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Sample records for resonance imaging detected

  1. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  2. Detection of atherosclerosis via magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew L.; Pytlewski, Victor T.; Brown, Michael F.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    1992-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of atherosclerotic lipids using a stimulated-echo diffusion- weighted (STED) sequence is demonstrated. The STED sequence exploits the large difference in diffusion between lipid (primarily cholesteryl ester) and water. The optimization of the STED sequence is discussed. The results of lipid imaging are corroborated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This technique is non-invasive, and therefore, it is potentially useful in following the progression of the disease in animal models and in humans.

  3. Solid state proton imaging detected by quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Perlo, J; Casanova, F; Robert, H; Pusiol, D J

    2001-06-01

    A double resonance method for imaging of solid materials containing quadrupole nuclei via the coupled protons is reported. The technique uses a static field gradient to encode the position on the protons and the method of double resonance spin-echo to detect the occurrence of proton resonances by affecting the zero-field echo signal from the quadrupole system. The double resonance imaging method offers the advantages of higher spatial resolution and straightforward image reconstruction for powder samples compared with rotating-frame and Zeeman-perturbated nuclear quadrupole resonance encoding techniques. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  5. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  6. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliarik, Marek; Párová, Lucie; Vaisocherová, Hana; Homola, Jiří

    2009-05-01

    We report a novel high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid and parallelized detection of protein biomarkers. The biosensor is based on a high-performance SPR imaging sensor with polarization contrast and internal referencing which yields a considerably higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional SPR imaging systems (refractive index resolution 2 × 10-7 RIU). We combined the SPR imaging biosensor with microspotting to create an array of antibodies. DNA-directed protein immobilization was utilized for the spatially resolved attachment of antibodies. Using Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) as model protein biomarker, we demonstrated the potential for simultaneous detection of proteins in up to 100 channels.

  7. Imaging of Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance of a Silicon Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki; Kamada, Hitoshi

    2001-11-01

    An imaging technique of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) was newly developed. Because the EDMR signal is obtained from paramagnetic recombination centers, one may expect the image to represent the distribution of defect and/or impurity sites in the sample. We successfully obtained EDMR images of a light-illuminated silicon plate 8 mm in width and 15 mm in length, which was cut from a silicon wafer (n-type, 100 Ω cm), under ESR irradiation at a frequency of 890 MHz (wavelength, 340 mm). The reproducibility of the EDMR image obtained from a sample was amply satisfactory. When the oxidized surface of the silicon was removed, the EDMR signal disappeared. Although the EDMR signal reappeared when the surface of the sample became reoxidized, the EDMR image obtained was slightly different from the earlier one. This finding shows that the EDMR image obtained from the sample shows the distribution of defects at the Si/SiO2 interface.

  8. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography image enhancement for automatic disease detection.

    PubMed

    Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

    2010-07-28

    To sufficiently improve magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) quality to enable reliable computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). A set of image enhancement strategies that included filters (i.e. Gaussian, median, Wiener and Perona-Malik), wavelets (i.e. contourlet, ridgelet and a non-orthogonal noise compensation implementation), graph-cut approaches using lazy-snapping and Phase Unwrapping MAxflow, and binary thresholding using a fixed threshold and dynamic thresholding via histogram analysis were implemented to overcome the adverse characteristics of MRCP images such as acquisition noise, artifacts, partial volume effect and large inter- and intra-patient image intensity variations, all of which pose problems in application development. Subjective evaluation of several popular pre-processing techniques was undertaken to improve the quality of the 2D MRCP images and enhance the detection of the significant biliary structures within them, with the purpose of biliary disease detection. The results varied as expected since each algorithm capitalized on different characteristics of the images. For denoising, the Perona-Malik and contourlet approaches were found to be the most suitable. In terms of extraction of the significant biliary structures and removal of background, the thresholding approaches performed well. The interactive scheme performed the best, especially by using the strengths of the graph-cut algorithm enhanced by user-friendly lazy-snapping for foreground and background marker selection. Tests show promising results for some techniques, but not others, as viable image enhancement modules for automatic CAD systems for biliary and liver diseases.

  9. Imaging of electrically detected magnetic resonance of a silicon wafer.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Yokoyama, H; Ohya, H; Kamada, H

    2001-11-01

    An imaging technique of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) was newly developed. Because the EDMR signal is obtained from paramagnetic recombination centers, one may expect the image to represent the distribution of defect and/or impurity sites in the sample. We successfully obtained EDMR images of a light-illuminated silicon plate 8 mm in width and 15 mm in length, which was cut from a silicon wafer (n-type, 100 Omega cm), under ESR irradiation at a frequency of 890 MHz (wavelength, 340 mm). The reproducibility of the EDMR image obtained from a sample was amply satisfactory. When the oxidized surface of the silicon was removed, the EDMR signal disappeared. Although the EDMR signal reappeared when the surface of the sample became reoxidized, the EDMR image obtained was slightly different from the earlier one. This finding shows that the EDMR image obtained from the sample shows the distribution of defects at the Si/SiO(2) interface. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Detection of chemical waves by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzalmona, A.; Armstrong, R. L.; Menzinger, M.; Cross, A.; Lemaire, C.

    1990-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used for the first time to detect chemical waves in a nonlinear colourless medium. Observation of these self-organized spatial structures has been reported previously using traditional visual and optical techniques based on changes of light absorption. The ferroin-catalyzed Belousov—Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is the most studied example. MRI is widely used in medical and biological research to provide proton relaxation-time-weighted images using the spin-echo technique. In the present communication we demonstrate the capability of MRI for visualizing chemical waves in the Mn 2+-catalyzed BZ system. The dynamics of spiral waves in quasi-2D thin layers is followed and the meander motion of the spiral is examined. In three-dimensional reaction vessels we observe spherical waves and scroll rings.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  12. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography image enhancement for automatic disease detection

    PubMed Central

    Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To sufficiently improve magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) quality to enable reliable computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). METHODS: A set of image enhancement strategies that included filters (i.e. Gaussian, median, Wiener and Perona-Malik), wavelets (i.e. contourlet, ridgelet and a non-orthogonal noise compensation implementation), graph-cut approaches using lazy-snapping and Phase Unwrapping MAxflow, and binary thresholding using a fixed threshold and dynamic thresholding via histogram analysis were implemented to overcome the adverse characteristics of MRCP images such as acquisition noise, artifacts, partial volume effect and large inter- and intra-patient image intensity variations, all of which pose problems in application development. Subjective evaluation of several popular pre-processing techniques was undertaken to improve the quality of the 2D MRCP images and enhance the detection of the significant biliary structures within them, with the purpose of biliary disease detection. RESULTS: The results varied as expected since each algorithm capitalized on different characteristics of the images. For denoising, the Perona-Malik and contourlet approaches were found to be the most suitable. In terms of extraction of the significant biliary structures and removal of background, the thresholding approaches performed well. The interactive scheme performed the best, especially by using the strengths of the graph-cut algorithm enhanced by user-friendly lazy-snapping for foreground and background marker selection. CONCLUSION: Tests show promising results for some techniques, but not others, as viable image enhancement modules for automatic CAD systems for biliary and liver diseases. PMID:21160667

  13. Lesion detection in magnetic resonance brain images by hyperspectral imaging algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bai; Wang, Lin; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hsian Min; Chang, Chein-I.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) images can be considered as multispectral images so that MR imaging can be processed by multispectral imaging techniques such as maximum likelihood classification. Unfortunately, most multispectral imaging techniques are not particularly designed for target detection. On the other hand, hyperspectral imaging is primarily developed to address subpixel detection, mixed pixel classification for which multispectral imaging is generally not effective. This paper takes advantages of hyperspectral imaging techniques to develop target detection algorithms to find lesions in MR brain images. Since MR images are collected by only three image sequences, T1, T2 and PD, if a hyperspectral imaging technique is used to process MR images it suffers from the issue of insufficient dimensionality. To address this issue, two approaches to nonlinear dimensionality expansion are proposed, nonlinear correlation expansion and nonlinear band ratio expansion. Once dimensionality is expanded hyperspectral imaging algorithms are readily applied. The hyperspectral detection algorithm to be investigated for lesion detection in MR brain is the well-known subpixel target detection algorithm, called Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM). In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed CEM in lesion detection, synthetic images provided by BrainWeb are used for experiments.

  14. Diseased Region Detection of Longitudinal Knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shan, Liang; Charles, H. Cecil; Wirth, Wolfgang; Niethammer, Marc; Zhu, Hongtu

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important imaging technique for quantifying the spatial location and magnitude/direction of longitudinal cartilage morphology changes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Although several analytical methods, such as subregion-based analysis, have been developed to refine and improve quantitative cartilage analyses, they can be suboptimal due to two major issues: the lack of spatial correspondence across subjects and time and the spatial heterogeneity of cartilage progression across subjects. The aim of this paper is to present a statistical method for longitudinal cartilage quantification in OA patients, while addressing these two issues. The 3D knee image data is preprocessed to establish spatial correspondence across subjects and/or time. Then, a Gaussian hidden Markov model (GHMM) is proposed to deal with the spatial heterogeneity of cartilage progression across both time and OA subjects. To estimate unknown parameters in GHMM, we employ a pseudo-likelihood function and optimize it by using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The proposed model can effectively detect diseased regions in each OA subject and present a localized analysis of longitudinal cartilage thickness within each latent subpopulation. Our GHMM integrates the strengths of two standard statistical methods including the local subregion-based analysis and the ordered value approach. We use simulation studies and the Pfizer longitudinal knee MRI dataset to evaluate the finite sample performance of GHMM in the quantification of longitudinal cartilage morphology changes. Our results indicate that GHMM significantly outperforms several standard analytical methods. PMID:25823031

  15. Detection of inflammation following renal ischemia by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sang-Kyung; Hu, Xuzhen; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Lizak, Martin; Miyaji, Takehiko; Koretsky, Alan; Star, Robert A

    2003-07-01

    Determining the disease culprits in human acute renal failure (ARF) has been difficult because of the paucity of renal biopsies and the lack of noninvasive methods to determine the location or cause of renal injury. Recently, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles have been used to detect inflammation in animal models. Therefore, we tested if USPIO enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could detect inflammation in ischemic ARF in rats. Rats were subjected to 40 or 60 minutes of bilateral ischemia or injected with mercuric chloride. MR images were obtained before and 24 hours after USPIO injection, and the signal intensity decrease in the outer medulla was measured. Cells containing iron particles were identified by iron staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Leukocytes were identified by ED-1 and chloracetate esterase staining. Injection of USPIO particles caused a black band to appear in the outer medulla at 48, 72, and 120 hours after ischemia. This band was not detected in normal animals, 24 hours after ischemia, or 48 hours after mercuric chloride injection. The signal intensity change in the outer medulla correlated with serum creatinine and the number of iron particle containing cells. Most infiltrating cells were macrophages, and iron particles were present inside lysosomes of macrophages. USPIO injection did not alter renal function in normal or ischemic animals. USPIO-enhanced MRI could detect inflammation noninvasively from 48 hours after 40 or 60 minutes of renal ischemia in rats. This method might be useful to understand the pathogenesis of human ARF and to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory agents.

  16. Molecular Imaging of Activated Platelets Allows the Detection of Pulmonary Embolism with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heidt, Timo; Ehrismann, Simon; Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Neudorfer, Irene; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Reisert, Marco; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.; Zirlik, Andreas; Reinöhl, Jochen; Bode, Christoph; Peter, Karlheinz; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; von zur Muhlen, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Early and reliable detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) is critical for improving patient morbidity and mortality. The desire for low-threshold screening for pulmonary embolism is contradicted by unfavorable radiation of currently used computed tomography or nuclear techniques, while standard magnetic resonance imaging still struggles to provide sufficient diagnostic sensitivity in the lung. In this study we evaluate a molecular-targeted contrast agent against activated platelets for non-invasive detection of murine pulmonary thromboembolism using magnetic resonance imaging. By intravenous injection of human thrombin, pulmonary thromboembolism were consistently induced as confirmed by immunohistochemistry of the lung. Magnetic resonance imaging after thrombin injection showed local tissue edema in weighted images which co-localized with the histological presence of pulmonary thromboembolism. Furthermore, injection of a functionalized contrast agent targeting activated platelets provided sensitive evidence of focal accumulation of activated platelets within the edematous area, which, ex vivo, correlated well with the size of the pulmonary embolism. In summary, we here show delivery and specific binding of a functionalized molecular contrast agent against activated platelets for targeting pulmonary thromboembolism. Going forward, molecular imaging may provide new opportunities to increase sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging for detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:27138487

  17. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. SQUID-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MicroteslaFields

    SciTech Connect

    Moessle, Michael; Hatridge, Michael; Clarke, John

    2006-08-14

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed into a powerful clinical tool for imaging the human body (1). This technique is based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of protons (2, 3) in a static magnetic field B{sub 0}. An applied radiofrequency pulse causes the protons to precess about B{sub 0} at their Larmor frequency {nu}{sub 0} = ({gamma}/2{pi})B{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the gyromagnetic ratio; {gamma}/2{pi} = 42.58 MHz/tesla. The precessing protons generate an oscillating magnetic field and hence a voltage in a nearby coil that is amplified and recorded. The application of three-dimensional magnetic field gradients specifies a unique magnetic field and thus an NMR frequency in each voxel of the subject, so that with appropriate encoding of the signals one can acquire a complete image (4). Most clinical MRI systems involve magnetic fields generated by superconducting magnets, and the current trend is to higher magnetic fields than the widely used 1.5-T systems (5). Nonetheless, there is ongoing interest in the development of less expensive imagers operating at lower fields. Commercially available 0.2-T systems based on permanent magnets offer both lower cost and a more open access than their higher-field counterparts, at the expense of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution. At the still lower field of 0.03 mT maintained by a conventional, room-temperature solenoid, Connolly and co-workers (6, 7) obtain good spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by prepolarizing the protons in a field B{sub p} of 0.3 T. Prepolarization (8) enhances the magnetic moment of an ensemble of protons over that produced by the lower precession field; after the polarizing field is removed, the higher magnetic moment produces a correspondingly larger signal during its precession in B{sub 0}. Using the same method, Stepisnik et al. (9) obtained MR images in the Earth's magnetic field ({approx} 50 {micro}T). Alternatively, one can enhance the signal amplitude

  19. Mapping social target detection with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Felder, Jennifer N; Bodfish, James W; Sikich, Linmarie; Belger, Aysenil

    2009-03-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control and social processing functions, as well as the characteristic patterns of anomalous brain activation patterns in psychiatric conditions associated with impairment in these functions, have been well characterized. However, these domains have primarily been examined in isolation. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas recruited during a target-detection task designed to evaluate responses to both non-social (i.e. shape) and social (i.e. face) target stimuli. Both shape and face targets activated a similar brain network, including the postcentral gyrus, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri and the right midfrontal gyrus, whereas face targets additionally activated the thalamus, fusiform and temporooccipital cortex, lingual gyrus and paracingulate gyrus. Comparison of activations to social and non-social target events revealed that a small portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's area 32) and the supracalcarine cortex were preferentially activated to face targets. These findings indicate that non-social and social stimuli embedded within a cognitive control task activate overlapping and distinct brain regions. Clinical cognitive neuroscience research of disorders characterized by cognitive dysfunction and impaired social processing would benefit from the use of tasks that evaluate the combined effects of deficits in these two domains.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging detected prostate evasive anterior tumours: Further insights

    PubMed Central

    Edwan, Ghazi Al; Ghai, Sangeet; Margel, David; Kulkarni, Girish; Hamilton, Rob; Toi, Ants; Haidar, Masoom A.; Finelli, Antonio; Fleshner, Neil E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical confusion continues to exist regarding the underestimation of cancers among patients on active surveillance and among men with repeated negative prostate biopsies despite worrisome prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. We have previously described our initial experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based detection of tumours in the anterior prostate gland. In this report, we update and expand our experience with these tumours in terms of multiparametric-MRI findings, staging, and grading. Furthermore, we report early treatment outcomes with these unique cancers. Methods: We reviewed our prostate MRI dataset of 1117 cases from January 2006 until December 2012 and identified 189 patients who fulfilled criteria for prostate evasive anterior tumors (PEATS). Descriptive analyses were performed on multiple covariates. Kaplan-Meier actuarial technique was used to plot the treatment-related outcomes from PEATS tumours. Results: Among the 189 patients who had MRI-detectable anterior tumours, 148 had biopsy proven disease in the anterior zone. Among these tumours, the average PSA was 18.3 ng/mL and most cancers were Gleason 7. In total, 68 patients chose surgical therapy. Among these men, most of their cancers had extra prostatic extension and 46% had positive surgical margins. Interestingly, upgrading of tumours that were biopsy Gleason 6 in the anterior zone was common, with 59% exhibiting upgrading to Gleason 7 or higher. Biochemical-free survival among men who elected surgery was not ideal, with 20% failing by 20 months. Conclusion: PEATS tumours are found late and are disproportionally high grade tumours. Careful consideration to MRI testing should be given to men at risk for PEATS. PMID:26029293

  1. Enhancing magnetic resonance imaging tumor detection with fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, Ahmet; Hall, David; Hoh, Carl; Tran Cao, Hop S.; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Esener, Sadik; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael; Chen, James; Kesari, Santosh; Makale, Milan

    2010-11-01

    Early detection is important for many solid cancers but the images provided by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography applied alone or together, are often not sufficient for decisive early screening/diagnosis. We demonstrate that MRI augmented with fluorescence intensity (FI) substantially improves detection. Early stage murine pancreatic tumors that could not be identified by blinded, skilled observers using MRI alone, were easily identified with MRI along with FI images acquired with photomultiplier tube detection and offset laser scanning. Moreover, we show that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging enables positive identification of the labeling fluorophore and discriminates it from surrounding tissue autofluorescence. Our data suggest combined-modality imaging with MRI, FI, and FLT can be used to screen and diagnose early tumors.

