantly better than CSP for cross-validated and session-to-session performance. The extension of JAD introduced in this paper yields among the best session-to-session transfer results presented so far for this particular dataset; thus, it appears to be of great interest for real-life BCIs.
Nonstationary magnetosonic wave dynamics in plasmas exhibiting collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Maity, Chandan; Schamel, Hans
2013-08-01
In a Lagrangian fluid approach, an explicit method has been presented previously to obtain an exact nonstationary magnetosonic-type wave solution in compressible magnetized plasmas of arbitrary resistivity showing competition among hydrodynamic convection, magnetic field diffusion, and dispersion [Chakrabarti , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.145003 106, 145003 (2011)]. The purpose of the present work is twofold: it serves (i) to describe the physical and mathematical background of the involved magnetosonic wave dynamics in more detail, as proposed by our original Letter, and (ii) to present an alternative approach, which utilizes the Lagrangian mass variable as a new spatial coordinate [Schamel, Phys. Rep.PRPLCM0370-157310.1016/j.physrep.2003.12.002 392, 279 (2004)]. The obtained exact nonlinear wave solutions confirm the correctness of our previous results, indicating a collapse of the magnetic field irrespective of the presence of dispersion and resistivity. The mean plasma density, on the other hand, is less singular, showing collapse only when dispersive effects are negligible. These results may contribute to our understanding of the generation of strongly localized magnetic fields (and currents) in plasmas, and they are expected to be of special importance in the astrophysical context of magnetic star formation.
Solar cycle signal in Earth rotation: nonstationary behavior.
Currie, R G
1981-01-23
Following the discovery of the 11-year solar cycle signal in earth rotation, linear techniques were employed to investigate the amplitude and phase of the difference between ephemeris time and universal time (DeltaT) as a function of time. The amplitude is nonstationary. This difference was related to Delta(LOD), the difference between the length of day and its nominal value. The 11-year term in Delta(LOD) was 0.8 millisecond at the close of the 18th century and decreased below noise level from 1840 to 1860. From 1875 to 1925, Delta(LOD) was about 0.16 millisecond, and it decreased to about 0.08 millisecond by the 1950's. Except for anomalous behavior from 1797 to 1838, DeltaT lags sunspot numbers by 3.0 +/- 0.4 years. Since DeltaT lags Delta(LOD) by 2.7 years, the result is that Delta(LOD) is approximately in phase with sunspot numbers.
Nonstationary Stokes System in Cylindrical Domains Under Boundary Slip Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaja¸czkowski, Wojciech M.
2017-03-01
Existence and uniqueness of solutions to the nonstationary Stokes system in a cylindrical domain {Ωsubset{R}^3} and under boundary slip conditions are proved in anisotropic Sobolev spaces. Assuming that the external force belong to {L_r(Ω×(0,T))} and initial velocity to {W_r^{2-2/r}(Ω)} there exists a solution such that velocity belongs to {W_r^{2,1}(Ω×(0,T))} and gradient of pressure to {L_r(Ω×(0,T))}, {rin(1,∞)}, {T > 0}. Thanks to the slip boundary conditions and a partition of unity the Stokes system is transformed to the Poisson equation for pressure and the heat equation for velocity. The existence of solutions to these equations is proved by applying local considerations. In this case we have to consider neighborhoods near the edges which by local mapping can be transformed to dihedral angle {π/2}. Hence solvability of the problem bases on construction local Green functions (near an interior point, near a point of a smooth part of the boundary, near a point of the edge) and their appropriate estimates. The technique presented in this paper can also work in other functional spaces: Sobolev-Slobodetskii, Besov, Nikolskii, Hölder and so on.
Dynamically weighted ensemble classification for non-stationary EEG processing.
Liyanage, Sidath Ravindra; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong; Ang, Kai Keng; Xu, JianXin; Lee, Tong Heng
2013-06-01
The non-stationary nature of EEG poses a major challenge to robust operation of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). The objective of this paper is to propose and investigate a computational method to address non-stationarity in EEG classification. We developed a novel dynamically weighted ensemble classification (DWEC) framework whereby an ensemble of multiple classifiers are trained on clustered features. The decisions from these multiple classifiers are dynamically combined based on the distances of the cluster centres to each test data sample being classified. The clusters of the feature space from the second session spanned a different space compared to the clusters of the feature space from the first session which highlights the processes of session-to-session non-stationarity. The session-to-session performance of the proposed DWEC method was evaluated on two datasets. The results on publicly available BCI Competition IV dataset 2A yielded a significantly higher mean accuracy of 81.48% compared to 75.9% from the baseline support vector machine (SVM) classifier without dynamic weighting. Results on the data collected from our twelve in-house subjects yielded a significantly higher mean accuracy of 73% compared to 69.4% from the baseline SVM classifier without dynamic weighting. The cluster based analysis provides insight into session-to-session non-stationarity in EEG data. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in addressing non-stationarity in EEG data for the operation of a BCI.
Dynamically weighted ensemble classification for non-stationary EEG processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liyanage, Sidath Ravindra; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong; Keng Ang, Kai; Xu, JianXin; Lee, Tong Heng
2013-06-01
Objective. The non-stationary nature of EEG poses a major challenge to robust operation of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). The objective of this paper is to propose and investigate a computational method to address non-stationarity in EEG classification. Approach. We developed a novel dynamically weighted ensemble classification (DWEC) framework whereby an ensemble of multiple classifiers are trained on clustered features. The decisions from these multiple classifiers are dynamically combined based on the distances of the cluster centres to each test data sample being classified. Main Results. The clusters of the feature space from the second session spanned a different space compared to the clusters of the feature space from the first session which highlights the processes of session-to-session non-stationarity. The session-to-session performance of the proposed DWEC method was evaluated on two datasets. The results on publicly available BCI Competition IV dataset 2A yielded a significantly higher mean accuracy of 81.48% compared to 75.9% from the baseline support vector machine (SVM) classifier without dynamic weighting. Results on the data collected from our twelve in-house subjects yielded a significantly higher mean accuracy of 73% compared to 69.4% from the baseline SVM classifier without dynamic weighting. Significance. The cluster based analysis provides insight into session-to-session non-stationarity in EEG data. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in addressing non-stationarity in EEG data for the operation of a BCI.
Standard Codon Substitution Models Overestimate Purifying Selection for Nonstationary Data
Yap, Von Bing; Huttley, Gavin A.
2017-01-01
Estimation of natural selection on protein-coding sequences is a key comparative genomics approach for de novo prediction of lineage-specific adaptations. Selective pressure is measured on a per-gene basis by comparing the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions to the rate of synonymous substitutions. All published codon substitution models have been time-reversible and thus assume that sequence composition does not change over time. We previously demonstrated that if time-reversible DNA substitution models are applied in the presence of changing sequence composition, the number of substitutions is systematically biased towards overestimation. We extend these findings to the case of codon substitution models and further demonstrate that the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of substitution tends to be underestimated over three data sets of mammals, vertebrates, and insects. Our basis for comparison is a nonstationary codon substitution model that allows sequence composition to change. Goodness-of-fit results demonstrate that our new model tends to fit the data better. Direct measurement of nonstationarity shows that bias in estimates of natural selection and genetic distance increases with the degree of violation of the stationarity assumption. Additionally, inferences drawn under time-reversible models are systematically affected by compositional divergence. As genomic sequences accumulate at an accelerating rate, the importance of accurate de novo estimation of natural selection increases. Our results establish that our new model provides a more robust perspective on this fundamental quantity. PMID:28175284
Nonstationary EO/IR Clutter Suppression and Dim Object Tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.
2010-09-01
We develop and evaluate the performance of advanced algorithms which provide significantly improved capabilities for automated detection and tracking of ballistic and flying dim objects in the presence of highly structured intense clutter. Applications include ballistic missile early warning, midcourse tracking, trajectory prediction, and resident space object detection and tracking. The set of algorithms include, in particular, adaptive spatiotemporal clutter estimation-suppression and nonlinear filtering-based multiple-object track-before-detect. These algorithms are suitable for integration into geostationary, highly elliptical, or low earth orbit scanning or staring sensor suites, and are based on data-driven processing that adapts to real-world clutter backgrounds, including celestial, earth limb, or terrestrial clutter. In many scenarios of interest, e.g., for highly elliptic and, especially, low earth orbits, the resulting clutter is highly nonstationary, providing a significant challenge for clutter suppression to or below sensor noise levels, which is essential for dim object detection and tracking. We demonstrate the success of the developed algorithms using semi-synthetic and real data. In particular, our algorithms are shown to be capable of detecting and tracking point objects with signal-to-clutter levels down to 1/1000 and signal-to-noise levels down to 1/4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bo; Wen, Zengping; Wang, Fang
2017-04-01
Using near-fault strong motions from Nepal Mw7.8 earthquake at KATNP station in the city center of Kathmandu, velocity-pulse and non-stationary characteristics of the strong motions are shown, and the reason and potential effect on earthquake damage for intense non-stationary characteristics of near fault velocity-pulse strong motions are mainly studied. The observed strong ground motions of main shock were collected from KATNP station located in 76 kilometers south-east away from epicenter along with forward direction of the rupture fault at an inter-montane basin of the Himalaya. Large velocity pulse show the period of velocity pulse reach up to 6.6s and peak ground velocity of the pulse ground motion is 120 cm/s. Compared with the median spectral acceleration value of NGA prediction equation, significant long-period amplification effect due to velocity pulse is detected at period more than 3.2s. Wavelet analysis shows that the two horizontal component of ground motion is intensely concentration of energy in a short time range of 25-38s and period range of 4-8s. The maximum wavelet-coefficient of horizontal component is 2455, which is about four time of vertical component of strong ground motion. On the perspective of this study, large velocity pulses are identified from two orthogonal components using wavelet method. Intense non-stationary characteristics amplitude and frequency content are mainly caused by site conditions and fault rupture mechanism, which will help to understand the damage evaluation and serve local seismic design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.
2004-01-01
An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below -1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonised thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable soft excess then appears to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the core soft emission can be attributed to re- combination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. We note the wider implications of finding substantial cold dense matter overlying (or embedded in) the X-ray continuum source in a luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tao; Yan, Shaoze; Zhang, Wei
2016-06-01
Deployable structures have been widely used in on-orbit servicing spacecrafts, and the vibration properties of such structures have become increasingly important in the aerospace industry. The constant-Q nonstationary Gabor transform (CQ-NSGT) is introduced in this paper to accurately evaluate the variation in the frequency and amplitude of vibration signals along with time. First, an example signal is constructed on the basis of the vibration properties of deployable structures and is processed by the short-time Fourier transform, Wigner-Ville distribution, Hilbert-Huang transform, and CQ-NSGT. Results show that time and frequency resolutions are simultaneously fine only by employing CQ-NSGT. Subsequently, a zero padding operation is conducted to correct the calculation error at the end of the transform results. Finally, a set of experimental devices is constructed. The vibration signal of the experimental mode is processed by CQ-NSGT. On this basis, the experimental signal properties are discussed. This time-frequency method may be useful for formulating the dynamics for complex deployable structures.
On the early stages of wind wave under non-stationary wind conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert
2017-04-01
Most efforts in the study of the generation and evolution of wind waves have been conducted under constant wind. The balance of the transfer of different properties has been studied mainly for situations where the wave has already reached the equilibrium with the constant wind conditions. The purpose of these experiments is to study the early stages of the generation of waves under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine a balance in the exchange at the air-water interface for non-equilibrium wind conditions. A total of 16 experiments with a characteristic acceleration and deceleration rate of wind speed were conducted in a large wind-wave facility of Institut Pythéas (Marseille-France). The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. The momentum fluxes were estimated from hot wire anemometry at station 7. Also, the free surface displacement was measured along the channel tank at 11 stations where resistance wires were installed, except at stations 1, 2, and 7 where capacitance wires were installed. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. During experiments the wind intensity was abruptly increased with a constant acceleration rate over time, reaching a constant maximum intensity of 13 m/s. This constant velocity remains some time until the intensity is again reduced suddenly. We observed that wind drag coefficient values are higher for the experiments that present the lower acceleration rate; some field data from previous studies is presented for reference (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2011; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). The empirical grow curves show that in the experiments with lower acceleration, the wave field is more developed, showing higher dimensional energy and lower dimensional peak frequency. In the evolution of the spectral wave energy, there is first high frequency energy saturation, followed by a downshift of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak, Anna
2013-07-01
This paper deals with the diagnostics of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary operating conditions. In most diagnostics applications, energy of vibration signals (calculated directly from time series or extracted from spectral representation of signal) is used. Unfortunately energy based features are sensitive to load conditions and it makes diagnostics difficult. In this paper we used energy based 15D data vectors (namely spectral amplitudes of planetary mesh frequency and its harmonics) in order to investigate if it is possible to improve diagnostics efficiency in comparison to previous, one dimensional, approaches proposed for the same problem. Two multivariate methods, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA), were used as techniques for data analysis. We used these techniques in order to investigate dimensionality of the data and to visualize data in 3D and 2D spaces in order to understand data behavior and assess classification ability. As a case study the data from two planetary gearboxes used in complex mining machines (one in bad condition and the other in good condition) were analyzed. For these two machines more than 2000 15D vectors were acquired. It should be noted that due to non-stationarity of loading conditions, previous diagnostics results obtained using other techniques were moderately good (ca. 80% recognition efficiency); however there is still some need to improve diagnostics classification ability. After application of the proposed approaches it was found that the entire data could be reduced to 2 dimensions whereby data instances became visible and a good discriminant function (characterized by a misclassification rate of .0023, i.e. only 5 erroneous classifications for a total of 2183 instances) could be derived. This paper suggests a novel way for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes based on multivariate statistics. The emphasis is put on the algebraic and geometric interpretations of the PCA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, Harold R.
