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Sample records for resonance based immunosensor

  1. High-sensitive nonlinear detection of steroids by resonant double grating waveguide structures-based immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriano, Alejandro; Salvador, J.-Pablo; Galve, Roger; Marco, M.-Pilar; Thayil K. N., Anisha; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Soria, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We report the non linear fluorescence real-time detection of methylboldenone, an androgenic anabolic steroid used illegally as growth promoter based on a resonant sensing chip: a double grating waveguide structure. The limit of detection of this synthetic steroid is two orders of magnitude lower than the Minimum Required Performance Limit required by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The immunoreagents have been have been immobilized onto the surface of the resonant sensor after being activated with phosphonohexanoic acid spacers. The developed immunosensor presents great potential as a robust sensing device for fast and early detection of illegal dopants and food contaminants.

  2. Side-polished fiber immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance for detection of Legionella pneumophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Yu-Chia; Yang, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Yan, Tsong-Rong

    2008-02-01

    Side-polished fiber immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) onto self-assembled protein A layer was proposed for the detection of Legionella pneumophila. A self-assembled protein A layer on gold (Au) surface was fabricated by adsorbing a mixture of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and activated by N-Ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/ N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS). The formation of self-assembled protein A and gold layer on side-polished surface and the binding of antibody and antigen in series were confirmed by SPR response on spectrum. The binding protein A layer can improve the sensitivity, which indirectly supports the configurations that antibody layer is immobilized on the binding protein A layer with a well-ordered orientation. The surface morphology analyses of self-assembled protein A layer on Au substrate and monoclonal antibody against L. pneumophila immobilized on protein A were demonstrated by SPR dip shifts on optical spectrum analyzer. The SPR fiber immunosensor for detection of L. pneumophila was developed and the detection limit was 10 CFU/ml with the SPR dip shift in wavelength from 1070 to 1105nm. The current fabrication technique of a SPR immunosensor using optical fiber for the detection of Legionella pneumophila could be applied to construct other biosensor.

  3. Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensitive Immunosensor for Benzaldehyde Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Takeshi; Shimizu, Takuzo; Miura, Norio; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    Fragrant compounds used to add flavor to beverages remain in the manufacturing line after the beverage manufacturing process. Line cleanliness before the next manufacturing cycle is difficult to estimate by sensory analysis, making excessive washing necessary. A new measurement system to determine line cleanliness is desired. In this study, we attempted to detect benzaldehyde (Bz) using an anti-Bz monoclonal antibody (Bz-Ab) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. We fabricated two types of sensor chips using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and investigated which sensor surface exhibited higher sensitivity. In addition, anti-Bz antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP-Bz-Ab) was used to enhance the SPR signal. A detection limit of ca. 9ng/mL (ppb) was achieved using an immobilized 4-carboxybenzaldehyde sensor surface using SAMs containing ethylene glycol. When the HRP-Bz-Ab concentration was reduced to 30ng/mL, a detection limit of ca. 4ng/mL (ppb) was achieved for Bz.

  4. Rapid and sensitive detection of microcystin by immunosensor based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Chen, Wei; Qiao, Ruirui; Liu, Chunyan; Yang, Chunhui; Li, Zhuokun; Xu, Dinghua; Peng, Chifang; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Chuanlai; Zhu, Shuifang; Wang, Libing

    2009-09-15

    A stable and sensitive toxin residues immunosensor based on the relaxation of magnetic nanoparticles was developed. The method was performed in one reaction and offered sensitive, fast detection of target toxin residues in water. The target analyte, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in Tai lake water, competed with the antigens on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles and then influenced the formation of aggregates of the magnetic nanoparticles. Accordingly, the magnetic relaxation time of the magnetic nanoparticles was changed under the effect of the target analyte. The calibration curve was deduced at different concentrations of the target analyte. The limit of detection (LOD) of MC-LR was 0.6 ng g(-1) and the detection range was 1-18 ng g(-1). Another important feature of the developed method was the easy operation: only two steps were needed (1) to mix the magnetic nanoparticle solution with the sample solution and (2) read the results through the instrument. Therefore, the developed method may be a useful tool for toxin residues sensing and may find widespread applications.

  5. A Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Immunosensors for Sensitive Detection of Heroin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong-cheng; Chen, Wen-ge; Wang, Lian-chao; Ge, Yu; Yu, Cheng-duan; Fang, Ting-jian

    2000-12-01

    A simple technique for sensitive detection of heroin based on surface-plasmon-resonance has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The experiment was realized by using an anti-MO monoclonal antibody and a morphine (MO)-bovine serum albumin (MO-BSA) conjugate (antigen). The reason for using MO-BSA in the detection of heroine was also discussed. MO-BSA was immobilized on a gold thin film of SPR sensor chip by physical adsorption. The configuration of the device is allowed to be further miniaturized, which is required for the construction of a portable SPR device in the application of in-situ analysis.

  6. Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.

  7. Analysis of the Fungicide Boscalid in Horticultural Crops Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and an Immunosensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Harada, Ayako; Ohtake, Toshiya; Adachi, Kayo; Iwasa, Seiji; Narita, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shiro

    2015-09-16

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) and an immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR-sensor) were developed for fungicide boscalid determination in horticultural crops. To produce antiboscalid monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BSC7 and MoAb BSC72) for these assays, a hapten of boscalid was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin for Balb/c mouse immunization. The working range of the dc-ELISA was 0.8-16 ng/mL with MoAb BSC7 and 2.5-120 ng/mL with MoAb BSC72, and that of the SPR-sensor was 17-80 ng/mL with MoAb BSC7. The dc-ELISA and SPR-sensor were compared for their sensitivity in determining boscalid residues at the maximum residue limit of 1-40 mg/kg for horticultural crops in Japan. Recovery of the spiked boscalid was 85-109% by the SPR-sensor and 100-124% by the dc-ELISA. On real tomato samples, the results obtained by both of these immunoassays correlated well with the results obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:26340386

  8. Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Baccar, H; Mejri, M B; Hafaiedh, I; Ktari, T; Aouni, M; Abdelghani, A

    2010-07-15

    This work describes an approach for the development of two bacteria biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. The first biosensor was based on functionalized gold substrate and the second one on immobilized gold nanoparticles. For the first biosensor, the gold substrate was functionalized with acid-thiol using the self-assembled monolayer technique, while the second one was functionalized with gold nanoparticles immobilized on modified gold substrate. A polyclonal anti-Escherichia coli antibody was immobilized for specific (E. coli) and non-specific (Lactobacillus) bacteria detection. Detection limit with a good reproducibility of 10(4) and 10(3) cfu mL(-1) of E. coli bacteria has been obtained for the first biosensor and for the second one respectively. A refractive index variation below 5x10(-3) due to bacteria adsorption is able to be detected. The refractive index of the multilayer structure and of the E. coli bacteria layer was estimated with a modeling software. PMID:20602974

  9. The phenomenon of fluorescence in immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Kłos-Witkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of fluorescence in immunosensors is described in this paper. Both structure and characteristics of biosensors and immunosensors are presented. Types of immunosensors and the response of bioreceptor layers to the reaction with analytes as well as measurements of electrochemical, piezoelectric and optical parameters in immunosensors are also presented. In addition, detection techniques used in studies of optical immunosensors based on light-matter interactions (absorbance, reflectance, dispersion, emission) such as: UV/VIS spectroscopy, reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfs), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), optical waveguide light-mode spectroscopy (OWLS), fluorescence spectroscopy. The phenomenon of fluorescence in immunosensors and standard configurations of immunoreactions between an antigen and an antibody (direct, competitive, sandwich, displacement) is described. Fluorescence parameters taken into account in analyses and fluorescence detection techniques used in research of immunosensors are presented. Examples of immunosensor applications are given. PMID:27192088

  10. Nanostructured conducting polymer based reagentless capacitive immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay Jairaj; Dhand, Chetna; Arya, Sunil K; Pandey, M K; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2010-02-01

    Nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) film electrophoretically fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate has been utilized for development of an immunosensor based on capacitance change of a parallel plate capacitor (PPC) by covalently immobilizing anti-human IgG (Anti-HIgG) using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. These fabricated PANI/ITO and Anti-HIgG/PANI/ITO plates have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and Fourier transform infra-red studies. The capacitance measurements indicate that dielectric medium of this biologically modified PPC (Anti-HIgG/PANI/ITO) is sensitive to HIgG in 5 - 5 x 10(5) ng mL(-1) range and has lower detection limit of 1.87 ng mL(-1). The observed results reveal that this Anti-HIgG modified PPC can be used as a robust, easy-to-use, reagentless, sensitive and selective immunosensor for estimation of human IgG.

  11. Regenerable fiber-optic-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Bright, F V; Betts, T A; Litwiler, K S

    1990-05-15

    An immunosensor is described that is based on fluorescently labeled F(ab') anti-human serum albumin antibody fragments covalently immobilized to the distal end of a fiber-optic probe. When human serum albumin is present, it is bound to the sensor and shields the fluorescent label from the solvent water, and a significant increase in the label fluorescence results. The sensor can be regenerated by simply immersing the sensing tip in chaotropic media. Under these conditions the antigen-antibody complex is selectively disrupted without adversely affecting the sensor. In the present configuration, the same sensor can be recycled over 50 times before the immunosurface inactivates significantly. With proper storage the sensor can last for up to 4 months.

  12. Impedimetric immunoglobulin G immunosensor based on chemically modified graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Ambrosi, Adriano; Poh, Hwee Ling; Pumera, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Immunosensors which display high sensitivity and selectivity are of utmost importance to the biomedical field. Graphene is a material which has immense potential for the fabrication of immunosensors. For the first time, we evaluate the immunosensing capabilities of various graphene surfaces in this work. We propose a simple and label-free electrochemical impedimetric immunosensor for immunoglobulin G (IgG) based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) surfaces such as graphite oxide, graphene oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide. Disposable electrochemical printed electrodes were first modified with CMG materials before anti-immunoglobulin G (anti-IgG), which is specific to IgG, was immobilized. The principle of detection lies in the changes in impedance spectra of the redox probe after the attachment of IgG to the immobilized anti-IgG. It was found that thermally reduced graphene oxide has the best performance when compared to the other CMG materials. In addition, the optimal concentration of anti-IgG to be deposited onto the modified electrode surface is 10 μg ml-1 and the linear range of detection of the immunosensor is from 0.3 μg ml-1 to 7 μg ml-1. Finally, the fabricated immunosensor also displays selectivity for IgG.Immunosensors which display high sensitivity and selectivity are of utmost importance to the biomedical field. Graphene is a material which has immense potential for the fabrication of immunosensors. For the first time, we evaluate the immunosensing capabilities of various graphene surfaces in this work. We propose a simple and label-free electrochemical impedimetric immunosensor for immunoglobulin G (IgG) based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) surfaces such as graphite oxide, graphene oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide. Disposable electrochemical printed electrodes were first modified with CMG materials before anti-immunoglobulin G (anti

  13. Fabrication of an atrazine acoustic immunosensor based on a drop-deposition procedure.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kun; Toury, Timothée; Ionescu, Rodica Elena

    2012-09-01

    Among the various novel analytical systems, immunosensors based on acoustic waves are of emerging interest because of their good sensitivity, real-time monitoring capability, and experimental simplicity. In this work, piezoelectric immunosensors were constructed for the detection of atrazine through the immobilization of specific monoclonal anti-atrazine antibodies on thiolated modified quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs). The immunoassay was conducted by a novel drop-deposition procedure using different atrazine dilutions in phosphate buffer solution ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-1) mg/mL. The immunoreactions between varying contents of atrazine and its antibody were dynamically exhibited through in situ monitoring of the frequency and motional resistance changes over 20 min. Thus, atrazine recognition by the anti-atrazine antibody leads to a decrease of the resonant frequency that is proportional to a given atrazine concentration. Interestingly, the motional resistance also increased proportionally during the measurements, which could be attributed to the specific viscoelastic properties and/or conformation changes of the antibodies once the immunoreactions occurred. By combining the measurements of frequency with those of motional resistance, additional information was provided about the interaction between the atrazine-named antigen and its respective antibody. Finally, the analytical specificity of the immunosensor to atrazine was evaluated through the response to a nonspecific anti-human IgG antibody-modified QCM crystal under the same drop conditions.

  14. Noncovalently functionalized monolayer graphene for sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenakshi; Holzinger, Michael; Tabrizian, Maryam; Winters, Sinéad; Berner, Nina C; Cosnier, Serge; Duesberg, Georg S

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor is described using a functionalized single graphene layer on a thin gold film. The aim of this approach was two-fold: first, to amplify the SPR signal by growing graphene through chemical vapor deposition and, second, to control the immobilization of biotinylated cholera toxin antigen on copper coordinated nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) using graphene as an ultrathin layer. The NTA groups were attached to graphene via pyrene derivatives implying π-π interactions. With this setup, an immunosensor for the specific antibody anticholera toxin with a detection limit of 4 pg mL(-1) was obtained. In parallel, NTA polypyrrole films of different thicknesses were electrogenerated on the gold sensing platform where the optimal electropolymerization conditions were determined. For this optimized polypyrrole-NTA setup, the simple presence of a graphene layer between the gold and polymer film led to a significant increase of the SPR signal.

  15. Development of an Immunosensor for Determination of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil in Vegetables, Using Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Watanabe, Eiki; Okazaki, Fumiko; Murakami-Yamaguchi, Yukie; Oda, Masayuki; Iwasa, Seiji; Narita, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shiro

    2015-07-22

    An immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR-sensor) was developed to analyze chlorothalonil residues and maximum residue limits (MRLs; 0.5-50 mg/kg) in vegetables in Japan. Conjugates of N-(pentachlorophenoxyacetyl)glycine and bovine serum albumin were covalently coated on the sensor chip. The SPR-sensor quantitatively determined chlorothalonil at concentrations ranging from 8.0 to 44 ng/mL, using TPN9A, a monoclonal antibody to chlorothalonil. The 50% inhibition concentration was 25 ng/mL. The reactivity was 10-fold lower than that of indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA). However, the SPR-sensor could determine chlorothalonil residues in vegetables at concentrations around the above MRLs. Chlorothalonil spiked in vegetables was recovered at 90-118% within 1 day and at 90-115% across 3 days, correlating with HPLC results. The sensor showed good performance for chlorothalonil residue analysis in vegetables with rapid determination, although the sensitivity and the cross-reactivity were less effective than with the ic-ELISA.

  16. A Renewable Electrochemical Magnetic Immunosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticle Labels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-05-24

    A particle-based renewable electrochemical magnetic immunosensor was developed by using magnetic beads and a gold nanoparticle label. Anti-IgG antibody-modified magnetic beads were attached to a renewable carbon paste transducer surface by magnets that were fixed inside the sensor. A gold nanoparticle label was capsulated to the surface of magnetic beads by sandwich immunoassay. Highly sensitive electrochemical stripping analysis offers a simple and fast method to quantify the capatured gold nanoparticle tracer and avoid the use of an enzyme label and substrate. The stripping signal of gold nanoparticle is related to the concentration of target IgG in the sample solution. A transmission electron microscopy image shows that the gold nanoparticles were successfully capsulated to the surface of magnetic beads through sandwich immunoreaction events. The parameters of immunoassay, including the loading of magnetic beads, the amount of gold nanoparticle conjugate, and the immunoreaction time, were optimized. The detection limit of 0.02 μg ml-1of IgG was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. Such particle-based electrochemical magnetic immunosensors could be readily used for simultaneous parallel detection of multiple proteins by using multiple inorganic metal nanoparticle tracers and are expected to open new opportunities for disease diagnostics and biosecurity.

  17. Ratiometric ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongxue; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we presented a ratiometric electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe. Carboxymethyl cellulose-Au-Pb2+ (CMC-Au-Pb2+) and carbon-Au-Cu2+ (C-Au-Cu2+) nanocomposites were firstly synthesized and implemented as redox substrate and immunoprobe with strong current signals at −0.45 V and 0.15 V, respectively. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a model analyte to examine the analytical performance of the proposed method. The current signals of CMC-Au-Pb2+ (Isubstrate) and C-Au-Cu2+ (Iprobe) were monitored. The effect of redox substrate and immunoprobe behaved as a better linear relationship between Iprobe/Isubstrate and Lg CIgG (ng mL−1). By measuring the signal ratio Iprobe/Isubstrate, the sandwich immunosensor for IgG exhibited a wide linear range from 1 fg mL−1 to 100 ng mL−1, which was two orders of magnitude higher than other previous works. The limit of detection reached 0.26 fg mL−1. Furthermore, for human serum samples, the results from this method were consistent with those of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that the proposed immunoassay was of great potential in clinical diagnosis. PMID:27739493

  18. Electrochemical immunosensor with aptamer-based enzymatic amplification.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kejun; Kang, Yan; Zhao, Jing-Jin; Liu, Ya-Li; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2008-07-01

    An electrochemical immunosensor is reported by using aptamer-based enzymatic amplification with immunoglobulin E (IgE) as the model analyte. In this method, the IgE antibody is covalently immobilized as the capture probe on the gold electrode via a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine. After the target is captured, the biotinylated anti-IgE aptamer is used as the detection probe. The specific interaction of streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase to the surface-bound biotinylated detection probe mediates a catalytic reaction of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate substrate to produce a reducing agent ascorbic acid. Then silver ions in the solution can be reduced, leading to the deposition of metallic silver on the electrode surface. The amount of deposited silver, which is determined by the amount of IgE target bound on the electrode surface, can be quantified using the stripping voltammetry. The results obtained demonstrated that the electrochemical immunosensor possesses high specificity and a wide dynamic range with a low detection limit that possibly arises from the combination of the highly specific aptamer and the highly sensitive stripping determination of enzymatically deposited silver.

  19. Ratiometric ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongxue; Ma, Zhanfang

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we presented a ratiometric electrochemical immunosensor based on redox substrate and immunoprobe. Carboxymethyl cellulose-Au-Pb2+ (CMC-Au-Pb2+) and carbon-Au-Cu2+ (C-Au-Cu2+) nanocomposites were firstly synthesized and implemented as redox substrate and immunoprobe with strong current signals at ‑0.45 V and 0.15 V, respectively. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a model analyte to examine the analytical performance of the proposed method. The current signals of CMC-Au-Pb2+ (Isubstrate) and C-Au-Cu2+ (Iprobe) were monitored. The effect of redox substrate and immunoprobe behaved as a better linear relationship between Iprobe/Isubstrate and Lg CIgG (ng mL‑1). By measuring the signal ratio Iprobe/Isubstrate, the sandwich immunosensor for IgG exhibited a wide linear range from 1 fg mL‑1 to 100 ng mL‑1, which was two orders of magnitude higher than other previous works. The limit of detection reached 0.26 fg mL‑1. Furthermore, for human serum samples, the results from this method were consistent with those of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that the proposed immunoassay was of great potential in clinical diagnosis.

  20. Electrochemical immunosensor based on hyperbranched structure for carcinoembryonic antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaobo; Lu, Liandi; Zhu, Peiyuan; Mao, Chun; Zhao, Haolin; Song, Youchao; Shen, Jian

    2014-08-15

    Sensitive determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is very important in clinical research and diagnosis. Herein we report the design and synthesis of a new kind of immunosensor based on the benefits of hyperbranched structure. The hyperbranched polyester was grafted to the surface of indium tin oxides glass (ITO) electrode, and the grafting processes were characterized by attentuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After CEA and horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody-conjugated AuNPs (HRP-Ab2-AuNPs) bioconjugates were immobilized on the surface of the hyperbranched structure-modified electrode, the optimized conditions of the above electrode were investigated. Moreover, the analytical performance of the proposed immunosensor showed a high sensitivity, a linear range from 0.01 to 80ng/mL with a low detection limit of 2.36pg/mL, and good selectivity for CEA. The designed immunoassay system holds great potential for ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensing of other analytes. PMID:24607616

  1. Determination of carbaryl in natural water samples by a surface plasmon resonance flow-through immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, E; Calle, A; Abad, A; Montoya, A; Hildebrandt, A; Barceló, D; Lechuga, L M

    2006-05-15

    The analysis of carbaryl in natural water samples was accomplished using a portable immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The assay was based on a binding inhibition immunoassay format with the analyte derivative covalently immobilized on the sensor surface. An alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was formed onto the gold-coated sensor surface to allow the reusability of the same sensing surface during 220 regeneration cycles. Reproducibility was evaluated by performing three independent assays in triplicate on 3 different days. The batch-assay variability was also calculated using three different gold-coated sensor surfaces. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation were 8.6 and 15.3%, respectively, whilst a variation of 7.4% in assay sensitivity was obtained by employing different sensor chips. The lowest detection limit, calculated as the concentration providing a 10% decrease of the blank signal, was of 1.38 microg L(-1). Matrix effects were also evaluated in different water types, showing I50 values (carbaryl concentrations that produced a 50% decrease of the blank signal) within the range of carbaryl standard curves in distilled water (2.78-3.55 microg L(-1)). The carbaryl immunoassay performance was validated with respect to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The correlation between methods was in good agreement (r2 = 0.998, 0.999 and 0.999) for the three types of natural water samples tested. A complete assay cycle, including regeneration, is accomplished in 20 min. All measurements were carried out with the SPR sensor system (beta-SPR) commercialised by the company SENSIA, SL (Spain). The small size and low-time of response of the beta-SPR platform would allow its utilization in real contaminated locations.

  2. Nanogold probe enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance immunosensor for improved detection of antibiotic residues.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Fátima; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

    2012-04-15

    An exhaustive study is reported on the effect that antibody nanogold probes produce on the performance of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor. The paper studies the improvement that different nanogold probes prepared at different antibody:gold nanoparticle (IgG:AuNP) ratios and AuNP sizes produce on the maximum signal and detectability of a simple SPR immunosensor developed to analyze fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic residues (SPReeta system). The investigation compares the features of sensor enhanced formats using both, secondary and primary nanogold probes (anti-IgG and IgG coupled to AuNP, on double and single-antibody immunochemical assay steps, respectively), in respect to the unenhanced format. For this purpose, a reproducible bioconjugation procedure for preparing gold biohybrid nanoparticles has been established, involving the formation of a mixed self-assembled monolayer (m-SAM) with PEGylated cross-linkers around the AuNP followed by the covalent attachment of the antibodies. The procedure allows controlling the IgG:AuNP ratio of the nanogold probes on a reproducible manner and the functionalized NPs have been found to be stable during assay and storage. Both formats, using secondary and primary nanogold probes, are excellent strategies to improve immunosensor detectability. Thus, using anti-IgG-AuNP, the detectability could be improved by a factor of 14 (LOD 0.07±0.01 μg L(-1) vs. 0.98±0.38 μg L(-1)) reducing at the same time the amount of primary antibody used (30,000 vs. 1000 dilution factor). Likewise, the format using IgG-AuNP also allows improving detectability (LOD 0.11±0.01 μg L(-1)), but reducing the number of needed steps.

  3. Scalable fabrication of immunosensors based on carbon nanotube polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Ernest; Orozco, Jahir; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; González-Guerrero, Ana B.; Calle, Ana; Lechuga, Laura M.; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2008-02-01

    In this work we present the fabrication and characterization of immunosensors based on polystyrene (PS)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites. The electrochemical properties of the sensors have been investigated and show that the surface area is increased upon addition of the MWCNT-PS layer. Furthermore, a plasma activation process is used to partially remove the PS and expose the MWCNTs. This results in a huge increase in the electrochemical area and opens up the possibility of binding biomolecules to the MWCNT wall. The MWCNTs have been functionalized covalently with a model antibody (rabbit IgG). The biosensors have been tested using amperometric techniques and show detection limits comparable to standard techniques such as ELISA.

  4. A stable and sensitive voltammetric immunosensor based on a new non-enzymatic label.

    PubMed

    Akter, Rashida; Kyun Rhee, Choong; Rahman, Md Aminur

    2013-12-15

    A stable and sensitive electrochemical carcinoembryonic antigen immunosensor based on a new non-enzymatic label (3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)) was fabricated using gold nanoparticles-deposited polydopamine film (PD/AuNPs) as an anti-CEA antibody immobilizing platform. TMB was conjugated with CEA and utilized as an electrochemical label. The PD/AuNPs platform provides enhanced conductivity, thus the redox reaction of TMB label was observed at the immunosensor probe. The immunosensor probe was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The CEA detection was based on the competitive binding of free- and TMB-conjugated-CEA to the anti-CEA antibody. Using differential pulse voltammetry, CEA can be selectively detected as low as 10±0.6 pg/mL. The present immunosensor method was applied to CEA-spiked human serum samples and the recovery results were satisfactory.

  5. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangxian; Lan, Ruilong; Zhang, Wenxin; Fu, Feihuan; Sun, Yiming; Peng, Huaping; Chen, Tianbin; Cai, Yishan; Liu, Ailin; Lin, Jianhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on a three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode using a facile, rapid, "green" square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle technique. The resulting three-dimensional gold nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A "sandwich-type" detection strategy using an electrochemical immunosensor was employed. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the current response signal and the AFP concentrations was observed in the range of 10-50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL. This new immunosensor showed a fast amperometric response and high sensitivity and selectivity. It was successfully used to determine AFP in a human serum sample with a relative standard deviation of <5% (n=5). The proposed immunosensor represents a significant step toward practical application in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prognosis.

  6. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guangxian; Lan, Ruilong; Zhang, Wenxin; Fu, Feihuan; Sun, Yiming; Peng, Huaping; Chen, Tianbin; Cai, Yishan; Liu, Ailin; Lin, Jianhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on a three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode using a facile, rapid, “green” square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle technique. The resulting three-dimensional gold nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A “sandwich-type” detection strategy using an electrochemical immunosensor was employed. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the current response signal and the AFP concentrations was observed in the range of 10–50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL. This new immunosensor showed a fast amperometric response and high sensitivity and selectivity. It was successfully used to determine AFP in a human serum sample with a relative standard deviation of <5% (n=5). The proposed immunosensor represents a significant step toward practical application in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prognosis. PMID:25834434

  7. SPR based immunosensor for detection of Legionella pneumophila in water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrico, De Lorenzis; Manera, Maria G.; Montagna, Giovanni; Cimaglia, Fabio; Chiesa, Maurizio; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Santino, Angelo; Rella, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Detection of legionellae by water sampling is an important factor in epidemiological investigations of Legionnaires' disease and its prevention. To avoid labor-intensive problems with conventional methods, an alternative, highly sensitive and simple method is proposed for detecting L. pneumophila in aqueous samples. A compact Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) instrumentation prototype, provided with proper microfluidics tools, is built. The developed immunosensor is capable of dynamically following the binding between antigens and the corresponding antibody molecules immobilized on the SPR sensor surface. A proper immobilization strategy is used in this work that makes use of an important efficient step aimed at the orientation of antibodies onto the sensor surface. The feasibility of the integration of SPR-based biosensing setups with microfluidic technologies, resulting in a low-cost and portable biosensor is demonstrated.

  8. Fabrication of a label-free plasmon immunosensor based on triangular silver nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peipei; Lin, Yuanyuan; Di, Junwei

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we have firstly electrodeposited small gold seeds (average diameter of ~40 nm) onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film coated glass. Then silver triangular nanoplates with edge lengths of ~200 nm were fabricated using seed-mediated growth method. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak was located at ~700 nm. Finally, a label-free plasmon immunosensor was prepared by directly immobilizing goat anti-mouse IgG onto silver surface. The performance of the LSPR immunosensor was investigated. The red-shift of the biosensor was linearly proportional to mouse IgG concentration ranged from 5 ng/mL to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 2 ng/mL. The label-free immunosensor was simple, sensitive and selective.

  9. Aptamer-based immunosensor on the ZnO nanorods networks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoonkyung; Park, Jungil; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Pak, James Jungho

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characteristics of a new aptamer-based electrochemical immunosensor on the patterned zinc oxide nanorod networks (ZNNs) for detecting thrombin. Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA sequence that binds to target materials with high specificity and affinity. An antibody-antigen-aptamer sandwich structure was employed to this immunosensor for detecting thrombin. First, hydrothermally grown ZNNs were patterned on the patterned 0.02 cm2 Au/Ti electrodes on a glass substrate by lift-off process. The high isoelectric point (IEP, approximately 9.5) of nanostructured ZnO makes it suitable for immobilizing proteins with low IEP. Then 5 microL of the 500 nM antibody was immobilized on the ZNNs electrode. 5 micro/L of the mixture of 1 microM aptamer labeled by ferrocene (Fc) and thrombin was dropped on the electrode for antibody-antigen binding. The peak oxidation currents of the immunosensors at various thrombin concentrations were measured by using cyclic voltammetry. The peak oxidation current was observed at 340 mV versus Ag/AgCl electrode, and the peak oxidation current increased linearly from 62.26 nA to 354.13 nA with the logarithmic concentration of thrombin in the range from 100 pM to 250 nM. Fabrication of an aptamer-based immunosensor for thrombin detection is a new attempt and the characteristics of the fabricated immunosensors showed that the fabricated aptamer-baded immunosensor worked electrochemically well and had a low detection limit (approximately 91.04 pM) and good selectivity.

  10. Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Magliulo, Maria; De Tullio, Donato; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Albers, Willem M; Munter, Tony; Manoli, Kyriaki; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 μM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum. Graphical abstract Schematic of the EGOFET immunosensor for CRP detection. The anti-CRP monoclonal antibody layer is physisorbed on the P3HT organic semiconductor and the CRP is directly measured by a label-free electronic EGOFET transducer.

  11. Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Magliulo, Maria; De Tullio, Donato; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Albers, Willem M; Munter, Tony; Manoli, Kyriaki; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 μM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum. Graphical abstract Schematic of the EGOFET immunosensor for CRP detection. The anti-CRP monoclonal antibody layer is physisorbed on the P3HT organic semiconductor and the CRP is directly measured by a label-free electronic EGOFET transducer. PMID:27032409

  12. Electrochemical immunosensor for detection of topoisomerase based on graphene-gold nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guang-Xian; Wang, Peng; Fu, Fei-Huan; Weng, Shao-Huang; Chen, Wei; Li, Shao-Guang; Liu, Ai-Lin; Wu, Zhao-Yang; Zhu, Xia; Lin, Xin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Hua; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2014-07-01

    A facile electrochemical immunosensor based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposites (G-3D Au) using simple and rapid one-step electrochemical co-reduction technique was developed for sensitive detection of topoisomerase. The resultant G-3D Au nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and then were used as a substrate for construction of the "sandwich-type" immunosensor. Amperometric current-time curve was employed to monitor the immunoreaction on the protein modified electrode. The proposed method could respond to topoisomerase with a linear calibration range from 0.5 ng mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10 pg mL(-1). This new biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and selectivity, and was successfully used in determining the topoisomerase which was added in human serum with a relative standard deviation (n=5)<5%. The immunosensor served as a significant step toward the practical application of the immunosensor in clinical diagnosis and prognosis monitor.

  13. Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for tumor markers based on biological barcode mode with conductive nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuping; Guo, Zhiyong; Chen, Beibei; Sha, Yuhong; Jiang, Xiaohua; Li, Xing; Gan, Ning; Wang, Sui

    2014-03-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was developed for highly sensitive and selective determination of tumor markers based on biological barcode mode. N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI) and the second antibody (Ab2) were simultaneously immobilized on conductive nanospheres to construct ABEI/Ab2-CNSs probes, which could form sandwich immunocomplex by Ab2 and emit ECL signals by ABEI. The gold layer coated on the surface of the conductive nanospheres could extend the outer Helmholtz plane (OHP) of the ECL immunosensor effectively. Benefited from it, all ABEI molecules immobilized on conductive nanospheres would act as biological barcode to give in-situ ECL signals without interfering with the activity of the second antibody. In such a case, the sensitivity of the ECL immunosensor would be greatly improved because an antigen molecule would correspond to ECL signals of thousands of ABEI molecules. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a model tumor marker, the ECL intensity was found to increase with the logarithm of PSA concentration with a wide linear range from 0.04 to 10 fg/mL. In addition, specificity, stability, reproducibility, regeneration and application were satisfactory. Therefore, this developed ECL immunosensor has a potential for practical detection of disease-related proteins besides tumor markers in the clinical diagnostics.

  14. Screen-printed carbon electrode-based electrochemical immunosensor for rapid detection of microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chen, Ching-Jung; Settu, Kalpana; Lin, Yu-Feng; Chen, Chien-Lung; Liu, Jen-Tsai

    2016-03-15

    A urinary microalbumin test is used to detect early signs of kidney damage in people who have a risk of chronic kidney disease, such as those with diabetes or hypertension. In this study, we developed a screen-printed carbon electrode-based immunosensor for the detection of microalbumin in urine. Anti-human albumin antibodies were immobilized on the screen-printed sensor surface by the covalent immobilization method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectroscopical (SEM-EDS) analysis demonstrated that the modification process was well performed. Chronoamperometric (CA) electrochemical measurement technique was employed for the quantitative detection of albumin. The electrochemical measurements performed with some possible interfering compounds normally present in urine (ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose and creatinine samples) demonstrated a high specificity and selectivity of this immunosensor in albumin detection. Under optimum conditions, the immunosensor can detect urinary albumin in a wide linear range from 10 µg/ml to 300 µg/ml with a detection limit of 9.7 µg/ml. The excellent performance of this immunosensor was confirmed by analyzing microalbumin in urine samples; the results were in good agreement with those obtained by the standard immunoturbidimetric method. The biosensor proposed herein is easy to prepare and can be used for low-cost, rapid, and sensitive screening of microalbuminuria. This approach provides a promising platform for developing clinical point-of-care diagnostic applications. PMID:26579935

  15. A novel nanoparticle-based disposable electrochemical immunosensor for diagnosis of exposure to toxic organophosphorus agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Donglai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Du, Dan; Timchalk, Charles; Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    We present a novel disposable electrochemical immunosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (OP-BChE), a specific biomarker for exposure to toxic organophosphorus agents. In our new approach, the zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO-2) were employed to selectively capture the OP moiety of OP-BChE adducts, and followed by quantum dot (QD)-tagged anti-BChE antibodies for amplified quantification. The captured CdSe-QD tags can be sensitively detected by stripping voltammetry using in situ bismuth-plating method. The OP agent, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), was selected to prepare OP-BChE adducts in various matrices. The formation of OP-BChE adducts in plasma sample was confirmed using mass spectroscopy. The developed electrochemical immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear voltammetric response over the range of 0.1 to 30 nM OP-BChE. Moreover, the immunosensor has been successfully applied for the detection of OP-BChE adducts in the plasma samples. This novel nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor thus provides an alternative way for designing simple, fast, sensitive, and cost-effective sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating exposure to a variety of OP agents.

  16. A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Shimaa; Zourob, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid-ovalbumin conjugate (OA-OVA) for the immobilized antibodies was employed for the detection of okadaic acid. The decrease of the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- reduction peak current in the square wave voltammetry for various concentrations of okadaic acid was used for establishing the calibration curve. A linear relationship between the SWV peak current difference and OA concentration was obtained up to ~5000 ng L-1. The developed immunosensor allowed a detection limit of 19 ng L-1 of OA in PBS buffer. The matrix effect studied with spiked shellfish tissue extracts showed a good percentage of recovery and the method was also validated with certified reference mussel samples.A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid

  17. A chitosan-Au-hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles-based antifouling immunosensor for sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong; Ma, Lie; Qian, Qiuhui; Parmar, Soniya; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Analysts are always interested in finding new functional nanomaterials and devices with good properties for electrochemical sensor applications. In this paper, hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA NPs) were synthesized and combined with chitosan wrapped around Au nanoparticles (CS-Au NPs) to prepare a novel and sensitive electrochemical immunosensor by adsorption of carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) on the (HBPE-CA)/CS-Au NPs modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor displayed a good amperometric response to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Moreover, based on the antibiofouling properties, the immunosensor could be used for the direct detection of CEA in whole blood, and exhibited a wide detection range (1-10(7) fg mL(-1)), and a low detection limit of 0.251 fg mL(-1) (signal/noise = 3). Control experiments were also carried out by using ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), human immunoglobulin G (IgG), BSA and glucose in the absence of CEA. The good stability and repeatability of this immunosensor were also proven. Importantly, the results of the detection of clinical whole blood specimens with the proposed immunosensor showed good consistency with the data determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples. Furthermore, the developed immunosensor could provide a promising immunoassay strategy for clinical applications, since the values we measured in whole blood directly are likely closer to the real values. PMID:24957417

  18. A multianalyte electrochemical immunosensor based on patterned carbon nanotubes modified substrates for detection of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhen; Guo, Wenqi; Song, Dandan

    2014-02-15

    A novel multianalyte electrochemical immunosensor based on the assembly of patterned SWNTs on glassy carbon (GC) substrates was developed for simultaneous detection of endosulfan and paraoxon. Based on aryldiazonium salt chemistry, forest of SWNTs can be patterned on GC substrates by C3C bonding using micro contact printing (MCP), which provides an interface showing efficient electron transfer between biomolecules and electrodes. Then redox molecules FDMA and PQQ can be attached to the SWNTs, respectively followed by the attachment of specific epitopes and antibodies. The modified sensing surfaces were characterized by XPS, SEM, AFM and electrochemistry. Based on the current change of specific redox probes, the fabricated immunosensor array can be used for simultaneous detection of endosulfan and paraoxon by a displacement assay. In phosphate buffer solution (50mM, pH 7.0), there is a linear relationship between electrochemical signal of FDMA and the concentration of endosulfan over the range of 0.05-100 ppb with a detection limit of 0.05ppb; the linear range between electrochemical signal of PQQ and the concentration of paraoxon is 2-2500 ppb with a detection limit of 2 ppb. The immunosensor array demonstrates high repeatability, reproducibility, stability and selectivity for the detection of endosulfan and paraoxon.

  19. Poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrole propylic acid) film and its application in label-free surface plasmon resonance immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Li, Chang Ming; Dong, Hua

    2008-12-01

    In this work, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to study protein immobilization on poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrole propylic acid) (PPy/PPa) for immunosensing applications. SPR was employed to in situ monitor the electropolymerization process and to control thickness of the PPy/PPa copolymer film. Goat IgG as a model protein was covalently immobilized on the carboxyl-containing film through EDC/NHS as the coupling reagents. The effect of pyrrole propylic acid (Pa) proportion in the deposition solution on the protein immobilization capability was systemically investigated. The immobilization efficiency was demonstrated by a label-free SPR immunosensor. The heterogeneous kinetics of the immune reaction was discussed. This work could provide a facile method to immobilize proteins on an electrode surface by electropolymerized copolymer, and renders a universal approach to in situ study the protein immobilization process and sensing kinetics for scientific insights of the heteroimmunosensing scheme particularly in surface chemistry and molecular biology for further improvement of immunosensors.

  20. Flatfish vitellogenin detection using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Ryu, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2007-09-01

    A sensitive optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor was developed to detect vitellogenin in seawater flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus). For this purpose, anion-exchange column chromatography with DE-52 resin was used to purify flatfish vitellogenin from flatfish serum containing vitellogenin that had been induced using an intraperitoneal 17beta-estradiol injection. The anti-flatfish vitellogenin antibody used as the biological component of the above immunosensor was prepared using the purified flatfish vitellogenin. The change in the incoupling angle according to the complexation between the flatfish vitellogenin and its antibody, immobilized over an optical grating coupler sensor chip, was measured to calculate the sensor response. The immunosensor was quite specific to flatfish vitellogenin binding, based on no sensor response in the case of bovine serum albumin immobilization. When plotted using double-logarithmic scales, the sensor responses increased linearly in flatfish vitellogenin concentrations of 0.00675-67.5 nM, with a detection limit of 0.0675 nM. The reusability during seven repetitive measurements was reasonably fair for the preliminary screening of flatfish vitellogenin.

  1. Graphene-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of phosphorylated p53 (S15)

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yunying; Chen, Aiqiong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-01

    We reported a graphene-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of phosphorylated p53 on serine 15 (phospho-p5315), a potential biomarker of gamma-radiation exposure. The principle is based on sandwich immunoassay and the resulting immunocomplex is formed among phospho-p53 capture antibody, phospho-p5315 antigen, biotinylated phospho-p5315 detection antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled streptavidin. The introduced HRP results in an electrocatalytic response to reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of thionine. Graphene served as sensor platform not only promotes electron transfer, but also increases the surface area to introduce a large amount of capture antibody, thus increasing the detection sensitivity. The experimental conditions including blocking agent, immunoreaction time and substrate concentration have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the increase of response current is proportional to the phospho-p5315 concentration in the range of 0.2–10 ng mL-1, with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL-1. The developed immunosensor exhibits acceptable stability and reproducibility and the assay results for phospho-p5315 are in good correlation with the known values. This easily fabricated immunosensor provides a new promising tool for analysis of phospho-p5315 and other phosphorylated proteins.

  2. An amperometric chloramphenicol immunosensor based on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles modified-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Rahman, Md Aminur; Do, Minh Hien; Ban, Changill; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2010-03-15

    An amperometric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (anti-CAT) antibody on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS) modified-dendrimer that was bonded to the conducting polymer (poly 5, 2': 5', 2''-terthiophene-3'-carboxyl acid (poly-TTCA)) layer. The AuNPs, dendrimers, and CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the polymer layer in order to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor probes. The particle sizes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobilization of dendrimers, CdS, and anti-CAT were confirmed using energy disruptive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. The detection of CAP was based on the competitive immuno-interaction between the free- and labeled-CAP for active sites of the anti-CAT. Hydrazine was used as the label for CAP, and it electrochemically catalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) at -0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a linear range of CAP detection between 50 pg/mL and 950 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 45 pg/mL. The immunosensor was examined in real meat samples for the analysis of CAP.

  3. Troponin T immunosensor based on liquid crystal and silsesquioxane-supported gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zapp, Eduardo; da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Westphal, Eduard; Gallardo, Hugo; Spinelli, Almir; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2014-09-17

    A nanostructured immunosensor based on the liquid crystal (E)-1-decyl-4-[(4-decyloxyphenyl)diazenyl]pyridinium bromide (Br-Py) and gold nanoparticles supported by the water-soluble hybrid material 3-n-propyl-4-picolinium silsesquioxane chloride (AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)) was built for the detection of troponin T (cTnT), a cardiac marker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The functionalized nanostructured surface was used to bind anti-cTnT monoclonal antibodies through electrostatic interaction. The immunosensor (ab-cTnT/AuNP-Si4Pic(+)Cl(-)/Br-Py/GCE) surface was characterized by microscopy techniques. The electrochemical behavior of the immunosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A calibration curve was obtained by square-wave voltammetry. The immnunosensor provided a limit of detection of 0.076 ng mL(-1) and a linear range between 0.1 and 0.9 ng mL(-1) (appropriate for AMI diagnosis). PMID:25111622

  4. Quantum dots based electrochemiluminescent immunosensor by coupling enzymatic amplification for ultrasensitive detection of clenbuterol.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xun; Yan, Panpan; Tang, Qinghui; Deng, Anping; Li, Jianguo

    2013-10-10

    An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been designed for the detection of clenbuterol. The immunosensor was fabricated by layer by layer and characterized with atomic force microscopic images (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In oxygen-saturated pH=9.0 Tris-HCl buffer, a strong ECL emission of QDs could be observed during the cathodic process due to the H2O2 product from electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen. Upon the formation of immunocomplex, the second antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase was simply immobilized on the electrode surface. The ECL emission decreased since steric hindrance of the immunocomplex slowed down the electron-transfer speed of dissolved oxygen, and also could be greatly amplified by an enzymatic cycle to consume the self-produced coreactant. Using clenbuterol as model analyte, the ECL intensity was determined by the concentration of competitive immunoassay of clenbuterol with a wide calibration in the range of 0.05 ng mL(-1) to 1000 ng mL(-1), and a low detection limit was 0.02 ng mL(-1). The immunosensor shows good stability and fabrication reproducibility. It was applied to detecting practical samples with the satisfactory results. This immunosensing strategy opens a new avenue for detection of residue and application of QDs in ECL biosensing.

  5. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  6. Immunosensor based on carbon nanotube/manganese dioxide electrochemical tags.

    PubMed

    Tu, Meng-Che; Chen, Han-Yi; Wang, Yuxi; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Alagappan, Palaniappan; Liedberg, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on carbon nanotube/manganese dioxide (CNT-MnO2) composites as electrochemical tags for non-enzymatic signal amplification in immunosensing. The synthesized CNT-MnO2 composites showed good electrochemical activity, electrical conductivity and stability. The electrochemical signal of CNT-MnO2 composites coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) increased by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to bare GCE in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) environment. CNT-MnO2 composite was subsequently validated as electrochemical tags for sensitive detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma. The electrochemical immunosensor demonstrated a linear response on a log-scale for AFP concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 100 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 40 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3) in PBS buffer. Further measurements using AFP spiked plasma samples revealed the applicability of fabricated CNT-MnO2 composites for clinical and diagnostic applications.

  7. Sensitive amperometric immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein based on carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiehua; He, Chunyan; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Shusheng

    2009-01-01

    A novel strategy for the fabrication of sensitive immunosensor to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum has been proposed. The immunosensor was prepared by immobilizing AFP antigen onto the glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified by gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes doped chitosan (GNP/CNT/Ch) film. GNP/CNT hybrids were produced by one-step synthesis based on the direct redox reaction. The electrochemical properties of GNP/CNT/Ch films were characterized by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. It was indicated that GNP/CNT nanohybrid acted as an electron promoter and accelerated the electron transfer. Sample AFP, immobilized AFP, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled antibody were incubated together for the determination based on a competitive immunoassay format. After the immunoassay reaction, the bound ALP label on the modified GC led to an amperometric response of 1-naphthyl phosphate (1-NP), which was changed with the different antigen concentrations in solution. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the resulting immunosensor could detect AFP in a linear range from 1 to 55 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 ng ml(-1). The proposed immunosensor, by using GNP/CNT/Ch as the immobilization matrix of AFP, offers an excellent amperometric response of ALP-anti-AFP to 1-NP. The immunosensor provided a new alternative to the application of other antigens or other bioactive molecules. PMID:18848914

  8. A Label-Free Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Ketamine Based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya; Tu, Yifeng; Wang, Xiaoshu; Pan, Jinyin; Ding, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a label-free immunosensor with the variation of resonance frequency (Δf) of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as readout signal for ultrasensitive detection of Ketamine (KT). An optimized strategy for immobilization of KT antibody on the surface of the QCM chip was implemented via the self-assembly modification of 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and then activated with 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminoprophl) carbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. The specific affinity between the antibody and the antigen ensured a selective response toward KT. The Δf linearly related to the concentration of KT in the range of 1 to 40 pg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.86 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The obtained immunosensor was applied to detect the KT in spiked human urine without any pretreatment but dilution with recoveries from 91.8% to 108%. The developed sensor is promising to perform the portable or on-spot KT detection in clinic or forensic cases. PMID:25871722

  9. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  10. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips. PMID:27098564

  11. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on a sol-gel entrapped antibody.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Du, Shuyuan; Wang, Xiangyou; Zhao, Wenping; Li, Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (Ab) was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using silica sol-gel (SiSG) technology. Thus, a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the direct determination of carbofuran was developed. The electrochemical performance of immunoreaction of antigen with the anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in which phosphate buffer solution containing [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) was used as the base solution for test. Because the complex formed by the immunoreaction hindered the diffusion of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) on the electrode surface, the redox peak current of the immunosensor in the CV obviously decreased with the increase of the carbofuran concentration. The pH of working solution, the concentration of Ab and the incubation time of carbofuran were studied to ensure the sensitivity and conductivity of the immunosensor. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range of the proposed immunosensor for the determination of carbofuran was from 1 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL and from 50 μg/mL to 200 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed immunosensor exhibited good high sensitivity and stability, and it was thus suitable for trace detection of carbofuran pesticide residues.

  12. Ceria Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoflowers Enhanced Luminol-Based Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Amyloid-β Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Xi; Zhuo, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Hai-Jun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2016-05-25

    In this work, ceria doped ZnO nanomaterials with flower-structure (Ce:ZONFs) were prepared to construct a luminol-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for amyloid-β protein (Aβ) detection. Herein, carboxyl groups (-COOH) covered Ce:ZONFs were synthesized by a green method with lysine as reductant. After that, Ce:ZONFs-based ECL nanocomposite was prepared by combining the luminophore of luminol and Ce:ZONFs via amidation and physical absorption. Luminol modified on Ce:ZONFs surface could generate a strong ECL signal under the assistance of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) (such as OH(•) and O2(•-)), which were produced by a catalytic reaction between Ce:ZONFs and H2O2. It was worth noticing that a quick Ce(4+) ↔ Ce(3+) reaction in this doped material could increase the rate of electron transfer to realize the signal amplification. Subsequently, the luminol functionalized Ce:ZONFs (Ce:ZONFs-Lum) were covered by secondary antibody (Ab2) and glucose oxidase (GOD), respectively, to construct a novel Ab2 bioconjugate (Ab2-GOD@Ce:ZONFs-Lum). The wire-structured silver-cysteine complex (AgCys NWs) with a large number of -COOH, which was synthesized by AgNO3 and l-cysteine, was used as substrate of the immunosensor to capture the primary antibody (Ab1). Under the optimal conditions, this proposed ECL immunosensor had exhibited high sensitivity for Aβ detection with a wide linear range from 80 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL and an ultralow detection limit of 52 fg/mL. Meanwhile, this biosensor had good specificity for Aβ, indicating that the provided strategy had a promising potential in the detection of Aβ. PMID:27145690

  13. Enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest nanonets catalyzing amplification for procalcitonin detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yang, Zhe-Han; Han, Jing; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-02-25

    An enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the host-guest nanonets of N,N-bis(ferrocenoyl)-diaminoethane/β-cyclodextrins/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-encapsulated Au nanoparticles (Fc-Fc/β-CD/PAMAM-Au) for procalcitonin (PCT) detection has been developed in this study. The signal probe was constructed as follows: amine-terminated β-CD was adsorbed to PAMAM-Au first, and then the prepared Fc-Fc was recognized by the β-CD to form stable host-guest nanonets. Next, secondary antibodies (Ab2) were attached into the formed netlike nanostructure of Fc-Fc/β-CD/PAMAM-Au by chemical absorption between PAMAM-Au and -NH2 of β-CD. Herein, the PAMAM-Au act not only as nanocarriers for anchoring large amounts of the β-CD and Ab2 but also as nanocatalysts to catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) for signal amplification. Moreover, the Fc-Fc could be stably immobilized by the hydrophobic inner cavity of β-CD as well as improving solubility by the hydrophilic exterior of β-CD. With the unique structure of two ferrocene units, Fc-Fc not only affords more electroactive groups to make the electrochemical response more sensitive but also plays a role of combining dispersive β-CD-functionalized PAMAM-Au to form the netlike nanostructure. Furthermore, Fc-Fc exhibits good catalytic activity for AA oxidation. When the detection solution contained AA, the synergetic catalysis of PAMAM-Au and Fc-Fc to AA oxidation could be obtained, realizing enzyme-free signal amplification. The proposed immunosensor provided a linear range from 1.80 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL for PCT detection and a detection limit of 0.36 pg/mL under optimal experimental conditions. Moreover, the immunosensor has shown potential application in clinical detection of PCT.

  14. Double electrochemical covalent coupling method based on click chemistry and diazonium chemistry for the fabrication of sensitive amperometric immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Honglan; Li, Min; Zhang, Rui; Dong, Manman; Ling, Chen

    2013-08-20

    A double electrochemical covalent coupling method based on click chemistry and diazonium chemistry for the fabrication of sensitive amperometric immunosensor was developed. As a proof-of-concept, a designed alkyne functionalized human IgG was used as a capture antibody and a HRP-labeled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used as signal antibody for the determination of the anti-human IgG using the sandwich model. The immunosensor was fabricated by electrochemically grafting a phenylazide on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode, and then, by coupling the alkyne functionalized human IgG with the phenylazide group through an electro-click chemistry in the presence of Cu(II). The amperometric measurement for the determination of the anti-human IgG was performed after the fabricated immunosensor was incubated with the target anti-human IgG and then with the HRP-labeled anti-goat IgG at -0.25V in 0.10M PBS (pH 7.0) containing 0.1mM hydroquinone and 2.0mM H2O2. The results showed that the increased current was linear with the logarithm of the concentration of the anti-human IgG in the range from 1.0×10(-10)g mL(-1) to 1.0×10(-8)g mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3×10(-11)g mL(-1). Furthermore, the feasibility of the double electrochemical covalent coupling method proposed in this work for fabricating the amperometric immunosensor array was explored. This work demonstrates that the double electrochemical covalent coupling method is a promising approach for the fabrication of the immunosensor and immunosensor array.

  15. Magnetic beads-based electrochemical immunosensor for monitoring allergenic food proteins.

    PubMed

    Čadková, Michaela; Metelka, Radovan; Holubová, Lucie; Horák, Daniel; Dvořáková, Veronika; Bílková, Zuzana; Korecká, Lucie

    2015-09-01

    Screen-printed platinum electrodes as transducer and magnetic beads as solid phase were combined to develop a particle-based electrochemical immunosensor for monitoring the serious food allergen ovalbumin. The standard arrangement of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay became the basis for designing the immunosensor. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed between magnetic particles functionalized with specific anti-ovalbumin immunoglobulin G and captured ovalbumin molecules, and secondary anti-ovalbumin antibodies conjugated with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase were subsequently added as label tag. The electrochemical signal proportional to the enzymatic reaction of horseradish peroxidase during the reduction of hydrogen peroxide with thionine as electron mediator was measured by linear sweep voltammetry. The newly established method of ovalbumin detection exhibits high sensitivity suitable for quantification in the range of 11 to 222nM and a detection limit of 5nM. Magnetic beads-based assay format using external magnets for rapid and simple separation has been proven to be an excellent basis for electrochemical detection and quantification of food allergens in highly complex sample matrices.

  16. Amplified impedimetric immunosensor based on instant catalyst for sensitive determination of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Huang, Yapei; Zhang, Cengceng; Liu, Huiqiong; Tang, Dianping

    2016-12-15

    A new impedimetric immunosensor for the fast determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in food samples was developed based on the instant catalyst as enhancer. Initially, the signal tags were prepared via co-immobilization of anti-OTA antibody and amine-terminated dendrimer (PAMAM) on the graphene oxide nanosheets through the covalent interaction, which were utilized as a good platform for combining manganese ion (anti-OTA-GO-PAMAM-Mn(2+)). Upon target OTA introduction, a competitive-type immunoreaction was implemented between the analyte and the immobilized OTA-BSA on the electrode for the anti-OTA antibody on the graphene oxide nanosheets labels. After a competitive immunoassay format, the anti-OTA-GO-PAMAM-Mn(2+) were captured onto the electrode surface, which could induce the in situ formation of MnO2via classical redox reaction between Mn(2+) and KMnO4 on the immunesensing platform. Moreover, the generated MnO2 nanoparticles act as efficient catalyst could catalyze the 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) oxidation without H2O2 to generate an insoluble precipitation on the platform. Under the optimal conditions, the instant catalyst based impedimetric immunosensor displayed a wide dynamic working range between 0.1pgmL(-1) and 30ngmL(-1). The detection limit (LOD) of the assay was 0.055pgmL(-1). The developed method exhibited high selectivity and can be used for the determination of OTA in real red wine samples. PMID:27419906

  17. Amplified impedimetric immunosensor based on instant catalyst for sensitive determination of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Huang, Yapei; Zhang, Cengceng; Liu, Huiqiong; Tang, Dianping

    2016-12-15

    A new impedimetric immunosensor for the fast determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in food samples was developed based on the instant catalyst as enhancer. Initially, the signal tags were prepared via co-immobilization of anti-OTA antibody and amine-terminated dendrimer (PAMAM) on the graphene oxide nanosheets through the covalent interaction, which were utilized as a good platform for combining manganese ion (anti-OTA-GO-PAMAM-Mn(2+)). Upon target OTA introduction, a competitive-type immunoreaction was implemented between the analyte and the immobilized OTA-BSA on the electrode for the anti-OTA antibody on the graphene oxide nanosheets labels. After a competitive immunoassay format, the anti-OTA-GO-PAMAM-Mn(2+) were captured onto the electrode surface, which could induce the in situ formation of MnO2via classical redox reaction between Mn(2+) and KMnO4 on the immunesensing platform. Moreover, the generated MnO2 nanoparticles act as efficient catalyst could catalyze the 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) oxidation without H2O2 to generate an insoluble precipitation on the platform. Under the optimal conditions, the instant catalyst based impedimetric immunosensor displayed a wide dynamic working range between 0.1pgmL(-1) and 30ngmL(-1). The detection limit (LOD) of the assay was 0.055pgmL(-1). The developed method exhibited high selectivity and can be used for the determination of OTA in real red wine samples.

  18. Comparative determination of two probiotics by QCM and OWLS-based immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Szalontai, Helga; Adányi, Nóra; Kiss, Attila

    2014-09-25

    The regular consumption of foods containing probiotic bacteria has beneficial physiological effects on the health and the digestion system. There is a need for novel analytical approaches for the determination of these bacteria that are faster than the classical plate counting method. For this purpose, two label-free biosensors were investigated and presented in this paper: Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) based direct immunosensors were developed for real-time direct detection of probiotic bacteria in fermented dairy products. Bifidobacterium bifidum O1356 and Lactobacillus acidophilus O1132 were detected by polyclonal anti-B. bifidum IgG and anti-L. acidophilus IgG immobilized on the sensors' surface. Sulfo-LC-SPDP cross linking agent was used to bind antibodies to the gold surface of the QCM's AT-cut quartz wafer. Concerning OWLS, antibodies were covalently bound to the amino groups of the silanized surface of the waveguide by glutaraldehyde. The dynamic measuring range was found between 1.0E+3 and 5.0E+5CFUmL(-1) in 100 fold diluted fermented milk products by QCM and with OWLS. Considering the current legislation of the probiotic content in probiotic products, the two developed immunosensors can be applied for rapid quantification of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum in fermented milk. These examinations offer effective alternatives to the microbiological plate counting method. PMID:24768869

  19. An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for apolipoprotein E4 based on fractal nanostructures and enzyme amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yibiao; Xu, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuqi; Yang, Weizhao; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-09-15

    Human apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can greatly increase the morbidity. In this work, an ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the quantitative detection of APOE4 was designed based on fractal gold (FracAu) nanostructures and enzyme amplification. The FracAu nanostructures were directly electrodeposited by hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) on polyelectrolytes modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The sensing performances of the modified interface were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). After functionalization with HRP-labeled APOE4 antibody, the human APOE4 could be detected quantitatively by current response. The current response has a linear relationship with the logarithm of human APOE4 concentrations in a range from 1.0 to 10,000.0 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL. The fabricated APOE4 electrochemical immunosensor exhibits strong specificity, high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear range. The detection of human APOE4 provides a strong support for the prevention of AD and early-stage warning for those susceptible populations.