  2. Utility of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging suspicion levels for detecting prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Turkbey, Baris; Stamatakis, Lambros; Logan, Jennifer; Hoang, Anthony N; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Vourganti, Srinivas; Truong, Hong; Kruecker, Jochen; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2013-11-01

    We determine the usefulness of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in detecting prostate cancer, with a specific focus on detecting higher grade prostate cancer. Prospectively 583 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent prostate biopsy at a single institution were evaluated. On multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, lesions were identified and scored as low, moderate or high suspicion for prostate cancer based on a validated scoring system. Magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion guided biopsies of magnetic resonance imaging lesions in addition to systematic 12-core biopsies were performed. Correlations between the highest assigned multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score and presence of cancer and biopsy Gleason score on the first fusion biopsy session were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value were calculated and ROC curves were developed to assess the discriminative ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool for various biopsy Gleason score cohorts. Significant correlations were found between age, prostate specific antigen, prostate volume, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score and the presence of prostate cancer (p<0.0001). On multivariate analyses controlling for age, prostate specific antigen and prostate volume, increasing multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging suspicion was an independent prognosticator of prostate cancer detection (OR 2.2, p<0.0001). Also, incremental increases in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score demonstrated stronger associations with cancer detection in patients with Gleason 7 or greater (OR 3.3, p<0.001) and Gleason 8 or greater (OR 4.2, p<0.0001) prostate cancer. Assessing multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool for all prostate cancer, biopsy

  3. Novel detection schemes of nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging: applications from analytical chemistry to molecular sensors.

    PubMed

    Harel, Elad; Schröder, Leif; Xu, Shoujun

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a well-established analytical technique in chemistry. The ability to precisely control the nuclear spin interactions that give rise to the NMR phenomenon has led to revolutionary advances in fields as diverse as protein structure determination and medical diagnosis. Here, we discuss methods for increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance experiments, moving away from the paradigm of traditional NMR by separating the encoding and detection steps of the experiment. This added flexibility allows for diverse applications ranging from lab-on-a-chip flow imaging and biological sensors to optical detection of magnetic resonance imaging at low magnetic fields. We aim to compare and discuss various approaches for a host of problems in material science, biology, and physics that differ from the high-field methods routinely used in analytical chemistry and medical imaging.

  4. Fast Detection of Seeds and Freeze Damage of Mandarines Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Min; Milczarek, Rebecca; McCarthy, Michael

    Fast detection of seeds and freeze damage in mandarine citrus fruit was performed using magnetic resonance imaging. A 1 T industrial grade permanent magnet was used to acquire the image data. The spatial resolution of the image was 550 μm. A fast spin echo pulse sequence was used to detect freeze damage and seeds. The signal intensity of seeds and freeze damaged regions was weaker than normal tissue. Threshold based image analysis has proven successful in detecting seeds and quantifying freeze damage.

  5. Bone marrow metastases in small cell lung cancer: detection with magnetic resonance imaging and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Trillet, V.; Revel, D.; Combaret, V.; Favrot, M.; Loire, R.; Tabib, A.; Pages, J.; Jacquemet, P.; Bonmartin, A.; Mornex, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The detection of bone marrow involvement might be of prognostic value and may influence therapeutic decisions in small cell lung cancer. By unilateral bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, evidence of bone marrow metastases is seen in 15-30% of patients with this disease. Since magnetic resonance imaging of the lower body and immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies have recently been shown to be very sensitive detection methods, we investigated the value of these two techniques in detecting bone marrow involvement in 35 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer. The results were compared to those obtained with conventional cytohistological analysis. In all cases when cytology and/or bone marrow biopsy were positive, monoclonal antibodies immunostaining and magnetic resonance imaging also detected malignant cells. Furthermore, evidence of bone marrow involvement was shown with magnetic resonance imaging and/or immunostaining in 10 of 26 cases (38%) where routine procedures were unable to detect malignant cells. In one of these 26 patients, magnetic resonance imaging and immunostaining provided the only evidence of metastatic disease. These data suggest that the rate of bone marrow metastases is underestimated by routine procedures. Further investigation is needed to determine whether or not these new non-invasive methods have prognostic value or affect therapeutic choices in small cell lung carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2553088

  6. Clinical Outcome Following Low Suspicion Multiparametric Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Benign Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Biopsy to Detect Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Lars; Nørgaard, Nis; Løgager, Vibeke; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2017-02-21

    We assessed the risk of significant prostate cancer being detected after low suspicion magnetic resonance imaging or suspicious magnetic resonance imaging with benign magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsies in men with prior negative systematic biopsies. Overall 289 prospectively enrolled men underwent magnetic resonance imaging followed by repeat systematic and targeted biopsies of any suspicious lesions at baseline. A total of 194 patients with low suspicion magnetic resonance imaging or benign target biopsies were suitable for this study. Those who were negative for prostate cancer at baseline were followed for at least 3 years. We calculated the negative predictive values of magnetic resonance imaging in ruling out any prostate cancer and significant prostate cancer, defined as any core with Gleason score greater than 6, or more than 2 positive cores/cancerous core 50% or greater. Prostate cancer was detected in 38 of 194 (20%) patients during the median study period of 47 months (IQR 43-52). The overall negative predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging in ruling out any and significant prostate cancer was 80% (156 of 194) and 95% (184 of 194), respectively. No patient with low suspicion magnetic resonance imaging had intermediate/high grade cancer (Gleason score greater than 6). The majority of patients with no cancer during followup (132 of 156, 85%) had a decreasing prostate specific antigen and could be monitored in primary care. Low suspicion magnetic resonance imaging in men with prior negative systematic biopsies has a high negative predictive value in ruling out longer term, significant cancer. Therefore, immediate repeat biopsies are of limited clinical value and could be avoided even if prostate specific antigen is persistently increased. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Diagnostic Performance of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Significant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J E; van Leeuwen, P J; Moses, D; Shnier, R; Brenner, P; Delprado, W; Pulbrook, M; Böhm, M; Haynes, A M; Hayen, A; Stricker, P D

    2016-05-01

    We assess the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for significant prostate cancer detection before diagnostic biopsy in men with an abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination. A total of 388 men underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging before biopsy. Two radiologists used PI-RADS to allocate a score of 1 to 5 for suspicion of significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 with more than 5% grade 4). PI-RADS 3 to 5 was considered positive. Transperineal template guided mapping biopsy of 18 regions (median 30 cores) was performed with additional manually directed cores from magnetic resonance imaging positive regions. The anatomical location, size and grade of individual cancer areas in the biopsy regions (18) as the primary outcome and in prostatectomy specimens (117) as the secondary outcome were correlated to the magnetic resonance imaging positive regions. Of the 388 men who were enrolled in the study 344 were analyzed. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was positive in 77.0% of patients, 62.5% had prostate cancer and 41.6% had significant prostate cancer. The detection of significant prostate cancer by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 36%, negative predictive value of 92% and positive predictive value of 52%. Adding PI-RADS to the multivariate model, including prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, prostate volume and age, improved the AUC from 0.776 to 0.879 (p <0.001). Anatomical concordance analysis showed a low mismatch between the magnetic resonance imaging positive regions and biopsy positive regions (4 [2.9%]), and the significant prostate cancer area in the radical prostatectomy specimen (3 [3.3%]). In men with an abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging detected significant prostate cancer

  8. Multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging platform for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonellae are among the leading causes of foodborne outbreaks in the United States, and more rapid and efficient detection methods are needed. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multiple targets simultaneous...

  9. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More rapid and efficient detection methods for foodborne pathogenic bacteria and toxins are needed to address the long assay time and limitations in multiplex capacity. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multi...

  10. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  11. Time-of-flight detection of ultra-cold atoms using resonant frequency modulation imaging.

    PubMed

    Hardman, K S; Wigley, P B; Everitt, P J; Manju, P; Kuhn, C C N; Robins, N P

    2016-06-01

    Resonant frequency modulation imaging is used to detect free falling ultra-cold atoms. A theoretical comparison of fluorescence imaging (FI) and frequency modulation imaging (FMI) is made, indicating that for low optical depth clouds, FMI accomplished a higher signal-to-noise ratio under conditions necessary for a 200 μm spatially resolved atom interferometer. A 750 ms time-of-flight measurement reveals near atom shot-noise limited number measurements of 2×106 Bose-condensed Rb87 atoms. The detection system is applied to high precision spinor BEC based atom interferometer.

  12. Non-invasive detection of apoptosis using magnetic resonance imaging and a targeted contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Beauregard, D A; Loizou, L; Davletov, B; Brindle, K M

    2001-11-01

    The C2 domain of synaptotagmin I, which binds to anionic phospholipids in cell membranes, was shown to bind to the plasma membrane of apoptotic cells by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Conjugation of the protein to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles allowed detection of this binding using magnetic resonance imaging. Detection of apoptotic cells, using this novel contrast agent, was demonstrated both in vitro, with isolated apoptotic tumor cells, and in vivo, in a tumor treated with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  13. Digital Subtraction of Magnetic Resonance Images Improves Detection and Characterization of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, Riccardo; Tinazzi Martini, Paolo; Cingarlini, Sara; Ortolani, Silvia; Butturini, Giovanni; Regi, Paolo; Landoni, Luca; Tortora, Giampaolo; Pederzoli, Paolo; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of digital image subtraction of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images for detection and characterization of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). Magnetic resonance examinations of 50 histologically verified PanNENs were retrospectively evaluated by 2 radiologists; 50 ductal adenocarcinomas were included as a control group. Late arterial phase images and correspondent subtracted images were analyzed. Tumor detectability on a subjective 3-point scale and contrast-to-noise ratios were compared across sequences using paired Student t tests. Tumor signal intensity was compared between sequences using χ or Fisher exact tests. Subjective conspicuity and contrast-to-noise ratios of PanNENs were significantly higher on subtracted images compared with correspondent late arterial phase images (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002). The rate of clearly hyperenhancing PanNENs was higher on subtracted images compared with arterial phase images (76% vs 36%). Digital image subtraction improves tumor conspicuity and allows better characterization of PanNENs compared with late arterial phase images.

  14. Application of magnetic resonance imaging to non-destructive void detection in watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Miki, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajikawa, H.; Shimada, M.; Kawate, Y.; Nishizawa, T.; Ikegaya, D.; Kimura, N.; Takabatake, K.; Sugiura, N.; Suzuki, M.

    A novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The possibility of utilizing MRI for non-destructive quality evaluation of watermelons was studied. In this study, we applied MRI to the detection of internal voids in watermelons. In order to increase the measurement rate, we employed a one-dimensional projection profile method instead of observing a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. The void detection was carried out with this technique over 30 samples and 28 samples were correctly evaluated. The measurement rate was 900 ms per sample, which is an acceptable speed for a sorting machine in the agricultural field.

  15. A Novel Microfluidic Flow Rate Detection Method Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960

  16. Image contrast in fluorescence and magnetic resonance images for glioblastoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Yang, Harold H.; Hekmatyar, S. Khan; Hoopes, P. Jack; O'Hara, Julia A.; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2011-03-01

    A diffusely infiltrative human glioma cell line (U251-GFP) has been developed and used as a model for the tumor growth outside of MR image detectable tumor boundary. The aminolevulinic acid-protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) fluorescence system has shown great strides for fluorescence guided surgical resection, but often fluorescence is observed outside of the MR image detectable tumor margin. Here we compare the use of ALA-PpIX fluorescence with that of standard gadolinium enhanced MR imaging as well as T2 and diffusion imaging to determine whether there is a correlation between fluorescence and MR imaging. We found that PpIX fluorescence, T1WCD and Absolute T2 images have the highest contrast difference from controls and are likely candidates for highly infiltrative tumor detection.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of silver nanoparticle-tagged immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sharmistha; Paul, Deepen; Fern, George R.; Ray, Asim K.

    2011-01-01

    The detection sensitivity of silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-tagged goat immunoglobulin G (gIgG) microarrays was investigated by studying surface plasmon resonance (SPR) images captured in the visible wavelength range with the help of a Kretchmann-configured optical coupling set-up. The functionalization of anti-gIgG molecules on the AgNP surface was studied using transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation measurements and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. A value of 1.3 × 107 M−1 was obtained for the antibody–antigen binding constant by monitoring the binding events at a particular resonance wavelength. The detection limit of this SPR imaging instrument is 6.66 nM of gIgG achieved through signal enhancement by a factor of larger than 4 owing to nanoparticle tagging with the antibody. PMID:21325318

  18. Label-free imaging, detection, and mass measurement of single viruses by surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaopeng; Shan, Xiaonan; Patel, Urmez; Huang, Xinping; Lu, Jin; Li, Jinghong; Tao, Nongjian

    2010-01-01

    We report on label-free imaging, detection, and mass/size measurement of single viral particles in solution by high-resolution surface plasmon resonance microscopy. Diffraction of propagating plasmon waves along a metal surface by the viral particles creates images of the individual particles, which allow us to detect the binding of the viral particles to surfaces functionalized with and without antibodies. We show that the intensity of the particle image is related to the mass of the particle, from which we determine the mass and mass distribution of influenza viral particles with a mass detection limit of approximately 1 ag (or 0.2 fg/mm2). This work demonstrates a multiplexed method to measure the masses of individual viral particles and to study the binding activity of the viral particles. PMID:20798340

  19. Appropriate use of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound to detect early silicone gel breast implant rupture in postmastectomy reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rietjens, Mario; Villa, Gaetano; Toesca, Antonio; Rizzo, Stefania; Raimondi, Sara; Rossetto, Fabio; Sangalli, Claudia; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Manconi, Andrea; Gustavo, Angelo; Matthes, Zucca; Chahuan, Badir; Brenelli, Fabricio; Bellomi, Massimo; Petit, Jean Yves

    2014-07-01

    Implant rupture is one of the most important sequelae of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The primary aim of this study was to compare magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation with intraoperative findings and provide a reliable description of the occurrence of each radiological sign. The authors prospectively recruited a consecutive series of 102 postmastectomy patients requiring implant change for aesthetic purposes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation results were compared with intraoperative findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the overall accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in detecting ruptured implants were calculated, along with their corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging performs better than ultrasound for diagnosis of breast implant rupture, with overall accuracies of 94 and 72 percent, respectively. The negative predictive value of ultrasound was 85 percent, meaning that in the case of negative ultrasound findings, magnetic resonance imaging may be avoided. Teardrop sign and water droplets are the most common findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging should be considered the method of choice for investigating silicone gel implant rupture in postmastectomy patients, and the standardization of magnetic resonance imaging criteria may improve magnetic resonance imaging accuracy. The authors therefore suggest a strategy of screening asymptomatic women with ultrasound every year and with magnetic resonance imaging every 5 years. Diagnostic, II.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostatic cancer: does detection vary between high and low gleason score tumors?