1991-01-01
A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.
On the Application of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Climate Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Hilbert spectral analysis (Huang et al, 1998, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A 454, pp 903-995) consisted of two steps: First, the data has to be reduced into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Function by the Empirical Mode Decomposition method, then the resulting Intrinsic Mode Functions are converted to time-frequency-energy distribution through Hilbert transform. In this approach, the Empirical Mode Functions served as the basis functions with which the data is expanded. This basis function is adaptive, and the decomposition is nonlinear. Furthermore, as the Hilbert transform is a singular transform, it retains a high degree of local information. The instantaneous frequency is determined by differentiation of the phase function; therefore, there is no restriction of the 'uncertainty principle' for all the time-frequency analysis resulting from a priori basis approach. With the adaptive basis and the instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert Spectral analysis can represent data from nonlinear and nonstationary processes without resorting to the harmonics. Another advantage of using instantaneous frequency is the ability to find out frequency from limited length of data, which is a critical problem in climate studies. As the processes driving the climate changes could be both nonlinear and nonstationary, the Hilbert Spectral Analysis could be of great use in examining the underlying mechanisms. A preliminary study based on the length of day data will be presented as example for the application of the Hilbert Spectral Analysis for climate study.
EDITORIAL: The nonstationary Casimir effect and quantum systems with moving boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barton, Gabriel; Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.
2005-03-01
This topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contains 16 contributions devoted to quantum systems with moving boundaries. In a broad sense, the papers continue the studies opened exactly 100 years ago by Einstein in his seminal work on the electrodynamics of moving bodies and the quantum nature of light. Another jubilee which we wish to celebrate by launching this issue is the 80th anniversary of the publication of two papers, where the first solutions of the classical Maxwell equations in a one-dimensional cavity with moving boundaries were obtained, by T H Havelock (1924 Some dynamical illustrations of the pressure of radiation and of adiabatic invariance Phil. Mag. 47 754-71) and by E L Nicolai (1925 On a dynamical illustration of the pressure of radiation Phil. Mag. 49 171-7). As was shown by Einstein, studying the fluctuations of the electromagnetic field inevitably leads one to its quantum (corpuscular) nature. Many papers in this issue deal with problems where moving boundaries produce parametric excitation of vacuum fluctuations of the field, which could result in several different observable effects, like the modification of the famous Casimir force, or the creation of real quanta from the vacuum. It is worth emphasizing that these phenomena, frequently referred to as nonstationary (or dynamical) Casimir effects, are no longer the province only of pure theorists: some experimental groups have already started long-term work aimed at observing such effects in the laboratory. Of course, many difficult problems remain to be resolved before this dream becomes reality. Several papers here show both important progress in this direction, and possible difficulties still to be tackled. Problems that have been considered include, in particular, decoherence, entanglement, and the roles of geometry and polarization. Other papers deal with fundamental problems like the Unruh effect, the interaction of accelerated relativistic atoms with
Non-stationary blind deconvolution of medical ultrasound scans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michailovich, Oleg V.
2017-03-01
In linear approximation, the formation of a radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound image can be described based on a standard convolution model in which the image is obtained as a result of convolution of the point spread function (PSF) of the ultrasound scanner in use with a tissue reflectivity function (TRF). Due to the band-limited nature of the PSF, the RF images can only be acquired at a finite spatial resolution, which is often insufficient for proper representation of the diagnostic information contained in the TRF. One particular way to alleviate this problem is by means of image deconvolution, which is usually performed in a "blind" mode, when both PSF and TRF are estimated at the same time. Despite its proven effectiveness, blind deconvolution (BD) still suffers from a number of drawbacks, chief among which stems from its dependence on a stationary convolution model, which is incapable of accounting for the spatial variability of the PSF. As a result, virtually all existing BD algorithms are applied to localized segments of RF images. In this work, we introduce a novel method for non-stationary BD, which is capable of recovering the TRF concurrently with the spatially variable PSF. Particularly, our approach is based on semigroup theory which allows one to describe the effect of such a PSF in terms of the action of a properly defined linear semigroup. The approach leads to a tractable optimization problem, which can be solved using standard numerical methods. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is supported by experiments with in vivo ultrasound data.
Assessing the extent of non-stationary biases in GCMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nahar, Jannatun; Johnson, Fiona; Sharma, Ashish
2017-06-01
General circulation models (GCMs) are the main tools for estimating changes in the climate for the future. The imperfect representation of climate models introduces biases in the simulations that need to be corrected prior to their use for impact assessments. Bias correction methods generally assume that the bias calculated over the historical period does not change and can be applied to the future. This study investigates this assumption by considering the extent and nature of bias non-stationarity using 20th century precipitation and temperature simulations from six CMIP5 GCMs across Australia. Four statistics (mean, standard deviation, 10th and 90th quantiles) in monthly and seasonal biases are obtained for three different time window lengths (10, 25 and 33 years) to examine the properties of bias over time. This approach is repeated for two different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), which is known to have strong influences on the Australian climate. It is found that bias non-stationarity at decadal timescales is indeed an issue over some of Australia for some GCMs. When considering interdecadal variability there are significant difference in the bias between positive and negative phases of the IPO. Regional analyses confirmed these findings with the largest differences seen on the east coast of Australia, where IPO impacts tend to be the strongest. The nature of the bias non-stationarity found in this study suggests that it will be difficult to modify existing bias correction approaches to account for non-stationary biases. A more practical approach for impact assessments that use bias correction maybe to use a selection of GCMs where the assumption of bias non-stationarity holds.
Non-stationary background intensity and Caribbean seismic events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valmy, Larissa; Vaillant, Jean
2014-05-01
We consider seismic risk calculation based on models with non-stationary background intensity. The aim is to improve predictive strategies in the framework of seismic risk assessment from models describing at best the seismic activity in the Caribbean arc. Appropriate statistical methods are required for analyzing the volumes of data collected. The focus is on calculating earthquakes occurrences probability and analyzing spatiotemporal evolution of these probabilities. The main modeling tool is the point process theory in order to take into account past history prior to a given date. Thus, the seismic event conditional intensity is expressed by means of the background intensity and the self exciting component. This intensity can be interpreted as the expected event rate per time and / or surface unit. The most popular intensity model in seismology is the ETAS (Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence) model introduced and then generalized by Ogata [2, 3]. We extended this model and performed a comparison of different probability density functions for the triggered event times [4]. We illustrate our model by considering the CDSA (Centre de Données Sismiques des Antilles) catalog [1] which contains more than 7000 seismic events occurred in the Lesser Antilles arc. Statistical tools for testing the background intensity stationarity and for dynamical segmentation are presented. [1] Bengoubou-Valérius M., Bazin S., Bertil D., Beauducel F. and Bosson A. (2008). CDSA: a new seismological data center for the French Lesser Antilles, Seismol. Res. Lett., 79 (1), 90-102. [2] Ogata Y. (1998). Space-time point-process models for earthquake occurrences, Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 50 (2), 379-402. [3] Ogata, Y. (2011). Significant improvements of the space-time ETAS model for forecasting of accurate baseline seismicity, Earth, Planets and Space, 63 (3), 217-229. [4] Valmy L. and Vaillant J. (2013). Statistical models in seismology: Lesser Antilles arc case
Climate Informed Low Flow Frequency Analysis Using Nonstationary Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Guo, S.; Lian, Y.
2014-12-01
Stationarity is often assumed for frequency analysis of low flows in water resources management and planning. However, many studies have shown that flow characteristics, particularly the frequency spectrum of extreme hydrologic events,were modified by climate change and human activities and the conventional frequency analysis without considering the non-stationary characteristics may lead to costly design. The analysis presented in this paper was based on the more than 100 years of daily flow data from the Yichang gaging station 44 kilometers downstream of the Three Gorges Dam. The Mann-Kendall trend test under the scaling hypothesis showed that the annual low flows had significant monotonic trend, whereas an abrupt change point was identified in 1936 by the Pettitt test. The climate informed low flow frequency analysis and the divided and combined method are employed to account for the impacts from related climate variables and the nonstationarities in annual low flows. Without prior knowledge of the probability density function for the gaging station, six distribution functions including the Generalized Extreme Values (GEV), Pearson Type III, Gumbel, Gamma, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions have been tested to find the best fit, in which the local likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters. Analyses show that GEV had the best fit for the observed low flows. This study has also shown that the climate informed low flow frequency analysis is able to exploit the link between climate indices and low flows, which would account for the dynamic feature for reservoir management and provide more accurate and reliable designs for infrastructure and water supply.
Improvements to surrogate data methods for nonstationary time series.
Lucio, J H; Valdés, R; Rodríguez, L R
2012-05-01
The method of surrogate data has been extensively applied to hypothesis testing of system linearity, when only one realization of the system, a time series, is known. Normally, surrogate data should preserve the linear stochastic structure and the amplitude distribution of the original series. Classical surrogate data methods (such as random permutation, amplitude adjusted Fourier transform, or iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform) are successful at preserving one or both of these features in stationary cases. However, they always produce stationary surrogates, hence existing nonstationarity could be interpreted as dynamic nonlinearity. Certain modifications have been proposed that additionally preserve some nonstationarity, at the expense of reproducing a great deal of nonlinearity. However, even those methods generally fail to preserve the trend (i.e., global nonstationarity in the mean) of the original series. This is the case of time series with unit roots in their autoregressive structure. Additionally, those methods, based on Fourier transform, either need first and last values in the original series to match, or they need to select a piece of the original series with matching ends. These conditions are often inapplicable and the resulting surrogates are adversely affected by the well-known artefact problem. In this study, we propose a simple technique that, applied within existing Fourier-transform-based methods, generates surrogate data that jointly preserve the aforementioned characteristics of the original series, including (even strong) trends. Moreover, our technique avoids the negative effects of end mismatch. Several artificial and real, stationary and nonstationary, linear and nonlinear time series are examined, in order to demonstrate the advantages of the methods. Corresponding surrogate data are produced with the classical and with the proposed methods, and the results are compared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agilan, V.; Umamahesh, N. V.
2016-10-01
Storm water management and other engineering design applications are primarily based on rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves and the existing IDF curves are based on the concept of stationary Extreme Value Theory (EVT). However, during the last few decades, global climate change is intensifying the extreme precipitation events and creating a non-stationary component in the extreme rainfall time series. Subsequently, in recent years, advancements in the EVT helped the researchers to propose a method for developing non-stationary rainfall IDF curve by modelling trend present in the observed extreme rainfall series using covariate. But, is it capable of encompassing future rainfall changes? Towards answering this question, the Hyderabad city, India non-stationary rainfall IDF curves are compared with the IDF curves of two future time periods (2015-2056 and 2057-2098). Using 24 Global Climate Models' (GCMs') simulations and 'K' Nearest Neighbor (KNN) weather generator based downscaling method, the IDF curves are developed for two future time periods and they are compared with covariate based non-stationary rainfall IDF curves of the Hyderabad city. The results of this study indicate that the return of period of an extreme rainfall of the Hyderabad city is reducing. In addition, it is noted that the non-stationary IDF curve developed by modelling trend in the observed extreme rainfall with covariate is an appropriate choice for designing the Hyderabad city infrastructure under climate change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fattahi, H.; Agram, P. S.; Simons, M.
2016-12-01
Time-series analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired with Terrain Observation with Progressive Scan (TOPS) mode requires precise coregistration of a stack of TOPS images to a reference coordinate system with accuracies better than 0.001 pixel in azimuth direction. This accuracy is an order of magnitude larger than the achievable accuracy using geometry based coregistration techniques with satellite precise orbits and Digital Elevation Models. To avoid phase discontinuities at the regions of burst overlap in TOPS interferograms, azimuth offsets obtained with geometry-based techniques need to be refined for possible misregistration. In the case of stationary azimuth misregistration (i.e., constant azimuth misregistration or slowly varying misregistration in the azimuth direction), Enhanced Spectral Diversity (ESD) technique can be used to adjust the azimuth offsets precisely and achieve coregistration accuracies better than 0.001 of an azimuth cell. We present an approach to estimate a time-series of azimuth misregistration using a Network-based Enhanced Spectral Diversity (NESD) method that reduces the impact of temporal decorrelation on coregistration. We evaluate the NESD performance using different stacks of TOPS images acquired by Sentinel-1 over different regions. Standard deviation of the estimated misregistration time-series for different stacks varies from 1.1e-3 to 2e-3 of the azimuth resolution, equivalent to 1.6 to 2.8 cm orbital uncertainty in azimuth direction. These values fall within the 1-sigma orbital uncertainty of the Sentinel-1 orbits and imply that orbital uncertainty is most likely the main source of the constant azimuth misregistration between different TOPS acquisitions. We further discuss the sources of non-stationary azimuth misregistration (i.e., azimuth misregistration which varies significantly in range or azimuth direction) and possible solutions to overcome these difficulties. We demonstrate how deviation of the SAR
Recognizing Non-Stationary Walking based on Gait Analysis using Laser Scanners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke
In this paper the authors propose a method for recognizing non-stationary walking based on a gait analysis using multiple laser range scanners. The proposed method consists of the following procedures: (1) people tracking; (2) detection of gait features; (3) recognition of non-stationary walking. First, people tracking is performed by recognizing patterns in which the range data obtained near ankle rhythmically. Next, gait analysis is performed by the spatio-temporal clustering using Mean Shift algorithm. Finally, One Class Support Vector Machine (One Class SVM) is applied for learning and classifying a non-stationary walking. The experiment in a station concourse in Tokyo shows the overall accuracy of 98.4% by the proposed method.