  20. A novel label-free microfluidic paper-based immunosensor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Huiren; Luo, Jinping; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Li; Fan, Yan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a highly sensitive label-free paper-based electrochemical immunosensor employing screen-printed working electrode (SPWE) for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was fabricated. In order to raise the detection sensitivity and immobilize anti-CEA, amino functional graphene (NH2-G)/thionine (Thi)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposites were synthesized and coated on SPWE. The principle of the immunosensor determination was based on the fact that the decreased response currents of Thi were proportional to the concentrations of corresponding antigens due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Experimental results revealed that the immunoassay enabled the determination of standard CEA solutions with linear working ranges of 50pgmL(-1) to 500ngmL(-1), the limit of detections for CEA is 10pgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and its corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.996. Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor could be used for the determination of clinical serum samples. A large number of clinical serum samples were detected and the relative errors between measured values and reference concentrations were calculated. Results showed that this novel paper-based electrochemical immunosensor could provide a new platform for low cost, sensitive, specific, and point-of-care diagnosis in cancer detection. PMID:27132007

  1. A novel label-free microfluidic paper-based immunosensor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Huiren; Luo, Jinping; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Li; Fan, Yan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a highly sensitive label-free paper-based electrochemical immunosensor employing screen-printed working electrode (SPWE) for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was fabricated. In order to raise the detection sensitivity and immobilize anti-CEA, amino functional graphene (NH2-G)/thionine (Thi)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposites were synthesized and coated on SPWE. The principle of the immunosensor determination was based on the fact that the decreased response currents of Thi were proportional to the concentrations of corresponding antigens due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex. Experimental results revealed that the immunoassay enabled the determination of standard CEA solutions with linear working ranges of 50pgmL(-1) to 500ngmL(-1), the limit of detections for CEA is 10pgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and its corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.996. Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor could be used for the determination of clinical serum samples. A large number of clinical serum samples were detected and the relative errors between measured values and reference concentrations were calculated. Results showed that this novel paper-based electrochemical immunosensor could provide a new platform for low cost, sensitive, specific, and point-of-care diagnosis in cancer detection.

  2. Label-free ITO-based immunosensor for the detection of very low concentrations of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Barreiros dos Santos, M; Azevedo, S; Agusil, J P; Prieto-Simón, B; Sporer, C; Torrents, E; Juárez, A; Teixeira, V; Samitier, J

    2015-02-01

    Here we describe the fabrication of a highly sensitive and label-free ITO-based impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7. Anti-E. coli antibodies were immobilized onto ITO electrodes using a simple, robust and direct methodology. First, the covalent attachment of epoxysilane on the ITO surface was demonstrated by Atomic Force Microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The immobilization of antibody on the epoxysilane layer was quantified by Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy, obtaining a mass variation of 12 ng cm(− 2) (0.08 pmol cm(− 2)). Microcontact printing and fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate the specific binding of E. coli O157:H7 to the antibody-patterned surface. We achieved a ratio of 1:500 Salmonella typhimurium/E. coli O157:H7, thus confirming the selectivity of the antibodies and efficiency of the functionalization procedure. Finally, the detection capacity of the ITO-based immunosensor was evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. A very low limit of detection was obtained (1 CFU mL(− 1)) over a large linear working range (10–10(6) CFU mL(− 1)). The specificity of the impedimetric immunosensor was also examined. Less than 20% of non-specific bacteria (S. typhimurium and E. coli K12) was observed. Our results reveal the applicability of ITO for the development of highly sensitive and selective impedimetric immunosensors. PMID:25460610

  3. Ultrasensitive non-enzymatic immunosensor for carcino-embryonic antigen based on palladium hybrid vanadium pentoxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Jiang, Liping; Li, Faying; Wang, Ping; Liu, Qing; Dong, Yunhui; Li, Yueyun; Wei, Qin

    2016-03-15

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for quantitative monitoring of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). Nanocomposite of stannic oxide/reduced graphene oxide was used as substrate material to increase the specific surface area and enhance the conductivity of the glassy carbon electrode. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were introduced to link substrate materials and primary antibodies (Ab1) and accelerate the electron transfer in this system. At the same time, the palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs)-vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the label of secondary antibodies (Ab2). This composite label has shown excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. The nanomaterial-based signal amplification can improve the sensitivity and lower the limit of detection. The proposed immunosensor showed wide linear range from 0.5 pgmL(-1) to 25 ngmL(-1) with limit of detection of 0.17 pgmL(-1). This novel immunosensor was used to analyze serum sample. The results indicated that this immunosensor may find huge potential application for quantitative detection of CEA in the clinical diagnosis.

  4. Electrical immunosensor based on dielectrophoretically-deposited carbon nanotubes for detection of influenza virus H1N1.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Sharma, Abhinav; Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung

    2014-11-01

    The influenza virus has received extensive attention due to the recent H1N1 pandemics originating from swine. This study reports a label-free, highly sensitive, and selective electrical immunosensor for the detection of influenza virus H1N1 based on dielectrophoretically deposited single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). COOH-functionalized SWCNTs were deposited on a self-assembled monolayer of polyelectrolyte polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDDA) between two gold electrodes by dielectrophoretic and electrostatic forces, which resulted in reproducible, uniform, aligned, and aggregation-free SWCNT channels (2-10 μm in length). Avidin was immobilized onto the PDDA-SWCNT channels, and viral antibodies were immobilized using biotin-avidin coupling. The resistance of the channels increased with the binding of the influenza viruses to the antibodies. These immunosensors showed linear behavior as the virus concentration was varied from 1 to 10(4) PFU ml(-1) along with a detection time of 30 min. The immunosensors with a 2 μm channel length detected 1 PFU ml(-1) of the influenza virus accurately (R(2) = 0.99) and selectively from MS2 bacteriophages. These immunosensors have the potential to become an important component of a point-of-care test kit that will enable a rapid clinical diagnosis.

  5. Development of electrochemical immunosensors based on different serum antibody immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Hanh Nguyen, Thi Hong; Mai, Anh Tuan; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Khue Vu, Quang; Nga Phan, Thi

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the development of electrochemical immunosensors based on human serum antibodies with different immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Human serum containing anti-JEV antibodies was used to immobilize onto the surface of silanized interdigitated electrodes by four methods: direct adsorption (APTES-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde (APTES-GA-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with anti-human IgG (APTES-GA-anti-HIgG-serum) and covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with a bioaffinity of protein A (APTES-GA-PrA-serum). Atomic force microscopy was used to verify surface characteristics of the interdigitated electrodes before and after treatment with serum antibodies. The output signal of the immunosensors was measured by the change of conductivity resulting from the specific binding of JEV antigens and serum antibodies immobilized on the electrodes, with the help of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibody against JEV. The results showed that the APTES-GA-PrA-serum method provided the highest signal of the electrochemical immunosensor for detection of JEV antigens, with the linear range from 25 ng ml‑1 to 1 μg ml‑1, and the limit of detection was about 10 ng ml‑1. This study shows a potential development of novel electrochemical immunosensors applied for virus detection in clinical samples in case of possible outbreaks.

  6. Optical immunosensor for endocrine disruptor nanolayer detection by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabchevsky, Alina; Tsapovsky, Lev; Marks, Robert S.; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2011-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) and female hormone Estrone are especially prevalent in surface and waste-waters in nano-molar concentrations and therefore, there is a need for sensitive analytical device for their monitoring. We have designed a miniature, low cost and fast surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging liquid sensor based on the angular interrogation using Kretschmann configuration with diverged incident monochromatic light. During this paper we present a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor to detect EDCs such as BPA and estrone. A pattern of SPR line which is dark intensity line on bright area was reflected at angles range depending on the dielectric constant of the analye: Rabbit Anti-Estrone polyclonal IgG + Estrone 11-MUA attached to the silver or non-specific sensing of BPA in water with nanoprecision. For analyzing the SPR signals we used an efficient detection algorithm based on Radon Transform with less sensitivity to laser speckle noise and nonuniformity of the illumination.

  7. QCM immunosensor detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on beacon immunomagnetic nanoparticles and catalytic growth of colloidal gold.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Min; Wang, Xin-Wei; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jun-Wen; Cao, Fu-Huan

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, we describe a novel method for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor based on beacon immunomagnetic nanoparticles (BIMPs), streptavidin-gold, and growth solution. E. coli O157-BIMPs were magnetic nanoparticles loaded with polyclonal anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody (target antibody, T-Ab) and biotin-IgG (beacon antibody, B-Ab) at an optimized ratio of 1:60 (T-Ab:B-Ab). E. coli O157:H7 was captured and separated by E. coli O157-BIMPs in a sample, and the streptavidin-gold was subsequently conjugated to E. coli O157-BIMPs by using a biotin-avidin system. Finally, the gold particles on E. coli O157-BIMPs were enlarged in growth solution, and the compounds containing E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O157-BIMPs, and enlarged gold particles were collected using a magnetic plate. The QCM immunosensor was fabricated with protein A from Staphylococcus aureus and monoclonal anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody. The compounds decreased the immunosensor's resonant frequency. E. coli O157-BIMPs and enlarged gold particles were used as "mass enhancers" to amplify the frequency change. The frequency shift was correlated to the bacterial concentration. The detection limit was 23 CFU/ml in phosphate-buffered saline and 53 CFU/ml in milk. This method could successfully detect E. coli O157:H7 with high specificity and stability. The entire procedure for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 took only 4 h.

  8. Deposition of functionalized polymer layers in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors by in-situ polymerization in the evanescent wave field.

    PubMed

    Chegel, Vladimir; Whitcombe, Michael J; Turner, Nicholas W; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the integration of sensing gel layers in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is achieved via "bulk" methods, such as precipitation, spin-coating or in-situ polymerization onto the total surface of the sensor chip, combined with covalent attachment of the antibody or receptor to the gel surface. This is wasteful in terms of materials as the sensing only occurs at the point of resonance interrogated by the laser. By isolating the sensing materials (antibodies, enzymes, aptamers, polymers, MIPs, etc.) to this exact spot a more efficient use of these recognition elements will be achieved. Here we present a method for the in-situ formation of polymers, using the energy of the evanescent wave field on the surface of an SPR device, specifically localized at the point of interrogation. Using the photo-initiator couple of methylene blue (sensitizing dye) and sodium p-toluenesulfinate (reducing agent) we polymerized a mixture of N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide and methacrylic acid in water at the focal point of SPR. No polymerization was seen in solution or at any other sites on the sensor surface. Varying parameters such as monomer concentration and exposure time allowed precise control over the polymer thickness (from 20-200 nm). Standard coupling with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide was used for the immobilization of protein G which was used to bind IgG in a typical biosensor format. This model system demonstrated the characteristic performance for this type of immunosensor, validating our deposition method. PMID:18789676

  9. Towards an Electronic Dog Nose: Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Security and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This review describes an “electronic dog nose” based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and an antigen–antibody interaction for security and safety. We have concentrated on developing appropriate sensor surfaces for the SPR sensor for practical use. The review covers different surface fabrications, which all include variations of a self-assembled monolayer containing oligo(ethylene glycol), dendrimer, and hydrophilic polymer. We have carried out detection of explosives using the sensor surfaces. For the SPR sensor to detect explosives, the vapor or particles of the target substances have to be dissolved in a liquid. Therefore, we also review the development of sampling processes for explosives, and a protocol for the measurement of explosives on the SPR sensor in the field. Additionally, sensing elements, which have the potential to be applied for the electronic dog nose, are described. PMID:25198004

  10. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety.

  11. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of lead ions in drinking water based on a strip immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Xing, Changrui; Hao, Changlong; Liu, Liqiang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-03-28

    In this study, we have first developed a rapid and sensitive strip immunosensor based on two heterogeneously-sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) probes for the detection of trace lead ions in drinking water. The sensitivity was 4-fold higher than that of the conventional LFA under the optimized conditions. The visual limit of detection (LOD) of the amplified method for qualitative detection lead ions was 2 ng/mL and the LOD for semi-quantitative detection could go down to 0.19 ng/mL using a scanning reader. The method suffered from no interference from other metal ions and could be used to detect trace lead ions in drinking water without sample enrichment. The recovery of the test samples ranged from 96% to 103%. As the detection method could be accomplished within 15 min, this method could be used as a potential tool for preliminary monitoring of lead contamination in drinking water.

  12. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Lead Ions in Drinking Water Based on a Strip Immunosensor

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Hua; Xing, Changrui; Hao, Changlong; Liu, Liqiang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have first developed a rapid and sensitive strip immunosensor based on two heterogeneously-sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) probes for the detection of trace lead ions in drinking water. The sensitivity was 4-fold higher than that of the conventional LFA under the optimized conditions. The visual limit of detection (LOD) of the amplified method for qualitative detection lead ions was 2 ng/mL and the LOD for semi-quantitative detection could go down to 0.19 ng/mL using a scanning reader. The method suffered from no interference from other metal ions and could be used to detect trace lead ions in drinking water without sample enrichment. The recovery of the test samples ranged from 96% to 103%. As the detection method could be accomplished within 15 min, this method could be used as a potential tool for preliminary monitoring of lead contamination in drinking water. PMID:23539028

  13. Immunosensor systems with the Langmuir-film-based fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chudinova, G K; Nagovitsyn, I A; Savranskii, V V; Karpov, R E

    2003-09-30

    A method is developed for detecting protein antigens for fluorescent immunoassay using a model system based on the technique for preparation of Langmuir films. Fluorescein isothiocyanate and donor-acceptor energy-transfer pairs of markers (the Yb complex of tetraphenyl porphyrin - benzoyl trifluoroacetoneisothiocyanate and derivatives of tetra(carboxyphenyl) porphyrin - cyanine dye containing a five-membered polyene chain), which were nor studied earlier, were used as markers for detecting the binding of an antigen on the surface of Langmuir films of antibodies. Fluorescence was detected in the near-IR region (for the first pair) and in the visible spectral range (for the second pair). To reduce the nonspecific sorption of a protein (antigen), a method was proposed for the preparation of a nonpolar surface by applying an even number of layers of stearic acid as a substrate for the Langmuir - Blodgett film. A high sensitivity of model systems to a protein antigen in solution was achieved ({approx}10{sup -11} M), the assay time being 6 - 8 min. The model system with the first donor - acceptor pair was tested in analysis of the blood plasma. The fluorescence of the Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Yb{sup 3+} complexes of tetraphenyl porphyrin sensitised by diketonate complexes of lanthanides was studied for the first time and the enhancement of the IR fluorescence of these complexes in a Langmuir film was demonstrated. (papers devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  14. Electrochemical immunosensor for prostate-specific antigens using a label-free second antibody based on silica nanoparticles and polymer brush.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Saima; Bin, Wang; Bhatti, Arshad S

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a sensitive electrochemical immunosensor synthesized using a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization process for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Electrochemical immunosensors based on polymer brush [oligo(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate] (OEGMA-co-GMA) were grown on plane Au and nanostructured (NS) Au electrodes, characterized and compared for their sensitivity to detect PSA. Due to a large capacity for antibody loading and high resistance to nonspecific antibody adsorption of POEGMA-co-GMA brush, the Au-NS immunosensor exhibited detection in a wide dynamic range of five orders of magnitude with an improved lower limit of detection of 2pgml(-1), which was better than the synthesized immunosensor with the polymer brush grown on plane Au electrode. The Au-NS electrode showed improved detection sensitivity of 4.9μAng(-1)ml for PSA detection, which was almost 2 times better than the plane Au electrode. Finally, the use of silica nanoparticles (Si-NPs) conjugated with polyclonal antibody enhanced the response of the immunosensor. The proposed electrochemical immunosensor would be an exciting addition in medical diagnostics for the early detection of cancer biomarkers, e.g., PSA due to improved limit of detection (LOD); eventually helpful in circumventing cancer metastasis.

  15. Development of a disposable and highly sensitive paper-based immunosensor for early diagnosis of Asian soybean rust.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Barbara S; Linares, Elisângela M; Thalhammer, Stefan; Kubota, Lauro T

    2013-07-15

    Soybean is one of the most important crops and plays a key role in the whole food chain production. Soybean crops are very susceptible to the fungus Phakopsora Pachyrhizi, the agent responsible by the Asian soybean rust. The spore of the fungus is easily disseminated by wind with adequate environment, leaf wetness, high humidity and temperatures, the crop can be totally lost within few days. A high sensitive, specific and easy test is the key for early diagnosing the soybean rust and therefore save the crop. Here we present a paper-based immunosensor for early stage diagnosis of soybean rust that can be performed by unskilled operators on-site. Nitrocellulose membrane was chosen as the substrate to stick the antigen due to its high binding properties. Polyclonal antibodies labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles were employed as the recognizers. An analytical curve with spiked samples shows a linear response range from 0.0032 to 3.2 μg/mL. This immunosensor presents a very low detection limit of 2.2 ng/mL, which corresponds approximately to 8-12 spores/mL. The paper-based sensor reachs the detection range of ELISA and PCR based test systems, and outranges the available commercial test kits by two order of magnitude. We believe this immunosensor has a great potential as a point-of-care device for the early diagnosis of Asian soybean rust.

  16. A highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor based on magnetic bead-supported bienzymes catalyzed mass enhancement strategy.

    PubMed

    Akter, Rashida; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Rahman, Md Aminur

    2015-04-15

    A highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor based on magnetic bead-supported bienzyme catalyzed mass enhanced strategy was developed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) protein. The high sensitive detection was achieved by increasing the deposited mass on the QCM crystal through the enhanced precipitation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (CN) using higher amounts of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) bienzymes attached on the magnetic beads (MB). The protein A (PA) and capture antibody (monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody produced in mouse, Ab1)-based QCM probe and the detection antibody (anti-human IgG antibody produced in goat, Ab2)-based MB/HRP/GOx bienzymatic bioconjugates were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Under the optimized experimental condition, the linear range and the detection limit of hIgG immunosensor were determined to be 5.0pg/mL-20.0ng/mL and 5.0±0.18pg/mL, respectively. The applicability of the present hIgG immunosensor was examined in hIgG spiked human serum samples and excellent recoveries of hIgG were obtained. PMID:25506902

  17. A sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on the biotin- streptavidin-biotin structure for detection of human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueyun; Zhang, Yihe; Jiang, Liping; Chu, Paul K.; Dong, Yunhui; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich-type immunosensor is designed and fabricated to detect the human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) using polyaniline and tin dioxide functionalized graphene (GS-SnO2-PAN) as the platform and biotin-functionalized amination magnetic nanoparticles composite (B-Fe3O4@APTES) as the label. GS-SnO2-PAN is used as the sensing agent to capture the primary anti-HIgG (Ab1) and SnO2 reduces the stack of GS. The B-Fe3O4@APTES with a large surface area and excellent biocompatibility captures second antibody (Ab2) efficiently based on the highly selective recognition of streptavidin to biotinylated antibody. The B-Fe3O4@APTES has better electro-catalytic activity in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the “biotin-streptavidin-biotin” (B-SA-B) strategy leads to signal amplification. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor has a wide sensitivity range from 1 pg/L to 10 ng/L and low detection limit of 0.33 pg/L (S/N = 3) for HIgG. The immunosensor has high sensitivity, fast assay rate, as well as good reproducibility, specificity, and stability especially in the quantitative detection of biomolecules in serum samples. PMID:26948273

  18. Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of Vibrio vulnificus based on multi-functionalized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Sha, Yuhong; Hu, Yufang; Yu, Zhongqing; Tao, Yingying; Wu, Yanjie; Zeng, Min; Wang, Sui; Li, Xing; Zhou, Jun; Su, Xiurong

    2016-10-01

    A novel Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor devoted to the detection of Vibrio vulnificus (VV) was fabricated. The sensing strategy was presented by a unique Faraday cage-type immunocomplex based on immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) and multi-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) labeled with (2,2'-bipyridine)(5-aminophenanthroline)ruthenium (Ru-NH2). The multi-functionalized GO could sit on the electrode surface directly due to the large surface area, abundant functional groups, and good electronic transport property. It ensures that more Ru-NH2 is entirely caged and become "effective," thus improving sensitivity significantly, which resembles extending the outer Helmholtz plane (OHP) of the electrode. Under optimal conditions, the developed immunosensor achieves a limit of detection as low as 1 CFU/mL. Additionally, the proposed immunosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity can be used for the detection of real samples. The novel Faraday cage-type method has shown potential application for the diagnosis of VV and opens up a new avenue in ECL immunoassay. Graphical abstract Faraday cage-type immunoassay mode for ultrasensitive detection by extending OHP. PMID:27565793

  19. A sensitive label–free amperometric immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein based on gold nanorods with different aspect ratio

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Xu, Lin; Li, Qingling; Song, Jian; Xu, Sai; Xing, Ruiqing; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate label–free amperometric immunosensor for α–fetoprotein (AFP) detection is developed based on gold nanorods (GNRs) with different aspect ratio and compared with gold particles (GNPs). The positively charged GNRs and GNPs due to the surface immobilized cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) can adsorb the negatively charged AFP antibody (Ab) directly. The presence of the GNRs not only enhanced the immobilized amount of biomolecules, but also improved the electrochemical properties of the immunosensor. With the aid of GNRs, the electrochemical signal was greatly enhanced in comparison with GNPs. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor could detect AFP in a linear range from 0.1 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.04 ng/mL (signal–to–noise ratio = 3), and it also possessed good reproducibility and storage stability. Moreover, the detection of AFP in five human serum samples also showed satisfactory accuracy. The proposed methodology was potentially attractive for clinical immunoassay. PMID:25909588

  20. A sensitive label-free amperometric immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein based on gold nanorods with different aspect ratio.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Xu, Lin; Li, Qingling; Song, Jian; Xu, Sai; Xing, Ruiqing; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate label-free amperometric immunosensor for α-fetoprotein (AFP) detection is developed based on gold nanorods (GNRs) with different aspect ratio and compared with gold particles (GNPs). The positively charged GNRs and GNPs due to the surface immobilized cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) can adsorb the negatively charged AFP antibody (Ab) directly. The presence of the GNRs not only enhanced the immobilized amount of biomolecules, but also improved the electrochemical properties of the immunosensor. With the aid of GNRs, the electrochemical signal was greatly enhanced in comparison with GNPs. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor could detect AFP in a linear range from 0.1 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.04 ng/mL (signal-to-noise ratio = 3), and it also possessed good reproducibility and storage stability. Moreover, the detection of AFP in five human serum samples also showed satisfactory accuracy. The proposed methodology was potentially attractive for clinical immunoassay. PMID:25909588

  1. Detection of vibrio cholerae O1 by using cerium oxide nanowires - based immunosensor with different antibody immobilization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Hoang, Nguyen Luong; Lan, Hoang; Vuong, Pham Hung; Anh, Ta Thi Nhat; Huy, Tran Quang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effects of different antibody immobilization strategies on the response of a CeO2-nanowires (NWs)-based immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection. Accordingly, the changes in the electron-transfer resistance ( R et ) from before to after cells bind to an antibody-modified electrode prepared by using three different methods of antibody immobilization were determined. The values were 16.2%, 8.3%, and 6.65% for the method that utilized protein A, antibodies activated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), and absorption, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the change in the current was highest for the immunosensors prepared using protein A (11%), followed by those prepared with EDC/NHS-activated antibodies (9%), and finally, those prepared through absorption (7.5%). The order of the antibody immobilization strategies in terms of resulting immunosensor detection limit and sensitivity was as follows order: absorption (3.2 × 103 CFU/mL; 45.1 Ω/CFU·mL-1) < EDC/NHS-activated antibody (1.0 × 103 CFU/mL; 50.6 Ω/CFU·mL-1) < protein A (1.0 × 102 CFU/mL; 65.8 Ω/CFU·mL-1). Thus, we confirmed that the protein A - mediated method showed significantly high cell binding efficiencies compared to the random immobilization method.

  2. A Novel Controlled Release Immunosensor based on Benzimidazole Functionalized SiO2 and Cyclodextrin Functionalized Gold

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongmin; Wang, Yaoguang; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Jian; Ren, Xiang; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A novel controlled release system-based sandwich-type immunosensor is fabricated to detect squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA). The 1-methyl-1H-benzimidazole functionalized mesoporous SiO2 (MBI-MS) is used to load methylene blue (MB). β-cyclodextrin functionalized gold (CD-Au) is introduced as the gatekeeper for encapsulating MB and capturing the adamantly functional detection antibody (ADA-Ab2). And pH stimulus serves as the trigger system to control the MB release. After the load of MB, the CD-Au blocks the pores of the MBI-MS by the host-guest interaction in the neutral condition. However, when the pH is below 7.0, CD-Au is separated from the surface of MBI-MS owing to the protonation of the aromatic amines. The encapsulated MB is released from the pores of MBI-MS and detected by square wave voltammetry. The controlled release immunosensor shows a relatively wide linear range from 0.001 to 20 ng·mL−1 with a low detection limit of 0.25 pg·mL−1. The immunosensor also shows good reproducibility and selectivity, which endows it broad application prospect in clinical research. PMID:26791418

  3. A Sensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Celiac Disease Diagnosis Based on Nanoelectrode Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Habtamu, Henok B; Sentic, Milica; Silvestrini, Morena; De Leo, Luigina; Not, Tarcisio; Arbault, Stephane; Manojlovic, Dragan; Sojic, Neso; Ugo, Paolo

    2015-12-15

    We report here the design of a novel immunosensor and its application for celiac disease diagnosis, based on an electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) readout, using membrane-templated gold nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) as a detection platform. An original sensing strategy is presented by segregating spatially the initial electrochemical reaction and the location of the immobilized biomolecules where ECL is finally emitted. The recognition scaffold is the following: tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is immobilized as a capturing agent on the polycarbonate (PC) surface of the track-etched templating membrane. It captures the target tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG), and finally allows the immobilization of a streptavidin-modified ruthenium-based ECL label via reaction with a suitable biotinylated secondary antibody. The application of an oxidizing potential in a tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) solution generates an intense and sharp ECL signal, suitable for analytical purposes. Voltammetric and ECL analyses evidenced that the ruthenium complex is not oxidized directly at the surface of the nanoelectrodes; instead ECL is generated following the TPrA oxidation, which produces the TPrA•+ and TPrA• radicals. With NEEs operating under total overlap diffusion conditions, high local fluxes of these reactive radicals are produced by the nanoelectrodes in the immediate vicinity of the ECL labels, so that they efficiently generate the ECL signal. The radicals can diffuse over short distances and react with the Ru(bpy)32+ label. In addition, the ECL emission is obtained by applying a potential of 0.88 V versus Ag/AgCl, which is about 0.3 V lower than when ECL is initiated by the electrochemical oxidation of Ru(bpy)3(2+). The immunosensor provides ECL signals which scale with anti-tTG concentration with a linearity range between 1.5 ng·mL–1 and 10 μg·mL–1 and a detection limit of 0.5 ng·mL–1. The sensor is finally applied to the analysis of anti-tTG in human

  4. First report of a direct surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for a small molecule seafood toxin.

    PubMed

    Yakes, Betsy Jean; Kanyuck, Kelsey M; DeGrasse, Stacey L

    2014-09-16

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a small molecular weight neurotoxin, is responsible for poisoning events that traditionally occur from consumption of contaminated puffer fish. Recent studies have shown a growing number of foods contaminated with TTX and a larger number of waters and associated countries where the toxin may occur. The apparent expanding prevalence of TTX supports a growing need for screening assays that can be used to detect potentially harmful food. In the past few years, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have been developed for rapid, robust detection of TTX; however, these assays focus on detection of unbound antibody from an inhibition reaction with the toxin. This manuscript introduces the first direct immunoassay for a seafood toxin, specifically TTX. Major advantages of this assay compared to indirect assays include increased speed of analysis, decreased use of biological reagents, and improved confidence in the detection of the toxin, along with the ability to characterize the antibody/toxin interaction. The analytical method introduced in this paper could be applied to other seafood toxins, as well as to a wide range of low molecular weight targets.

  5. Measurement of polyphenol oxidase activity using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important quality index during food processing involving heat-treatment and sensitive determination of PPO activity has been a critical concern in the food industry. In this study, a new measurement of PPO activity exploiting an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor is presented using a polyclonal anti-PPO antibody that was immobilized in situ to the surface of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated optical grating coupler activated with glutaraldehyde. When analysed with a purified PPO fraction from potato tubers, a linear relationship was found between PPO activities of 0.0005607-560.7U/mL and the sensor responses obtained. The sensor was applicable to measurement of PPO activity in real samples that were prepared from potato tubers, grapes and Kimchi cabbage, and the analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional colorimetric assay measuring PPO activity. When tested for long-term stability, the sensor was reusable up to 10th day after preparation.

  6. Immunosensor interface based on physical and chemical immunoglobulin G adsorption onto mixed self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Hui; Viana, Ana S; Jin, Gang; Abrantes, Luísa M

    2006-10-01

    An immunosensor interface based on mixed hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of methyl and carboxylic acid terminated thiols with covalently attached human Immunoglobulin G (hIgG), is investigated. The densely packed and organised SAMs were characterised by contact angle measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The effect of the non-ionic surfactant, Tween 20, in preventing nonspecific adsorption is addressed by ellipsometry during physical and covalent hIgG immobilization on pure and mixed SAMs, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that nonspecific adsorption due to hydrophobic interactions of hIgG on methyl ended groups is totally inhibited, whereas electrostatic/hydrogen bonding interactions with the exposed carboxylic groups prevail in the presence of surfactant. Results of ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy, reveal that the surface concentration of covalently immobilized hIgG is determined by the ratio of COOH / CH(3)-terminated thiols in SAM forming solution. Moreover, the ellipsometric data demonstrates that the ratio of bound anti-hIgG / hIgG depends on the density of hIgG on the surface and that the highest ratio is close to three. We also report the selectivity and high sensitivity achieved by chronoamperometry in the detection of adsorbed hIgG and the reaction with its antibody.

  7. A polyaniline based ultrasensitive potentiometric immunosensor for cardiac troponin complex detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Prabhu, Alok; San, Avdar; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Levon, Kalle

    2015-10-15

    An ultrasensitive immunosensor based on potentiometric ELISA for the detection of a cardiac biomarker, troponin I-T-C (Tn I-T-C) complex, was developed. The sensor fabrication involves typical sandwich ELISA procedures, while the final signal readout was achieved using open circuit potentiometry (OCP). Glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes were first coated with emulsion-polymerized polyaniline/dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (PANI/DNNSA) and the coated surface was utilized as a transducer layer on which sandwich ELISA incubation steps were performed. An enzymatic reaction between o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled on the secondary antibodies. The polymer transducer charged state was mediated through electron (e(-)) and charge transfers between the transducer and charged species generated by the same enzymatic reaction. Such a change in the polymer transducer led to potential variations against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode as a function of Tn I-T-C complex concentration during incubations. The sequence of OPD and H2O2 additions, electrochemical properties of the PANI/DNNSA layer and non-specific binding prevention were all crucial factors for the assay performance. Under optimized conditions, the assay has a low limit of detection (LOD) (< 5 pg/mL or 56 fM), a wide dynamic range (> 6 orders of magnitude), high repeatability (coefficient of variance < 8% for all concentrations higher than 5 pg/mL) and a short detection time (< 10 min).

  8. Measurement of polyphenol oxidase activity using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2015-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important quality index during food processing involving heat-treatment and sensitive determination of PPO activity has been a critical concern in the food industry. In this study, a new measurement of PPO activity exploiting an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor is presented using a polyclonal anti-PPO antibody that was immobilized in situ to the surface of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated optical grating coupler activated with glutaraldehyde. When analysed with a purified PPO fraction from potato tubers, a linear relationship was found between PPO activities of 0.0005607-560.7U/mL and the sensor responses obtained. The sensor was applicable to measurement of PPO activity in real samples that were prepared from potato tubers, grapes and Kimchi cabbage, and the analytical results were compared with those obtained by a conventional colorimetric assay measuring PPO activity. When tested for long-term stability, the sensor was reusable up to 10th day after preparation. PMID:25236218

  9. Portable surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for the detection of fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues in milk.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Fátima; Pinacho, Daniel G; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M Pilar

    2011-05-11

    An inexpensive and portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, SPReeta Evaluation Kit SPR3, has been used to develop a biosensor for the determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) and to demonstrate its performance analyzing FQ residues in milk samples. The SPReeta three-channel gold chips were activated with a mixed self-assembled monolayer (m-SAM) and functionalized with a FQ haptenized protein. Binding of the antibody produced a concentration-dependent increase of the SPR signal as a result of the change in the refraction index. Similarly, the presence of the FQ produced a dose-dependent decrease of the response, which allowed a good limit of detection (LOD) to be obtained (1.0 ± 0.4 μg L(-1) for enrofloxacin in buffer). The response was reproducible in all three channels, on different injections and days, and also between chips. Milk samples could be analyzed after a simple sample treatment involving fat removal by centrifugation and dilution with water. Under these conditions calibration curves were obtained showing that FQ residues can be analyzed in milk samples with an IC(50) value of 26.4 ± 7.2 μg L(-1) and a LOD of 2.0 ± 0.2 μg L(-1) (for enrofloxacin), far below the European Union regulations for this antibiotic family in this matrix. Finally, the paper also demonstrates that the biosensor is able to selectively detect the presence of FQs in milk samples, even in the presence of other antibiotics. Enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin residues were detected in blind samples supplied by Nestlé Co. PMID:21476576

  10. Competitive immunosensor based on gliadin immobilization on disposable carbon-nanogold screen-printed electrodes for rapid determination of celiotoxic prolamins.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Anita; Giannetto, Marco; Mattarozzi, Monica; Costantini, Monica; Mucchino, Claudio; Careri, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The first competitive disposable amperometric immunosensor based on gliadin-functionalized carbon/nanogold screen-printed electrodes was developed for rapid determination of celiotoxic prolamins. To date, no competitive spectrophotometric or electrochemical immunoassays have yet been successfully applied to gluten detection in processed food samples, which require the use of complex prolamin extraction solutions containing additives with denaturing, reducing and disaggregating functions. Thus, in this work, great effort was put into the optimization and performance evaluation of the immunosensor in terms of suitability as a screening tool for analysis of cereal-based food samples. For this purpose, aqueous ethanol or complex extraction mixtures, as the patented Cocktail Solution®, were proved effective in the extraction of gliadin. Good sensitivity was achieved after optimization of the immunocompetitive assay, giving limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 8 and 22 ng/ml of gliadin, respectively, for ethanol extracts. The immunosensor was proved to be suitable also for samples extracted with Cocktail Solution® after a proper dilution. Analysis of real samples of different flours proved the suitability of the immunosensing device as a powerful tool for safety assessment of raw materials used for the formulation of dietary products for celiac disease patients. This immunosensor combines good analytical performance using a very simplified set-up protocol with suitability for rapid screening analysis performed using inexpensive and portable instrumentation. Graphical abstract Depiction of the development and working principle of the competitive immunosensor.

  11. An electrochemical immunosensor for efficient detection of uropathogenic E. coli based on thionine dye immobilized chitosan/functionalized-MWCNT modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Chandran Hema; Mayuri, Pinapeddavari; Sankaran, Krishnan; Kumar, Annamalai Senthil

    2016-08-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major cause of 150 million Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) reported annually world-wide. High prevalence of multi-drug-resistance makes it dangerous and difficult to cure. Therefore simple, quick and early diagnostic tools are essential for effective treatment and control. We report an electrochemical immunosensor based on thionine dye (Th) immobilized on functionalized-multiwalled carbon nanotube+chitosan composite coated on glassy carbon electrode (GCE/f-MWCNT-Chit@Th) for quick and sensitive detection of UPEC in aqueous solution. This immunosensor was constructed by sequential immobilization of UPEC, bovine serum albumin, primary antibody and Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP) tagged secondary antibody on the surface of GCE/f-MWCNT-Chit@Th. When analyzed using 2.5mM of hydrogen peroxide reduction reaction using cyclic voltammetry in phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, the immunosensor showed excellent linearity in a range of 10(2)-10(9)cfu of UPEC mL(-1) with a current sensitivity of 7.162μA {log(cfumL(-1))}(-1). The specificity of this immunosensor was tested using other UTI and non-UTI bacteria, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus and Shigella. The clinical applicability of the immunosensor was also successfully tested directly in UPEC spiked urine samples (simulated sample). PMID:27040944

  12. Field-based detection and monitoring of uranium in contaminated groundwater using two immunosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.J.; Yu, H.; Williams, K.H.; Morris, S.A.; Long, P.E.; Blake, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Field-based monitoring of environmental contaminants has long been a need for environmental scientists. Described herein are two kinetic exclusion-based immunosensors, a field portable sensor (FPS) and an inline senor, that were deployed at the Integrated Field Research Challenge Site of the U.S. Department of Energy in Rifle, CO. Both sensors utilized a monoclonal antibody that binds to a U(VI)-dicarboxyphenanthroline complex (DCP) in a kinetic exclusion immunoassay format. These sensors were able to monitor changes of uranium in groundwater samples from {approx} 1 {micro}M to below the regulated drinking water limit of 126 nM (30 ppb). The FPS is a battery-operated sensor platform that can determine the uranium level in a single sample in 5-10 min, if the instrument has been previously calibrated with standards. The average minimum detection level (MDL) in this assay was 0.33 nM (79 ppt), and the MDL in the sample (based on a 1:200?1:400 dilution) was 66?132 nM (15.7?31.4 ppb). The inline sensor, while requiring a grounded power source, has the ability to autonomously analyze multiple samples in a single experiment. The average MDL in this assay was 0.12 nM (29 ppt), and the MDL in the samples (based on 1:200 or 1:400 dilutions) was 24?48 nM (5.7?11.4 ppb). Both sensor platforms showed an acceptable level of agreement (r{sup 2} = 0.94 and 0.76, for the inline and FPS, respectively) with conventional methods for uranium quantification.

  13. Field-Based Detection and Mnitoring of Uranium in Contaminated Groundwater using two Immunosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Scott J; Yu, Haini; Williams, Kenneth H; Morris, Sarah A; Long, Philip E; Blake, Diane A

    2009-09-01

    Field-based monitoring of environmental contaminants has long been a need for environmental scientists. Described herein are two kinetic exclusion-based immunosensors, a field portable sensor (FPS) and an inline senor, that were deployed at the Integrated Field Research Challenge Site of the U.S. Department of Energy in Rifle, CO. Both sensors utilized a monoclonal antibody that binds to a U(VI)-dicarboxyphenanthroline complex (DCP) in a kinetic exclusion immunoassay format. These sensors were able to monitor changes of uranium in groundwater samples from ~1 μM to below the regulated drinking water limit of 126 nM (30 ppb). The FPS is a battery-operated sensor platform that can determine the uranium level in a single sample in 5-10 min, if the instrument has been previously calibrated with standards. The average minimum detection level (MDL) in this assay was 0.33 nM (79 ppt), and the MDL in the sample (based on a 1:200-1:400 dilution) was 66-132 nM (15.7-31.4 ppb). The inline sensor, while requiring a grounded power source, has the ability to autonomously analyze multiple samples in a single experiment. The average MDL in this assay was 0.12 nM (29 ppt), and the MDL in the samples (based on 1:200 or 1:400 dilutions) was 24-48 nM (5.7-11.4 ppb). Both sensor platforms showed an acceptable level of agreement (r2 = 0.94 and 0.76, for the inline and FPS, respectively) with conventional methods for uranium quantification.

  14. Electrochemical immunosensor based on nanoporpus gold loading thionine for carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobin; Ma, Zhanfang

    2013-05-30

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) has recently received considerable attention in analytical electrochemistry because of its good conductivity and large specific surface area. A facile layer-by-layer assembly technique fabricated NPG was used to construct an electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). NPG was fabricated on glassy carbon (GC) electrode by alternatively assembling gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as a cross-linker, and then AgNPs were dissolved with HNO3. The thionine was absorbed into the NPG and then gold nanostructure was electrodeposited on the surface through the electrochemical reduction of gold chloride tetrahydrate (HAuCl4). The anti-CEA was directly adsorbed on gold nanostructure fixed on the GC electrode. The linear range of the immunosensor was from 10 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed immunosensor has high sensitivity, wide linear range, low detection limit, and good selectivity. The present method could be widely applied to construct other immunosensors.

  15. An Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor Based on Gold-Magnetic Nanoparticles and Phage Displayed Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xihui; Tong, Zhaoyang; Huang, Qibin; Liu, Bing; Liu, Zhiwei; Hao, Lanqun; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Jinping; Gao, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Using the multiple advantages of the ultra-highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technique, Staphylococcus protein A (SPA) functionalized gold-magnetic nanoparticles and phage displayed antibodies, and using gold-magnetic nanoparticles coated with SPA and coupled with a polyclonal antibody (pcAb) as magnetic capturing probes, and Ru(bpy)32+-labeled phage displayed antibody as a specific luminescence probe, this study reports a new way to detect ricin with a highly sensitive and specific ECL immunosensor and amplify specific detection signals. The linear detection range of the sensor was 0.0001~200 µg/L, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.0001 µg/L, which is 2500-fold lower than that of the conventional ELISA technique. The gold-magnetic nanoparticles, SPA and Ru(bpy)32+-labeled phage displayed antibody displayed different amplifying effects in the ECL immunosensor and can decrease LOD 3-fold, 3-fold and 20-fold, respectively, compared with the ECL immunosensors without one of the three effects. The integrated amplifying effect can decrease the LOD 180-fold. The immunosensor integrates the unique advantages of SPA-coated gold-magnetic nanoparticles that improve the activity of the functionalized capturing probe, and the amplifying effect of the Ru(bpy)32+-labeled phage displayed antibodies, so it increases specificity, interference-resistance and decreases LOD. It is proven to be well suited for the analysis of trace amounts of ricin in various environmental samples with high recovery ratios and reproducibility. PMID:26927130

  16. Amplification strategy based on gold nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes for neomycin immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ye; Son, Jung Ik; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2010-11-15

    A novel amperometric immunosensor with an enhanced sensitivity for the detection of neomycin (Neo) was prepared by covalently immobilizing a monoclonal Neo antibody onto a new conducting polymer, poly-[2,5-di-(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-(p-benzoic acid)] (pDPB), as a sensor probe. The probe was used to detect Neo in a sandwich-type approach, where the secondary antibody was attached to gold nanoparticle-decorated multi-wall carbon nanotubes labeled with hydrazine (Hyd-MWCNT(AuNP)-Ab(2)). Hydrazine on the conjugate served as a catalyst for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, and the catalytic current was monitored at -0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The performance of the immunosensor with and without AuNPs on the probe and the conjugate was compared. The parameters affecting the immunosensor response in terms of antibody dilution ratio, incubation time, pH, applied potential, and temperature were optimized. A linear dynamic range for Neo analysis was obtained between 10 ng/mL and 250 ng/mL with a detection limit of 6.76 ± 0.17 ng/mL. The proposed immunosensor was successfully applied to detect Neo content in real meat samples.

  17. Conducting polymer film-based immunosensors using carbon nanotube/antibodies doped polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2011-09-01

    Carbon nanotube/polypyrrole/antibodies polymer films were synthesized successfully on microelectrodes by electrochemical deposition. Electropolymerization was performed at optimal range between -0.8 and +0.8 V at a scan rate of 50 mV s-1 in an electrochemical mini-cell containing monomer pyrroles, carbon nanotubes, and goat IgGs. The conducting polymer films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman spectra, and Field emission scanning electron microscopy. And then, it was prepared for immunosensor application to determine anti-goat IgGs. The results show that a linear range between 0.05 and 0.7 μg ml-1 for anti-goat IgGs detection was observed for immunosensor, a detection limit as low as 0.05 μg ml-1 and a response time of 1 min. The effect parameters of electropolymerization process on immunosensor response are also studied. It found that the immunosensor well active in 1.5 mg ml-1 CNT concentration, 2.5 mM pyrrole, 10 μg ml-1 goat IgGs.

  18. A New Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Triazine Pesticide Determination in Bovine Milk: A Comparison with Conventional Amperometric and Screen-Printed Immunodevices

    PubMed Central

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Sanzó, Gabriella; Mazzei, Franco

    2015-01-01

    A detailed comparison was made of the analytical features of a new Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunodevice for triazine pesticide determination with those of two other amperometric (conventional and screen-printed) immunosensors and the advantages and disadvantages of the SPR method were thoroughly investigated. For conventional amperometric and screen-printed devices, “competitive” assays were used; conversely, the SPR transduction technique allowed a “direct” measurement format to be used. As far as the main analytical data are concerned, the SPR method does not seem to offer substantial advantages. Nevertheless the measurement time is much shorter and the measurement itself much easier to perform. Lastly several applications and recovery tests were carried out on bovine milk samples, before and after spiking, to check for triazine pesticides in the samples, obtaining satisfactory results. PMID:25942643

  19. Gold nanoparticle-based enhanced chemiluminescence immunosensor for detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in food

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Bruck, Hugh A.; Rasooly, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are major cause of foodborne diseases, so sensitive detection (<1 ng/ml) methods are needed for SE detection in food. The surface area, geometric and physical properties of gold nanoparticles make them well-suited for enhancing interactions with biological molecules in assays. To take advantage of the properties of gold nanoparticles for immunodetection, we have developed a gold nanoparticle-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in food. Anti-SEB primary antibodies were immobilized onto a gold nanoparticle surface through physical adsorption and then the antibody–gold nanoparticle mixture was immobilized onto a polycarbonate surface. SEB was detected by a “sandwich-type” ELISA assay on the polycarbonate surface with a secondary antibody and ECL detection. The signal from ECL was read using a point-of-care detector based on a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor or a plate reader. The system was used to test for SEB in buffer and various foods (mushrooms, tomatoes, and baby food meat). The limit of detection was found to be ~0.01 ng/mL, which is ~10 times more sensitive than traditional ELISA. The gold nanoparticles were relatively easy to use for antibody immobilization because of their physical adsorption mechanism; no other reagents were required for immobilization. The use of our simple and inexpensive detector combined with the gold nanoparticle-based ECL method described here is adaptable to simplify and increase sensitivity of any immunological assay and for point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:19540011

  20. Competitive amperometric immunosensor based on covalent linking of a protein conjugate to dendrimer-functionalised nanogold substrate for the determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Giannetto, Marco; Maiolini, Elisabetta; Ferri, Elida Nora; Girotti, Stefano; Mori, Giovanni; Careri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A new amperometric immunosensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on the working principle of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed and characterised. An electrodeposited nanogold substrate was functionalised by deposition of self-assembled monolayers of 2-aminoethanethiol as linkers for the subsequent immobilisation of polyamidoaminic dendrimers. Our approach makes use of those dendrimers to anchor a trinitrobenzene-ovalbumin conjugate on the electrode surface. The immunosensor was tested and validated for the determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene showing high selectivity with respect to other nitroaromatic compounds, a limit of detection of 4.8 ng/mL and a limit of quantitation of 6 ng/mL. The immunosensor was tested for the quantification of the analyte in spiked soils and in a real sample of post-blast soil, evidencing a good recovery rate (113 %).

  1. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay.

  2. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay. PMID:26319163

  3. A gas-phase amplified quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor based on catalase modified immunoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-02-21

    A novel signal amplification strategy for quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based on catalytic gas generation was developed to construct an ultrasensitive immunosensor for the detection of proteins (immunoglobulin G, IgG, used as a model). A catalase modified immunoparticle was prepared to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex with the IgG and anti-IgG antibodies that were immobilized on the QCM sensor. The amount of immunoparticles on the sensor surface was thus controlled by the IgG concentration. Then H2O2 was added and catalyzed by catalase for oxygen generation. The generated oxygen replaced some of the liquid on the sensor surface, leading to the change in the shear modulus of the immunocomplex layer and the apparent viscosity and density of the liquid layer. Due to the ultrasensitive response of QCM to these changes, a significant frequency shift related to the IgG concentration was achieved. Different parameters, including the flow cell structure, operation temperature, immunoparticle concentration, and H2O2 concentration were optimized to achieve steady and efficient frequency shifts. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed gas-phase amplified QCM sensor could achieve up to 72 times improvement of detection sensitivity compared to the label-free sensor as a control, in the concentration range of 0.1-3.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was also reduced from 236 ng mL(-1) to 51.0 ng mL(-1) at the 3Sblank level.

  4. A gas-phase amplified quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor based on catalase modified immunoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-02-21

    A novel signal amplification strategy for quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based on catalytic gas generation was developed to construct an ultrasensitive immunosensor for the detection of proteins (immunoglobulin G, IgG, used as a model). A catalase modified immunoparticle was prepared to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex with the IgG and anti-IgG antibodies that were immobilized on the QCM sensor. The amount of immunoparticles on the sensor surface was thus controlled by the IgG concentration. Then H2O2 was added and catalyzed by catalase for oxygen generation. The generated oxygen replaced some of the liquid on the sensor surface, leading to the change in the shear modulus of the immunocomplex layer and the apparent viscosity and density of the liquid layer. Due to the ultrasensitive response of QCM to these changes, a significant frequency shift related to the IgG concentration was achieved. Different parameters, including the flow cell structure, operation temperature, immunoparticle concentration, and H2O2 concentration were optimized to achieve steady and efficient frequency shifts. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed gas-phase amplified QCM sensor could achieve up to 72 times improvement of detection sensitivity compared to the label-free sensor as a control, in the concentration range of 0.1-3.0 μg mL(-1). The detection limit was also reduced from 236 ng mL(-1) to 51.0 ng mL(-1) at the 3Sblank level. PMID:25519742

  5. Self-powered competitive immunosensor driven by biofuel cell based on hollow-channel paper analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2015-09-15

    A mediator-less and compartment-less glucose/O2 enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μ-PADs) that relies on flow in hollow channels with silver nanoparticles/graphene modified paper electrode as the anodic and cathodic substrate, to implement self-powered sensitive carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate modified with CEA acted as a biocatalyst for enhancing glucose oxidation in the bioanode, as well as the transducing enzyme for signaling magnification. Similarly, nanoporous PtNi/bilirubin oxidase (BOD) acted as a biocatalyst for enhancing O2 reduction in the biocathode. With an increase in the concentration of CEA, the amount of CEA-Au-GDH bioconjugate on bioanode decreases, thus leading to the lower output of the as-prepared BFC. This proposed BFC-based self-powered immunosensor for CEA possessed largely increased linear detection range from 1 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 μg mL(-)(1) with a detection limit of 0.7 pg mL(-)(1). The proposed BFC-based self-powered immunosensor shows high sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility and can become a promising platform for other protein detection.

  6. Self-powered competitive immunosensor driven by biofuel cell based on hollow-channel paper analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2015-09-15

    A mediator-less and compartment-less glucose/O2 enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μ-PADs) that relies on flow in hollow channels with silver nanoparticles/graphene modified paper electrode as the anodic and cathodic substrate, to implement self-powered sensitive carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate modified with CEA acted as a biocatalyst for enhancing glucose oxidation in the bioanode, as well as the transducing enzyme for signaling magnification. Similarly, nanoporous PtNi/bilirubin oxidase (BOD) acted as a biocatalyst for enhancing O2 reduction in the biocathode. With an increase in the concentration of CEA, the amount of CEA-Au-GDH bioconjugate on bioanode decreases, thus leading to the lower output of the as-prepared BFC. This proposed BFC-based self-powered immunosensor for CEA possessed largely increased linear detection range from 1 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 μg mL(-)(1) with a detection limit of 0.7 pg mL(-)(1). The proposed BFC-based self-powered immunosensor shows high sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility and can become a promising platform for other protein detection. PMID:25880834

  7. Sequential Layer Analysis of Protein Immunosensors based on Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forests

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ruchika; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Rusling, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical immunosensors using vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) forests can provide ultrasensitive, accurate cancer biomarker protein assays. Herein we report a systematic investigation of the structure, thickness and functionality of each layer of these immunosensors using atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and scanning white light interferometry (SWLI). This provides a detailed picture of the surface morphology of each layer along with surface concentration and thickness of each protein layer. Results reveal that the major reasons for sensitivity gain can be assigned to the dense packing of carboxylated SWNT forest tips, which translate to a large surface concentration of capture antibodies, together with the high quality of conductive SWNT forests. PMID:20731335

  8. An impedimetric immunosensor based on diamond nanowires decorated with nickel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Palaniappan; Motorina, Anastasiia; Yeap, Weng Siang; Haenen, Ken; Coffinier, Yannick; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Niedziolka-Jonsson, Joanna; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured boron-doped diamond has been investigated as a sensitive impedimetric electrode for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The immunosensor was constructed in a three-step process: (i) reactive ion etching of flat boron-doped diamond (BDD) interfaces to synthesize BDD nanowires (BDD NWs), (ii) electrochemical deposition of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) on the BDD NWs, and (iii) immobilization of biotin-tagged anti-IgG onto the Ni NPs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to follow the binding of IgG at different concentrations without the use of any additional label. A detection limit of 0.3 ng mL(-1) (2 nM) with a dynamic range up to 300 ng mL(-1) (2 μM) was obtained with the interface. Moreover, the study demonstrated that this immunosensor exhibits good stability over time and allows regeneration by incubation in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) aqueous solution.

  9. Screen Printed Carbon Electrode Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Dengue NS1 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Om; Yean Yean, Chan; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical immunosensor modified with the streptavidin/biotin system on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of the dengue NS1 antigen was developed in this study. Monoclonal anti-NS1 capture antibody was immobilized on streptavidin-modified SPCEs to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Subsequently, a direct sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format was developed and optimized. An anti-NS1 detection antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) and 3,3,5,5'-tetramethybezidine dihydrochloride (TMB/H2O2) was used as an enzyme mediator. Electrochemical detection was conducted using the chronoamperometric technique, and electrochemical responses were generated at −200 mV reduction potential. The calibration curve of the immunosensor showed a linear response between 0.5 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL and a detection limit of 0.03 µg/mL. Incorporation of a streptavidin/biotin system resulted in a well-oriented antibody immobilization of the capture antibody and consequently enhanced the sensitivity of the assay. In conclusion, this immunosensor is a promising technology for the rapid and convenient detection of acute dengue infection in real serum samples. PMID:26852684

  10. Amperometric immunosensor based on a protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals modified electrode for carbofuran detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xiangyou

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor modified with protein A/deposited gold nanocrystals (DpAu) was developed for the ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues. First, DpAu were electrodeposited onto the Au electrode surface to absorb protein A (PA) and improve the electrode conductivity. Then PA was dropped onto the surface of DpAu film, used for binding antibody Fc fragments. Next, anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the PA modified electrode. Finally, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites avoiding any nonspecific adsorption. The fabrication procedure of the immunosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. With the excellent electroconductivity of DpAu and the PA's oriented immobilization of antibodies, a highly efficient immuno-reaction and detection sensitivity could be achieved. The influences of the electrodeposition time of DpAu, pH of the detection solution and incubation time on the current response of the fabricated immunosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the current response was proportional to the concentration of carbofuran which ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 0.1924 ng/mL. The proposed carbofuran immnuosensor exhibited high specificity, reproducibility, stability and regeneration performance, which may open a new door for ultrasensitive detection of carbofuran residues in vegetables and fruits.

  11. A competitive photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on a CdS-induced signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueping; Yan, Tao; Li, Yan; Liu, Yixin; Du, Bin; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-09

    A novel photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on the competitive strategy is proposed for the specific detection of dexamethasone (DXM). Graphitic carbon nitride coupled with bismuth sulfide are used as the sensing matrix for the immobilization of BSA-DXM on the electrode surface, while cadmium sulfide functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO2@CdS) is used as the photoelectric active labels of anti-DXM. Due to the perfect matching of energy levels between TiO2 and CdS, the in situ prepared composite labels show excellent photocurrent response under visible lights. The competitive binding of DXM in sample solutions and BSA-DXM on the electrode surface reduces the specific attachment of labels to the electrode, resulting in a decrease of the photocurrent intensity. Greatly enhanced sensitivity is achieved after the optimization of the detection conditions. Under the optimal detection condition, the well-designed immunosensor for DXM exhibits a low detection limit of 2 pg ∙ mL(-1). Additionally, the proposed immunoassay system shows high specificity, good reproducibility and acceptable stability, which is also expected to become a promising platform for the detection of other small molecules.

  12. A highly sensitive flow-through amperometric immunosensor based on the Peroxidase chip and enzyme-channeling principle.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, J; Ruzgas, T; Fránek, M

    2003-10-01

    A concept based on the Peroxidase-chip (P-chip), antibody co-immobilization, competitive and enzyme-channeling principle was exploited to develop an integrated flow-through amperometric biosensor for detection of environmental pollutants such as s-triazine herbicides. In this concept, recombinant peroxidase is immobilized on the gold electrode (P-chip) in such a way that direct electron transfer is achieved. The recognition and quantitation the target analyte is realized through the competition between the simazine-glucose oxidase (GOD) conjugate and free simazine for the binding sites of the monoclonal antibody co-immobilized with peroxidase on the gold electrode. The arrangement allows to generate a specific signal in the presence of glucose through the channeling of H2O2 produced by GOD conjugate bound to the antibody. The immunosensor exhibited 50% signal decrease (IC50 value) at approximately 0.02 microg l(-1). A concentration of 0.1 ng l(-1) gave a signal clearly distinguishable from the blank whereas the ELISA using the same antibody had a typical detection limit of about 1 microg l(-1), which is four orders of magnitude higher compared to the presented biosensor system. The results demonstrated that gene engineering biomolecules, in this case recombinant peroxidase, might be attractive reagents for the development of electrochemical immunosensors. PMID:12896832

  13. A competitive photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on a CdS-induced signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueping; Yan, Tao; Li, Yan; Liu, Yixin; Du, Bin; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2015-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on the competitive strategy is proposed for the specific detection of dexamethasone (DXM). Graphitic carbon nitride coupled with bismuth sulfide are used as the sensing matrix for the immobilization of BSA-DXM on the electrode surface, while cadmium sulfide functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO2@CdS) is used as the photoelectric active labels of anti-DXM. Due to the perfect matching of energy levels between TiO2 and CdS, the in situ prepared composite labels show excellent photocurrent response under visible lights. The competitive binding of DXM in sample solutions and BSA-DXM on the electrode surface reduces the specific attachment of labels to the electrode, resulting in a decrease of the photocurrent intensity. Greatly enhanced sensitivity is achieved after the optimization of the detection conditions. Under the optimal detection condition, the well-designed immunosensor for DXM exhibits a low detection limit of 2 pg∙mL−1. Additionally, the proposed immunoassay system shows high specificity, good reproducibility and acceptable stability, which is also expected to become a promising platform for the detection of other small molecules. PMID:26648409

  14. An Amperometric Immunosensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Thionine-Chitosan Nanocomposite Film for Chlorpyrifos Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xia; Cao, Yaoyao; Gong, Zhili; Wang, Xiangyou; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Jinmei

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a novel amperometric immunosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine-chitosan (MWCNTs-THI-CHIT) nanocomposite film as electrode modified material was developed for the detection of chlorpyrifos residues. The nanocomposite film was dropped onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and then the anti-chlorpyrifos monoclonal antibody was covalently immobilized onto the surface of MWCNTs-THI-CHIT/GCE using the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde (GA). The modification procedure was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the relative change in peak current of different pulse voltammetry (DPV) and the logarithm of chlorpyrifos solution concentration was obtained in the range from 0.1 to 1.0 × 105 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.046 ng/mL. The proposed chlorpyrifos immunosensor exhibited high reproducibility, stability, and good selectivity and regeneration, making it a potential alternative tool for ultrasensitive detection of chlorpyrifos residues in vegetables and fruits. PMID:23443396

  15. Label-free Electrochemiluminescent Immunosensor for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen based on Aminated Graphene Quantum Dots and Carboxyl Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Yixin; Wang, Yaoguang; Hu, Lihua; Ma, Hongmin; Wang, Guoqin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was used as the model, an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemiluminescent immunosensor was developed based on graphene quantum dots. Au/Ag-rGO was sythsized and used as electrode material to load a great deal of graphene quantum dots due to the large surface area and excellent electron conductivity. After aminated graphene quantum dots and acarboxyl graphene quantum dots were modified onto the electrode, the ECL intensity was much high using K2S2O8 as coreactant. Then, antibody of PSA was immobilized on the surface of modified electrode surface through the adsorption of Au/Ag toward proteins, leading to the decrease of the ECL intensity. As proven by ECL spectra test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the fabrication process of the immunosensor is successful. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL intensity decreased linearly with the logarithm of PSA concentration in the range of 1 pg/mL ~ 10 ng/mL. The detection limit achieved is 0.29 pg/mL. The immunosensor results were validated through the detection of PSA in serum samples with satisfactory results. Due to excellent stability, high sensitivity, acceptable repeatability and selectivity, the immunosensor has promising applications in disease and drug analysis. PMID:26842737

  16. Enhanced sensitivity of self-assembled-monolayer-based SPR immunosensor for detection of benzaldehyde using a single-step multi-sandwich immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K Vengatajalabathy; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Miura, Norio

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for detection of benzaldehyde (BZ). The functional sensing surface was fabricated by the immobilization of a benzaldehyde-ovalbumin conjugate (BZ-OVA) on Au-thiolate SAMs containing carboxyl end groups. Covalent binding of BZ-OVA on SAM was found to be dependent on the composition of the base SAM, and it is improved very much with the use of a mixed monolayer strategy. Based on SPR angle measurements, the functional sensor surface is established as a compact monolayer of BZ-OVA bound on the mixed SAM. The BZ-OVA-bound sensor surface undergoes immunoaffinity binding with anti-benzaldehyde antibody (BZ-Ab) selectively. An indirect inhibition immunoassay principle has been applied, in which analyte benzaldehyde solution was incubated with an optimal concentration of BZ-Ab for 5 min and injected over the sensor chip. Analyte benzaldehyde undergoes immunoreaction with BZ-Ab and makes it inactive for binding to BZ-OVA on the sensor chip. As a result, the SPR angle response decreases with an increase in the concentration of benzaldehyde. The fabricated immunosensor demonstrates a low detection limit (LDL) of 50 ppt (pg mL(-1)) with a response time of 5 min. Antibodies bound to the sensor chip during an immunoassay could be detached by a brief exposure to acidic pepsin. With this surface regeneration, reusability of the same sensor chip for as many as 30 determination cycles has been established. Sensitivity has been enhanced further with the application of an additional single-step multi-sandwich immunoassay step, in which the BZ-Ab bound to the sensor chip was treated with a mixture of biotin-labeled secondary antibody, streptavidin and biotin-bovine serum albumin (Bio-BSA) conjugate. With this approach, the SPR sensor signal increased by ca. 12 times and the low detection limit improved to 5 ppt with a total response

  17. Development of electrochemical based sandwich enzyme linked immunosensor for Cryptosporidium parvum detection in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Thiruppathiraja, Chinnasamy; Saroja, Veerappan; Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Adaikkappan, Periyakaruppan; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2011-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important biological contaminants in drinking water and generates significant risks to public health. Due to low infectious dose of C. parvum, remarkably sensitive detection methods are required for water and food industry analysis. This present study describes a simple, sensitive, enzyme amplified sandwich form of an electrochemical immunosensor using dual labeled gold nanoparticles (alkaline phosphatase and anti-oocysts monoclonal antibody) in indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode to detect C. parvum. The biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the anti-oocysts McAb on a gold nanoparticle functionalized ITO electrode, followed by the corresponding capture of analytes and dual labeled gold nanoparticle probe to detect the C. parvum target. The outcome shows the sensitivity of electrochemical immune sensor enhanced by gold nanoparticles with a limit of detection of 3 oocysts/mL in a minimal processing period. Our results demonstrated the sensitivity of the new approach compared to the customary method and the immunosensors showed acceptable precision, reproducibility, stability, and could be readily applied to multi analyte determination for environmental monitoring.