    PubMed

    Ikonen, S; Kärkkäinen, P; Kivisaari, L; Salo, J O; Taari, K; Vehmas, T; Tervahartiala, P; Rannikko, S

    2000-04-01

    Both Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration are prognostic factors for prostate cancer. We assessed our ability to localize cancer lesions based on Gleason scores and PSA values by endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also evaluated whether the size of the prostate affects tumor detectability. We compared the findings of MRI and histopathological results of radical prostatectomy specimens from 63 patients; they were divided into four groups, based on Gleason score and also on serum PSA concentration. Furthermore, the possible effect of prostatectomy specimen weight on MRI interpretation was examined. A highly significant difference appeared in detection of cancer lesions based on their differentiation grade. No statistically significant difference existed between PSA groups in detection of tumors, but the large size of the prostate seemed to render image interpretation more difficult. Endorectal MRI detects poorly differentiated prostate cancer lesions more accurately than clinically insignificant tumors. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Hippocampus shape analysis for temporal lobe epilepsy detection in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohan, Zohreh; Azmi, Reza

    2016-03-01

    There are evidences in the literature that Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) causes some lateralized atrophy and deformation on hippocampus and other substructures of the brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), due to high-contrast soft tissue imaging, is one of the most popular imaging modalities being used in TLE diagnosis and treatment procedures. Using an algorithm to help clinicians for better and more effective shape deformations analysis could improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In this project our purpose is to design, implement and test a classification algorithm for MRIs based on hippocampal asymmetry detection using shape and size-based features. Our method consisted of two main parts; (1) shape feature extraction, and (2) image classification. We tested 11 different shape and size features and selected four of them that detect the asymmetry in hippocampus significantly in a randomly selected subset of the dataset. Then, we employed a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify the remaining images of the dataset to normal and epileptic images using our selected features. The dataset contains 25 patient images in which 12 cases were used as a training set and the rest 13 cases for testing the performance of classifier. We measured accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of, respectively, 76%, 100%, and 70% for our algorithm. The preliminary results show that using shape and size features for detecting hippocampal asymmetry could be helpful in TLE diagnosis in MRI.

  2. Effect of background parenchymal enhancement on breast cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G; Moschetta, M

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) may influence the sensitivity of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging in breast cancer detection. A total of 180 consecutive women with 194 breast cancers underwent MR imaging examination. Women were assigned to two different groups depending on the degree of BPE. Group 1 consisted of women with minimal or mild BPE and group 2 of women with moderate or marked BPE. The distributions of histotypes of tumors within the two groups were compared using the χ(2) test. Difference in sensitivities of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between the two groups was searched for using the Student t-test. No differences in terms of distributions of histotypes of tumors between the two groups of women were found (P=0.5). The 11% difference in sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between group 1 (91/92; 99%; 95% CI: 94-100%) and group 2 (90/102; 88%; 95% CI: 80-94%) was statistically significant (P=0.0058). The sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging is significantly lower in women with moderate and marked BPE as compared with women with minimal and mild BPE regardless of cancer histotype. BPE could represent a limitation for breast MR imaging interpretation and should be indicated in MR imaging reports. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound-Based Carotid Elastography for Detection of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques Validated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengwu; Pan, Xiaochang; He, Qiong; Huang, Manwei; Huang, Lingyun; Zhao, Xihai; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound-based carotid elastography has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo capability of carotid elastography in vulnerable plaque detection using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging as reference. Ultrasound radiofrequency data of 46 carotid plaques from 29 patients (74 ± 5 y old) were acquired and inter-frame axial strain was estimated with an optical flow method. The maximum value of absolute strain rate for each plaque was derived as an indicator for plaque classification. Magnetic resonance imaging of carotid arteries was performed on the same patients to classify the plaques into stable and vulnerable groups for carotid elastography validation. The maximum value of absolute strain rate was found to be significantly higher in vulnerable plaques (2.15 ± 0.79 s(-1), n = 27) than in stable plaques (1.21 ± 0.37 s(-1), n = 19) (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed, and the area under the curve was 0.848. Therefore, the in vivo capability of carotid elastography to detect vulnerable plaques, validated by magnetic resonance imaging, was proven, revealing the potential of carotid elastography as an important tool in atherosclerosis assessment and stroke prevention.

  4. Myocardial border detection by branch-and-bound dynamic programming in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J Y; Fu, J C; Wu, C C; Lin, H M; Chai, J W

    2005-07-01

    Dynamic programming (DP) is a mathematical technique for making optimal decisions on the sequencing of interrelated problems. It has been used widely to detect borders in magnetic resonance images (MRI). MRI is noninvasive and generates clear images; however, it is impractical for manual measurement of the huge number of images generated by dynamic organs such as those of the cardiovascular system. A fast and effective algorithm is essential for on-line implementation of MRI-based computer aided measurement and diagnosis. In this paper, a branch-and-bound dynamic programming technique is applied to detect the endocardial borders of the left ventricular. The proposed branch-and-bound method drastically reduces the computational time required in conventional exhaustive search methods. Statistical tests are conducted to verify the CPU time performance of the branch-and-bound technique in comparison to the conventional exhaustive search method.

  5. Ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging detection with gradient tensor compensation in urban unshielded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Qiu, Longqing; Shi, Wen; Chang, Baolin; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Lu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Xie, Xiaoming

    2013-03-01

    An ultra-low field (ULF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was set up in an urban laboratory without magnetic shielding. The measured environmental gradient fields of 1 ˜ 5 μT/m caused image distortion. We designed a gradient detection and compensation system to effectively balance the gradient tensor components. The free induction decay signal duration of tap water was thus extended from 0.3 s to 2.5 s, providing the possibility for high-resolution imaging. Two-dimensional MRI images were then obtained at 130 μT with a helium-cooled second-order superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer. This result allows us to develop an inexpensive ULF MRI system for biological studies.

  6. Mono-dispersed high magnetic resonance sensitive magnetite nanocluster probe for detection of nascent tumors by magnetic resonance molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunfu; Xie, Xuan; Liang, Sheng; Li, Mingli; Liu, Yajie; Gu, Hongchen

    2012-08-01

    Sensitive molecular imaging and detection of tumors or their supporting neovascularity require high-avidity, target-specific probes, which produce robust signal amplification compatible with a sensitive high-resolution imaging modality. In this context, we fabricated a high magnetic resonance (MR)-sensitive magnetite nanocluster (MNC) probe specific for tumor angiogenesis by assembly of hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with (Mal)mPEG-PLA copolymer into cluster and subsequent encoding c(RGDyC) peptide on the cluster (RGD-MNC) for detection of nascent tumors. We found that RGD-MNC is highly sensitive (r(2) = 464.94 s(-1)mM(-1)) and specific for αvβ3-positive cells. Both nascent (35 ± 6.6 mm(3)) and large tumors (256 ± 22.3 mm(3)) can be registered by RGD-MNC and detected by MR imaging (MRI), with the nascent tumors demonstrating more pronounced MR contrast. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that MR signal decrease was closely correlated with histological characteristics of tumors (microvessel density and αvβ3 expression levels) at different growth stages.

  7. A Novel Method Based on Learning Automata for Automatic Lesion Detection in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Leila; Azmi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be a significant public health problem in the world. Early detection is the key for improving breast cancer prognosis. In this way, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a powerful tool for the detection of breast cancer. Breast MRI presently has two major challenges. First, its specificity is relatively poor, and it detects many false positives (FPs). Second, the method involves acquiring several high-resolution image volumes before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. The large volume of data makes the task of interpretation by the radiologist both complex and time-consuming. These challenges have led to the development of the computer-aided detection systems to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the interpretation process. Detection of suspicious regions of interests (ROIs) is a critical preprocessing step in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data evaluation. In this regard, this paper introduces a new automatic method to detect the suspicious ROIs for breast DCE-MRI based on region growing. The results indicate that the proposed method is thoroughly able to identify suspicious regions (accuracy of 75.39 ± 3.37 on PIDER breast MRI dataset). Furthermore, the FP per image in this method is averagely 7.92, which shows considerable improvement comparing to other methods like ROI hunter. PMID:25298929

  8. A novel method based on learning automata for automatic lesion detection in breast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Leila; Azmi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer continues to be a significant public health problem in the world. Early detection is the key for improving breast cancer prognosis. In this way, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a powerful tool for the detection of breast cancer. Breast MRI presently has two major challenges. First, its specificity is relatively poor, and it detects many false positives (FPs). Second, the method involves acquiring several high-resolution image volumes before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. The large volume of data makes the task of interpretation by the radiologist both complex and time-consuming. These challenges have led to the development of the computer-aided detection systems to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the interpretation process. Detection of suspicious regions of interests (ROIs) is a critical preprocessing step in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data evaluation. In this regard, this paper introduces a new automatic method to detect the suspicious ROIs for breast DCE-MRI based on region growing. The results indicate that the proposed method is thoroughly able to identify suspicious regions (accuracy of 75.39 ± 3.37 on PIDER breast MRI dataset). Furthermore, the FP per image in this method is averagely 7.92, which shows considerable improvement comparing to other methods like ROI hunter.

  9. Feasibility for detecting liver metastases in dogs using gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Louvet, Arnaud; Duconseille, Anne-Carole

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of liver metastases may improve the prognosis for successful treatment in dogs with primary tumors. Hepatobiliary-specific contrast agents have been shown to allow an increase in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of liver metastases in humans. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the feasibility for using one of these agents, gadobenate dimeglumine, to detect liver metastases in dogs. Ten consecutive dogs known to have a primary tumor were recruited for inclusion in the study. All dogs were scanned using the same protocol that included a T2-weighted respiratory-triggered sequence, T1 VIBE, diffusion-weighted imaging, and 3D-FLASH before and after dynamic injection of gadobenate dimeglumine contrast medium. Delayed imaging was performed less than 30 min after injection and up to 60 min in two cases. Histological analysis of liver lesions identified in delayed phases was performed for each case and confirmed metastatic origin. In all cases, lesion number detected in hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced sequences was statistically higher than in other sequences. Optimal lesion detection occurred with a 3D-FLASH sequence acquired in the transverse plane and less than 30 min after injection. Findings indicated that gabobenate dimeglumine enhanced MRI is a feasible technique for detecting liver metastases in dogs.

  10. Optimization of Prostate Biopsy: the Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy in Detection, Localization and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Meng, Xiaosong; Le Nobin, Julien; Wysock, James S.; Lepor, Herbert; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Taneja, Samir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Optimization of prostate biopsy requires addressing the shortcomings of standard systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, including false-negative rates, incorrect risk stratification, detection of clinically insignificant disease and the need for repeat biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of biopsy, and thereby enhances clinical risk assessment and improves the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. In this review we 1) summarize the various sequences that comprise a prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging examination along with its performance characteristics in cancer detection, localization and reporting standards; 2) evaluate potential applications of magnetic resonance imaging targeting in prostate biopsy among men with no previous biopsy, a negative previous biopsy and those with low stage cancer; and 3) describe the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and comparative study outcomes. Materials and Methods A bibliographic search covering the period up to October 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE®/PubMed®. Articles were reviewed and categorized based on which of the 3 objectives of this review was addressed. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized. Results Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging consists of anatomical T2-weighted imaging coupled with at least 2 functional imaging techniques. It has demonstrated improved prostate cancer detection sensitivity up to 80% in the peripheral zone and 81% in the transition zone. A prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score has been developed, and is depicted using the Likert or PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) scale for better standardization of magnetic resonance imaging interpretation and reporting. Among men with no previous biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging increases the frequency of

  11. Optimization of prostate biopsy: the role of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy in detection, localization and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Meng, Xiaosong; Le Nobin, Julien; Wysock, James S; Lepor, Herbert; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Taneja, Samir S

    2014-09-01

    Optimization of prostate biopsy requires addressing the shortcomings of standard systematic transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy, including false-negative rates, incorrect risk stratification, detection of clinically insignificant disease and the need for repeat biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of biopsy, and thereby enhances clinical risk assessment and improves the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. In this review we 1) summarize the various sequences that comprise a prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging examination along with its performance characteristics in cancer detection, localization and reporting standards; 2) evaluate potential applications of magnetic resonance imaging targeting in prostate biopsy among men with no previous biopsy, a negative previous biopsy and those with low stage cancer; and 3) describe the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and comparative study outcomes. A bibliographic search covering the period up to October 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE®/PubMed®. Articles were reviewed and categorized based on which of the 3 objectives of this review was addressed. Data were extracted, analyzed and summarized. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging consists of anatomical T2-weighted imaging coupled with at least 2 functional imaging techniques. It has demonstrated improved prostate cancer detection sensitivity up to 80% in the peripheral zone and 81% in the transition zone. A prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score has been developed, and is depicted using the Likert or PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) scale for better standardization of magnetic resonance imaging interpretation and reporting. Among men with no previous biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging increases the frequency of significant cancer detection to 50

  12. [The Diagnostic Value of Pre-Biopsy Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Detecting Prostate Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the value of pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting prostate cancer. We analyzed 267 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3-10 ng/ml who underwent systematic prostate needle biopsy. From April 2009 to March 2011, a total of 98 male patients underwent 16-core prostatic biopsies without pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (nonenforcement group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 169 men underwent pre-biopsy MRI [T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] (enforcement group). When MRI findings indicated cancer in the latter group, in addition to the systematic 16-core biopsy one or two targeted biopsies were performed. Patients without suspicious MRI findings underwent only systematic 16-core biopsy. Cancer detection rates in the nonenforcement and enforcement groups were 42.9% (48/92) and 46. 2% (78/169), respectively. The difference did not reach significance (p=0.612). Although the cancer detection rates were 39.4% (41/104) in the MRI-negative group and 56. 9% (37/65) in the MRI-positive group (p=0.039), the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection by MRI were relatively low: 47.4% and 69.2%, respectively. By receiver-operating curve analysis, the area under the curve for cancer detection by MRI was only 0.583. There were two study limitations. First, the patient sample size was small. Second, it is unclear whether an adequate sample of the suspicious lesion was obtained by biopsy. We thus demonstrated that it might be improper to base a diagnosis solely on pre-biopsy MRI (T2WI and DWI) findings in men with serum PSA levels of 3-10 ng/ml.

  13. Use of magnetic resonance imaging for detecting clinically and mammographically occult ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Lo, G; Cheung, Polly S Y

    2008-06-01

    We report on two cases where breast magnetic resonance imaging examination changed clinical management. Breast magnetic resonance imaging is now recognised as an indispensable adjunctive examination to mammography and ultrasound. In each of the two cases described, breast magnetic resonance imaging revealed unsuspected, extensive, and mammographically and ultrasonologically occult, ductal carcinoma in situ. In each of these cases, planned breast conserving surgery was changed to mastectomy. The success of breast conservation treatment depends on removal of all tumour with clear margins at the time of surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging is now considered the most sensitive method for evaluating the extent of breast cancer. Breast magnetic resonance imaging has a very high sensitivity for invasive carcinoma (near 100%), and recent studies show its specificity in high-risk patients is between 93 and 99%. Magnetic resonance imaging may well be proven an important adjunctive examination in patients who have dense breasts or extensive fibrocystic change.