The Influence of Periodically Non-Stationary Afflux on Transition Behavior of Compressor Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teusch, Reinhold
2001-01-01
The primary goal of this study is to obtain a deeper look into the physical occurrences within the shovel border layer. The author accomplishes this effort through a detailed examination of non-stationary flow behavior of compressor shovels with Controlled Diffusion Airfoil (CDA)-profiling under the influence of after-running depressions of current salient shovel rows. In addition to the checking of the precision of stationary and non-stationary calculatory processes, criteria are defined for the layout of modern compression shovels under the rubrick of rotor/stator interaction. An overview of the literature is then given regarding both the basic principles of non-stationary transition behavior under the influence of after-running depressions as well as the most up-to-date scholarship on the problematics of the field discussed.
Nonstationary desertification dynamics of desert oasis under climate change and human interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Guohe; Qin, Xiaosheng; He, Li; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yongping; Li, Zhong
2015-12-01
Desertification is becoming a major ecological concern in arid and semiarid regions, especially under climate change. Globally, it is burning up lands for human habitats with a rapidly spreading tendency. Many scientists have been struggling to explore the related mechanisms. Challenges remain in revealing the fundamental principle in terms of desert-oasis interactions that are associated with nonstationary variations. Here we present a theory of desertification dynamics through examining nonstationary effects of climate change and human interference. We hypothesize that such dynamics can be described as the fate and transport of dry air mass continuously generated from desert. We simulate a region in northwestern China and reveal that dynamics of the nonstationary desertification process is subject to interactive impacts from a variety of factors. Our study moves forward the field of desertification studies through initiation of the dynamics and nonstationarity concepts which allow the fundamental mechanism to be disclosed.
The evolution of the electric field at a nonstationary perpendicular shock
Yang, Z. W.; Lu, Q. M.; Wang, S.
2009-12-15
Particle-in-cell simulations evidenced that supercritical, quasiperpendicular shocks are nonstationary and may suffer a self-reformation on the ion gyroscale. In this brief communication, we investigate the evolution of the electric field at a nonstationary, supercritial perpendicular shock. The contributions of the ion Lorentz, Hall, and electron pressure terms to the electric field are analyzed. During the evolution of the perpendicular shock, a new ramp may be formed in front of the old ramp, and its amplitude becomes larger and larger. At last, the new ramp exceeds the old one, and such a nonstationary process can be formed periodically. When the new ramp begins to be formed in front of the old ramp, the Hall term becomes more and more important. The electric field E{sub x} is dominated by the Hall term when the new ramp exceeds the old one. The significance of the evolution of the electric field on shock acceleration is also discussed.
Non-stationary drying of ceramic-like materials controlled through acoustic emission method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalski, Stefan Jan; Szadzińska, Justyna
2012-12-01
This paper presents results of convective drying of ceramic-like materials in non-stationary conditions. The effect of periodically changing drying parameters at different frequencies and amplitudes on material quality has been investigated. During drying tests the destruction of the material was controlled trough the acoustic emission method and monitored with a digital camera. The experiments were carried out on cylindrically shaped samples made of KOC kaolin clay. The non-stationary drying consisted in periodical changes of the drying medium temperature and humidity. It has been found that a properly arranged methodology of non-stationary drying positively affects the product quality, mainly when drying is carried on with periodical changes of air humidity and to lesser extent with periodical changes of air temperature.
Causal Inference Based on the Analysis of Events of Relations for Non-stationary Variables
Yin, Yu; Yao, Dezhong
2016-01-01
The main concept behind causality involves both statistical conditions and temporal relations. However, current approaches to causal inference, focusing on the probability vs. conditional probability contrast, are based on model functions or parametric estimation. These approaches are not appropriate when addressing non-stationary variables. In this work, we propose a causal inference approach based on the analysis of Events of Relations (CER). CER focuses on the temporal delay relation between cause and effect, and a binomial test is established to determine whether an “event of relation” with a non-zero delay is significantly different from one with zero delay. Because CER avoids parameter estimation of non-stationary variables per se, the method can be applied to both stationary and non-stationary signals. PMID:27389921
Causal Inference Based on the Analysis of Events of Relations for Non-stationary Variables.
Yin, Yu; Yao, Dezhong
2016-07-08
The main concept behind causality involves both statistical conditions and temporal relations. However, current approaches to causal inference, focusing on the probability vs. conditional probability contrast, are based on model functions or parametric estimation. These approaches are not appropriate when addressing non-stationary variables. In this work, we propose a causal inference approach based on the analysis of Events of Relations (CER). CER focuses on the temporal delay relation between cause and effect, and a binomial test is established to determine whether an "event of relation" with a non-zero delay is significantly different from one with zero delay. Because CER avoids parameter estimation of non-stationary variables per se, the method can be applied to both stationary and non-stationary signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartwig, J. T.; Stokman, J. V.
2013-02-01
We realize an extended version of the trigonometric Cherednik algebra as affine Dunkl operators involving Heaviside functions. We use the quadratic Casimir element of the extended trigonometric Cherednik algebra to define an explicit nonstationary Schrödinger equation with delta-potential. We use coordinate Bethe ansatz methods to construct solutions of the nonstationary Schrödinger equation in terms of generalized Bethe wave functions. It is shown that the generalized Bethe wave functions satisfy affine difference Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations as functions of the momenta. The relation to the vector valued root system analogs of the quantum Bose gas on the circle with delta-function interactions is indicated.
Parity retransmission hybrid ARQ using rate 1/2 convolutional codes on a nonstationary channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lugand, Laurent R.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Deng, Robert H.
1989-07-01
A parity retransmission hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme is proposed which uses rate 1/2 convolutional codes and Viterbi decoding. A protocol is described which is capable of achieving higher throughputs than previously proposed parity retransmission schemes. The performance analysis is based on a two-state Markov model of a nonstationary channel. This model constitutes a first approximation to a nonstationary channel. The two-state channel model is used to analyze the throughput and undetected error probability of the protocol presented when the receiver has both an infinite and a finite buffer size. It is shown that the throughput improves as the channel becomes more bursty.
Calculation of non-stationary aerodynamic forces in the near sonic range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teipel, I.
1988-01-01
The development of a mathematical method for calculating nonstationary supersonic flow in the near-sonic range is described. A perturbation formula is derived based on the exact stationary values; it is applicable to the equation for potential. The problem can thus be divided into stationary and nonstationary fields. The pressure distribution in an oscillating profile is determined, based on hyperbolic differential equations. It is shown that there are important corollaries concerning the application of linear theory. With suitable extrapolations, linear theory can be used up to about Mach 0.8. Linear theory is not applicable, however, when determining the moment coefficients; for this case, a special technique is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elishakoff, Isaac; Librescu, Liviu; Cederbaum, Gabriel
1990-01-01
Higher order shear deformation theory is utilized to study he weakly stationary and nonstationary random vibrations of cross-ply laminated plates. Normal mode method, in conjunction with the biorthogonality condition, for the nonsymmetric differential equations is applied. Detailed derivation is given for the governing equations, biorthogonality condition, the generalized mass and the generalized forces. Results are listed for a plate which is simply supported at all the edges, and subjected to a point load which is either timewise stationary or nonstationary random process.
Parity retransmission hybrid ARQ using rate 1/2 convolutional codes on a nonstationary channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lugand, Laurent R.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Deng, Robert H.
1989-01-01
A parity retransmission hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme is proposed which uses rate 1/2 convolutional codes and Viterbi decoding. A protocol is described which is capable of achieving higher throughputs than previously proposed parity retransmission schemes. The performance analysis is based on a two-state Markov model of a nonstationary channel. This model constitutes a first approximation to a nonstationary channel. The two-state channel model is used to analyze the throughput and undetected error probability of the protocol presented when the receiver has both an infinite and a finite buffer size. It is shown that the throughput improves as the channel becomes more bursty.
Parity retransmission hybrid ARQ using rate 1/2 convolutional codes on a nonstationary channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lugand, Laurent R.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Deng, Robert H.
1989-01-01
A parity retransmission hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme is proposed which uses rate 1/2 convolutional codes and Viterbi decoding. A protocol is described which is capable of achieving higher throughputs than previously proposed parity retransmission schemes. The performance analysis is based on a two-state Markov model of a nonstationary channel. This model constitutes a first approximation to a nonstationary channel. The two-state channel model is used to analyze the throughput and undetected error probability of the protocol presented when the receiver has both an infinite and a finite buffer size. It is shown that the throughput improves as the channel becomes more bursty.
Calculation of non-stationary aerodynamic forces in the near sonic range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teipel, I.
1988-01-01
The development of a mathematical method for calculating nonstationary supersonic flow in the near-sonic range is described. A perturbation formula is derived based on the exact stationary values; it is applicable to the equation for potential. The problem can thus be divided into stationary and nonstationary fields. The pressure distribution in an oscillating profile is determined, based on hyperbolic differential equations. It is shown that there are important corollaries concerning the application of linear theory. With suitable extrapolations, linear theory can be used up to about Mach 0.8. Linear theory is not applicable, however, when determining the moment coefficients; for this case, a special technique is described.
Spectrally-encoded color imaging
Kang, DongKyun; Yelin, Dvir; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.
2010-01-01
Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a technique for ultraminiature endoscopy that encodes each spatial location on the sample with a different wavelength. One limitation of previous incarnations of SEE is that it inherently creates monochromatic images, since the spectral bandwidth is expended in the spatial encoding process. Here we present a spectrally-encoded imaging system that has color imaging capability. The new imaging system utilizes three distinct red, green, and blue spectral bands that are configured to illuminate the grating at different incident angles. By careful selection of the incident angles, the three spectral bands can be made to overlap on the sample. To demonstrate the method, a bench-top system was built, comprising a 2400-lpmm grating illuminated by three 525-μm-diameter beams with three different spectral bands. Each spectral band had a bandwidth of 75 nm, producing 189 resolvable points. A resolution target, color phantoms, and excised swine small intestine were imaged to validate the system's performance. The color SEE system showed qualitatively and quantitatively similar color imaging performance to that of a conventional digital camera. PMID:19688002
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Zhao, Ji; Fontanarosa, Joel; Dai, Yang; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K.
2010-02-01
The analysis of spatially resolved Xe(L) spectra obtained with Z-λ imaging reveals two prominent findings concerning the characteristics of the x-ray amplification occurring in self-trapped plasma channels formed by the focusing of multi-TW subpicosecond 248 nm laser pulses into a high-density gaseous Xe cluster target. They are (1) strongly saturated amplification across both lobes of the Xe(L) hollow atom 3d → 2p emission profile, a breadth that spans a spectral width of ~600 eV, and (2) new evidence for the formation of x-ray spatial modes based on the signature of the transversely observed emission from the narrow trapped zone of the channel. The global characteristics of the spectral measurements, in concert with prior analyses of the strength of the amplification, indicate that the enhancement of the x-ray emission rate by intra-cluster superradiant dynamics plays a leading role in the amplification. This radiative interaction simultaneously promotes (a) a sharp boost in the effective gain, (b) the directly consequent efficient production of coherent Xe(L) x-rays from both single (2\\bar p) and double (2\\bar s2\\bar p) vacancy 3d → 2p transition arrays, estimated herein at ~30%, and (c) the development of a very short x-ray pulse width τx. In the limit of sufficiently strong superradiant coupling in the cluster, the system assumes a dynamically collective character and acts as a single homogeneously broadened transition whose effective radiative width approaches the full Xe(L) bandwidth, a breadth that establishes a potential lower limit of τx ~5-10 as, a value substantially less than the canonical atomic time ao/αc cong 24 as.