  18. Magnetic beads-based electrochemical immunosensor for detection of pseudorabies virus antibody in swine serum.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Zhou, Rui; Zhao, Kaihong; Chen, Huanchun; Hu, Yonggang

    2011-12-15

    A novel magnetic electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the detection of pseudorabies virus antibody in swine serum. The magnetic glass carbon electrode was fabricated to manipulate magnetic beads for the direct sensing applications. Magnetic beads were employed as the platforms for the immobilization and immunoreaction process, and gold nanoparticles were chosen as electroactive labels for the electrochemical detection. The parameters concerning the assay strategy were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear response range of pseudorabies virus antibody dilution ratio (standard positive serum) was 1:250 to 1:1000 with a detection limit of 1:1000. Finally, this developed immunoassay method was successfully applied in the detection of pseudorabies virus antibody in swine serum, and had a good diagnostic accordance in comparison with ELISA.

  19. Immunosensor based on nanocomposite of nanostructured zirconium oxide and gelatin-A.

    PubMed

    Bagbi, Yana; Sharma, Anshu; Bohidar, H B; Solanki, Pratima R

    2016-01-01

    We have reported the studies related to the fabrication of a nanocomposite, comprising of sol-gel derived inorganic zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) and organic biopolymer gelatin-A (GA), deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by drop casting method. The GA-ZrO2/ITO electrode was used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies (Ab) specific to antigen Vibrio cholerae (Vc) followed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) for antigen Vc detection using electrochemical techniques. The structural and morphological behaviour of these ZrO2 NPs, GA-ZrO2/ITO electrode and BSA/Ab/GA-ZrO2/ITO immunosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The transmission electron microscopy study exhibited a spherical shape ZrO2 NPs. The average crystalline size of ZrO2 NPs was obtained as 10.3 ± 1 nm from X-ray diffraction measurement and 72 nm hydrodynamic radius measured by dynamic light scattering. GA-ZrO2 nanocomposite provides a porous structure which assists to higher loading of Ab on the matrix surface that improved the biosensing properties. The electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/GA-ZrO2/ITO immunosensor exhibited good linearity in the range of 50-400 ng mL(-1), low limit of detection of 0.74 ng/mL, sensitivity as 0.03 Ω ng(-1)mL(-1)cm(-2) and reproducibility more than 10 times. PMID:26515440

  20. Immunosensor based on nanocomposite of nanostructured zirconium oxide and gelatin-A.

    PubMed

    Bagbi, Yana; Sharma, Anshu; Bohidar, H B; Solanki, Pratima R

    2016-01-01

    We have reported the studies related to the fabrication of a nanocomposite, comprising of sol-gel derived inorganic zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) and organic biopolymer gelatin-A (GA), deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by drop casting method. The GA-ZrO2/ITO electrode was used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies (Ab) specific to antigen Vibrio cholerae (Vc) followed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) for antigen Vc detection using electrochemical techniques. The structural and morphological behaviour of these ZrO2 NPs, GA-ZrO2/ITO electrode and BSA/Ab/GA-ZrO2/ITO immunosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The transmission electron microscopy study exhibited a spherical shape ZrO2 NPs. The average crystalline size of ZrO2 NPs was obtained as 10.3 ± 1 nm from X-ray diffraction measurement and 72 nm hydrodynamic radius measured by dynamic light scattering. GA-ZrO2 nanocomposite provides a porous structure which assists to higher loading of Ab on the matrix surface that improved the biosensing properties. The electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/GA-ZrO2/ITO immunosensor exhibited good linearity in the range of 50-400 ng mL(-1), low limit of detection of 0.74 ng/mL, sensitivity as 0.03 Ω ng(-1)mL(-1)cm(-2) and reproducibility more than 10 times.

  1. Microfluidic beads-based immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarker proteins using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Liu, Lian; Fu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-04-15

    This study reports the development of a microfluidic beads-based immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarker α-fetoprotein (AFP) that uses multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels. This method utilizes microbeads functionalized with the capture antibodies (Ab₁) and modified electron rich proteins as sensing platform that was fabricated within a microfluidic channel, and uses gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the detection antibodies (Ab₂) as label. Greatly enhanced sensitivity for the cancer biomarker is based on a dual signal amplification strategy: first, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introducing the multi-HRP-antibody functionalized AuNPs onto the surface of microbeads through "sandwich" immunoreactions and subsequently multiple biotin moieties could be deposited onto the surface of beads resulted from the oxidation of biotin-tyramine by hydrogen peroxide. Streptavidin-labeled quantum dots were then allowed to bind to the deposited biotin moieties and displayed the signal. Secondly, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro-channel delivers fresh analyte solution to the reaction site which maintains a high concentration gradient differential to enhance mass transport. Based on the dual signal amplification strategy, the developed microfluidic bead-based immunosensor could discriminate as low as 0.2 pg mL⁻¹ AFP in 10 μL of undiluted calf serum (0.2 fg/chip), and showed a 500-fold increase in detection limit compared to the off-chip test and 50-fold increase in detection limit compared to microfluidic beads-based immunoassay using single label HRP-Ab₂. The immunosensor showed acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. This microfluidic beads-based

  2. Nanoparticle-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Phosphorylated Acetylcholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphate Pesticides and Nerve AgentsOrganophosphate Pesticides and Nerve Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Barry, Richard C.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Timchalk, Charles; Gassman, Paul L.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    A nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) adducts, which is a potential exposure biomarker for organophosphate pesticides (OP) and chemical warfare nerve agent exposures. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were used as selective sorbents to capture the phosphorylated AChE adduct, and quantum dots (ZnS@CdS, QDs) were used as tags to label monoclonal anti-AChE antibody to track the immunorecognition events. The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the ZrO2 NPs, which were pre-coated on a screen printed electrode (SPE) by electrodeposition, phosphorylated AChE and QD-anti-AChE. The captured QD tags were determined on the SPE by electrochemical stripping analysis of its metallic component (cadmium) after an acid-dissolution step. Paraoxon was used as a model OP insecticide to prepare the phosphorylated AChE adduct to demonstrate the proof of principle for this sensor technology. The paraoxon-AChE adduct was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum, and the binding affinity of anti-AChE to the paraoxon-AChE was validated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The parameters (e.g., amount of ZrO2 NP, QD-anti-AChE concentration,) that govern the electrochemical response of immunosensors were optimized. The voltammetric response of the immunosensor is highly linear over the range of 10 pM to 4 nM paraoxon-AChE, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 8 pM. This new nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor thus provides a sensitive and quantitative tool for biomonitoring exposure to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

  3. An Amperometric Immunosensor Based on an Ionic Liquid and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Electrode for Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Fan, Yuxia; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-14

    An amperometric immunosensor based on a composite electrode of single-walled carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid n-octylpyridinum afluorophosphate (SWCNT-ILE) was developed for the determination of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Compared with the glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the electrode combined advantages of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid, which exhibited the excellent antifouling ability of p-nitrophenol (PNP) so that it remarkably improved the stability of the p-nitrophenyl phosphate-based sensor. Combining the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) by alkaline phosphatase (AP) and magnetic particles immobilized with antigens, a real-time assay of tetrodotoxin was developed by amperometric immunosensors. Under the optimium condition, the developed sensor demonstrated a linear range of tetrodotoxin from 2 to 45 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 5 ng/mL. Furthermore, the amperometric immunosensor was applied to determine TTX in real samples and could be used as an effective and sensitive sensor for direct detection of tetrodotoxin within 20 min. PMID:27508884

  4. An Amperometric Immunosensor Based on an Ionic Liquid and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Electrode for Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Fan, Yuxia; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-14

    An amperometric immunosensor based on a composite electrode of single-walled carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid n-octylpyridinum afluorophosphate (SWCNT-ILE) was developed for the determination of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Compared with the glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the electrode combined advantages of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid, which exhibited the excellent antifouling ability of p-nitrophenol (PNP) so that it remarkably improved the stability of the p-nitrophenyl phosphate-based sensor. Combining the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) by alkaline phosphatase (AP) and magnetic particles immobilized with antigens, a real-time assay of tetrodotoxin was developed by amperometric immunosensors. Under the optimium condition, the developed sensor demonstrated a linear range of tetrodotoxin from 2 to 45 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 5 ng/mL. Furthermore, the amperometric immunosensor was applied to determine TTX in real samples and could be used as an effective and sensitive sensor for direct detection of tetrodotoxin within 20 min.

  5. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in foods using an electrochemical immunosensor based on screen-printed interdigitated microelectrode and immunomagnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens have continuously been a serious food safety issue and there is a growing demand for a rapid and sensitive method to screen the pathogens for on-line or in-field applications. Therefore, an impedimetric immunosensor based on the use of magnetic beads (MBs) for separation and a screen-printed interdigitated microelectrode (SP-IDME) for measurement was studied for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in foods. Streptavidin coated MBs were functionalized with corresponding biotinylated antibodies (Ab) to capture the target bacteria. The glucose oxidase (GOx)-Ab conjugates were employed to label the MBs-Ab-cell complexes. The yielded MBs-Ab-cell-Ab-GOx biomass was mixed with the glucose solution to trigger an enzymatic reaction which produced gluconic acid. This increased the ion strength of the solution, thus decreasing the impedance of the solution measured on the SP-IDME. Our results showed that the immunosensor was capable of specifically detecting E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium within the range of 10(2)-10(6) cfu ml(-1) in the pure culture samples. E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef and S. Typhimurium in chicken rinse water were also examined. The limits of detection (LODs) for the two bacteria in foods were 2.05×10(3) cfu g(-1) and 1.04×10(3) cfu ml(-1), respectively. This immunosensor required only a bare electrode to measure the impedance changes, and no surficial modification on the electrode was needed. It was low-cost, reproducible, easy-to-operate, and easy-to-preserve. All these merits demonstrated this immunosensor has great potential for the rapid and on-site detection of pathogenic bacteria in foods. PMID:26653441

  6. A highly sensitive enzyme-amplified immunosensor based on a nanoporous niobium oxide (Nb2O5) electrode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Soo; Kwon, Dohyoung; Yoo, Jeng Eun; Lee, Byung Gun; Choi, Jinsub; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of an enzyme-amplified sandwich-type immunosensor based on a thin gold film sputtered on an anodic nanoporous niobium oxide (Au@Nb(2)O(5)) electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of enzymatically amplified electroactive species and a stable electrode consisting of Au@Nb(2)O(5) were used to obtain a powerful signal amplification of the electrochemical immunobiosensor. The method using this electrochemical biosensor based on an Au@Nb(2)O(5) electrode provides a much better performance than those based on conventional bulk gold or niobium oxide electrodes. Our novel approach does not require any time-consuming cleaning steps to yield reproducible electrochemical signals. In addition, the strong adhesion of gold films on the niobium oxide electrodes offers a very stable substrate during electrochemical biosensing. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that non-specific binding of proteins to the modified Au@Nb(2)O(5) surface is sufficiently low to be ignored in the case of our novel system. Finally, we demonstrated the ability of the biosensor based on an Au@Nb(2)O(5) offering the enhanced performance with a high resolution and sensitivity. Therefore, it is expected that the biosensor based on an Au@Nb(2)O(5) has great potential for highly efficient biological devices.

  7. Single-step cycle pulse operation of the label-free electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on branched polypyrrole for carcinoembryonic antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Wu, Dan; Sun, Xu; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A novel label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on luminol functional-Au NPs@polypyrrole has been developed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In this work, polypyrrole prepared by chemical polymerization provided a large surface area to load amounts of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs could not only attach abundant luminol for the enhancement of ECL signal, but also provide a friendly microenvironment for the immobilization of antibodies. Moreover, 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluroborate ([BPy]BF4) were used to disperse luminol functional-Au NPs@polypyrrole nanocomposites, resulting in the film-formation of composites on the electrode, which could improve the stability of immunosensor. In particular, employment of single-step cycle pulse could limit the consecutive reaction between luminol and H2O2 efficiently, thus leading to stable and strong signals. The proposed method presents good ECL response for the detection of CEA allowing a wide linear range from 0.01 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL and a limit of detection as low as 3 fg/mL. The immunosensor would be a promising tool in the early diagnosis of CEA due to its high sensitivity, simplicity and cost-effective. PMID:27091590

  8. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on enhanced signal amplification between Au@Pd and CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Jiaojiao; Wang, Zhiling; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Cheng, Qianhe; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensor can be achieved via two approaches: increasing loading capacities of antibody and enlarging responding electrochemical signals. Based on these, CoFe2O4/graphene nanohybrid (CoFe2O4/rGO) as support was firstly used for preparing electrochemical biosensor, and with the addition of Au@Pd nanorods (NRs) as mimic enzyme, a label-free electrochemical immunosensor was prepared. Due to the high electrical conductivity, open porous structure and large loading capacities of CoFe2O4/rGO, the enhanced signal amplification between Au@Pd NRs and CoFe2O4/rGO was studied. Fabricated as a novel substrate, the prepared immunosensor had a good analytical performance and exhibited a wide linear range from 0.01 to 18.0 ng·mL−1 with a low detection limit of 3.3 pg·mL−1 for estradiol, which was succeeded in applying to detect estradiol in the natural water. PMID:26987503

  9. Single-step cycle pulse operation of the label-free electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on branched polypyrrole for carcinoembryonic antigen detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Wu, Dan; Sun, Xu; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A novel label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on luminol functional-Au NPs@polypyrrole has been developed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In this work, polypyrrole prepared by chemical polymerization provided a large surface area to load amounts of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs could not only attach abundant luminol for the enhancement of ECL signal, but also provide a friendly microenvironment for the immobilization of antibodies. Moreover, 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluroborate ([BPy]BF4) were used to disperse luminol functional-Au NPs@polypyrrole nanocomposites, resulting in the film-formation of composites on the electrode, which could improve the stability of immunosensor. In particular, employment of single-step cycle pulse could limit the consecutive reaction between luminol and H2O2 efficiently, thus leading to stable and strong signals. The proposed method presents good ECL response for the detection of CEA allowing a wide linear range from 0.01 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL and a limit of detection as low as 3 fg/mL. The immunosensor would be a promising tool in the early diagnosis of CEA due to its high sensitivity, simplicity and cost-effective. PMID:27091590

  10. Disposable integrated bismuth citrate-modified screen-printed immunosensor for ultrasensitive quantum dot-based electrochemical assay of C-reactive protein in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Christos; Prodromidis, Mamas; Economou, Anastasios; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2015-07-30

    A novel immunosensor based on graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with bismuth citrate was developed for the voltammetric determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human serum using quantum dots (QDs) labels. The sandwich-type immunoassay involved physisorption of CRP capture antibody on the surface of the sensor, sequential immunoreactions with CRP and biotinylated CRP reporter antibody and finally reaction with streptavidin-conjugated PbS QDs. The quantification of the target protein was performed with acidic dissolution of the PbS QDs and anodic stripping voltammetric detection of the Pb(II) released. Detection was performed at bismuth nanodomains formed on the sensor surface during the electrolytic preconcentration step, as bismuth citrate was reduced to metallic bismuth simultaneously with the deposition of Pb on the surface of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the response was linear over the range 0.2-100 ng mL(-1) CRP and the limit of detection was 0.05 ng mL(-1) CRP. Since the modified SPE serves as both the biorecognition element and the QDs reader, the analytical procedure is simplified, the drawbacks of existing electroplated immunosensors are minimized while the proposed disposable sensing platform provides convenient, low-cost and ultrasensitive detection of proteins and wider scope for mass-production. PMID:26320633

  11. Immunosensors in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2016-01-01

    The application of simple, cost-effective, rapid, and accurate diagnostic technologies for detection and identification of cardiac and cancer biomarkers has been a central point in the clinical area. Biosensors have been recognized as efficient alternatives for the diagnostics of various diseases due to their specificity and potential for application on real samples. The role of nanotechnology in the construction of immunological biosensors, that is, immunosensors, has contributed to the improvement of sensitivity, since they are based in the affinity between antibody and antigen. Other analytes than biomarkers such as hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus have also been detected by immunosensors for clinical point-of-care applications. In this chapter, we first introduced the various types of immunosensors and discussed their applications in clinical diagnostics over the recent 6 years, mainly as point-of-care technologies for the determination of cardiac and cancer biomarkers, hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus. The future perspectives of these devices in the field of clinical diagnostics are also evaluated. PMID:26975970

  12. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica with interfacial co-assembly-based multi-channel electrochemical immunosensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wangping; Xu, Bin; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Wei; Song, Shiping; Feng, Zheng; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-05-01

    Schistosomiasis control remains to be an important and challenging task in the world. However, lack of quick, simple, sensitive and specific sero-diagnostic test is still a hurdle in the control practice. The commonly employed enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) relies on the native soluble egg antigen (SEA) that is limited in supply. Here we developed an electrochemical immunosensor array (ECISA) assay with an interfacial co-assembly strategy. A recombinant Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) calcium-binding protein (SjE16) was used as a principal antigen, while the SEA as a minor, co-assembling agent, with a ratio of 8:1 (SjE16: SEA, Sj16EA), which was co-immobilized on a disposable 16-channel screen-printed carbon electrode array. A portable electrochemical detector was employed to detect antibodies in serum samples. The sensitivity of ECISA reached 100% with minimal cross-reactions. Therefore, we have demonstrated that this rapid, sensitive and specific ECISA technique has the potential to perform large-scale on-site screening of Sj infection.

  13. Single-Multiplex Detection of Organ Injury Biomarkers using SPRi based Nano-Immunosensor

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Effat; Li, Siqi; Zhou, Zhiguo; Miller, Jennifer; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical assessment of multiple organ dysfunctions at early stages is recognized to be an important factor in prompting definitive treatment decisions that prevent irreversible organ damage. In this article, we propose a real-time, label-free, and multiplex nanoenhanced SPRi platform to quantitatively assess two biomarkers, kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) simultaneously in buffer. Our work involves three major contributions in the design of the immunosensor: (1) we applied site-specific immobilization of antibodies to the solid surface that avoids loss of biological activity caused by covalent attachment; (2) we constructed a well-blocked sensor surface that exhibits minimal non-specific adsorption for singleplex measurements of each biomarker in buffer; and (3) we adopted a sandwich assay that implements functionalized quantum dots (NanoEnhancers) as signal amplifiers to achieve a sensitivity level of 5 pg/mL for KIM-1 and HMGB-1 in buffer. We foresee great potential and success in extending this multiplex and ultra-sensitive platform to assess a variety of other emerging clinical biomarkers at low concentrations and in complex matrices. PMID:27796342

  14. Amperometric immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-antibody conjugate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou

    2013-04-19

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au) nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE) via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab) and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  15. A novel amperometric immunosensor based on acetone-extracted propolis for the detection of the HIV-1 p24 antigen.

    PubMed

    Kheiri, F; Sabzi, R E; Jannatdoust, E; Shojaeefar, E; Sedghi, H

    2011-07-15

    A novel amperometric immunosensor for the detection of the p24 antigen (p24Ag) from HIV-1 was constructed using gold nanoparticles (GNP), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and an acetone-extracted propolis film (AEP). First, amino-functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTNH₂) were prepared and dispersed in an HAuCl₄ solution to synthesize GNPs in situ. Next, the GNP/CNT/AEP nanocomposite was prepared by mixing an AEP solution and the GNP/CNT powder. The nanocomposite was dripped onto a gold electrode (GE), and then p24 antibody (anti-p24 Ab) was immobilized on the resulting modified gold electrode to construct the immunosensor. The assembly process was characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The factors that were likely to influence the performance of the proposed immunosensor were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical sensitivity to the presence of p24 in a concentration range of 0.01 to 60.00 ng/mL, with a relatively low detection limit of 0.0064 ng/mL (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed immunosensor showed a rapid (≤ 18 s) and highly sensitive amperometric response (0.018 and 1.940 μA/ng/mL) to p24 with acceptable stability and reproducibility.

  16. Amperometric immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-antibody conjugate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au) nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE) via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab) and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication. PMID:23604029

  17. Highly stable electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobin; Ma, Zhanfang

    2012-05-15

    The long-term stability of sensing interfaces is an important issue in biosensor fabrication. A novel stable gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode interface (GC-Ph-AuNP)-based biosensor for detecting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was developed. GC electrodes were modified with 1,4-phenylenediamine to form a stable layer, and then AuNPs were bound onto the GC electrodes through CAu bonds. Anti-CEA was directly adsorbed on AuNPs fixed on the GC electrode. The linear range of the immunosensor was from 10 fg to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3 fg mL(-1) (S/N=3). The current of the immunosensor was increased by 4% after one month. The GC-Ph-AuNP immunosensor showed high sensitivity, a wide linear range, low detection limit, and good selectivity and stability. The immobilization method of the immunosensor could be widely applied to construct other immunosensors.

  18. A micro hemoglobin-A1c immunosensor based on FET and electrochemical growth of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lan; Bian, Chao; Sun, Jizhou; Han, Jinghong; Xia, Shanhong

    2008-12-01

    A micro potentiometric hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) immunosensor based on field-effect transistor (FET) and electrochemical growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in polypyrrole (PPy) film is reported. Integrated ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) chips containing two ISFETs, two reference FETs (REFET) and the signal read-out circuits were fabricated. Micro electrodes of the sensor were fabricated by MEMS techniques and electrochemical method, both compatible with electrode miniaturization. The simple and direct procedure to form PPy-AuNPs composite film enhances the sensitivity of the micro sensor. Electrochemical characterization and morphology study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirm the presence of AuNPs in PPy. Simple, rapid and precise differential measurement of HbA1c is achieved. HbA1c in the concentration ranges of 2-20 ng/ml and 4-15 µg/ml can be detected by this sensor with a response time less than 1 min, which meets the needs of clinical detection of HbA1c. The miniaturized electrodes and integrated ISFET chip have the potential to be integrated and to achieve system on chip (SOC).

  19. An investigation of the well-water quality: immunosensor for pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa detection based on antibody-modified poly(pyrrole-3 carboxylic acid) screen-printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Bekir, Karima; Bousimma, Feriel; Barhoumi, Houcine; Fedhila, Kais; Maaref, Abderrazak; Bakhrouf, Amina; Ben Ouada, Hafedh; Namour, Philippe; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Ben Mansour, Hedi

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we describe a new immunosensor designed for the detection and the quantification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in water. The developed biosensing system was based on the immobilization of purified polyclonal anti P. aeruginosa antibodies on electropolymerized poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid)/glassy carbon electrode. The building of the immunosensor step by step was evaluated by electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical signature of the immunosensor was established by the change of the charge transfer resistance when the bacteria suspended in solution became attached to the immobilized antibodies. As a result, stable and high sensitive impedimetric immunosensor was obtained with a sensitivity of 0.19 kΩ/decade defined in the linear range from 10(1) to 10(7) CFU/mL of cellular concentrations. A low detection limit was obtained for the P. aeruginosa bacteria and a high selectivity when other bacteria were occasioned as well as Escherichia coli. The developed immunosensor was applied in detecting pathogenic P. aeruginosa in well-water.

  20. A sensitive label-free amperometric CEA immunosensor based on graphene-nafion nanocomposite film as an enhanced sensing platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Wei-Kang; Fan, Man-Qi; Liu, Ao

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to fabricate a label-free amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was described. Herein, methylene blue (MB), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) were layer-by-layer assembled on the graphene-Nafion nanocomposite film-modified electrode by means of a self-assembling technique and the opposite-charged adsorption. Subsequently, the stepwise self-assembling procedure of the immunosensor was further characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The factors influencing the performance of the resulting immunosensor were studied in detail. The developed procedure showed improved features, including larger amount and higher immunoactivity of the immobilized antibody and repeatable regeneration of the sensor, as well as direct, rapid and simple determination for the antigen without multiple separation and labeling steps. The immunosensor could detect the target protein in a range of 0.5 to 120 ng/mL with a limit of 0.17 ng/mL (at 3σ). Finally, the immunosensing system was evaluated on several clinical samples. Analytical results were found to be in satisfactory agreement with those detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, indicating that this new method was a promising alternative tool for clinical diagnosis.

  1. Immunosensor based on electrodeposition of gold-nanoparticles and ionic liquid composite for detection of Salmonella pullorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Dou, Wenchao; Zhao, Guangying; Chen, Yan

    2014-11-01

    In order to increase the reproducibility and stability of electrochemical immunosensor, which is a key issue for its application and popularization, an accurate and stable immunosensor for rapid detection of Salmonella pullorum (S. pullorum) was proposed in this study. The immunosensor was fabricated by modifying Screen-printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE) with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), HRP-labeled anti-S. pullorum and ionic liquids (ILs) (AuNP/HRP/IL). AuNPs are electrodeposited on the working electrode surface to increase the amount of antibodies that bind to the electrode and then modified with ILs to protect the antibodies from being inactivated in the test environment and maintain their biological activity and the stability of the detection electrode. The electrochemical characteristics of the stepwise modified electrodes and the detection of S. pullorum were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As shown in the results of the experiments, AuNPs with unique electrochemical properties as well as biocompatibility characteristics have been proven to be able to strengthen the antibody combination effectively and to increase the electrochemical response signal. In addition, a crucial assessment regarding implementation of stability and reproducibility analysis of a range of immunosensors is provided. We found that application of AuNPs/ILs in the immune modified electrodes showed obvious improvement when compared with other groups. Given their high levels of reproducibility, stability, target specificity and sensitivity, AuNPs and ILs were considered to be excellent elements for electrode modification.

  2. A highly sensitive immunosensor for calmodulin assay based on enhanced biocatalyzed precipitation adopting a dual-layered enzyme strategy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Kai; Sun, Qianqian; Lin, Bin; Lu, Danqin; Xu, Zhiai; Hu, Chen; Fan, Guangjian; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Chuangui; Zhang, Wen

    2014-06-15

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous protein in eukaryotic cells, and it plays an important role in cancer progression. In this paper, a highly sensitive immunosensor adopting a dual-layered enzyme strategy was proposed for electrochemical detection of CaM. This immunosensor was constructed by introducing honeycomb-like mesoporous carbon (HMPC) as a sensor platform to sequentially immobilize antibody (Ab1), CaM and a multi-functionalized label. The label (HRP-PAupc-Ab1) was synthesized by covalently binding Ab1 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to poly(acrylic acid)-functionalized Au popcorn (PAupc) nanoparticles. A novel dual-layered enzyme strategy was employed by incubating HRP-secondary antibody (HRP-Ab2) onto the label surface and the enhanced biocatalyzed precipitation was therefore induced. This immunosensor exhibited satisfactory analytical performances for CaM detection with a linear response ranging from 5.0 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 1.5 pg mL(-1). The immunosensor has also been successfully applied to the CaM analysis in two cancer cells (HepG2 and MCF-7) with high sensitivity, which has shown great potency for cancer study. PMID:24508817

  3. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  4. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on dual signal amplification process for p16(INK4a) cervical cancer detection in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Duangkaew, Pattasuda; Tapaneeyakorn, Satita; Apiwat, Chayachon; Dharakul, Tararaj; Laiwejpithaya, Somsak; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2015-12-15

    The p16(INK4a) (p16) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which has been evaluated in several studies as a diagnostic marker of cervical cancer. Immunostaining using p16 specific antibody has confirmed an over-expression of p16 protein in cervical cancer cells and its association with disease progression. This article reports an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for specific detection of p16 and demonstrates its performance for detection of solubilized p16 protein in cell lysates obtained from patients. Sandwich-based immunoreaction couple with double signal amplification strategy based on catalytic enlargement of particle tag was used for high sensitivity and specificity. The conditions were optimized to create an immunoassay protocol. Disposable screen-printed electrode modified with capture antibodies (Ab1) was selected for further implementation towards point-of-care diagnostics. Small gold nanoparticles (15 nm diameter) conjugated with detection antibodies (Ab2) were found to better serve as a detection label due to limited interference with antigen-antibody interaction. Double signal enhancement was performed by sequential depositions of gold and silver layers. This gave the sensitivity of 1.78 μA mL(ng GST-p16)(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.3 ng mL(-1) for GST-p16 protein which is equivalent to 0.49 ng mL(-1) for p16 protein and 28 cells for HeLa cervical cancer cells. In addition to purified protein, the proposed immunosensor effectively detected elevated p16 level in cervical swab samples obtained from 10 patients with positive result from standard Pap smear test, indicating that an electrochemical immunosensors hold an excellent promise for detection of cervical cancer in clinical setting. PMID:26201985

  5. Electrochemical immunosensor based on bismuth nanocomposite film and cadmium ions functionalized titanium phosphates for the detection of anthrax protective antigen toxin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh K; Narayanan, J; Upadhyay, Sanjay; Goel, Ajay K

    2015-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis is a bioterrorism agent classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a novel electrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive, specific and easy detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) toxin in picogram concentration was developed. The immunosensor consists of (i) a Nafion-multiwall carbon nanotubes-bismuth nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE) as a sensing platform and (ii) titanium phosphate nanoparticles-cadmium ion-mouse anti-PA antibodies (TiP-Cd(2+)-MαPA antibodies) as signal amplification tags. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta-potential analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed to characterize the synthesized TiP nanoparticles and modified electrode surfaces. The immunosensing performance of BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE was evaluated based on sandwich immunoassay protocol. A square wave voltammetry (SWV) scan from -1.2 to -0.3 V in HAc-NaAc buffer solution (pH 4.6) without stripping process was performed to record the electrochemical responses at -0.75 V corresponding to high content of Cd(2+) ions loaded in TiP nanoparticles for the measurement of PA toxin. Under optimal conditions, the currents increased with increasing PA toxin concentrations in spiked human serum samples and showed a linear range from 0.1 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml. The limit of detection of developed immunosensor was found to be 50 pg/ml at S/N=3. The total time of analysis was 35 min. PMID:26148674

  6. Novel gold nanocluster electrochemiluminescence immunosensors based on nanoporous NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3 alloys.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Ji, Lei; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Xuehui; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    Herein, three-dimensional nanoporous NiGd alloy (NP-NiGd) was prepared by selectively dealloy Al from NiGdAl alloy in mild alkaline solution, then Ni2O3 and Gd2O3 grew further on the surface of NP-NiGd to obtain the NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3. On this basis, NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3 was further functionalized with gold nanoparticles (NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3@Au) and acted as sensor platform to fabricate a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor. Bovine serum albumin protected gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@BSA) were prepared and acted as illuminant. AuNCs@BSA modified graphene oxide (GO/AuNCs@BSA) were used as labels of second antibody. In order to characterize the performance of the ECL immunosensor, carcino embryonie antigen (CEA) was used as the model to complete the experiments. Due to the good performances of NP-NiGd-Ni2O3-Gd2O3@Au (high surface area, excellent electron conductivity) and AuNCs@BSA (low toxicity, biocompatibility, easy preparation and good water solubility), the ECL immunosensor exhibited a wide range from 10(-4) to 5ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.03pg/mL (S/N=3). The immunosensor with excellent stability, acceptable repeatability and selectivity provided a promising method to detect CEA in human serum sample sensitively. PMID:26318782

  7. Ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on trimetallic nanocomposite signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of CEA.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lihui; Liu, Li; Li, Yueyuan; Wei, Qin; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel and ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). This immunosensor was developed by using the trimetallic NiAuPt nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (NGs) nanosheets (NiAuPt-NGs) as excellent labels and β-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (CD-NGs) as the platform. The CD-NGs with high specific surface area good biocompatibility and the ideal dispersibility was used to capture the primary antibodies (Ab1) efficiently. The trimetallic NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites were used as the labels for signal amplification, showing better electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is much better than that the monometallic Pt-NGs, bimetallic NiPt-NGs and AuPt-NGs due to the synergetic effect presented in NiAuPt-NGs. The NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites consist of tightly coupled nanostructures of Au, Ni and Pt, which have neither an alloy nor a core-shell structure. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.001-100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 0.27 pg/mL were obtained for CEA. The proposed electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensor may have a promising application in bioassay and it enriches the electrochemical immunoassays. PMID:27488806

  8. Ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on trimetallic nanocomposite signal amplification strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of CEA

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lihui; Liu, Li; Li, Yueyuan; Wei, Qin; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel and ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). This immunosensor was developed by using the trimetallic NiAuPt nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (NGs) nanosheets (NiAuPt-NGs) as excellent labels and β-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (CD-NGs) as the platform. The CD-NGs with high specific surface area good biocompatibility and the ideal dispersibility was used to capture the primary antibodies (Ab1) efficiently. The trimetallic NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites were used as the labels for signal amplification, showing better electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is much better than that the monometallic Pt-NGs, bimetallic NiPt-NGs and AuPt-NGs due to the synergetic effect presented in NiAuPt-NGs. The NiAuPt-NGs nanocomposites consist of tightly coupled nanostructures of Au, Ni and Pt, which have neither an alloy nor a core-shell structure. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.001–100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 0.27 pg/mL were obtained for CEA. The proposed electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensor may have a promising application in bioassay and it enriches the electrochemical immunoassays. PMID:27488806

  9. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded silica-poly(acrylic acid) brushes for protein biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zheng, Yiqun; Kong, Rongmei; Xia, Lian; Qu, Fengli

    2016-01-15

    We report an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor designed for the detection of protein biomarkers using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded silica-poly(acrylic acid) brushes (SiO2-SPAABs) as labels. HRP could be efficiently and stably accommodated in the three-dimensional architecture of the SiO2-SPAABs and the SiO2-SPAABs-HRP exhibited high catalytic performance towards o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidation in the presence of H2O2, which resulted in significant differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) response change and color change. Using human IgG (HIgG) as a model analyte, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed. In particular, graphene oxide (GO) and SiO2-SPAABs-HRP were used to immobilize capture antibody (Ab1) and bind a layer of detection antibody (Ab2), respectively. The current biosensor exhibited a good linear response of HIgG from 100pg/mL to 100μg/mL with a detection limit of 50pg/mL (S/N=5). The sensitivity was 6.70-fold higher than the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The immunosensor results were validated through the detection of HIgG in serum samples.

  10. An ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on signal amplification strategy of multifunctional magnetic graphene loaded with cadmium ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Faying; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui; Jiang, Liping; Wang, Ping; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, a novel and ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor was proposed for quantitative detection of human Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The amino functionalized magnetic graphenes nanocomposites (NH2-GS-Fe3O4) were prepared to bond gold and silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) by constructing stable Au-N and Ag-N bond between Au@Ag NPs and -NH2. Subsequently, the Au@Ag/GS-Fe3O4 was applied to absorb cadmium ion (Cd2+) due to the large surface area, high conductivity and exceptional adsorption capability. The functional nanocomposites of gold and silver core-shell magnetic graphene loaded with cadmium ion (Au@Ag/GS-Fe3O4/Cd2+) can not only increase the electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but also improve the effective immobilization of antibodies because of synergistic effect presented in Au@Ag/GS-Fe3O4/Cd2+, which greatly extended the scope of detection. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor was used for the detection of IgG with good linear relation in the range from 5 fg/mL to 50 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 2 fg/mL (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor showed high sensitivity, special selectivity and long-term stability, which had promising application in bioassay analysis. PMID:26880596

  11. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on luminophore capped Pd@Au core-shell nanoparticles as signal tracers and ferrocenyl compounds as signal enhancers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuting; Wang, Haijun; Xiong, Chengyi; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-07-15

    In this work, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI), an analogue of luminol, is served as both the reductant and luminescence reagent to synthesize ABEI capped Pd@Au core-shell nanoparticles (ABEI-Pd@AuNPs). The nanoparticles not only exhibit inherent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property, but also possess advantages of noble-metal nanomaterials such as outstanding electronic property, high specific surface area and good biocompatibility. In order to enhance the luminescence efficiency, ferrocene monocarboxylic acid (Fc) as catalyzer is grafted on the surface of ABEI-Pd@AuNPs with the aid of l-cysteine (l-Cys). When the Fc is electrochemically oxidized to ferricinium cation species (Fc(+)), the decomposition of H2O2 which existed in detection solution can be catalyzed by Fc(+) to generate oxygen-related free radicals, resulting effective signal amplification for ABEI-H2O2 system. For potential applications, the Pd@Au core-shell nanoparticles bifunctionalized by ABEI and catalyzer are employed as nano-carriers to immobilize detection antibody (Ab2). Based on sandwiched immunoreactions, a "signal-on" ECL immunosensor is developed for detection of human collagen type IV (Col IV), a potential biomarker associated with diabetic nephropathy. Consequently, the proposed immunosensor provides a wide linear detection ranging from 1pgmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1) with a relatively low detection limit of 0.3pgmL(-1) (S/N=3). PMID:26985586

  12. Comparison of electrochemical immunosensors based on gold nano materials and immunoblot techniques for detection of histidine-tagged proteins in culture medium.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, Michał; Viswanathan, Subramanian; Dvornyk, Anzhela; Grzelak, Krystyna; Kłudkiewicz, Barbara; Radecka, Hanna

    2008-10-15

    In this work, the direct electrochemical determination of poly-histidine tagged proteins using immunosensor based on anti-His (C-term) antibody immobilized on gold electrodes modified with 1,6-hexanedithiol, gold colloid particles or gold nanorods is described. The recombinant histidine-tagged silk proteinase inhibitor protein (rSPI2-His(6)) expressed in Pichia system selected as antigen for this immonosensor. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used as label free detection technique for immune conjugation. The gold nanorods modified electrode layer showed better analytical response than gold nano particles. The linear calibration range was observed between 10 pg/ml and 1 ng/ml with limit of detection 5 pg/ml (S/N=3). Up to four successive assay cycles with retentive sensitivity were achieved for the immunosensors regenerated with 0.2M glycine-HCl buffer, pH 2.8. The performance of this immnosensor were compared with immuoblotting techniques. PMID:18486465

  13. Recent advances in immunosensor for narcotic drug detection

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sonu; Suman, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena; Suri, C. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Immunosensor for illicit drugs have gained immense interest and have found several applications for drug abuse monitoring. This technology has offered a low cost detection of narcotics; thereby, providing a confirmatory platform to compliment the existing analytical methods. Methods: In this minireview, we define the basic concept of transducer for immunosensor development that utilizes antibodies and low molecular mass hapten (opiate) molecules. Results: This article emphasizes on recent advances in immunoanalytical techniques for monitoring of opiate drugs. Our results demonstrate that high quality antibodies can be used for immunosensor development against target analyte with greater sensitivity, specificity and precision than other available analytical methods. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the fundamentals of different transducer technologies and its applications for immunosensor development currently being developed in our laboratory using rapid screening via immunochromatographic kit, label free optical detection via enzyme, fluorescence, gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes based immunosensing for sensitive and specific monitoring of opiates. PMID:26929925

  14. A novel self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on hollow Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles for NSE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Jianshe; Yu, Bin; You, Tianyan

    2016-02-01

    Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and Ru(bpy)32+-doped silica (Ru-SiO2) nanoparticles were simply mixed together to prepare a novel self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) composite of Ru-SiO2@PEI. The hollow Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles were used to build an ECL immunosensor for the analysis of neuron specific enolase (NSE). PEI not only assembled on the surface of Ru-SiO2 nanoparticles through the electrostatic interaction to act as co-reactant for Ru(bpy)32+ ECL, but also provided alkaline condition to etch the Ru-SiO2 nanoparticles to form the hollow Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles with porous shell. The unique structure of the Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles loaded both a large amount of Ru(bpy)32+ and its co-reactant PEI at the same time, which shortened the electron-transfer distance, thereby greatly enhanced the luminous efficiency and amplified the ECL signal. The developed immunosensor showed a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10-11 to 1.0 × 10-5 mg mL-1 with a low detection limit of 1.0 × 10-11 mg mL-1 for NSE. When the immunosensor was used for the determination of NSE in clinical human serum, the results were comparable with those obtained by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The proposed method provides a promising alternative for NSE analysis in clinical samples.

  15. An electrochemical immunosensor for ochratoxin A determination in wines based on a monoclonal antibody and paramagnetic microbeads.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Duato, Patricia; Castillo, Juan R

    2012-06-01

    We report a direct competitive immunosensor for the rapid determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine samples. Magnetic beads (1 ± 0.5 μm diameter) covered with streptavidin were functionalized with a monoclonal antibody against OTA, and then left to incubate in a solution of tracer (ochratoxin conjugated to the enzyme peroxidase) and a range of OTA concentrations (10(-4) to 1,000 ng mL(-1)). After washing and separation steps helped with a magnetic field, a volume of the dispersion was put on screen-printed electrodes under a magnet, and after adding the substrate the p-benzoquinone generated enzymatically was detected by differential-pulse voltammetry. Wine samples (2 mL) were easily prepared simply by adjusting to pH = 7.5 with diluted NaOH and by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone for complexing polyphenols, without any other clean-up or preconcentration steps. The limit of detection for detecting OTA in wines was of 0.11 ± 0.01 ng L(-1), well below the permitted content of the mycotoxin by the European Union (<2 ng mL(-1)). Spiked wines were subjected to immunosensor calibrations to study the matrix effects. OTA concentrations measured with the immunosensor were compared with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection (AOAC official method 2001.01). The OTA levels from two red wines of "Campo de Borja", Spain, ranged from about 0.027 to 0.033 ng mL(-1) of OTA.

  16. A novel self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on hollow Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles for NSE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Jianshe; Yu, Bin; You, Tianyan

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and Ru(bpy)32+-doped silica (Ru-SiO2) nanoparticles were simply mixed together to prepare a novel self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) composite of Ru-SiO2@PEI. The hollow Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles were used to build an ECL immunosensor for the analysis of neuron specific enolase (NSE). PEI not only assembled on the surface of Ru-SiO2 nanoparticles through the electrostatic interaction to act as co-reactant for Ru(bpy)32+ ECL, but also provided alkaline condition to etch the Ru-SiO2 nanoparticles to form the hollow Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles with porous shell. The unique structure of the Ru-SiO2@PEI nanoparticles loaded both a large amount of Ru(bpy)32+ and its co-reactant PEI at the same time, which shortened the electron-transfer distance, thereby greatly enhanced the luminous efficiency and amplified the ECL signal. The developed immunosensor showed a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−11 to 1.0 × 10−5 mg mL−1 with a low detection limit of 1.0 × 10−11 mg mL−1 for NSE. When the immunosensor was used for the determination of NSE in clinical human serum, the results were comparable with those obtained by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The proposed method provides a promising alternative for NSE analysis in clinical samples. PMID:26916963

  17. Microfluidic immunosensor with micromagnetic beads coupled to carbon-based screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs) for determination of Botrytis cinerea in tissue of fruits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Baldo, Martín A; Messina, Germán A; Sanz, Maria I; Raba, Julio

    2010-11-10

    A wide range of plant species, including economically important crops such as vegetables, ornamentals, bulbs, and fundamentally fruits, can be affected by gray mold caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea . This paper describes the development of a microfluidic immunosensor with micromagnetic beads (MMBs) coupled to carbon-based screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs) for the rapid and sensitive quantification of B. cinerea in apple (Red Delicious), table grape (pink Moscatel), and pear (William's) tissues. The detection of B. cinerea was carried out using a competitive immunoassay method based on the use of purified B. cinerea antigens immobilized on 3-aminopropyl-modified MMBs. The total assay time was 40 min, and the calculated detection limit was 0.008 μg mL(-1). Moreover, the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were below 7%. The developed method allowed detects B. cinerea even in asymptomatic fruits and promises to be particularly useful for application in the agricultural industry. PMID:20931959

  18. A Novel Sandwich Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on the DNA-Derived Magnetic Nanochain Probes for Alpha-Fetoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ning; Jia, Liyong; Zheng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    One novel electrochemical immunosensor was constructed by immobilizing capture antibody of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP Ab1) on a nafion/nanogold-particle modified glassy carbon electrode. With a sandwich immunoassay, one DNA-derived magnetic nanoprobe, simplified as DNA/(ZMPs—HRP-AFP Ab2)n, was employed for the detection of AFP. The fabricated procedure of the proposed biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the biosensor were also evaluated. Under optimal conditions, the developed biosensor exhibited a well-defined electrochemical behavior toward the reduction of AFP ranging from 0.01 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The biosensor was applied to the determination of AFP in serum with satisfactory results. It is important to note that the sandwich nanochainmodified electro-immunosensor provided an alternative substrate for the immobilization of other tumor markers. PMID:22013390

  19. Ultra-sensitive plasmonic nanometal scattering immunosensor based on optical control in the evanescent field layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungah; Park, Guenyoung; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Kang, Seong Ho

    2015-01-15

    Novel, fluorescence-free detection of biomolecules on nanobiochips was investigated based on plasmonic nanometal scattering in the evanescent field layer (EFL) using total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy. The plasmonic scattering of nanometals bonded to biomolecules was observed at different wavelengths by an electromagnetic field in the EFL. The changes in the scattering of nanometals on the gold-nanopatterned chip in response to the immunoreaction between silver nanoparticles and antibodies allowed fluorescence-free detection of biomolecules on the nanobiochips. Under optimized conditions, the TIRS immunoassay chip detected different amounts of immobilized antigen, i.e., human cardiac troponin I. The sandwich immuno-reaction was quantitatively analyzed in the dynamic range of 720 zM-167 fM. The limit of detection (S/N=4) was 600 zM, which was ~140 times lower than limits obtained by previous total internal reflection fluorescence and dark field methods. These results demonstrate the possibility for a fluorescence-free biochip nanoimmunoassay based on the scattering of nanometals in the EFL.

  20. Ultra-sensitive plasmonic nanometal scattering immunosensor based on optical control in the evanescent field layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungah; Park, Guenyoung; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Kang, Seong Ho

    2015-01-15

    Novel, fluorescence-free detection of biomolecules on nanobiochips was investigated based on plasmonic nanometal scattering in the evanescent field layer (EFL) using total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy. The plasmonic scattering of nanometals bonded to biomolecules was observed at different wavelengths by an electromagnetic field in the EFL. The changes in the scattering of nanometals on the gold-nanopatterned chip in response to the immunoreaction between silver nanoparticles and antibodies allowed fluorescence-free detection of biomolecules on the nanobiochips. Under optimized conditions, the TIRS immunoassay chip detected different amounts of immobilized antigen, i.e., human cardiac troponin I. The sandwich immuno-reaction was quantitatively analyzed in the dynamic range of 720 zM-167 fM. The limit of detection (S/N=4) was 600 zM, which was ~140 times lower than limits obtained by previous total internal reflection fluorescence and dark field methods. These results demonstrate the possibility for a fluorescence-free biochip nanoimmunoassay based on the scattering of nanometals in the EFL. PMID:25128624

  1. Sensitive Immunosensor for Cancer Biomarker Based on Dual Signal Amplification Strategy of Graphene Sheets and Multi-Enzyme Functionalized Carbon Nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Zou, Zhexiang; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-03-30

    A novel electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarker α fetoprotein (AFP) is described that uses a graphene sheet sensor platform and functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNSs) labeling with horseradish peroxidase-secondary antibodies (HRP-Ab2). Greatly enhanced sensitivity for the cancer biomarker is based on a dual signal amplification strategy: first, the synthesized CNSs yielded a homogeneous and narrow size distribution, which allowed several binding events of HRP-Ab2 on each nanosphere. Enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introducing the multi-bioconjugates of HRP-Ab2-CNSs onto the electrode surface through sandwich immunoreactions. Secondly, functionalized graphene sheets used for the biosensor platform increased the surface area to capture a large amount of primary antibodies (Ab1), thus amplifying the detection response. This amplification strategy is a promising platform for clinical screening of cancer biomarkers and point-of-care diagnostics.

  2. Multi-immunosensors based on electrolite-insulator-semiconductor structures for determination of some herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Starodub, Valentyna M.; Krivenchuk, Vladimir E.; Shapovalenko, Valentyna F.

    2002-02-01

    New type of the multi-immune sensor was elaborated. It is based on electrolyte-insulator-semiconductors structures and intended for determination of such herbicides as simazine, atrazine and 2,4-D. The specific antibodies were immobilized on nitrocellulose disks, which were placed in measuring cells. The analysis was fulfilled by sequential saturation of antibodies, left unbound after their exposure to native herbicide in investigated sample, with labelled herbicide. If horse radish peroxidase (HRP) was used as label the sensitivity of this multi-immune sensor was about 5 and 1.25 (mu) g/L for simazine and 2,4-D, respectively. At the changing of HRP by (beta) -glucose oxidase the sensitivity of analysis of these herbicides increased approximately in 5 times. The linear plots of the registered concentrations were in the range of 1,0-150,0 and 0,25-150,0 ng/mL for simazine and 2,4-D respectively. It was recommended to use the developed immune sensor for wide screening of herbicides in environment. The ways for increasing of its sensitivity were proposed.

  3. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for HE4 based on rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingsong; Liu, Bei; Zhao, Zhaohui; Ma, Cuixia; Luo, Peng; Liu, Chenggui; Xie, Guoming

    2012-03-15

    A novel electrochemical immunoassay system for the detection of human epididymis-specific protein 4 (HE4) was developed. A chitosan-titanium carbide (TiC) nanocomposition film was first electrodeposited onto a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrode at a constant potential. Gold (Au) nanoparticles were then electrodeposited on the surface of the chitosan-TiC film by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The capture antibody (anti-HE4) was adsorbed onto the Au and TiC nanoparticles. After a specific sandwich immunoreaction among the capture antibody, HE4, and biotinylated secondary antibody, biotinylated primer DNA was immobilized on the secondary antibody by biotin-streptavidin system. Appropriate amounts of circular template DNA and biotinylated primer DNA were used for rolling circle amplification (RCA) under optimal conditions. The RCA products provided a large number of sites to link DNA detection probes. Doxorubicin hydrochloride intercalated the CG-GC steps between the RCA products and the DNA detection probes, which was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) based on the current signal of doxorubicin hydrochloride. With the above-mentioned amplification factors, the current responded to HE4 linearly in the concentration range of 3-300 pM under optimal detection conditions, with a detection limit of 0.06 pM. Stepwise changes in the microscopic features of the surfaces and electrochemical properties upon the formation of each layer were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This system was successfully employed for the detection of HE4 with good accuracy and renewable ability.

  4. Love Wave Immunosensor for the Detection of Carbaryl Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; García, José-Vicente; García, Pablo; March-Iborra, Carmen; Jiménez, Yolanda; Francis, Laurent-Alain; Montoya, Ángel; Arnau, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A Love Wave (LW) immunosensor was developed for the detection of carbaryl pesticide. The experimental setup consisted on: a compact electronic characterization circuit based on phase and amplitude detection at constant frequency; an automated flow injection system; a thermal control unit; a custom-made flow-through cell; and Quartz/SiO2 LW sensors with a 40 μm wavelength and 120 MHz center frequency. The carbaryl detection was based on a competitive immunoassay format using LIB-CNH45 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Bovine Serum Albumin-CNH (BSA-CNH) carbaryl hapten-conjugate was covalently immobilized, via mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM), onto the gold sensing area of the LW sensors. This immobilization allowed the reusability of the sensor for at least 70 assays without significant signal losses. The LW immunosensor showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.09 μg/L, a sensitivity of 0.31 μg/L and a linear working range of 0.14–1.63 μg/L. In comparison to other carbaryl immunosensors, the LW immunosensor achieved a high sensitivity and a low LOD. These features turn the LW immunosensor into a promising tool for applications that demand a high resolution, such as for the detection of pesticides in drinking water at European regulatory levels. PMID:25192313

  5. A novel antibody-antigen based impedimetric immunosensor for low level detection of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients via modification of a gold nanoparticles decorated multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode.

    PubMed

    Arkan, Elham; Saber, Reza; Karimi, Ziba; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-05-18

    A highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode (AuNPs/MW-CILE) was developed for the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the extent of immobilization and to retain the immunoactivity of the antibody Herceptin on the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed for characterization of various layers coated onto the AuNPs/MW-CILE. The impedance measurements at different steps were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox pair. The immobilization of antibody and the corresponding antigen-antibody interaction at the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer. The interactions of antibody with various concentrations of antigen were also monitored via the change of impedance response. The results showed that the charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increasing concentrations of HER2 antigen. The linear range and limit of detection were found as 10-110 ng mL(-1) and 7.4 ng mL(-1), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor were validated. The results showed that the prepared immunosensor is a useful tool for screening of trace amounts of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients. PMID:25910448

  6. Photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction for gravimetric immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyejung; Joo, Jinmyoung; Ko, Wooree; Jung, Namchul; Jeon, Sangmin

    2010-12-01

    A novel microgravimetric immunosensor has been developed using TiO2 nanoparticle-modified immunoassay and silver enhancement reaction. An antibody-conjugated TiO2 nanoparticle is bound to the AFP antigen immobilized on a quartz resonator. When the nanoparticles are exposed to UV light in a silver nitrate solution, the photocatalytic reduction of silver ions results in the formation of metallic silver onto the nanoparticles and induces a decrease in the resonance frequency. The frequency change by this photocatalytic reduction reaction is three orders of magnitude larger than the change by antigen binding alone. The efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction has been found to increase with the fraction of anatase crystallites in the nanoparticles and the concentration of the AgNO3 solution. The results highlight the potential of the photocatalytic nanoparticles for the detection of low concentrations of target molecules using gravimetric sensors.

  7. Photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction for gravimetric immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyejung; Joo, Jinmyoung; Ko, Wooree; Jung, Namchul; Jeon, Sangmin

    2010-12-17

    A novel microgravimetric immunosensor has been developed using TiO(2) nanoparticle-modified immunoassay and silver enhancement reaction. An antibody-conjugated TiO(2) nanoparticle is bound to the AFP antigen immobilized on a quartz resonator. When the nanoparticles are exposed to UV light in a silver nitrate solution, the photocatalytic reduction of silver ions results in the formation of metallic silver onto the nanoparticles and induces a decrease in the resonance frequency. The frequency change by this photocatalytic reduction reaction is three orders of magnitude larger than the change by antigen binding alone. The efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction has been found to increase with the fraction of anatase crystallites in the nanoparticles and the concentration of the AgNO(3) solution. The results highlight the potential of the photocatalytic nanoparticles for the detection of low concentrations of target molecules using gravimetric sensors.

  8. A novel glutathione-S transferase immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase and double-layer gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dingqiang; Lu, Fuping; Pang, Guangchang

    2016-06-01

    GSTs, a biotransformation enzyme group, can perform metabolism, drug transfer and detoxification functions. Rapid detection of the GSTs with more sensitive approaches is of great importance. In the current study, a novel double-layer gold nanoparticles-electrochemical immunosensor electrode (DGN-EIE) immobilized with Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) antibody derived from Balb/c mice was developed. To increase the fixed quantity of antibodies and electrochemical signal, an electrochemical biosensing signal amplification system was utilized with gold nanoparticles-thionine-chitosan absorbing horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In addition, transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to characterize the nanogold solution. To evaluate the quality of DGN-EIE, the amperometric I-t curve method was applied to determine the GST in PBS. The results showed that the response current had a good linear correlation with the GST concentration ranged from 0.1-10(4) pg/mL. The lowest detection limit was found at 0.03 pg/mL(S/N = 3). The linear equation was deduced as △I/% = 7.386lgC + 22.36 (R(2) = 0.998). Moreover, it was validated with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Apparently, DGN-EIE may be a very useful tool for monitoring the GST. PMID:27220630

  9. Graphene oxide based electrochemical label free immunosensor for rapid and highly sensitive determination of tumor marker HSP70.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2016-11-01

    In this study, it is aimed to design a label free immunosensor for determination of HSP70 (heat shock protein 70). Glassy carbon electrode was used as a working electrode. Graphene oxide was covered on the working electrode surface. AntiHSP70 as a biorecognition element of the biosensor was covalently immobilized onto the graphene oxide layer by using EDC/NHS chemistry. The immobilization of antiHSP70 and binding of HSP70 protein onto the electrode surface were monitored by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Single frequency technique was also utilized to monitor binding characterization of HSP70 and antiHSP70. Surface morphology was defined by using scanning electron microscopy. All important fabrication steps of the biosensor were optimized to prepare an ultrasensitive biosensor. Under optimum conditions, analytical studies such as linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility were also experienced. A linear detection range of HSP70 was determined between 12 and 144fg/mL. Moreover, Kramer's Kronig transform was applied on impedance data. Finally, the biosensor was applied with real human blood serum samples and hopeful results were obtained.