  14. The Capabilities and Limitations of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Kidney Stones: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Mellena D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of currently available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting kidney stones, compared to computed tomography (CT) results, and to determine the characteristics of successfully detected stones. Patients who had undergone both abdominal/pelvic CT and MRI exams within 30 days were studied. The images were reviewed by two expert radiologists blinded to the patients' respective radiological diagnoses. The study consisted of four steps: (1) reviewing the MRI images and determining whether any kidney stone(s) are identified; (2) reviewing the corresponding CT images and confirming whether kidney stones are identified; (3) reviewing the MRI images a second time, armed with the information from the corresponding CT, noting whether any kidney stones are positively identified that were previously missed; (4) for all stones MRI-confirmed on previous steps, the radiologist experts being asked to answer whether in retrospect, with knowledge of size and location on corresponding CT, these stones would be affirmed as confidently identified on MRI or not. In this best-case scenario involving knowledge of stones and their locations on concurrent CT, radiologist experts detected 19% of kidney stones on MRI, with stone size being a major factor for stone identification. PMID:27980535

  15. Multiple-slice magnetic resonance imaging can detect visceral adipose tissue reduction more accurately than single-slice imaging.

    PubMed

    So, R; Sasai, H; Matsuo, T; Tsujimoto, T; Eto, M; Saotome, K; Tanaka, K

    2012-12-01

    Imaging methods by magnetic resonance imaging are being increasingly used to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but there is no clear consensus as to a standardized protocol. We compared the ability of two commonly used imaging protocols (multiple slice versus single slice) to detect changes in VAT with diet or exercise. We utilized data from the participants who completed our diet (n=22) or exercise (n=35) based weight-loss interventions. The intervention mainly comprised of weekly dietary modification sessions or aerobic exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Multiple-slice images obtained from T9 to S1 and a single-slice image at L4-L5 were compared using the effect size of the VAT change. In addition, we calculated the sample size needed to compare the two imaging protocols' ability to detect significant changes in VAT. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes and areas, and other anthropometry decreased significantly after both the diet and exercise interventions. For VAT, a single-slice image had a lower effect size (diet: 1.23; exercise: 0.49) than the multiple-slice images (diet: 1.81; exercise: 0.90). The sample size required for multiple slice was substantially lower than for the single-slice with both weight-loss interventions. The different image protocols may lead to different results in relative VAT changes. Furthermore, single-slice imaging required a substantially larger sample size than multiple-slice imaging, and for researchers to detect smaller changes in VAT with single-slice imaging, a larger sample size would be needed. Thus, multiple-slice imaging has advantages for assessing VAT change in future clinical research.

  16. Automatic detection of larynx cancer from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos

    2015-03-01

    Detection of larynx cancer from medical imaging is important for the quantification and for the definition of target volumes in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used in RTP due to its high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. Manually detecting larynx cancer from sequential MRI is time consuming and subjective. The large diversity of cancer in terms of geometry, non-distinct boundaries combined with the presence of normal anatomical regions close to the cancer regions necessitates the development of automatic and robust algorithms for this task. A new automatic algorithm for the detection of larynx cancer from 2D gadoliniumenhanced T1-weighted (T1+Gd) MRI to assist clinicians in RTP is presented. The algorithm employs edge detection using spatial neighborhood information of pixels and incorporates this information in a fuzzy c-means clustering process to robustly separate different tissues types. Furthermore, it utilizes the information of the expected cancerous location for cancer regions labeling. Comparison of this automatic detection system with manual clinical detection on real T1+Gd axial MRI slices of 2 patients (24 MRI slices) with visible larynx cancer yields an average dice similarity coefficient of 0.78+/-0.04 and average root mean square error of 1.82+/-0.28 mm. Preliminary results show that this fully automatic system can assist clinicians in RTP by obtaining quantifiable and non-subjective repeatable detection results in a particular time-efficient and unbiased fashion.

  17. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  18. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance arthrography and computed tomography for the detection of chondral lesions of the knee.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; Drew, Benjamin T; Toms, Andoni P; Donell, Simon T; Hing, Caroline B

    2012-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) for the detection of chondral lesions of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints. A review of published and unpublished literature sources was conducted on 22nd September 2011. All studies assessing the diagnostic test accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of MRI or MRA or CTA for the assessment of adults with chondral (cartilage) lesions of the knee (tibiofemoral/patellofemoral joints) with surgical comparison (arthroscopic or open) as the reference test were included. Data were analysed through meta-analysis. Twenty-seven studies assessing 2,592 knees from 2,509 patients were included. The findings indicated that whilst presenting a high specificity (0.95-0.99), the sensitivity of MRA, MRI and CTA ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. MRA was superior to MRI and CTA for the detection of patellofemoral joint chondral lesions and that higher field-strength MRI scanner and grade four lesions were more accurately detected compared with lower field-strength and grade one lesions. There appeared no substantial difference in diagnostic accuracy between the interpretation from musculoskeletal and general radiologists when undertaking an MRI review of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral chondral lesions. Specialist radiological imaging is specific for cartilage disease in the knee but has poorer sensitivity to determine the therapeutic options in this population. Due to this limitation, there remains little indication to replace the 'gold-standard' arthroscopic investigation with MRI, MRA or CTA for the assessment of adults with chondral lesions of the knee. II.

  19. Potential Applications of Microtesla Magnetic Resonance ImagingDetected Using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Whittier Ryan

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of protons performed in a precession field of 132 μT. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a pulsed 40-300 mT magnetic field prepolarizes the sample spins and an untuned second-order superconducting gradiometer coupled to a low transition temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detects the subsequent 5.6-kHz spin precession. Imaging sequences including multiple echoes and partial Fourier reconstruction are developed. Calculating the SNR of prepolarized SQUID-detected MRI shows that three-dimensional Fourier imaging yields higher SNR than slice-selection imaging. An experimentally demonstrated field-cycling pulse sequence and post-processing algorithm mitigate image artifacts caused by concomitant gradients in low-field MRI. The magnetic field noise of SQUID untuned detection is compared to the noise of SQUID tuned detection, conventional Faraday detection, and the Nyquist noise generated by conducting biological samples. A second-generation microtesla MRI system employing a low-noise SQUID is constructed to increase SNR. A 2.4-m cubic, eddy-current shield with 6-mm thick aluminum walls encloses the experiment to attenuate external noise. The measured noise is 0.75 fT Hz-1/2 referred to the bottom gradiometer loop. Solenoids wound from 30-strand braided wire to decrease Nyquist noise and cooled by either liquid nitrogen or water polarize the spins. Copper wire coils wound on wooden supports produce the imaging magnetic fields and field gradients. Water phantom images with 0.8 x 0.8 x 10 mm3 resolution have a SNR of 6. Three-dimensional 1.6 x 1.9 x 14 mm3 images of bell peppers and 3 x 3 x 26 mm3 in vivo images of the human arm are presented. Since contrast based on the transverse spin relaxation rate (T1) is enhanced at low magnetic fields, microtesla MRI could potentially be used for tumor imaging. The

  20. 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Cortical Pathology in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    van Gelderen, Peter; Merkle, Hellmuth; Chen, Christina; Lassmann, Hans; Duyn, Jeff H.; Bagnato, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Background Neocortical lesions (NLs) are an important pathological component of multiple sclerosis (MS), but their visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains challenging. Objectives We aimed at assessing the sensitivity of multi echo gradient echo (ME-GRE) T2*-weighted MRI at 7.0 Tesla in depicting NLs compared to myelin and iron staining. Methods Samples from two MS patients were imaged post mortem using a whole body 7T MRI scanner with a 24-channel receive-only array. Isotropic 200 micron resolution images with varying T2* weighting were reconstructed from the ME-GRE data and converted into R2* maps. Immunohistochemical staining for myelin (proteolipid protein, PLP) and diaminobenzidine-enhanced Turnbull blue staining for iron were performed. Results Prospective and retrospective sensitivities of MRI for the detection of NLs were 48% and 67% respectively. We observed MRI maps detecting only a small portion of 20 subpial NLs extending over large cortical areas on PLP stainings. No MRI signal changes suggestive of iron accumulation in NLs were observed. Conversely, R2* maps indicated iron loss in NLs, which was confirmed by histological quantification. Conclusions High-resolution post mortem imaging using R2* and magnitude maps permits detection of focal NLs. However, disclosing extensive subpial demyelination with MRI remains challenging. PMID:25303286

  1. Immune cells detection of the in vivo rejecting heart in USPIO-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Moura, José M F; Wu, Yijen L; Ho, Chien

    2006-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of immune cells, in particular macrophages. Contrast agents, for example ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles, administered intravenously into the blood stream will be engulfed by macrophages circulating in the circulation system. When a transplanted heart rejects, macrophages and other immune cells will infiltrate the rejecting tissue. Imaged by T*2 weighted MRI, USPIO-labeled macrophages will display dark pixel intensities. Detecting the presence of USPIO particles in the images facilitates the study of heart rejection. We cast the problem of detecting the presence of USPIO-labeled myocardium in the framework of spectral graph theory, and treat our decision function as a level set function on the image. The pixels with positive level set values correspond to the presence of immune cells, and negative to the absence. When the image is modeled by a graph, the spectral analysis of the graph Laplacian provides a basis to represent the level set function. We develop from the Cheeger constant of the graph an objective functional of the level set function. The minimization of the objective leads to the optimal level set function. Experimental results suggest the feasibility of our approach in the study of rejecting hearts.

  2. Simple Nanoimprinted Polymer Nanostructures for Uncooled Thermal Detection by Direct Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hong, Brandon; Vallini, Felipe; Fang, Cheng-Yi; Alasaad, Amr; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2017-03-08

    We experimentally demonstrate the uncooled detection of long wavelength infrared (IR) radiation by thermal surface plasmon sensing using an all optical readout format. Thermal infrared radiation absorbed by an IR-sensitive material with high thermo-optic coefficient coated on a metal grating creates a refractive index change detectable by the shift of the supported surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measured optically in the visible spectrum. The interface localization of SPR modes and optical readout allow for submicrometer thin film transducers and eliminate complex readout integrated circuits, respectively, reducing form factor, leveraging robust visible detectors, and enabling low-cost imaging cameras. We experimentally present the radiative heat induced thermo-optic action detectable by SPR shift through imaging of a thermal source onto a bulk metal grating substrate with IR-absorptive silicon nitride coating. Toward focal plane array integration, a route to facile fabrication of pixelated metal grating structures by nanoimprint lithography is developed, where a stable polymer, parylene-C, serves as an IR-absorptive layer with a high thermo-optic coefficient. Experimental detection of IR radiation from real thermal sources imaged at infinity is demonstrated by our nanoimprinted polymer-SPR pixels with an estimated noise equivalent temperature difference of 21.9 K.

  3. Semi-automated scar detection in delayed enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, Rita; Donini, Bruno; Lanconelli, Nico; Rosengarden, James; Morgan, John; Harden, Stephen; Curzen, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Late enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) has the ability to precisely delineate myocardial scars. We present a semi-automated method for detecting scars in cardiac MRI. This model has the potential to improve routine clinical practice since quantification is not currently offered due to time constraints. A first segmentation step was developed for extracting the target regions for potential scar and determining pre-candidate objects. Pattern recognition methods are then applied to the segmented images in order to detect the position of the myocardial scar. The database of late gadolinium enhancement (LE) cardiac MR images consists of 111 blocks of images acquired from 63 patients at the University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust (UK). At least one scar was present for each patient, and all the scars were manually annotated by an expert. A group of images (around one third of the entire set) was used for training the system which was subsequently tested on all the remaining images. Four different classifiers were trained (Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), Bayesian and feed-forward neural network) and their performance was evaluated by using Free response Receiver Operating Characteristic (FROC) analysis. Feature selection was implemented for analyzing the importance of the various features. The segmentation method proposed allowed the region affected by the scar to be extracted correctly in 96% of the blocks of images. The SVM was shown to be the best classifier for our task, and our system reached an overall sensitivity of 80% with less than 7 false positives per patient. The method we present provides an effective tool for detection of scars on cardiac MRI. This may be of value in clinical practice by permitting routine reporting of scar quantification.

  4. Detection of necrosis in human tumour xenografts by proton magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, I.; Kaalhus, O.; Lyng, H.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1995-01-01

    Tumours with necrotic regions have an inadequate blood supply and are expected to differ from well-vascularised tumours in response to treatment. The purpose of the present work was to investigate whether proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be used to detect necrotic regions in tumours. MR images and histological sections from individual tumours of three different amelanotic human melanoma xenograft lines (BEX-t, HUX-t, SAX-t) were analysed in pairs. MRI was performed at 1.5 T using two spin-echo pulse sequences, one with a repetition time (TR) of 600 ms and echo times (TEs) of 20, 40, 60 and 80 ms and the other with a TR of 2000 ms and TEs of 20, 40, 60 and 80 ms. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and proton density (N0) were calculated for each volume element corresponding to a pixel. Synthetic MR images, pure T1, T2 and N0 images and spin-echo images with chosen values for TR and TE were generated from these data. T1, T2 and N0 distributions of tumour subregions, corresponding to necrotic regions and regions of viable tissue as defined by histological criteria, were also generated. T1 and T2 were significantly shorter in the necrotic regions than in the regions of viable tissue in all tumours. These differences were sufficiently large to allow the generation of synthetic spin-echo images showing clear contrast between necrosis and viable tissue. Maximum contrast was achieved with TRs within the range 2800-4000 ms and TEs within the range 160-200 ms. Necrotic tissue could also be distinguished from viable tissue in pure T1 and T2 images. Consequently, the possibility exists that MRI might be used for detection of necrotic regions in tumours and hence for prediction of tumour treatment response. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7880724

  5. Optical immunosensor for endocrine disruptor nanolayer detection by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabchevsky, Alina; Tsapovsky, Lev; Marks, Robert S.; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2011-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) and female hormone Estrone are especially prevalent in surface and waste-waters in nano-molar concentrations and therefore, there is a need for sensitive analytical device for their monitoring. We have designed a miniature, low cost and fast surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging liquid sensor based on the angular interrogation using Kretschmann configuration with diverged incident monochromatic light. During this paper we present a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor to detect EDCs such as BPA and estrone. A pattern of SPR line which is dark intensity line on bright area was reflected at angles range depending on the dielectric constant of the analye: Rabbit Anti-Estrone polyclonal IgG + Estrone 11-MUA attached to the silver or non-specific sensing of BPA in water with nanoprecision. For analyzing the SPR signals we used an efficient detection algorithm based on Radon Transform with less sensitivity to laser speckle noise and nonuniformity of the illumination.

  6. Prostate cancer detection rates of magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy related to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score.

    PubMed

    Osses, Daniël F; van Asten, Joost J; Kieft, Gerard J; Tijsterman, Jasper D

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy in patients with suspected prostate cancer increase detection rate and clinical significance of diagnosed tumors. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the detection rates of prostate cancer for magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy related to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score. We included all patients with cancer-suspicious lesions on 3-Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-prostate who underwent magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy in Haga Teaching Hospital between January 2013 and January 2015. In total, 155 patients were included. In 100 of 155 (65 %) men, MRI-guided prostate biopsy was positive for prostate cancer. No biopsy of PI-RADS 2-lesions was positive. PI-RADS 3- and 4-lesions were, respectively, in 10 and 77 % prostate cancer positive. Biopsies of PI-RADS 5-lesions were in 89 % of the cases positive. The majority of detected cancers (63 %) were Gleason score ≥ 7, and this number increases to 75 % in positive PI-RADS 5-lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy has a high detection rate of prostate cancer in men with cancer-suspicious lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-prostate, and this rate (65 %) increases with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score (81 % in PI-RADS 4- and 5-lesions).