Wang, Yubo; Veluvolu, Kalyana C
2017-06-14
It is often difficult to analyze biological signals because of their nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics. This necessitates the usage of time-frequency decomposition methods for analyzing the subtle changes in these signals that are often connected to an underlying phenomena. This paper presents a new approach to analyze the time-varying characteristics of such signals by employing a simple truncated Fourier series model, namely the band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC). In contrast to the earlier designs, we first identified the sparsity imposed on the signal model in order to reformulate the model to a sparse linear regression model. The coefficients of the proposed model are then estimated by a convex optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed with benchmark test signals. An energy ratio metric is employed to quantify the spectral performance and results show that the proposed method Sparse-BMFLC has high mean energy (0.9976) ratio and outperforms existing methods such as short-time Fourier transfrom (STFT), continuous Wavelet transform (CWT) and BMFLC Kalman Smoother. Furthermore, the proposed method provides an overall 6.22% in reconstruction error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisdom, Jack
2015-10-01
The Wisdom-Holman mapping method and its variations have become a mainstay of research in solar system dynamics. But the method is not without its limitations. Rauch & Holman noted that at large eccentricities sufficiently small steps must be taken to resolve the pericenter. In this paper, I explore in more detail what it means to resolve the pericenter.
Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J
2006-11-17
Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaschek, C.
Taxonomic classification of astronomically observed stellar objects is described in terms of spectral properties. Stars receive a classification containing a letter, number, and a Roman numeral, which relates the star to other stars of higher or lower Roman numerals. The citation indicates the stellar chromatic emission in relation to the wavelengths of other stars. Standards are chosen from the available objects detected. Various classification schemes such as the MK, HD, and the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan systems are defined, including examples of indexing differences. Details delineating the separations between classifications are discussed with reference to the information content in spectral and in photometric classification schemes. The parameters usually used for classification include the temperature, luminosity, reddening, binarity, rotation, magnetic field, and elemental abundance or composition. The inclusion of recently discovered extended wavelength characteristics in nominal classifications is outlined, together with techniques involved in automated classification.
Scene analysis without spectral analysis?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Cheveigne, Alain
2003-04-01
Auditory scene analysis is often described in terms of grouping stimulus components. Components, once grouped, are assigned to one source or another [A. S. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis (MIT, Cambridge, MA, 2002)]. The actual grouping must operate on whatever representation is available within the auditory nervous system. An obvious hypothesis is that correlates of individual stimulus components are created by peripheral spectral analysis. However, peripheral frequency resolution is limited. The number of resolved partials is between 5 and 8 for a harmonic complex in isolation, but resolution must necessarily be less good for the interleaved components of concurrent sources. Source amplitudes are rarely equal, and partials of a weaker source must be particularly hard to resolve. The question is thus: given the paucity of resolved elements to group, how does the auditory system perform the grouping? A number of possibilities will be reviewed. One is that partials not resolved peripherally are somehow resolved centrally (a modern version of the ``second filter'' hypothesis). Another is that scene analysis does not operate by grouping resolved elements, but instead by modifying directly unresolved entities, for example by time-domain processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprouse, James F.
1985-12-01
Infrared Spectral Searching has progressed rapidly over the past two years since the last FT-IR Conference in Durham, England. In addition, if we compare the searching capabilities available to the Infrared Spectroscopist today with those that were available a short four years ago at the last North American Conference held in Columbia, South Carolina, then the advancements are even more impressive. In retrospect, I would describe the state-of-the-art in Spectral Searching at the 1981 FT-IR Conference as "Level 1 Searching", where the spectroscopist was limited to measuring a spectrum for his unknown material, and automatically searching it against very limited libraries at that time to obtain a search report. The report generally provided an ordered ranking of the best matches, chemical name, and a spectrum number so the reference spectrum could be located and reviewed in books. In 1981, there existed a total of three commercially available infrared search packages at the instrument level. Two of the packages were available for FT-IR instruments and the third was available on a dispersive instrument. Only the FT-IR packages allowed viewing the reference spectra on the CRT along with the unknown spectrum by automated spectral retrieval from the reference libraries stored on disk. However, the primary source of reference spectra was still predominantly hard copy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Racette, Paul; Lang, Roger; Zhang, Zhao-Nan; Zacharias, David; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Radiometers must be periodically calibrated because the receiver response fluctuates. Many techniques exist to correct for the time varying response of a radiometer receiver. An analytical technique has been developed that uses generalized least squares regression (LSR) to predict the performance of a wide variety of calibration algorithms. The total measurement uncertainty including the uncertainty of the calibration can be computed using LSR. The uncertainties of the calibration samples used in the regression are based upon treating the receiver fluctuations as non-stationary processes. Signals originating from the different sources of emission are treated as simultaneously existing random processes. Thus, the radiometer output is a series of samples obtained from these random processes. The samples are treated as random variables but because the underlying processes are non-stationary the statistics of the samples are treated as non-stationary. The statistics of the calibration samples depend upon the time for which the samples are to be applied. The statistics of the random variables are equated to the mean statistics of the non-stationary processes over the interval defined by the time of calibration sample and when it is applied. This analysis opens the opportunity for experimental investigation into the underlying properties of receiver non stationarity through the use of multiple calibration references. In this presentation we will discuss the application of LSR to the analysis of various calibration algorithms, requirements for experimental verification of the theory, and preliminary results from analyzing experiment measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meish, Yu. A.
2016-11-01
The forced vibrations of transversely reinforced elliptic cylindrical shells on an elastic foundation under nonstationary loads are studied using the Timoshenko-type theory of shells and rods. A numerical algorithm for solving problems of this class is developed. A numerical example for the case of distributed impulsive loading is given
On the nonstationary quantum-mechanical origin of nuclear reactions in solids
Chechin, V.A.; Tsarev, V.A. )
1994-07-01
A model for deuteron reactions in solids is suggested in which an increase in the penetrability of the Coulomb barrier is attributed to a quantum-mechanical perturbation of the wave function caused by nonstationary deuterons in a crystalline lattice. 15 refs.
Non-stationary dynamics of climate variability in synchronous influenza epidemics in Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito
2015-09-01
Seasonal variation in the incidence of influenza is widely assumed. However, few studies have examined non-stationary relationships between global climate factors and influenza epidemics. We examined the monthly incidence of influenza in Fukuoka, Japan, from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the patterns of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The monthly incidence of influenza showed cycles of 1 year with the IOD and 2 years with ENSO indices (Multivariate, Niño 4, and Niño 3.4). These associations were non-stationary and appeared to have major influences on the synchrony of influenza epidemics. Our study provides quantitative evidence that non-stationary associations have major influences on synchrony between the monthly incidence of influenza and the dynamics of the IOD and ENSO. Our results call for the consideration of non-stationary patterns of association between influenza cases and climatic factors in early warning systems.
Self-Consistent Non-Stationary Theory of Multipactor in DLA Structures
Sinitsyn, O. V.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Antonsen, T. M.; Kishek, R.
2009-01-22
In this paper a non-stationary self-consistent theoretical model of multipactor in dielectric loaded accelerator structures is proposed. In comparison with our previous work, the effects of the cylindricity are included. The corresponding numerical implementation of the model is described and some simulation results are shown.
Nonstationary Vibrations of Elliptic Cylindrical Sandwich Shells Reinforced with Discrete Stringers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meish, V. F.; Pavlyuk, A. V.
2017-01-01
The equations of the vibration of elliptic cylindrical sandwich shells with equally spaced stringers under nonstationary loading are derived. Models based on the Timoshenko-type shell theory are used. The dynamic equations are solved numerically by the integro-interpolation finite-differencing method for equations with discontinuous coefficients. The dynamic problem for an elliptic cylindrical sandwich shell reinforced with stringers is solved
The combined effects of reverberation and nonstationary noise on sentence intelligibility.
George, Erwin L J; Festen, Joost M; Houtgast, Tammo
2008-08-01
Listening conditions in everyday life typically include a combination of reverberation and nonstationary background noise. It is well known that sentence intelligibility is adversely affected by these factors. To assess their combined effects, an approach is introduced which combines two methods of predicting speech intelligibility, the extended speech intelligibility index (ESII) and the speech transmission index. First, the effects of reverberation on nonstationary noise (i.e., reduction of masker modulations) and on speech modulations are evaluated separately. Subsequently, the ESII is applied to predict the speech reception threshold (SRT) in the masker with reduced modulations. To validate this approach, SRTs were measured for ten normal-hearing listeners, in various combinations of nonstationary noise and artificially created reverberation. After taking the characteristics of the speech corpus into account, results show that the approach accurately predicts SRTs in nonstationary noise and reverberation for normal-hearing listeners. Furthermore, it is shown that, when reverberation is present, the benefit from masker fluctuations may be substantially reduced.
Weighted Least Squares Estimates of the Magnetotelluric Transfer Functions from Nonstationary Data
Stodt, John A.
1982-11-01
Magnetotelluric field measurements can generally be viewed as sums of signal and additive random noise components. The standard unweighted least squares estimates of the impedance and tipper functions which are usually calculated from noisy data are not optimal when the measured fields are nonstationary. The nonstationary behavior of the signals and noises should be exploited by weighting the data appropriately to reduce errors in the estimates of the impedances and tippers. Insight into the effects of noise on the estimates is gained by careful development of a statistical model, within a linear system framework, which allows for nonstationary behavior of both the signal and noise components of the measured fields. The signal components are, by definition, linearly related to each other by the impedance and tipper functions. It is therefore appropriate to treat them as deterministic parameters, rather than as random variables, when analyzing the effects of noise on the calculated impedances and tippers. From this viewpoint, weighted least squares procedures are developed to reduce the errors in impedances and tippers which are calculated from nonstationary data.
Robust H∞ control of active vehicle suspension under non-stationary running
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Li-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping
2012-12-01
Due to complexity of the controlled objects, the selection of control strategies and algorithms in vehicle control system designs is an important task. Moreover, the control problem of automobile active suspensions has been become one of the important relevant investigations due to the constrained peculiarity and parameter uncertainty of mathematical models. In this study, after establishing the non-stationary road surface excitation model, a study on the active suspension control for non-stationary running condition was conducted using robust H∞ control and linear matrix inequality optimization. The dynamic equation of a two-degree-of-freedom quarter car model with parameter uncertainty was derived. The H∞ state feedback control strategy with time-domain hard constraints was proposed, and then was used to design the active suspension control system of the quarter car model. Time-domain analysis and parameter robustness analysis were carried out to evaluate the proposed controller stability. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy has high systemic stability on the condition of non-stationary running and parameter uncertainty (including suspension mass, suspension stiffness and tire stiffness). The proposed control strategy can achieve a promising improvement on ride comfort and satisfy the requirements of dynamic suspension deflection, dynamic tire loads and required control forces within given constraints, as well as non-stationary running condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2009-10-01
Fermions tunneling of the non-stationary Dilaton-Maxwell black hole is investigated with general tortoise coordinate transformation. The Dirac equation is simplified by semiclassical approximation so that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is generated. Finally the tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is calculated.
Stationary and non-stationary nonlinear optical spectroscopy on surface polaritons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponath, H. E.
1984-01-01
A phenomenological theory is given for non-stationary electromagnetic surface waves propagating along the boundary plane between two homogeneous isotropic media. The description of nonlinear optical effects using shortened wave equations is demonstrated for spontaneous and simulated Raman scattering processes on surface polaritons.
Bivariate Frequency Analysis with Nonstationary Gumbel/GEV Marginal Distributions for Rainfall Event
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Kyungwon; Kim, Sunghun; Kim, Hanbeen; Ahn, Hyunjun; Heo, Jun-Haeng
2016-04-01
Multivariate frequency analysis has been developing for hydrological data recently. Particularly, the copula model has been used as an effective method which has no limitation on deciding marginal distributions. The time-series rainfall data can be characterized to rainfall event by inter-event time definition and each rainfall event has rainfall depth and duration. In addition, changes in rainfall depth have been studied recently due to climate change. The nonstationary (time-varying) Gumbel and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) have been developed and their performances have been investigated from many studies. In the current study, bivariate frequency analysis has performed for rainfall depth and duration using Archimedean copula on stationary and nonstationary hourly rainfall data to consider the effect of climate change. The parameter of copula model is estimated by inference function for margin (IFM) method and stationary/nonstationary Gumbel and GEV distributions are used for marginal distributions. As a result, level curve of copula model is obtained and goodness-of-fit test is performed to choose appropriate marginal distribution among the applied stationary and nonstationary Gumbel and GEV distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipponen, A.; Seppänen, A.; Kaipio, J. P.
2011-10-01
In this paper, we consider nonstationary estimation in imaging of three-dimensional fluid flow. More specifically, we experimentally evaluate the feasibility of a recently invented approximation error method to recovering from modelling errors in imaging of nonstationary targets. In nonstationary estimation, both the observations and the time evolution of the target distribution are modelled, and the image reconstruction problem is written in the form of a state estimation problem. The state estimates rely on these models and the observations carried out during the evolution of the target. If the associated modelling errors are not accounted for, state estimation can lead to heavily biased reconstructions. In the approximation error approach, the model inaccuracies and uncertainties are modelled statistically. In this experimental study, we consider a case of rapidly moving fluid in a pipeline, and model the target with the convection-diffusion equation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used as the imaging modality. In the nonstationary approximation error scheme, we model the errors due to truncation of the computational domain, discretization, unknown contact impedances of electrodes used in EIT measurements and partly unknown boundary conditions in the convection-diffusion model. The results verify that enhancing the state-space representation with the approximation error models can yield a significant improvement in the reconstructions.