  10. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunosensor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac based on Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Xu, Qian; Wei, Xiaoping; Hao, Zaibin

    2013-02-20

    A highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for Cry1Ac was fabricated. The primary antibody anti-Cry1Ac was immobilized onto core-shell structural Fe(3)O(4)@Au nanoparticles. The antigen and glucose-oxidase-labeled secondary antibody were then successively combined to form sandwich-type immunocomplexes through a specific interaction. The magnetic particles loaded with sandwich immune complexes were attracted to a magnet-controlled glass carbon electrode (GCE) by an external magnet applied on top of the GCE. ECL was generated by the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide derived from the enzymatic reaction in the presence of glucose. The sensors exhibited high sensitivity and a wide linear range for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac detection from 0 to 6 ng/mL, as well as a detection limit of 0.25 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The sensor is one of the most sensitive sensors for Cry1Ac, which can be easily renewed and conveniently used. PMID:23317307

  11. Graphene oxide based electrochemical label free immunosensor for rapid and highly sensitive determination of tumor marker HSP70.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2016-11-01

    In this study, it is aimed to design a label free immunosensor for determination of HSP70 (heat shock protein 70). Glassy carbon electrode was used as a working electrode. Graphene oxide was covered on the working electrode surface. AntiHSP70 as a biorecognition element of the biosensor was covalently immobilized onto the graphene oxide layer by using EDC/NHS chemistry. The immobilization of antiHSP70 and binding of HSP70 protein onto the electrode surface were monitored by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Single frequency technique was also utilized to monitor binding characterization of HSP70 and antiHSP70. Surface morphology was defined by using scanning electron microscopy. All important fabrication steps of the biosensor were optimized to prepare an ultrasensitive biosensor. Under optimum conditions, analytical studies such as linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility were also experienced. A linear detection range of HSP70 was determined between 12 and 144fg/mL. Moreover, Kramer's Kronig transform was applied on impedance data. Finally, the biosensor was applied with real human blood serum samples and hopeful results were obtained. PMID:27591626

  12. An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianhan; Wang, Ronghui; Jiao, Peirong; Li, Yuntao; Li, Yanbin; Liao, Min; Yu, Yude; Wang, Maohua

    2015-05-15

    Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50 μl was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50 μl. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation. PMID:25263315

  13. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed. PMID:27119268

  14. Self-enhanced N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) derivative-based electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for sensitive laminin detection using PdIr cubes as a mimic peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xinya; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Haijun; Zhuo, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2016-04-01

    Herein, a self-enhanced N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) derivative-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was constructed for the determination of laminin (LN) using PdIr cubes as a mimic peroxidase for signal amplification. Initially, PdIr cubes with efficient peroxidase mimicking properties, large specific surface areas, and good stability and uniformity were synthesized. Then, l-cysteine (l-Cys) and ABEI were immobilized on the PdIr cubes to form the self-enhanced ECL nanocomplex (PdIr-l-Cys-ABEI). In this nanocomplex, PdIr cubes, whose catalytic constant is higher than that of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), could effectively catalyze H2O2 decomposition and thus enhance the ECL intensity of ABEI. Moreover, PdIr cubes can be easily modified with functional groups, which make them adaptable to desired supported platforms. On the other hand, l-Cys as a coreactant of ABEI could effectively enhance the luminous efficiency due to the intramolecular ECL reaction which could reduce the energy loss between l-Cys and ABEI by giving a shorter electron transfer distance. The developed strategy combined an ABEI derivative as a self-enhanced ECL luminophore and PdIr cubes as a mimic peroxidase, resulting in a significantly enhanced ECL signal output. Also, the strategy showed high sensitivity and selectivity for LN, which suggested that our new approach could be potentially applied in monitoring different proteins.

  15. Self-enhanced N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) derivative-based electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for sensitive laminin detection using PdIr cubes as a mimic peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Haijun; Zhuo, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2016-04-21

    Herein, a self-enhanced N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) derivative-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was constructed for the determination of laminin (LN) using PdIr cubes as a mimic peroxidase for signal amplification. Initially, PdIr cubes with efficient peroxidase mimicking properties, large specific surface areas, and good stability and uniformity were synthesized. Then, L-cysteine (L-Cys) and ABEI were immobilized on the PdIr cubes to form the self-enhanced ECL nanocomplex (PdIr-L-Cys-ABEI). In this nanocomplex, PdIr cubes, whose catalytic constant is higher than that of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), could effectively catalyze H2O2 decomposition and thus enhance the ECL intensity of ABEI. Moreover, PdIr cubes can be easily modified with functional groups, which make them adaptable to desired supported platforms. On the other hand, L-Cys as a coreactant of ABEI could effectively enhance the luminous efficiency due to the intramolecular ECL reaction which could reduce the energy loss between L-Cys and ABEI by giving a shorter electron transfer distance. The developed strategy combined an ABEI derivative as a self-enhanced ECL luminophore and PdIr cubes as a mimic peroxidase, resulting in a significantly enhanced ECL signal output. Also, the strategy showed high sensitivity and selectivity for LN, which suggested that our new approach could be potentially applied in monitoring different proteins.

  16. Novel fiber optic immunosensor instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Wenling; Tang, Lei; Zhou, Bo; Li, Yugi; He, Jun

    1996-09-01

    It has developed and performed a novel fiberoptic immunosensor instrument with operating wavelength 400 - 760 nm and repeatability cv equals 0.27%. The instrument has many excellent features such as simplified operation, faster testing time, higher sensitivity and economic cost. It has completely eliminated recovery period which traditional immunosensor owned due to use separative sensor structure. It can widely apply to test for bacteria, virus, hormone, parasite and cancer protein in clinical examination. The instrument has operated in laboratory and relevant medicine units and successfully tested monoclonal rat-anti-human of 413 cases in clinic and prepared with existing ELISA method, the coincidence probability reached 94 to 100%.

  17. Development and standardization of porous silicon for application as a working electrode in electrochemical immunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Vinita; Mishra, Prabhash; Islam, S. S.

    2012-10-01

    Electrectrochemical immunosensors have diverse applications in areas like medical diagnostics, food industry, environmental monitoring etc. The conductive materials like Indium Tin oxide coated glass (ITO), glassy carbon, porous silicon (PS) etc. can be useful as working electrode for electrochemical immunosensor applications. But the porous silicon is particularly attractive for this application due to its modified properties like very large surface area to volume ratio, surface dependent properties (electrical and optical), photoluminescence at room temperature and biocompatibility. In this paper porous silicon is investigated for development as working electrode for label free model immunosensor based on Human IgG.

  18. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  19. Electrochemical immunosensor for interferon-γ based on disposable ITO detector and HRP-antibody-conjugated nano gold as signal tag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Xiaoli; Yan, Yuqi; Huang, Langhuan; Jiang, Zhenyou; Tan, Shaozao; Cai, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis is the most frequent cause of infection-related death worldwide. A new disposable electrochemical immunosensor with low cost and simple fabrication was proposed to detect interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and Au nanoparticle (AuNP) composite were used to provide an efficient biointerface, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody-conjugated AuNP (HRP-Ab2-AuNP) bioconjugates were used as a novel signal tag. The large amounts of HRP on the signal tag can catalyze the oxidation of Hydroquinone (HQ) by H2O2, which can induce an amplified reductive current. The catalytic reduction current was related to the amount of HRP immobilized on the surface, which itself was related to the concentration of IFN-γ. Under optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor showed a high sensitivity and a linear range of 0.1-10,000pg/mL with a detection limit of 0.048pg/mL. The assay results of clinical serum samples obtained by the immunosensor were in acceptable agreement with the reference values. Therefore, the immunosensor possessed excellent clinical value in early diagnosis and control of tuberculosis. PMID:26652410

  20. Amperometric immunosensor for α-fetoprotein antigen in human serum based on co-immobilizing dinuclear copper complex and gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ning; Meng, Ling Hua; Wang, Feng

    2009-09-01

    A sensitive amperometric immunosensor for α-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was constructed, The immunosensor is prepared by co-immobilizing [Cu2(phen)2Cl2] (μ-Cl)2 (CuL), nano-Au/Chitosan(Chit) composite, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and AFP antibody(anti-AFP) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Firstly, CuL was irreversibly absorb on GCE electrode through π-π stacking interaction; then nano-Au/Chit composite was immobilized onto the electrode because of its excellent membrane-forming ability, finally HRP and anti-AFP was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles to construct GCE | CuL/nanoAu-chit/HRP/anti-AFP immunosensor. The preparation procedure of the electrode was characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy method. The results showed that this immunosensor exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) without the aid of an electron mediator, offers a high-sensitivity (1710 nA · ng-1 · ml-1) for the detection of AFP and has good correlation for detection of AFP in the range of 0.2 to 120.0 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.05 ng/ml. The biosensor showed high selectivity as well as good stability and reproductivity.

  1. Label-Free Electrochemiluminescent Immunosensor for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on Nanocomposites of GO/MWCNTs-COOH/Au@CeO₂.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xuehui; Li, Jianxiu; Zhao, Yongbei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yong; Du, Bin; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2015-09-01

    A high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was conducted to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Nanocomposites of graphene oxide/carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes/gold/cerium oxide nanoparticles (GO/MWCNTs-COOH/Au@CeO2) were used as antibody carriers and sensing platforms to modify on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). CeO2 nanoparticles were first exploited as an ECL luminescent material and the possible ECL mechanism was proposed in this work. GO/MWCNTs-COOH was used as a loading matrix for CeO2 nanoparticles because of the superior conductivity and large specific surface area. Au nanoparticles were further deposited on this matrix to attach anti-CEA and enhance the sensitivity of immunosensor. The proposed sensing platform showed excellent cathodic ECL performance and sensitive response to CEA. The effects of experimental conditions on the ECL performance were investigated. The proposed immunosensor showed the broad linear range (0.05-100 ng/mL) and the low detection limit (LOD, 0.02 ng/mL, signal-to-noise ratio = 3) according to the selected experimental conditions. The excellent analysis performance for determination of CEA in the human serum samples simplied this immunosensor displayed high sensitivity and excellent repeatability. More importantly, this conducted immunosensor broadens the use scope of CeO2 nanoparticles.

  2. Electrochemical immunosensor for interferon-γ based on disposable ITO detector and HRP-antibody-conjugated nano gold as signal tag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Xiaoli; Yan, Yuqi; Huang, Langhuan; Jiang, Zhenyou; Tan, Shaozao; Cai, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis is the most frequent cause of infection-related death worldwide. A new disposable electrochemical immunosensor with low cost and simple fabrication was proposed to detect interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and Au nanoparticle (AuNP) composite were used to provide an efficient biointerface, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody-conjugated AuNP (HRP-Ab2-AuNP) bioconjugates were used as a novel signal tag. The large amounts of HRP on the signal tag can catalyze the oxidation of Hydroquinone (HQ) by H2O2, which can induce an amplified reductive current. The catalytic reduction current was related to the amount of HRP immobilized on the surface, which itself was related to the concentration of IFN-γ. Under optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor showed a high sensitivity and a linear range of 0.1-10,000pg/mL with a detection limit of 0.048pg/mL. The assay results of clinical serum samples obtained by the immunosensor were in acceptable agreement with the reference values. Therefore, the immunosensor possessed excellent clinical value in early diagnosis and control of tuberculosis.

  3. Nanoelectrochemical Immunosensors for Protein Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentiero, Alessandro; de Leo, Manuela; Garcia Romero, Ivan; Pozzi Mucelli, Stefano; Reuther, Freimut; Stanta, Giorgio; Tormen, Massimo; Ugo, Paolo; Zamuner, Martina

    Nanoelectrochemical immunosensors fabricated by templated electrodeposition of gold nanoelectrodes inside the pores of polycarbonate (PC) track-etched membranes, followed by the immobilization of the biorecognition elements on the surrounding PC, have proven high sensitivity and specificity for protein detection. The signal transduction scheme involves a suitable redox mediator added to the sample solution to shuttle electrons from the gold nanoelectrodes to the biorecognition layer, both elements being in strict spatial proximity. Highly improved signal-to-background current ratio, which are peculiar of NEEs with respect to other electrochemical transducers, can be exploited in this way. Two detection schemes were tested: one based on the direct immobilization of the target protein on the PC of the NEE (approach A) and the other based on the immobilisation on PC of an antibody to capture the target protein (approach B). The biorecognition process was completed by adding a primary antibody and a secondary antibody with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as enzyme label; methylene blue was the redox mediator added to the electrolyte solution. Typical target analytes were single chain fragment variable proteins, for approach A, and trastuzumab (also known as Herceptin®), for approach B. NEE-based capture sensors were tested successfully to detect small amounts of the receptor protein HER2 in biological samples. Finally, motivated by the target of a better control of the geometrical characteristics of ensembles of nanoelectrodes (size, density, geometrical arrangement, and degree of recession), and by the positive results obtained with track-etch membranes of PC from the standpoint of protein immobilization, we demonstrated the fabrication of nanobiosensors by patterning ordered arrays of nanoelectrodes (NEAs) by electron beam lithography (EBL) on polycarbonate. EBL results perfectly suitable for the top-down fabrication of arrays of nanobiosensors on thin PC films

  4. Label-free chemiresistive immunosensors for viruses.

    PubMed

    Shirale, Dhammanand J; Bangar, Mangesh A; Park, Miso; Yates, Marylynn V; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2010-12-01

    We report development, characterization, and testing of chemiresistive immunosensors based on single polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowire for highly sensitive, specific, label free, and direct detection of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires were electrochemically polymerized into alumina template, and single nanowire based devices were assembled on a pair of gold electrodes by ac dielectrophoretic alignment and anchored using maskless electrodeposition. Anti-T7 or anti-MS2 antibodies were immobilized on single Ppy nanowire using EDC-NHS chemistry to fabricate nanobiosensor for the detection of corresponding bacteriophage. The biosensors showed excellent sensitivity with a lower detection limit of 10(-3) plaque forming unit (PFU) in 10 mM phosphate buffer, wide dynamic range and excellent selectivity. The immunosensors were successfully applied for the detection of phages in spiked untreated urban runoff water samples. The results show the potential of these sensors in health care, environmental monitoring, food safety and homeland security for sensitive, specific, rapid, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens.

  5. Conformation-sensitive antibody-based point-of-care immunosensor for serum Ca(2+) using two-dimensional sequential binding reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Na; Paek, Sung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Seo, Sung-Min; Lim, Guei-Sam; Kang, Ju-Hee; Paek, Sung-Pil; Cho, Il-Hoon; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2016-11-15

    To assess the homeostasis of Ca(2+) metabolism, we have developed a rapid immunosensor for ionic calcium using a membrane chromatographic technique. As calcium-binding protein (CBP) is available for the recognition and undergone conformation change upon Ca(2+) binding, a monoclonal antibody sensitive to the altered structure of CBP has been employed. The sequential binding scheme was mathematically simulated and shown to match with the experimental results. At the initial stage, the rapid analytical system using lateral flow was constructed by immobilizing the antibody on the immuno-strip nitrocellulose membrane and labeling CBP with colloidal gold as a tracer. A major problem with this system in measuring ionic calcium levels was retarded migration of the gold tracer along the immuno-strip. It was conceivable that the divalent cation at a high concentration caused a change in the physical properties of the tracer, resulting in a non-specific interaction with the membrane surface. This problem was circumvented by first eluting a sample containing biotinylated CBP along the immuno-strip and then supplying the gold coupled to streptavidin across the signal generation pad of the strip. The color signal was then generated via biotin-SA linkage and measured using a smartphone-based detector developed in our laboratory. This two-dimensional chromatographic format completed the Ca(2+) analysis within 15min, the analytical performance covered the clinical dynamic range (0.25-2.5mM) and highly correlated with that of the reference system, i-STAT. These results inspired us to eventually investigate a dual-immunoassay system that measures simultaneously ionic calcium and parathyroid hormone, which regulates the ionic calcium level in serum. This will significantly simplify the current diagnostic protocols, which involve separate devices. PMID:27236727

  6. Novel automated flow-based immunosensor for real-time measurement of the breast cancer biomarker CA15-3 in serum.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Wani, Tanveer A; Khalil, Nasr Y; Blake, Diane A

    2012-08-15

    A novel automated immunosensor assay has been developed for real-time measurement of the breast cancer biomarker CA15-3 in serum. The assay employed the kinetic-exclusion analytical technology of the KinExA™ 3200 instrument. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads coated with CA15-3 were used as capturing reagent, mouse anti-CA15-3 monoclonal antibody was used as primary antibody, and the fluorescence was monitored and recorded during the flow of the fluorescent-labeled antibody through the beads. The fluorescence signal retained on the beads was plotted versus CA15-3 concentration to generate a calibration curve. The concentrations of CA15-3 in the samples were then obtained by interpolation on the curve. The assay limit of detection was 0.2 IU mL(-1). This highly sensitive automated system allowed rapid and reliable quantification of CA15-3 without any matrix effect; analytical recovery of serum-spiked CA15-3 was 90.7%-108.6%±2.05%-7.45%. The precision of the sensor was satisfactory; relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.8%-5.1% and 5.2%-7.4% for the intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. The analytical performance of the proposed sensor was superior to the non-competitive sandwich immunoassays for CA15-3. The automated analysis by the sensor facilitated the processing of a large number of specimens, and the new sensor-based assay is anticipated to have a great value in measurement of CA15-3.

  7. Conformation-sensitive antibody-based point-of-care immunosensor for serum Ca(2+) using two-dimensional sequential binding reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Na; Paek, Sung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Seo, Sung-Min; Lim, Guei-Sam; Kang, Ju-Hee; Paek, Sung-Pil; Cho, Il-Hoon; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2016-11-15

    To assess the homeostasis of Ca(2+) metabolism, we have developed a rapid immunosensor for ionic calcium using a membrane chromatographic technique. As calcium-binding protein (CBP) is available for the recognition and undergone conformation change upon Ca(2+) binding, a monoclonal antibody sensitive to the altered structure of CBP has been employed. The sequential binding scheme was mathematically simulated and shown to match with the experimental results. At the initial stage, the rapid analytical system using lateral flow was constructed by immobilizing the antibody on the immuno-strip nitrocellulose membrane and labeling CBP with colloidal gold as a tracer. A major problem with this system in measuring ionic calcium levels was retarded migration of the gold tracer along the immuno-strip. It was conceivable that the divalent cation at a high concentration caused a change in the physical properties of the tracer, resulting in a non-specific interaction with the membrane surface. This problem was circumvented by first eluting a sample containing biotinylated CBP along the immuno-strip and then supplying the gold coupled to streptavidin across the signal generation pad of the strip. The color signal was then generated via biotin-SA linkage and measured using a smartphone-based detector developed in our laboratory. This two-dimensional chromatographic format completed the Ca(2+) analysis within 15min, the analytical performance covered the clinical dynamic range (0.25-2.5mM) and highly correlated with that of the reference system, i-STAT. These results inspired us to eventually investigate a dual-immunoassay system that measures simultaneously ionic calcium and parathyroid hormone, which regulates the ionic calcium level in serum. This will significantly simplify the current diagnostic protocols, which involve separate devices.

  8. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on CdS-coated ZnO nanorod arrays for HepG2 cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danqing; Wang, Lei; Ma, Shenghua; Jiang, Zhaohua; Yang, Bin; Han, Xiaojun; Liu, Shaoqin

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the highly oriented CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays have been fabricated. The CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays show high electrochemiluminescence intensity, fast response and good stability. All of the desirable properties spur the development of an ECL immunosensor for the detection of the liver cancer cell line (HepG2 cells). Two successive modification steps of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and gold nanoparticles onto the CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays not only offer the substrates for conjugation of antibody, but also effectively enhance the ECL signal, resulting in production of the high performance ECL immunosensor. The ECL immunosensor exhibits a sensitive response to HepG2 cells in a linear range of 300-10 000 cells mL-1 with a detection limit of 256 cells mL-1. The proposed sensor characteristics of high specificity, good reproducibility and remarkable stability will provide a sensitive, selective, and convenient approach for the clinical detection of cancer cells.In this work, the highly oriented CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays have been fabricated. The CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays show high electrochemiluminescence intensity, fast response and good stability. All of the desirable properties spur the development of an ECL immunosensor for the detection of the liver cancer cell line (HepG2 cells). Two successive modification steps of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and gold nanoparticles onto the CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays not only offer the substrates for conjugation of antibody, but also effectively enhance the ECL signal, resulting in production of the high performance ECL immunosensor. The ECL immunosensor exhibits a sensitive response to HepG2 cells in a linear range of 300-10 000 cells mL-1 with a detection limit of 256 cells mL-1. The proposed sensor characteristics of high specificity, good reproducibility and remarkable stability will provide a sensitive, selective, and convenient approach for the clinical detection of cancer cells

  9. A double signal electrochemical human immunoglobulin G immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles-polydopamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide as a sensor platform and AgNPs/carbon nanocomposite as signal probe and catalytic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Huang, Na; Lu, Qiujun; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, a double signal electrochemical Human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) immunosensor based on AgNPs/carbon nanocomposite (Ag/C NC) as the signal probe and catalytic substrate was developed for fast and sensitive detection of HIgG. The as-prepared AuNPs-PDA-rGO nanocomposite and Ag/C NC were confirmed by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the proposed immunosensor. The AuNPs-PDA-rGO nanocomposite can improve the electron transfer rate and capture more Ab1. In the sandwich-type immunoassay process, the Ag/C NC functionalized bioconjugates were captured on HIgG/Ab1/AuNPs-PDA-rGO surface and the electrochemical double-signal strategy was employed. These double electrochemical detection signals were directly monitored the oxidation current originated from Ag/C NC and indirectly detected the reduction current of benzoquinone which was produced from the reaction of H2O2 and HQ by catalysis of Ag/C NC in electrochemical detection of HIgG. Under the optimized conditions, the current responses were changed with the concentrations of HIgG for the proposed immunosensor with wide linear ranges of 0.1 to 100 ngmL(-1) and 0.01-100 ngmL(-1) with the lowest detection concentration of 0.001 ng mL(-1) in the absence and presence of H2O2 and HQ. The double-signal strategy is used for detection of HIgG, and the results came from the two signals were well consistent with each other. The proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in analysis of human IgG in real samples and this strategy may provide a relative simple and effective method for construction of other immunsensors in detection of other biomarkers in clinical medicine.

  10. A Novel Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for the Analysis of HIV-1 p24 Antigen Based on P-RGO@Au@Ru-SiO₂ Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Jianshe; Yu, Bin; Liu, Yang; You, Tianyan

    2015-11-11

    Ru(bpy)3(2+)-doped silica (Ru-SiO2) nanoparticles and gold-nanoparticle-decorated graphene (P-RGO@Au) were combined to form a P-RGO@Au@Ru-SiO2 composite. The composite was used to develop a novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for the analysis of HIV-1 p24 antigen. The composite worked as carrier to immobilize target antibody and to build a sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor through an interaction between antigen and antibody. Importantly, high ECL signal could be obtained due to the large amounts of Ru(bpy)3(2+) molecules per Ru-SiO2 nanoparticle. The P-RGO@Au composite with good conductivity and high surface area not only accelerated the electron transfer rate but also improved the loading of both ECL molecules and capture antibody, which could further increase the ECL response and result in high sensitivity. Taking advantage of both Ru-SiO2 nanoparticles and the P-RGO@Au composite, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a linear range from 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-9) mg mL(-1) for HIV-1 p24 antigen. The proposed ECL immunosensor was used to analyze HIV-1 p24 antigen in human serum, and satisfactory recoveries were obtained, indicating that the proposed method is promising for practical applications in the clinical diagnosis of HIV infection.

  11. A Novel Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for the Analysis of HIV-1 p24 Antigen Based on P-RGO@Au@Ru-SiO₂ Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Jianshe; Yu, Bin; Liu, Yang; You, Tianyan

    2015-11-11

    Ru(bpy)3(2+)-doped silica (Ru-SiO2) nanoparticles and gold-nanoparticle-decorated graphene (P-RGO@Au) were combined to form a P-RGO@Au@Ru-SiO2 composite. The composite was used to develop a novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for the analysis of HIV-1 p24 antigen. The composite worked as carrier to immobilize target antibody and to build a sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor through an interaction between antigen and antibody. Importantly, high ECL signal could be obtained due to the large amounts of Ru(bpy)3(2+) molecules per Ru-SiO2 nanoparticle. The P-RGO@Au composite with good conductivity and high surface area not only accelerated the electron transfer rate but also improved the loading of both ECL molecules and capture antibody, which could further increase the ECL response and result in high sensitivity. Taking advantage of both Ru-SiO2 nanoparticles and the P-RGO@Au composite, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a linear range from 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-9) mg mL(-1) for HIV-1 p24 antigen. The proposed ECL immunosensor was used to analyze HIV-1 p24 antigen in human serum, and satisfactory recoveries were obtained, indicating that the proposed method is promising for practical applications in the clinical diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:26488492

  12. Electrochemical immunosensor for detecting typical bladder cancer biomarker based on reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine and trimetallic AuPdPt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongmin; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Li, Xiaojian; Li, Rongxia; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-10-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for detection of typical bladder cancer biomarker-nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) was developed by using reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine (rGO-TEPA) and trimetallic AuPdPt nanoparticles (NPs). rGO-TEPA was used as the ideal material for signal amplification and AuPdPt NPs immobilization due to its excellent conductivity and large surface area. An effective platform was constructed for antibodies anchoring by using AuPdPt NPs, which kept the antibodies' high stability and bioactivity. Moreover, AuPdPt NPs could accelerate the electron transfer and enhance the signal response, which assisted by the synergistic effect of the three different metals (Au, Pd and Pt). The proposed immunosensor showed satisfied performance such as simple fabrication, low detection limits (0.01 U/mL), wide linear range (from 0.040 to 20 U/mL), short analysis time (2 min), high stability and selectivity in the detection of NMP22. Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor was employed to test real urine samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Sensitive Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 based on NH2-SAPO-34 Supported Pd/Co Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Yaoguang; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Tao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor using the new amino group functionalized silicoaluminophosphates molecular sieves (NH2-SAPO-34) supported Pd/Co nanoparticles (NH2-SAPO-34-Pd/Co NPs) as labels for the detection of bladder cancer biomarker nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) was developed in this work. The reduced graphene oxide-NH (rGO-NH) with good conductivity and large surface area was used to immobilize primary antibody (Ab1). Due to the excellent catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, NH2-SAPO-34-Pd/Co NPs were used as labels and immobilized secondary antibody (Ab2) through adsorption capacity of Pd/Co NPs to protein. The immunosensor displayed a wide linear range (0.001–20 ng/mL) and low detection limit (0.33 pg/mL). Good reproducibility and stability have showed satisfying results in the analysis of clinical urine samples. This novel and ultrasensitive immunosensor may have the potential application in the detection of different tumor markers. PMID:27086763

  14. Ru(bpy)32+/nanoporous silver-based electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for alpha fetoprotein enhanced by gold nanoparticles decorated black carbon intercalated reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Lv, Xiaohui; Wang, Qi; Ma, Hongmin; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Hu, Lihua; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was proposed for the quantitative determination of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) using gold nanoparticles decorated black carbon intercalated reduced graphene oxide (Au-rGO@CB) as sensing platform and nanoporous silver (NPS) loaded Ru(bpy)32+ as labels. In this work, intercalation of CB inhibited the accumulation of rGO and Au-rGO@CB was firstly used to immobilize primary antibody (Ab1) in ECL system. NPS prepared by the dealloying of binary alloy has high pore volume and surface areas, which was used to load amount of secondary antibodies (Ab2) and Ru(bpy)32+, which could greatly enhance the ECL intensity. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.0001 to 30 ng/mL with a relative lower detection limit of 33 fg/mL for AFP detection. Overall, the designed immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, good repeatability and stability. This proposed method provided a potential application for clinical monitoring of AFP. PMID:26829062

  15. Highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of alpha fetoprotein based on PdNi nanoparticles and N-doped graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Ma, Hongmin; Cao, Wei; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The β-cyclodextrins functionalized graphene sheets (CD-GS) were used as the sensing matrix for immobilizing adamantine-1-carboxylic acid functionalized primary anti-AFP (ADA-Ab1) and enhanced the electron transfer. PdNi alloy nanoparticles decorated N-doped graphene nanoribbons (PdNi/N-GNRs) were used as labels of secondary anti-AFP (Ab2), and PdNi alloy nanoparticles (PdNi NPs) exhibited high catalytic performance towards the reduction of H2O2. Meanwhile, with good dispersion, large specific surface area and good catalytic performance, N-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) significantly amplified the electrochemical signal. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.0001-16 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.03 pg/mL. Additionally, the proposed immunosensor showed high specificity, good reproducibility and long-term stability, which have promising application in bioassay analysis.

  16. Core-shell Fe3O4-Au magnetic nanoparticles based nonenzymatic ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensor using quantum dots functionalized graphene sheet as labels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiyan; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Shenguang; Song, Xianrang; Huang, Jiadong; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a novel, low-cost electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor using core-shell Fe3O4-Au magnetic nanoparticles (AuMNPs) as the carriers of the primary antibody of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) was designed. Graphene sheet (GS) with property of good conductivity and large surface area was a captivating candidate to amplify ECL signal. We successively synthesized functionalized GS by loading large amounts of quantum dots (QDs) onto the poly (diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) coated graphene sheet (P-GS@QDs) via self-assembly electrostatic reactions, which were used to label secondary antibodies. The ECL immunosensors coupled with a microfluidic strategy exhibited a wide detection range (0.005-50 U mL(-1)) and a low detection limit (1.2 mU mL(-1)) with the help of an external magnetic field to gather immunosensors. The method was evaluated with clinical serum sample, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available analytical procedure.

  17. A regenerating ultrasensitive electrochemical impedance immunosensor for the detection of adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Donghai; Tang, Thompson; Harrison, D Jed; Lee, William E; Jemere, Abebaw B

    2015-06-15

    We report on the development of a regenerable sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of type 5 adenovirus. The multi-layered immunosensor fabrication involved successive modification steps on gold electrodes: (i) modification with self-assembled layer of 1,6-hexanedithiol to which gold nanoparticles were attached via the distal thiol groups, (ii) formation of self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid onto the gold nanoparticles, (iii) covalent immobilization of monoclonal anti-adenovirus 5 antibody, with EDC/NHS coupling reaction on the nanoparticles, completing the immunosensor. The immunosensor displayed a very good detection limit of 30 virus particles/ml and a wide linear dynamic range of 10(5). An electrochemical reductive desorption technique was employed to completely desorb the components of the immunosensor surface, then re-assemble the sensing layer and reuse the sensor. On a single electrode, the multi-layered immunosensor could be assembled and disassembled at least 30 times with 87% of the original signal intact. The changes of electrode behavior after each assembly and desorption processes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. PMID:25562739

  18. New competitive dendrimer-based and highly selective immunosensor for determination of atrazine in environmental, feed and food samples: the importance of antibody selectivity for discrimination among related triazinic metabolites.

    PubMed

    Giannetto, Marco; Umiltà, Eleonora; Careri, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A new voltammetric competitive immunosensor selective for atrazine, based on the immobilization of a conjugate atrazine-bovine serum albumine on a nanostructured gold substrate previously functionalized with poliamidoaminic dendrimers, was realized, characterized, and validated in different real samples of environmental and food concern. Response of the sensor was reliable, highly selective and suitable for the detection and quantification of atrazine at trace levels in complex matrices such as territorial waters, corn-cultivated soils, corn-containing poultry and bovine feeds and corn flakes for human use. Selectivity studies were focused on desethylatrazine, the principal metabolite generated by long-term microbiological degradation of atrazine, terbutylazine-2-hydroxy and simazine as potential interferents. The response of the developed immunosensor for atrazine was explored over the 10(-2)-10(3) ng mL(-1) range. Good sensitivity was proved, as limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 1.2 and 5 ng mL(-1), respectively, were estimated for atrazine. RSD values <5% over the entire explored range attested a good precision of the device.

  19. Droplet resonator based optofluidic microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, Alper; Jonáš, Alexandr; Aas, Mehdi; Karadag, Yasin; Brzobohatý, Oto; Ježek, Jan; Pilát, Zdeněk.; Zemánek, Pavel; Anand, Suman; McGloin, David

    2014-03-01

    We introduce tunable optofluidic microlasers based on active optical resonant cavities formed by optically stretched, dye-doped emulsion droplets confined in a dual-beam optical trap. To achieve tunable dye lasing, optically pumped droplets of oil dispersed in water are stretched by light in the dual-beam trap. Subsequently, resonant path lengths of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) propagating in the droplet are modified, leading to shifts in the microlaser emission wavelengths. We also report lasing in airborne, Rhodamine B-doped glycerolwater droplets which were localized using optical tweezers. While being trapped near the focal point of an infrared laser, the droplets were pumped with a Q-switched green laser. Furthermore, biological lasing in droplets supported by a superhydrophobic surface is demonstrated using a solution of Venus variant of the yellow fluorescent protein or E. Coli bacterial cells expressing stably the Venus protein. Our results may lead to new ways of probing airborne particles, exploiting the high sensitivity of stimulated emission to small perturbations in the droplet laser cavity and the gain medium.

  20. Immunosensor incorporating anti-His (C-term) IgG F(ab') fragments attached to gold nanorods for detection of His-tagged proteins in culture medium.

    PubMed

    Wąsowicz, Michal; Milner, Małgorzata; Radecka, Dorota; Grzelak, Krystyna; Radecka, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Immunosensors based on gold electrodes (electrochemical) or gold discs (optical) modified with 1,6-hexanedithiol, gold nanorods and Anti-His (C-term) monoclonal antibody F(ab') fragment are described. The antigen detected by the sensing platform is a recombinant histidine-tagged silk proteinase inhibitor (rSPI2-His(6)). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques were used as methods for detection of the antigen. This approach allows to detect the antigen protein in concentration of 10 pg per mL (0.13 pM) of culture medium. The immunosensor shows good reproducibility due to covalent immobilization of F(ab') fragments to gold nanorods layer. PMID:22219669

  1. Immunosensor Incorporating Anti-His (C-term) IgG F(ab’) Fragments Attached to Gold Nanorods for Detection of His-Tagged Proteins in Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Wąsowicz, Michal; Milner, Małgorzata; Radecka, Dorota; Grzelak, Krystyna; Radecka, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Immunosensors based on gold electrodes (electrochemical) or gold discs (optical) modified with 1,6-hexanedithiol, gold nanorods and Anti-His (C-term) monoclonal antibody F(ab’) fragment are described. The antigen detected by the sensing platform is a recombinant histidine-tagged silk proteinase inhibitor (rSPI2-His6). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques were used as methods for detection of the antigen. This approach allows to detect the antigen protein in concentration of 10 pg per mL (0.13 pM) of culture medium. The immunosensor shows good reproducibility due to covalent immobilization of F(ab’) fragments to gold nanorods layer. PMID:22219669

  2. Sensitive immunosensor for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide based on N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol)-functionalized gold nanodots/multiwalled carbon nanotube electrochemiluminescence nanointerface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongli; Han, Zhili; Wang, Xu; Li, Fang; Cui, Hua; Yang, Di; Bian, Zhiping

    2015-04-15

    A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was developed for the determination of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) by using N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI)-functionalized gold nanodots/chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs) hybrid as nanointerface. First, ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs hybrid nanomaterials were grafted onto the surface of ITO electrode via the film-forming property of hybrid nanomaterials. The anti-NT-proBNP antibody was connected to the surface of modified electrode by virtue of amide reaction via glutaraldehyde. The obtained sensing platform showed strong and stable ECL signal. When NT-proBNP was captured by its antibody immobilized on the sensing platform via immunoreaction, the ECL intensity decreased. Direct ECL signal changes were used for the determination of NT-proBNP. The present ECL immunosensor demonstrated a quite wide linear range of 0.01-100 pg/mL. The achieved low detection limit of 3.86 fg/mL was about 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained with electrochemistry method reported previously. Because of the simple and fast analysis, high sensitivity and selectivity, and stable and reliable response, the present immunosensor has been successfully applied to quantify NT-proBNP in practical plasma samples. The success of the sensor in this work also confirms that ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs hybrid is an ideal nanointerface to fabricate a sensing platform. Furthermore, the proposed strategy could be applied in the detection of other clinically important biomarkers.

  3. Fabrication of a capillary immunosensor in polymethyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Holt, David B; Gauger, Paul R; Kusterbeck, Anne W; Ligler, Frances S

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating capillary-based immunosensors in a coupon milled from an inexpensive, commodity plastic (PMMA, plexiglass) is demonstrated. The key feature of the technique is the use of sol-gel technology to deposit a glass-like (Si [bond] OH) film on surfaces of the plastic capillary channels to facilitate antibody immobilization. The utility of this method was demonstrated in the context of continuous flow displacement immunosensors for the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). These sensors exhibited sensitivity to low microg/l RDX concentrations and peak-to-peak signal variations that were generally less than 10% for multiple injections at a single RDX concentration. The useful lifetime of the coupons in these experiments was greater than 10 h even after multiple exposures to high (1000 microg/l) RDX levels. This sensor platform has the physical characteristics needed for a portable field instrument: small, light-weight, and rugged.

  4. Current trends in the development of the electrochemiluminescent immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Kateryna

    2014-04-15

    This review presents a general picture of the current trends and developments (2008-2013) related to electrochemiluminescence-based immunosensors. It briefly covers the milestones of qualitative changes in the field of electrochemiluminescent immunosensors; the peculiarities of the electrochemiluminescent immunoassay formats; the basic mechanisms of ECL detection, main features of early and ongoing approaches in electrochemiluminescent immunoassay commercial instruments, and the recent developments in fabrication of solid-state electrochemiluminescent immunosensors. Moreover, systematized data on biomarkers, immunoassay formats, and novel types of electrochemiluminescent label and immobilization support, such as semiconductor nanocrystals, porous noble metals, graphene, TiO2 nanotube arrays, metal-organic composites, multiwall carbon nanotubes, liposomes, photolummonescent carbone nanocrystals are presented as a table. Considerable efforts have also been devoted towards the following two key points: multiplexing analysis (multi-label, and the multianalyte strategies) and integration in microfluidic lab-on-paper devices with capabilities for point-to-care diagnostics. An immuno-like electrochemiluminescent sensor (based on synthetic receptors-molecularly imprinted polymers), as a new alternative to traditional electrochemiluminescent immunoassay is highlighted. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed. PMID:24292145

  5. Rapid quantitative detection of Brucella melitensis by a label-free impedance immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Zuo, Yueming; Cui, Chuanjin; Yang, Wei; Ma, Haili; Wang, Xiaowen

    2013-07-04

    A rapid and simple method for quantitative monitoring of Brucella melitensis using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is reported for the first time. The label-free immunosensors were fabricated by immobilizing Brucella melitensis antibody on the surface of gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GNP-SPCEs). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and EIS were used to characterize the Brucella melitensis antigen interaction on the surface of GNP-SPCEs with antibody. A general electronic equivalent model of an electrochemical cell was introduced for interpretation of the impedance components of the system. The results showed that the change in electron-transfer resistance (Rct) was significantly different due to the binding of Brucella melitensis cells. A linear relationship between the Rct variation and logarithmic value of the cell concentration was found from 4 × 10(4) to 4 × 10(6) CFU/mL in pure culture. The label-free impedance biosensor was able to detect as low as 1 × 10(4) and 4 × 10(5) CFU/mL of Brucella melitensis in pure culture and milk samples, respectively, in less than 1.5 h. Moreover, a good selectivity versus Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus cells was obtained for our developed immunosensor demonstrating its specificity towards only Brucella melitensis.

  6. An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on signal amplification strategy of gold nanoparticles functionalized magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes loaded with lead ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Faying; Han, Jian; Jiang, Liping; Wang, Yulan; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui; Wei, Qin

    2015-06-15

    In this study, a novel and ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was prepared for the quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a well-known hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Fe3O4) were prepared and utilized for the adsorption of lead ions (Pb(2+)) and the secondary antibodies (Ab2). The resultant nanocomposites (Pb(2+)@Au@MWCNTs-Fe3O4) were used as the label for signal amplification, showing better electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than MWCNTs, MWCNTs-Fe3O4 or Au@MWCNTs-Fe3O4 due to the synergetic effect presented in Pb(2+)@Au@MWCNTs-Fe3O4. Moreover, Au NPs were electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the effective immobilization of primary antibodies (Ab1). Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 10 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL and a detection limit of 3.33 fg/mL were obtained. The proposed electrochemical sandwich-type immunosensor shows high sensitivity, good selectivity and stability for the quantitative detection of AFP, holding a great potential in clinical and diagnostic applications.

  7. Magnetic resonance based noninvasive RF nerve stimulator.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Bharadwaj, C V; Yuanjin, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    A noninvasive method of stimulating the nerve by applying radiofrequency has been presented. The design is based on the concept of magnetic resonance based power transfer. A comparison between electric field on the nerve at the frequency of 450-550 KHz with vacuum placed under a human tissue and the case where it is replaced with a resonant and non-resonant structure was analysed. Calculations were performed by using Ansoft HFSS. Power savings of 7.15% was observed when resonant structures were used, compared to vacuum. Theoretical calculation and simulation of fields were presented.

  8. Highly porous acrylonitrile-based submicron particles for UO2(2+) absorption in an immunosensor assay.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Yu, Haini; Tan, Grace; He, Jibao; John, Vijay T; Blake, Diane A

    2012-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported an antibody-based assay for hexavalent uranium (UO(2)(2+)) that could be used on-site to rapidly assess uranium contamination in environmental water samples (Melton, S. J.; et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 6703-6709). To extend the utility of this assay to less-characterized sites of uranium contamination, we required a uranium-specific adsorbent that would rapidly remove the uranium from groundwater samples, while leaving the concentrations of other ions in the groundwater relatively unaltered. This study describes the development of hydrogel particles containing amidoxime groups that can rapidly and selectively facilitate the uptake of uranyl ions. A miniemulsion polymerization technique using SDS micelles was employed for the preparation of the hydrogel as linked submicrometer particles. In polymerization, acrylonitrile was used as the initial monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and 2-hydroxymethacrylate, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylic acid, or methacrylic acid were added as co-monomers after the initial seed polymerization of acrylonitrle. The particles were characterized by transmission electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cryo-SEM. The amidoximated particles were superior to a commercially available resin in their ability to rapidly remove dissolved UO(2)(2+) from spiked groundwater samples.

  9. Liquid crystal and gold nanoparticles applied to electrochemical immunosensor for cardiac biomarker.

    PubMed

    Zapp, Eduardo; Westphal, Eduard; Gallardo, Hugo; de Souza, Bernardo; Cruz Vieira, Iolanda

    2014-09-15

    A label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the ionic liquid crystal (E)-1-decyl-4-[(4-decyloxyphenyl)diazenyl]pyridinium bromide (Br-Py) coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the quantitative detection of myoglobin (Mb), a cardiac marker for acute myocardial infarction, is reported herein for the first time. The monoclonal anti-myoglobin antibody (ab-Mb) was covalently immobilized using glyoxal on a film of polyethyleneimine-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP-PEI). The proposed method for Mb detection is based on voltammetric suppression of the Br-Py signal when the immunosensor was incubated with Mb antigen. The electrochemical performance of the Mb immunosensor was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor shows a good linear relationship between the electrochemical inhibition response and the concentration of Mb over the range of 9.96-72.8 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 6.29 ng mL(-1). The results obtained indicate that the proposed immunosensor provides good sensitivity and simple operation for detecting acute myocardial infarction with Mb as a biomarker. PMID:24721423

  10. A novel and label-free immunosensor for bisphenol A using rutin as the redox probe.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Li, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Sining

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a new and label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of bisphenol A was reported. MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified on glassy carbon electrode surface to enhance current response. The Anti-BPA was immobilized on the modified electrode through AuNPs. Rutin was used for the first time as the redox probe to construct electrochemical immunosensor of bisphenol A. The peak current change due to the specific immuno-interaction between anti-BPA and BPA on the modified electrode surface was utilized to detect bisphenol A. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to trace the assembly process of the electrochemical immunosensor. Experimental factors affecting the sensitivity of the immunosensor were examined in terms of incubation time and pH of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Under optimized conditions, the linear range of calibration curve based on the relationship between current response and BPA concentration was from 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-6)M with detection limit of 8.7×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The proposed immunosensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity, stability and was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in real sample. PMID:27591610

  11. Photoelectrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on 2D TiO2 Nanosheets and Carboxylated Graphitic Carbon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Yaoguang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Qi; Ren, Xiang; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2016-06-06

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was used as the model, an ultrasensitive label-free photoelectrochemical immunosensor was developed using 2D TiO2 nanosheets and carboxylated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as photoactive materials and ascorbic acid as an efficient electron donor. 2D TiO2 nanosheets was sythsized by surfactant self-assembly method and proved to have higher photoelectrochemical signals than TiO2 nanoparticles. Firstly, carboxylated g-C3N4 could be attached to 2D TiO2 nanosheets through the bond formed between carboxyl group of carboxylated g-C3N4 and TiO2. And the photocurrent of g-C3N4/TiO2 drastically enhances compared to carboxylated g-C3N4 and TiO2. Then, antibody of CEA was bonded to TiO2 through the dentate bond formed between carboxyl group of anti-CEA and TiO2, leading to the decrease of the photocurrents. As proven by PEC experiments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the fabrication process of the immunosensor is successful. Under the optimal conditions, the intensity decreased linearly with CEA concentration in the range of 0.01~10 ng/mL. The detection limit is 2.1 pg/mL. The work provides an effective method for the detection of tumor markers and can be extended for the application in food safety and environmental monitoring analysis.

  12. Photoelectrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on 2D TiO2 Nanosheets and Carboxylated Graphitic Carbon Nitride

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Yaoguang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Qi; Ren, Xiang; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was used as the model, an ultrasensitive label-free photoelectrochemical immunosensor was developed using 2D TiO2 nanosheets and carboxylated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as photoactive materials and ascorbic acid as an efficient electron donor. 2D TiO2 nanosheets was sythsized by surfactant self-assembly method and proved to have higher photoelectrochemical signals than TiO2 nanoparticles. Firstly, carboxylated g-C3N4 could be attached to 2D TiO2 nanosheets through the bond formed between carboxyl group of carboxylated g-C3N4 and TiO2. And the photocurrent of g-C3N4/TiO2 drastically enhances compared to carboxylated g-C3N4 and TiO2. Then, antibody of CEA was bonded to TiO2 through the dentate bond formed between carboxyl group of anti-CEA and TiO2, leading to the decrease of the photocurrents. As proven by PEC experiments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the fabrication process of the immunosensor is successful. Under the optimal conditions, the intensity decreased linearly with CEA concentration in the range of 0.01~10 ng/mL. The detection limit is 2.1 pg/mL. The work provides an effective method for the detection of tumor markers and can be extended for the application in food safety and environmental monitoring analysis. PMID:27263659

  13. Planar waveguide optical immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Steven J.; Locascio-Brown, Laurie E.; Durst, Richard A.

    1991-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were covalently bonded to the surfaces of planar waveguides to confer immunoreacth''ity. Silver-ion diffused waveguides were used to measure theophylline concentrations in a fluorescence immunoassay and silicon nitride waveguides were used to detect theophylline in an absorbance-based immunoassay. Liposomes were employed in both assays as the optically detectable label in a competitive reaction to monitor antigen-antibody complexation. Regeneration of the active antibody site will be discussed.

  14. Detection of explosives in a dynamic marine environment using a moored TNT immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Adams, André A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Veitch, Scott; Hanson, Al; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2014-02-27

    A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 µm × 500 µm, L × W × D) fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments). Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h). Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface.

  15. Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food.

    PubMed

    Melo, Airis Maria Araújo; Alexandre, Dalila L; Furtado, Roselayne F; Borges, Maria F; Figueiredo, Evânia Altina T; Biswas, Atanu; Cheng, Huai N; Alves, Carlúcio R

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing "real-time" and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry. PMID:27138197

  16. Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food.

    PubMed

    Melo, Airis Maria Araújo; Alexandre, Dalila L; Furtado, Roselayne F; Borges, Maria F; Figueiredo, Evânia Altina T; Biswas, Atanu; Cheng, Huai N; Alves, Carlúcio R

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing "real-time" and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry.

  17. Electrochemical Impedance Immunosensor Based on Self-Assembled Monolayers for Rapid Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with Signal Amplification Using Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanming; Fu, Yingchun; Fang, Weihuan; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a predominant foodborne pathogen with severe pathogenicity, leading to increasing attention given to rapid and sensitive detection. Herein, we propose an impedance biosensor using new kinds of screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for signal amplification to detect E. coli O157:H7 with high sensitivity and time-efficiency. The SPIMs integrate the high sensitivity and short response time of the interdigitated electrodes and the low cost of the screen-printed electrodes. Self-assembling of bi-functional 3-dithiobis-(sulfosuccinimidyl-propionate) (DTSP) on the SPIMs was investigated and was proved to be able to improve adsorption quantity and stability of biomaterials. WGA was further adopted to enhance the signal taking advantage of the abundant lectin-binding sites on the bacteria surface. The immunosensor exhibited a detection limit of 102 cfu·mL−1, with a linear detection range from 102 to 107 cfu·mL−1 (r2 = 0.98). The total detection time was less than 1 h, showing its comparable sensitivity and rapid response. Furthermore, the low cost of one SPIM significantly reduced the detection cost of the biosensor. The biosensor may have great promise in food safety analysis and lead to a portable biosensing system for routine monitoring of foodborne pathogens. PMID:26251911

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Immunosensor Based on Self-Assembled Monolayers for Rapid Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with Signal Amplification Using Lectin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanming; Fu, Yingchun; Fang, Weihuan; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a predominant foodborne pathogen with severe pathogenicity, leading to increasing attention given to rapid and sensitive detection. Herein, we propose an impedance biosensor using new kinds of screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SPIMs) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for signal amplification to detect E. coli O157:H7 with high sensitivity and time-efficiency. The SPIMs integrate the high sensitivity and short response time of the interdigitated electrodes and the low cost of the screen-printed electrodes. Self-assembling of bi-functional 3-dithiobis-(sulfosuccinimidyl-propionate) (DTSP) on the SPIMs was investigated and was proved to be able to improve adsorption quantity and stability of biomaterials. WGA was further adopted to enhance the signal taking advantage of the abundant lectin-binding sites on the bacteria surface. The immunosensor exhibited a detection limit of 102 cfu·mL(-1), with a linear detection range from 10(2) to 10(7) cfu·mL(-1) (r2 = 0.98). The total detection time was less than 1 h, showing its comparable sensitivity and rapid response. Furthermore, the low cost of one SPIM significantly reduced the detection cost of the biosensor. The biosensor may have great promise in food safety analysis and lead to a portable biosensing system for routine monitoring of foodborne pathogens. PMID:26251911

  19. Vertical Nanowire Electrode Arrays as Novel Electrochemical Label-Free Immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Babak; Chana, Gursharan; Lee, Ting Ting; Nguyen, Thanh; Abeyrathne, Chathurika; D'Abaco, Giovanna M; Dottori, Mirella; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-06-24

    A new method for the fabrication of a label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on vertical nanowires (VNWs) is proposed. The VNWs are functionalized to detect antibodies against a major astrocytic structural protein component, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). It is revealed that the interaction of GFAP-antibody with functionalized VNWs leads to a clear change in device conductance and the corresponding capacitance.

  20. Temperature Sensors Based on WGM Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    A proposed technique for measuring temperature would exploit differences between the temperature dependences of the frequencies of two different electromagnetic modes of a whispering gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator. An apparatus based on this technique was originally intended to be part of a control system for stabilizing a laser frequency in the face of temperature fluctuations. When suitably calibrated, apparatuses based on this technique could also serve as precise temperature sensors for purposes other than stabilization of lasers. A sensor according to the proposal would include (1) a transparent WGM dielectric resonator having at least two different sets of modes characterized by different thermo-optical constants and (2) optoelectronic instrumentation for measuring the difference between the temperature-dependent shifts of the resonance frequencies of the two sets of modes.

  1. Volume coil based on hybridized resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouvaud, C.; Abdeddaim, R.; Larrat, B.; de Rosny, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present an electromagnetic device based on hybridization of four half-wavelength dipoles which increases the uniformity and the strength of the radio-frequency (RF) field of a Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) apparatus. Numerical results show that this Hybridized Coil (HC) excited with a classical loop coil takes advantage of the magnetic hybrid modes. The distribution of the RF magnetic field is experimentally confirmed on a 7-T MRI with a gelatin phantom. Finally, the HC is validated in vivo by imaging the head of an anesthetized rat. We measure an overall increase of the signal to noise ratio with up to 2.4 fold increase in regions of interest far from the active loop coil.

  2. Aptasensors Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators.

    PubMed

    Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Berneschi, Simome; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on optical evanescent field sensing in resonant cavities where aptamers are used as biochemical receptors. The combined advantages of highly sensitive whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR)-based transducers, and of the unique properties of aptamers make this approach extremely interesting in the medical field, where there is a particularly high need for devices able to provide real time diagnosis for cancer, infectious diseases, or strokes. However, despite the superior performances of aptamers compared to antibodies and WGMR to other evanescent sensors, there is not much literature combining both types of receptors and transducers. Up to now, the WGMR that have been used are silica microspheres and silicon oxynitride (SiON) ring resonators. PMID:27438861

  3. Aptasensors Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Berneschi, Simome; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on optical evanescent field sensing in resonant cavities where aptamers are used as biochemical receptors. The combined advantages of highly sensitive whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR)-based transducers, and of the unique properties of aptamers make this approach extremely interesting in the medical field, where there is a particularly high need for devices able to provide real time diagnosis for cancer, infectious diseases, or strokes. However, despite the superior performances of aptamers compared to antibodies and WGMR to other evanescent sensors, there is not much literature combining both types of receptors and transducers. Up to now, the WGMR that have been used are silica microspheres and silicon oxynitride (SiON) ring resonators. PMID:27438861

  4. Electrochemical impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of stressed pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bekir, Karima; Barhoumi, Houcine; Braiek, Mohamed; Chrouda, Amani; Zine, Nadia; Abid, Nabil; Maaref, Abdelrazek; Bakhrouf, Amina; Ouada, Hafedh Ben; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we report the adaptation of bacteria to stress conditions that induce instability of their cultural, morphological, and enzymatic characters, on which the identification of pathogenic bacteria is based. These can raise serious issues during the characterization of bacteria. The timely detection of pathogens is also a subject of great importance. For this reason, our objective is oriented towards developing an immunosensing system for rapid detection and quantification of Staphylococcus aureus. Polyclonal anti-S. aureus are immobilized onto modified gold electrode by self-assembled molecular monolayer (SAM) method. The electrochemical performances of the developed immunosensor were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy through the monitoring of the charge transfer resistance at the modified solid/liquid interface using ferri-/ferrocyanide as redox probe. The developed immunosensor was applied to detect stressed and resuscitate bacteria. As a result, a stable and reproducible immunosensor with sensitivity of 15 kΩ/decade and a detection limit of 10 CFU/mL was obtained for the S. aureus concentrations ranging from 10(1) to 10(7) CFU/mL. A low deviation in the immunosensor response (±10 %) was signed when it is exposed to stressed and not stressed bacteria.

  5. A nanostructured piezoelectric immunosensor for detection of human cardiac troponin T.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rosana A S; Ramos-Jesus, Joilson; Kubota, Lauro T; Dutra, Rosa F

    2011-01-01

    A piezoelectric immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) co-immobilized on a dithiol-modified surface is proposed for detection of human cardiac troponin T (TnT). Anti-human troponin T (anti-TnT) antibodies were covalently immobilized on the nanostructured electrode surface by thiol-aldehyde linkages. In a homogeneous bulk solution, TnT was captured by anti-TnT immobilized on the QCM electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies were used to characterize the AuNPs layer on the electrode surface and the anti-TnT immobilization steps. The QCM-flow immunosensor exhibited good reliability, measuring concentrations of TnT from 0.003 to 0.5 ng mL(-1) in human serum with high linearity (r = 0.989; p < 0.01). The immunosensor exhibited a 7% coefficient of variation and 0.0015 ng mL(-1) limit of detection, indicating a high reproducibility and sensitivity. The proposed QCM nanostructured immunosensor is easy to use and has promising potential in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction due to its speed and high sensitivity.

  6. Label-free alpha fetoprotein immunosensor established by the facile synthesis of a palladium-graphene nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Qi, TingTing; Liao, JinFeng; Li, YiSong; Peng, JinRong; Li, WenTing; Chu, BingYang; Li, He; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2014-11-15

    In this study, we established a sensitive label-free immunosensor by palladium-reduced graphene oxide (Pd-rGO), which was prepared by one-pot synthesis under the reduction of extra-injected CO gas. The Pd-rGO nanocomposite structure has been confirmed by TEM, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The Pd-rGO nanocomposite exhibited excellent stability in aqueous dispersion. The Pd-rGO-based label-free electrochemical immunosensor was used for detection of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarker alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The immunosensor determination was based on the fact that due to the formation of antigen-antibody immunocomplex, the decreased response amperometric currents of H2O2 were directly proportional to the concentrations of AFP. The limit of detection of this immunosensor for AFP detection is 5 pg/mL, and is linear from 0.01 to 12 ng/mL. The proposed immunosensor has been used to determine AFP in clinical serum samples with satisfactory results. This suggests the sensor may have great potential utility in the clinic. PMID:24906081

  7. Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Manfreda, Allison; Mansour, Kamjou; Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong

  8. Optical immunosensor for fast and sensitive detection of DDT and related compounds in river water samples.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, E; Calle, A; Manclús, J J; Montoya, A; Hildebrandt, A; Barceló, D; Lechuga, L M

    2007-02-15

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based immunosensor has been developed for the monitoring of environmentally persistent pollutants like DDT, its metabolites and analogues in real water samples. A reusable immunosurface is provided via the covalent attachment of the analyte derivative to a self-assembled alkanethiol monolayer formed onto the SPR gold-thin layer. The regeneration of the sensor surface allowed the performance of 270 assay cycles within an analysis time of 20 min for each assay cycle. Immunoassays based on a binding inhibition format were performed by using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with different selectivity. Low limits of detection (LODs), in the sub-nanogram per litre range, were attained for DDT-selective (15 ng L-1) and DDT group-selective immunoassays (31 ng L-1). Both assays were carried out in spiked river water samples without significant effect of the matrix. SPR measurements were validated using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. The comparison between methods was in good agreement showing an excellent correlation coefficient (r2=0.995). The SPR analysis of DDT proved to be three times more sensitive than colorimetric ELISAs without the need of labelling and a much lower time of response. Our SPR biosensor portable platform (beta-SPR) is already commercialised by the company SENSIA, S.L. (Spain).

  9. Label-free disposable immunosensor for detection of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Belkhamssa, Najet; Justino, Celine I L; Santos, Patrícia S M; Cardoso, Susana; Lopes, Isabel; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the construction of a fast, disposable, and label-free immunosensor for the determination of atrazine. The immunosensor is based on a field effect transistor (FET) where a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) acts as the conductor channel, constituting carbon nanotubes field effect transistors (CNTFETs). Anti-atrazine antibodies were adsorbed onto the SWCNTs and subsequently the SWCNTs were protected with Tween 20 to prevent the non-specific binding of bacteria or proteins. The principle of the immunoreaction consists in the direct adsorption of atrazine specific antibodies (anti-atrazine) to SWCNTs networks. After exposed to increasing concentrations of atrazine, the CNTFETs could be used as useful label-free platforms to detect atrazine. Under the optimal conditions, a limit of detection as low as 0.001 ng mL(-1) was obtained, which is lower than that of other methods for the atrazine detection, and in a working range between 0.001 and 10 ng mL(-1). The average recoveries obtained for real water samples spiked with atrazine varied from 87.3% to 108.0%. The results show that the constructed sensors display a high sensitivity and could be useful tools for detecting pesticides like atrazine at low concentrations. They could be also applied to the determination of atrazine in environmental aqueous samples, such as seawater and riverine water. PMID:26695286

  10. Copper oxide assisted cysteine hierarchical structures for immunosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Sumana, Gajjala; Tiwari, Ida

    2014-09-01

    The present work describes the promising electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on copper (II) assisted hierarchical cysteine structures (CuCys) varying from star to flower like morphology. The CuCys having average size of 10 μm have been synthesised using L-Cysteine as initial precursor in presence of copper oxide under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous medium. To delineate the synthesis mechanism, detailed structural investigations have been carried out using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of self-assembled CuCys on gold electrode shows surface controlled electrode reaction with an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.38 × 10-4 cm s-1. This innovative platform has been utilized to fabricate an immunosensor by covalently immobilizing monoclonal antibodies specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli). Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor is found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of E. coli with a detection limit of 10 cfu/ml.