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Detection in Brain Magnetic Resonance Images Using Multiscale Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    We present a new automated system for the detection of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The MRI is analyzed by means of multiscale analysis (MSA) to obtain its fractals at six different scales. The extracted fractals are used as features to differentiate healthy brain MRI from those of AD by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The result of classifying 93 brain MRIs consisting of 51 images of healthy brains and 42 of brains affected by AD, using leave-one-out cross-validation method, yielded 99.18% ± 0.01 classification accuracy, 100% sensitivity, and 98.20% ± 0.02 specificity. These results and a processing time of 5.64 seconds indicate that the proposed approach may be an efficient diagnostic aid for radiologists in the screening for AD. PMID:24967286

  8. Detection of heterotopic gray matter in children by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dunn, V; Mock, T; Bell, W E; Smith, W

    1986-01-01

    Heterotopic gray matter results from abnormal brain development and is a recognized focus of seizures. It may be associated with mental retardation and/or severe malformations of the brain. Three patients with heterotopia of gray matter were identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT failed to detect the heterotopic gray matter in each case. One child was referred for removal of a neoplasm based on CT studies until MRI demonstrated the developmental nature of his condition. One infant had severely dysplastic left cerebral hemisphere associated with heterotopic gray matter and the syndrome of Hypomelanosis of Ito. All three children suffered from seizures and/or mental retardation. MRI provided important information in the management of each case and appears to be the imaging method of choice in evaluating children with seizures or retardation for heterotopic gray matter in the brain.

  9. Mechanical detection and mode shape imaging of vibrational modes of micro and nanomechanical resonators by dynamic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, A. S.; Black, J.; García-Sanchez, D.; Esplandiu, M. J.; Aguasca, A.; Bokor, J.; Perez-Murano, F.; Bachtold, A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe a method based on the use of higher order bending modes of the cantilever of a dynamic force microscope to characterize vibrations of micro and nanomechanical resonators at arbitrarily large resonance frequencies. Our method consists on using a particular cantilever eigenmode for standard feedback control in amplitude modulation operation while another mode is used for detecting and imaging the resonator vibration. In addition, the resonating sample device is driven at or near its resonance frequency with a signal modulated in amplitude at a frequency that matches the resonance of the cantilever eigenmode used for vibration detection. In consequence, this cantilever mode is excited with an amplitude proportional to the resonator vibration, which is detected with an external lock-in amplifier. We show two different application examples of this method. In the first one, acoustic wave vibrations of a film bulk acoustic resonator around 1.6 GHz are imaged. In the second example, bending modes of carbon nanotube resonators up to 3.1 GHz are characterized. In both cases, the method provides subnanometer-scale sensitivity and the capability of providing otherwise inaccessible information about mechanical resonance frequencies, vibration amplitude values and mode shapes.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Early Molecular and Cellular Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Coulthard, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical trials have demonstrated that slowing or reversing pathology in Alzheimer's disease is likely to be possible only in the earliest stages of disease, perhaps even before significant symptoms develop. Pathology in Alzheimer's disease accumulates for well over a decade before symptoms are detected giving a large potential window of opportunity for intervention. It is therefore important that imaging techniques detect subtle changes in brain tissue before significant macroscopic brain atrophy. Current diagnostic techniques often do not permit early diagnosis or are too expensive for routine clinical use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most versatile, affordable, and powerful imaging modality currently available, being able to deliver detailed analyses of anatomy, tissue volumes, and tissue state. In this mini-review, we consider how MRI might detect patients at risk of future dementia in the early stages of pathological change when symptoms are mild. We consider the contributions made by the various modalities of MRI (structural, diffusion, perfusion, relaxometry) in identifying not just atrophy (a late-stage AD symptom) but more subtle changes reflective of early dementia pathology. The sensitivity of MRI not just to gross anatomy but to the underlying “health” at the cellular (and even molecular) scales, makes it very well suited to this task. PMID:27378911

  11. Targeted prostate biopsy: value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in detection of localized cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jesse D; Huang, Jiaoti; Marks, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with 1.1 million new cases worldwide reported by the World Health Organization in one recent year. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy has been used for the diagnosis of prostate cancer for over 2 decades, but the technique is usually blind to cancer location. Moreover, the false negative rate of TRUS biopsy has been reported to be as high as 47%. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) includes T1- and T2-weighted imaging as well as dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). mp-MRI is a major advance in the imaging of prostate cancer, enabling targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions. Evolving targeted biopsy techniques—including direct in-bore biopsy, cognitive fusion and software-based MRI-ultrasound (MRI-US) fusion—have led to a several-fold improvement in cancer detection compared to the earlier method. Importantly, the detection of clinically significant cancers has been greatly facilitated by targeting, compared to systematic biopsy alone. Targeted biopsy via MRI-US fusion may dramatically alter the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. PMID:24589455

  12. Brain changes detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Kun; Fan, Yi-Hong; Xu, Li; Xu, Mao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD. Furthermore, investigations have shown white-matter lesions and neurologic deficits in patients with IBD. Based on these findings, brain activity changes in CD patients have been detected by blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). BOLD-fMRI functions by detecting a local increase in relative blood oxygenation that results from neurotransmitter activity and thus reflects local neuronal firing rates. Therefore, biochemical concentrations of neurotransmitters or metabolites may change in corresponding brain regions of CD patients. To further study this phenomenon, brain changes of CD patients can be detected non-invasively, effectively and accurately by BOLD-fMRI combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This approach can further shed light on the mechanisms of the occurrence and development of neurological CD. Overall, this paper reviews the current status and prospects on fMRI and MRS for evaluation of patients with CD based on the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. PMID:28611513

  13. Brain changes detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kun; Fan, Yi-Hong; Xu, Li; Xu, Mao-Sheng

    2017-05-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD. Furthermore, investigations have shown white-matter lesions and neurologic deficits in patients with IBD. Based on these findings, brain activity changes in CD patients have been detected by blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). BOLD-fMRI functions by detecting a local increase in relative blood oxygenation that results from neurotransmitter activity and thus reflects local neuronal firing rates. Therefore, biochemical concentrations of neurotransmitters or metabolites may change in corresponding brain regions of CD patients. To further study this phenomenon, brain changes of CD patients can be detected non-invasively, effectively and accurately by BOLD-fMRI combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This approach can further shed light on the mechanisms of the occurrence and development of neurological CD. Overall, this paper reviews the current status and prospects on fMRI and MRS for evaluation of patients with CD based on the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis.

  14. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in detecting intracranial hemorrhage at different stages: a comparative study with susceptibility weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyue; Bai, Yan; Lin, Yusong; Hong, Xiaohua; Liu, Taiyuan; Ma, Lun; Haacke, E Mark; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of APT MRI in detecting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages by comparing with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). APT MRI and SWI were performed on 33 included patients with ICH by using a 3-T MRI unit. A two-sided Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences in APT-weighted (APTw) and SWI signal intensities of ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic utilities of APT MRI and SWI. Our results showed that APT MRI could detect ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Therefore, APTw signal intensity may serve as a reliable, noninvasive imaging biomarker for detecting ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Moreover, APT MRI could provide additional information for the ICH compared with SWI. PMID:28374764

  15. Positive Unanimous Voting Algorithm for Focal Cortical Dysplasia Detection on Magnetic Resonance Image.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jian; Ma, Shaodong; Bai, Tingzhu; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions. Feature maps are further compared with the feature distributions of healthy controls to obtain feature difference maps. PUV driven by feature and feature difference maps is then applied to classify image voxels into lesion and non-lesion. The connected region analysis then refines the classification results by removing the tiny fragment regions consisting of falsely classified positive voxels. The proposed method correctly identified 8/10 patients with FCD lesions and 30/31 healthy people. Experimental results on the small FCD samples demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce the number of false positives and guarantee correct detection of lesion regions compared with four single classifiers and two recent methods.

  16. Positive Unanimous Voting Algorithm for Focal Cortical Dysplasia Detection on Magnetic Resonance Image

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jian; Ma, Shaodong; Bai, Tingzhu; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions. Feature maps are further compared with the feature distributions of healthy controls to obtain feature difference maps. PUV driven by feature and feature difference maps is then applied to classify image voxels into lesion and non-lesion. The connected region analysis then refines the classification results by removing the tiny fragment regions consisting of falsely classified positive voxels. The proposed method correctly identified 8/10 patients with FCD lesions and 30/31 healthy people. Experimental results on the small FCD samples demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce the number of false positives and guarantee correct detection of lesion regions compared with four single classifiers and two recent methods. PMID:27092069

  17. Sonographic detection and follow up of an atypical pineal cyst: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Judith U; Klötzsch, Christof; Oertel, Markus F; Möller-Hartmann, Walter

    2005-09-01

    The incidental ultrasonographic detection of an asymptomatic cystic pineal lesion in a young woman is described and compared with findings on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Follow-up studies obtained using both imaging modalities are presented. The results indicate that transcranial ultrasonography may represent an easy and cost-effective imaging technique for follow up of cystic lesions of the pineal gland, especially in patients unable to undergo MR imaging.

  18. The performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of triangular fibrocartilage complex injury: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z X; Chen, S L; Wang, Q Q; Liu, B; Zhu, J; Shen, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of triangular fibrocartilage complex injury through a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted before 1 April 2014. All studies comparing magnetic resonance imaging results with arthroscopy or open surgery findings were reviewed, and 25 studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria were included. Data were pooled to yield pooled sensitivity and specificity, which were respectively 0.83 and 0.82. In detection of central and peripheral tears, magnetic resonance imaging had respectively a pooled sensitivity of 0.90 and 0.88 and a pooled specificity of 0.97 and 0.97. Six high-quality studies using Ringler's recommended magnetic resonance imaging parameters were selected for analysis to determine whether optimal imaging protocols yielded better results. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of these six studies were 0.92 and 0.82, respectively. The overall accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging was acceptable. For peripheral tears, the pooled data showed a relatively high accuracy. Magnetic resonance imaging with appropriate parameters are an ideal method for diagnosing different types of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears.

  19. Direct magnetic resonance detection of myelin and prospects for quantitative imaging of myelin density

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Ong, Henry H.; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Hackney, David B.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has previously demonstrated its potential for indirectly mapping myelin density, either by relaxometric detection of myelin water or magnetization transfer. Here, we investigated whether myelin can be detected and possibly quantified directly. We identified the spectrum of myelin in the spinal cord in situ as well as in myelin lipids extracted via a sucrose gradient method, and investigated its spectral properties. High-resolution solution NMR spectroscopy showed the extract composition to be in agreement with myelin’s known chemical make-up. The 400-MHz 1H spectrum of the myelin extract, at 20 °C (room temperature) and 37 °C, consists of a narrow water resonance superimposed on a broad envelope shifted ∼3.5 ppm upfield, suggestive of long-chain methylene protons. Superimposed on this signal are narrow components resulting from functional groups matching the chemical shifts of the constituents making up myelin lipids. The spectrum could be modeled as a sum of super-Lorentzians with a T2* distribution covering a wide range of values (0.008–26 ms). Overall, there was a high degree of similarity between the spectral properties of extracted myelin lipids and those found in neural tissue. The normalized difference spectrum had the hallmarks of membrane proteins, not present in the myelin extract. Using 3D radially ramp-sampled proton MRI, with a combination of adiabatic inversion and echo subtraction, the feasibility of direct myelin imaging in situ is demonstrated. Last, the integrated signal from myelin suspensions is shown, both spectroscopically and by imaging, to scale with concentration, suggesting the potential for quantitative determination of myelin density. PMID:22628562

  20. Probe-Specific Procedure to Estimate Sensitivity and Detection Limits for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alexander J.; Granwehr, Josef; Lesbats, Clémentine; Krupa, James L.; Six, Joseph S.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Thomas, Neil R.; Auer, Dorothee P.; Meersmann, Thomas; Faas, Henryk M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration. An experimental “calibration factor” to account for variations in coil configuration and hardware set-up is specified. Once it has been determined in a calibration experiment, the sensitivity of an experiment or, alternatively, the minimum number of required spins or the minimum marker concentration can be estimated without the need for a pilot experiment. The definition of this calibration factor is derived based on standard equations for the sensitivity in magnetic resonance, yet the method is not restricted by the limited validity of these equations, since additional instrument-dependent factors are implicitly included during calibration. The method is demonstrated using MR spectroscopy and imaging experiments with different 19F samples, both paramagnetically and susceptibility broadened, to approximate a range of realistic environments. PMID:27727294

  1. Towards automated detection of depression from brain structural magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Kipli, Kuryati; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Williams, Lana J

    2013-05-01

    Depression is a major issue worldwide and is seen as a significant health problem. Stigma and patient denial, clinical experience, time limitations, and reliability of psychometrics are barriers to the clinical diagnoses of depression. Thus, the establishment of an automated system that could detect such abnormalities would assist medical experts in their decision-making process. This paper reviews existing methods for the automated detection of depression from brain structural magnetic resonance images (sMRI). Relevant sources were identified from various databases and online sites using a combination of keywords and terms including depression, major depressive disorder, detection, classification, and MRI databases. Reference lists of chosen articles were further reviewed for associated publications. The paper introduces a generic structure for representing and describing the methods developed for the detection of depression from sMRI of the brain. It consists of a number of components including acquisition and preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. Automated sMRI-based detection methods have the potential to provide an objective measure of depression, hence improving the confidence level in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression.

  2. Detection of Breast Microcalcifications Under Ultrasound Using Power Doppler and Acoustic Resonance Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    2241 010511 imaging, including magnetic resonance Radiology 2002; 224:265-269 Calcium carbonate particles embed- imaging, scintigraphy , and...characterize calcifications. digitized M-mode images: gestational dif- ways feasible because calcifications can- ferences of fetal lung . Ultrasound Med Biol

  3. Smart nanoprobes for ultrasensitive detection of breast cancer via magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemin; Yang, Jaemoon; Seo, Sung-Baek; Ko, Hyun-Ju; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2008-12-01

    Antibody-conjugated hydrophilic magnetic nanocrystals for use as smart nanoprobes were developed for ultrasensitive detection of breast cancer via magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MnFe2O4 nanocrystals (MNCs) for use as MR imaging contrast agents were synthesized by thermal decomposition to take advantage of their MR signal enhancement effect. The MNC surfaces were then modified with amphiphilic tri-block copolymers (dicarboxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)), not only allowing the MNCs to transfer from the organic to the aqueous phase, but also increasing the colloidal stability of the MNCs by masking poly(ethylene glycol). The physicochemical properties of the synthesized hydrophilic magnetic nanocrystals (HMNCs) were fully investigated. Trastuzumab (TZ), a monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2/neu), was further conjugated on the surface of HMNCs to specifically target HER2/neu over-expressed breast cancer cells. MR imaging analysis of target cells treated with TZ-conjugated HMNCs (TZ-HMNCs) clearly demonstrated their potential as high-performance nanoprobes for selective imaging.