Shi, Yingzhong; Chung, Fu-Lai; Wang, Shitong
2015-09-01
Recently, a time-adaptive support vector machine (TA-SVM) is proposed for handling nonstationary datasets. While attractive performance has been reported and the new classifier is distinctive in simultaneously solving several SVM subclassifiers locally and globally by using an elegant SVM formulation in an alternative kernel space, the coupling of subclassifiers brings in the computation of matrix inversion, thus resulting to suffer from high computational burden in large nonstationary dataset applications. To overcome this shortcoming, an improved TA-SVM (ITA-SVM) is proposed using a common vector shared by all the SVM subclassifiers involved. ITA-SVM not only keeps an SVM formulation, but also avoids the computation of matrix inversion. Thus, we can realize its fast version, that is, improved time-adaptive core vector machine (ITA-CVM) for large nonstationary datasets by using the CVM technique. ITA-CVM has the merit of asymptotic linear time complexity for large nonstationary datasets as well as inherits the advantage of TA-SVM. The effectiveness of the proposed classifiers ITA-SVM and ITA-CVM is also experimentally confirmed.
Nonstationary Extreme Value Analysis in a Changing Climate: A Software Package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Gilleland, E.
2013-12-01
Numerous studies show that climatic extremes have increased substantially in the second half of the 20th century. For this reason, analysis of extremes under a nonstationary assumption has received a great deal of attention. This paper presents a software package developed for estimation of return levels, return periods, and risks of climatic extremes in a changing climate. This MATLAB software package offers tools for analysis of climate extremes under both stationary and non-stationary assumptions. The Nonstationary Extreme Value Analysis (hereafter, NEVA) provides an efficient and generalized framework for analyzing extremes using Bayesian inference. NEVA estimates the extreme value parameters using a Differential Evolution Markov Chain (DE-MC) which utilizes the genetic algorithm Differential Evolution (DE) for global optimization over the real parameter space with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach and has the advantage of simplicity, speed of calculation and convergence over conventional MCMC. NEVA also offers the confidence interval and uncertainty bounds of estimated return levels based on the sampled parameters. NEVA integrates extreme value design concepts, data analysis tools, optimization and visualization, explicitly designed to facilitate analysis extremes in geosciences. The generalized input and output files of this software package make it attractive for users from across different fields. Both stationary and nonstationary components of the package are validated for a number of case studies using empirical return levels. The results show that NEVA reliably describes extremes and their return levels.
Solvability of certain inverse problems for the nonstationary kinetic transport equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, N. P.
2016-09-01
Linear and nonlinear inverse problems for the nonstationary multispeed anisotropic kinetic transport equation are studied. Sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to these problems in various function spaces are found. The proofs of the corresponding theorems imply that solutions of the inverse problems under study can be obtained by applying the method of successive approximations.
Depth-resolved fluorescence of biological tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei-Yung; Qu, Jianan Y.
2005-06-01
The depth-resolved autofluorescence ofrabbit oral tissue, normal and dysplastic human ectocervical tissue within l20μm depth were investigated utilizing a confocal fluorescence spectroscopy with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm. From the topmost keratinizing layer of oral and ectocervical tissue, strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen was observed. The fluorescence signal from epithelial tissue between the keratinizing layer and stroma can be well resolved. Furthermore, NADH and FADfluorescence measured from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can reveal fine structural information on epithelial tissue and potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.
System identification through nonstationary data using Time-Frequency Blind Source Separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yanlin; Kareem, Ahsan
2016-06-01
Classical output-only system identification (SI) methods are based on the assumption of stationarity of the system response. However, measured response of buildings and bridges is usually non-stationary due to strong winds (e.g. typhoon, and thunder storm etc.), earthquakes and time-varying vehicle motions. Accordingly, the response data may have time-varying frequency contents and/or overlapping of modal frequencies due to non-stationary colored excitation. This renders traditional methods problematic for modal separation and identification. To address these challenges, a new SI technique based on Time-Frequency Blind Source Separation (TFBSS) is proposed. By selectively utilizing "effective" information in local regions of the time-frequency plane, where only one mode contributes to energy, the proposed technique can successfully identify mode shapes and recover modal responses from the non-stationary response where the traditional SI methods often encounter difficulties. This technique can also handle response with closely spaced modes which is a well-known challenge for the identification of large-scale structures. Based on the separated modal responses, frequency and damping can be easily identified using SI methods based on a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. In addition to the exclusive advantage of handling non-stationary data and closely spaced modes, the proposed technique also benefits from the absence of the end effects and low sensitivity to noise in modal separation. The efficacy of the proposed technique is demonstrated using several simulation based studies, and compared to the popular Second-Order Blind Identification (SOBI) scheme. It is also noted that even some non-stationary response data can be analyzed by the stationary method SOBI. This paper also delineates non-stationary cases where SOBI and the proposed scheme perform comparably and highlights cases where the proposed approach is more advantageous. Finally, the performance of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mengistu, Samson G.; Quick, Christopher G.; Creed, Irena F.
2013-06-01
Headwater catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry are influenced by climate, including linear trends (nonstationary signals) and climate oscillations (stationary signals). We used an analytical framework to detect nonstationary and stationary signals in yearly time series of nutrient export [dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), nitrate (NO3--N), and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP)] in forested headwater catchments with differential water loading and water storage potential at the Turkey Lakes Watershed in Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypotheses that (1) climate has nonstationary and stationary effects on nutrient export, the combination of which explains most of the variation in nutrient export; (2) more metabolically active nutrients (e.g., DON, NO3--N, and TDP) are more sensitive to these signals; and (3) catchments with relatively low water loading and water storage capacity are more sensitive to these signals. Both nonstationary and stationary signals were identified, and the combination of both explained the majority of the variation in nutrient export data. More variation was explained in more labile nutrients (DON, NO3--N, and TDP), which were also more sensitive to climate signals. The catchment with low-water storage potential and low water loading was most sensitive to nonstationary and stationary climatic oscillations, suggesting that these hydrologic features are characteristic of the most effective sentinels of climate change. The observed complex links between climate change, climatic oscillations, and water nutrient fluxes in headwater catchments suggest that climate may have considerable influence on the productivity and biodiversity of surface waters, in addition to other drivers such as atmospheric pollution.
Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the Upper Truckee River Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Condon, L. E.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.
2014-05-01
Future flood frequency for the Upper Truckee River Basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme value models and design life risk methodology. Historical floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and Reno using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models. The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season (November-April) monthly maximum flows using historical monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities are combined into a single risk metric using recent developments in design life risk methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary downscaled climate projections to demonstrate how the risk profile of existing infrastructure evolves with time over its design life. Results show that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period (from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that do not account for time varying risk. Although model parameters, for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations (Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10-20% between the historical period 1950-1999 and the future period 2000-2050 and 30-50% between the same historical period and 2050-2099.
Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the upper Truckee River basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Condon, L. E.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.
2015-01-01
Future flood frequency for the upper Truckee River basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme value models and design-life risk methodology. Historical floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and Reno, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models. The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season (November-April) monthly maximum flows using historical monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities are combined to calculate the probability of a flood of a given magnitude occurring over a specific time period (referred to as flood risk) using recent developments in design-life risk methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary downscaled climate projections to demonstrate the evolution of a flood risk profile over typical design life periods of existing infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding (e.g., dams, levees, bridges and sewers). Results show that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period (from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that do not account for time-varying risk. Although model parameters for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations (Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10-20% between the historical period 1950 to 1999 and the future period 2000 to 2050 and 30-50% between the same historical period and a future period of 2050 to 2099.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Byung Sik; Jeung, Se Jin; Lee, Dong Seop; Han, Woo Suk
2015-04-01
As the abnormal rainfall condition has been more and more frequently happen and serious by climate change and variabilities, the question whether the design of drainage system could be prepared with abnormal rainfall condition or not has been on the rise. Usually, the drainage system has been designed by rainfall I-D-F (Intensity-Duration-Frequency) curve with assumption that I-D-F curve is stationary. The design approach of the drainage system has limitation not to consider the extreme rainfall condition of which I-D-F curve is non-stationary by climate change and variabilities. Therefore, the assumption that the I-D-F curve is stationary to design drainage system maybe not available in the climate change period, because climate change has changed the characteristics of extremes rainfall event to be non-stationary. In this paper, design rainfall by rainfall duration and non-stationary I-D-F curve are derived by the conditional GEV distribution considering non-stationary of rainfall characteristics. Furthermore, the effect of designed peak flow with increase of rainfall intensity was analyzed by distributed rainfall-runoff model, S-RAT(Spatial Runoff Assessment Tool). Although there are some difference by rainfall duration, the traditional I-D-F curves underestimates the extreme rainfall events for high-frequency rainfall condition. As a result, this paper suggest that traditional I-D-F curves could not be suitable for the design of drainage system under climate change condition. Keywords : Drainage system, Climate Change, non-stationary, I-D-F curves This research was supported by a grant 'Development of multi-function debris flow control technique considering extreme rainfall event' [NEMA-Natural-2014-74] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of KOREA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agilan, V.; Umamahesh, N. V.
2017-03-01
Present infrastructure design is primarily based on rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves with so-called stationary assumption. However, in recent years, the extreme precipitation events are increasing due to global climate change and creating non-stationarity in the series. Based on recent theoretical developments in the Extreme Value Theory (EVT), recent studies proposed a methodology for developing non-stationary rainfall IDF curve by incorporating trend in the parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution using Time covariate. But, the covariate Time may not be the best covariate and it is important to analyze all possible covariates and find the best covariate to model non-stationarity. In this study, five physical processes, namely, urbanization, local temperature changes, global warming, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are used as covariates. Based on these five covariates and their possible combinations, sixty-two non-stationary GEV models are constructed. In addition, two non-stationary GEV models based on Time covariate and one stationary GEV model are also constructed. The best model for each duration rainfall series is chosen based on the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc). From the findings of this study, it is observed that the local processes (i.e., Urbanization, local temperature changes) are the best covariate for short duration rainfall and global processes (i.e., Global warming, ENSO cycle and IOD) are the best covariate for the long duration rainfall of the Hyderabad city, India. Furthermore, the covariate Time is never qualified as the best covariate. In addition, the identified best covariates are further used to develop non-stationary rainfall IDF curves of the Hyderabad city. The proposed methodology can be applied to other situations to develop the non-stationary IDF curves based on the best covariate.
Nonstationary color tracking for vision-based human-computer interaction.
Wu, Ying; Huang, T S
2002-01-01
Skin color offers a strong cue for efficient localization and tracking of human body parts in video sequences for vision-based human-computer interaction. Color-based target localization could be achieved by analyzing segmented skin color regions. However, one of the challenges of color-based target tracking is that color distributions would change in different lighting conditions such that fixed color models would be inadequate to capture nonstationary color distributions over time. Meanwhile, using a fixed skin color model trained by the data of a specific person would probably not work well for other people. Although some work has been done on adaptive color models, this problem still needs further studies. We present our investigation of color-based image segmentation and nonstationary color-based target tracking, by studying two different representations for color distributions. We propose the structure adaptive self-organizing map (SASOM) neural network that serves as a new color model. Our experiments show that such a representation is powerful for efficient image segmentation. Then, we formulate the nonstationary color tracking problem as a model transduction problem, the solution of which offers a way to adapt and transduce color classifiers in nonstationary color distributions. To fulfill model transduction, we propose two algorithms, the SASOM transduction and the discriminant expectation-maximization (EM), based on the SASOM color model and the Gaussian mixture color model, respectively. Our extensive experiments on the task of real-time face/hand localization show that these two algorithms can successfully handle some difficulties in nonstationary color tracking. We also implemented a real-time face/hand localization system based on such algorithms for vision-based human-computer interaction.
Role of electron-electron interference in ultrafast time-resolved imaging of electronic wavepackets
Dixit, Gopal; Santra, Robin
2013-04-07
Ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering is an emerging approach to image the dynamical evolution of the electronic charge distribution during complex chemical and biological processes in real-space and real-time. Recently, the differences between semiclassical and quantum-electrodynamical (QED) theory of light-matter interaction for scattering of ultrashort x-ray pulses from the electronic wavepacket were formally demonstrated and visually illustrated by scattering patterns calculated for an electronic wavepacket in atomic hydrogen [G. Dixit, O. Vendrell, and R. Santra, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 11636 (2012)]. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of time-resolved x-ray scattering from a sample containing a mixture of non-stationary and stationary electrons within both the theories. In a many-electron system, the role of scattering interference between a non-stationary and several stationary electrons to the total scattering signal is investigated. In general, QED and semiclassical theory provide different results for the contribution from the scattering interference, which depends on the energy resolution of the detector and the x-ray pulse duration. The present findings are demonstrated by means of a numerical example of x-ray time-resolved imaging for an electronic wavepacket in helium. It is shown that the time-dependent scattering interference vanishes within semiclassical theory and the corresponding patterns are dominated by the scattering contribution from the time-independent interference, whereas the time-dependent scattering interference contribution do not vanish in the QED theory and the patterns are dominated by the scattering contribution from the non-stationary electron scattering.