  11. Copper oxide assisted cysteine hierarchical structures for immunosensor application

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Sumana, Gajjala; Tiwari, Ida

    2014-09-08

    The present work describes the promising electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on copper (II) assisted hierarchical cysteine structures (CuCys) varying from star to flower like morphology. The CuCys having average size of 10 μm have been synthesised using L-Cysteine as initial precursor in presence of copper oxide under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous medium. To delineate the synthesis mechanism, detailed structural investigations have been carried out using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of self-assembled CuCys on gold electrode shows surface controlled electrode reaction with an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.38 × 10{sup −4 }cm s{sup −1}. This innovative platform has been utilized to fabricate an immunosensor by covalently immobilizing monoclonal antibodies specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli). Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor is found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of E. coli with a detection limit of 10 cfu/ml.

  12. Label-free disposable immunosensor for detection of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Belkhamssa, Najet; Justino, Celine I L; Santos, Patrícia S M; Cardoso, Susana; Lopes, Isabel; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the construction of a fast, disposable, and label-free immunosensor for the determination of atrazine. The immunosensor is based on a field effect transistor (FET) where a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) acts as the conductor channel, constituting carbon nanotubes field effect transistors (CNTFETs). Anti-atrazine antibodies were adsorbed onto the SWCNTs and subsequently the SWCNTs were protected with Tween 20 to prevent the non-specific binding of bacteria or proteins. The principle of the immunoreaction consists in the direct adsorption of atrazine specific antibodies (anti-atrazine) to SWCNTs networks. After exposed to increasing concentrations of atrazine, the CNTFETs could be used as useful label-free platforms to detect atrazine. Under the optimal conditions, a limit of detection as low as 0.001 ng mL(-1) was obtained, which is lower than that of other methods for the atrazine detection, and in a working range between 0.001 and 10 ng mL(-1). The average recoveries obtained for real water samples spiked with atrazine varied from 87.3% to 108.0%. The results show that the constructed sensors display a high sensitivity and could be useful tools for detecting pesticides like atrazine at low concentrations. They could be also applied to the determination of atrazine in environmental aqueous samples, such as seawater and riverine water.

  13. Nano and Microparticle-Enhanced Immunosensor Approaches for the Detection of Cancer Biomarker Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Vigneshwaran

    Accurate, sensitive, point-of-care multiplexed protein measurements are critical for early disease detection and monitoring, impacting biomarker and drug discovery, and personalized medicine. Significant application involves monitoring panels of proteins in the blood that are biomarkers for diagnosing cancer. However, measurements of biomarker panels in blood or other bodily fluids have been slow to integrate into current practice of cancer diagnostics partly due to the lack of technically simple, low-cost, sensitive, point-of-care multiplexed measurement devices, as well as the lack of rigorously validated protein panels. The present thesis in part addresses these limitations by the development of electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensors utilizing 1mum superparamagnetic labels for accurate detection of prostate cancer biomarker proteins in patient serum samples. Electrochemical discrete immunosensors featuring nanostructured surface with densely packed 5 nm glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles coupled with multi-enzyme magnetic particle (MP) labels enabled measurement of prostate specific antigen (PSA) with a detection limit (DL) of 0.5 pg mL-1 in undiluted serum. Such low DLs are attributed to high surface area, conductivity of nanostructured surface, and multi-enzyme signal amplification. DLs are further improved by utilizing MP bioconjugated with more than 100,000 antibody labels to offline capture proteins from the serum sample matrix, minimizing nonspecific binding of interfering proteins on sensor surface before detection. This approach provided an unprecedented 10 fg DL mL-1 for PSA in undiluted serum using a flow SPR biosensor. Finally electrochemical microfluidic immunoarrays featuring nanostructured surface and offline protein capture by multi-label MPs enabled multiplexed detection of prostate cancer biomarkers PSA and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These approaches provided up to 1000-fold lower DLs compared to commercial bead based

  14. Protein Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Prototype transducers based on integrated optical ring resonators have been demonstrated to be useful for detecting the protein avidin in extremely dilute solutions. In an experiment, one of the transducers proved to be capable of indicating the presence of avidin at a concentration of as little as 300 pM in a buffer solution a detection sensitivity comparable to that achievable by previously reported protein-detection techniques. These transducers are serving as models for the further development of integrated-optics sensors for detecting small quantities of other proteins and protein-like substances. The basic principle of these transducers was described in Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators (NPO-40601), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 10 (October 2005), page 32. The differences between the present transducers and the ones described in the cited prior article lie in details of implementation of the basic principle. As before, the resonator in a transducer of the present type is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, consists of a layer comprising sublayers having indices of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core. The outermost sublayer absorbs the chemical of interest (in this case, avidin). The index of refraction of the outermost sublayer changes with the concentration of absorbed avidin. The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer sublayer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in the index of refraction of the outermost sublayer causes a measurable change in the spectrum of the resonator output.

  15. General Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Homogeneous Immunoassay for Small Molecules Based on Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuezhi; Wen, Kai; Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Xiya; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe a general bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) homogeneous immunoassay based on quantum dots (QDs) as the acceptor and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) as the donor (QD-BRET) for the determination of small molecules. The ratio of the donor-acceptor that could produce energy transfer varied in the presence of different concentrations of free enrofloxacin (ENR), an important small molecule in food safety. The calculated Förster distance (R0) was 7.86 nm. Under optimized conditions, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for ENR was less than 1 ng/mL and the linear range covered 4 orders of magnitude (0.023 to 25.60 ng/mL). The cross-reactivities (CRs) of seven representative fluoroquinolones (FQs) were similar to the data obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The average intra- and interassay recoveries from spiked milk of were 79.8-118.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%, meeting the requirement of residue detection, which was a satisfactory result. Furthermore, we compared the influence of different luciferase substrates on the performance of the assay. Considering sensitivity and stability, coelenterazine-h was the most appropriate substrate. The results from this study will enable better-informed decisions on the choice of Rluc substrate for QD-BRET systems. For the future, the QD-BRET immunosensor could easily be extended to other small molecules and thus represents a versatile strategy in food safety, the environment, clinical diagnosis, and other fields.

  16. SIMPLE SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE-BASED DOSEMETER.

    PubMed

    Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis; Adlienė, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The interest to application of various surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based sensors for the investigation of chemical and biological processes in thin layers deposited on the grating's surface/media is developing. Characterisation of processes as well as specimen's features might be performed analysing variations in optical properties (refraction index) of these thin layers. SPR sensors by default are characterised by high resolution and small uncertainties, and measurements might be performed in situ High-resolution, low-cost, SPR-based dosemeter concept has been proposed and realised depositing dose-sensitive nPAG gel layer onto diffraction grating's surface. The experimental set-up and method for information read out from the sensor were developed and implemented. Obtained results show a potential application of SPR-based dosemeter for dose measurements/mapping in steep gradient fields and/or large area fields. PMID:26535002

  17. Resonance Parameter Adjustment Based on Integral Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz; Arbanas, Goran; Forget, Benoit

    2016-06-02

    Our project seeks to allow coupling of differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework and to use the generalized linear least-squares (GLLS) methodology in the TSURFER module of the SCALE code package to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation. We recognize that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of a Bayesian update in SAMMY, the SAMINT code was created to use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Traditionally, SAMMY used differential experimental data to adjust nuclear data parameters. Integral experimental data, suchmore » as in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project, remain a tool for validation of completed nuclear data evaluations. SAMINT extracts information from integral benchmarks to aid the nuclear data evaluation process. Later, integral data can be used to resolve any remaining ambiguity between differential data sets, highlight troublesome energy regions, determine key nuclear data parameters for integral benchmark calculations, and improve the nuclear data covariance matrix evaluation. Moreover, SAMINT is not intended to bias nuclear data toward specific integral experiments but should be used to supplement the evaluation of differential experimental data. Using GLLS ensures proper weight is given to the differential data.« less

  18. Liver Cancer Detection by a Simple, Inexpensive and Effective Immunosensor with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; van Hieu, Nguyen; Cheng, Teng-Yun; Fu, Lin-Shien; Sun, Tai-Ping; Liu, Ming-Yen; Huang, Su-Hua; Yao, Yan-Dong

    2015-11-20

    Regular monitoring of blood α-fetoprotein (AFP) and/or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) levels is important for the routine screening of liver cancer. However, AFP and CEA have a much lower specificity than des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) to detect liver cancer. Therefore, the study reported here was designed, to develop a screen-printed DCP immunosensor incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles, for accurate determination of DCP. The designed immunosensor shows low detection limits for the detection of DCP: 0.440 ng/mL (based on impedance measurement), 0.081 ng/mL (based on real part of impedance measurement) and 0.078 ng/mL (based on imaginary part of impedance measurement), within the range of 3.125 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. In addition, there was little interference to DCP determination by molecules such as Na⁺, K⁺, Ca(2+), Cl(-), glucose, urea, and uric acid. It is therefore concluded that the DCP immunosensor developed and reported here is simple, inexpensive and effective, and shows promise in the rapid screening of early-stage liver cancer at home with a point-of-care approach.

  19. Liver Cancer Detection by a Simple, Inexpensive and Effective Immunosensor with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; van Hieu, Nguyen; Cheng, Teng-Yun; Fu, Lin-Shien; Sun, Tai-Ping; Liu, Ming-Yen; Huang, Su-Hua; Yao, Yan-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Regular monitoring of blood α-fetoprotein (AFP) and/or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) levels is important for the routine screening of liver cancer. However, AFP and CEA have a much lower specificity than des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) to detect liver cancer. Therefore, the study reported here was designed, to develop a screen-printed DCP immunosensor incorporating zinc oxide nanoparticles, for accurate determination of DCP. The designed immunosensor shows low detection limits for the detection of DCP: 0.440 ng/mL (based on impedance measurement), 0.081 ng/mL (based on real part of impedance measurement) and 0.078 ng/mL (based on imaginary part of impedance measurement), within the range of 3.125 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. In addition, there was little interference to DCP determination by molecules such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, glucose, urea, and uric acid. It is therefore concluded that the DCP immunosensor developed and reported here is simple, inexpensive and effective, and shows promise in the rapid screening of early-stage liver cancer at home with a point-of-care approach. PMID:26610504

  20. Advances in ovarian cancer diagnosis: A journey from immunoassays to immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Raghav, Ragini; O'Kennedy, Richard; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-07-01

    This review focuses on the technological advancements, challenges and trends in immunoassay technologies for ovarian cancer diagnosis. Emphasis is placed on the principles of the technologies, their merits and limitations and on the evolution from laboratory-based methods to point-of-care devices. While the current market is predominantly associated with clinical immunoassay kits, over the last decade a major thrust in development of immunosensors is evident due to their potential in point-of-care devices. Technological advancements in immunosensors, extending from labeled to label-free detection, with and without mediators, for enhancing proficiencies and reliability have been dealt with in detail. Aspects of the utilisation of nanomaterials and immobilization strategies for enhancing sensitivity and altering the detection range have also been addressed. Finally, we have discussed some distinct characteristics and limitations associated with the recently commericalised technologies used for quantitation of relevant ovarian cancer markers. PMID:27233124

  1. Advances in resonance based NDT for ceramic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, L. J.; Jauriqui, L. M.; Gatewood, G. D.; Sisneros, R.

    2012-05-01

    The application of resonance based non-destructive testing methods has been providing benefit to manufacturers of metal components in the automotive and aerospace industries for many years. Recent developments in resonance based technologies are now allowing the application of resonance NDT to ceramic components including turbine engine components, armor, and hybrid bearing rolling elements. Application of higher frequencies and advanced signal interpretation are now allowing Process Compensated Resonance Testing to detect both internal material defects and surface breaking cracks in a variety of ceramic components. Resonance techniques can also be applied to determine material properties of coupons and to evaluate process capability for new manufacturing methods.

  2. Electrochemical Immunosensors for Interleukin-6. Comparison of Carbon Nanotube Forest and Gold Nanoparticle platforms.

    PubMed

    Munge, Bernard S; Krause, Colleen E; Malhotra, Ruchika; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J Silvio; Rusling, James F

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical immunosensors based on single wall nanotube (SWNT) forests and 5 nm glutathione-protected gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNP) were developed and compared for the measurement of human cancer biomarker interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. Detection was based on sandwich immunoassays using multiple (14-16) horseradish peroxidase labels conjugated to a secondary antibody. Performance was optimized by effective blocking of non-specific binding (NSB) of the labels using bovine serum albumin. The GSH-AuNP immunosensor gave a detection limit (DL) of 10 pg mL(-1) IL-6 (500 amol mL(-1)) in 10 muL calf serum, which was 3-fold better than 30 pg mL(-1) found for the SWNT forest immunosensor for the same assay protocol. The GSH-AuNPs platform also gave a much larger linear dynamic range (20-4000 pg mL(-1)) than the SWNT system (40-150 pg mL(-1)), but the SWNTs had 2-fold better sensitivity in the low pg mL(-1) range. PMID:20046945

  3. Optical immunosensors for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis from food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Arun K.; Geng, Tao; Lathrop, Amanda; Valadez, Angela; Morgan, Mark T.

    2004-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella are two major foodborne pathogens of significant concern. Two optical evanescent wave immunosensors were evaluated for detection: Antibody-coupled fiber-optic biosensor and a surface plasmon resonant (SPR) immunosensor. In the fiber-optic sensor, polyclonal antibodies for the test organisms were immobilized on polystyrene fiber wave -guides using streptavidin - biotin chemistry. Cyanine 5 -labeled monoclonal antibodies C11E9 (for L. monocytogenes) and SF-11 (for Salmonella Enteritidis) were used to generate a specific fluorescent signal. Signal acquisition was performed by launching a laser-light (635 nm) from an Analyte-2000. This immunosensor was able to detect 103 - 109 cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes or 106-109 cfu/ml of Salmonella Enteritidis and the assays were conducted at near real-time with results obtained within one hour of sampling. The assays were specific and showed signal even in the presence of other microorganisms such as E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Typhimurium. In the SPR system, IAsys instrument (resonant mirror sensor) was used. Monoclonal antibody-C11E9 was directly immobilized onto a carboxylate cuvette. Whole Listeria cells at various concentrations did not yield any signal while surface protein extracts did. Crude protein extracts from L. monocytogenes and L. innocua had average binding responses of around 150 arc sec (0.25 ng/mm2), which was significantly different from L. grayi, L. ivanovii, or L. welshimeri with average responses of <48 arc sec. Both fiber-optic and SPR sensors show promise in near real-time detection of foodborne L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis.

  4. Surface IR immunosensors for label-free detection of benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Boujday, Souhir; Nasri, Soumaya; Salmain, Michèle; Pradier, Claire-Marie

    2010-12-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic compounds, present in the urban air, water, soil and also foodstuff. Due to their recognised carcinogenicity, their concentration in urban air is routinely monitored and governmental instances have set rules as regards their maximum allowable concentration. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the PAHs, highly toxic, whose concentration correlates well with the total PAHs contents in environmental samples; its detection by immunosensors has been rarely described because of its low molecular weight and poor solubility in water. In this paper, we report the design and testing of optical and piezoelectric immunosensors for the determination of BaP by using Polarisation-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) or Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation measurements (QCM-D) as transduction techniques, and a comparison of their analytical performances. We found relevant to set up immunosensors based on a direct or indirect competitive format. BaP was detected by PM-IRRAS with both immunosensor formats with similar sensitivity, ca. 5 μM. Flow-injection piezoelectric transduction in the indirect competitive format set up led to a slightly better sensitivity than that reached by PM-IRRAS. No general conclusion about the most efficient set up could be drawn from comparing the sensitivities, but the reported data illustrate the potential of PM-IRRAS as well as flow-injection QCM-D as efficient label-free transduction techniques. PMID:20846843

  5. Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, E; Calle, A; Montoya, A; Lechuga, L M

    2006-04-15

    A portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor device is described as a direct immunosensing system to determine organic pollutants in natural water samples. Monitoring of organochlorine (DDT), organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) compounds within the concentration levels stipulated by the European legislation, can be accomplished using this immunosensor. The lowest limit of detection (LOD) was obtained for DDT, at 20 ng L(-1), whilst 50 ng L(-1) and 0.9 microg L(-1), were achieved for chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, respectively. Matrix effects were evaluated for the carbaryl immunoassay in different water types with detection limits within the range of carbaryl standard curves in distilled water (0.9-1.4 microg L(-1)). The covalent immobilization of the analyte derivative through an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) allowed the reusability of the sensor surface during more than 250 regeneration cycles. The quality of the regeneration was proved over a 1-month period of continuous working. The analysis time for a complete assay cycle, including regeneration, comprises 24 min. Our portable SPR-sensor system is already a market product, commercialized by the company SENSIA, SL. The size and electronic configuration of the device allow its portability and utilization on real contaminated locations.

  6. Detection of Explosives in a Dynamic Marine Environment Using a Moored TNT Immunosensor

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Paul T.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Veitch, Scott; Hanson, Al; Kusterbeck, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 μm × 500 μm, L × W × D) fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments). Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h). Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface. PMID:24583970

  7. Construction of novel electrochemical immunosensor for detection of prostate specific antigen using ferrocene-PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Emre; Bahar, Özlem; Şenel, Mehmet; Abasıyanık, M Fatih

    2016-12-15

    In this study, an immunosensor was designed to utilize for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on three different generations (G1, G2 and G3) of ferrocene (Fc) cored polyamidiamine dendrimers (Fc-PAMAM) gold (Au) electrode. The self-assembled monolayer principle (SAM) was used to fabricate the sensitive, selective and disposable immunosensor electrodes. In electrode fabrication cysteamine (Cys) was the first agent covalently linked on the Au electrode surface. Immobilized redox center (ferrocene) cored PAMAM dendrimers served as a layer for the further binding of biological components. The monoclonal antibody of PSA (anti-PSA) was covalently immobilized on dendrimers which were attached onto the modified Au surface (Au/Cys/Fc-PAMAMs/anti-PSA). PSA levels were quantitatively analyzed by using electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) whose lowest detection limit was calculated as 0.001ngmL(-1). The Au/Cys/FcPAMAM/anti-PSA immunosensor showed excellent performance for PSA at the pulse amplitude; 50mV and the scan rate; 10mV/s in a wide linear concentration range of 0.01ng-100ngmL(-1). Analytical performance and specificity assays were carried out using human serum and different proteins.

  8. Construction of novel electrochemical immunosensor for detection of prostate specific antigen using ferrocene-PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Emre; Bahar, Özlem; Şenel, Mehmet; Abasıyanık, M Fatih

    2016-12-15

    In this study, an immunosensor was designed to utilize for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on three different generations (G1, G2 and G3) of ferrocene (Fc) cored polyamidiamine dendrimers (Fc-PAMAM) gold (Au) electrode. The self-assembled monolayer principle (SAM) was used to fabricate the sensitive, selective and disposable immunosensor electrodes. In electrode fabrication cysteamine (Cys) was the first agent covalently linked on the Au electrode surface. Immobilized redox center (ferrocene) cored PAMAM dendrimers served as a layer for the further binding of biological components. The monoclonal antibody of PSA (anti-PSA) was covalently immobilized on dendrimers which were attached onto the modified Au surface (Au/Cys/Fc-PAMAMs/anti-PSA). PSA levels were quantitatively analyzed by using electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) whose lowest detection limit was calculated as 0.001ngmL(-1). The Au/Cys/FcPAMAM/anti-PSA immunosensor showed excellent performance for PSA at the pulse amplitude; 50mV and the scan rate; 10mV/s in a wide linear concentration range of 0.01ng-100ngmL(-1). Analytical performance and specificity assays were carried out using human serum and different proteins. PMID:27641479

  9. Detection of explosives in a dynamic marine environment using a moored TNT immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Adams, André A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Veitch, Scott; Hanson, Al; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2014-01-01

    A field demonstration and longevity assessment for long-term monitoring of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a marine environment using an anti-TNT microfluidic immunosensor is described. The TNT immunosensor is comprised of a microfluidic device with 39 parallel microchannels (2.5 cm × 250 µm × 500 µm, L × W × D) fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), then chemically functionalized with antibodies possessing a high affinity for TNT. Synthesized fluorescence reporter complexes used in a displacement-based assay format were used for TNT identification. For field deployment the TNT immunosensor was configured onto a submersible moored steel frame along with frame controller, pumps and TNT plume generator and deployed pier side for intermittent plume sampling of TNT (1h increments). Under varying current and tidal conditions trace levels of TNT in natural seawater were detected over an extended period (>18 h). Overnight operation and data recording was monitored via a web interface. PMID:24583970

  10. Microconductometric immunosensor for label-free and sensitive detection of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    El Ichi, Sarra; Leon, Fanny; Vossier, Ludivine; Marchandin, Helene; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Coste, Joliette; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal

    2014-04-15

    Blood safety is a global health goal. In developed countries, bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates is the highest infectious risk in transfusion despite the current preventive strategies. We aimed to develop a conductometric biosensor for the generic, rapid and sensitive detection of Gram-negative bacteria. Our strategy is based on immunosensors: addressable magnetic nanoparticles coupled with anti-LPS antibodies were used for the generic capture of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial capture was characterized by impedancemetric and microscopic measurements. The results obtained with conductometric measurements allowed real-time, sensitive detection of Escherichia coli or Serratia marcescens cultures from 1 to 10(3) CFU mL(-1). The ability of the immunosensor to detect Gram negative bacteria was also tested on clinically relevant strains. The conductometric immunosensor allowed the direct detection of 10-10(3) CFU mL(-1) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains that were undetectable using standard immunoblot methods. Results showed that the conductometric response was not inhibited in 1% serum.

  11. Development of a highly sensitive noncompetitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of atrazine by phage anti-immunocomplex assay.

    PubMed

    González-Techera, Andrés; Zon, María Alicia; Molina, Patricia Gabriela; Fernández, Héctor; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Arévalo, Fernando Javier

    2015-02-15

    The development of immunosensors for the detection of small molecules is of great interest because of their simplicity, high sensitivity and extended analytical range. Due to their size, small compounds cannot be simultaneously recognized by two antibodies impeding their detection by noncompetitive two-site immunoassays, which are superior to competitive ones in terms of sensitivity, kinetics, and working range. In this work, we combine the advantages of magneto-electrochemical immunosensors with the improved sensitivity and direct proportional signal of noncompetitive immunoassays to develop a new Phage Anti-Immunocomplex Electrochemical Immunosensor (PhAIEI) for the detection of the herbicide atrazine. The noncompetitive assay is based on the use of recombinant M13 phage particles bearing a peptide that specifically recognizes the immunocomplex of atrazine with an anti-atrazine monoclonal antibody. The PhAIEI performed with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 pg mL(-1), which is 200-fold better than the LOD obtained using the same antibody in an optimized conventional competitive ELISA, with a large increase in working range. The developed PhAIEI was successfully used to assay undiluted river water samples with no pretreatment and excellent recoveries. Apart from the first demonstration of the benefits of integrating phage anti-immunocomplex particles into electrochemical immunosensors, the extremely low and environmentally relevant detection limits of atrazine attained with the PhAIEIS may have direct applicability to fast and sensitive detection of this herbicide in the environment.

  12. Development of optical immunosensors and their application to the analysis of human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Kwang; Rhee, Jong Il; Sohn, Ok-Jae

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a few optical immunosensors were developed to determine the concentration of BMP-7. Hydrophilic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and conjugated to the antibody of BMP-7 (BMP-7Ab). The QDconjugated BMP-7Ab was used as a fluorescence probe at excitation and emission wavelengths of 470 nm and 585 nm, respectively. It was immobilized either on the bottom of the well of a 96-well microtiter plate or on the tip of an optical fiber. Two immunoassays, i.e. the direct and sandwich assays, were studied for their sensitivity. The sensitivity of the direct immunoassay was 1296.21, compared to 384.69 for the sandwich assay. The linear detection range was 0.0-1.0 ng/mL for both assays. Based on the results of the microtiter plate technique, the direct assay technique was used for the development of an optical fiber immunosensor. The optical fiber immunosensor has a linear detection range between 0.0 and 10.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.413 ng/mL. The optical fiber immunosensor was applied to the sequential injection analysis for the automatic determination of BMP-7.

  13. Pt NPs and DNAzyme functionalized polymer nanospheres as triple signal amplification strategy for highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor of tumour marker.

    PubMed

    Chang, Honghong; Zhang, Haochun; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Wenlong; Guo, Jingang

    2016-12-15

    Highly sensitive determination of tumour markers is the key for early diagnosis of cancer. Herein, triple signal amplification strategy resulting from polymer nanospheres, Pt NPs, and DNAzyme was proposed in the developed electrochemical immunosensor. First, electroactive polymer nanospheres were synthesized by infinite coordination polymerization of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, which could generate strong electrochemical signals due to plentiful ferrocene molecules. Further, the polymer nanospheres were functionalized by Pt NPs and DNAzyme (hemin/G-quadruplex) with the ability of catalyzing H2O2, which contributes to enhance the electrochemical signals. The prepared conjugations were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). And the process of preparation was monitored by zeta potential. Based on the sandwich-type immunoassay, the electrochemical immunosensor was constructed employing the conjugations as signal tags. Under optimal conditions, the DPV peak increased with the increasing of alpha fetal protein (AFP) concentration, and the linear range was from 0.1pgmL(-1) to 100ngmL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.086pgmL(-1). Meanwhile, the designed immunosensor exhibited excellent selectivity and anti-interference property, good reproducibility and stability. More importantly, there were no significant differences in analyzing real clinical samples between designed immunosensor and commercial ELISA.

  14. Sensitivity enhancement of an electrochemical immunosensor through the electrocatalysis of magnetic bead-supported non-enzymatic labels.

    PubMed

    Akter, Rashida; Kyun Rhee, Choong; Rahman, Md Aminur

    2014-04-15

    An ultrasensitive non-enzymatic electrochemical carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) immunosensor was fabricated by the immobilization of a monoclonal CEA antibody (anti-CEA) on a protein A (PA) attached-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-deposited electrochemically prepared polydopamine film (e-PD/AuNPs). Magnetic beads (MB)-supported and CEA-conjugated multiple 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) was used as electrochemical labels. The detection was based on the measurements of the electrocatalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by the multiple TMB labels after competitive binding between MB/TMB-conjugated-CEA and free-CEA. The electrocatalyzed oxidation current of AA by TMB decreased with increasing concentration of the free-CEA as the amount of CEA/MB/TMB labels decreased at the immunosensor probe. The immunosensor surface was characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were used to monitor the electrocatalyzed response. The proposed immunosensor exhibited a wide linear dynamic range (1.0 pg/mL to 10.0 ng/mL), low detection limit (1.0±0.04 pg/mL), good selectivity, and long-time stability. It was successfully applied to various CEA spiked human serum samples for the detection of CEA.

  15. Hybrid aptamer-antibody linked fluorescence resonance energy transfer based detection of trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Sabherwal, Priyanka; Shorie, Munish; Pathania, Preeti; Chaudhary, Shilpa; Bhasin, K K; Bhalla, Vijayender; Suri, C Raman

    2014-08-01

    Combining synthetic macromolecules and biomolecular recognition units are promising in developing novel diagnostic and analysis techniques for detecting environmental and/or clinically important substances. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) apta-immunosensor for explosive detection is reported using 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) specific aptamer and antibodies tagged with respective FRET pair dyes in a sandwich immunoassay format. FITC-labeled aptamer was used as a binder molecule in the newly developed apta-immunoassay format where the recognition element was specific anti-TNT antibody labeled with rhodamine isothiocyanate. The newly developed sensing platform showed excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of the order of 0.4 nM presenting a promising candidate for routine screening of TNT in samples.

  16. A self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on L-Lys-Ru(dcbpy)3(2+) functionalized porous six arrises column nanorods for detection of CA15-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; He, Ying; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-12-15

    In this work, a new manganese ions doped zinc oxide porous six arrises column nanorods was rapidly synthesized with L-Lys as the precipitating and capping agent (L-Lys/Mn-ZnONRs). The as-synthesized L-Lys/Mn-ZnONRs exhibited large specific surface area and high ferromagnetism, which could serve as excellent nanocarrier. Meanwhile, due to the outstanding conductivity and biocompatibility, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were decorated on the surface of L-Lys/Mn-ZnONRs by Pt-N bond to form PtNPs/L-Lys/Mn-ZnONRs complexes. After that, the obtained complexes were used to immobilize abundant tris (4,4'-dicarboxylicacid-2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) dichloride (Ru(dcbpy)3(2+)) and detection antibody for construction of sandwiched electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor. Coincidentally, L-Lys not only acted as the precipitating and capping agent to control shape and size of L-Lys/Mn-ZnONRs, but also acted as a co-reactant of Ru(dcbpy)3(2+) to efficiently amplify the ECL signal. Importantly, L-Lys had free amino group which could link with Ru(dcbpy)3(2+)via amide bond to form a self-enhanced ECL complex. Through this way, the electron transfer path between luminophore and co-reactant reagent was shortened and the energy loss of luminophore was lessened. Consequently, the prepared ECL immunosensor showed excellent performance for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 in the range from 0.05 U/mL to 120 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.014 U/mL (S/N=3) and a correlation coefficient of R=0.9977. Moreover, the prepared ECL immunosensor had good stability, excellent selectivity and satisfactory reproducibility.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Image Example Based Contrast Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Prince, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of image analysis algorithms applied to magnetic resonance images is strongly influenced by the pulse sequences used to acquire the images. Algorithms are typically optimized for a targeted tissue contrast obtained from a particular implementation of a pulse sequence on a specific scanner. There are many practical situations, including multi-institution trials, rapid emergency scans, and scientific use of historical data, where the images are not acquired according to an optimal protocol or the desired tissue contrast is entirely missing. This paper introduces an image restoration technique that recovers images with both the desired tissue contrast and a normalized intensity profile. This is done using patches in the acquired images and an atlas containing patches of the acquired and desired tissue contrasts. The method is an example-based approach relying on sparse reconstruction from image patches. Its performance in demonstrated using several examples, including image intensity normalization, missing tissue contrast recovery, automatic segmentation, and multimodal registration. These examples demonstrate potential practical uses and also illustrate limitations of our approach. PMID:24058022

  18. Microwave Oscillators Based on Nonlinear WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2006-01-01

    Optical oscillators that exploit resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing in nonlinear whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators are under investigation for potential utility as low-power, ultra-miniature sources of stable, spectrally pure microwave signals. There are numerous potential uses for such oscillators in radar systems, communication systems, and scientific instrumentation. The resonator in an oscillator of this type is made of a crystalline material that exhibits cubic Kerr nonlinearity, which supports the four-photon parametric process also known as four-wave mixing. The oscillator can be characterized as all-optical in the sense that the entire process of generation of the microwave signal takes place within the WGM resonator. The resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing yields coherent, phase-modulated optical signals at frequencies governed by the resonator structure. The frequency of the phase-modulation signal, which is in the microwave range, equals the difference between the frequencies of the optical signals; hence, this frequency is also governed by the resonator structure. Hence, further, the microwave signal is stable and can be used as a reference signal. The figure schematically depicts the apparatus used in a proof-of-principle experiment. Linearly polarized pump light was generated by an yttrium aluminum garnet laser at a wavelength of 1.32 microns. By use of a 90:10 fiber-optic splitter and optical fibers, some of the laser light was sent into a delay line and some was transmitted to one face of glass coupling prism, that, in turn, coupled the laser light into a crystalline CaF2 WGM disk resonator that had a resonance quality factor (Q) of 6x10(exp 9). The output light of the resonator was collected via another face of the coupling prism and a single-mode optical fiber, which transmitted the light to a 50:50 fiber-optic splitter. One output of this splitter was sent to a slow photodiode to obtain a DC signal for locking the laser to a particular

  19. A lateral flow immunosensor for direct, sensitive, and highly selective detection of hemoglobin A1c in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shu Hwang; Thevarajah, T Malathi; Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah binti; Khor, Sook Mei

    2016-03-15

    An immunosensor that operates based on the principles of lateral flow was developed for direct detection of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in whole blood. We utilized colloidal gold-functionalized antibodies to transduce the specific signal generated when sandwich immuno-complexes were formed on the strip in the presence of HbA1c. The number and intensity of the test lines on the strips indicate normal, under control, and elevated levels of HbA1c. In addition, a linear relationship between HbA1c levels and immunosensor signal intensity was confirmed, with a dynamic range of 4-14% (20-130 mmol mol(-1)) HbA1c. Using this linear relationship, we determined the HbA1c levels in blood as a function of the signal intensity on the strips. Measurements were validated using the Bio-Rad Variant II HPLC and DCA Vantage tests. Moreover, the immunosensor was verified to be highly selective for detection of HbA1c against HbA0, glycated species of HbA0, and HbA2. The limit of detection was found to be 42.5 μg mL(-1) (1.35 mmol mol(-1)) HbA1c, which is reasonably sensitive compared to the values reported for microarray immunoassays. The shelf life of the immunosensor was estimated to be 1.4 months when stored at ambient temperature, indicating that the immunoassay is stable. Thus, the lateral flow immunosensor developed here was shown to be capable of performing selective, accurate, rapid, and stable detection of HbA1c in human blood samples. PMID:26927875

  20. Electrical Characterization of a Thiol SAM on Gold as a First Step for the Fabrication of Immunosensors based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Tlili, Asma; Abdelghani, Adnane; Hleli, Salwa; Maaref, Mhamed A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a robust biosensor based on quartz crystal microbalance technique for antigen detection, a control of the steps of the surface functionalization has been performed by impedance spectroscopy. The gold electrode is functionalized with the self-assembled monolayer technique. The high insulating properties of the acidic thiol monolayer has been characterized with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The modified surface is activated with N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS) and 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-3-ethylcarbodimide hydrochloride(EDC) cross-linker for antibody coupling. The non-specific sites are blocked with bovin serum albumine molecules. Different concentrations of antigen can be detected with a good reversibility in real time with the quartz crystal microbalance.

  1. Growth of gold-manganese oxide nanostructures on a 3D origami device for glucose-oxidase label based electrochemical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Xu, Jinmeng; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Chao; Song, Xianrang; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2014-11-15

    Flexible biosensors are of considerable current interest for the development of portable point-of-care medical products, minimally invasive implantable devices, and compact diagnostic platforms. Here, we reported an electrochemical paper based analytical device fabricated (EPADs) by sequentially growing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and manganese oxide (MnO2) nanowires networks on a freestanding three dimensional (3D) origami device. This fabricated through the growth of an AuNPs layer on the surfaces of cellulose fibers in the screen-printed paper working electrode (PWE), and thus developed a gold paper working electrode (Au-PWE). Subsequently, MnO2 nanowires were successfully electrodeposited on Au-PWE to form a 3D network with large surface areas. Based on this novel EPADs and the principle of origami, we presented herein a simple immunosensing scheme using glucose oxidase (GOx) as an enzyme label, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a redox terminator, and glucose as an enzyme substrate. The electrochemical enzymatic redox cycling was applied to the detection of prostate protein antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostatic cancer. The proposed method successfully fulfilled the highly sensitive detection of PSA with a linear range of 0.005 ng mL(-1)-100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0012 ng mL(-1). This EPADs exhibited high sensitivity, specificity and excellent performance in real human serum assay, and could be applied in point-of-care testing of other tumor markers for remote regions and developing countries.

  2. Analysis of an integrated optic micro racetrack resonator based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malathi, S.; Hegde, Gopalkrishna; Srinivas, T.; Roy, Ugra M.

    2014-06-01

    Silicon-On- Insulator (SOI) technology has huge potential in fabricating compact devices for various applications such as integrated optic waveguides, directional couplers, resonators etc. In this work, we present the analysis of a biosensor based on an integrated optic racetrack resonator, interrogated by a bus waveguide. The biomaterial is applied as a cladding layer. Here we analyze the coupling between the resonator and the bus waveguide, and its dependence on the bio layer. In traditional analysis, the effective refractive index and resonator total path length are the factors influencing the resonant wavelength. Our analysis shows that all parametric values decrease with increase in waveguide width and spacing. The inclusion of waveguide mode overlap and perturbation in coupled mode equation results in enhanced resonator sensitivity of an order of magnitude

  3. Piezoelectric resonators based on self-assembled diphenylalanine microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosne, E. D.; Heredia, A.; Kopyl, S.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Pinto, A. G.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2013-02-01

    Piezoelectric actuation has been widely used in microelectromechanical devices including resonance-based biosensors, mass detectors, resonators, etc. These were mainly produced by micromachining of Si and deposited inorganic piezoelectrics based on metal oxides or perovskite-type materials which have to be further functionalized in order to be used in biological applications. In this work, we demonstrate piezoelectrically driven micromechanical resonators based on individual self-assembled diphenylalanine microtubes with strong intrinsic piezoelectric effect. Tubes of different diameters and lengths were grown from the solution and assembled on a rigid support. The conducting tip of the commercial atomic force microscope was then used to both excite vibrations and study resonance behavior. Efficient piezoelectric actuation at the fundamental resonance frequency ≈2.7 MHz was achieved with a quality factor of 114 for a microtube of 277 μm long. A possibility of using piezoelectric dipeptides for biosensor applications is discussed.

  4. A new immobilization procedure for development of an electrochemical immunosensor for parathyroid hormone detection based on gold electrodes modified with 6-mercaptohexanol and silane.

    PubMed

    Sayıklı Şimşek, Çiğdem; Nur Sonuç Karaboğa, Münteha; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of a new electrochemical impedance-based biosensor for the analysis of parathyroid hormone (PTH), using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mercaptohexanol and (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane on gold electrodes, was investigated for the first time in the field. Anti-PTH was used as a biorecognition element. To monitor immobilization processes in the biosensor fabrication, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were successfully operated. CV and EIS techniques were also used in quantification of PTH. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was also applied to identify surface modifications. Fabrication and working parameters of the biosensor were optimized. Moreover, Kramers-Kronig transformations were performed for validation of obtained EIS data in all steps of biosensor fabrication. The linear PTH detection range of the presented biosensor was 10-50 pg/mL PTH. The chrono-impedance technique for real-time monitoring of PTH binding was also implemented. The biosensor has exhibited good repeatability (with a correlation) and reproducibility. Finally, artificial serum samples spiked with known concentrations of PTH were analyzed by the proposed biosensor. To demonstrate the feasibility of the biosensor in practical analysis, real human serum samples and the artificial serum samples were analyzed.

  5. Graphene-based waveguide resonators for submillimeter-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Andjelija Ž.; Bukvić, Branko; Ilić, Milan M.; Budimir, Djuradj

    2016-08-01

    Utilization of graphene covered waveguide inserts to form tunable waveguide resonators is theoretically explained and rigorously investigated by means of full-wave numerical electromagnetic simulations. Instead of using graphene-based switching elements, the concept we propose incorporates graphene sheets as parts of a resonator. Electrostatic tuning of the graphene surface conductivity leads to changes in the electromagnetic field boundary conditions at the resonator edges and surfaces, thus producing an effect similar to varying the electrical length of a resonator. The presented outline of the theoretical background serves to give phenomenological insight into the resonator behavior, but it can also be used to develop customized software tools for design and optimization of graphene-based resonators and filters. Due to the linear dependence of the imaginary part of the graphene surface impedance on frequency, the proposed concept was expected to become effective for frequencies above 100 GHz, which is confirmed by the numerical simulations. A frequency range from 100 GHz up to 1100 GHz, where the rectangular waveguides are used, is considered. Simple, all-graphene-based resonators are analyzed first, to assess the achievable tunability and to check the performance throughout the considered frequency range. Graphene-metal combined waveguide resonators are proposed in order to preserve the excellent quality factors typical for the type of waveguide discontinuities used. Dependence of resonator properties on key design parameters is studied in detail. Dependence of resonator properties throughout the frequency range of interest is studied using eight different waveguide sections appropriate for different frequency intervals. Proposed resonators are aimed at applications in the submillimeter-wave spectral region, serving as the compact tunable components for the design of bandpass filters and other devices.

  6. Graphene-based waveguide resonators for submillimeter-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Andjelija Ž.; Bukvić, Branko; Ilić, Milan M.; Budimir, Djuradj

    2016-08-01

    Utilization of graphene covered waveguide inserts to form tunable waveguide resonators is theoretically explained and rigorously investigated by means of full-wave numerical electromagnetic simulations. Instead of using graphene-based switching elements, the concept we propose incorporates graphene sheets as parts of a resonator. Electrostatic tuning of the graphene surface conductivity leads to changes in the electromagnetic field boundary conditions at the resonator edges and surfaces, thus producing an effect similar to varying the electrical length of a resonator. The presented outline of the theoretical background serves to give phenomenological insight into the resonator behavior, but it can also be used to develop customized software tools for design and optimization of graphene-based resonators and filters. Due to the linear dependence of the imaginary part of the graphene surface impedance on frequency, the proposed concept was expected to become effective for frequencies above 100 GHz, which is confirmed by the numerical simulations. A frequency range from 100 GHz up to 1100 GHz, where the rectangular waveguides are used, is considered. Simple, all-graphene-based resonators are analyzed first, to assess the achievable tunability and to check the performance throughout the considered frequency range. Graphene–metal combined waveguide resonators are proposed in order to preserve the excellent quality factors typical for the type of waveguide discontinuities used. Dependence of resonator properties on key design parameters is studied in detail. Dependence of resonator properties throughout the frequency range of interest is studied using eight different waveguide sections appropriate for different frequency intervals. Proposed resonators are aimed at applications in the submillimeter-wave spectral region, serving as the compact tunable components for the design of bandpass filters and other devices.

  7. Active resonance wavelength stabilization for silicon microring resonators with an in-resonator defect-state-absorption-based photodetector.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Poon, Andrew W

    2015-01-12

    We propose and demonstrate active resonance wavelength stabilization for silicon microring resonators with an in-resonator defect-state-absorption (DSA)-based photodetector (PD) for optical interconnects. We integrate an electro-optic (EO) tuner and a thermo-optic (TO) tuner on the microring, which are both feedback-controlled following a photocurrent threshold-detection method. Our BF(2)-ion-implanted DSA-based PIN PD exhibits a cavity-enhanced sub-bandgap responsivity at 1550 nm of 3.3 mA/W upon -2 V, which is 550-fold higher than that exhibited by an unimplanted PIN diode integrated on the same microring. Our experiment reveals active stabilization of the resonance wavelength within a tolerance of 0.07 nm upon a step increment of the stage temperature by 7 °C. Upon temperature modulations between 23 °C and 32 °C and between 18 °C and 23 °C, the actively stabilized resonance exhibits a transmission power fluctuation within 2 dB. We observe open eye diagrams at a data transmission rate of up to 30 Gb/s under the temperature modulations. PMID:25835682

  8. Final Technical Report - In-line Uranium Immunosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Diane A.

    2006-07-05

    In this project, personnel at Tulane University and Sapidyne Instruments Inc. developed an in-line uranium immunosensor that could be used to determine the efficacy of specific in situ biostimulation approaches. This sensor was designed to operate autonomously over relatively long periods of time (2-10 days) and was able to provide near real-time data about uranium immobilization in the absence of personnel at the site of the biostimulation experiments. An alpha prototype of the in-line immmunosensor was delivered from Sapidyne Instruments to Tulane University in December of 2002 and a beta prototype was delivered in November of 2003. The beta prototype of this instrument (now available commercially from Sapidyne Instruments) was programmed to autonomously dilute standard uranium to final concentrations of 2.5 to 100 nM (0.6 to 24 ppb) in buffer containing a fluorescently labeled anti-uranium antibody and the uranium chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline. The assay limit of detection for hexavalent uranium was 5.8 nM or 1.38 ppb. This limit of detection is well below the drinking water standard of 30 ppb recently promulgated by the EPA. The assay showed excellent precision; the coefficients of variation (CV’s) in the linear range of the assay were less than 5% and CV’s never rose above 14%. Analytical recovery in the immunosensors-based assay was assessed by adding variable known quantities of uranium to purified water samples. A quantitative recovery (93.75% - 108.17%) was obtained for sample with concentrations from 7.5 to 20 nM (2-4.75 ppb). In August of 2005 the sensor was transported to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for testing of water samples at the Criddle test site (see Wu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:3978-3985 2006 for a description of this site). In this first on-site test, the in-line sensor was able to accurately detect changes in the concentrations of uranium in effluent samples from this site. Although the absolute values for the

  9. Plasma resonant terahertz photomixers based on double graphene layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, Maxim; Shur, Michael S.; Mitin, Vladimir; Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2014-03-01

    We propose terahertz (THz) photomixers based on double graphene layer (DGL) structures, utilizing the interband absorption of modulated optical radiation, tunneling or thermionic inter-GL transitions, and resonant excitation of plasma oscillations. Using the developed device model, we substantiate the operation of the photomixers and calculate their characteristics. We demonstrate that the output frequency-dependent power of THz radiation exhibits pronounced resonant peaks at the plasmonic resonant frequencies. The proposed THz photomixer can surpass the pertinent devices based on the standard heterostructures.

  10. An ultra-sensitive impedimetric immunosensor for detection of the serum oncomarker CA-125 in ovarian cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari-Ahar, M.; Rashidi, M. R.; Barar, J.; Aghaie, M.; Mohammadnejad, D.; Ramazani, A.; Karami, P.; Coukos, G.; Omidi, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Effective treatment of ovarian cancer depends upon the early detection of the malignancy. Here, we report on the development of a new nanostructured immunosensor for early detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). A gold electrode was modified with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), and then consecutively conjugated with silica coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP@SiO2), CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and anti-CA-125 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The engineered MPA|AuNP@SiO2|QD|mAb immunosensor was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Successive conjugation of AuNP@SiO2, CdSe QD and anti-CA-125 mAb onto the gold electrode resulted in sensitive detection of CA-125 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0016 U mL-1 and a linear detection range (LDR) of 0-0.1 U mL-1. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor, we propose this highly stable and reproducible biosensor for the early detection of CA-125.Effective treatment of ovarian cancer depends upon the early detection of the malignancy. Here, we report on the development of a new nanostructured immunosensor for early detection of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). A gold electrode was modified with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), and then consecutively conjugated with silica coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP@SiO2), CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and anti-CA-125 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The engineered MPA|AuNP@SiO2|QD|mAb immunosensor was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Successive conjugation of AuNP@SiO2, CdSe QD and anti-CA-125 mAb onto the gold electrode resulted in sensitive detection of CA-125 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0016 U mL-1 and a linear detection range (LDR) of 0-0.1 U mL-1. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor, we propose

  11. Nanoelectrode ensembles as recognition platform for electrochemical immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Mucelli, S Pozzi; Zamuner, M; Tormen, M; Stanta, G; Ugo, P

    2008-07-15

    In this study we demonstrate the possibility to prepare highly sensitive nanostructured electrochemical immunosensors by immobilizing biorecognition elements on nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) prepared in track-etch polycarbonate membranes. The gold nanodisk electrodes act as electrochemical transducers while the surrounding polycarbonate binds the antibody-based biorecognition layer. The interaction between target protein and antibody is detected by suitable secondary antibodies labelled with a redox enzyme. A redox mediator, added to the sample solution, shuttles electrons from the nanoelectrodes to the biorecognition layer, so generating an electrocatalytic signal. This allows one to fully exploit the highly improved signal-to-background current ratio, typical of NEEs. In particular, the receptor protein HER2 was studied as the target analyte. HER2 detection allows the identification of breast cancer that can be treated with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab. NEEs were functionalized with trastuzumab which interacts specifically with HER2. The biorecognition process was completed by adding a primary antibody and a secondary antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase. Hydrogen peroxide was added to modulate the label electroactivity; methylene blue was the redox mediator generating voltammetric signals. NEEs functionalized with trastuzumab were tested to detect small amounts of HER2 in diluted cell lysates and tumour lysates.

  12. Flow immunosensor detection of explosives and drugs of abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Judd, Linda L.; Yu, Hao; Myles, June; Ligler, Frances S.

    1994-03-01

    An antibody-based biosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory which is capable of detecting both drugs and explosives present at low levels in an aqueous sample. In the flow immunosensor, antibodies are immobilized onto a solid substrate, allowed to bind a fluorescently labeled signal molecule, placed in a small column and attached to a buffer flow. Upon sample introduction, an amount of the fluorescent signal molecule is released that is proportional to the concentration of applied sample. The response time of the sensor is under a minute, and multiple samples can be analyzed without the need for additional reagents. Quantitative assays are being developed for a variety of compounds, including TNT, DNT, PETN, and cocaine. The laboratory prototype has been used to study how choice of fluorophore, antibody density, and flow rate affect the signal intensity and column lifetime. A self-contained commercial instrument which can analyze up to seven different compounds from a single sample is currently being engineered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement.

  13. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using an electrochemical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Salam, Faridah; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2009-04-15

    An electrochemical immunosensor based on screen-printed gold working electrode with onboard carbon counter and silver-silver chloride pseudo-reference electrode for Salmonella typhimurium detection is described in this paper. Monoclonal anti-S. typhimurium antibody was immobilized using physical and covalent immobilization via amine coupling of carboxymethyldextran on the surface of the gold working electrode. A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) format was then developed and optimized using a polyclonal anti-Salmonella antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme label. 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB)/H(2)O(2) was used as the enzyme mediator/substrate system. Electrochemical detection was conducted using chronoamperometry at -200 mV vs. onboard screen-printed Ag-AgCl pseudo-reference electrode. The applied potential was selected through the study of the electrochemical behaviour of bare gold electrode with TMB-H(2)O(2)-IgG-HRP system. S. typhimurium detection of 5x10(3) cells ml(-1) and approximately 20 cells ml(-1) was achieved respectively for physical and covalent antibody immobilization. The developed sensor was then compared to a commercial ELISA kit and a chromogenic agar plating method for meat samples analysis. The sensor format shows a promising technology for simple and sensitive detection system for Salmonella contamination. Rapid detection of Salmonella is a key to the prevention and identification of problems related to health and safety.

  14. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  15. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 104 at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 104 at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  16. Detection of hexavalent uranium with inline and field-portable immunosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Scott J.; Yu, Haini; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Blake, Diane A.

    2008-10-02

    An antibody that recognizes a chelated form of hexavalent uranium was used in the development of two different immunosensors for uranium detection. Specifically, these sensors were utilized for the analysis of groundwater samples collected during a 2007 field study of in situ bioremediation in a aquifer located at Rifle, CO. The antibody-based sensors provided data comparable to that obtained using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA). Thus, these novel instruments and associated reagents should provide field researchers and resource managers with valuable new tools for on-site data acquisition.

  17. Ring resonator based narrow-linewidth semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for using ring resonators to produce narrow linewidth hybrid semiconductor lasers. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the narrow linewidths are produced by combining the semiconductor gain chip with a narrow pass band external feedback element. The semi conductor laser is produced using a ring resonator which, combined with a Bragg grating, acts as the external feedback element. According to another embodiment of the present invention, the proposed integrated optics ring resonator is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO.sub.2 /SiON/SiO.sub.2 waveguide technology.

  18. Acoustic superlens using Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xishan; Yin, Jing; Yu, Gaokun Peng, Linhui; Wang, Ning

    2015-11-09

    Acoustic superlens provides a way to overcome the diffraction limit with respect to the wavelength of the bulk wave in air. However, the operating frequency range of subwavelength imaging is quite narrow. Here, an acoustic superlens is designed using Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterials to broaden the bandwidth of super-resolution. An experiment is carried out to verify subwavelength imaging of double slits, the imaging of which can be well resolved in the frequency range from 570 to 650 Hz. Different from previous works based on the Fabry-Pérot resonance, the corresponding mechanism of subwavelength imaging is the Fano resonance, and the strong coupling between the neighbouring Helmholtz resonators separated at the subwavelength interval leads to the enhanced sound transmission over a relatively wide frequency range.

  19. Acoustic superlens using Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xishan; Yin, Jing; Yu, Gaokun; Peng, Linhui; Wang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic superlens provides a way to overcome the diffraction limit with respect to the wavelength of the bulk wave in air. However, the operating frequency range of subwavelength imaging is quite narrow. Here, an acoustic superlens is designed using Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterials to broaden the bandwidth of super-resolution. An experiment is carried out to verify subwavelength imaging of double slits, the imaging of which can be well resolved in the frequency range from 570 to 650 Hz. Different from previous works based on the Fabry-Pérot resonance, the corresponding mechanism of subwavelength imaging is the Fano resonance, and the strong coupling between the neighbouring Helmholtz resonators separated at the subwavelength interval leads to the enhanced sound transmission over a relatively wide frequency range.

  20. A microprocessor-based multichannel subsensory stochastic resonance electrical stimulator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gwo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic resonance electrical stimulation is a novel intervention which provides potential benefits for improving postural control ability in the elderly, those with diabetic neuropathy, and stroke patients. In this paper, a microprocessor-based subsensory white noise electrical stimulator for the applications of stochastic resonance stimulation is developed. The proposed stimulator provides four independent programmable stimulation channels with constant-current output, possesses linear voltage-to-current relationship, and has two types of stimulation modes, pulse amplitude and width modulation.

  1. A Model of Bone Remodelling Based on Stochastic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusconi, M.; Zaikin, A.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2008-06-01

    One of the most crucial medical challenges for long-term space flights is the prevention of bone loss affecting astronauts and its dramatic consequences on their return to gravitational field. Recently, a new noise-induced phenomenon in bone formation has been reported experimentally [1]. With this contribution we propose a model for this findings based on Stochastic Resonance [2]. Our simulations suggest new countermeasures for bone degeneration during long space fights using the effect of Stochastic Resonance.

  2. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging using gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Lee M; Bhargava, Puneet; Essig, Marco; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the basic properties of available gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents, discuss their fundamental differences, and explore common and evolving applications of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast throughout the body excluding the central nervous system. A more specific aim of this article was to explore novel uses of these gadolinium-based contrast agents and applications where a particular agent has been demonstrated to behave differently or be better suited for certain applications than the other contrast agents in this class.

  4. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-K; Jeun, M; Jang, H-J; Cho, W-J; Lee, K H

    2015-10-28

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL(-1)) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.

  5. Porosity estimation of alumina samples based on resonant backscattering spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhles Gerami, F.; Kakuee, O.; Mohammadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, columnar porous alumina samples were investigated using the 16O(α,α)16O resonance scattering at 3.045 MeV. If the incident energy is slightly above the resonance energy, a resonance peak appears in the energy spectra of the backscattered ions. The position and width of this peak for non-porous samples are mainly determined by the experimental setup, whilst for porous materials, the peak position shifts towards higher energies under certain conditions. This effect can be explained by the lower amount of material which the ions encounter along the backscattered trajectories. The energy shift of the resonance peak towards higher energies was revealed experimentally and discussed theoretically. The estimated porosities of the samples based on this energy shift were compared with those evaluated from the graphical analysis of the images obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  6. High sensitivity optical waveguide accelerometer based on Fano resonance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fenghua; Qian, Guang; Li, Ruozhou; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An optical waveguide accelerometer based on tunable asymmetrical Fano resonance in a ring-resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and analyzed. A Fano resonance accelerometer has a relatively large workspace of coupling coefficients with high sensitivity, which has potential application in inertial navigation, missile guidance, and attitude control of satellites. Due to the interference between a high-Q resonance pathway and a coherent background pathway, a steep asymmetric line shape is generated, which greatly improves the sensitivity of this accelerometer. The sensitivity of the accelerometer is about 111.75 mW/g. A 393-fold increase in sensitivity is achieved compared with a conventional MZI accelerometer and is approximately equal to the single ring structure.

  7. High sensitivity optical waveguide accelerometer based on Fano resonance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fenghua; Qian, Guang; Li, Ruozhou; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An optical waveguide accelerometer based on tunable asymmetrical Fano resonance in a ring-resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and analyzed. A Fano resonance accelerometer has a relatively large workspace of coupling coefficients with high sensitivity, which has potential application in inertial navigation, missile guidance, and attitude control of satellites. Due to the interference between a high-Q resonance pathway and a coherent background pathway, a steep asymmetric line shape is generated, which greatly improves the sensitivity of this accelerometer. The sensitivity of the accelerometer is about 111.75 mW/g. A 393-fold increase in sensitivity is achieved compared with a conventional MZI accelerometer and is approximately equal to the single ring structure. PMID:27556984

  8. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  9. Scatter-based magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, Sebastian; Xu, Chao; Hamhaber, Uwe; Siebert, Eberhard; Bohner, Georg; Klingebiel, Randolf; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2009-04-01

    Elasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissues and increasingly used in diagnostic imaging. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) uniquely allows in vivo measurement of the shear elasticity of brain tissue. However, the spatial resolution of MRE is inherently limited as the transformation of shear wave patterns into elasticity maps requires the solution of inverse problems. Therefore, an MRE method is introduced that avoids inversion and instead exploits shear wave scattering at elastic interfaces between anatomical regions of different shear compliance. This compliance-weighted imaging (CWI) method can be used to evaluate the mechanical consistency of cerebral lesions or to measure relative stiffness differences between anatomical subregions of the brain. It is demonstrated that CWI-MRE is sensitive enough to reveal significant elasticity variations within inner brain parenchyma: the caudate nucleus (head) was stiffer than the lentiform nucleus and the thalamus by factors of 1.3 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.2, respectively (P < 0.001). CWI-MRE provides a unique method for characterizing brain tissue by identifying local stiffness variations.

  10. A novel electrochemical immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 in corn using single-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Li, Chao-Rui; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Xue, Jian; Huang, Ya-Ling; Yang, Xian-Xian; Tan, Bin; Zhou, Xi-Peng; Shao, Chuang; Ding, Shi-Jia; Qiu, Jing-Fu

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection based on single-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan was presented. The immunosensor was based on an indirect competitive binding to a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 between free AFB1 and AFB1-bovine serum albumin, which conjugate immobilized on covalently functionalized nanotubes/chitosan laid on the glass carbon electrode. Then, the anti-mouse immunoglobulin G secondary antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase was bound to the electrode surface through reacting with primary antibody. Finally, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the substrate α-naphthyl phosphate, which produced electrochemical signal. Compared with conventional methods, the established immunosensor was more sensitive and simple. Under optimal conditions, this method could quantitatively detect AFB1 from 0.01 to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3.5 pg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor was successfully applied to assay AFB1 in corn powder, which showed good correlation with the results obtained from high performance liquid chromatography.

  11. Novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asif; Rushworth, Jo V; Wright, John D; Millner, Paul A

    2013-12-17

    Streptococcus pyogenes , also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), is a Gram positive human pathogen responsible for invasive and noninvasive human infections with a high incidence rate. Traditional detection methods involve cell culture and PCR, which are limited by long processing times or the need for high cost equipment. Impedance-based electrochemical immunosensors provide an alternative by which precise and rapid quantitative detection of the organism can help with rapid clinical decisions. To bring a biosensor for point-of-care applications to market, strict optimization of each level of construction and operation is required. In this paper, commercial screen-printed gold electrodes have been used to construct polytyramine (Ptyr)-based immunosensors. Biotin tagged whole antibodies against S. pyogenes were conjugated to Ptyr amine group via biotin-NeutrAvidin coupling. Sensors were optimized at each level of construction, particularly for Ptyr electrodeposition and antibody concentration, to optimize signal and specificity. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and on-sensor analysis (HRP conjugated enhanced chemiluminescence-based semiquantitative method) to detect Ptyr surface amine and bound antibody were performed as supporting techniques. Cumulative and single shot incubations had shown detection range of 100 to 10(5) cells per 10 μL and 100 to 10(4) cells per 10 μL of bacteria in PBS, respectively. Sensors were also able to specifically detect S. pyogenes in 50% (v/v) human saliva, with good selectivity and low cross-reactivity.