  4. Target detection: Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion–guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Margolis, Daniel J.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled image-guided detection of prostate cancer. Fusion of MRI with real-time ultrasound (US) allows the information from MRI to be used to direct biopsy needles under US guidance in an office-based procedure. Fusion can be performed either cognitively or electronically, using a fusion device. Fusion devices allow superimposition (coregistration) of stored MRI images on real-time US images; areas of suspicion found on MRI can then serve as targets during US-guided biopsy. Currently available fusion devices use a variety of technologies to perform coregistration: robotic tracking via a mechanical arm with built-in encoders (Artemis/Eigen, BioJet/Geoscan); electromagnetic tracking (UroNav/Philips-Invivo, Hi-RVS/Hitachi); or tracking with a 3D US probe (Urostation/Koelis). Targeted fusion biopsy has been shown to identify more clinically significant cancers and fewer insignificant cancers than conventional biopsy. Fusion biopsy appears to be a major advancement over conventional biopsy because it allows (1) direct targeting of suspicious areas not seen on US and (2) follow-up biopsy of specific cancerous sites in men undergoing active surveillance. PMID:24239473

  5. Detection of Myofascial Herniation on Dynamic Sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay M.; Kondapavuluri, Sushen Kumar; Kamal, Anubhav; Kalra, Raghav; Kamal, Vigyat

    2016-01-01

    Muscle hernia is an uncommon cause of leg swelling. It can be detected in the early stages only if there is a high index of suspicion. It is common in lower extremity compared to the upper extremity. Tibialis anterior muscle in the leg is commonly involved. Dynamic sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the mainstay in their diagnosis, which demonstrate a facial defect with herniation of muscle fibers. We report a case of 23-year-old male patient who presented with a painless swelling in the anterolateral aspect of the left upper leg. Dynamic sonography done with high-resolution probe demonstrated a defect in fascia overlying tibialis anterior with herniation of outer muscle fibers which increased during dorsiflexion and reduced in the supine position at rest. MRI of the left leg confirmed the findings. PMID:26885428

  6. Non-caloric sweetener provides magnetic resonance imaging contrast for cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Puneet; Haris, Mohammad; D'Aquilla, Kevin; Wilson, Neil E; Marincola, Francesco M; Schnall, Mitchell D; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2017-05-30

    Image contrast enhanced by exogenous contrast agents plays a crucial role in the early detection, characterization, and determination of the precise location of cancers. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using a non-nutritive sweetener, sucralose (commercial name, Splenda), as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for cancer studies. High-resolution nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and MR studies on sucralose solution phantom were performed to detect the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) property of sucralose hydroxyl protons with bulk water (sucCEST). For the animal experiments, female Fisher rats (F344/NCR) were used to generate 9L-gliosarcoma model. MRI with CEST experiments were performed on anesthetized rats at 9.4 T MR scanner. Following the baseline CEST scans, sucralose solution was intravenously administered in control and tumor bearing rats. CEST acquisitions were continued during and following the administration of sucralose. Following the sucCEST, Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid was injected to perform Gd-enhanced imaging for visualizing the tumor. The sucCEST contrast in vitro was found to correlate positively with the sucralose concentration and negatively with the pH, indicating the potential of this technique in cancer imaging. In a control animal, the CEST contrast from the brain was found to be unaffected following the administration of sucralose, demonstrating its blood-brain barrier impermeability. In a 9L glioma model, enhanced localized sucCEST contrast in the tumor region was detected while the unaffected brain region showed unaltered CEST effect implying the specificity of sucralose toward the tumorous tissue. The CEST asymmetry plots acquired from the tumor region before and after the sucralose infusion showed elevation of asymmetry at 1 ppm, pointing towards the role of sucralose in increased contrast. We show the feasibility of using sucralose and sucCEST in study of preclinical models of

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging activation detection: fuzzy cluster analysis in wavelet and multiwavelet domains.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali

    2005-09-01

    To present novel feature spaces, based on multiscale decompositions obtained by scalar wavelet and multiwavelet transforms, to remedy problems associated with high dimension of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series (when they are used directly in clustering algorithms) and their poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that limits accurate classification of fMRI time series according to their activation contents. Using randomization, the proposed method finds wavelet/multiwavelet coefficients that represent the activation content of fMRI time series and combines them to define new feature spaces. Using simulated and experimental fMRI data sets, the proposed feature spaces are compared to the cross-correlation (CC) feature space and their performances are evaluated. In these studies, the false positive detection rate is controlled using randomization. To compare different methods, several points of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, using simulated data, are estimated and compared. The proposed features suppress the effects of confounding signals and improve activation detection sensitivity. Experimental results show improved sensitivity and robustness of the proposed method compared to the conventional CC analysis. More accurate and sensitive activation detection can be achieved using the proposed feature spaces compared to CC feature space. Multiwavelet features show superior detection sensitivity compared to the scalar wavelet features. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-based detection of glial brain tumors in mice after antiangiogenic treatment.

    PubMed

    Claes, An; Gambarota, Giulio; Hamans, Bob; van Tellingen, Olaf; Wesseling, Pieter; Maass, Cathy; Heerschap, Arend; Leenders, William

    2008-05-01

    Proper delineation of gliomas using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) poses a problem in neuro-oncology. The blood brain barrier (BBB) in areas of diffuse-infiltrative growth may be intact, precluding extravasation and subsequent MR-based detection of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Treatment with antiangiogenic compounds may further complicate tumor detection as such compounds can restore the BBB in angiogenic regions. The increasing number of clinical trials with antiangiogenic compounds for treatment of gliomas calls for the development of alternative imaging modalities. Here we investigated whether CE-MRI using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO, Sinerem) as blood pool contrast agent has additional value for detection of glioma in the brain of nude mice. We compared conventional T1-weighted Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI to T2*-weighted USPIO-enhanced MRI in mice carrying orthotopic U87 glioma, which were either or not treated with the antiangiogenic compound vandetanib (ZD6474, ZACTIMA). In untreated animals, vessel leakage within the tumor and a relatively high tumor blood volume resulted in good MRI visibility with Gd-DTPA- and USPIO-enhanced MRI, respectively. Consistent with previous findings, vandetanib treatment restored the BBB in the tumor vasculature, resulting in loss of tumor detectability in Gd-DTPA MRI. However, due to decreased blood volume, treated tumors could be readily detected in USPIO-enhanced MRI scans. Our findings suggest that Gd-DTPA MRI results in overestimation of the effect of antiangiogenic therapy of glioma and that USPIO-MRI provides an important complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate response to antiangiogenic therapy of these tumors. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Selective Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Detected With Exercise Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehan; Lee, Ho Seong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-15

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome that is refractory to conservative management should be treated with surgical fasciotomy. However, owing to the limitations of intracompartmental needle manometry in reaching a definite diagnosis, the appropriate timing for fasciotomy and on which compartment remain unclear. The authors report the case of a 22-year-old male military cadet who reported pain in his left calf when running or walking for long distances. The pain was located at the lateral aspect of the calf, from the mid-calf level to the ankle. At another hospital, nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging had been performed, which showed no considerable abnormality. The authors used exercise magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose chronic exertional compartment syndrome. They performed selective fasciotomy on the compartment that showed a high signal intensity. As a military cadet, the patient was required to jog for more than an hour per day and perform strenuous muscle exercises. He reported that he did not have calf pain or discomfort during such activities 13 months postoperatively. The authors obtained a follow-up exercise magnetic resonance image. Compared with the preoperative magnetic resonance image, the follow-up exercise magnetic resonance image did not show high signal intensity at the lateral compartment. Exercise magnetic resonance imaging is useful in confirming the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and enables the performance of selective fasciotomy on the affected compartment. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. PCA leverage: outlier detection for high-dimensional functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Amanda F; Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A

    2017-02-27

    Outlier detection for high-dimensional (HD) data is a popular topic in modern statistical research. However, one source of HD data that has received relatively little attention is functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI), which consists of hundreds of thousands of measurements sampled at hundreds of time points. At a time when the availability of fMRI data is rapidly growing-primarily through large, publicly available grassroots datasets-automated quality control and outlier detection methods are greatly needed. We propose principal components analysis (PCA) leverage and demonstrate how it can be used to identify outlying time points in an fMRI run. Furthermore, PCA leverage is a measure of the influence of each observation on the estimation of principal components, which are often of interest in fMRI data. We also propose an alternative measure, PCA robust distance, which is less sensitive to outliers and has controllable statistical properties. The proposed methods are validated through simulation studies and are shown to be highly accurate. We also conduct a reliability study using resting-state fMRI data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange and find that removal of outliers using the proposed methods results in more reliable estimation of subject-level resting-state networks using independent components analysis.

  11. Recent advances in surface plasmon resonance imaging: detection speed, sensitivity, and portability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Youjun; Hu, Rui; Wang, Lei; Gu, Dayong; He, Jianan; Wu, Shu-Yuen; Ho, Ho-Pui; Li, Xuejin; Qu, Junle; Gao, Bruce Zhi; Shao, Yonghong

    2017-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is a powerful tool for studying the kinetics of biomolecular interactions because they offer unique real-time and label-free measurement capabilities with high detection sensitivity. In the past two decades, SPR technology has been successfully commercialized and its performance has continuously been improved with lots of engineering efforts. In this review, we describe the recent advances in SPR technologies. The developments of SPR technologies focusing on detection speed, sensitivity, and portability are discussed in details. The incorporation of imaging techniques into SPR sensing is emphasized. In addition, our SPR imaging biosensors based on the scanning of wavelength by a solid-state tunable wavelength filter are highlighted. Finally, significant advances of the vast developments in nanotechnology-associated SPR sensing for sensitivity enhancements are also reviewed. It is hoped that this review will provide some insights for researchers who are interested in SPR sensing, and help them develop SPR sensors with better sensitivity and higher throughput.

  12. Prostate cancer detection by prebiopsy 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Sachiyo; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Mishima, Takao; Kurokawa, Hiroaki; Sakaida, Noriko; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2011-09-01

    The diagnostic value of 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to assess the features of prostate cancer detectable by prebiopsy 3.0-Tesla MRI. From January 2007 through to December 2008, 116 patients who were examined by prebiopsy 3.0-Tesla MRI underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Prostate specimens were examined to see whether the largest cancer area was the same as the area indicated on the MRI. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of agreement between MRI and histopathological findings. Sixty-six (56.9%) patients were suspected of having prostate cancer on the basis of MRI findings. In 49 of these patients (74.2%), it was considered that there was agreement between the abnormal area on the MRI and the index tumor. Univariate analysis revealed that there were significant differences in abnormal digital rectal examination, capsular penetration, the diameter of the index tumor of the radical prostatectomy specimen, and the Gleason scores of the biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Gleason score of the radical prostatectomy specimen was associated with the accurate detection of the prostate cancer by MRI (P = 0.0177). In conclusion, 3.0-Tesla MRI tends to accurately diagnose prostate cancer with high tumor burden and aggressiveness. Multimodal examination (T2-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging) is recommended for the diagnosis of prostate cancer using 3.0-Tesla MRI. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Detecting functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in white matter: Interhemispheric transfer across the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Erin L; D'Arcy, Ryan CN; Beyea, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is restricted to gray matter. Despite this, a number of studies have reported white matter activation, particularly when the corpus callosum is targeted using interhemispheric transfer tasks. These findings suggest that fMRI signals may not be neatly confined to gray matter tissue. In the current experiment, 4 T fMRI was employed to evaluate whether it is possible to detect white matter activation. We used an interhemispheric transfer task modelled after neurological studies of callosal disconnection. It was hypothesized that white matter activation could be detected using fMRI. Results Both group and individual data were considered. At liberal statistical thresholds (p < 0.005, uncorrected), group level activation was detected in the isthmus of the corpus callosum. This region connects the superior parietal cortices, which have been implicated previously in interhemispheric transfer. At the individual level, five of the 24 subjects (21%) had activation clusters that were located primarily within the corpus callosum. Consistent with the group results, the clusters of all five subjects were located in posterior callosal regions. The signal time courses for these clusters were comparable to those observed for task related gray matter activation. Conclusion The findings support the idea that, despite the inherent challenges, fMRI activation can be detected in the corpus callosum at the individual level. Future work is needed to determine whether the detection of this activation can be improved by utilizing higher spatial resolution, optimizing acquisition parameters, and analyzing the data with tissue specific models of the hemodynamic response. The ability to detect white matter fMRI activation expands the scope of basic and clinical brain mapping research, and provides a new approach for understanding brain connectivity. PMID:18789154

  14. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Malheiros, Jackeline M.; Polli, Roberson S.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Longo, Beatriz M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tannús, Alberto; Covolan, Luciene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods To modulate MFS, cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with Pilo in a sub-group of animals. In vivo MEMRI was performed 3 months after induction of SE and compared to the neo-Timm histological labeling of zinc mossy fiber terminals in the dentate gyrus (DG). Key findings Chronically epileptic rats displaying MFS as detected by neo-Timm histology had a hyperintense MEMRI signal in the DG, while chronically epileptic animals that did not display MFS had minimal MEMRI signal enhancement compared to non-epileptic control animals. A strong correlation (r = 0.81, P<0.001) was found between MEMRI signal enhancement and MFS. Significance This study shows that MEMRI is an attractive non-invasive method to detect mossy fiber sprouting in vivo and can be used as an evaluation tool in testing therapeutic approaches to manage chronic epilepsy. PMID:22642664

  15. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: detection of ischemic injury 39 minutes after onset in a stroke patient.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Y; Tokui, K; Hanihara, T; Kitagaki, H; Tabuchi, M; Mori, E

    1999-06-01

    A neurologist witnessed the in-hospital onset of an ischemic stroke in a 71-year-old right-handed male who suddenly developed global aphasia and right hemiplegia. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) 39 minutes after the ictus demonstrated high signals in the left internal carotid artery territory. T1- and T2-weighted images failed to detect this change. Magnetic resonance angiography showed occlusions in branches of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries and an atheromatous stenotic lesion in the ipsilateral proximal internal carotid artery. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin and low molecular dextran solution. Repeated magnetic resonance imagings identified an infarction slightly smaller than the abnormality demonstrated by the initial DWI. DWI detects hyperacute ischemic injury within 1 hour of symptom onset in human ischemic stroke.

  16. Towards MIB-1 and p53 detection in glioma magnetic resonance image: a novel computational image analysis method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenbin; Zhang, Haishi; Pan, Ying; Huang, Fengping; Xia, Shunren

    2012-12-21

    Glioma is the primary tumor in the central nervous system, and poses one of the greatest challenges in clinical treatment. MIB-1 and p53 are the most useful biomarkers for gliomas and could help neurosurgeons establish a therapeutic schedule. However, these biomarkers are commonly detected with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which wastes time and energy and is often influenced by subjective factors. To reduce the subjective factors and improve the efficiency in the judgment of IHC, a novel magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis method is proposed in the present study to detect the expression status of MIB-1 and p53 in IHC. The proposed method includes two kinds of MRI acquisition (FLAIR and T1 FLAIR images), regions of interest (ROIs) selection, texture features (i.e. the gray level gradient co-occurrence matrix (GLGCM), Minkowski functions (MFs), etc) extraction in ROIs, and classification with a support vector machine in a leave-one-out cross validation strategy. By classifying the ROIs, the performance of the method was evaluated by accuracy, area under ROC curve (AUC), etc. A high accuracy (0.7640 ± 0.0225) and AUC (0.7873 ± 0.0377) for MIB-I detection were achieved. In terms of the texture features, 0.7621 ± 0.0199, 0.7666 ± 0.0365 and 0.7426 ± 0.0451 AUC can be obtained using only GLCM, RLM or GLGCM for MIB-1 detection, respectively. In all, the experimental results demonstrated that MR image texture features are associated with the expression status of MIB-1 and p53. The proposed method has the potential to realize high accuracy and robust detection for MIB-I expression status, which makes it promising for clinical glioma diagnosis and prognosis.

  17. Towards MIB-1 and p53 detection in glioma magnetic resonance image: a novel computational image analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chenbin; Zhang, Haishi; Pan, Ying; Huang, Fengping; Xia, Shunren

    2012-12-01

    Glioma is the primary tumor in the central nervous system, and poses one of the greatest challenges in clinical treatment. MIB-1 and p53 are the most useful biomarkers for gliomas and could help neurosurgeons establish a therapeutic schedule. However, these biomarkers are commonly detected with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which wastes time and energy and is often influenced by subjective factors. To reduce the subjective factors and improve the efficiency in the judgment of IHC, a novel magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis method is proposed in the present study to detect the expression status of MIB-1 and p53 in IHC. The proposed method includes two kinds of MRI acquisition (FLAIR and T1 FLAIR images), regions of interest (ROIs) selection, texture features (i.e. the gray level gradient co-occurrence matrix (GLGCM), Minkowski functions (MFs), etc) extraction in ROIs, and classification with a support vector machine in a leave-one-out cross validation strategy. By classifying the ROIs, the performance of the method was evaluated by accuracy, area under ROC curve (AUC), etc. A high accuracy (0.7640 ± 0.0225) and AUC (0.7873 ± 0.0377) for MIB-I detection were achieved. In terms of the texture features, 0.7621 ± 0.0199, 0.7666 ± 0.0365 and 0.7426 ± 0.0451 AUC can be obtained using only GLCM, RLM or GLGCM for MIB-1 detection, respectively. In all, the experimental results demonstrated that MR image texture features are associated with the expression status of MIB-1 and p53. The proposed method has the potential to realize high accuracy and robust detection for MIB-I expression status, which makes it promising for clinical glioma diagnosis and prognosis.