Modelling and prediction of non-stationary optical turbulence behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doelman, Niek; Osborn, James
2016-07-01
There is a strong need to model the temporal fluctuations in turbulence parameters, for instance for scheduling, simulation and prediction purposes. This paper aims at modelling the dynamic behaviour of the turbulence coherence length r0, utilising measurement data from the Stereo-SCIDAR instrument installed at the Isaac Newton Telescope at La Palma. Based on an estimate of the power spectral density function, a low order stochastic model to capture the temporal variability of r0 is proposed. The impact of this type of stochastic model on the prediction of the coherence length behaviour is shown.
Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wakabayashi, Fumitaka
2008-01-01
A new type of DVD spectroscope, the periscope type, is described and the numerical analysis of the observed emission and absorption spectra is demonstrated. A small and thin mirror is put inside and an eighth part of a DVD is used as a grating. Using this improved DVD spectroscope, one can observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and…
Time-Resolved Spectral Analysis of Blazar 0716+714
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz, Rosamaria; Harp, Gerald
2016-01-01
As electromagnetic (EM) waves from sources such as blazars travel through the intergalactic medium (IGM), they are slowed by electrons; a phenomenon called dispersion delay [2]. We study the propagation effects in emissions of EM waves from blazar source BL 0716+714 by estimating the average electron density, or dispersion measure (DM), of the IGM on a line of sight to the blazar. Measuring the variations in these effects with time allow us to understand the properties of the intervening material. Toward this goal we analyzed months of archived observations of BL 0716+714 taken by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). The ATA's correlator produces cross-power vs. frequency spectra for every baseline (distance between a pair of antennas) in ten-second intervals. To reduce this immense load of data we used a technique based on interferometry called bispectrum, which does not depend on complicated array calibration and simplifies our work. The bispectrum multiplies baselines, three at a time, so that they form a closed loop, then the cube root of spectra are averaged [1]. This technique is independent of phase errors associated with any individual antenna and has a better SNR ratio than simply taking the average of all the baselines. We developed a numerical analysis program that takes in archived blazar files containing correlation data, computes the bispectrum, and outputs FITS images for each day of observations. The results show that our observations do not have sufficient sensitivity to reveal blazar variations in the frequency ranges that were studied. It is suggested that future observations at higher frequencies and/or with another telescope having greater sensitivity would reveal the time/frequency dependence of emission structure that would allow measurements of electron content. This work shows that but bispectrum is a useful tool for rapid characterization of interferometer data that does not require interferometer caclibration which could introduce artifacts into radio light curves.References:[1] Law C.J. and Bower G.C. (2012) Astrophysical Journal, 749:143[2] Rani B. et al. (2013) A&A, ms, 1-25.
Radially resolved spectral observations of polyacetal capillary discharge plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, C. A.; Griem, H. R.; Elton, R. C.
1995-07-01
The temporal evolution of the radial profile of lithium-like oxygen (OVI or O5+) 3d-4f, 52.0 nm emission from 80 ns rise time, 6-16 kA peak current, pulsed capillary discharges in 1 mm diam, 1 cm long polyacetal capillaries, has been studied. Evidence was seen for a central ``flattening'' in this emission. Extreme-ultraviolet, time-integrated, pinhole transmission grating spectra were taken of discharges at 16 and 23 kA peak currents in 0.5 mm diam, 1 cm long capillaries. Spectra obtained at the higher peak current (23 kA) showed evidence of helium-like (CV or C4+) and/or hydrogen-like carbon (CV or C5+) resonance line emission (4.0 and 3.4 nm wavelength) filling the capillary diameter.
Spectrally Resolved Intensities of Ultra-Dense Hot Aluminum Plasmas
Gil, J. M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Dalimier, E.; Schott, R.; Mancini, R.
2008-10-22
We present a first study of spectroscopic determination of electron temperature and density spatial profiles of aluminum K-shell line emission spectra from laser-shocked aluminum experiments performed at LULI. The radiation emitted by the aluminum plasma was dispersed with an ultra-high resolution spectrograph ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}6000). From the recorded films one can extract a set of time-integrated emission lineouts associated with the corresponding spatial region of the plasma. The observed spectra include the Ly{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma}, Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a photon energy range from 1700 eV to 2400 eV approximately. The data analysis rely on the ABAKO/RAPCAL computational package, which has been recently developed at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and takes into account non-equilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes and radiation transport calculations.
Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wakabayashi, Fumitaka
2008-01-01
A new type of DVD spectroscope, the periscope type, is described and the numerical analysis of the observed emission and absorption spectra is demonstrated. A small and thin mirror is put inside and an eighth part of a DVD is used as a grating. Using this improved DVD spectroscope, one can observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and…
Multicolor Spectral Karyotyping of Human Chromosomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schrock, E.; Du Manoir, S.; Veldman, T.; Schoell, B.; Wienberg, J.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Ning, Y.; Ledbetter, D. H.; Bar-Am, I.; Soenksen, D.; Garini, Y.; Ried, T.
1996-07-01
The simultaneous and unequivocal discernment of all human chromosomes in different colors would be of significant clinical and biologic importance. Whole-genome scanning by spectral karyotyping allowed instantaneous visualization of defined emission spectra for each human chromosome after fluorescence in situ hybridization. By means of computer separation (classification) of spectra, spectrally overlapping chromosome-specific DNA probes could be resolved, and all human chromosomes were simultaneously identified.
Multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography
Liu, Yubin; Yuan, Zhen
2016-01-01
The goal of this work was to develop and validate a spectrally resolved photoacoustic imaging method, namely multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography (PAET) for quantifying the physiological parameters and elastic modulus of biological tissues. We theoretically and experimentally examined the PAET imaging method using simulations and in vitro experimental tests. Our simulation and in vitro experimental results indicated that the reconstructions were quantitatively accurate in terms of sizes, the physiological and elastic properties of the targets. PMID:27699101
On the joint spectral density of bivariate random sequences. Thesis Technical Report No. 21
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aalfs, David D.
1995-01-01
For univariate random sequences, the power spectral density acts like a probability density function of the frequencies present in the sequence. This dissertation extends that concept to bivariate random sequences. For this purpose, a function called the joint spectral density is defined that represents a joint probability weighing of the frequency content of pairs of random sequences. Given a pair of random sequences, the joint spectral density is not uniquely determined in the absence of any constraints. Two approaches to constraining the sequences are suggested: (1) assume the sequences are the margins of some stationary random field, (2) assume the sequences conform to a particular model that is linked to the joint spectral density. For both approaches, the properties of the resulting sequences are investigated in some detail, and simulation is used to corroborate theoretical results. It is concluded that under either of these two constraints, the joint spectral density can be computed from the non-stationary cross-correlation.
Spectral Causality Measures for Land-Atmosphere Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casagrande, Erik; Mueller, Brigitte; Miralles, Diego; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa
2014-05-01
This talk addresses the problem of detecting and inferring the strength and directionality (i.e. causality) of Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interactions from available observations of climatic and hydrological variables. Our still incomplete understanding of L-A interactions - their inherent complexity, non-stationary features and multi-scale character - is in fact one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate modeling, with strong implications for our ability to predict in an accurate way future climate. We apply different causality-detection techniques, based on spectral methods and continuous wavelet transform, to unravel the coupling between soil moisture and air temperature, and to give evidence of the importance of soil moisture memory for climate. The proposed mathematical techniques have previously shown the ability of disentangling directional couplings within synthetic multi-scale processes. Also, the frequency-domain causal techniques presented here show several advantages in analyzing L-A couplings and feedbacks when compared to classic methods based on linear correlations, since they are explicitly designed to detect causal couplings and to infer multi-scale and non-stationary relationships. By applying these spectral causal metrics to newly developed satellite-based products and climate reanalysis data, we uncover the contribution of processes acting at different time scales to the build-up of global soil moisture-temperature coupling hot spots, addressing at the same time possible causal effects in land-atmosphere interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erard, Stéphane
2015-04-01
Older ground-based observations are reprocessed in order to assess the spectral variability of Ceres surface before the beginning of observations by the Dawn spacecraft. Ceres was observed with NACO on the VLT in 2004 and 2005, producing resolved spectra of the disk under different attitudes. The data cover the range from 0.91-3.80 µm (J, H, K, and L bands), except in the telluric regions. They consist in spectral scans of the dayside, typically with 15 lines of 20 samples, an actual resolution of ~ 100 km, and a spectral resolution R~500 to 1500. A specific calibration scheme has been applied to preprocess the data and to evidence small compositional variations at the surface of Ceres. The major signatures observed are two bands centered at 3.06 and 3.30 µm, which exhibit significant spatial variations at this scale (5 to 10%). These features are best fit by ammoniated minerals (phyllosilicates or feldspars), although the lack of secondary hydration bands seems to rule out phyllosilicates. No significant absorption or variation is observed in J, H and K bands, consistently with [1]. No presence of ices (H2O, C02…) is detected, even at the poles. If Ceres was once rich in ices (e.g., [2]), this suggests a global resurfacing with melting of ices in the subsurface, and alteration under the influence of H2O and perhaps NH3, with reduced production of phyllosilicates. References [1] Carry et al (2012) Icarus 217, 20 [2] McCord, T. B. and C. Sotin (2005) JGR 110, 05009.
Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can affect terrestrial precipitation via ocean-atmosphere interaction known as climate teleconnection. Non-stationary and non-linear characteristics of the ocean-atmosphere system make the identification of the teleconnection signals...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morozov, S. K.; Krasitskiy, O. P.
1978-01-01
A computational scheme and a standard program is proposed for solving systems of nonstationary spatially one-dimensional nonlinear differential equations using Newton's method. The proposed scheme is universal in its applicability and its reduces to a minimum the work of programming. The program is written in the FORTRAN language and can be used without change on electronic computers of type YeS and BESM-6. The standard program described permits the identification of nonstationary (or stationary) solutions to systems of spatially one-dimensional nonlinear (or linear) partial differential equations. The proposed method may be used to solve a series of geophysical problems which take chemical reactions, diffusion, and heat conductivity into account, to evaluate nonstationary thermal fields in two-dimensional structures when in one of the geometrical directions it can take a small number of discrete levels, and to solve problems in nonstationary gas dynamics.
Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul
2015-01-01
We present a unified description for time-resolved electron and photon scattering spectroscopies from molecules prepared in nonstationary states. Signals are expressed in terms of superoperator Green's functions and a systematic procedure for treating various degrees of freedom consistently at different levels of theory is developed. The standard Fermi Golden Rule expressions for photoelectron spectra, which are limited to broad, slowly-varying signals, are obtained as a limiting case of our more general theory that applies to broader parameter regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomas, A.; Menendez, M.; Mendez, F. J.; Coco, G.; Losada, I. J.
2012-04-01
In the last decades, freak or rogue waves have become an important topic in engineering and science. Forecasting the occurrence probability of freak waves is a challenge for oceanographers, engineers, physicists and statisticians. There are several mechanisms responsible for the formation of freak waves, and different theoretical formulations (primarily based on numerical models with simplifying assumption) have been proposed to predict the occurrence probability of freak wave in a sea state as a function of N (number of individual waves) and kurtosis (k). On the other hand, different attempts to parameterize k as a function of spectral parameters such as the Benjamin-Feir Index (BFI) and the directional spreading (Mori et al., 2011) have been proposed. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) develop a statistical model to describe the uncertainty of maxima individual wave height, Hmax, considering N and k as covariates; (2) obtain a predictive formulation to estimate k as a function of aggregated sea state spectral parameters. For both purposes, we use free surface measurements (more than 300,000 20-minutes sea states) from the Spanish deep water buoy network (Puertos del Estado, Spanish Ministry of Public Works). Non-stationary extreme value models are nowadays widely used to analyze the time-dependent or directional-dependent behavior of extreme values of geophysical variables such as significant wave height (Izaguirre et al., 2010). In this work, a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistical model for the dimensionless maximum wave height (x=Hmax/Hs) in every sea state is used to assess the probability of freak waves. We allow the location, scale and shape parameters of the GEV distribution to vary as a function of k and N. The kurtosis-dependency is parameterized using third-order polynomials and the model is fitted using standard log-likelihood theory, obtaining a very good behavior to predict the occurrence probability of freak waves (x>2). Regarding the
A voxelation-corrected non-stationary 3D cluster-size test based on random field theory.
Li, Huanjie; Nickerson, Lisa D; Zhao, Xuna; Nichols, Thomas E; Gao, Jia-Hong
2015-09-01
Cluster-size tests (CSTs) based on random field theory (RFT) are commonly adopted to identify significant differences in brain images. However, the use of RFT in CSTs rests on the assumption of uniform smoothness (stationarity). When images are non-stationary, CSTs based on RFT will likely lead to increased false positives in smooth regions and reduced power in rough regions. An adjustment to the cluster size according to the local smoothness at each voxel has been proposed for the standard test based on RFT to address non-stationarity, however, this technique requires images with a large degree of spatial smoothing, large degrees of freedom and high intensity thresholding. Recently, we proposed a voxelation-corrected 3D CST based on Gaussian random field theory that does not place constraints on the degree of spatial smoothness. However, this approach is only applicable to stationary images, requiring further modification to enable use for non-stationary images. In this study, we present modifications of this method to develop a voxelation-corrected non-stationary 3D CST based on RFT. Both simulated and real data were used to compare the voxelation-corrected non-stationary CST to the standard cluster-size adjusted non-stationary CST based on RFT and the voxelation-corrected stationary CST. We found that voxelation-corrected stationary CST is liberal for non-stationary images and the voxelation-corrected non-stationary CST performs better than cluster-size adjusted non-stationary CST based on RFT under low smoothness, low intensity threshold and low degrees of freedom. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Non-stationary dynamics in the bouncing ball: A wavelet perspective
Behera, Abhinna K. Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.