  12. A novel photoelectrochemical immunosensor by integration of nanobody and TiO₂ nanotubes for sensitive detection of serum cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Mi, Li; Wang, Pingyan; Yan, Junrong; Qian, Jing; Lu, Jusheng; Yu, Jiachao; Wang, Yuzhen; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Min; Wan, Yakun; Liu, Songqin

    2016-01-01

    Cystatin C (CysC) is a sensitive marker for the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate and the clinical diagnosis of different diseases. In this paper, CysC-specific nanobodies (Nbs) were isolated from a phage display nanobody library. A simple and sensitive photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) was proposed for the sensitive detection of CysC. The TiO2 nanotube arrays deposited by electrochemical anodization displayed a high and stable photocurrent response under irradiation. After coupling CysC-specific nanobody to TNA (Nb/TNA), the proposed immunosensor for CysC can be utilized for tracking the photocurrent change of Nb/TNA caused by immunoreactions between CysC and the immobilized CysC-specific Nb. This allowed for the determination of CysC with a calibration range from 0.72 pM to 7.19 nM. The variation of the photocurrent was in a linear relationship with the logarithm of the CysC concentration in the range of 0.72 pM-3.6 nM. The immunosensor had a correlation coefficient of 0.97 and a detection limit of 0.14 pM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The proposed immunosensor showed satisfactory intra- and inter-assay accuracy, high selectivity and good stability. As a result, this proposed strategy would offer a novel and simple approach for the detection of immunoreactions, provide new insights in popularizing the diagnosis of CysC, and extend the application of TiO2 nanotubes.

  13. Axicon based conical resonators with high power copper vapor laser.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijendra; Subramaniam, V V; Daultabad, S R; Chakraborty, Ashim

    2010-07-01

    We report for the first time the performance of axicon based conical resonators (ABCRs) in a copper vapor laser, with novel results. The unstable conical resonator comprising of conical mirror (reflecting axicon) with axicon angle approximately pi/18, cone angle approximately 160 degrees, and a convex mirror of 60 cm radius of curvature was effective in reducing the average beam divergence to approximately 0.15 mrad (approximately 25 fold reduction compared to standard multimode plane-plane cavity) with output power of approximately 31 W. Extraction efficiency of approximately 50%-60% and beam divergence of <1 mrad was achieved in other stable ABCR configurations using flat and concave mirrors with the axicon. This is a significant improvement compared to 4-5 mrad normally observed in conventional stable resonators in copper vapor lasers. The conical resonators with copper vapor laser provide high misalignment tolerance beta approximately 4-5 mrad where beta is the tilt angle of the conical mirror from optimum position responsible for approximately 20% decline in laser power. The depth of focus d was approximately three times larger in case of conical resonator as compared to that of standard spherical unstable resonator under similar beam divergence and focusing conditions. PMID:20687708

  14. A multi-walled carbon nanotubes-poly(L-lysine) modified enantioselective immunosensor for ofloxacin by using multi-enzyme-labeled gold nanoflower as signal enhancer.

    PubMed

    He, Zuyu; Zang, Shuai; Liu, Yingju; He, Yuan; Lei, Hongtao

    2015-11-15

    The enantioselective detection of trace amounts of ofloxacin is very important in many fields. In this work, an enantioselective and sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was constructed for the detection of chiral antibiotic ofloxacin based on a dual amplification strategy using multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(L-lysine) as a matrix to immobilize the antigen and multi-enzyme-antibody functionalized gold nanoflowers as an electrochemical detection label. The fabrication process of the dual-amplified immunosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. After the optimization of the experimental conditions, a competitive immunoassay, i.e., the association ability with the corresponding antibody between the captured antigen and free S-OFL or R-OFL in the solution, showed that the immunosensor exhibited a sensitive response to S-OFL in the range from 0.26 to 25.6 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL as well as a sensitive response to R-OFL in the range from 0.37 to 12.8 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.30 ng/mL. Along with the acceptable sensitivity and stability, the S-OFL or R-OFL immunosensor showed selective ability to its corresponding enantiomer, suggesting this amplification strategy may hold a potential application in the detection of OFL in food or environment.

  15. Detection of Human IgG on Poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) Thin Film by Electrochemical-Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmanee, Rapiphun; Baba, Akira; Phanichphant, Sukon; Sriwichai, Saengrawee; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemically controlled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been developed using poly(pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) (PP3C) film. In this work, a pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid monomer was used for electropolymerization of a PP3C film on a gold-coated high-refractive-index glass slide. In situ electrochemical (EC)-SPR spectroscopy was performed to study the kinetic property and electroactivity property of the PP3C film. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was performed to characterize the PP3C film. Finally, the immunosensor-based PP3C film was constructed. The carboxylic acid surface of the PP3C film was activated for the immobilization of anti-human IgG. The immunosensor electrode was used for probing the binding reaction of anti-human IgG/human IgG with several concentrations of human IgG at different constant applied potentials. The probe immobilization and immunosensing process were in situ monitored by EC-SPR technique. The sensitivity of the sensor was improved by controlling the morphology of the PP3C film by applying the potential.

  16. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment. PMID:22399981

  17. Ultracompact racetrack resonators based on hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liangxiao; Hu, Feifei; Yi, Huaxiang; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-11-01

    To promote the miniaturization and integration of devices, various optical components based on hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been proposed such as microring resonators and Y-splitter. However, their footprints are strongly limited by the radiation loss of the bends. Here, we propose and analyze a novel hybrid plasmonic waveguide (NHPW) which can be used to realize sharp bend with little radiation loss. Based on NHPW, ultracompact racetrack resonators are realized. A racetrack resonator with an outer radius of 0.5μm and straight waveguide of 0.1μm is constructed, which has an extinction ration of 12.56dB and a significantly large free space range of 265nm.

  18. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  19. Spherical-sapphire-based whispering gallery mode resonator thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lili; Fernicola, V.

    2012-09-01

    A novel microwave whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator based on a spherical sapphire crystal was developed at INRIM and its use as a thermometer was tested. The temperature dependence of the WGM frequencies was studied and the most promising resonance near to 13.6 GHz, with a loaded quality factor as large as 82 000, was carefully investigated. Its potential use in thermometry was evaluated through a study of its main metrological characteristics, such as the temperature sensitivity, the frequency stability, the repeatability, and the resolution at several temperatures over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. Finally, the INRIM spherical sapphire thermometer was compared with the NIST SWGT, a dielectric thermometer based on a cylindrical sapphire resonator [V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and Kh. S. Bagdassarov, Phys. Lett. A 120(3), 300 (1987), 10.1016/0375-9601(87)90676-1].

  20. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.; Simon, F.; Murányi, F.

    2015-09-15

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.

  1. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators.

    PubMed

    Gyüre, B; Márkus, B G; Bernáth, B; Murányi, F; Simon, F

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation. PMID:26429462

  2. Tailored carbon nanotube immunosensors for the detection of microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Simón, B; Bandaru, N M; Saint, C; Voelcker, N H

    2015-05-15

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as building blocks in the design of electrochemical biosensors has been attracting attention over the last few years, mainly due to their high electrical conductivity and large surface area. Here, we present two approaches based on tailored single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) architectures to develop immunosensors for the bacteriophage MS2, a virus often detected in sewage-impacted water supplies. In the first approach, SWCNTs were used in the bottom-up design of sensors as antibody immobilization support. Carboxy-functionalised SWCNTs were covalently tethered onto gold electrodes via carbodiimide coupling to cysteamine-modified gold electrodes. These SWCNTs were hydrazide functionalized by electrochemical grafting of diazonium salts. Site-oriented immobilization of antibodies was then carried out through hydrazone bond formation. Results showed microarray electrode behavior, greatly improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Excellent sensitivity and limit of detection (9.3 pfu/mL and 9.8 pfu/mL in buffer and in river water, respectively) were achieved, due to the combination of the SWCNTs' ability to promote electron transfer reactions with electroactive species at low overpotentials and their high surface-to-volume ratio providing a favorable environment to immobilize biomolecules. In the second approach, SWCNTs were decorated with iron oxide nanoparticles. Diazonium salts were electrochemically grafted on iron-oxide-nanoparticle-decorated SWCNTs to functionalize them with hydrazide groups that facilitate site-directed immobilization of antibodies via hydrazone coupling. These magnetic immunocarriers facilitated MS2 separation and concentration on an electrode surface. This approach minimized non-specific adsorptions and matrix effects and allowed low limits of detection (12 pfu/mL and 39 pfu/mL in buffer and in river water, respectively) that could be further decreased by incubating the magnetic immunocarriers with larger volumes of sample

  3. THz Emission Based On Intersubband Plasmon Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Coquelin, M.; Zobl, R.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.; Bakshi, P.; Umansky, V.; Heiblum, M.

    2010-01-04

    The radiative decay of collective plasma oscillations as a new mechanism for THz emission is studied. This phenomenon is based on the attractive interaction of two intersubband plasmons. This interaction can be viewed as a collective e-e scattering phenomenon. The emission results fit very well to the results of the current voltage measurements indicating that the conditions for a plasma instability are reached.

  4. One-step synthesis of potassium ferricyanide-doped polyaniline nanoparticles for label-free immunosensor.

    PubMed

    He, Sijing; Wang, Qiyou; Yu, Yanyan; Shi, Qiujia; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Zuanguang

    2015-06-15

    A novel, label-free and inherent electroactive redox immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was proposed based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and potassium ferricyanide-doped polyaniline (FC-PANI) nanoparticles. FC-PANI composite was synthesized via oxidative polymerization of aniline, using potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) as both oxidant and dopant. FC-PANI acting as the signal indicator was first fixed on a gold electrode (GE) to be the signal layer. Subsequently, the negatively charged AuNPs could be adsorbed on the positively charged FC-PANI modified GE surface by electrostatic adsorption, and then to immobilize CEA antibody (anti-CEA) for the assay of CEA. The CEA concentration was measured through the decrease of amperometric signals in the corresponding specific binding of antigen and antibody. The wide linear range of the immunosensor was from 1.0 pg mL(-1) to 500.0 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method would have a potential application in clinical immunoassays with the properties of facile procedure, stability, high sensitivity and selectivity.

  5. A piezoelectric immunosensor for the determination of pesticide residues and metabolites in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    March, C; Manclús, J J; Jiménez, Y; Arnau, A; Montoya, A

    2009-05-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor was developed for the determination of the insecticide carbaryl and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the main metabolite of the insecticide chlorpyrifos and of the herbicide triclopyr. The detection was based on a competitive conjugate-immobilized immunoassay format using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Hapten conjugates were covalently immobilized, via thioctic acid self-assembled monolayer (SAM), onto the gold electrode sensitive surface of the quartz crystal. This covalent immobilization allowed the reusability of the modified electrode surface for at least one hundred and fifty assays without significant loss of sensitivity. The piezoimmunosensor showed detection limits (analyte concentrations producing 10% inhibition of the maximum signal) of 11 and 7 microg l(-1) for carbaryl and TCP, respectively. The sensitivity attained (I(50) value) was around 30 microg l(-1) for both compounds. Linear working ranges were 15-53 microg l(-1) for carbaryl and 13-83 microg l(-1) for TCP. Each complete assay cycle took 20 min. The good sensitivity, specificity, and reusability achieved, together with the short response time, allowed the application of this immunosensor to the determination of carbaryl and TCP in fruits and vegetables at European regulatory levels, with high precision and accuracy.

  6. 50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takeshi; Akiyama, Suguru; Imai, Masahiko; Hirayama, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Yoshiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Usuki, Tatsuya

    2013-05-20

    We achieved 50-Gb/s operation of a ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for the first time. The pin-diode phase shifter, which consists of a side-wall-grating waveguide, was loaded into the ring resonator. The forward-biased operation mode was applied, which exhibited a V(π)L as small as 0.28 V · cm at 25 GHz. The driving voltage and optical insertion loss at 50-Gb/s were 1.96 V(pp) and 5.2 dB, respectively. PMID:23736409

  7. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of siRNA-Based Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Mori, Noriko; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is routinely used as a biological tool to silence specific genes, and is under active investigation in cancer treatment strategies. Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides the ability to assess the functional effects of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in cultured cancer cells, and following nanoparticle-based delivery in tumors in vivo. Here we describe the use of siRNA to downregulate choline kinase, a critical enzyme in choline phospholipid metabolism of cancer cells and tumors, and the use of 1H MRS of cells and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of tumors to assess the efficacy of the downregulation. PMID:26530913

  8. MEMS tunable optical filter based on multi-ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dessalegn, Hailu E-mail: tsrinu@ece.iisc.ernet.in; Srinivas, T. E-mail: tsrinu@ece.iisc.ernet.in

    2014-10-15

    We propose a novel MEMS tunable optical filter with a flat-top pass band based on multi-ring resonator in an electrostatically actuated microcantilever for communication application. The filter is basically structured on a microcantilever beam and built in optical integrated ring resonator which is placed in one end of the beam to gain maximum stress on the resonator. Thus, when a DC voltage is applied, the beam will bend, that induces a stress and strain in the ring, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift, providing the tenability as high as 0.68nm/μN and it is capable of tuning up to 1.7nm.

  9. Quartz crystal microbalance based on torsional piezoelectric resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Buecking, W.; Du, B.; Turshatov, A.; Koenig, A. M.; Reviakine, I.; Bode, B.; Johannsmann, D.

    2007-07-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is described, which is based on a torsional resonator, rather than a conventional thickness-shear resonator. Typical applications are measurements of film thickness in the coating industry and monitoring of biofouling. The torsional QCM is about a factor of 100 less sensitive than the conventional QCM. On the other hand, it can probe film thicknesses in the range of hundreds of microns, which is impossible with the conventional QCM due to viscoelastic artifacts. Data acquisition and data analysis proceed in analogy to the conventional QCM. An indicator of the material's softness can be extracted from the bandwidth of the resonance. Within the small-load approximation, the frequency shift is independent of whether the sample is applied to the face or to the side of the cylinder. Details of the geometry matter if the viscoelastic properties of the sample are of interest.

  10. [Immunosensors: sources of origin, achievements and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Starodub, M F; Starodub, V M

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the recent data in the literature and results of investigations in the field of the development and study of function efficiency of different types of immune sensors, that are performed at the Department of Biochemistry Sensory and Regulatory Systems of the A. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences are presented. Sources of origination and perspectives of the devlopment of biosensors are discussed as well. The paper also gives an overview of main research projects at the Department, mainly in the filed of biosensors. They include development of the scientific bases for the creation of a new generation of chemo- and biosensors for their application in medicine and ecology. Multi-immune, multi-enzyme and combined multi-parametrical sensors can provide express analyses in laboratory and field conditions with the purpose to perform immune chemical diagnostics of diabet, kidney diseases, immune defficiencies, autoimmune, allergic, pre-infarction and pre-tumor states as well as to control total toxicity of the environment and identification of main types of toxic elements in it. The investigations are based on the latest achivements in the field of physics, chemistry, information technology and electronics with the use of different types of planar electrodes, ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), semiconductor capacitive structures, termistors, optrodes, piezocrystalls and application of such methods and effects as laser correlation spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, photoluminescence of porous silicon, interferometry, evanescent wave technique, nonemmiting energy transfer and holography. PMID:11200443

  11. Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K

    2013-08-05

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency.

  12. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4-5.2 eV and 2 × 1016-4.8 × 1017 m-3, respectively.

  13. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4–5.2 eV and 2 × 10{sup 16}–4.8 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}, respectively.

  14. Fiber-Optic SPR Immunosensors Tailored To Target Epithelial Cells through Membrane Receptors.

    PubMed

    Malachovská, Viera; Ribaut, Clotilde; Voisin, Valérie; Surin, Mathieu; Leclère, Philippe; Wattiez, Ruddy; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2015-06-16

    We report, for the first time, the use of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fiber-optic immunosensor for selective cellular detection through membrane protein targeting. The sensor architecture lies on gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings (Au-coated TFBGs) photoimprinted in the fiber core via a laser technique. TFBGs operate in the near-infrared wavelength range at ∼1550 nm, yielding optical and SPR sensing characteristics that are advantageous for the analyses of cellular bindings and technical compatibility with relatively low-cost telecommunication-grade measurement devices. In this work, we take consider their numerous assets to figure out their ability to selectively detect intact epithelial cells as analytes in cell suspensions in the range of 2-5 × 10(6) cells mL(-1). For this, the probe was first thermally annealed to ensure a strong adhesion of the metallic coating to the fiber surface. Its surface was then functionalized with specific monoclonal antibodies via alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) against extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and characterized by peak force tapping atomic force microscopy. A differential diagnosis has been demonstrated between two model systems. The developed immunosensors were able to monitor, in real time, the specific attachment of single intact cells in concentrations from 3 × 10(6) cells mL(-1). Such results confirm that the developed probe fits the lab-on-fiber technology and has the potential to be used as a disposable device for in situ and real-time clinical diagnosis.

  15. Fiber-Optic SPR Immunosensors Tailored To Target Epithelial Cells through Membrane Receptors.

    PubMed

    Malachovská, Viera; Ribaut, Clotilde; Voisin, Valérie; Surin, Mathieu; Leclère, Philippe; Wattiez, Ruddy; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2015-06-16

    We report, for the first time, the use of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fiber-optic immunosensor for selective cellular detection through membrane protein targeting. The sensor architecture lies on gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings (Au-coated TFBGs) photoimprinted in the fiber core via a laser technique. TFBGs operate in the near-infrared wavelength range at ∼1550 nm, yielding optical and SPR sensing characteristics that are advantageous for the analyses of cellular bindings and technical compatibility with relatively low-cost telecommunication-grade measurement devices. In this work, we take consider their numerous assets to figure out their ability to selectively detect intact epithelial cells as analytes in cell suspensions in the range of 2-5 × 10(6) cells mL(-1). For this, the probe was first thermally annealed to ensure a strong adhesion of the metallic coating to the fiber surface. Its surface was then functionalized with specific monoclonal antibodies via alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) against extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and characterized by peak force tapping atomic force microscopy. A differential diagnosis has been demonstrated between two model systems. The developed immunosensors were able to monitor, in real time, the specific attachment of single intact cells in concentrations from 3 × 10(6) cells mL(-1). Such results confirm that the developed probe fits the lab-on-fiber technology and has the potential to be used as a disposable device for in situ and real-time clinical diagnosis. PMID:25962700

  16. An electrochemical immunosensor for quantitative detection of ficolin-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San, Lili; Zeng, Dongdong; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Jiarui; Mi, Xianqiang

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders in the world, of which more than 90% is type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a rather urgent need for reliable, sensitive and quick detection techniques in clinical application of T2DM. Ficolin-3 is a potential biomarker of T2DM, because serum ficolin-3 levels are associated with insulin resistance and predict the incidence of T2DM. Herein, a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was developed for the detection of ficolin-3 in human serum. Cyclic voltammetry and the amperometric current versus time were used to characterize the performance of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the detection limitation of ficolin-3 was 100 ng ml–1 and the linear dynamic range was between 2 and 50 μg ml–1. The method has ideal accuracy, excellent stability and selectivity and has wide application prospects in clinical research.

  17. Detection of small molecules with a flow immunosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the development of an easy-to-use sensor with widespread applications for detecting small molecules. The flow immunosensor can analyze discrete samples in under one minute or continuously monitor a flowing stream for the presence of specific analytes. This detection system is extremely specific, and achieves a level of sensitivity which meets or exceeds the detection limits reported for rival assays. Because the system is also compact, transportable, and automated, it has the potential to impact diverse areas. For example, the flow immunosensor has successfully detected drugs of abuse and explosives, and may well address many of the needs of the environmental community with respect to continuous monitoring for pollutants. Efforts are underway to engineer a portable device in the field.

  18. An electrochemical immunosensor for quantitative detection of ficolin-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San, Lili; Zeng, Dongdong; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Jiarui; Mi, Xianqiang

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders in the world, of which more than 90% is type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a rather urgent need for reliable, sensitive and quick detection techniques in clinical application of T2DM. Ficolin-3 is a potential biomarker of T2DM, because serum ficolin-3 levels are associated with insulin resistance and predict the incidence of T2DM. Herein, a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was developed for the detection of ficolin-3 in human serum. Cyclic voltammetry and the amperometric current versus time were used to characterize the performance of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the detection limitation of ficolin-3 was 100 ng ml-1 and the linear dynamic range was between 2 and 50 μg ml-1. The method has ideal accuracy, excellent stability and selectivity and has wide application prospects in clinical research.

  19. Investigation of a near-infrared fiber optic immunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Maryam I.; Casay, Guillermo A.; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Patonay, Gabor; Strekowski, Lucjan

    1994-03-01

    The designs of NIR optical fiber immunosensors for the detection of biomolecules are discussed. The use of fiber optics combined with laser-excited fluorescence detection ((lambda) max equals 780 nm) and immunochemical techniques has provided the essential components for developing simpler and more practical, sensitive and selective immunosensors. The antibody is immobilized on the distal end of a surface-activated polymethyl methylacrylate sensor. As the probe is placed in different concentrations of antigenic substance, the antibody reacts with its corresponding antigen through sandwich and/or competitive immunoassays. The concentrations varied from 10 - 100 ng/ml. The near-infrared dye labeled antigen - antibody complex is excited and the emitted fluorescence is collected with a silicon photodiode detector equipped with an 820-nm bandpass filter. In order to determine various factors influencing the immunosensor's performance, the fluorescence intensity responses are obtained under a variety of conditions. The sensor response depending on the type of surface-activating reagent, surface activation period, incubation time, and other measurement conditions also are discussed.

  20. Advances in surface plasmon resonance-based high throughput biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, San-Jun; Berguiga, Lotfi; Elezgaray, Juan; Hugo, Nicolas; Li, Wen-Xue; Roland, Thibault; Zeng, He-Ping; Argoul, Francoise

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews our recent advances in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biochips. It includes four issues, which are the preparation and characterization of high quality gold film, the preparation and characterization of self-assembled monolayer (SAM), dynamics of DNA adsorption on SAMs, and SPR-based microscopies. Numerous topics related to SPR, such as, the modeling of SPR by transmission matrix, effective medium theory, applications of SPR in biology, and SPR-based novel microscopies, are discussed. A novel electrochemical technique, which is extremely useful for the preparation and characterization of high quality SAMs, is also discussed.

  1. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Jinghua; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route. PMID:25384397

  2. A temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with a microwave temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator whose dielectric medium is a cylindrical sapphire crystal. The performance as temperature sensor were investigated a three WGMs resonant frequencies over the temperature range from -40 °C to 85 °C. It was found that the quality factor for these WGMs can be in excess of 1.7ṡ105, potentially enabling high-resolution measurements. The temperature repeatability, stability, hysteresis, frequency-vs-temperature sensitivity of the WGM temperature sensor are reported. Moreover, two sapphires, which have the same nominal characteristics, were investigated in order to assess the system reproducibility and the results reported.

  3. Tunable Fano resonances based on microring resonator with feedback coupled waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guolin; Zhao, Ting; Xiao, Huifu; Liu, Zilong; Liu, Guipeng; Yang, Jianhong; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Tian, Yonghui

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a tunable Fano resonance which originates from the optical interference between two different resonant cavities using silicon micro-ring resonator with feedback coupled waveguide fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The resonance spectrum can be periodically tuned via changing the resonant wavelengths of two resonators through the thermo-optic effect. In addition to this, we can also change the transmission loss of the feedback coupled waveguide (FCW) to tune the resonance spectrum by the injection free carriers to FCW. We also build the theoretical model and we analyze the device performance by using the scattering matrix method. The simulation results are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The measurement maximum extinction ratio of the Fano resonance is as high as 30.8dB. Therefore, the proposed device is a most promising candidate for high on/off ratio optical switching/modulating, high-sensitivity biochemical sensing. PMID:27607626

  4. A parametric vocal fold model based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a parametric three-dimensional body-cover vocal fold model based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human larynx. Major geometric features that are observed in the MRI images but missing in current vocal fold models are discussed, and their influence on vocal fold vibration is evaluated using eigenmode analysis. Proper boundary conditions for the model are also discussed. Based on control parameters corresponding to anatomic landmarks that can be easily measured, this model can be adapted toward a subject-specific vocal fold model for voice production research and clinical applications. PMID:27586774

  5. Investigation of refractive index sensing based on Fano resonance in fiber Bragg grating ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Mastronardi, Lorenzo; Malara, Pietro; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate a ring resonant cavity obtained by closing on itself a π-shifted fiber Bragg grating, to be used for refractive index sensing applications. Differently from a conventional π-shifted fiber Bragg grating, the spectral structure of this cavity is characterized by an asymmetric splitting doublet composed by a right side resonance having an asymmetric Fano profile and a left side resonance having a symmetric Lorentzian profile. The right side resonance shows a narrower and sharper peak than all the other kinds of resonance achievable with both conventional ring resonators and π-shifted fiber Bragg gratings. A reduction of the resonant linewidth with respect to a conventional π-shifted Fiber Bragg grating and a fiber ring resonator, having the same physical parameters, is theoretically proved, achieving up to five orders of magnitude improvement with respect to the usual ring resonator. Due to these resonance features, the π-shifted Bragg grating ring resonator results suitable for RI sensing applications requiring extremely narrow resonances for high resolution measurements. In particular, by assuming a refractive index sensing to detect the presence of sugar in water, the sensor can show a theoretical resolution better than 10-9 RIU. PMID:26072795

  6. Detection of Tetrodotoxins in Puffer Fish by a Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Immunoassay and Comparison with Surface Plasmon Resonance, LC-MS/MS, and Mouse Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Reverté, Laia; de la Iglesia, Pablo; del Río, Vanessa; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Katikou, Panagiota; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2015-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of puffer fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the Mediterranean could represent a major food safety risk for European consumers and threaten the fishing industry. The work presented herein describes the development of a new enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (mELISA) based on the immobilization of TTX through dithiol monolayers self-assembled on maleimide plates, which provides an ordered and oriented antigen immobilization and favors the antigen-antibody affinity interaction. The mELISA was found to have a limit of detection (LOD) of TTX of 0.23 mg/kg of puffer fish matrix. The mELISA and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor previously developed were employed to establish the cross-reactivity factors (CRFs) of 5,6,11-trideoxy-TTX, 5,11-deoxy-TTX, 11-nor-TTX-6-ol, and 5,6,11-trideoxy-4-anhydro-TTX, as well as to determine TTX equivalent contents in puffer fish samples. Results obtained by both immunochemical tools were correlated (R(2) = 0.977). The puffer fish samples were also analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the corresponding CRFs were applied to the individual TTX contents. Results provided by the immunochemical tools, when compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS, showed a good degree of correlation (R(2) = 0.991 and 0.979 for mELISA and SPR, respectively). The mouse bioassay (MBA) slightly overestimated the CRF adjusted TTX content of samples when compared with the data obtained from the other techniques. The mELISA has been demonstrated to be fit for the purpose for screening samples in monitoring programs and in research activities. PMID:26424329

  7. Detection of Tetrodotoxins in Puffer Fish by a Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Immunoassay and Comparison with Surface Plasmon Resonance, LC-MS/MS, and Mouse Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Reverté, Laia; de la Iglesia, Pablo; del Río, Vanessa; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Katikou, Panagiota; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2015-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of puffer fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the Mediterranean could represent a major food safety risk for European consumers and threaten the fishing industry. The work presented herein describes the development of a new enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (mELISA) based on the immobilization of TTX through dithiol monolayers self-assembled on maleimide plates, which provides an ordered and oriented antigen immobilization and favors the antigen-antibody affinity interaction. The mELISA was found to have a limit of detection (LOD) of TTX of 0.23 mg/kg of puffer fish matrix. The mELISA and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor previously developed were employed to establish the cross-reactivity factors (CRFs) of 5,6,11-trideoxy-TTX, 5,11-deoxy-TTX, 11-nor-TTX-6-ol, and 5,6,11-trideoxy-4-anhydro-TTX, as well as to determine TTX equivalent contents in puffer fish samples. Results obtained by both immunochemical tools were correlated (R(2) = 0.977). The puffer fish samples were also analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the corresponding CRFs were applied to the individual TTX contents. Results provided by the immunochemical tools, when compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS, showed a good degree of correlation (R(2) = 0.991 and 0.979 for mELISA and SPR, respectively). The mouse bioassay (MBA) slightly overestimated the CRF adjusted TTX content of samples when compared with the data obtained from the other techniques. The mELISA has been demonstrated to be fit for the purpose for screening samples in monitoring programs and in research activities.

  8. Resonant energy transfer based biosensor for detection of multivalent proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, X.; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new fluorescence-based biosensor for sensitive detection of species involved in a multivslent interaction. The biosensor system utilizes specific interactions between proteins and cell surface receptors, which trigger a receptor aggregation process. Distance-dependent fluorescence self-quenching and resonant energy transfer mechanisms were coupled with a multivalent interaction to probe the receptor aggregation process, providing a sensitive and specific signal transduction method for such a binding event. The fluorescence change induced by the aggregation process can be monitored by different instrument platforms, e.g. fluorimetry and flow cytometry. In this article, a sensitive detection of pentavalent cholera toxin which recognizes ganglioside GM1 has been demonstrated through the resonant energy transfer scheme, which can achieve a double color change simultaneously. A detection sensitivity as high as 10 pM has been achieved within a few minutes (c.a. 5 minutes). The simultaneous double color change (an increase of acceptor fluorescence and a decrease of donor fluorescence intensity) of two similar fluorescent probes provides particularly high detection reliability owing to the fact that they act as each other's internal reference. Any external perturbation such as environmental temperature change causes no significant change in signal generation. Besides the application for biological sensing, the method also provides a useful tool for investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of a multivalent interaction. Keywords: Biosensor, Fluorescence resonant energy transfer, Multivalent interaction, Cholera Toxin, Ganglioside GM1, Signal Transduction

  9. Fabrication of resonant subwavelength grating based on thiol-ene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Shi, Lifang; Li, Zhiwei; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Yukun; Yu, Jinqing; Hu, Song

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach used to fabricate resonant subwavelength grating based on thiol-ene material. First of all, polydimethylsiloxane soft imprint stamp with opposite structure of the subwavelength grating master mold is made by casting. Then, the desired subwavelength grating with UV-curable thiol-ene material grating structure is fabricated using the polydimethylsioxane soft stamp by UV-curable soft-lithography. Here, we fabricate a subwavelength grating with period of 300nm using the approach, which could reflect blue light with wavelength ranging from 448nm to 482nm at a specific angle and presents the excellent resonant characteristic. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation results, demonstrating that the approach proposed in this paper could effectively fabricate the thiol-ene material resonant subwavelength grating structure. The thiol-ene material is a new green UV-curable polymer material, including a number of advantages such as rapid UV-curing in the natural environment, low-cost, high resolution, and regulative performance characteristic. The fabrication technique in this paper is simple, low-cost, and easy to high throughput, which has broad application prospects in the preparation of micro and nano structures.

  10. Photonic microwave receivers based on high-Q optical resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2012-02-01

    The quest for low power and high frequency electro-optical modulator has been one of the important endeavors in microwave photonics. The advent of microdisk electro-optic modulator created a new domain in optical modulator and photonic microwave receiver design by exploiting the unique properties of high quality (high-Q) Whispering-Gallery Mode (WGM) optical cavities. High-Q crystalline WG cavities were the first devices used as compact and low power resonant electro-optical modulators and gradually semiconductor and polymer based microdisk and microring modulators emerged from this core technology. Due to its small size, high sensitivity and limited bandwidth, originally microdisk modulator was developed with the objective of replacing the conventional microwave wireless receiver frontend with a sensitive photonic front-end. Later it was shown that the electro-optic microdisk modulator could also function as a microwave frequency mixer in optical domain. Starting from fundamentals of resonant electro-optic modulation in high-Q WGM cavities, in this paper we review the development of high sensitivity microdisk modulators and the recent progress toward more efficient modulation at higher frequencies. Next related topics such as singlesideband modulation, all-dielectric photonic receiver, and semiconductor microring modulators are briefly discussed. Finally, photonic microwave receiver configurations that employ high-Q optical resonance for modulation, filtering and mixing are presented. We will show that high-Q optical resonance is one of the promising routes toward the general idea of an all-optical microwave receiver free of high frequency electronic transistors, mixers and filters.

  11. An ultrasensitive optical label-free polymeric biosensor based on concentric triple microring resonators with a central microdisk resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmir, Kiana; Habibiyan, Hamidreza; Ghafoorifard, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we propose an optical label-free biosensor based on a polymeric platform. Label-free biosensors have not the drawbacks and stability problems of commercialized devices which are used for detection of labeled molecules. In addition, we choose polymeric platform, due to simple and low cost fabrication process and also high biocompatibility properties. The suggested structure consists of concentric triple ring resonators along with a disk resonator which offers deeper notches, higher sensitivity and vaster detection area with respect to other similar configurations such as single ring resonator, double concentric ring resonators, etc. Our numerical simulations based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, show that in optimized structure, a transmission notch depth of -48.7 dB for sensor at rest and a free spectral range of 56 nm are achievable. In addition, resonance wavelength sensitivity and output power sensitivity of sensor are 1000 nm/RIU and 1.8×104 dB/RIU, respectively. The external radius of outer ring resonator is only 5 μm, and detection area of the sensor is 40.37 μm2. With this small size, to the best of our knowledge, the obtained notch depth and sensitivity parameters are one of the highest values in ring resonator-based biosensors reported to date.

  12. Tunable polarization beam splitter based on optofluidic ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song; Liu, Yang; Shi, Lei; Xu, Xinbiao; Yuan, Shixing; Liu, Ningyu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-07-25

    An efficient polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The PBS relies on the large effective refractive index difference between transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization states, since the silica-microcapillary-based OFRR possesses a slab-like geometry configuration in the cross section through which the circulating light travels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first OFRR-based PBS. In our work, the maximum polarization splitting ratio of up to 30 dB is achieved. Besides, water and ethanol are pumped into the core of the silica microcapillary respectively, and the maximum wavelength tuning range of 7.02 nm is realized when ethanol flows through the core, verifing the tuning principle of the PBS effectively. With such a good performance and simple scheme, this OFRR-based PBS is promising for applications such as tunable optical filters, demultiplexers, and routers. PMID:27464197

  13. High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yingtao; Xiao, Xi; Xu, Hao; Li, Xianyao; Xiong, Kang; Li, Zhiyong; Chu, Tao; Yu, Yude; Yu, Jinzhong

    2012-07-01

    A high-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded double microring resonators is demonstrated in this paper. The proposed modulator experimentally achieved 40 Gbit/s modulation with an extinction ratio of 3.9 dB. Enhancement of the modulator achieves with an ultra-high optical bandwidth of 0.41 nm, corresponding to 51 GHz, was accomplished by using cascaded double ring structure. The described modulator can provides an ultra-high-speed optical modulation with a further improvement in electrical bandwidth of the device. PMID:22772204

  14. Magneto-optical switching devices based on Si resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazuki; Okada, Kazuya; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2016-04-01

    The magneto-optical switching devices based on Si ring and Si photonic crystal resonators have been fabricated using a Bi3Fe5O12 (BIG) film deposited by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method. The quality of the obtained BIG film was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the magneto-optical Kerr effect and relatively good results were obtained. The light modulations of both devices were ≦20% at a wavelength of ˜1.5 µm. The operation mechanisms of both devices are explained by the Cotton-Mouton effect where the magnetic field direction is perpendicular to the light propagation direction.

  15. Miniature Trace Gas Detector Based on Microfabricated Optical Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Yu, Nan; Thompson, Robert J.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2013-01-01

    While a variety of techniques exist to monitor trace gases, methods relying on absorption of laser light are the most commonly used in terrestrial applications. Cavity-enhanced absorption techniques typically use high-reflectivity mirrors to form a resonant cavity, inside of which a sample gas can be analyzed. The effective absorption length is augmented by the cavity's high quality factor, or Q, because the light reflects many times between the mirrors. The sensitivity of such mirror-based sensors scales with size, generally making them somewhat bulky in volume. Also, specialized coatings for the high-reflectivity mirrors have limited bandwidth (typically just a few nanometers), and the delicate mirror surfaces can easily be degraded by dust or chemical films. As a highly sensitive and compact alternative, JPL is developing a novel trace gas sensor based on a monolithic optical resonator structure that has been modified such that a gas sample can be directly injected into the cavity. This device concept combines ultra-high Q optical whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMR) with microfabrication technology used in the semiconductor industry. For direct access to the optical mode inside a resonator, material can be precisely milled from its perimeter, creating an open gap within the WGMR. Within this open notch, the full optical mode of the resonator can be accessed. While this modification may limit the obtainable Q, calculations show that the reduction is not significant enough to outweigh its utility for trace gas detection. The notch can be milled from the high- Q crystalline WGMR with a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument with resolution much finer than an optical wavelength, thereby minimizing scattering losses and preserving the optical quality. Initial experimental demonstrations have shown that these opened cavities still support high-Q whispering gallery modes. This technology could provide ultrasensitive detection of a variety of molecular species in an

  16. A nanohybrid of platinum nanoparticles-porous ZnO-hemin with electrocatalytic activity to construct an amplified immunosensor for detection of influenza.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe-Han; Zhuo, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2016-04-15

    In this work, a nanohybrid of platinum nanoparticles-porous ZnO spheres-hemin (Pt-pZnO-hemin) was synthesized for construction of alkaline phosphatase-based immunosensor for detection of influenza. Briefly, porous ZnO spheres (pZnO) were prepared using soluble starches as the capping agent, followed by surface functionalization of platinum nanoparticles via a hydrothermal method (Pt-pZnO). Then, hemin with carboxylic functionality was spontaneously adsorbed onto Pt-pZnO by ester-like binding between carboxylic group of hemin and ZnO. Compared with platinum nanoparticles and hemin, the resulting Pt-pZnO-hemin nanohybrid showed more excellent electrocatalysis activity toward 1-naphthol (1-NP). Taking advantage of the Pt-pZnO-hemin, we have developed an amplified electrochemical immunosensor based on in situ generation of redox probe by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Pt-pZnO-hemin as signal enhancer. Herein, electrochemically active 1-NP was generated by enzymatic hydrolysis of inactive 1-naphthyl phosphate by ALP, then Pt-pZnO-hemin was used as catalyst to catalytically oxidize 1-NP, resulting in electrochemical signal amplification. Furthermore, in comparison with other nanomaterials including Au-pZnO, Pt-pZnO and Au-pZnO-hemin, the excellent catalytical property of Pt-pZnO-hemin make it a promising nanohybrid material for ALP-based immunosensor for signal amplification.

  17. Disposable amperometric immunosensor for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using screen-printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fähnrich, K A; Pravda, M; Guilbault, G G

    2003-01-01

    An amperometric immunosensor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed. The immunosensor was based on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. The coating antigen used was phenanthrene-9-carboxaldehyde coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via adipic acid dihydrazide. Antibodies were monoclonal mouse anti-phenanthrene. The enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used in combination with the substrate p-aminophenyl phosphate (pAPP) for detection at +300 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). Various assay types were compared. Good results were achieved with an indirect co-exposure competition assay with a LOD of 0.8 ng/ml (800 ppt) and an IC(50) of 7.1 ng/ml (7.1 ppb) for phenanthrene. An indirect competition assay could detect phenanthrene with a LOD of 2 ng/ml (IC(50): 15 ng/ml) and an indirect displacement assay with a LOD of 2 ng/ml (IC(50): 11 ng/ml) at a 5 microl surface coating of 8.8 microg/ml phenanthrene-BSA conjugate. A coating concentration of 2.2 microg/ml allowed detection with a LOD of 0.25 ng/ml (250 ppt) with the indirect competition assay. The influence of the coating concentration on the sensor performance was investigated. Cross-reactivities were tested for 16 important PAHs. Anthracene and chrysene showed strong cross-reactivity, whereas benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene showed no cross-reactivity. PMID:12445447

  18. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2012-02-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based fiber optic biosensor has been fabricated and characterized for the detection of blood glucose. Optical fiber sensor was fabricated by first coating a 50 nm thick gold film on the bare core of optical fiber and then immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) over it. Aqueous glucose solutions of different concentrations were prepared. To mimic the blood glucose levels, the concentration of glucose solutions were kept equal to that in human blood. The refractive indices of these sample solutions were equal to that of water up to third decimal place. SPR spectra for the sensor were recorded for these glucose solutions. When the glucose comes in contact to glucose oxidase, chemical reactions take place and as a result, the refractive index of the immobilized GOx film changes, giving rise to a shift in the resonance wavelength. Unlike electrochemical sensors, the present sensor is based on optics and can be miniaturized because of optical fiber. The present study provides a different approach for blood glucose sensing and may be commercialized after optimization of certain parameters.

  19. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Approaches to Study GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute one of the most studied proteins leading to important discoveries and perspectives in terms of their biology and implication in physiology and pathophysiology. This is mostly linked to the remarkable advances in the development and application of the biophysical resonance energy transfer (RET)-based approaches, including bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BRET and FRET, respectively). Indeed, BRET and FRET have been extensively applied to study different aspects of GPCR functioning such as their activation and regulation either statically or dynamically, in real-time and intact cells. Consequently, our view on GPCRs has considerably changed opening new challenges for the study of GPCRs in their native tissues in the aim to get more knowledge on how these receptors control the biological responses. Moreover, the technological aspect of this field of research promises further developments for robust and reliable new RET-based assays that may be compatible with high-throughput screening as well as drug discovery programs.

  20. Free-electron laser-based pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Susumu; Sherwin, Mark S.; Ramian, Gerald; Brunel, Louis-Claude; van Tol, Johan

    2008-03-01

    High-power pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is extremely useful to study the ultrafast dynamics of spins. At present, most high-power pulsed EPR spectrometers operate near the X-band frequency of 9.5 GHz with kW-level power. A trend in the evolution of next generation pulsed EPR is for higher magnetic field and frequency, both for finer spectral and time resolution and because motional averaging becomes negligible. Since the linewidth of resonances studied by pulsed EPR tends to be extremely narrow, the source radiation also has to be stable and have narrow bandwidth. High-power pulsed EPR, using few-ns pulses to rapidly manipulate spins for spin-echo and related experiments, has been demonstrated at 95 GHz using kW- power Klystron-based sources. A bottleneck for higher frequency pulsed EPR spectroscopy is a lack of sources with high power and narrow bandwidth. The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) free-electron lasers (FEL) are potential sources for high-power pulsed EPR because they generate kW of power tunable from 120 GHz to 4.7 THz. We present the current status of the UCSB FEL-based 240 GHz pulsed EPR spectrometer.

  1. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Claudia F.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies. Data Synthesis Specific radiographic illustrations of increased skull base conspicuity including the lower cranial nerves, vessels, foramina, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and effacement of endolymph are provided. In addition, MRIs demonstrating characterization of skull base lesions, such as recurrent cholesteatoma versus granulation tissue or abscess versus tumor, are also provided as well as correlative clinical findings in CSF flow studies in a patient pre- and post-suboccipital decompression for a Chiari I malformation. Conclusions This article illustrates MRI radiographic advances over the past 20 years, which have improved clinicians' ability to diagnose, define, and hopefully improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with underlying skull base pathologies. PMID:25992137

  2. Optical chiral metamaterial based on the resonant behaviour of nanodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordi, Mahdi; Mojtaba Mirsalehi, Mir

    2016-08-01

    Circular dichorism and optical activity have been achieved by chiral metamaterials in the optical spectrum, but for the case of negative index of refraction, remarkable achievements have not been obtained in this region so far. We employ nanoparticles to shift the resonant frequency of a chiral metamaterial based on twisted cross wires to optical domain. Our proposed structure provides giant optical activity, strong circular dichorism and also negative refractive index in the optical wavelengths. Optical activity in our structure has a rotary power similar to a gyrotropic crystal of quartz, but in a thickness which is four orders of magnitude smaller. The foundation of our method for realizing such an optical chiral metamaterial is based on creating a different coupling between longitudinal modes of localized surface plasmons for right and left circularly polarized incident waves.

  3. Spectral separation of optical spin based on antisymmetric Fano resonances

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xianji; Yu, Sunkyu; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a route to the spectral separation of optical spin angular momentum based on spin-dependent Fano resonances with antisymmetric spectral profiles. By developing a spin-form coupled mode theory for chiral materials, the origin of antisymmetric Fano spectra is clarified in terms of the opposite temporal phase shift for each spin, which is the result of counter-rotating spin eigenvectors. An analytical expression of a spin-density Fano parameter is derived to enable quantitative analysis of the Fano-induced spin separation in the spectral domain. As an application, we demonstrate optical spin switching utilizing the extreme spectral sensitivity of the spin-density reversal. Our result paves a path toward the conservative spectral separation of spins without any need of the magneto-optical effect or circular dichroism, achieving excellent purity in spin density superior to conventional approaches based on circular dichroism. PMID:26561372

  4. Whispering gallery mode resonators based on radiation-sensitive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Handley, Timothy A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators formed of radiation-sensitive materials to allow for permanent tuning of their resonance frequencies in a controlled manner. Two WGM resonators may be cascaded to form a composite filter to produce a second order filter function where at least one WGM resonator is formed a radiation-sensitive material to allow for proper control in the overlap of the two filter functions.

  5. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín L; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  6. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  7. Magnetic Resonance Based Diagnostics for Polymer Production and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S; Herberg, J; Gjersing, E; Cook, A; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R; Wheeler, H; Wilson, M

    2006-09-27

    In an effort to develop a magnetic resonance based diagnostic tool to be used for polymer production and surveillance, we have investigated the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and unilateral relaxometry. MRI provides a spatial map of the polymer, which can be correlated to the structure heterogeneity. Though highly detailed information can be obtained with MRI, the high equipment cost and expertise required to operate the system makes it a poor choice for a production setting. Unilateral relaxometry via the NMR MOUSE provides rapid, inexpensive polymer screening, useful in the development in new polymer parts or to identify potentially defective components. The NMR ProFiler (originally called the NMR MOUSE) was procured by Kansas City originally for production support of the W80 LEP with future applications as a surveillance diagnostic. A robotic autosampler has been designed allowing the detection of several components without the need for any human interaction. A summary of the qualification experiments and results to date from the ProFiler and the robotic unit will be presented.

  8. Biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and living cells.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Vincent; Cuerrier, Charles M; Escher, Emanuel; Aimez, Vincent; Grandbois, Michel; Charette, Paul G

    2009-02-15

    We propose the combination of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with living cells as a biosensing method. Our detection scheme is based on the premise that cellular activity induced by external agents is often associated with changes in cellular morphology, which in turn should lead to a variation of the effective refractive index at the interface between the cell membrane and the metal layer. We monitored surface plasmon resonance signals originating from a gold surface coated with cells on a custom apparatus after injection of various agents known to influence cellular activity and morphology. Specifically, we evaluated three types of stimulation: response to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides), a chemical toxin (sodium azide) and a physiological agonist (thrombin). A comparison with phase contrast microscopy reveals that SPR signal variations are associated with the induction of cell death for lipopolysaccharides treatment and a contraction of the cell body for sodium azide. Thrombin-induced cellular response shows a rapid decrease of the measured laser reflectance over 5min followed by a return to the original value. For this treatment, phase contrast micrographs relate the first phase of the SPR variation to cell contraction and increase of the intercellular gaps, whereas the recovery phase can be associated with a spreading of the cell on the sensing surface. Hence, the SPR signal is very consistent with the cellular response normally observed for these treatments. This confirms the validity of the biosensing method, which could be applied to a large variety of cellular responses involving shape remodeling induced by external agents. PMID:18845432

  9. Terahertz carpet cloak based on a ring resonator metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazbayev, B.; Mohammadi Estakhri, N.; Beruete, M.; Alù, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we present the concept and design of an ultrathin (λ/22) terahertz (THz) unidirectional carpet cloak based on the local phase compensation approach enabled by gradient metasurfaces. A triangular surface bump with center height of 4.1 mm (1.1λ) and tilt angle of 20° is covered with a metasurface composed of an array of suitably designed closed ring resonators with a transverse gradient of surface impedance. The ring resonators provide a wide range of control for the reflection phase with small absorption losses, enabling efficient phase manipulation along the edge of the bump. Our numerical results demonstrate a good performance of the designed cloak in both near field and far field, and the cloaked object mimics a flat ground plane within a broad range of incidence angles, over 35° angular spectrum centered at 45°. The presented cloak design can be applied in radar and antenna systems as a thin, lightweight, and easy to fabricate solution for radio and THz frequencies.

  10. Impedimetric immunosensor for detection of cardiovascular disorder risk biomarker.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raju; Pal, Mintu; Kuzikov, Alexey V; Bulko, Tanya; Suprun, Elena V; Shumyantseva, Victoria V

    2016-11-01

    We report the construction and characterization of a novel, level free impedimetric immunosensor for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of myoglobin (Mb). Monoclonal anti-myoglobin (anti-Mb-IgG) antibody was immobilized on screen-printed multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrode for signal amplification without the need of natural enzymes. The fabrication of resulting immunosensor was extensively characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique offered a linear detection range (0.1-90ngmL(-1)) of myoglobin with sensitivity of 0.74kΩngmL(-1) (correlation coefficient, R(2)=0.97) and detection limit of 0.08ngmL(-1) (S/N=3). The mean percentage recovery of Mb in serum samples using this working biosensor is 97.33%. Furthermore, the proposed strategy can be a promising alternative for detection of Mb related cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27523995

  11. Electrochemical immunosensor with NiAl-layered double hydroxide/graphene nanocomposites and hollow gold nanospheres double-assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lu; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Jiao, Yancui; Wang, Xiangyou

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on NiAl-layered double hydroxide/graphene nanocomposites (NiAl-LDH/G) and hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) was proposed for chlorpyrifos detection. The NiAl-LDH/G was prepared using a conventional coprecipitation process and reduction of the supporting graphene oxide. Subsequently, the nanocomposites were dispersed with chitosan (CS). The NiAl-LDH/G possessed good electrochemical behavior and high binding affinity to the electrode. The high surface areas of HGNs and the vast aminos and hydroxyls of CS provided a platform for the covalently crosslinking of antibody. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range from 5 to 150 μg/mL and from 150 to 2 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.052 ng/mL. The detection results showed good agreement with standard gas chromatography method. The constructed immunosensor exhibited good reproducibility, high specificity, acceptable stability and regeneration performance, which provided a new promising tool for chlorpyrifos detection in real samples.

  12. A novel electrochemical immunosensor using β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase as labels for ultrasensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Yan, Tao; Li, Na; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin

    2015-09-17

    In this work, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest interaction was fabricated for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Due to the large specific surface area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the unique supramolecular recognition ability of β-cyclodextrins, ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) was incorporated into this sensor platform by host-guest interaction to generate an electrochemical signal. And β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase (GOD-CD-Ag), was used as a label to improve the analytical performance of the immunosensor by the dual amplification strategy. The obtained GOD-CD-Ag conjugates could convert glucose into gluconic acid with the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). And then silver nanoparticles could in situ catalyze the reduction of the generated H2O2, dramatically improving the oxidation reaction of Fc. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear calibration range from 0.001 to 5.0 ng/mL with a low detection limit (0.2 pg/mL) for the detection of AFP. The method, with ideal reproducibility and selectivity, has a wide application prospect in clinical research.

  13. A novel electrochemical immunosensor using β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase as labels for ultrasensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Yan, Tao; Li, Na; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin

    2015-09-17

    In this work, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest interaction was fabricated for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Due to the large specific surface area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the unique supramolecular recognition ability of β-cyclodextrins, ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) was incorporated into this sensor platform by host-guest interaction to generate an electrochemical signal. And β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase (GOD-CD-Ag), was used as a label to improve the analytical performance of the immunosensor by the dual amplification strategy. The obtained GOD-CD-Ag conjugates could convert glucose into gluconic acid with the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). And then silver nanoparticles could in situ catalyze the reduction of the generated H2O2, dramatically improving the oxidation reaction of Fc. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear calibration range from 0.001 to 5.0 ng/mL with a low detection limit (0.2 pg/mL) for the detection of AFP. The method, with ideal reproducibility and selectivity, has a wide application prospect in clinical research. PMID:26398422

  14. A highly sensitive impedimetric label free immunosensor for Ochratoxin measurement in cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Malvano, Francesca; Albanese, Donatella; Pilloton, Roberto; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In this work the development and optimization of an impedimetric label free immunosensor for the detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) is reported. Two antibody immobilization methods (oriented and not oriented) were compared highlighting a lower limit of detection (5pg/ml) for the not oriented immobilization but a closer linear range in contrast to oriented anti-OTA immunosensors which showed linearity in the range of 0.01-5ng/mL OTA. The analysis of the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images showed two different nanostructures indicating that the use of oriented immobilization created a more ordered and highly dense antibody surface. Finally the oriented immunosensor was used to quantify OTA in spiked cocoa bean samples and the results were compared with those registered with competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2μg/kg that represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for the common food products.

  15. A highly sensitive impedimetric label free immunosensor for Ochratoxin measurement in cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Malvano, Francesca; Albanese, Donatella; Pilloton, Roberto; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In this work the development and optimization of an impedimetric label free immunosensor for the detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) is reported. Two antibody immobilization methods (oriented and not oriented) were compared highlighting a lower limit of detection (5pg/ml) for the not oriented immobilization but a closer linear range in contrast to oriented anti-OTA immunosensors which showed linearity in the range of 0.01-5ng/mL OTA. The analysis of the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images showed two different nanostructures indicating that the use of oriented immobilization created a more ordered and highly dense antibody surface. Finally the oriented immunosensor was used to quantify OTA in spiked cocoa bean samples and the results were compared with those registered with competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2μg/kg that represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for the common food products. PMID:27374585

  16. Bio-molecular sensors based on guided mode resonance filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M. R.; Ali, R.; Honkanen, S.; Turunen, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this work a low surface roughness and homogenous, high refractive index, and amorphous TiO2 layer on corrugated structures of diffractive optical element is coated by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for biosensors. The design of Guided Mode Resonance Filters (GMRFs) is based on refractive indices and thicknesses of the waveguide biomolecular layers. The designed spectral shifts are calculated by Fourier Modal Method (FMM) and depend on the magnitude of the variations in refractive index of the biomolecular layer on waveguide structures. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the biomolecular sensors depends on the thickness of biomolecular layer and periodicity of the structures. The waveguide structures designed for larger periods show an enhancement in the sensitivity (nm/RIU) of the biomolecular sensor at longer wavelengths. The periodicities of nanophotonic structures are varied from 300 to 500 nm in design calculations with predominance of increase in effective index of the structure to support leaky waveguide modes.

  17. Multiple magnetic mode-based Fano resonance in split-ring resonator/disk nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Guangyuan; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Jianfang; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-12-23

    Plasmonic Fano resonance, enabled by the weak interaction between a bright super-radiant and a subradiant resonance mode, not only is fundamentally interesting, but also exhibits potential applications ranging from extraordinary optical transmission to biosensing. Here, we demonstrate strong Fano resonances in split-ring resonators/disk (SRR/D) nanocavities. The high-order magnetic modes are observed in SRRs by polarization-resolved transmission spectroscopy. When a disk is centered within the SRRs, multiple high-order magnetic modes are coupled to a broad electric dipole mode of SRR/D, leading to significant Fano resonance spectral features in near-IR regime. The strength and line shape of the Fano resonances are tuned through varying the SRR split-angle and interparticle distance between SRR and disk. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations are conducted to understand the coupling mechanism, and the results show good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the coupled structure gives a sensitivity of ∼282 nm/RIU with a figure of merit ∼4. PMID:24215162

  18. Multiple magnetic mode-based Fano resonance in split-ring resonator/disk nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Guangyuan; Ruan, Qifeng; Wang, Jianfang; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-12-23

    Plasmonic Fano resonance, enabled by the weak interaction between a bright super-radiant and a subradiant resonance mode, not only is fundamentally interesting, but also exhibits potential applications ranging from extraordinary optical transmission to biosensing. Here, we demonstrate strong Fano resonances in split-ring resonators/disk (SRR/D) nanocavities. The high-order magnetic modes are observed in SRRs by polarization-resolved transmission spectroscopy. When a disk is centered within the SRRs, multiple high-order magnetic modes are coupled to a broad electric dipole mode of SRR/D, leading to significant Fano resonance spectral features in near-IR regime. The strength and line shape of the Fano resonances are tuned through varying the SRR split-angle and interparticle distance between SRR and disk. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations are conducted to understand the coupling mechanism, and the results show good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the coupled structure gives a sensitivity of ∼282 nm/RIU with a figure of merit ∼4.

  19. Label-Free Electrical Immunosensor for Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of Microcystin-LR in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Tan, Feng; Saucedo, Nuvia Maria; Ramnani, Pankaj; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-08-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is one of the most commonly detected and toxic cyclic heptapeptide cyanotoxins released by cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters, for which sensitive and specific detection methods are necessary to carry out its recognition and quantification. Here, we present a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs)-based label-free chemiresistive immunosensor for highly sensitive and specific detection of MCLR in different source waters. MCLR was initially immobilized on SWCNTs modified interdigitated electrode, followed by incubation with monoclonal anti-MCLR antibody. The competitive binding of MCLR in sample solutions induced departure of the antibody from the antibody-antigen complexes formed on SWCNTs, resulting in change in the conductivity between source and drain of the sensor. The displacement assay greatly improved the sensitivity of the sensor compared with direct immunoassay on the same device. The immunosensor exhibited a wide linear response to log value of MCLR concentration ranging from 1 to 1000 ng/L, with a detection limit of 0.6 ng/L. This method showed good reproducibility, stability and recovery. The proposed method provides a powerful tool for rapid and sensitive monitoring of MCLR in environmental samples.

  20. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring. PMID:26255778

  1. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone’s camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone’s camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring. PMID:26255778

  3. Novel localized surface plasmon resonance based optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muri, Harald Ian D. I.; Hjelme, Dag R.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade various optical fiber sensing schemes have been proposed based on local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). LSPR are interacting with the evanescent field from light propagating in the fiber core or by interacting with the light at the fiber end face. Sensor designs utilizing the fiber end face is strongly preferred from a manufacturing point of view. However, the different techniques available to immobilize metallic nanostructures on the fiber end face for LSPR sensing is limited to essentially a monolayer, either by photolithographic structuring of metal film, thermal nucleation of metal film, or by random immobilization of nanoparticles (NP). In this paper, we report on a novel LSPR based optical fiber sensor architecture. The sensor is prepared by immobilizing gold NP's in a hydrogel droplet polymerized on the fiber end face. This design has several advantages over earlier designs. It dramatically increase the number of NP's available for sensing, it offers precise control over the NP density, and the NPs are position in a true 3D aqueous environment. The sensor design is also compatible with low cost manufacturing. The sensor design can measure volumetric changes in a stimuli-responsive hydrogel or measure binding to receptors on the NP surface. It can also be used as a two-parameter sensor by utilizing both effects. We present results from proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating a pH sensor based on LSPR sensing in a poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel embedding gold nanoparticles.

  4. Piezometric biosensors for anti-apoptotic protein survivin based on buried positive-potential barrier and immobilized monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Chalupa, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata

    2016-10-15

    The anti-apoptotic protein survivin (Sur) plays an important role in the regulation of cell division and inducing the chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The Sur protein and its mRNA have recently been studied as cancer biomarkers and potential targets for cancer therapy. In this work, we have focused on the design of immunosensors for the detection of Sur based on buried positive-potential barrier layer structure and anti-survivin antibody. The modification of solid AuQC piezoelectrodes was monitored by recording the resonance frequency shift and electrochemical measurements during each step of the sensor preparation. Our results indicate that the immunosensor with covalently bound monoclonal anti-survivin antibody can detect Sur with the limit of detection, LOD=1.7nM (S/N=3σ). The immunosensor applicability for the analysis of real samples was assessed by testing samples of cell lysate solutions obtained from human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) U-87MG cell line, with the experiments performed using the standard addition method. The good linearity of the calibration curves for PBS and lysate solutions at low Sur concentrations confirm the high specificity of the proposed biosensor and good discrimination against nonspecific interactions with lysate components. The calculations indicate that there is still room to increase the Sur capture capacity for Sur while miniaturizing the sensor. The important advantage of the sensor is that it can be reused by a simple regeneration procedure.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSORS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses basic electrochemical immunoassay technology. Factors limiting the practical application of antibodies to anlaytical problems are also presented. It addresses the potential use of immunoassay methods based on electrochemical detection for the analysis of env...