  18. Detection of regional left ventricular asynchrony in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Schwammenthal, E; Wichter, T; Joachimsen, K; Auffermann, W; Peters, P E; Breithardt, G

    1994-03-01

    Cine magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze global and regional left ventricular function in seven patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) and 10 normal subjects. In patients with HC a 38% higher left ventricular mass index (106.4 +/- 20.2 gm/m2 vs 77.0 +/- 16.1 gm/m2, p < 0.005) associated with a lower end-diastolic volume index (44.9 +/- 8.9 ml/m2 vs 58.3 +/- 9.0 ml/m2, p < 0.005) resulted in an 85% higher mass-to-volume ratio (2.4 +/- 0.52 vs 1.3 +/- 0.57, p < 0.0005). Stroke volume did not differ significantly, whereas ejection fraction was higher (80.4% +/- 6.5% vs 65.4% +/- 7.2%, p < 0.0005) in patients with HC. Although early diastolic filling fraction was smaller in patients with HC (61.0% +/- 22.8% vs 68.4% +/- 14.6%), the difference did not reach significance because of substantial variability. In patients with HC (in contrast to normal subjects) the time to maximal wall thickening was shorter (p < 0.025) in the hypertrophied basal region of the ventricle (223 +/- 42 msec) than in the apical region (267 +/- 35 msec), reflecting asynchrony between these regions. Additionally, in patients with HC the standard deviation of the time to maximal wall thickening in the basal region was significantly higher when compared with that of normal subjects (40.0 +/- 24 msec vs 16.9 +/- 17 msec, p < 0.0005), reflecting asynchrony even within one region. Thus magnetic resonance imaging can detect regional left ventricular asynchrony, an important cause of impaired diastolic function, in patients with HC and normal global systolic function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Impact of Gleason Subtype on Prostate Cancer Detection Using Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Correlation with Final Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Truong, Matthew; Hollenberg, Gary; Weinberg, Eric; Messing, Edward M; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Frye, Thomas P

    2017-02-03

    We determined whether Gleason pattern 4 architecture impacts tumor visibility on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and correlates with final histopathology. A total of 83 tumor foci were identified in 22 radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with a prior negative biopsy who underwent magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy from January 2015 to July 2016. A genitourinary pathologist rereviewed tumor foci for Gleason architectural subtype. Each prostate imaging reporting and data system category 3 to 5 lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was paired with its corresponding pathological tumor focus. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine predictors of tumor visibility. Of the 83 tumor foci identified 26 (31%) were visible on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, 33 (40%) were Gleason score 3+3 and 50 (60%) were Gleason score 3+4 or greater. Among tumor foci containing Gleason pattern 4, increasing tumor size and noncribriform predominant architecture were the only independent predictors of tumor detection on multivariable analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.011, respectively). For tumor foci containing Gleason pattern 4, 0.5 cm or greater, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging detected 10 of 13 (77%), 5 of 14 (36%) and 9 of 10 (90%) for poorly formed, cribriform and fused architecture, respectively (p = 0.01). The size threshold for the detection of cribriform tumors was higher than that of other architectural patterns. Furthermore, cribriform pattern was identified more frequently on systematic biopsy than on targeted biopsy. Reduced visibility of cribriform pattern on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has significant ramifications for prostate cancer detection, surveillance and focal therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging improves mild cognitive impairment detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoe; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2013-06-01

    The identification of mild cognitive impairments (MCI) via either structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) or functional MRI (fMRI) has great potential due to the non-invasiveness of the techniques. Furthermore, these techniques allow longitudinal follow-ups of single subjects via repeated measurements. sMRI- or fMRI-based biomarkers have been adopted separately to diagnose MCI; however, there has not been a systematic effort to integrate sMRI- and fMRI-based features to increase MCI detection accuracy. This study investigated whether the detection of MCI can be improved via the integration of biomarkers identified from both sMRI and fMRI modalities. Regional volume sizes and neuronal activity levels of brains from MCI subjects were compared with those from healthy controls and used to identify biomarkers from sMRI and fMRI data, respectively. In the subsequent classification phase, MCI was automatically detected using a support vector machine algorithm that employed the identified sMRI- and fMRI-based biomarkers as an input feature vector. The results indicate that the fMRI-based biomarkers provided more information for detecting MCI than the sMRI-based biomarkers. Moreover, the integrated feature sets using the sMRI- and fMRI-based biomarkers consistently showed greater detection accuracy than the feature sets based only on the fMRI-based biomarkers. The results demonstrate that integration of sMRI and fMRI modalities can provide supplemental information to improve the diagnosis of MCI relative to either the sMRI or fMRI modalities alone.

  1. Numerical study of remote detection outside the magnet with travelling wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Vázquez, F.; Solís-Nájera, S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    The use of the travelling wave approach for high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging has been used recently with very promising results. This approach offer images one with greater field-of-view and a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio using a circular waveguide. This scheme has been proved to be successful at 7 T and 9.4 T with whole-body imager. Images have also been acquired with clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems whose resonant frequencies were 64 MHz and 128 MHz. These results motivated the use of remote detection of the magnetic resonance signal using a parallel-plate waveguide together with 3 T clinical scanners, to acquired human leg images. The cut-off frequency of this waveguide is zero for the principal mode, allowing us to overcome the barrier of transmitting waves at lower frequency than 300 MHz or 7 T for protons. These motivated the study of remote detection outside the actual magnet. We performed electromagnetic field simulations of a parallel-plate waveguide and a phantom. The signal transmission was done at 128 MHz and using a circular surface coil located almost 200 cm away for the magnet isocentre. Numerical simulations demonstrated that the magnetic field of the principal mode propagate inside a waveguide outside the magnet. Numerical results were compared with previous experimental-acquired image data under similar conditions.

  2. Detection of HLA-B*27 gene using a spectral plasmon resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yucong; Yuan, Lu; Fang, Xiangyi; Liang, Xiaohui; Yang, Fan

    2013-08-15

    Detection of HLA-B*27 gene is clinically important due to its strong association with diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis. Nucleic acid-based biosensors represent a promising clinical tool for gene diagnosis. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can be used to monitor DNA-DNA hybridization in real-time and without any prior labeling step. Here, a self-built HLA-B*27 positive PCR products spectral SPR imaging system was used for multichannel direct-detection of a specific sequence of the HLA-B*27 gene. Thiol-labeled single-stranded oligonucleotide probes, which were proved to be superior to amine-labeled probes in immobilization, were immobilized onto the surfaces of the gold spots on the sensor chip to target the specific sequence in the HLA-B*27 gene in blood. SPR measurements were performed with different concentrations of synthetic target DNA sequence. The calibration curve of synthetic target sequence showed a good linear relationship between the concentration of the synthetic target sequence and the shift of the SPR wavelength from 10 nM to 500 nM with a detection limit of 5 nM. The HLA-B*27 gene was isolated from human whole blood and amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were measured using the SPR imaging system. HLA-B*27 positive PCR products showed significant SPR wavelength shift, while synthetic non-complementary sequence and negative PCR products showed no significant SPR wavelength shift. The method is high-specific, high-throughput and label-free.

  3. Vibration-synchronized magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of myocardial elasticity changes.

    PubMed

    Elgeti, Thomas; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; Hirsch, Sebastian; Krefting, Dagmar; Klatt, Dieter; Niendorf, Thoralf; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2012-04-01

    Vibration synchronized magnetic resonance imaging of harmonically oscillating tissue interfaces is proposed for cardiac magnetic resonance elastography. The new approach exploits cardiac triggered cine imaging synchronized with extrinsic harmonic stimulation (f = 22.83 Hz) to display oscillatory tissue deformations in magnitude images. Oscillations are analyzed by intensity threshold-based image processing to track wave amplitude variations over the cardiac cycle. In agreement to literature data, results in 10 volunteers showed that endocardial wave amplitudes during systole (0.13 ± 0.07 mm) were significantly lower than during diastole (0.34 ± 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Wave amplitudes were found to decrease 117 ± 40 ms before myocardial contraction and to increase 75 ± 31 ms before myocardial relaxation. Vibration synchronized magnetic resonance imaging improves the temporal resolution of magnetic resonance elastography as it overcomes the use of extra motion encoding gradients, is less sensitive to susceptibility artifacts, and does not suffer from dynamic range constraints frequently encountered in phase-based magnetic resonance elastography. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In vivo detection of magnetic labeled oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruibin; Wu, Ren'an; Zhao, Liang; Qin, Hongqiang; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Jingwen; Bao, Ruyi; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-12-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) have been widely used in bio-medicine as drug carriers, bio-sensors, imaging agents and tissue engineering additives, which demands better understanding of their in vivo behavior because of the increasing exposure potential to humans. However, there are limited studies to investigate the in vivo biodistribution and elimination of f-CNTs. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) were used to label oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) for in vivo distribution study of o-MWCNTs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). SPIO labeled o-MWCNTs ((SPIO)o-MWCNTs) were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction process, and characterized by TEM, XRD and magnetometer. (SPIO)o-MWCNTs exhibited superparamagnetic property, excellent biocompatibility and stability. The intravenously injected (SPIO)o-MWCNTs were observed in liver, kidney and spleen, while the subcutaneously injected (SPIO)o-MWCNTs could be only detected in sub mucosa. Most of the intravenously injected (SPIO)o-MWCNTs could be eliminated from liver, spleen, kidney and sub mucosa on 4 d post injection (P.I.). However, the residual o-MWCNTs could induce 30-40% MRI signal-to-noise ratio changes in these tissues even on 30 d P.I. This in vivo biodistribution and elimination information of o-MWCNTs will greatly facilitate the application of f-CNT based nanoproducts in biomedicine. In addition, the magnetic labeling method provides an approach to investigate the in vivo biodistribution and clearance of other nanomaterials.

  5. In vivo detection of magnetic labeled oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Wu, Ren'an; Zhao, Liang; Qin, Hongqiang; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Jingwen; Bao, Ruyi; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-12-12

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) have been widely used in bio-medicine as drug carriers, bio-sensors, imaging agents and tissue engineering additives, which demands better understanding of their in vivo behavior because of the increasing exposure potential to humans. However, there are limited studies to investigate the in vivo biodistribution and elimination of f-CNTs. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) were used to label oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) for in vivo distribution study of o-MWCNTs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). SPIO labeled o-MWCNTs (((SPIO))o-MWCNTs) were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction process, and characterized by TEM, XRD and magnetometer. ((SPIO))o-MWCNTs exhibited superparamagnetic property, excellent biocompatibility and stability. The intravenously injected ((SPIO))o-MWCNTs were observed in liver, kidney and spleen, while the subcutaneously injected ((SPIO))o-MWCNTs could be only detected in sub mucosa. Most of the intravenously injected ((SPIO))o-MWCNTs could be eliminated from liver, spleen, kidney and sub mucosa on 4 d post injection (P.I.). However, the residual o-MWCNTs could induce 30-40% MRI signal-to-noise ratio changes in these tissues even on 30 d P.I. This in vivo biodistribution and elimination information of o-MWCNTs will greatly facilitate the application of f-CNT based nanoproducts in biomedicine. In addition, the magnetic labeling method provides an approach to investigate the in vivo biodistribution and clearance of other nanomaterials.

  6. Cranial anatomy and detection of ischemic stroke in the cat by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, F.S.; Pykett, I.L.; Kistler, J.P.; Vielma, J.; Brady, T.J.; Hinshaw, W.S.; Goldman, M.R.; Newhouse, J.H.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images of cat heads were obtained using a small, experimental imaging system. As a prelude to the study of experimental ischemic brain infarction, the normal cat head was imaged for identification of anatomical features. Images of one cat which had undergone ligation of the middle cerebral artery three weeks previously showed brain changes associated with chronic ischemic stroke and compared favorably with findings on computed tomography (CT). The NMR images have millimetric spatial resolution. NMR parameters inherent in the tissues provide intensity variations and are sufficiently sensitive to yield contrast resolution surpassing that of CT.

  7. Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Detection of Sub-femtomolar MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feichi; Xu, Jiying; Chen, Yi

    2017-09-19

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a promising new type of biomarkers but at a low fM level and hard to be analyzed. Herein proposed is an innovated surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) method merged with a novel in-plane and vertical signal amplification strategy, that is, orthogonal signal amplification to enable a direct determination of sub-fM miRNA-15a (a multiple tumor diagnostic biomarker). The core idea is to add more mass on a target sample spot first along the surficial direction, then upward from the surface. In detection of miRNA, this was realized by coupling a miRNA-initiated surficial cyclic DNA-DNA hybridization reaction with a DNA-initiated upward cyclic polymerization reaction. A perfect SPRi sensing chip with isolated gold islands bordered by hydrophobic CYTOP was fabricated and used to obtain high-quality chip with low fabrication difficulty. As a result, SPRi contrast largely increases, able to reach a limit of detection and limit of quantification down to 0.56 and 5fM for miRNA-15a, about 10(7)-fold improvement of sensitivity compared with a common SPRi detection. The method could quantify standard miRNA-15a spiked in human serum with an ideal recovery ranging from 98.6% to 104.9% and was validated to be applicable to the direct determination of miRNA-15a in healthy and cancer human serums. The orderly and controllable in situ sensitizing strategy is powerful and readily extendable to detection of other miRNAs.

  8. Detection of mycotoxins using imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect mycotoxins. One technology that has been extensively tested is surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In 2003 a multi-toxin method was reported that detected aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 ...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of early experimental periostitis. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and plain radiography with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, H J; Chandnani, V P; Beltran, J; Lucas, J G; Ortiz, I; King, M A; Bennett, W F; Bova, J G; Mueller, C F; Shaffer, P B

    1991-04-01

    This study characterizes the appearance of periosteal reaction by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluates the efficacy of MRI versus computed tomography (CT), and plain film radiography (PF) in detecting early, experimentally induced periostitis. Acute Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis was induced in 30 legs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were then imaged with MR, contrast-unenhanced CT, and PF 4 days after infection. Histologically, periosteal elevation was present in 27 cases. Periosteal ossification was seen in 23 cases, and cellular reaction without ossification in 4 cases. Periosteal reaction was demonstrated by PF in 21 (78%) and by CT in 20 (74%) cases. Evidence of periostitis was seen by MR in all 27% (100%) cases. MR resulted in two false-positive diagnoses. Multiple concentric, alternating high and low signal arcs demonstrated by MR in 19 (70%) cases represented periosteal ossification surrounded by fibrous or granulation tissue. These findings demonstrate the ability of MR to detect periostitis despite the absence of periosteal ossification. MR was more sensitive than CT (P less than .05) or PF (P less than .05) in the detection of experimentally induced periostitis.

  10. Detection of testicular torsion by magnetic resonance imaging in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Landa, H M; Gylys-Morin, V; Mattery, R F; Hajek, P; Krous, H F; Kaplan, G W; Packer, M G

    1988-11-01

    Testicular torsion is one of the most common pediatric urological emergencies. Incorrect or delayed diagnosis contributes significantly to morbidity. We previously have shown that magnetic resonance displays scrotal contents with great detail using hydrogen concentration weighted and T2 weighted images. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either unilateral 720-degree testicular torsion or a sham procedure. Magnetic resonance images were obtained at intervals with a 3 or 5-inch surface coil. Scans after surgical torsion showed a characteristic spiral distortion of the fascial planes of the spermatic cord, not seen in the sham animals, as well as a decrease in testicular size with prolonged torsion.