2014-12-01
The non-stationary dynamics of a bouncing ball, comprising both periodic as well as chaotic behavior, is studied through wavelet transform. The multi-scale characterization of the time series displays clear signatures of self-similarity, complex scaling behavior, and periodicity. Self-similar behavior is quantified by the generalized Hurst exponent, obtained through both wavelet based multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier methods. The scale dependent variable window size of the wavelets aptly captures both the transients and non-stationary periodic behavior, including the phase synchronization of different modes. The optimal time-frequency localization of the continuous Morlet wavelet is found to delineate the scales corresponding to neutral turbulence, viscous dissipation regions, and different time varying periodic modulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Y. M.; Liang, Z. M.; Jiang, X. L.; Bu, H.
2015-06-01
In this paper, a novel approach for non-stationary hydrological frequency analysis is proposed. The approach is due to the following consideration that, at present the data series used to detect mutation characteristic is very short, which may only reflect the partial characteristic of the population. That is to say, the mutation characteristic of short series may not fully represent the mutation characteristic of population, such as the difference of mutation degree between short sample and population. In this proposed method, an assumption is done that the variation hydrological series in a big time window owns an expected vibration center (EVC), which is a linear combination of the two mean values of the two subsample series obtained through separating the original hydrological series by a novel optimal segmentation technique (change rate of slope method). Then using the EVC to reconstruct non-stationary series to meet the requirement of stationary, and further ensure the conventional frequency analysis methods is valid.
NONINDEPENDENT AND NONSTATIONARY RESPONSE TIMES IN STOPPING AND STEPPING SACCADE TASKS
Nelson, Matthew J.; Boucher, Leanne; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Schall, Jeffrey D.
2011-01-01
Saccade stop-signal and target-step tasks are used to investigate the mechanisms of cognitive control. Performance of these tasks can be explained as the outcome of a race between stochastic GO and STOP processes. The race-model analyses assume that response times (RTs) measured throughout an experimental session are independent samples from stationary stochastic processes. This article demonstrates that RTs are neither independent nor stationary for humans and monkeys performing saccade stopping and target-step tasks. We investigate the consequences this has on analyses of these data. Nonindependent and nonstationary RTs artificially flatten inhibition functions and account for some of the systematic differences in RTs following different types of trials. However, nonindependent and nonstationary RTs do not bias the estimation of the stop-signal RT. These results demonstrate the robustness of the race model to some aspects of nonindependence and nonstationarity, and point to useful extensions of the model. PMID:20952788
A self-normalized confidence interval for the mean of a class of nonstationary processes.
Zhao, Zhibiao
2011-01-01
We construct an asymptotic confidence interval for the mean of a class of nonstationary processes with constant mean and time-varying variances. Due to the large number of unknown parameters, traditional approaches based on consistent estimation of the limiting variance of sample mean through moving block or non-overlapping block methods are not applicable. Under a block-wise asymptotically equal cumulative variance assumption, we propose a self-normalized confidence interval that is robust against the nonstationarity and dependence structure of the data. We also apply the same idea to construct an asymptotic confidence interval for the mean difference of nonstationary processes with piecewise constant means. The proposed methods are illustrated through simulations and an application to global temperature series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Feng; Yang, Peicai; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhou, Xiuji; Wang, Geli; Li, Jiangnan
2017-05-01
A new method based on cross-prediction errors is proposed for the rebuilding of the driving forces exerting influence on nonstationary systems. This method can retrieve driving force from nonlinear nonstationary time series including stationary regions. The numerical tests show that the method is very accurate. Generally, the correlation coefficients between the original and reconstructed driving force are larger than 0.96 for three commonly used maps for single-species discrete chaotic ecosystems. By using the above method, we reconstructed the driving force for an observed time series of the northern hemisphere monthly mean surface air temperature anomalies. Wavelet transformation method is applied to analyze the calculated driving forces. The results illustrated that the driving forces are characterized by the Hale's solar cycle and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation, which are the two main separate degrees of freedom on the climate.
Exact Stationary and Non-stationary Solutions to Inelastic Maxwell Model with Infinite Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyin, Oleg
2016-11-01
The one-dimensional inelastic Boltzmann equation with a constant collision rate (the Maxwell model) is considered. It is shown that for special values of restitution parameter there exists a stationary solution with the characteristic function in the form e^{-P(log (z))z}, where P is a periodic function. The corresponding distribution function belongs to a one special class of stochastic processes termed as a generalized stable in the probability theory. The Fourier transform of the non-stationary equation has the solution bigl (1+P(log (z))zbigr )e^{-Q(log (z))z}. It is proved that this solution is a characteristic function if periodic functions P, Q satisfy some not very restrictive conditions. The stationary and non-stationary solutions correspond to a gas with infinite temperature.
Efficient Simulation and Downscaling of Large Non-Stationary Fields with Varying Local Anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodov, B.
2015-12-01
Simulation of locally anisotropic, non-stationary random fields is a relatively new topic in geostatistics with applications currently restricted to the construction of an admissible covariance matrix. In this paper, we introduce an efficient algorithm for constructing large non-stationary random fields with arbitrary local covariance structure and anisotropy. At the heart of our approach is a newly developed robust directional multiresolution framework combined with a local tensor anisotropy model. The use of our algorithm is illustrated with local anisotropy analysis, simulation and downscaling of complex pseudo-precipitation (PP) fields* related to tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. The efficiency of the algorithm allows obtaining realistic downscaled global GCM precipitation fields down to a few kilometers resolution in seconds.* Reference: Unpublished work by Huiling Yuan and Zoltan Toth. PP fields are constructed by taking the precipitation as the positive component of the field and the water vapor saturation deficit as its negative complement.
Entropy of Non-stationary and Slowly Changing Reissner-Nordström Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Han
2014-01-01
Simplifying Dirac equation near the horizon, Hawking temperature is obtained by applying a new tortoise coordinate transformation. Using the improved thin film brick-wall model and WKB approximation, the entropy of Dirac field in the non-stationary and slowly changing Reissner-Nordström black hole is calculated. The result shows that the entropy of the black hole is still proportional to the horizon area, and black hole entropy is just identical to the entropy of the quantum state at the horizon. In addition, the new tortoise coordinate transformation can make the cut-off parameter introduced in solving the entropy of non-stationary black hole simplified to the same as that in the static and stationary cases.
Characteristics of Quantum Radiation of Slowly Varying Nonstationary Kerr-Newman Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang
Quantum radiative characteristics of slowly varying nonstationary Kerr-Newman black holes are investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. It is shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on the time and the angle. Further, we reveal a previously ignored relationship between thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation, which is that the chemical potential in the thermal radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for slowly varying nonstationary Kerr-Newman black holes. Also, we show that the deduced general results can be degenerated to the known conclusion of stationary Kerr-Newman black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrosa, Inácio A.; Melo, Jilvan L.; Salatiel, Sadoque
2014-11-01
We present an alternative quantum treatment for a generalized mesoscopic RLC circuit with time-dependent resistance, inductance and capacitance. Taking advantage of the Lewis and Riesenfeld quantum invariant method and using quadratic invariants we obtain exact nonstationary Schrödinger states for this electromagnetic oscillation system. Afterwards, we construct coherent and squeezed states for the quantized RLC circuit and employ them to investigate some of the system's quantum properties, such as quantum fluctuations of the charge and the magnetic flux and the corresponding uncertainty product. In addition, we derive the geometric, dynamical and Berry phases for this nonstationary mesoscopic circuit. Finally we evaluate the dynamical and Berry phases for three special circuits. Surprisingly, we find identical expressions for the dynamical phase and the same formulae for the Berry's phase.
Practical methods of tracking of nonstationary time series applied to real-world data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabney, Ian T.; McLachlan, Alan; Lowe, David
1996-03-01
In this paper, we discuss some practical implications for implementing adaptable network algorithms applied to non-stationary time series problems. Two real world data sets, containing electricity load demands and foreign exchange market prices, are used to test several different methods, ranging from linear models with fixed parameters, to non-linear models which adapt both parameters and model order on-line. Training with the extended Kalman filter, we demonstrate that the dynamic model-order increment procedure of the resource allocating RBF network (RAN) is highly sensitive to the parameters of the novelty criterion. We investigate the use of system noise for increasing the plasticity of the Kalman filter training algorithm, and discuss the consequences for on-line model order selection. The results of our experiments show that there are advantages to be gained in tracking real world non-stationary data through the use of more complex adaptive models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Kyungwon; Kim, Taereem; Jung, Younghun; Heo, Jun-Haeng
2017-04-01
Multivariate frequency analysis has been developing for hydrological data recently. The time-series rainfall data can be characterized to rainfall event by inter-event time definition and each rainfall event has a rainfall depth and rainfall duration. With these two variables, bivariate frequency analysis has performed. In current study, bivariate frequency analysis using Archimedean copula on hourly recorded rainfall data of Seoul from Korea meteorological administration. The parameter of copula model is estimated by inference function for margin (IFM) method and stationary/nonstationary Generalized extreme value(GEV) distribution is used for marginal distribution. As a result, level curve of copula model is obtained and CVM statistic for goodness-of-fit test to compare stationary and nonstationary GEV distribution for margin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo; Markus, Momcilo; Wuebbles, Donald J.
2017-09-01
Climate extremes, such as heavy precipitation events, have become more common in recent decades, and nonstationarity concepts have increasingly been adopted to model hydrologic extremes. Various issues are associated with applying nonstationary modeling to extremes, and in this study, we focus on assessing the need for different forms of nonlinear functions in a nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) model of different annual maximum precipitation (AMP) time series. Moreover, we suggest an efficient approach for selecting the nonlinear functions of a nonstationary GEV model. Based on observed and multiple projected AMP data for eight cities across the U.S., three separate tasks are proposed. First, we conduct trend and stationarity tests for the observed and projected data. Second, AMP series are fit with thirty different nonlinear functions, and the best functions among these are selected. Finally, the selected nonlinear functions are used to model the location parameter of a nonstationary GEV model and stationary and nonstationary GEV models with a linear function. Our results suggest that the simple use of nonlinear functions might prove useful with nonstationary GEV models of AMP for different locations with different types of model results.
Spectral representation of high-frequency Space Shuttle data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spanos, P. D.; Mushung, L. J.; Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Hamilton, D. A.
1994-01-01
High frequency Space Shuttle liftoff data are treated by autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) digital algorithms. These algorithms provide useful information on the spectral densities of the data. Further, they yield spectral models, which lend themeselves to incorporation into the concept of the random response spectrum. This concept yields a reasonably smooth power spectrum for the design of structural and mechanical systems when the available data bank is limited. Due to the nonstationary of the liftoff event, the pertinent data are split into three slices. Each of the slices is associated with a rather distinguished phase of the liftoff event, in which stationarity can be expected. The presented results are preliminary in nature; they aim to call attention to the availability of the discussed concepts and to the need to augment the Space Shuttle data bank as more flights are completed.
Versatile approach for frequency resolved wavefront characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frumker, Eugene; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Villeneuve, David M.; Corkum, Paul B.
2011-03-01
Spatial characterization of high harmonics (HH) and XUV coherent radiation is of paramount importance, along with its temporal characterization. For many applications it will be necessary to accurately measure the beam properties, just as it is important to know the beam characteristics for many laser experiments. For example, high harmonics and attosecond pulses are being proposed as a front-end for the next generation X-ray free electron lasers. This oscillator-amplifier-like arrangement will require well characterized high harmonic sources. On the other hand, the electromagnetic radiation carries the combined signature of underlying quantum physical processes at the molecular level and of the cooperative phase matching. For example, accurate reconstruction of the high harmonic spatial wavefront, along with its temporal profile, gives us a complete range of tools to apply to the fundamental quantum properties and dynamics associated with high harmonic generation. We present a new concept of frequency resolved wavefront characterization that is particularly suitable for characterizing XUV radiation. In keeping with tradition in the area we give it an acronym - SWORD (Spectral Wavefront Optical Reconstruction by Diffraction). Our approach is based on an analysis of the diffraction pattern of a slit situated in front of a flat-field spectrometer. As the slit is scanned, the spectrally resolved diffraction pattern is recorded. Analyzing the measured diffractogram, we can reconstruct the wavefront. The technique can be easily extended beyond the XUV spectral region. When combined with temporal characterization techniques all information about the beam can be measured.
Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 1. A nonstationary fluvial tide model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.