  6. Gold and aluminum based surface plasmon resonance biosensors: sensitivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biednov, Mykola; Lebyedyeva, Tetyana; Shpylovyy, Pavlo

    2015-05-01

    In this work we considered Gold and Aluminum thin films coated with additional dielectric layers as sensing platforms. Operation of these sensors is based on measuring shift in the position of the reflectivity dip in angular reflectivity spectrum of the sample. Shift can be caused by changes in the refraction index of either liquid that interacts with sensors surface (refractometric measurements) or thin adjacent biolayer on top of the sensor due to immobilization of the target molecules (biosensing). Calculations based on Fresnel equations and transfer matrix formalism allowed us to make comprehensive analysis of the angular sensitivity, shape of the reflectivity dip and dynamic range of the sensors with different dielectric coatings. Calculations were performed for both cases of bio and refractometric sensing. Results showed different dependence of the sensitivity of Au an Al based sensors upon refraction index of the dielectric coating. For Au-based surface Plasmon resonance sensor up to two times increased sensitivity can be achieved using dielectric coating with high refraction index 2.3 of proper thickness. For sensors based on aluminum we were able to achieve 50% increased angular sensitivity. At the same time width of the reflectivity dip increased proportionally to the optical thickness of the dielectric coating. For estimating sensors quality we analyzed ratio of the angular sensitivity to the width of the reflectivity dip. This ratio decreased with increase in optical thickness of the dielectric, however angular sensitivity of the sensor increased significantly. Deposition of the additional dielectric layer with high refraction index such as Niobium Oxide can also improve chemical and mechanical stability of the sensor.

  7. Gallium arsenide based surface plasmon resonance for glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Harshada; Sane, Vani; Sriram, G.; Indumathi, T. S; Sharan, Preeta

    2015-07-01

    The recent trends in the semiconductor and microwave industries has enabled the development of scalable microfabrication technology which produces a superior set of performance as against its counterparts. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based biosensors are a special class of optical sensors that become affected by electromagnetic waves. It is found that bio-molecular recognition element immobilized on the SPR sensor surface layer reveals a characteristic interaction with various sample solutions during the passage of light. The present work revolves around developing painless glucose monitoring systems using fluids containing glucose like saliva, urine, sweat or tears instead of blood samples. Non-invasive glucose monitoring has long been simulated using label free detection mechanisms and the same concept is adapted. In label-free detection, target molecules are not labeled or altered, and are detected in their natural forms. Label-free detection mechanisms involves the measurement of refractive index (RI) change induced by molecular interactions. These interactions relates the sample concentration or surface density, instead of total sample mass. After simulation it has been observed that the result obtained is highly accurate and sensitive. The structure used here is SPR sensor based on channel waveguide. The tools used for simulation are RSOFT FULLWAVE, MEEP and MATLAB etc.

  8. Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on spectral interferometry: numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfang; Li, Hui; Duan, Jingyuan; Shi, Ancun; Liu, Yuliang

    2013-05-10

    In this paper, we introduce a numerical simulation of a phase detecting surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scheme based on spectral interference. Based on the simulation, we propose a method to optimize various aspects of SPR sensors, which enables better performance in both measurement range (MR) and sensitivity. In the simulation, four parameters including the spectrum of the broadband light source, incident angle, Au film thickness, and refractive index of the prism coupler are analyzed. The results show that it is a good solution for better performance to use a warm white broadband (625-800 nm) light source, a divergence angle of the collimated incident light less than 0.02°, and an optimized 48 nm thick Au film when a visible broadband light source is used. If a near-IR light source is used, however, the Au film thickness should be somewhat thinner according the specific spectrum. In addition, a wider MR could be obtained if a prism coupler with higher refractive index is used. With all the parameters appropriately set, the SPR MR could be extended to 0.55 refractive index units while keeping the sensitivity at a level of 10(-8). PMID:23669838

  9. Polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreja, Paula; Cristea, Dana; Kusko, Mihai; Dinescu, Adrian

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a design and low-cost techniques for polymer-based chips for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. To obtain a polymer chip with a prism, microchannels and a chamber at microscale dimensions, replication techniques in polymers with controlled refractive index have been developed. Photoresist, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and epoxy resin were used. Silicon dioxide/silicon-based molds have been obtained by anisotropic etching of silicon, and glass prisms were used as masters for replication. The photoresist molds were obtained by optical lithography and were used to obtain the microchannels and the chamber. A liquid prepolymer (PDMS, Sylgard 184) with curing agent at a ratio of 10:1 was used, and a special technique was developed in order to fabricate the components of the structure at the same time. For the deposition and direct patterning of the metallic layers onto the polymer surface, different methods were experimented with, including sputtering. The materials and techniques used to achieve SPR sensors are presented, and the possibilities and limitations of the technology are discussed.

  10. Development of an electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins detection in foods.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Mohamad Kamal Abdul; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2010-04-01

    An electrochemical affinity sensor for the determination of fumonisins mycotoxins (Fms) using monoclonal antibody modified screen-printed gold electrode with carbon counter and silver-silver chloride pseudo-reference electrode is reported in this work. A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was initially developed, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 µg·L(-1 )for fumonisins. This was then transferred to the surface of a bare gold screen-printed electrode (SPGE) and detection was performed by chronoamperometry, monitoring the reaction of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) catalysed by HRP at -100 mV potential vs. onboard Ag-AgCl pseudo-reference electrode. The immunosensor exhibited detection limit of 5 µg·L(-1) fumonisins with a dynamic range from 1 µg·L(-1)-1000 µg·L(-1). The sensor also performed well in extracted corn samples.

  11. Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

    2000-12-01

    We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 μg/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

  12. Cellulose antibody films for highly specific evanescent wave immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Bock, Daniel; Jaworek, Thomas; Kaul, Sepp; Schulze, Matthais; Tebbe, H.; Wegner, Gerhard; Seeger, Stefan

    1996-01-01

    For the production of recognition elements for evanescent wave immunosensors optical waveguides have to be coated with ultrathin stable antibody films. In the present work non amphiphilic alkylated cellulose and copolyglutamate films are tested as monolayer matrices for the antibody immobilization using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. These films are transferred onto optical waveguides and serve as excellent matrices for the immobilization of antibodies in high density and specificity. In addition to the multi-step immobilization of immunoglobulin G(IgG) on photochemically crosslinked and oxidized polymer films, the direct one-step transfer of mixed antibody-polymer films is performed. Both planar waveguides and optical fibers are suitable substrates for the immobilization. The activity and specificity of immobilized antibodies is controlled by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. As a result reduced non-specific interactions between antigens and the substrate surface are observed if cinnamoylbutyether-cellulose is used as the film matrix for the antibody immobilization. Using the evanescent wave senor (EWS) technology immunosensor assays are performed in order to determine both the non-specific adsorption of different coated polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) fibers and the long-term stability of the antibody films. Specificities of one-step transferred IgG-cellulose films are drastically enhanced compared to IgG-copolyglutamate films. Cellulose IgG films are used in enzymatic sandwich assays using mucine as a clinical relevant antigen that is recognized by the antibodies BM2 and BM7. A mucine calibration measurement is recorded. So far the observed detection limit for mucine is about 8 ng/ml.

  13. Development of a faradic impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in milk.

    PubMed

    Mantzila, Aikaterini G; Maipa, Vassiliki; Prodromidis, Mamas I

    2008-02-15

    The development of a faradic impedimetric immunosensor for the detection of S. typhimurium in milk is described for first time. Polyclonal anti-Salmonella was cross-linked, in the presence of glutaraldehyde, on gold electrodes modified with a single 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (MUAM) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) or a mixed SAM of MUAM and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol at a constant 1 + 3 proportion, respectively. The mixed SAM was also deposited in the presence of triethylamine, which was used to prevent the formation of interplane hydrogen bonds among amine-terminated thiols. The effect of the different surface modifications on both the sensitivity and the selectivity of the immunosensors was investigated. The alteration of the interfacial features of the electrodes due to different modification or recognition steps, was measured by faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of a hexacyanoferrate(II)/(III) redox couple. A substantial amplification of the measuring signal was achieved by performing the immunoreaction directly in culture samples. This resulted in immunosensors with great analytical features, as follows: (i) high sensitivity; the response of the immunosensors increases with respect to the detection time as a consequence of the simultaneous proliferation of the viable bacteria cells in the tested samples; (ii) validity; the response of the immunosensors is practically insensitive to the presence of dead cells; (iii) working simplicity; elimination of various centrifugation and washing steps, which are used for the isolation of bacteria cells from the culture. The proposed immunosensors were successfully used for the detection of S. typhimurium in experimentally inoculated milk samples. The effect of different postblocking agents on the performance of the immunosensors in real samples was also examined. PMID:18217725

  14. Highly sensitive immunosensor using a nanofluidic preconcentrator.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ke-Pan; Sung, Kung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a micro-/nanofluidic biochip for enhanced sensitivity of immunoassay. By using a protein preconcentrator based on nanofluidic filters, we greatly improve the binding kinetics of immunoassay. A shallow nanofluidic channel connecting two microchannels for ion-selective filter is etched on the glass surface and sealed by PDMS/Glass irreversible bonding treated with O2 plasma. Our device achieved a 10(5) fold increase in protein concentration with 12 minutes of preconcentration. For applying the preconcentrator to immunoassay, we fabricated a novel device with a thin layer of Au sputtered near the nanochannel to provide a substrate for antibody immobilization and a sensing area at the site of highly concentrated proteins. After increasing the concentration of antibody and target antigen by multiple sample preconcentration steps, the binding kinetics of immunoassay can be significantly improved.

  15. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-14

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.

  16. Temperature Sensing in Seawater Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Xin; Liao, Yipeng; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Ocean internal-wave phenomena occur with the variation in seawater vertical temperature, and most internal-wave detections are dependent on the measurement of seawater vertical temperature. A seawater temperature sensor based on a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) is designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally in this paper. Especially, the dependences of sensing sensitivity on fiber diameter and probing wavelength are studied. Calculated results show that sensing sensitivity increases with the increasing microfiber diameter with the range of 2.30–3.91 μm and increases with the increasing probing wavelength, which reach good agreement with results obtained by experiments. By choosing the appropriate parameters, the maximum sensitivity measured can reach to be 22.81 pm/°C. The seawater temperature sensor demonstrated here shows advantages of small size, high sensitivity, easy fabrication, and easy integration with fiber systems, which may offer a new optical method to detect temperature of seawater or ocean internal-wave phenomenon and offer valuable reference for assembling micro sensors used for other parameters related to seawater, such as salinity, refractive index, concentration of NO3− and so on. PMID:25299951

  17. Stochastic resonance-enhanced laser-based particle detector.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A; Werner, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Laser-based particle detector whose response was enhanced by modulating the Laser diode with a white-noise generator. A Laser sheet was generated to cast a shadow of the object on a 200 dots per inch, 512 x 1 pixels linear sensor array. The Laser diode was modulated with a white-noise generator to achieve stochastic resonance. The white-noise generator essentially amplified the wide-bandwidth (several hundred MHz) noise produced by a reverse-biased zener diode operating in junction-breakdown mode. The gain in the amplifier in the white-noise generator was set such that the Receiver Operating Characteristics plot provided the best discriminability. A monofiber 40 AWG (approximately 80 microm) wire was detected with approximately 88% True Positive rate and approximately 19% False Positive rate in presence of white-noise modulation and with approximately 71% True Positive rate and approximately 15% False Positive rate in absence of white-noise modulation.

  18. Protein-based flexible whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Xu, Linhua; Shreiner, Robert; Jung, Huihun; Huang, Steven H.; Özdemir, Sahin K.; Demirel, Melik C.; Yang, Lan

    2016-02-01

    The idea of creating photonics tools for sensing, imaging and material characterization has long been pursued and many achievements have been made. Approaching the level of solutions provided by nature however is hindered by routine choice of materials. To this end recent years have witnessed a great effort to engineer mechanically flexible photonic devices using polymer substrates. On the other hand, biodegradability and biocompatibility still remains to be incorporated. Hence biomimetics holds the key to overcome the limitations of traditional materials in photonics design. Natural proteins such as sucker ring teeth (SRT) and silk for instance have remarkable mechanical and optical properties that exceed the endeavors of most synthetic and natural polymers. Here we demonstrate for the first time, toroidal whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMR) fabricated entirely from protein structures such as SRT of Loligo vulgaris (European squid) and silk from Bombyx mori. We provide here complete optical and material characterization of proteinaceous WGMRs, revealing high quality factors in microscale and enhancement of Raman signatures by a microcavity. We also present a most simple application of a WGMR as a natural protein add-drop filter, made of SRT protein. Our work shows that with protein-based materials, optical, mechanical and thermal properties can be devised at the molecular level and it lays the groundwork for future eco-friendly, flexible photonics device design.

  19. Zeroth order resonator (ZOR) based RFID antenna design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, Muhammad Mubeen

    Meander-line and multi-layer antennas have been used extensively to design compact UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) tags; however the overall size reduction of meander-line antennas is limited by the amount of parasitic inductance that can be introduced by each meander-line segment, and multi-layer antennas can be too costly. In this study, a new compact antenna topology for passive UHF RFID tags based on zeroth order resonant (ZOR) design techniques is presented. The antenna consists of lossy coplanar conductors and either inter-connected inter-digital capacitor (IDC) or shunt inductor unit-cells with a ZOR frequency near the operating frequency of the antenna. Setting the ZOR frequency near the operating frequency is a key component in the design process because the unit-cells chosen for the design are inductive at the operating frequency. This makes the unit-cells very useful for antenna miniaturization. These new designs in this work have several benefits: the coplanar layout can be printed on a single layer, matching inductive loops that reduce antenna efficiency are not required and ZOR analysis can be used for the design. Finally, for validation, prototype antennas are designed, fabricated and tested.

  20. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.

  1. Development of surface-plasmon-resonance-based immunoassay for cephalexin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Paul P.; Daly, Stephen J.; Browne, Johnathan; Manning, Bernadette M.; O'Kennedy, Richard; van Amerongen, Aart

    2003-03-01

    The public concern surrounding antibiotic contamination in food and food products has made it imperative to develop analytical methods for their detection. Polyclonal antibodies and protein-hapten conjugates to cephalexin were used in the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition immunoassay to cephalexin. A conjugate consisting of cephalexin-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilised on the dextran gel surface. Dissociation between the antibody and antigen was easily achieved with 10 mmol l-1 NaOH and was very reproducible. Standards of free hapten were prepared and premixed with antibody and, after a suitable incubation time, passed over the surface of the chip with the protein-hapten conjugate immobilised. The hapten in solution inhibited the binding of antibody to the surface resulting in higher response units of antibody bound at lower concentrations of free drug. Model inhibition immunoassays to cephalexin were developed in PBS and spiked milk samples. These assays had detection ranges between 4.88 to 2,500 ng ml-1 and 244 to 3,900 ng ml-1, respectively, with reproducible results.

  2. Wireless power transfer based on magnetic quadrupole coupling in dielectric resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mingzhao; Iorsh, Ivan; Kapitanova, Polina; Nenasheva, Elizaveta; Belov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate a magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on high refractive index dielectric resonators. We propose to operate at magnetic quadrupole mode of the resonators to enlarge the efficiency due to minimization of ohmic and radiation losses. Numerical estimation predicts the 80% efficiency of the wireless power transfer (WPT) system operating at quadrupole mode at 300 MHz. Moreover, the system operating at magnetic quadrupole mode is capable of transferring power with 70% efficiency when the receiver rotates 90°. We verify the simulated results by experimental investigation of the WPT system based on microwave ceramic resonators (ɛ = 80 and tanδ = 10-4).

  3. The localized surface plasmon resonances based on a Bragg reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Ye, Chunwei; Lv, Hongbo; Shu, Changgan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical analysis on how the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticle can lead shift for the resonance wavelength. In our results, we calculate the scattering cross-section, the absorption cross-section and the field enhancement due to the nanoparticle. Numerical simulation were done using the finite element method (FEM). The work that we do here is different from the previous work because we use the Bragg reflector as a substrate. The Bragg reflector has a property of high reflectivity in some certain frequency bandwidth because of its periodic structure. The coherence interference of the Bragg reflector contributes to the plasmon resonances and results in some special character for a wide variety application, from sensing to photovoltaic. The periodic number of the Bragg reflector substrate and shapes of the nanoparticles are also discussed that result in a shift of the resonance wavelength.

  4. Tunable optical delay line based on micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yundong; Wu, Yongfeng; Yu, Changqiu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Tuo; Yuan, Ping

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the series-coupled double micro-ring resonator as tunable optical delay line. Tunable optical delay line can be achieved by tunable self-coupling coefficient and attenuation factor of micro-ring waveguide. Through choosing suitable parameters of structure, the series-coupled double micro-ring resonator can obtain flat delay line that mitigates the deleterious effects of group delay dispersion.

  5. Theory of double resonance magnetometers based on atomic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Antoine; Bison, Georg; Pazgalev, Anatoly S.

    2006-09-15

    We present a theoretical study of the spectra produced by optical-radio-frequency double resonance devices, in which resonant linearly polarized light is used in the optical pumping and detection processes. We extend previous work by presenting algebraic results which are valid for atomic states with arbitrary angular momenta, arbitrary rf intensities, and arbitrary geometries. The only restriction made is the assumption of low light intensity. The results are discussed in view of their use in optical magnetometers.

  6. Opto-fluidic ring resonator lasers based on highly efficient resonant energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Shopova, Siyka I; Cupps, Jay M; Zhang, Po; Henderson, Edward P; Lacey, Scott; Fan, Xudong

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate an opto-fluidic ring resonator dye laser using highly efficient energy transfer. The active lasing material consists of a donor and acceptor mixture and flows in a fused silica capillary whose circular cross section forms a ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of high Q-factors (>107). The excited states are created in the donor and transferred to the acceptor through the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET), whose emission is coupled into the WGM. Due to the high energy transfer efficiency and high Q-factors, the acceptor exhibits a lasing threshold as low as 0.3 muJ/mm2. We further analyze the energy transfer mechanisms and find that non-radiative Förster transfer is the dominant effect to support the acceptor lasing. FRET lasers using cascade energy transfer and using quantum dots (QDs) as the donor are also presented. Our study will not only lead to development of novel microfluidic lasers with low lasing thresholds and excitation/emission flexibility, but also open an avenue for future laser intra-cavity bio/chemical sensing.

  7. [Fluorescent and Magnetic Relaxation Switch Immunosensor for the Detecting Foodborne Pathogen Salmonella enterica in Water Samples].

    PubMed

    Wang, Song-bai; Zhang, Yan; An, Wen-ting; Wei, Yan-li; Wang, Yu; Shuang, Shao-min

    2015-11-01

    Fluoroimmunoassay based on quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic relaxation switch (MRS) immunoassay based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMN) were constructed to detect Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) in water samples. In fluoroimmunoassay, magnetic beads was conjugated with S. enterica capture antibody (MB-Ab2) to enrich S. enterica from sample solution, then the QDs was conjugated with the S. enterica detection antibody (QDs-Ab1) to detect S. enterica based on sandwich immunoassay format. And the fluorescence intensity is positive related to the bacteria concentration of the sample. Results showed that the limit of detection (LOD) of this method was 102 cfu · mL⁻¹ and analysis time was 2 h. In MRS assay, magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugate (MN-Ab1) can switch their dispersed and aggregated state in the presence of the target. This state of change can modulate the spin-spin relaxation time (T₂) of the neighboring water molecule. The change in T₂(ΔT₂) positively correlates with the amount of the target in the sample. Thus, AT can be used as a detection signal in MRS immunosensors. Results showed that LOD of MRS sensor for S. enterica was 10³ cfu · mL⁻¹ and analysis time was 0.5 h. Two methods were compared in terms of advantages and disadvantages in detecting S. enterica. PMID:26978918

  8. Impedimetric Label-Free Immunosensor on Disposable Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Malvano, Francesca; Albanese, Donatella; Crescitelli, Alessio; Pilloton, Roberto; Esposito, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    An impedimetric label-free immunosensor on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) for quantitative determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been developed. After modification of the SPCE surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anti-OTA was immobilized on the working electrode through a cysteamine layer. After each coating step, the modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacitance was chosen as the best parameter that describes the reproducible change in electrical properties of the electrode surface at different OTA concentrations and it was used to investigate the analytical parameters of the developed immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor showed a linear relationship between 0.3 and 20 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL, making it suitable to control OTA content in many common food products. Lastly, the immunosensor was used to measure OTA in red wine samples and the results were compared with those registered with a competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2 μg/kg, which represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for common food products. PMID:27376339

  9. Impedimetric Label-Free Immunosensor on Disposable Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes for Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Malvano, Francesca; Albanese, Donatella; Crescitelli, Alessio; Pilloton, Roberto; Esposito, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    An impedimetric label-free immunosensor on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) for quantitative determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been developed. After modification of the SPCE surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anti-OTA was immobilized on the working electrode through a cysteamine layer. After each coating step, the modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacitance was chosen as the best parameter that describes the reproducible change in electrical properties of the electrode surface at different OTA concentrations and it was used to investigate the analytical parameters of the developed immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the immunosensor showed a linear relationship between 0.3 and 20 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL, making it suitable to control OTA content in many common food products. Lastly, the immunosensor was used to measure OTA in red wine samples and the results were compared with those registered with a competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2 μg/kg, which represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for common food products. PMID:27376339

  10. Boosting figures of merit of cavity plasmon resonance based refractive index sensing in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqin; Sun, Ren; Zhang, Chi; Wan, Mingjie; Gu, Ping; Shen, Qi; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenling

    2016-08-22

    We theoretically investigate the sensing performance of the dielectric-metal core-shell resonators (DMCSRs) that support multipolar sharp magnetic and electric-based cavity plasmon resonances. We show that at the cavity resonances the ability of the DMCSRs to strongly confine the optical fields inside the cavity is robust against the existence of nano-openings in the metal shell layer. As a result, both the perfect DMCSRs having a complete metal shell layer and the non-perfect DMCSRs with nano-openings in the metal shell layers exhibit high refractive index sensitivities of 700 ~1200 nm/RIU. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such high refractive index sensitivities could be well maintained in an array of interconnected non-perfect DMCSRs. The narrow linewidths of the cavity plasmon resonances coupled with their high index sensitivities make the array of non-perfect DMCSRs possess high figure of merit (FOM) values up to ~88, approaching the theoretically estimated upper limit (FOM ≈108) for gold standard prism coupled surface-plasmon sensors.

  11. Boosting figures of merit of cavity plasmon resonance based refractive index sensing in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqin; Sun, Ren; Zhang, Chi; Wan, Mingjie; Gu, Ping; Shen, Qi; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenling

    2016-08-22

    We theoretically investigate the sensing performance of the dielectric-metal core-shell resonators (DMCSRs) that support multipolar sharp magnetic and electric-based cavity plasmon resonances. We show that at the cavity resonances the ability of the DMCSRs to strongly confine the optical fields inside the cavity is robust against the existence of nano-openings in the metal shell layer. As a result, both the perfect DMCSRs having a complete metal shell layer and the non-perfect DMCSRs with nano-openings in the metal shell layers exhibit high refractive index sensitivities of 700 ~1200 nm/RIU. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such high refractive index sensitivities could be well maintained in an array of interconnected non-perfect DMCSRs. The narrow linewidths of the cavity plasmon resonances coupled with their high index sensitivities make the array of non-perfect DMCSRs possess high figure of merit (FOM) values up to ~88, approaching the theoretically estimated upper limit (FOM ≈108) for gold standard prism coupled surface-plasmon sensors. PMID:27557265

  12. Effect of angular velocity on sensors based on morphology dependent resonances.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amir R; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an analysis to investigate the morphology dependent optical resonances shift (MDR) of a rotating spherical resonator. The spinning resonator experiences an elastic deformation due to the centrifugal force acting on it, leading to a shift in its MDR. Experiments are also carried out to demonstrate the MDR shifts of a spinning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microsphere. The experimental results agree well with the analytical prediction. These studies demonstrated that spinning sensor based on MDR may experience sufficient shift in the optical resonances, therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Also the results show that angular velocity sensors could be designed using this principle. PMID:24759108

  13. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip. PMID:22039926

  14. Nanoscale welding aerosol sensing based on whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical silica resonator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aram; Mills, Thomas; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental technique where one uses a standard silica fiber as a cylindrical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator to sense airborne nanoscale aerosols produced by electric arc welding. We find that the accumulation of aerosols on the resonator surface induces a measurable red-shift in resonance frequency, and establish an empirical relation that links the magnitude of resonance shift with the amount of aerosol deposition. The WGM quality factors, by contrast, do not decrease significantly, even for samples with a large percentage of surface area covered by aerosols. Our experimental results are discussed and compared with existing literature on WGM-based nanoparticle sensing. PMID:25837078

  15. Nanoscale welding aerosol sensing based on whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical silica resonator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aram; Mills, Thomas; Xu, Yong

    2015-03-23

    We report an experimental technique where one uses a standard silica fiber as a cylindrical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator to sense airborne nanoscale aerosols produced by electric arc welding. We find that the accumulation of aerosols on the resonator surface induces a measurable red-shift in resonance frequency, and establish an empirical relation that links the magnitude of resonance shift with the amount of aerosol deposition. The WGM quality factors, by contrast, do not decrease significantly, even for samples with a large percentage of surface area covered by aerosols. Our experimental results are discussed and compared with existing literature on WGM-based nanoparticle sensing. PMID:25837078

  16. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip.

  17. A micro resonant charge sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on differential sensing scheme and leverage mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongyang; Zhao, Jiuxuan; Xu, Zhonggui; Xie, Jin

    2016-10-01

    This letter reports a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) resonant charge sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on differential sensing scheme and leverage mechanisms. The sensor comprises two symmetrically-distributed double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonators, each of which connects with dual micro-leverage mechanisms. The micro-leverages amplify electrostatic force in opposite directions and cause differential frequency shift of the two resonators. Both the resonators show a similar trend in behaviors of electrical and mechanical nonlinearity. Effect of environment disturbance is suppressed by the differential sensing scheme. The measured sensitivity of the two resonators are 3.31×10-4 Hz/fC2 and 1.85×10-4 Hz/fC2 respectively, and an overall sensitivity for the resonant charge sensor is 5.16×10-4 Hz/fC2.

  18. 90-deg splicing error control in polarization maintaining fiber resonator based on white-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huizu; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Yongming; Ma, Lina

    2012-05-01

    Polarization fluctuation in polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) resonator is one of the major noise sources in resonant fiber optic gyroscope (R-FOG). 90-deg polarization-axis rotated splicing in R-FOG is an effective way to suppress the polarization-fluctuation induced noise. 90-deg polarization-axis rotated splicing error influences the noise suppression effect. Here, a polarization-coupling testing system based on white-light interferometry is designed to control 90-deg splicing error in double-coupler PMF resonator first time and a result of 0.37-deg splicing error is obtained for the first time. Then the resonant characteristics of the double-coupler PMF resonator are tested using the saw-tooth waveform scanning method. The finesse of this double-coupler PMF resonator is 24.0 and the phase interval of the two eigenstates of polarization (ESOPs) is π.

  19. Intrinsically tunable bulk acoustic wave resonators based on sol-gel grown PMN-PT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, A.; Spreitzer, M.; Veber, A.; Suvorov, D.; Gevorgian, S.

    2014-08-01

    Intrinsically tunable bulk acoustic wave resonators, based on sol-gel 0.70Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) thin films, with high effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 13% and tunability of the series resonance frequency up to 4.0% are fabricated and characterized. The enhanced electroacoustic properties of the PMN-PT resonators are attributed to the mechanism of polarization rotation occurring in the region of the morphotropic phase boundary. Electroacoustic performance of the PMN-PT resonators is analyzed using the theory of dc field-induced piezoelectric effect in ferroelectrics. Extrinsic acoustic loss in the PMN-PT resonators is analyzed using the model of the wave scattering at reflections from rough interfaces. Mechanical Q-factor of the resonators is up to 70 at 4.1 GHz and limited mainly by losses in the PMN-PT film.

  20. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%.

  1. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%. PMID:26402679

  2. Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A.; Krall, M.; Schwarz, S.; Dietze, D.; Detz, H.; Andrews, A. M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.

    2014-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterisation of an intersubband detector employing a resonant metamaterial coupling structure. The semiconductor heterostructure relies on a conventional THz quantum-cascade laser design and is operated at zero bias for the detector operation. The same active region can be used to generate or detect light depending on the bias conditions and the vertical confinement. The metamaterial is processed directly into the top metal contact and is used to couple normal incidence radiation resonantly to the intersubband transitions. The device is capable of detecting light below and above the reststrahlenband of gallium-arsenide corresponding to the mid-infrared and THz spectral region.

  3. A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Tongtong; Zeng, Beibei; Zhang, Huiyun; Lv, Huanhuan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weili; Azad, Abul K.

    2015-07-01

    We propose an ultrasensitive terahertz (THz) sensor consisting of a subwavelength graphene disk and an annular gold ring within a unit cell. The interference between the resonances arising from the graphene disk and the gold ring gives rise to Fano type resonances and enables ultrasensitive sensing. Our full wave electromagnetic simulations show frequency sensitivity as high as 1.9082 THz per refractive index unit (RIU) and a figure of merit (FOM) of 6.5662. Furthermore, the sensing range can be actively tuned by adjusting the Fermi level of graphene.

  4. Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures

    PubMed Central

    Benz, A.; Krall, M.; Schwarz, S.; Dietze, D.; Detz, H.; Andrews, A. M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterisation of an intersubband detector employing a resonant metamaterial coupling structure. The semiconductor heterostructure relies on a conventional THz quantum-cascade laser design and is operated at zero bias for the detector operation. The same active region can be used to generate or detect light depending on the bias conditions and the vertical confinement. The metamaterial is processed directly into the top metal contact and is used to couple normal incidence radiation resonantly to the intersubband transitions. The device is capable of detecting light below and above the reststrahlenband of gallium-arsenide corresponding to the mid-infrared and THz spectral region. PMID:24608677

  5. New Clathrin-Based Nanoplatforms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vitaliano, Gordana D.; Vitaliano, Franco; Rios, Jose D.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Teicher, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has high spatial resolution, but low sensitivity for visualization of molecular targets in the central nervous system (CNS). Our goal was to develop a new MRI method with the potential for non-invasive molecular brain imaging. We herein introduce new bio-nanotechnology approaches for designing CNS contrast media based on the ubiquitous clathrin cell protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The first approach utilizes three-legged clathrin triskelia modified to carry 81 gadolinium chelates. The second approach uses clathrin cages self-assembled from triskelia and designed to carry 432 gadolinium chelates. Clathrin triskelia and cages were characterized by size, structure, protein concentration, and chelate and gadolinium contents. Relaxivity was evaluated at 0.47 T. A series of studies were conducted to ascertain whether fluorescent-tagged clathrin nanoplatforms could cross the blood brain barriers (BBB) unaided following intranasal, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes of administration. Clathrin nanoparticles can be constituted as triskelia (18.5 nm in size), and as cages assembled from them (55 nm). The mean chelate: clathrin heavy chain molar ratio was 27.04±4.8: 1 for triskelia, and 4.2±1.04: 1 for cages. Triskelia had ionic relaxivity of 16 mM−1s−1, and molecular relaxivity of 1,166 mM−1s−1, while cages had ionic relaxivity of 81 mM−1s−1 and molecular relaxivity of 31,512 mM−1s−1. Thus, cages exhibited 20 times higher ionic relaxivity and 8,000-fold greater molecular relaxivity than gadopentetate dimeglumine. Clathrin nanoplatforms modified with fluorescent tags were able to cross or bypass the BBB without enhancements following intravenous, intraperitoneal and intranasal administration in rats. Conclusions/Significance Use of clathrin triskelia and cages as carriers of CNS contrast media represents a new approach. This new biocompatible protein-based nanotechnology demonstrated suitable

  6. Visual and efficient immunosensor technique for advancing biomedical applications of quantum dots on Salmonella detection and isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Feng; Pang, Dai-Wen; Chen, Zhi; Shao, Jian-Bo; Xiong, Ling-Hong; Xiang, Yan-Ping; Xiong, Yan; Wu, Kai; Ai, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Lv, Jing-Rui; Liu, Wei-Yong; Hu, Hong-Bing; Mei, Hong; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Hong; Xiang, Yun; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-02-01

    It is a great challenge in nanotechnology for fluorescent nanobioprobes to be applied to visually detect and directly isolate pathogens in situ. A novel and visual immunosensor technique for efficient detection and isolation of Salmonella was established here by applying fluorescent nanobioprobes on a specially-designed cellulose-based swab (a solid-phase enrichment system). The selective and chromogenic medium used on this swab can achieve the ultrasensitive amplification of target bacteria and form chromogenic colonies in situ based on a simple biochemical reaction. More importantly, because this swab can serve as an attachment site for the targeted pathogens to immobilize and immunologically capture nanobioprobes, our mAb-conjugated QD bioprobes were successfully applied on the solid-phase enrichment system to capture the fluorescence of targeted colonies under a designed excitation light instrument based on blue light-emitting diodes combined with stereomicroscopy or laser scanning confocal microscopy. Compared with the traditional methods using 4-7 days to isolate Salmonella from the bacterial mixture, this method took only 2 days to do this, and the process of initial screening and preliminary diagnosis can be completed in only one and a half days. Furthermore, the limit of detection can reach as low as 101 cells per mL Salmonella on the background of 105 cells per mL non-Salmonella (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis or Citrobacter freundii, respectively) in experimental samples, and even in human anal ones. The visual and efficient immunosensor technique may be proved to be a favorable alternative for screening and isolating Salmonella in a large number of samples related to public health surveillance.It is a great challenge in nanotechnology for fluorescent nanobioprobes to be applied to visually detect and directly isolate pathogens in situ. A novel and visual immunosensor technique for efficient detection and isolation of Salmonella was established here

  7. Direct immobilization of antibodies on a new polymer film for fabricating an electrochemical impedance immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Guangyu; Shen, Youming; Yin, Dan; Zhang, Chunxiang

    2015-09-15

    A new polymer bearing aldehyde groups was designed and synthesized by grafting 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde onto poly(epichlorohydrin). Antibodies can be directly immobilized on the surface of the polymer film through the covalent bonding of aldehyde groups of the film with amino groups of antibodies. In this study, human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a model analyte for the fabrication of an electrochemical impedance immunosensor. Using the proposed immunosensor, IgG in the range from 0.1 to 80 ng ml(-1) was detected with a detection limit of 0.07 ng ml(-1) (signal/noise [S/N]=3). In addition, the electrochemical impedance immunosensor displays good stability and reproducibility.

  8. A label-free impedimetric immunosensor for direct determination of the textile dye Disperse Orange 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; da Rocha, Carolina Gomes; Wang, Shengfu; Ferreira, Antonio Aparecido Pupim; Yamanaka, Hideko

    2015-09-01

    A strategy for a label-free impedimetric immunosensor is described for detection of the textile dye Disperse Orange 1 (DO1). The compounds 1,12-diaminododecane (DADD) and then 1,7-diaminoheptane (DAH) were firstly successively grafted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface by electro-oxidation of one amino group, while the other terminal amino group was modified with the antibody anti-DO1. The construction process of the immunosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The electron transfer resistance (Rct) exhibited an effective response to the affinity between the immobilized antibody and the antigen in solution. The linear range for the target compound was from 5.0 nmol L(-1) to 0.5 μmol L(-1) (R=0.9980), and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.56 nmol L(-1). The proposed impedimetric immunosensor has the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and sensitivity.

  9. Amperometric immunosensor using electric field to improve the interaction between antibody and antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jizhou; Bian, Chao; Qu, Lan; Xia, Shanhong

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes a method that using an electric field to improve the immobilization of analyte in an amperometric immunosensor. The amperometric immunosensor, which has a two-microelectrode system enclosed in a SU-8 reaction microwell, has been developed with MEMS technology for the detection of the human immunoglobulin (HIgG). Electric field has been applied above the working electrode by setting the appropriate potential between two electrodes to enable more antigen "IgG" to be assembled to the sensing interface with less time. The results demonstrate that the immunochemical incubation time spent on the immobilization of HIgG has been shortened, and the property of the immunosensor has been enhanced.

  10. Development of an ICT-Based Air Column Resonance Learning Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purjiyanta, Eka; Handayani, Langlang; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    Commonly, the sound source used in the air column resonance experiment is the tuning fork having disadvantage of unoptimal resonance results due to the sound produced which is getting weaker. In this study we made tones with varying frequency using the Audacity software which were, then, stored in a mobile phone as a source of sound. One advantage of this sound source is the stability of the resulting sound enabling it to produce the same powerful sound. The movement of water in a glass tube mounted on the tool resonance and the tone sound that comes out from the mobile phone were recorded by using a video camera. Sound resonances recorded were first, second, and third resonance, for each tone frequency mentioned. The resulting sound stays longer, so it can be used for the first, second, third and next resonance experiments. This study aimed to (1) explain how to create tones that can substitute tuning forks sound used in air column resonance experiments, (2) illustrate the sound wave that occurred in the first, second, and third resonance in the experiment, and (3) determine the speed of sound in the air. This study used an experimental method. It was concluded that; (1) substitute tones of a tuning fork sound can be made by using the Audacity software; (2) the form of sound waves that occured in the first, second, and third resonance in the air column resonance can be drawn based on the results of video recording of the air column resonance; and (3) based on the experiment result, the speed of sound in the air is 346.5 m/s, while based on the chart analysis with logger pro software, the speed of sound in the air is 343.9 ± 0.3171 m/s.

  11. Magneto immunosensor for gliadin detection in gluten-free foodstuff: towards food safety for celiac patients.

    PubMed

    Laube, T; Kergaravat, S V; Fabiano, S N; Hernández, S R; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2011-09-15

    Gliadin is a constituent of the cereal protein gluten, responsible for the intolerance generated in celiac disease. Its detection is of high interest for food safety of celiac patients, since the only treatment known until now is a lifelong avoidance of this protein in the diet. Therefore, it is essential to have an easy and reliable method of analysis to control the contents in gluten-free foods. An electrochemical magneto immunosensor for the quantification of gliadin or small gliadin fragments in natural or pretreated food samples is described for the first time and compared to a novel magneto-ELISA system based on optical detection. The immunological reaction was performed on magnetic beads as solid support by the oriented covalent immobilization, of the protein gliadin on tosyl-activated beads. Direct, as well as indirect competitive immunoassays were optimized, achieving the best analytical performance with the direct competitive format. Excellent detection limits (in the order of μg L(-1)) were achieved, according to the legislation for gluten-free products. The matrix effect, as well as the performance of the assays was successfully evaluated using spiked gluten-free foodstuffs (skimmed milk and beer), obtaining excellent recovery values in the results.

  12. Evaluation of the Spectral Response of Functionalized Silk Inverse Opals as Colorimetric Immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kelly A; Brenckle, Mark A; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2016-06-29

    Regenerated silk fibroin is a high molecular weight protein obtained by purifying the cocoons of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. This report exploits the aqueous processing and tunable β sheet secondary structure of regenerated silk to produce nanostructures (i.e., inverse opals) that can be used as colorimetric immunosensors. Such sensors would enable direct detection of antigens by changes in reflectance spectra induced by binding events within the nanostructure. Silk inverse opals were prepared by solution casting and annealing in a humidified atmosphere to render the silk insoluble. Next, antigen sensing capabilities were imparted to silk through a three step synthesis: coupling of avidin to silk surfaces, coupling of biotin to antibodies, and lastly antibody attachment to silk through avidin-biotin interactions. Varying the antibody enables detection of different antigens, as demonstrated using different protein antigens: antibodies, red fluorescent protein, and the beta subunit of cholera toxin. Antigen binding to sensors induces a red shift in the opal reflectance spectra, while sensors not exposed to antigen showed either no shift or a slight blue shift. This work constitutes a first step for the design of biopolymer-based optical systems that could directly detect antigens using commercially available reagents and environmentally friendly chemistries. PMID:27322909

  13. DNA-Redox Cation Interaction Improves the Sensitivity of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Protein Detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Ge, Bixia; Ou, Lily M-L; Yao, Zhihui; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-08-20

    A simple DNA-redox cation interaction enhancement strategy has been developed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensors for protein detection. Instead of labeling with fluorophores or redox-active groups, the detection antibodies were tethered with DNA single strands. Based on the electrostatic interaction between redox cations ([Ru(NH3)6](3+)) and negatively charged DNA backbone, enhanced electrochemical signals were obtained. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) detection has been performed as a trial analysis. A linear response range up to the concentration of 25 mIU/mL and a detection limit of 1.25 mIU/mL have been achieved, both are comparable with the ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The method also shows great selectivity towards hCG over other hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). By and large, our approach bears the merits of cost effectiveness and simplicity of instrumentation in comparison with conventional optical detection methods.

  14. DNA-Redox Cation Interaction Improves the Sensitivity of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Ge, Bixia; Ou, Lily M.-L.; Yao, Zhihui; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A simple DNA-redox cation interaction enhancement strategy has been developed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical immunosensors for protein detection. Instead of labeling with fluorophores or redox-active groups, the detection antibodies were tethered with DNA single strands. Based on the electrostatic interaction between redox cations ([Ru(NH3)6]3+) and negatively charged DNA backbone, enhanced electrochemical signals were obtained. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) detection has been performed as a trial analysis. A linear response range up to the concentration of 25 mIU/mL and a detection limit of 1.25 mIU/mL have been achieved, both are comparable with the ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The method also shows great selectivity towards hCG over other hormones such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). By and large, our approach bears the merits of cost effectiveness and simplicity of instrumentation in comparison with conventional optical detection methods. PMID:26307986

  15. An electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen enhanced by self-assembled nanogold coatings on magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Gao, Huiling; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wei, Xiaoping; Yang, Catherine F

    2010-04-14

    A quick and reproducible electrochemical-based immunosensor technique, using magnetic core/shell particles that are coated with self-assembled multilayer of nanogold, has been developed. Magnetic particles that are structured from Au/Fe(3)O(4) core-shells were prepared and aminated after a reaction between gold and thiourea, and additional multilayered coatings of gold nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of the core/shell particles. The carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on the modified magnetic particles, which were then attached on the surface of solid paraffin carbon paste electrode (SPCE) by an external magnetic field. This is an assembly of a novel immuno biosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The sensitivity and response features of this immunoassay are significantly affected by the surface area and the biological compatibility of the multilayered nanogold. The linear range for the detection of CEA was from 0.005 to 50 ng mL(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.001 ng mL(-1). The LOD is approximately 500 times more sensitive than that of the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for CEA detection.

  16. Evaluation of the Spectral Response of Functionalized Silk Inverse Opals as Colorimetric Immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kelly A; Brenckle, Mark A; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2016-06-29

    Regenerated silk fibroin is a high molecular weight protein obtained by purifying the cocoons of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. This report exploits the aqueous processing and tunable β sheet secondary structure of regenerated silk to produce nanostructures (i.e., inverse opals) that can be used as colorimetric immunosensors. Such sensors would enable direct detection of antigens by changes in reflectance spectra induced by binding events within the nanostructure. Silk inverse opals were prepared by solution casting and annealing in a humidified atmosphere to render the silk insoluble. Next, antigen sensing capabilities were imparted to silk through a three step synthesis: coupling of avidin to silk surfaces, coupling of biotin to antibodies, and lastly antibody attachment to silk through avidin-biotin interactions. Varying the antibody enables detection of different antigens, as demonstrated using different protein antigens: antibodies, red fluorescent protein, and the beta subunit of cholera toxin. Antigen binding to sensors induces a red shift in the opal reflectance spectra, while sensors not exposed to antigen showed either no shift or a slight blue shift. This work constitutes a first step for the design of biopolymer-based optical systems that could directly detect antigens using commercially available reagents and environmentally friendly chemistries.

  17. Visual and efficient immunosensor technique for advancing biomedical applications of quantum dots on Salmonella detection and isolation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng; Pang, Dai-Wen; Chen, Zhi; Shao, Jian-Bo; Xiong, Ling-Hong; Xiang, Yan-Ping; Xiong, Yan; Wu, Kai; Ai, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Lv, Jing-Rui; Liu, Wei-Yong; Hu, Hong-Bing; Mei, Hong; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Hong; Xiang, Yun; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-02-28

    It is a great challenge in nanotechnology for fluorescent nanobioprobes to be applied to visually detect and directly isolate pathogens in situ. A novel and visual immunosensor technique for efficient detection and isolation of Salmonella was established here by applying fluorescent nanobioprobes on a specially-designed cellulose-based swab (a solid-phase enrichment system). The selective and chromogenic medium used on this swab can achieve the ultrasensitive amplification of target bacteria and form chromogenic colonies in situ based on a simple biochemical reaction. More importantly, because this swab can serve as an attachment site for the targeted pathogens to immobilize and immunologically capture nanobioprobes, our mAb-conjugated QD bioprobes were successfully applied on the solid-phase enrichment system to capture the fluorescence of targeted colonies under a designed excitation light instrument based on blue light-emitting diodes combined with stereomicroscopy or laser scanning confocal microscopy. Compared with the traditional methods using 4-7 days to isolate Salmonella from the bacterial mixture, this method took only 2 days to do this, and the process of initial screening and preliminary diagnosis can be completed in only one and a half days. Furthermore, the limit of detection can reach as low as 10(1) cells per mL Salmonella on the background of 10(5) cells per mL non-Salmonella (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis or Citrobacter freundii, respectively) in experimental samples, and even in human anal ones. The visual and efficient immunosensor technique may be proved to be a favorable alternative for screening and isolating Salmonella in a large number of samples related to public health surveillance. PMID:26853517

  18. Racetrack micro-resonators based on ridge waveguides made of porous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, P.; Lorrain, N.; Lemaitre, J.; Poffo, L.; Guendouz, M.; Hardy, I.; Gadonna, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Bodiou, L.; Charrier, J.

    2015-12-01

    The fabrication of micro-resonators, made from porous silica ridge waveguides by using an electrochemical etching method of silicon substrate followed by thermal oxidation and then by a standard photolithography process, is reported. The design and fabrication process are described including a study of waveguide dimensions that provide single mode propagation and calculation of the coupling ratio between a straight access waveguide and the racetrack resonator. Scanning electronic microscopy observations and optical characterizations clearly show that the micro-resonator based on porous silica ridge waveguides has been well implemented. This porous micro-resonator is destined to be used as an optical sensor. The porous nature of the ridge waveguide constitutes the detection medium which will enhance the sensor sensitivity compared to usual micro-resonators based on the evanescent wave detection. A theoretical sensitivity of 1170 nm per refractive index unit has been calculated, taking into consideration experimental data obtained from the optical characterizations.

  19. Graphene-based electromagnetically induced transparency with coupling Fabry-Perot resonators.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Huawei; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Sheng, Shiwei

    2015-08-20

    We investigate the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using two adjacent graphene-based Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonators side coupling to a nanoribbon waveguide. By the coupling mode theory in time and F-P resonant model, the destructive interference from the coupling of the two F-P resonators results in the EIT-like optical response. The induced peak and width of the transparency window can be dynamically manipulated by varying the coupling distance of the two resonators, and the transparent window is easily shifted by tuning the resonator length or the chemical potential of the graphene nanoribbon. In order to verify the characteristics of slow light, the group index profile is analyzed at different coupling distances. The proposed graphene-based EIT-like system could open up new opportunities for potential applications in plasmonic slow light and optical information buffering devices.

  20. A new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer based on electrostatic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Dai, Bo; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-05

    Presented in the paper is the design, the simulation, the fabrication and the experiment of a new z-axis resonant accelerometer based on the electrostatic stiffness. The new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer, which consists of a torsional accelerometer and two plane resonators, decouples the sensing movement of the accelerometer from the oscillation of the plane resonators by electrostatic stiffness, which will improve the performance. The new structure and the sensitive theory of the acceleration are illuminated, and the equation of the scale factor is deduced under ideal conditions firstly. The Ansys simulation is implemented to verify the basic principle of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator individually. The structure simulation results prove that the effective frequency of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator are 0.66 kHz and 13.3 kHz, respectively. Then, the new structure is fabricated by the standard three-mask deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process and encapsulated by parallel seam welding. Finally, the detecting and control circuits are designed to achieve the closed-loop self-oscillation, to trace the natural frequency of resonator and to measure the system frequency. Experimental results show that the new z-axis resonant accelerometer has a scale factor of 31.65 Hz/g, a bias stability of 727 µg and a dynamic range of over 10 g, which proves that the new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer is practicable.

  1. Ultra-sensitive immunosensor for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen using multi-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shourian, M; Ghourchian, H; Boutorabi, M

    2015-10-01

    The signal amplification for analytical purposes has considerable potential in detecting trace levels of analytes for clinical, security or environmental applications. In the present report a strategy based on a sandwich type immunoassay system was designed for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen which exploits the specific affinity interaction between streptavidin and biotin recognition systems. The method involves the specific coupling of multi-functionalized gold nanoparticles (bearing biotin and luminol molecules) to the streptavidin modified by secondary antibody. The chemiluminescent signal is produced by the gold nanoparticles in the presence of HAuCl4 as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The immunosensor was able to detect hepatitis B surface antigen in the linear concentration range from 1.7 to 1920 pg mL(-1) and the detection limit of 0.358 pg mL(-1), at signal/noise = 3.

  2. Fiber optic immunosensor for cross-linked fibrin concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Samuel E.

    2000-08-01

    Working with calcium ions in the blood, platelets produce thromboplastin which transforms prothrombin into thrombin. Removing peptides, thrombin changes fibrinogen into fibrin. Cross-linked insoluble fibrin polymers are solubilized by enzyme plasmin found in blood plasma. Resulting D-dimers are elevated in patients with intravascular coagulation, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, multiple trauma, cancer, impaired renal and liver functions, and sepsis. Consisting principally of a NIR 780 nm GaAlAs laser diode and a 800 nm avalanche photodiode (APD), the fiber-optic immunosensor can determined D-dimer concentration to levels <0.1 ng/ml. A capture monoclonal antibody to the antigen soluble cross-linked fibrin is employed. Immobilized at the tip of an optical fiber by avidin-biotin, the captured antigen is detected by a second antibody which is labeled with NN 382 fluorescent dye. An evanescent wave traveling on an excitation optical fiber excites the antibody-antigen fluorophore complex. Concentration of cross-linked fibrin is directly proportional to the APD measured intensity of fluorescence. NIR fluorescence has advantages of low background interference, short fluorescence lifetime, and large difference between excitation and emission peaks. Competitive ELISA test for D-dimer concentration requires trained personnel performing a time consuming operation.

  3. Miniature hemispherical shell resonator with large-scale effective electrodes based on piezoelectric drive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Weiping; Cheng, Yuxiang; Liu, Wu; Wang, Yinghai; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-05-01

    Miniature resonators with three-dimensional curved surface are mostly driven by electrostatic capacitive. However, it is quite difficult to fabricate a curved surface electrostatic resonator with large-scale effective electrodes. This paper presents the first miniature hemispherical shell resonator with large-scale effective electrodes based on piezoelectric drive mechanism. The vibrating body and electrodes of the piezoelectric resonator are easily integrated without micro-scale or nano-scale narrow capacitive gap. Vibration experiment and finite element analysis both reveal that there exist seven significant vibration modes between 10 kHz and 100 kHz. Mode shape validation is also carried out by measuring the vibration velocity of upper perimeter and lateral perimeter with laser doppler vibrometer. Special vibration characteristics of each vibration mode are described in detail, based on which the resonator may be used for many specific applications. Compared with common electrostatic resonators, even smaller drive voltage applied to the piezoelectric resonator may produce larger vibration displacement at atmosphere. According to the experiment results, the resonator may provide a new way of realizing high performance three-dimensional miniature devices for communication and inertial navigation applications. PMID:27250463

  4. Miniature hemispherical shell resonator with large-scale effective electrodes based on piezoelectric drive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Weiping; Cheng, Yuxiang; Liu, Wu; Wang, Yinghai; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-05-01

    Miniature resonators with three-dimensional curved surface are mostly driven by electrostatic capacitive. However, it is quite difficult to fabricate a curved surface electrostatic resonator with large-scale effective electrodes. This paper presents the first miniature hemispherical shell resonator with large-scale effective electrodes based on piezoelectric drive mechanism. The vibrating body and electrodes of the piezoelectric resonator are easily integrated without micro-scale or nano-scale narrow capacitive gap. Vibration experiment and finite element analysis both reveal that there exist seven significant vibration modes between 10 kHz and 100 kHz. Mode shape validation is also carried out by measuring the vibration velocity of upper perimeter and lateral perimeter with laser doppler vibrometer. Special vibration characteristics of each vibration mode are described in detail, based on which the resonator may be used for many specific applications. Compared with common electrostatic resonators, even smaller drive voltage applied to the piezoelectric resonator may produce larger vibration displacement at atmosphere. According to the experiment results, the resonator may provide a new way of realizing high performance three-dimensional miniature devices for communication and inertial navigation applications.

  5. A wideband deflected reflection based on multiple resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongya; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jun; Yan, Mingbao; Pang, Yongqiang

    2015-07-01

    We propose to realize wideband deflected reflection in microwave regime through multiple resonances. A wideband deflected reflection of a phase gradient metasurface is designed using a double-head arrow structure, which has demonstrated an ultra-wideband cross-polarized reflection caused by multiple electric and magnetic resonances. The wideband effect benefits from the wideband cross-polarized reflection and flexible phase modulation of the double-head arrow structure. Simulated and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, relative bandwidths of deflected reflection reach to 71 % for both x- and y-polarized waves under normal incidence. Our method of expansion bandwidth may pave the way in many practical applications, such as RCS reduction, stealth surfaces.

  6. Long-base free electron laser resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Bender, S.C.; Appert, Q.D.; Saxman, A.C.; Swann, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A 65-meter resonant cavity has been constructed in order to experimentally determine the characteristics of long resonant cavities as would be required for a free electron laser (FEL). A version using normal incidence mirrors is reported here, and another that includes a grazing incidence mirror is forthcoming. Either version is designed to simulate a FEL operating at 0.5 micron wavelength and is near-concentric with a stability parameter of 0.98. Argon-ion plasma tubes simulate the laser gain that would be provided by a wiggler in an actual FEL. The cavity was constructed on a seismic slab and air turbulence effects were reduced by surrounding the beam with helium in 6 in. diameter tubes. Alignment sensitivities are reported and compared to geometrical and diffraction predictions with good agreement.

  7. A new nonlinear model for analyzing the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-09-01

    The present study develops a new size-dependent nonlinear model for the analysis of the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators. In particular, based on modified couple stress theory, the fully nonlinear equations of motion of the carbon nanotube-based resonator are derived using Hamilton's principle, taking into account both the longitudinal and transverse displacements. Molecular dynamics simulation is then performed in order to verify the validity of the developed size-dependent continuum model at the nano scale. The nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the system are discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to examine the nonlinear resonant behaviour of the carbon nanotube-based resonator. A new universal pull-in formula is also developed for predicting the occurrence of the static pull-in and validated using numerical simulations.

  8. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  9. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  10. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  11. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  12. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  13. Diagnostic measurements of CUEBIT based on the dielectronic resonance process

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, E. Kimmel, T. D. Brandenburg, K. H. Wilson, R. K. Gall, A. C. Harriss, J. E. Sosolik, C. E.

    2015-01-09

    In this paper we report the first observation of x-ray radiation from the new Clemson University Electron Beam Ion Trap (CUEBIT). The analysis of the emitted dielectronic recombination x-ray photons from highly charged argon ions allowed us to probe parameters specific to the ion cloud inside the machine. Argon dielectronic resonances could provide a standard method to cross-compare the electron beam and ion cloud characteristics of different devices.

  14. Vibration analysis of carbon nanotube-based resonator using nonlocal elasticity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Matsuyama, Nobuhiro; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with extremely favorable mass sensor properties. In this paper, we propose that CNTs under clamped boundary condition and an axial tensile load are considered as CNT-based resonators. Moreover, the resonant frequencies and frequency shifts of the CNTs with attached nanomass are investigated based on vibration analysis, which used the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model. Using the present methods, we analyze and discuss the effects of the aspect ratio, the concentrated mass and the axial force on the resonant frequency of the CNTs. The results indicate that the CNT beam under the axial tensile loads could provide higher sensitivity as nanomechanical mass sensor.

  15. Optical annular resonators based on radial Bragg and photonic crystal reflectors.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Jacob; Yariv, Amnon

    2003-10-20

    A ring resonator based on Bragg reflection is studied in detail. Closed form expressions for the field and dispersion curves for radial Bragg gratings and photonic crystals based resonators are derived and compared to FDTD simulations. For strong confinement, the required gratings exhibit a chirped period and a varying index profile. Small bending radii and low radiation losses are shown to be possible due to the Bragg confinement. The sensitivity of the resonator characteristics to fabrication errors is analyzed quantitatively. A mixed confinement configuration utilizing both Bragg reflection and total internal reflection is also suggested and analyzed. PMID:19471388

  16. Low dissipative mechanical resonators based on WSe2 monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schadler, Kevin; Dubin, Francois; Koppens, Frank; Bachtold, Adrian; QuantumNanoMechanics Team; NanoOptoElectronics Team; Nanostructures et systèmes quantiques Team

    Atomically thin nano-electromechanical systems (2D-NEMS) combine low mass resonators having resonant frequencies in the MHz-GHz range, wide tunability and low damping. Atomically thin 2D semi-conductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), have rich optical properties (direct band gap, spin valley, embedded quantum emitters...), which are linked to their low dimensionality. While optical and electronic properties of WSe2 have been intensively investigated, there have not been any studies on WSe2 mechanical resonators. Although TMD NEMs have been fabricated, they have not been measured at cryogenic temperature so far. I will present a new semiconductor 2D-NEMS made of a single layer of WSe2. We measured mechanical and photoluminescence spectra of WSe2 suspended drums at cryogenic temperatures. Our results demonstrate an extremely low damping at low temperature with a quality factor Q >47000 at T =3K, which is higher than what can be achieved with graphene NEMs. In addition, we investigated photothermal and optoelectronic effects on the mechanical degree of freedom, revealing the high potential of semiconductor 2D-NEMS for optomechanics experiments.

  17. Resonant transmission in the base/collector junction of a bipolar quantum-well resonant-tunneling transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, A. C.; Kao, Y.-C.; Frensley, W. R.; Randall, J. N.; Reed, M. A.

    1991-12-01

    A new transistor effect is demonstrated in a 120-nm base, bipolar quantum-well, resonant-tunneling transistor (BiQuaRTT). In this BiQuaRTT, a strong, multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristic is obtained at room temperature with high-current gain. The effect is shown to be the consequence of an asymmetric, quantum-well-base heterostructure whose shape is controlled by the base/collector bias. Changes in the quantum-well shape lead to large modulations of the transmission coefficient for quasi-thermalized minority electrons crossing the quantum-well base. In this letter, the transport characteristics of these transistors are described, including also temperature and magnetic field dependence.