2003-09-01
This is the first part of a two-part investigation that applies nonstationary time series analysis methods and the St. Venant equations to the problem of understanding juvenile salmonid access to favorable shallow-water habitat in a tidal river. Habitat access is a function of river stage, tidal range, and the distribution of bed elevation. Part 1 models nonstationary tidal properties: species amplitudes and phases and tidal range. Part 2 models low-frequency river stage in the Lower Columbia River and reconstructs historical water levels, using the tidal model from part 1. To incorporate the nonstationary frictional effects of variable river discharge into the tidal model, we decompose the tidal wave into tidal species and calculate daily tidal range. Our one-dimensional tidal model is based on analytic wave solutions to the linearized St. Venant equation and uses six coefficients per tidal species to represent the upstream evolution of the frictionally damped tidal wave. The form of the coefficients is derived from the St. Venant equations, but their values are determined objectively from the data. About 50 station-years of surface elevation data collected (1981-2000) below Bonneville Dam (235 km from the ocean) were processed with a wavelet filter bank to retrieve time series of tidal species properties. A min-max filter was used to estimate daily tidal range. Tidal range, diurnal, and semidiurnal amplitudes were predicted with mean root mean square errors <30 mm, which is significantly more accurate than predictions obtained from harmonic analysis. Thus despite the compact form of our solution, we model nonstationary fluvial tidal properties with a high level of accuracy.
On the state stability of a system of integro-differential equations of nonstationary aeroelasticity
Egorov, A.I.; Kogut, P.I.
1994-06-05
We consider a process of nonstationary aeroelasticity, which is described by a system of integro-differential equations that cannot be solved for the derivative. We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions, in terms of Lyapunov functionals, for the exponential stability of such a system with respect to the metric of an infinite Hilbert space. A formula is given for the total derivative of a Lyapunov functional via the initial equations of motion. 5 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haupt, Sue Ellen; Kosovic, Branko; Shaw, William
2017-04-01
The purpose of the US DOE's Mesoscale-Microscale Coupling (MMC) Project is to develop, verify, and validate physical models and modeling techniques that bridge the most important atmospheric scales that determine wind plant performance and reliability. As part of DOE's Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) program, the MMC project seeks to create a new predictive numerical simulation capability that is able to represent the full range of atmospheric flow conditions impacting wind plant performance. The recent focus of MMC has been on nonstationary conditions over flat terrain. These nonstationary cases are critical for wind energy and represent a primary need for mesoscale meteorological forcing of the microscale models. The MMC team modeled two types of non-stationary cases: 1) diurnal cycles in which the daytime convective boundary layer collapses with the setting of the sun when the surface heat flux changes from positive to negative, passing through a brief period of neutral stability before becoming stable, with smaller scale turbulence and the potential for low level jet (LLJ) formation; and 2) frontal passage as an example of a synoptic weather event that may cause relatively rapid changes in wind speed and direction. The team compared and contrasted two primary techniques for non-stationary forcing of the microscale by the mesoscale model. The first is to use the tendencies from the mesoscale model to directly force the microscale mode. The second method is to couple not only the microscale domain's internal forcing parameters, but also its lateral boundaries, to a mesoscale simulation. While the boundary coupled approach provides the greatest generality, since the mesoscale flow information providing the lateral boundary information for the microscale domain contains no explicit turbulence information, the approach requires methods to accelerate turbulence production at the microscale domain's inflow boundaries. Forefront assessment strategies, including comparing
Nonstationary discrete-time deterministic and stochastic control systems with infinite horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xianping; Hernández-del-Valle, Adrián; Hernández-Lerma, Onésimo
2010-09-01
This article is about nonstationary nonlinear discrete-time deterministic and stochastic control systems with Borel state and control spaces, possibly noncompact control constraint sets, and unbounded costs. The control problem is to minimise an infinite-horizon total cost performance index. Using dynamic programming arguments we show that, under suitable assumptions, the optimal cost functions satisfy optimality equations, which in turn give a procedure to find optimal control policies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolkovich, E. M.; Donahue, M. J.
2014-12-01
Recent work has found links between how a species' phenology shifts with climate change and its changes in performance with climate change. Species that appear to 'track' climate change, for example North American temperate plant species that shift leafing or flowering earlier with warmer springs, also tend to increase in abundance or other metrics of plant performance, while the reverse is generally seen for species that delay phenology with warming. This correlation between phenological tracking and performance has been implicated in plant invasions and appears to be an important factor in predicting future plant populations and communities under climate change scenarios. We have, however, little theory on why--or why not--species may phenologically track the start of spring. Early-season phenology gives priority access to light and soil resources and thus, in a simplistic model where the start of season varies between years, all species should strongly track the start of season, yet communities are always a mix of phenological tracking strategies (from species that do not track the start of season to strong trackers). Using a stochastic community assembly model we examined how phenological tracking influences species abundances across time under two different environmental scenarios: one with a stationary environment and one with a nonstationary environment where the start of season shifts earlier over time. Our model shows that trade-offs are required between phenological tracking and parameters related to species-specific resource use to maintain a community with a diversity of phenological tracking strategies and that nonstationary environments strongly favor species that track the start of season. Our results suggest that trade-offs established under a stationary climate that allow a diversity of phenological tracking strategies across species in a community may not hold under non-stationary environments to maintain the same diversity of species. Instead
Slow Time-Scale Source-Free Maxwell Equations for a Nonstationary, Inhomogeneous Medium.
1983-02-01
along the same lines, gives -(- 4n E+ 1 2 ) at V(V.E) 47t a2 L2 E. (3.10) 12 NSWC TR 83-100 L.s. (3.9) and (3.10) are exact consequences of Maxwell’s ... equation for a nonstationary inhomoheneous medium characterized by constitutive relations defined by Eqs. (2.3) and (2.5). The special case o-0 and
Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Akashi, Hiroshi; Yang, Ziheng
2015-07-01
Inference of gene sequences in ancestral species has been widely used to test hypotheses concerning the process of molecular sequence evolution. However, the approach may produce spurious results, mainly because using the single best reconstruction while ignoring the suboptimal ones creates systematic biases. Here we implement methods to correct for such biases and use computer simulation to evaluate their performance when the substitution process is nonstationary. The methods we evaluated include parsimony and likelihood using the single best reconstruction (SBR), averaging over reconstructions weighted by the posterior probabilities (AWP), and a new method called expected Markov counting (EMC) that produces maximum-likelihood estimates of substitution counts for any branch under a nonstationary Markov model. We simulated base composition evolution on a phylogeny for six species, with different selective pressures on G+C content among lineages, and compared the counts of nucleotide substitutions recorded during simulation with the inference by different methods. We found that large systematic biases resulted from (i) the use of parsimony or likelihood with SBR, (ii) the use of a stationary model when the substitution process is nonstationary, and (iii) the use of the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano (HKY) model, which is too simple to adequately describe the substitution process. The nonstationary general time reversible (GTR) model, used with AWP or EMC, accurately recovered the substitution counts, even in cases of complex parameter fluctuations. We discuss model complexity and the compromise between bias and variance and suggest that the new methods may be useful for studying complex patterns of nucleotide substitution in large genomic data sets.
Blind estimation of statistical properties of non-stationary random variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansour, Ali; Mesleh, Raed; Aggoune, el-Hadi M.
2014-12-01
To identify or equalize wireless transmission channels, or alternatively to evaluate the performance of many wireless communication algorithms, coefficients or statistical properties of the used transmission channels are often assumed to be known or can be estimated at the receiver end. For most of the proposed algorithms, the knowledge of transmission channel statistical properties is essential to detect signals and retrieve data. To the best of our knowledge, most proposed approaches assume that transmission channels are static and can be modeled by stationary random variables (uniform, Gaussian, exponential, Weilbul, Rayleigh, etc.). In the majority of sensor networks or cellular systems applications, transmitters and/or receivers are in motion. Therefore, the validity of static transmission channels and the underlying assumptions may not be valid. In this case, coefficients and statistical properties change and therefore the stationary model falls short of making an accurate representation. In order to estimate the statistical properties (represented by the high-order statistics and probability density function, PDF) of dynamic channels, we firstly assume that the dynamic channels can be modeled by short-term stationary but long-term non-stationary random variable (RV), i.e., the RVs are stationary within unknown successive periods but they may suddenly change their statistical properties between two successive periods. Therefore, this manuscript proposes an algorithm to detect the transition phases of non-stationary random variables and introduces an indicator based on high-order statistics for non-stationary transmission which can be used to alter channel properties and initiate the estimation process. Additionally, PDF estimators based on kernel functions are also developed. The first part of the manuscript provides a brief introduction for unbiased estimators of the second and fourth-order cumulants. Then, the non-stationary indicators are formulated
MySSP: non-stationary evolutionary sequence simulation, including indels.
Rosenberg, Michael S
2007-02-26
MySSP is a new program for the simulation of DNA sequence evolution across a phylogenetic tree. Although many programs are available for sequence simulation, MySSP is unique in its inclusion of indels, flexibility in allowing for non-stationary patterns, and output of ancestral sequences. Some of these features can individually be found in existing programs, but have not all have been previously available in a single package.
MySSP: Non-stationary evolutionary sequence simulation, including indels
Rosenberg, Michael S.
2007-01-01
MySSP is a new program for the simulation of DNA sequence evolution across a phylogenetic tree. Although many programs are available for sequence simulation, MySSP is unique in its inclusion of indels, flexibility in allowing for non-stationary patterns, and output of ancestral sequences. Some of these features can individually be found in existing programs, but have not all have been previously available in a single package. PMID:19325855
Application of a Class of Nonstationary Iterative Methods to Flow Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Xiuren; Peng, Hong
Convergence of a certain class of nonstationary iterative methods applied to the numerical solution of algebraic linear systems arising in flow problems is studied. The iteration matrix of these methods can be expressed by a constant matrix plus a variable matrix tending to zero. The conclusions of convergence based on the matrix spectrum are given and applied to a class of semi-iterative methods. Keywords: algebraic linear system, iterative method, convergence, matrix spectrum
Quantum Radiation of a Non-stationary Kerr Newman Black Hole in de Sitter Space Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2006-12-01
Hawking radiation of Klein-Gordon and Dirac particles in a non-stationary Kerr-Newman-de-Sitter black hole is studied by introducing a new tortoise coordinate transformation. The result shows that the Fermi-Dirac radiant spectrum displays a new term that represents the interaction between the spin of spinor particles and the rotation of black holes, which is absent in the Bose-Einstein distribution of Klein-Gordon particles.
2007-02-01
true alarms from false positives . At the host-level, a new anomaly detection mechanism operating that employs non-stationary Markov models is proposed....mitigate false positives, network based correlation of collected anomalies from different hosts is suggested, as well as a new means of host-based anomaly ... detection . The concept of anomaly propagation is based on the premise that false alarms do not propagate within the network. Unless anomaly
An Improved Approach for Nonstationary Strong Ground Motion Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yanan; Wang, Guoxin
2016-05-01
A new stochastic ground motion model for generating a suite of ground motion time history with both temporal and frequency nonstationarities for specified earthquake and site characteristics is proposed based on the wavelet method. This new model is defined in terms of 6 key parameters that characterize the duration, evolving intensity, predominant frequency, bandwidth and frequency variation of the ground acceleration process. All parameters, except for peak ground acceleration (PGA), are identified manually from a database of 2444 recorded horizontal accelerations. The two-stage regression analysis method is used to investigate the inter- and intra-event residuals. For any given earthquake and site characteristics in terms of the fault mechanism, moment magnitude, Joyner and Boore distance and site shear-wave velocity, sets of the model parameters are generated and used, in turn, by the stochastic model to generate strong ground motion accelerograms, which can capture and properly embody the primary features of real strong ground motions, including the duration, evolving intensity, spectral content, frequency variation and peak values. In addition, it is shown that the characteristics of the simulated and observed response spectra are similar, and the amplitude of the simulated response spectra are in line with the predicted values from the published seismic ground motion prediction equations (SGMPE) after a systematic comparison. The proposed method can be used to estimate the strong ground motions as inputs for structural seismic dynamic analysis in engineering practice in conjunction with or instead of recorded ground motions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. Classical nonlinear system models are used to illustrate the roles played by the nonlinear and nonstationary effects in the energy-frequency-time distribution.
Predictability of nonstationary time series using wavelet and EMD based ARMA models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karthikeyan, L.; Nagesh Kumar, D.
2013-10-01
Research has been undertaken to ascertain the predictability of non-stationary time series using wavelet and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) based time series models. Methods have been developed in the past to decompose a time series into components. Forecasting of these components combined with random component could yield predictions. Using this ideology, wavelet and EMD analyses have been incorporated separately which decomposes a time series into independent orthogonal components with both time and frequency localizations. The component series are fit with specific auto-regressive models to obtain forecasts which are later combined to obtain the actual predictions. Four non-stationary streamflow sites (USGS data resources) of monthly total volumes and two non-stationary gridded rainfall sites (IMD) of monthly total rainfall are considered for the study. The predictability is checked for six and twelve months ahead forecasts across both the methodologies. Based on performance measures, it is observed that wavelet based method has better prediction capabilities over EMD based method despite some of the limitations of time series methods and the manner in which decomposition takes place. Finally, the study concludes that the wavelet based time series algorithm can be used to model events such as droughts with reasonable accuracy. Also, some modifications that can be made in the model have been discussed that could extend the scope of applicability to other areas in the field of hydrology.