  18. Optically tunable Fano resonance in a grating-based Fabry-Perot cavity-coupled microring resonator on a silicon chip.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Wangzhe; Yao, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    A grating-based Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity-coupled microring resonator on a silicon chip is reported to demonstrate an all-optically tunable Fano resonance. In the device, an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) is employed, and one of the two bus waveguides is replaced by an FP cavity consisting of two sidewall Bragg gratings. By choosing the parameters of the gratings, the resonant mode of the FP cavity is coupled to one of the resonant modes of the MRR. Due to the coupling between the resonant modes, a Fano resonance with an asymmetric line shape resulted. Measurement results show a Fano resonance with an extinction ratio of 22.54 dB, and a slope rate of 250.4 dB/nm is achieved. A further study of the effect of the coupling on the Fano resonance is performed numerically and experimentally. Thanks to the strong light-confinement capacity of the MRR and the FP cavity, a strong two-photon absorption induced nonlinear thermal-optic effect resulted, which is used to tune the Fano resonance optically.

  19. Development of an impedimetric immunosensor for the determination of 3-amino-2-oxazolidone residue in food samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongjun; Jin, Wenjie; Wu, Liping; Wang, Qianqian; Shao, Hongxia; Qin, Aijian; Yu, Bing; Li, Dongming; Cai, Baoliang

    2011-11-01

    The use of furazolidone in food animals has been banned in European Union (EU) because of its carcinogenicity and mutagenicity on human health, but its continued misuse is widespread. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a simple, reliable, and rapid method for the detection of its marker residue, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), in food products. In this regard, a sensitive and reliable electrochemical method was presented to detect AOZ based on a novel label-free electrochemical impedimetric immunosensor to address this need. The immobilization of monoclonal antibody against AOZ (denoted as AOZ-McAb) on the gold electrode was carried out through a stable acyl amino ester intermediate generated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydrosuccinimide (NHS), which could condense antibodies on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The detection of AOZ was performed by measuring the relative change in charge transfer resistance before and after AOZ and AOZ-McAb immunoreaction by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under the optimized conditions, the relative change in charge transfer resistance was proportional to the logarithmic value of AOZ concentrations in the range of 20.0 to 1.0×10(4) ng mL(-1) (r=0.9987). Moreover, the proposed immunosensor has a high selectivity to AOZ alone with no significant response to the metabolites of other nitrofuran antibiotics, such as 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), and 1-aminohydantoin hydrochloride (AHD). This protocol has been applied to detect AOZ in food samples with satisfactory results. PMID:21995918

  20. A method for correlating in vivo prostate magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology using individualized magnetic resonance -based molds

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vijay; Pohida, Thomas; Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Merino, Maria; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter; Bernardo, Marcelino

    2009-01-01

    A method for the design and rapid manufacture of a patient specific tissue slicing device based on in vivo images in order to facilitate the process of correlating the images with histopathology is presented. The method is applied to radical prostatectomy specimens where the customized mold is designed using magnetic resonance (MR) images of each patient obtained prior to surgery. In this case, the mold holds the prostate in place while a knife with a single blade or multiple blades is inserted in slots which are positioned to obtain tissue blocks corresponding to the slices in the MR images. The resulting histological specimens demonstrate good anatomical correlation with the MR images. PMID:19895076

  1. A method for correlating in vivo prostate magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology using individualized magnetic resonance -based molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Vijay; Pohida, Thomas; Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Merino, Maria; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter; Bernardo, Marcelino

    2009-10-01

    A method for the design and rapid manufacture of a patient specific tissue slicing device based on in vivo images in order to facilitate the process of correlating the images with histopathology is presented. The method is applied to radical prostatectomy specimens where the customized mold is designed using magnetic resonance (MR) images of each patient obtained prior to surgery. In this case, the mold holds the prostate in place while a knife with a single blade or multiple blades is inserted in slots which are positioned to obtain tissue blocks corresponding to the slices in the MR images. The resulting histological specimens demonstrate good anatomical correlation with the MR images.

  2. Optical lightpipe sensor based on surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shuai; Johnston, Kyle S.; Yee, Sinclair S.

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, a novel optical sensor using surface plasmon resonance in a symmetrical planar lightpipe is introduced. The new design utilizes a microscope slide with beveled ends as the sensor substrate. Collimated TM polarized white light is used to interrogate the sensing surface at a single angle. Preliminary experimental results for glycerol solutions from 0.6%wt to 16%wt demonstrate a concentration sensitivity of 3.4 multiplied by 10-4 by weight. The corresponding refractive index sensitivity is estimated as 4 by 10-5.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based quantification of organic diphosphates.

    PubMed

    Lenevich, Stepan; Distefano, Mark D

    2011-01-15

    Phosphorylated compounds are ubiquitous in life. Given their central role, many such substrates and analogs have been prepared for subsequent evaluation. Prior to biological experiments, it is typically necessary to determine the concentration of the target molecule in solution. Here we describe a method where concentrations of stock solutions of organic diphosphates and bisphosphonates are quantified using (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with standard instrumentation using a capillary tube with a secondary standard. The method is specific and is applicable down to a concentration of 200 μM. The capillary tube provides the reference peak for quantification and deuterated solvent for locking. PMID:20833124

  4. Tunable frequency combs based on dual microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven A; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Ramelow, Sven; Luke, Kevin; Dutt, Avik; Farsi, Alessandro; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2015-08-10

    In order to achieve efficient parametric frequency comb generation in microresonators, external control of coupling between the cavity and the bus waveguide is necessary. However, for passive monolithically integrated structures, the coupling gap is fixed and cannot be externally controlled, making tuning the coupling inherently challenging. We design a dual-cavity coupled microresonator structure in which tuning one ring resonance frequency induces a change in the overall cavity coupling condition. We demonstrate wide extinction tunability with high efficiency by engineering the ring coupling conditions. Additionally, we note a distinct dispersion tunability resulting from coupling two cavities of slightly different path lengths, and present a new method of modal dispersion engineering. Our fabricated devices consist of two coupled high quality factor silicon nitride microresonators, where the extinction ratio of the resonances can be controlled using integrated microheaters. Using this extinction tunability, we optimize comb generation efficiency as well as provide tunability for avoiding higher-order mode-crossings, known for degrading comb generation. The device is able to provide a 110-fold improvement in the comb generation efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate open eye diagrams using low-noise phase-locked comb lines as a wavelength-division multiplexing channel. PMID:26367998

  5. Raman resonance in iron-based superconductors: The magnetic scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Alberto; Cai, Jiashen; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2016-02-01

    We perform theoretical analysis of polarization-sensitive Raman spectroscopy on NaFe1 -xCoxAs , EuFe 2 As2 , SrFe2As2 , and Ba (Fe1 -xCox )2As2 , focusing on two features seen in the B1 g symmetry channel (in one Fe unit cell notation): the strong temperature dependence of the static, uniform Raman response in the normal state and the existence of a collective mode in the superconducting state. We show that both features can be explained by the coupling of fermions to pairs of magnetic fluctuations via the Aslamazov-Larkin process. We first analyze magnetically mediated Raman intensity at the leading two-loop order and then include interactions between pairs of magnetic fluctuations. We show that the full Raman intensity in the B1 g channel can be viewed as the result of the coupling of light to Ising-nematic susceptibility via Aslamazov-Larkin process. We argue that the singular temperature dependence in the normal state is the combination of the temperature dependencies of the Aslamazov-Larkin vertex and of Ising-nematic susceptibility. We discuss two scenario for the resonance below Tc. One is the resonance due to development of a pole in the fully renormalized Ising-nematic susceptibility. Another is orbital excitonic scenario, in which spin fluctuations generate attractive interaction between low-energy fermions.

  6. Long period gratings based frequency selective interrogation of micro-resonators along the same fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnesi, D.; Chiavaioli, F.; Baldini, F.; Cosi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Soria, S.; Trono, C.; Nunzi Conti, G.

    2016-03-01

    A novel optical fiber coupler to whispering gallery mode (WGM) micro-resonators, which allows frequency selective addressing of different micro-resonators along the same fiber, is proposed. The coupling unit is based on a pair of identical long period fiber gratings (LPGs) and a thick adiabatic taper (>15 μm in waist) in between, where evanescent coupling from cladding modes to WGMs takes place. This robust unit can be replicated more times along the same fiber, simply cascading LPGs with different bands. Independent addressing of two different resonators along the same fiber is demonstrated.

  7. Helmholtz resonance in a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based hybrid actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hydraulically acting Helmholtz resonator can exist in a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP) based hybrid actuator, which in turn affects the volumetric efficiency of the PHP. The simulation and experimental results illustrate the effect of Helmholtz resonance on the flow rate performance of the PHP. The study also shows how to shift the Helmholtz resonant frequency to a higher value through changing parameters such as the cylinder diameter and the effective bulk modulus of the working fluid, which will improve the volumetric efficiency and broaden the operating frequency range of the PHP actuator.

  8. Low-frequency tunable acoustic absorber based on split tube resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Caixing; Li, Xin; Meng, Yan; Gao, Yibo; Tian, Jingxuan; Wang, Li; Huang, Yingzhou; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency tunable acoustic absorber for low frequencies (<500 Hz) with subwavelength thickness. The acoustic absorber is based on split tube resonators and could reach high-efficiency absorption at tunable resonance frequency with wavelength in air at least 30 times larger than its total thickness in simulations and experiments. The resonance frequency and high-efficiency absorption of the absorber are robust under oblique incidence even at large angles. The absorber could have potential applications for acoustic engineering due to its high structural stability, ease of fabrication, subwavelength thickness, and robust high-efficiency.

  9. Deep-Subwavelength-Scale Directional Sensing Based on Highly Localized Dipolar Mie Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Liang, Bin; Kan, Weiwei; Peng, Yugui; Cheng, Jianchun

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the formation of highly localized Mie resonances on a closed metasurface encapsulating a rigid core and the realization of directional sensing at deep-subwavelength scale (diameter ˜λ /8 ) with the proposed physical model. Based on modal-expansion and mode-matching methods, it is theoretically shown that the extremely anisotropic metasurface shell can support varied orders of Mie resonances around the rigid core. We further experimentally demonstrate that the Mie resonance with a dipolelike profile is strongly excited under the illumination of a plane wave at low frequencies, enabling the sensitive directional sensing due to the intensified and azimuthally dependent pressure field.

  10. Rapidly reconfigurable slow-light system based on off-resonant Raman absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vudyasetu, Praveen K.; Camacho, Ryan M.; Howell, John C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a slow-light system based on dual Raman absorption resonances in warm rubidium vapor. Each Raman absorption resonance is produced by a control beam in an off-resonant Λ system. This system combines all optical control of the Raman absorption and the low-dispersion broadening properties of the double Lorentzian absorption slow light. The bandwidth, group delay, and central frequency of the slow-light system can all be tuned dynamically by changing the properties of the control beam. We demonstrate multiple pulse delays with low distortion and show that such a system has fast switching dynamics and thus fast reconfiguration rates.

  11. Study of node and mass sensitivity of resonant mode based cantilevers with concentrated mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kewei; Chai, Yuesheng; Fu, Jiahui

    2015-12-01

    Resonant-mode based cantilevers are an important type of acoustic wave based mass-sensing devices. In this work, the governing vibration equation of a bi-layer resonant-mode based cantilever attached with concentrated mass is established by using a modal analysis method. The effects of resonance modes and mass loading conditions on nodes and mass sensitivity of the cantilever were theoretically studied. The results suggested that the node did not shift when concentrated mass was loaded on a specific position. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever was linearly proportional to the square of the point displacement at the mass loading position for all the resonance modes. For the first resonance mode, when mass loading position xc satisfied 0 < xc < ˜ 0.3l (l is the cantilever beam length and 0 represents the rigid end), mass sensitivity decreased as the mass increasing while the opposite trend was obtained when mass loading satisfied ˜0.3l ≤ xc ≤ l. Mass sensitivity did not change when concentrated mass was loaded at the rigid end. This work can provide scientific guidance to optimize the mass sensitivity of a resonant-mode based cantilever.

  12. Study of node and mass sensitivity of resonant mode based cantilevers with concentrated mass loading

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kewei Chai, Yuesheng; Fu, Jiahui

    2015-12-15

    Resonant-mode based cantilevers are an important type of acoustic wave based mass-sensing devices. In this work, the governing vibration equation of a bi-layer resonant-mode based cantilever attached with concentrated mass is established by using a modal analysis method. The effects of resonance modes and mass loading conditions on nodes and mass sensitivity of the cantilever were theoretically studied. The results suggested that the node did not shift when concentrated mass was loaded on a specific position. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever was linearly proportional to the square of the point displacement at the mass loading position for all the resonance modes. For the first resonance mode, when mass loading position x{sub c} satisfied 0 < x{sub c} < ∼ 0.3l (l is the cantilever beam length and 0 represents the rigid end), mass sensitivity decreased as the mass increasing while the opposite trend was obtained when mass loading satisfied ∼0.3l ≤ x{sub c} ≤ l. Mass sensitivity did not change when concentrated mass was loaded at the rigid end. This work can provide scientific guidance to optimize the mass sensitivity of a resonant-mode based cantilever.

  13. Highly dispersive micro-ring resonator based on one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Damian; Levy, Uriel; Mendlovic, David

    2007-03-19

    We propose and analyze a novel design of a hybrid micro-ring resonator and photonic crystal device. The proposed device is based on a micro-ring resonator with the addition of a series of periodic defects that are introduced to the microring. When the wavelength of operation approaches the band-gap of the periodic structure, the modal dispersion is significantly increased. The huge dispersion leads to narrowing of the spectral linewidth of the resonator. We predict an order of magnitude linewidth narrowing for a microring radius of the order of 10mum. The proposed hybrid device is analyzed theoretically and numerically using finite-elements calculations and finite-difference-time-domain calculations. We also present as well as the design and analysis of add-drop and notch filters based on the highly dispersive ring resonator. PMID:19532554

  14. A new resonant based measurement method for squeeze mode yield stress of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    A new approach to measure the field-dependent yield stress of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in squeeze mode using the resonance concept is proposed. The measurement system is designed using the piezolaminated cantilever beam coupled with an electromagnetic coil based MR fluid squeezing setup. The cantilever beam is maintained at resonance using simple closed-loop electronics. The magnetic field produced by the coil changes the viscosity of MR fluids and produces an additional stiffness to the resonating cantilever beam. The shift in resonant frequency due to the change in viscosity of the MR fluid is measured, and the shift in frequency is analytically related to the yield stress. Two types of MR fluids based on sphere and plate iron particles are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed measurement system.

  15. A linear modulation-based stochastic resonance algorithm applied to the detection of weak chromatographic peaks.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haishan; Xiang, Bingren; Liao, Xuewei; Xie, Shaofei

    2006-12-01

    A simple stochastic resonance algorithm based on linear modulation was developed to amplify and detect weak chromatographic peaks. The output chromatographic peak is often distorted when using the traditional stochastic resonance algorithm due to the presence of high levels of noise. In the new algorithm, a linear modulated double-well potential is introduced to correct for the distortion of the output peak. Method parameter selection is convenient and intuitive for linear modulation. In order to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio for the output signal, the performance of two-layer stochastic resonance was evaluated by comparing it with wavelet-based stochastic resonance. The proposed algorithm was applied to the quantitative analysis of dimethyl sulfide and the determination of chloramphenicol residues in milk, and the good linearity of the method demonstrated that it is an effective tool for detecting weak chromatographic peaks.

  16. A study of biofunctionalized silica nanospring surface for immunosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.; McIlroy, David N.

    2012-02-01

    A study of biofunctionalized VANS (vertically aligned (silica) nanospring) surface for immunosensor applications is presented. VANS surface treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) leaves a primary amine groups on the VANS surface. Glutaraldehyde (GA) reacts with APTES modified VANS surface forming imine bonds at one end of glutaraldehyde, leaving aldehyde groups at the other end to react with the antibody. X-ray photoelectron study verifies each step of VANS surface functionalization. A goat anti mouse antibody (GαM IgG I) is immobilized as a biorecognition layer on the APTES-GA modified surface and targeted to mouse IgG. It is investigated that mouse IgG captured from the solution phase specifically binds to goat anti mouse IgG on APTES-GA- GαM IgG I. Then layer of GαM IgG II attached to the APTES-GA- GαM IgG I-mouse IgG surface reacts only when there is mouse IgG instead of rabbit IgG. A modeling of a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit of impedance spectra measured after the addition of successive layer indicates the these biological layers behave as insulating layers. It is explored that there is a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers below 10 kHz. Changes in the magnitudes of the elements of the RLC equivalent circuit indicate that the addition of biological layers impedes ionic motion thereby changing the effective dielectric response by the biomolecule polarization.

  17. Comparison of gold- and graphene-based resonant nanostructures for terahertz metamaterials and an ultrathin graphene-based modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Nian-Hai; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2014-09-01

    Graphene exhibits unique material properties, and in electromagnetic wave technology it raises the prospect of devices miniaturized down to the atomic length scale. Here we study split-ring resonator metamaterials made from graphene and we compare them to gold-based metamaterials. We find that graphene's huge reactive response derived from its large kinetic inductance allows for deeply subwavelength resonances, although its resonance strength is reduced due to higher dissipative loss damping and smaller dipole coupling. Nevertheless, tightly stacked graphene rings may provide for negative permeability and the electric dipole resonance of graphene meta-atoms turns out to be surprisingly strong. Based on these findings, we present a terahertz modulator based on a metamaterial with a multilayer stack of alternating patterned graphene sheets separated by dielectric spacers. Neighboring graphene flakes are biased against each other, resulting in modulation depths of over 75% at a transmission level of around 90%.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and cell-based neurorestorative therapy after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Restorative cell-based therapies for experimental brain injury, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury, substantially improve functional outcome. We discuss and review state of the art magnetic resonance imaging methodologies and their applications related to cell-based treatment after brain injury. We focus on the potential of magnetic resonance imaging technique and its associated challenges to obtain useful new information related to cell migration, distribution, and quantitation, as well as vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to cell-based therapy after brain injury. The noninvasive nature of imaging might more readily help with translation of cell-based therapy from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:26981068

  19. Analysis and design of terahertz antennas based on plasmonic resonant graphene sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Tamagnone, M.; Gomez-Diaz, J. S.; Perruisseau-Carrier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Resonant graphene antennas used as true interfaces between terahertz (THz) space waves and a source/detector are presented. It is shown that in addition to the high miniaturization related to the plasmonic nature of the resonance, graphene-based THz antenna favorably compare with typical metal implementations in terms of return loss and radiation efficiency. Graphene antennas will contribute to the development of miniature, efficient, and potentially transparent all-graphene THz transceivers for emerging communication and sensing application.

  20. Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Smirnova, Evgenya; O'Hara, John F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the experimental characterization of planar terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular electric split-ring resonator designs. Comparisons to square-ring designs reveal that rectangular shapes greatly affect the overall metamaterial response by altering the spectral separation and coupling between multiple ring resonances. A simple model is used to help us understand this coupling behavior and the extent of its effects. Advantages and disadvantages of these unconventional ring designs are discussed in terms of possible applications.

  1. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, P.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Polman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Reflection is a natural phenomenon that occurs when light passes the interface between materials with different refractive index. In many applications, such as solar cells or photodetectors, reflection is an unwanted loss process. Many ways to reduce reflection from a substrate have been investigated so far, including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles. Here we present an entirely new concept that suppresses the reflection of light from a silicon surface over a broad spectral range. A two-dimensional periodic array of subwavelength silicon nanocylinders designed to possess strongly substrate-coupled Mie resonances yields almost zero total reflectance over the entire spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. This new antireflection concept relies on the strong forward scattering that occurs when a scattering structure is placed in close proximity to a high-index substrate with a high optical density of states. PMID:22353722

  2. Velocimetry of superconducting vortices based on stroboscopic resonances

    PubMed Central

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present work we introduce a method combining conventional transport measurements and a frequency-tuned flashing pinning potential to obtain reliable estimates of the vortex velocity. The proposed device is characterized using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism, where the velocimetry method exploits the resonances in mean vortex dissipation when temporal commensuration occurs between the vortex crossings and the flashing potential. We discuss the sensitivity of the proposed technique on applied current, temperature and heat diffusion, as well as the vortex core deformations during fast motion. PMID:27774995

  3. Novel signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor employing Pd-Fe3O4-GS as the matrix and SiO2 as the label.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulan; Ma, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaodong; Pang, Xuehui; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on a novel signal amplification strategy was developed for the quantitative determination of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Pd nanocubes functionalized magnetic graphene sheet (Pd-Fe3O4-GS) was employed as the matrix to immobilize the primary antibodies (Ab1). Owing to the synergetic effect between Pd nanocubes and magnetic graphene sheet (Fe3O4-GS), Pd-Fe3O4-GS can provide an obviously increasing electrochemical signal by electrochemical catalysis towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Silicon dioxide (SiO2) was functionalized as the label to conjugate with the secondary antibodies (Ab2). Due to the larger steric hindrance of the obtained conjugate (SiO2@Ab2), the sensitive decrease of the electrochemical signal can be achieved after the specific recognition between antibodies and antigens. In this sense, this proposed immunosensor can achieve a high sensitivity, especially in the presence of low concentrations of IgG. Under optimum conditions, the proposed immunosensor offered an ultrasensitive and specific determination of IgG down to 3.2 fg/mL. This immunoassay method would open up a new promising platform to detect various tumor markers at ultralow levels for early diagnoses of different cancers.

  4. Terahertz response of fractal meta-atoms based on concentric rectangular square resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Zhenyu Shi, Wangzhou; Peng, Wei

    2015-11-21

    We investigate the terahertz electromagnetic responses of fractal meta-atoms (MAs) induced by different mode coupling mechanisms. Two types of MAs based on concentric rectangular square (CRS) resonators are presented: independent CRS (I-CRS) and junctional-CRS (J-CRS). In I-CRS, each resonator works as an independent dipole so as to result in the multiple resonance modes when the fractal level is above 1. In J-CRS, however, the generated layer is rotated by π/2 radius to the adjacent CRS in one MA. The multiple resonance modes are coupled into a single mode resonance. The fractal level increasing induces resonance modes redshift in I-CRS while blueshift in J-CRS. When the fractal level is below 4, the mode Q factor of J-CRS is in between the two modes of I-CRS; when the fractal level is 4 or above, the mode Q factor of J-CRS exceeds the two modes of I-CRS. Furthermore, the modulation depth (MD) decreases in I-CRS while it increases in J-CRS with the increase in fractal levels. The surface currents analysis reveals that the capacitive coupling of modes in I-CRS results in the modes redshift, while the conductive coupling of modes in J-CRS induces the mode blueshift. A high Q mode with large MD can be achieved via conductive coupling between the resonators of different scales in a fractal MA.

  5. New immunosensor for Lactoferrin determination in human milk and several pharmaceutical dairy milk products recommended for the unweaned diet.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro

    2008-09-29

    Thorough research was carried out on Lactoferrin immunosensor development. Furthermore, two different competitive procedures were used for Lactoferrin determination, in which either the antigen (Lactoferrin) or the antibody (anti-Lactoferrin) was, respectively, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase enzyme using a biotinylation process. The biotinylation of Lactoferrin and the subsequently used competition procedure for the immunosensor measurement were to get ready. Three different kinds of immunosensors were implemented, in all cases using the peroxidase enzyme as marker and hydrogen peroxide as substrate, but alternatively using as transducers one of the following sensors: (i) an amperometric electrode for H2O2, (ii) a Clark electrode and (iii) an iodide electrode. After optimizing the "competitive" measurement procedures and the transducer, the new Lactoferrin immunosensor was used for the determination of Lactoferrin content in human milk and in different types of dried milks or other dairy products, specifically produced and sold in chemist's shops to feed unweaned children in the first few months of life.

  6. A new method for wideband characterization of resonator-based sensing platforms

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Farasat; Wathen, Adam; Hunt, William D.

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to the electronic instrumentation for extracting data from resonator-based sensing devices (e.g., microelectromechanical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, and acoustic) is suggested and demonstrated here. Traditionally, oscillator-based circuitry is employed to monitor shift in the resonance frequency of the resonator. These circuits give a single point measurement at the frequency where the oscillation criterion is met. However, the resonator response itself is broadband and contains much more information than a single point measurement. Here, we present a method for the broadband characterization of a resonator using white noise as an excitation signal. The resonator is used in a two-port filter configuration, and the resonator output is subjected to frequency spectrum analysis. The result is a wideband spectral map analogous to the magnitude of the S21 parameters of a conventional filter. Compared to other sources for broadband excitation (e.g., frequency chirp, multisine, or narrow time domain pulse), the white noise source requires no design of the input signal and is readily available for very wide bandwidths (1 MHz–3 GHz). Moreover, it offers simplicity in circuit design as it does not require precise impedance matching; whereas such requirements are very strict for oscillator-based circuit systems, and can be difficult to fulfill. This results in a measurement system that does not require calibration, which is a significant advantage over oscillator circuits. Simulation results are first presented for verification of the proposed system, followed by measurement results with a prototype implementation. A 434 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator and a 5 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are measured using the proposed method, and the results are compared to measurements taken by a conventional bench-top network analyzer. Maximum relative differences in the measured resonance frequencies of the SAW and QCM resonators are 0.0004% and 0

  7. A new method for wideband characterization of resonator-based sensing platforms.

    PubMed

    Munir, Farasat; Wathen, Adam; Hunt, William D

    2011-03-01

    A new approach to the electronic instrumentation for extracting data from resonator-based sensing devices (e.g., microelectromechanical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, and acoustic) is suggested and demonstrated here. Traditionally, oscillator-based circuitry is employed to monitor shift in the resonance frequency of the resonator. These circuits give a single point measurement at the frequency where the oscillation criterion is met. However, the resonator response itself is broadband and contains much more information than a single point measurement. Here, we present a method for the broadband characterization of a resonator using white noise as an excitation signal. The resonator is used in a two-port filter configuration, and the resonator output is subjected to frequency spectrum analysis. The result is a wideband spectral map analogous to the magnitude of the S21 parameters of a conventional filter. Compared to other sources for broadband excitation (e.g., frequency chirp, multisine, or narrow time domain pulse), the white noise source requires no design of the input signal and is readily available for very wide bandwidths (1 MHz-3 GHz). Moreover, it offers simplicity in circuit design as it does not require precise impedance matching; whereas such requirements are very strict for oscillator-based circuit systems, and can be difficult to fulfill. This results in a measurement system that does not require calibration, which is a significant advantage over oscillator circuits. Simulation results are first presented for verification of the proposed system, followed by measurement results with a prototype implementation. A 434 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator and a 5 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are measured using the proposed method, and the results are compared to measurements taken by a conventional bench-top network analyzer. Maximum relative differences in the measured resonance frequencies of the SAW and QCM resonators are 0.0004% and 0

  8. A new method for wideband characterization of resonator-based sensing platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Munir, Farasat; Wathen, Adam; Hunt, William D.

    2011-03-15

    A new approach to the electronic instrumentation for extracting data from resonator-based sensing devices (e.g., microelectromechanical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, and acoustic) is suggested and demonstrated here. Traditionally, oscillator-based circuitry is employed to monitor shift in the resonance frequency of the resonator. These circuits give a single point measurement at the frequency where the oscillation criterion is met. However, the resonator response itself is broadband and contains much more information than a single point measurement. Here, we present a method for the broadband characterization of a resonator using white noise as an excitation signal. The resonator is used in a two-port filter configuration, and the resonator output is subjected to frequency spectrum analysis. The result is a wideband spectral map analogous to the magnitude of the S21 parameters of a conventional filter. Compared to other sources for broadband excitation (e.g., frequency chirp, multisine, or narrow time domain pulse), the white noise source requires no design of the input signal and is readily available for very wide bandwidths (1 MHz-3 GHz). Moreover, it offers simplicity in circuit design as it does not require precise impedance matching; whereas such requirements are very strict for oscillator-based circuit systems, and can be difficult to fulfill. This results in a measurement system that does not require calibration, which is a significant advantage over oscillator circuits. Simulation results are first presented for verification of the proposed system, followed by measurement results with a prototype implementation. A 434 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator and a 5 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are measured using the proposed method, and the results are compared to measurements taken by a conventional bench-top network analyzer. Maximum relative differences in the measured resonance frequencies of the SAW and QCM resonators are 0.0004% and 0

  9. Resonant characteristics and sensitivity dependency on the contact surface in QCM-micropillar-based system of coupled resonator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashan, M. A. M.; Kalavally, V.; Lee, H. W.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    We report the characteristics and sensitivity dependence over the contact surface in coupled resonating sensors (CRSs) made of high aspect ratio resonant micropillars attached to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Through experiments and simulation, we observed that when the pillars of resonant heights were placed in maximum displacement regions the resonance frequency of the QCM increased following the coupled resonance characteristics, as the pillar offered elastic loading to the QCM surface. However, the same pillars when placed in relatively lower displacement regions, in spite of their resonant dimension, offered inertial loading and resulted in a decrease in QCM resonance frequency, as the displacement amplitude was insufficient to couple the vibrations from the QCM to the pillars. Accordingly, we discovered that the coupled resonance characteristics not only depend on the resonant structure dimensions but also on the contact regions in the acoustic device. Further analysis revealed that acoustic pressure at the contact surface also influences the resonance frequency characteristics and sensitivity of the CRS. To demonstrate the significance of the present finding for sensing applications, humidity sensing is considered as the example measurand. When a sensing medium made of resonant SU-8 pillars was placed in a maximum displacement region on a QCM surface, the sensitivity increased by 14 times in comparison to a resonant sensing medium placed in a lower displacement region of a QCM surface.

  10. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues. PMID:27424898

  11. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues.

  12. Capacitor-based detection of nuclear magnetization: nuclear quadrupole resonance of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž; Kvasić, Ivan; Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko; Strle, Drago; Muševič, Igor

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate excitation and detection of nuclear magnetization in a nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) experiment with a parallel plate capacitor, where the sample is located between the two capacitor plates and not in a coil as usually. While the sensitivity of this capacitor-based detection is found lower compared to an optimal coil-based detection of the same amount of sample, it becomes comparable in the case of very thin samples and even advantageous in the proximity of conducting bodies. This capacitor-based setup may find its application in acquisition of NQR signals from the surface layers on conducting bodies or in a portable tightly integrated nuclear magnetic resonance sensor.

  13. Carbon nanotube-based electromagnetic band gap resonator for CH4 gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismaru, Alina; Aldrigo, Martino; Radoi, Antonio; Dragoman, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the microwave frequency range using an electromagnetic band gap (EMBG) resonator covered with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and dedicated to CH4 gas detection. The multi-walled CNTs layer is decorated with gold nanoislands (with sizes between 2 nm and 20 nm) and deposited over the EMBG resonator. The microwave measurements of the CNT-based EMBG resonator in air (no gas) and kept for 60 min inside the chamber filled with CH4 demonstrate a shift in the resonance frequency of about 139 MHz and a phase shift of about 9.63°. A very good sensitivity of about 4.58% was obtained from scattering parameters measurements. A new device for CH4 detection was then fabricated and tested.

  14. Theoretical model and optimization of a novel temperature sensor based on quartz tuning fork resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xu; Bo, You; Xin, Li; Juan, Cui

    2007-12-01

    To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm °C-1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 °C.

  15. Nanomechanical mass sensing and stiffness spectrometry based on two-dimensional vibrations of resonant nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Ramos, Daniel; Martínez, Javier; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; García, Ricardo; San Paulo, Alvaro; Calleja, Montserrat; Tamayo, Javier

    2010-09-01

    One-dimensional nanomechanical resonators based on nanowires and nanotubes have emerged as promising candidates for mass sensors. When the resonator is clamped at one end and the atoms or molecules being measured land on the other end (which is free to vibrate), the resonance frequency of the device decreases by an amount that is proportional to the mass of the atoms or molecules. However, atoms and molecules can land at any position along the resonator, and many biomolecules have sizes that are comparable to the size of the resonator, so the relationship between the added mass and the frequency shift breaks down. Moreover, whereas resonators fabricated by top-down methods tend to vibrate in just one dimension because they are usually shaped like diving boards, perfectly axisymmetric one-dimensional nanoresonators can support flexural vibrations with the same amplitude and frequency in two dimensions. Here, we propose a new approach to mass sensing and stiffness spectroscopy based on the fact that the nanoresonator will enter a superposition state of two orthogonal vibrations with different frequencies when this symmetry is broken. Measuring these frequencies allows the mass, stiffness and azimuthal arrival direction of the adsorbate to be determined.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance-based immunoassay for procalcitonin.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Barth, Eberhard; Luong, John H T

    2016-09-28

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been developed for rapid immunoassay of procalcitonin (PCT) with high detection sensitivity and reproducibility. The 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)-activated protein A (PrA), diluted in 1% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was dispensed on a KOH-treated Au-coated SPR chip, resulting in the covalent binding of PrA in 30 min. This "single-step" PrA immobilization strategy led to the oriented binding of the anti-PCT antibody (Ab) on a PrA-functionalized gold (Au) chip. The leach-proof immobilization procedure is five-fold faster than conventional counterparts, enabling high detection specificity and reproducibility. The IA detects 4-324 ng mL(-1) of PCT with a limit of detection (LOD) and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 4.2 ng mL(-1) and 9.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. It was capable of detecting PCT in real sample matrices and patient samples with high precision. The Ab-bound SPR chips were stable for more than five weeks.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance-based immunoassay for procalcitonin.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Barth, Eberhard; Luong, John H T

    2016-09-28

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor has been developed for rapid immunoassay of procalcitonin (PCT) with high detection sensitivity and reproducibility. The 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)-activated protein A (PrA), diluted in 1% (v/v) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was dispensed on a KOH-treated Au-coated SPR chip, resulting in the covalent binding of PrA in 30 min. This "single-step" PrA immobilization strategy led to the oriented binding of the anti-PCT antibody (Ab) on a PrA-functionalized gold (Au) chip. The leach-proof immobilization procedure is five-fold faster than conventional counterparts, enabling high detection specificity and reproducibility. The IA detects 4-324 ng mL(-1) of PCT with a limit of detection (LOD) and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 4.2 ng mL(-1) and 9.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. It was capable of detecting PCT in real sample matrices and patient samples with high precision. The Ab-bound SPR chips were stable for more than five weeks. PMID:27619095

  18. Orbit-based analysis of resonant excitations of Alfvén waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwage, Andreas; Shinohara, Kouji

    2014-11-15

    The exponential growth phase of fast-ion-driven Alfvénic instabilities is simulated and the resonant wave-particle interactions are analyzed numerically. The simulations are carried out in realistic magnetic geometry and with a realistic particle distribution for a JT-60U plasma driven by negative-ion-based neutral beams. In order to deal with the large magnetic drifts of the fast ions, two new mapping methods are developed and applied. The first mapping yields the radii and pitch angles at the points, where the unperturbed orbit of a particle intersects the mid-plane. These canonical coordinates allow to express analysis results (e.g., drive profiles and resonance widths) in a form that is easy to understand and directly comparable to the radial mode structure. The second mapping yields the structure of the wave field along the particle trajectory. This allows us to unify resonance conditions for trapped and passing particles, determine which harmonics are driven, and which orders of the resonance are involved. This orbit-based resonance analysis (ORA) method is applied to fast-ion-driven instabilities with toroidal mode numbers n = 1-3. After determining the order and width of each resonance, the kinetic compression of resonant particles and the effect of linear resonance overlap are examined. On the basis of the ORA results, implications for the fully nonlinear regime, for the long-time evolution of the system in the presence of a fast ion source, and for the interpretation of experimental observations are discussed.

  19. Demonstration of submersible high-throughput microfluidic immunosensors for underwater explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Adams, André A; Charles, Paul T; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2011-11-15

    Significant security threats posed by highly energetic nitroaromatic compounds in aquatic environments and the demilitarization and pending cleanup of areas previously used for munitions manufacture and storage represent a challenge for less expensive, faster, and more sensitive systems capable of analyzing groundwater and seawater samples for trace levels of explosive materials. Presented here is an inexpensive high throughput microfluidic immunosensor (HTMI) platform intended for the rapid, highly selective quantitation of nitroaromatic compounds in the field. Immunoaffinity and fluorescence detection schemes were implemented in tandem on a novel microfluidic device containing 39 parallel microchannels that were 500 μm tall, 250 μm wide, and 2.54 cm long with covalently tethered antibodies that was engineered for high-throughput high-volume sample processing. The devices were produced via a combination of high precision micromilling and hot embossing. Mass transfer limitations were found in conventional microsystems and were minimized due to higher surface area to volume ratios that exceeded those possessed by conventional microdevices and capillaries. Until now, these assays were limited to maximum total volume flow rates of ~1 mL/min due in part to kinetics and high head pressures of single microchannels. In the design demonstrated here, highly parallelized microchannels afforded up to a 100-fold increase in total volume flow rate while maintaining favorable kinetic constraints for efficient antigen-antibody interaction. The assay employed total volume throughput of up to 6 mL/min while yielding signal-to-noise ratios of >15 in all cases. In addition to samples being processed up to 60 times faster than in conventional displacement-based immunoassays, the current system was capable of quantitating 0.01 ng/mL TNT samples without implementing offline preconcentration, thereby, demonstrating the ability to improve sensitivity by as much as 2 orders of magnitude

  20. Portable optical immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of microcystin-LR in water samples.

    PubMed

    Long, F; He, M; Zhu, A N; Shi, H C

    2009-04-15

    Fast and sensitive detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was conducted with a portable trace organic pollutant analyzer (TOPA) based on the principle of immunoassay and total internal reflection fluorescence. The reusable fiber optic probe surface was produced by covalently immobilizing a MC-LR-ovalbumin (MC-LR-OVA) conjugate onto a self-assembled thiol-silane monolayer of fiber optic probe through a heterobifunctional reagent. It has been established that the MC-LR-OVA immobilized fiber optic probe is highly resistive to non-specific binding of proteins, while bound anti-MC-LR antibody can easily be eluted from the immunosurface with high recoveries (more than 150 assay cycles) in the way of pepsin solution, without any damage to the surface-immobilized MC-LR derivatives. One assay cycle including surface regeneration was less than 20 min. For the standard curve, the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.03 microg/L and the quantitative detection range of 0.1-10.1 microg/L was obtained when the concentration of antibody labeled by Cy5.5 was 0.28 microg/mL. Cross-reactivity against a few compounds structurally similar to MC-LR was little. The developed immunosensor method was applied to the monitoring of MC-LR in various types of water. The recovery of MC-LR added to water samples at different concentrations ranged from 80 to 110% with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values less than 5%. The immunoassay performance of the TOPA was validated with respect to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography, and the correlation between methods was in good agreement (r(2)=0.9978). The TOPA is a portable, easy-to-use, and robust immunoassay system and commercially obtained from the company JQ-environ Co. Ltd. (China). PMID:19153038

  1. Demonstration of submersible high-throughput microfluidic immunosensors for underwater explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Adams, André A; Charles, Paul T; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2011-11-15

    Significant security threats posed by highly energetic nitroaromatic compounds in aquatic environments and the demilitarization and pending cleanup of areas previously used for munitions manufacture and storage represent a challenge for less expensive, faster, and more sensitive systems capable of analyzing groundwater and seawater samples for trace levels of explosive materials. Presented here is an inexpensive high throughput microfluidic immunosensor (HTMI) platform intended for the rapid, highly selective quantitation of nitroaromatic compounds in the field. Immunoaffinity and fluorescence detection schemes were implemented in tandem on a novel microfluidic device containing 39 parallel microchannels that were 500 μm tall, 250 μm wide, and 2.54 cm long with covalently tethered antibodies that was engineered for high-throughput high-volume sample processing. The devices were produced via a combination of high precision micromilling and hot embossing. Mass transfer limitations were found in conventional microsystems and were minimized due to higher surface area to volume ratios that exceeded those possessed by conventional microdevices and capillaries. Until now, these assays were limited to maximum total volume flow rates of ~1 mL/min due in part to kinetics and high head pressures of single microchannels. In the design demonstrated here, highly parallelized microchannels afforded up to a 100-fold increase in total volume flow rate while maintaining favorable kinetic constraints for efficient antigen-antibody interaction. The assay employed total volume throughput of up to 6 mL/min while yielding signal-to-noise ratios of >15 in all cases. In addition to samples being processed up to 60 times faster than in conventional displacement-based immunoassays, the current system was capable of quantitating 0.01 ng/mL TNT samples without implementing offline preconcentration, thereby, demonstrating the ability to improve sensitivity by as much as 2 orders of magnitude

  2. Detection of Low Levels of Listeria monocytogenes Cells by Using a Fiber-Optic Immunosensor

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tao; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2004-01-01

    Biosensor technology has a great potential to meet the need for sensitive and nearly real-time microbial detection from foods. An antibody-based fiber-optic biosensor to detect low levels of Listeria monocytogenes cells following an enrichment step was developed. The principle of the sensor is a sandwich immunoassay where a rabbit polyclonal antibody was first immobilized on polystyrene fiber waveguides through a biotin-streptavidin reaction to capture Listeria cells on the fiber. Capture of cells on the fibers was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. A cyanine 5-labeled murine monoclonal antibody, C11E9, was used to generate a specific fluorescent signal, which was acquired by launching a 635-nm laser light from an Analyte 2000 and collected by a photodetector at 670 to 710 nm. This immunosensor was specific for L. monocytogenes and showed a significantly higher signal strength than for other Listeria species or other microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, Lactobacillus plantarum, Carnobacterium gallinarum, Hafnia alvei, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, in pure or in mixed-culture setup. Fiber-optic results could be obtained within 2.5 h of sampling. The sensitivity threshold was about 4.3 × 103 CFU/ml for a pure culture of L. monocytogenes grown at 37°C. When L. monocytogenes was mixed with lactic acid bacteria or grown at 10°C with 3.5% NaCl, the detection threshold was 4.1 × 104 or 2.8 × 107 CFU/ml, respectively. In less than 24 h, this method could detect L. monocytogenes in hot dog or bologna naturally contaminated or artificially inoculated with 10 to 1,000 CFU/g after enrichment in buffered Listeria enrichment broth. PMID:15466560

  3. Nanophotonic graphene-based racetrack-resonator add/drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth L., A.; da Silva, M. G.; Neves, D. M. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We are presenting and analyzing a graphene-based nanophotonic device to operate as a resonator-add/drop filter, whose control is obtained by varying the graphene chemical potential. That device consists of graphene-based waveguides, two directional couplers and a racetrack resonator with 90° bends. Since the graphene chemical potential provides the achievement of the necessary parameters, the resonance and filtering of the signals are obtained by applying the correct value of the graphene chemical potential in the graphene nanoribbons. The results of this study should help in the development of new graphene-based nanophotonic devices operating in the terahertz and infrared range (including in the C-band of the International Telecommunication Union - ITU), for use in future communications networks.

  4. MMI resonators based on metal mirrors and MMI mirrors: an experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, Matteo; Ylinen, Sami; Harjanne, Mikko; Kapulainen, Markku; Aalto, Timo

    2015-03-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental proof of MMI-based resonators. The resonators have been designed and fabricated on a micron-scale silicon photonics platform and are based on different reflectors suitably placed on two of the four ports of 2x2 MMIs with uneven splitting ratios, namely 85:15 and 72:28. The reflectors are either based on aluminum mirrors or on all-dielectric MMI mirrors. Performances of the different designs are compared with each other and with numerical simulations. Finesse values as high as 13.1 (9.9) have been measured in best aluminum (all-dielectric) resonators, corresponding to a quality factor of 5.8·10(3) (12.5·10(3)) and mirror reflectivity exceeding 92% (88%).

  5. A Label-Free Impedance Immunosensor Using Screen-Printed Interdigitated Electrodes and Magnetic Nanobeads for the Detection of E. coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ronghui; Lum, Jacob; Callaway, Zach; Lin, Jianhan; Bottje, Walter; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the leading bacterial pathogens causing foodborne illness. In this study, an impedance immunosensor based on the use of magnetic nanobeads and screen-printed interdigitated electrodes was developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Magnetic nanobeads coated with anti-E. coli antibody were mixed with an E. coli sample and used to isolate and concentrate the bacterial cells. The sample was suspended in redox probe solution and placed onto a screen-printed interdigitated electrode. A magnetic field was applied to concentrate the cells on the surface of the electrode and the impedance was measured. The impedance immunosensor could detect E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 104.45 cfu·mL−1 (~1400 bacterial cells in the applied volume of 25 μL) in less than 1 h without pre-enrichment. A linear relationship between bacteria concentration and impedance value was obtained between 104 cfu·mL−1 and 107 cfu·mL−1. Though impedance measurement was carried out in the presence of a redox probe, analysis of the equivalent circuit model showed that the impedance change was primarily due to two elements: Double layer capacitance and resistance due to electrode surface roughness. The magnetic field and impedance were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. PMID:26694478

  6. A Label-Free Impedance Immunosensor Using Screen-Printed Interdigitated Electrodes and Magnetic Nanobeads for the Detection of E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghui; Lum, Jacob; Callaway, Zach; Lin, Jianhan; Bottje, Walter; Li, Yanbin

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the leading bacterial pathogens causing foodborne illness. In this study, an impedance immunosensor based on the use of magnetic nanobeads and screen-printed interdigitated electrodes was developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Magnetic nanobeads coated with anti-E. coli antibody were mixed with an E. coli sample and used to isolate and concentrate the bacterial cells. The sample was suspended in redox probe solution and placed onto a screen-printed interdigitated electrode. A magnetic field was applied to concentrate the cells on the surface of the electrode and the impedance was measured. The impedance immunosensor could detect E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 10(4.45) cfu·mL(-1) (~1400 bacterial cells in the applied volume of 25 μL) in less than 1 h without pre-enrichment. A linear relationship between bacteria concentration and impedance value was obtained between 10(4.45) cfu·mL(-1) and 10(7) cfu·mL(-1). Though impedance measurement was carried out in the presence of a redox probe, analysis of the equivalent circuit model showed that the impedance change was primarily due to two elements: Double layer capacitance and resistance due to electrode surface roughness. The magnetic field and impedance were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. PMID:26694478

  7. Poly(dopamine) coated gold nanocluster functionalized electrochemical immunosensor for brominated flame retardants using multienzyme-labeling carbon hollow nanochains as signal amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mouhong; Liu, Yingju; Chen, Xiaofen; Fei, Shidong; Ni, Chunlin; Fang, Yueping; Liu, Chengbin; Cai, Qingyun

    2013-07-15

    An electrochemical, signal amplified immunosensor was developed to detect 3-bromobiphenyl (BBP) by using a bio-inspired polydopamine (PDOP)/gold nanocluster (AuNc) as the sensor platform and multienzyme-labeled carbon hollow nanochains as the signal amplifier. The self-polymerized dopamine membrane on the AuNc-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle and electrochemical measurements. Such PDOP/AuNc platform featured the mild cross-linking reaction with the dense immobilization of BBP-antigens (BBP-Ag). Moreover, by using multiple horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and secondary antibodies (Ab2) modified one-dimensional carbon hollow nanochains (CHNc) as the signal enhancer, it held promise for improving the sensitivity and detection limit of the immunoassay. Based on the competitive immunoassay protocol, this immunosensor showed a linear range from 1 pM to 2 nM for BBP with a detection limit of 0.5 pM. Also, it exhibited high sensitivity, wide linear range, acceptable stability and reproducibility on a promising immobilization platform using a novel signal amplifier, which may extend its application in other environmental monitoring. PMID:23455046

  8. Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor using poly(l-histidine)-protected glucose dehydrogenase on Pt/Au bimetallic nanoparticles to generate an in situ co-reactant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lijuan; Chai, Yaqin; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-08-21

    In this work, Pt/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt/Au NPs) were used as nanocarriers to develop an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for sensitive cardiac troponin I (cTnI) detection, coupling with enzyme-based signal amplification. First, gold nanoparticles modified Ru(phen)3(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles (Au@RuSiO2 NPs) with numerous luminophores were used as a platform, potentially increasing the signal intensity. Second, Pt/Au NPs with large surface area and rich surface atoms were a superior matrix for the immobilization of numerous antibodies (Ab2), poly(l-histidine) (PLH) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). More importantly, the PLH-protected GDH exhibited excellent enzymatic activity for the oxidation of glucose accompanied by the reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. The in situ generated NADH acted as a co-reactant of Ru(phen)3(2+), significantly enhancing the ECL signal. In this manner, the designed immunosensor displayed high sensitivity for the detection of cTnI in the range of 0.010 ng mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3.3 pg mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The proposed strategy holds a new promise for highly sensitive bioassays for application in clinical analyses. PMID:24940578

  9. A Label-Free Impedance Immunosensor Using Screen-Printed Interdigitated Electrodes and Magnetic Nanobeads for the Detection of E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghui; Lum, Jacob; Callaway, Zach; Lin, Jianhan; Bottje, Walter; Li, Yanbin

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the leading bacterial pathogens causing foodborne illness. In this study, an impedance immunosensor based on the use of magnetic nanobeads and screen-printed interdigitated electrodes was developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Magnetic nanobeads coated with anti-E. coli antibody were mixed with an E. coli sample and used to isolate and concentrate the bacterial cells. The sample was suspended in redox probe solution and placed onto a screen-printed interdigitated electrode. A magnetic field was applied to concentrate the cells on the surface of the electrode and the impedance was measured. The impedance immunosensor could detect E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 10(4.45) cfu·mL(-1) (~1400 bacterial cells in the applied volume of 25 μL) in less than 1 h without pre-enrichment. A linear relationship between bacteria concentration and impedance value was obtained between 10(4.45) cfu·mL(-1) and 10(7) cfu·mL(-1). Though impedance measurement was carried out in the presence of a redox probe, analysis of the equivalent circuit model showed that the impedance change was primarily due to two elements: Double layer capacitance and resistance due to electrode surface roughness. The magnetic field and impedance were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

  10. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based stoichiometry in living cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Adam; Christensen, Kenneth; Swanson, Joel A

    2002-01-01

    Imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescently labeled molecules can measure the timing and location of intermolecular interactions inside living cells. Present microscopic methods measure FRET in arbitrary units, and cannot discriminate FRET efficiency and the fractions of donor and acceptor in complex. Here we describe a stoichiometric method that uses three microscopic fluorescence images to measure FRET efficiency, the relative concentrations of donor and acceptor, and the fractions of donor and acceptor in complex in living cells. FRET stoichiometry derives from the concept that specific donor-acceptor complexes will give rise to a characteristic FRET efficiency, which, if measured, can allow stoichiometric discrimination of interacting components. A first equation determines FRET efficiency and the fraction of acceptor molecules in complex with donor. A second equation determines the fraction of donor molecules in complex by estimating the donor fluorescence lost due to energy transfer. This eliminates the need for acceptor photobleaching to determine total donor concentrations and allows for repeated measurements from the same cell. A third equation obtains the ratio of total acceptor to total donor molecules. The theory and method were confirmed by microscopic measurements of fluorescence from cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), citrine, and linked CFP-Citrine fusion protein, in solutions and inside cells. Together, the methods derived from these equations allow sensitive, rapid, and repeatable detection of donor-, acceptor-, and donor-acceptor complex stoichiometry at each pixel in an image. By accurately imaging molecular interactions, FRET stoichiometry opens new areas for quantitative study of intracellular molecular networks. PMID:12496132

  11. Investigation based on nano-electromechanical system double Si3N4 resonant beam pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan; Guo, Can; Yuan, Xiaowei

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a type of NEMS (Nano-Electromechanical System) double Si3N4 resonant beams pressure sensor. The mathematical models are established in allusion to the Si3N4 resonant beams and pressure sensitive diaphragm. The distribution state of stress has been analyzed theoretically based on the mathematical model of pressure sensitive diaphragm; from the analysis result, the position of the Si3N4 resonant beams above the pressure sensitive diaphragm was optimized and then the dominance observed after the double resonant beams are adopted is illustrated. From the analysis result, the position of the Si3N4 resonant beams above the pressure sensitive diaphragm is optimized, illustrating advantages in the adoption of double resonant beams. The capability of the optimized sensor was generally analyzed using the ANSYS software of finite element analysis. The range of measured pressure is 0-400 Kpa, the coefficient of linearity correlation is 0.99346, and the sensitivity of the sensor is 498.24 Hz/Kpa, higher than the traditional sensors. Finally the processing techniques of the sensor chip have been designed with sample being successfully processed.

  12. Experimental study of intense radiation in terahertz region based on cylindrical surface wave resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Shaoyan; Ogura, Kazuo; Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Nomizu, Shintaro; Shirai, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Kosuke; Kawamura, Jun; Miura, Takuro; Takanashi, Sho; San, Min Thu

    2015-09-28

    Periodical corrugations structured on a cylindrical conductor have cylindrical surface waves (CSWs), which are reflected at the corrugation ends and form a CSW-resonator. In this paper, intense radiations in terahertz region based on the CSW-resonator are reported. The CSW-resonators with upper cut off frequencies in the modern IEEE G-band (110–300 GHz) are excited by a coaxially injected annular beam in a weakly relativistic region less than 100 kV. It is shown that there exists an oscillation starting energy for the CSW-resonator. Above the starting energy, very intense terahertz radiations on the order of kW are obtained. The operation frequencies in the range of 166–173 GHz and 182–200 GHz are obtained using two types of CSW-resonator with the different corrugation amplitude. Electromagnetic properties of the CSW-resonator can be controlled by the artificial structure and may play an important role in high-intensity terahertz generations and applications.

  13. Dual wavelength demultiplexer based on metal-insulator-metal plasmonic circular ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhshani, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigated a plasmonic demultiplexer structure based on Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguides and circular ring resonators. In order to achieve the structure of demultiplexer, two improved ring resonators have been used, which input and outputs MIM waveguides coupled by the ring resonators. To improve the transmission efficiency, a reflector was introduced at the right end of the input and output waveguides. By substituting the ring core with dielectric, the possibility of tuning the resonance wavelength of the proposed structure is illustrated, and the effect of various parameters such as radius and refractive index in transmission efficiency is studied in detail. This is useful for the design of integrated circuits in which it is not possible to extend the dimension of the ring resonator to attain a longer resonance wavelength. Transmission efficiency and quality factor of the single ring are 84% and 110, respectively. The simulation results using finite difference time domain method shows that in the proposed demultiplexer, which is composed of two rings with different core refractive indexes, the average power efficiency, bandwidth for each output channel, and the mean value of crosstalk are estimated 80%, 17 nm, and -26.95 dB, respectively. It is revealed that the significant features of the device are high transmission efficiency, low crosstalk, high-quality factor, and tunability for desired wavelengths. Therefore, the proposed structure has the potential to be applied in plasmonic integrated circuits.

  14. A super narrow band filter based on silicon 2D photonic crystal resonator and reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Deyuan; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Juebin; Tao, Shangbin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of super narrow band filter based on two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods in air for 1.5 um communication is proposed and studied. COMSOL Multiphysics4.3b software is used to simulate the optical behavior of the filter. The filter consists of one point-defect-based resonator and two line-defect-based reflectors. The resonance frequency, transmission coefficient and quality factor are investigated by varying the parameters of the structure. In design, a silicon rod is removed to form the resonator; for the rows of rods above and below the resonator, a part of the rods are removed to form the reflectors. By optimizing the parameters of the filter, the quality factor and transmission coefficient of the filter at the resonance frequency of 2e14 Hz can reach 1330 and 0.953, respectively. The super narrow band filter can be integrated into optical circuit for its micron size. Also, it can be used for wavelength selection and noise filtering of optical amplifier in future communication application.

  15. Power-efficient oscillator-based readout circuit for multichannel resonant volatile sensors.

    PubMed

    Pettine, Julia; Petrescu, Violeta; Karabacak, Devrez Mehmet; Vandecasteele, Marianne; Crego-Calama, Mercedes; Van Hoof, Chris

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a multichannel electronic nose system that enables a range of novel applications owing to high sensitivity, low form factor and low power consumption. Each channel is based on a combination of doubly-clamped piezoelectric MEMS resonators and CMOS oscillator-based readout designed in TSMC 0.25 μm technology. Using "application specific" polymer coatings, the individual resonators can be tuned to detect mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system achieves ppm-level theoretical limit of detection for ethanol which paves the way towards a broad range of applications such as personalized health and environment air quality.

  16. Design method for a distributed Bragg resonator based evanescent field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischof, David; Kehl, Florian; Michler, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an analytic design method for a distributed Bragg resonator based evanescent field sensor. Such sensors can, for example, be used to measure changing refractive indices of the cover medium of a waveguide, as well as molecule adsorption at the sensor surface. For given starting conditions, the presented design method allows the analytical calculation of optimized sensor parameters for quantitative simulation and fabrication. The design process is based on the Fabry-Pérot resonator and analytical solutions of coupled mode theory.

  17. Laterally vibrating resonator based elasto-optic modulation in aluminum nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Piazza, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    An integrated strain-based optical modulator driven by a piezoelectric laterally vibrating resonator is demonstrated. The composite structure consists of an acoustic Lamb wave resonator, in which a photonic racetrack resonator is internally embedded to enable overlap of the guided optical mode with the induced strain field. Both types of resonators are defined in an aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film, which rests upon a layer of silicon dioxide in order to simultaneously define optical waveguides, and the structure is released from a silicon substrate. Lateral vibrations produced by the acoustic resonator are transferred through a partially etched layer of AlN, producing a change in the effective index of the guided wave through the interaction of the strain components with the AlN elasto-optic (p) coefficients. Optical modulation through the elasto-optic effect is demonstrated at electromechanically actuated frequencies of 173 MHz and 843 MHz. This device geometry further enables the development of MEMS-based optical modulators in addition to studying elasto-optic interactions in suspended piezoelectric thin films.

  18. Pattern Recognition-Based Approach for Identifying Metabolites in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Abhinav; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Pal, Debnath; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2015-07-21

    Identification and assignments of metabolites is an important step in metabolomics and is necessary for the discovery of new biomarkers. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based studies, the conventional approach involves a database search, wherein chemical shifts are assigned to specific metabolites by use of a tolerance limit. This is inefficient because deviation in chemical shifts associated with pH or temperature variations, as well as missing peaks, impairs a robust comparison with the database. We propose here a novel method based on matching the pattern of peaks rather than absolute tolerance thresholds, using a combination of geometric hashing and similarity scoring techniques. Tests with 719 metabolites from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) show that 100% of the metabolites can be assigned correctly when accurate data are available. A high success rate is obtained even in the presence of large chemical shift deviations such as 0.5 ppm in (1)H and 3 ppm in (13)C and missing peaks (up to 50%), compared to nearly no assignments obtained under these conditions with existing methods that employ a direct database search approach. The method was evaluated on experimental data on a mixture of 16 metabolites at eight different combinations of pH and temperature conditions. The pattern recognition approach thus helps in identification and assignment of metabolites independent of the pH, temperature, and ionic strength used, thereby obviating the need for spectral calibration with internal or external standards.

  19. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    A-prototype explosives detection system that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear resonance absorption techniques is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection- alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  20. Multicoil resonance-based parallel array for smart wireless power delivery.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S A; Sawan, M; Gosselin, B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel resonance-based multicoil structure as a smart power surface to wirelessly power up apparatus like mobile, animal headstage, implanted devices, etc. The proposed powering system is based on a 4-coil resonance-based inductive link, the resonance coil of which is formed by an array of several paralleled coils as a smart power transmitter. The power transmitter employs simple circuit connections and includes only one power driver circuit per multicoil resonance-based array, which enables higher power transfer efficiency and power delivery to the load. The power transmitted by the driver circuit is proportional to the load seen by the individual coil in the array. Thus, the transmitted power scales with respect to the load of the electric/electronic system to power up, and does not divide equally over every parallel coils that form the array. Instead, only the loaded coils of the parallel array transmit significant part of total transmitted power to the receiver. Such adaptive behavior enables superior power, size and cost efficiency then other solutions since it does not need to use complex detection circuitry to find the location of the load. The performance of the proposed structure is verified by measurement results. Natural load detection and covering 4 times bigger area than conventional topologies with a power transfer efficiency of 55% are the novelties of presented paper.