  11. Detection and localization of proteinuria by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using MS325.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yantian; Choyke, Peter L; Lu, Huiyan; Takahashi, Hideko; Mannon, Roslyn B; Zhang, Xiaojie; Marcos, Hani; Li, King C P; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2005-06-01

    After renal transplantation, persistent glomerular disease affecting the native kidneys typically causes albuminuria, at least for a period of time, making it difficult to determine in a noninvasive fashion whether proteinuria originates in the native kidneys or the renal allograft. To address this problem, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium (Gd)-based albumin-bound blood pool contrast agent (MS325) to localize proteinuria was investigated. Glomerular proteinuria was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intravenous injection of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN), whereas control rats received physiologic saline vehicle. Both groups of animals underwent a 40-min dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using radio frequency spoiled gradient echo imaging sequence after injection of Gd-labeled MS325. Contrast uptake and clearance curves for cortex and medulla were determined from acquired MR images. Compared with controls, proteinuric rats exhibited significantly lower elimination rate constants. The use of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) as a contrast agent showed smaller and less specific differences between proteinuric and control groups. In rats with one proteinuric kidney (PAN-treated) and one normal kidney (transplanted from a normal rat), MRI using MS325 was able to differentiate between the two kidneys. The results suggest that MRI with an albumin-bound blood pool contrast agent may be a useful noninvasive way to localize proteinuria. If this technique can be successfully applied in human patients, it may allow for the localization of proteinuria after kidney transplant and thereby provide a noninvasive way to detect disease affecting the renal allograft.

  12. Detection of 100% oxygen induced changes in retina using magnetic resonance imaging: a human study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing-Gang; Chen, Qing-Hua; Xian, Jun-Fang; Wang, Zhen-Chang

    2010-11-01

    Inner retinal oxygenation response (ΔPO(2)) is a worldwide study focus. However, the relevant reports on its radiological measurements are limited. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), employing T1 weighted image (T1WI), was used to detect changes in ΔPO(2) following 100% oxygen inhalation in human subjects. MRI was performed on a 1.5-T GE scanner system. After obtaining ophthalmologic data, eleven healthy individuals were given room air and 100% oxygen inhalation in order with different intervals. The MRI T1WI data were collected for 50 minutes. Data were analyzed with NIH IMAGE software. ΔPO(2) was not panretinally uniform, and changes in oxygenation response were spatially inhomogeneous. During the initial phase (before 5 minutes) of 100% oxygen inhalation, preretinal vitreous water signals in the region of papilla optica increased rapidly. On the contrary, in other regions signals declined. In a later period (35 minutes), ΔPO(2) was panretinally fluctuated and increased slowly and attained homeostasis. After hyperoxia (45 minutes), delayed-enhancement of preretinal vitreous water signals in regions other than the papilla optica occurred, and then dropped down. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) at any consecutive time point during and after hyperoixa. These results reveal that hyperoxia can induce region-specific signal changes in preretinal vitreous water. Regulatory activity of the retinal vessel network may be the mechanism during 100% oxygen inhalation. Moreover, MRI is a valuable tool for investigating ΔPO(2) and exploring the mechanism of retinal oxygenation response physiologically or pathologically in vivo.

  13. Can magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0-Tesla reliably detect patients with endometriosis? Initial results.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Maarten G; Steensma, Anneke B; van Santbrink, Evert J; Willemssen, Francois E; Wielopolski, Piotr A; Hunink, Myriam G; Spronk, Sandra; Laven, Joop S; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an optimized 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol is sensitive and specific enough to detect patients with endometriosis. This was a prospective cohort study with consecutive patients. Forty consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of endometriosis underwent 3.0-Tesla MRI, including a T2-weighted high-resolution fast spin echo sequence (spatial resolution=0.75 ×1.2 ×1.5 mm³) and a 3D T1-weighted high-resolution gradient echo sequence (spatial resolution=0.75 ×1.2 × 2.0 mm³). Two radiologists reviewed the dataset with consensus reading. During laparoscopy, which was used as reference standard, all lesions were characterized according to the revised criteria of the American Fertility Society. Patient-level and region-level sensitivities and specificities and lesion-level sensitivities were calculated. Patient-level sensitivity was 42% for stage I (5/12) and 100% for stages II, III and IV (25/25). Patient-level specificity for all stages was 100% (3/3). The region-level sensitivity and specificity was 63% and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity per lesion was 61% (90% for deep lesions, 48% for superficial lesions and 100% for endometriomata). The detection rate of obliteration of the cul-the-sac was 100% (10/10) with no false positive findings. The interreader agreement was substantial to perfect (kappa=1 per patient, 0.65 per lesion and 0.71 for obliteration of the cul-the-sac). An optimized 3.0-Tesla MRI protocol is accurate in detecting stage II to stage IV endometriosis. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Incidental Memory Encoding Assessed with Signal Detection Theory and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Benjamin; Regenbogen, Christina; Koch, Kathrin; Backes, Volker; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pauly, Katharina; Shah, N. Jon; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that apply a “subsequent memory” approach, successful encoding is indicated by increased fMRI activity during the encoding phase for hits vs. misses, in areas underlying memory encoding such as the hippocampal formation. Signal-detection theory (SDT) can be used to analyze memory-related fMRI activity as a function of the participant’s memory trace strength (d′). The goal of the present study was to use SDT to examine the relationship between fMRI activity during incidental encoding and participants’ recognition performance. To implement a new approach, post-experimental group assignment into High- or Low Performers (HP or LP) was based on 29 healthy participants’ recognition performance, assessed with SDT. The analyses focused on the interaction between the factors group (HP vs. LP) and recognition performance (hits vs. misses). A whole-brain analysis revealed increased activation for HP vs. LP during incidental encoding for remembered vs. forgotten items (hits > misses) in the insula/temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the fusiform gyrus (FFG). Parameter estimates in these regions exhibited a significant positive correlation with d′. As these brain regions are highly relevant for salience detection (insula), stimulus-driven attention (TPJ), and content-specific processing of mnemonic stimuli (FFG), we suggest that HPs’ elevated memory performance was associated with enhanced attentional and content-specific sensory processing during the encoding phase. We provide first correlative evidence that encoding-related activity in content-specific sensory areas and content-independent attention and salience detection areas influences memory performance in a task with incidental encoding of facial stimuli. Based on our findings, we discuss whether the aforementioned group differences in brain activity during incidental encoding might constitute the basis of general differences in memory performance

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

  16. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Preserved Function in a Preterm Infant with Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Charlotte; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Wild, Conor J; Linke, Annika C; Han, Victor K; Lee, David S C; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    We studied developmental plasticity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a preterm infant with brain injury on structural MRI. fMRI showed preserved brain function and subsequent neurodevelopment was within the normal range. Multimodal neuroimaging including fMRI can improve understanding of neural plasticity after preterm birth and brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. No Difference in Hippocampus Volume Detected on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Autistic Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piven, Joseph; Bailey, James; Ranson, Bonnie J.; Arndt, Stephan

    1998-01-01

    Neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the hippocampus as having a possible role in autism. This study applied magnetic resonance imaging to the hippocampus of 35 autistic and 36 control subjects. Detailed MRI did not reveal differences in the volume of the hippocampus in autistic individuals. (Author/DB)

  18. Mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance image of a multilayer system at normal pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Schaff, A.; Veeman, W.S.

    1997-05-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a new microscopy technique that combines the spin selective detection of nuclear or electron spin resonance with the high spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy. In this letter we present MRFM measurements on a three-layer system in the micron range. We detected the one-dimensional distribution of proton spins in a sample that consisted of two-ammonium sulphate layers and an intermediate layer of sodium chloride. The experiments were done at room temperature and normal pressure, in contrast to earlier MRFM measurements that have been carried out in vacuum at room temperature or low temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detects recurrent isolated vertigo caused by cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Li; Luo, Man; Li, Jiaoxing; Li, Weidong; Sheng, Wenli

    2015-06-01

    The etiology of isolated vertigo has been a substantial diagnostic challenge for both neurologists and otolaryngologists. This study was designed to detect recurrent isolated vertigo due to cerebral hypoperfusion using perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI). We recruited isolated vertigo patients whose clinical condition was suspected to be caused by hypodynamics of the brain; these individuals formed the case group. We generated two additional groups: a negative group composed of vertigo patients whose symptoms were caused by problems associated with the ear and a healthy control group. Each subject underwent PWI, and seven regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit time (MTT) were obtained from each ROI. We further calculated the absolute difference of relative parameter values between two mirrored ROIs. The significant difference in the relative MTT from the mirrored cerebellar ROI (|rMTTleft-right|) of the case group was larger than those from the negative and healthy control groups (p = 0.026 and p = 0.038, respectively). Signal differences in |rrCBVleft-right| and |rrCBFleft-right| were not found among the three groups. In summary, disequilibrium in the rMTT of the bilateral cerebellum in the case group implied that hypoperfusion of the posterior circulation could trigger recurrent isolated vertigo and could be shown efficiently using PWI.

  20. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography to detect consciousness after severe brain injury.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, rapid technological developments in the field of neuroimaging have provided new methods for revealing thoughts, actions, and intentions based solely on the pattern of activity that is observed in the brain. In specialized centres, these methods are now being employed routinely in the assessment of patients diagnosed with so-called "disorders of consciousness," mapping patterns of residual function and dysfunction and helping to reduce diagnostic errors between related conditions such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states. Both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) have now been shown to be effective tools for detecting covert awareness in behaviorally nonresponsive patients when standard clinical approaches have been unable to provide that information. Indeed, in some patients, communication with the outside world via simple "yes" and "no" questions has been achieved, even in cases where no possibility for behavioral interaction exists. These studies have profound implications for clinical care, diagnosis, prognosis and medical-legal decision making relating to the prolongation, or otherwise, of life after severe brain injury. Moreover, the results suggest an urgent need for a re-evaluation of the existing diagnostic guidelines for behaviorally nonresponsive patients to include information derived from functional neuroimaging.

  1. Bennett lesions in baseball players detected by magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of association factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Noh, Young-Min; Chung, Seok-Won; Moon, Sung-Gyn; Ha, Dae-Ho; Lee, Ki-Sun; Chung, Seok Won

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Bennett lesions in baseball players compared with those without a Bennett lesion and to identify other possible factors associated with Bennett lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated 388 male baseball players with a career >1 year. Demographic factors and a routine physical examination, including glenohumeral internal rotation difference, scapular dyskinesis, and various pathologic changes, were reviewed on MRI to identify relative factors for Bennett lesions. Of the 388 patients evaluated, 125 (32.2%) were diagnosed with Bennett lesions of the shoulder. No significant differences were observed between the groups in demographic factors, physical examination results, visual analog scale score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, or prevalence of concomitant diseases. However, players with Bennett lesions had played baseball longer than those without the lesions (P < .001). An association was found between Bennett lesions and the length of time that a patient with a Bennett lesion had played baseball. The prevalence of pathologic lesions detected on MRI and the physical examination results were not different between players with and without Bennett lesions. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion pore imaging: Experimental phase detection by double diffusion encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demberg, Kerstin; Laun, Frederik Bernd; Windschuh, Johannes; Umathum, Reiner; Bachert, Peter; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion pore imaging is an extension of diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enabling the direct measurement of the shape of arbitrarily formed, closed pores by probing diffusion restrictions using the motion of spin-bearing particles. Examples of such pores comprise cells in biological tissue or oil containing cavities in porous rocks. All pores contained in the measurement volume contribute to one reconstructed image, which reduces the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution present in conventional magnetic resonance imaging. It has been previously experimentally demonstrated that pore imaging using a combination of a long and a narrow magnetic field gradient pulse is feasible. In this work, an experimental verification is presented showing that pores can be imaged using short gradient pulses only. Experiments were carried out using hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined pores. The phase required for pore image reconstruction was retrieved from double diffusion encoded (DDE) measurements, while the magnitude could either be obtained from DDE signals or classical diffusion measurements with single encoding. The occurring image artifacts caused by restrictions of the gradient system, insufficient diffusion time, and by the phase reconstruction approach were investigated. Employing short gradient pulses only is advantageous compared to the initial long-narrow approach due to a more flexible sequence design when omitting the long gradient and due to faster convergence to the diffusion long-time limit, which may enable application to larger pores.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion pore imaging: Experimental phase detection by double diffusion encoding.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Kerstin; Laun, Frederik Bernd; Windschuh, Johannes; Umathum, Reiner; Bachert, Peter; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion pore imaging is an extension of diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enabling the direct measurement of the shape of arbitrarily formed, closed pores by probing diffusion restrictions using the motion of spin-bearing particles. Examples of such pores comprise cells in biological tissue or oil containing cavities in porous rocks. All pores contained in the measurement volume contribute to one reconstructed image, which reduces the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution present in conventional magnetic resonance imaging. It has been previously experimentally demonstrated that pore imaging using a combination of a long and a narrow magnetic field gradient pulse is feasible. In this work, an experimental verification is presented showing that pores can be imaged using short gradient pulses only. Experiments were carried out using hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined pores. The phase required for pore image reconstruction was retrieved from double diffusion encoded (DDE) measurements, while the magnitude could either be obtained from DDE signals or classical diffusion measurements with single encoding. The occurring image artifacts caused by restrictions of the gradient system, insufficient diffusion time, and by the phase reconstruction approach were investigated. Employing short gradient pulses only is advantageous compared to the initial long-narrow approach due to a more flexible sequence design when omitting the long gradient and due to faster convergence to the diffusion long-time limit, which may enable application to larger pores.

  5. Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Two-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh; Safari, Maryam; Vafaei, Homeira; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US), especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. Objectives We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven (107) pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013. A 1.5 T Siemens Avanto scanner was employed for sequences, including T2 HASTE and Trufisp images in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes to mother’s body, T2 HASTE and Trufisp relative to the specific fetal body part being evaluated, and T1 flash images in at least one plane based on clinical indication. We investigated any abnormality in the central nervous system and performed descriptive analysis to achieve index of frequency. Results Mean gestational age ± standard deviation (SD) for fetuses was 25.54 ± 5.22 weeks, and mean maternal age ± SD was 28.38 ± 5.80 years Eighty out of 107 (74.7%) patients who were referred with initial impression of borderline ventriculomegaly. A total of 18 out of 107 (16.82%) patients were found to have fetuses with CNS anomalies and the remainder were neurologically normal. Detected anomalies were as follow: 3 (16.6%) fetuses each had the Dandy-Walker variant and Arnold-Chiari II (with myelomeningocele). Complete agenesis of corpus callosum, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, and aqueductal stenosis were each seen in 2 (11.1%) fetuses. Arnold-Chiari II without myelomeningocele, anterior spina bifida associated with neurenteric cyst, arachnoid cyst, lissencephaly, and isolated enlarged cisterna magna each presented in one (5.5%) fetus. One fetus had concomitant schizencephaly and complete agenesis of

  6. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging detects changes in meniscal volume in vivo after partial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan E; Tung, Glenn A; Oksendahl, Heidi L; Hulstyn, Michael J; Fadale, Paul D; Machan, Jason T; Fleming, Braden C

    2010-08-01

    Quantifying changes in meniscal volume in vivo before and after partial meniscectomy (PM) could help elucidate the mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis development after meniscal injury and its surgical treatment. Purpose/ To determine whether quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) can detect the immediate reduction in meniscal volume created by PM, while ruling out changes in unresected structures. We hypothesized that qMRI would be reliable for determining meniscal volume within the repeated images of unresected menisci. Additionally, we expected no significant difference in volume between the uninjured menisci of the injured knees and the same menisci of the uninjured knees. Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Ten subjects with meniscal tears were evaluated with 3-T MRI before and after arthroscopic PM. Manual segmentation was used to create models of the menisci and to determine the preoperative and postoperative meniscal volumes for each subject. The responsiveness and reliability of qMRI for determining meniscal volume in vivo were evaluated using these measurements. We expected a decrease in volume of the resected menisci, but not in the uninjured menisci, after surgery. The mean preoperative volume of the injured menisci was significantly greater than the mean postoperative volume (2896 +/- 277 vs 2480 +/- 277 mm(3); P = .000). There was no significant difference between the mean preoperative and postoperative volumes of the uninjured menisci (2687 +/- 256 vs 2694 +/- 256 mm(3); P = 1.000). Manual segmentation demonstrated a significant reduction in the volume of the surgically resected menisci after PM, but no significant change in the volume of unresected meniscal tissue, indicating that the manual segmentation method is responsive. This approach offers a novel, reliable method to study the relationship between the volume of meniscal tissue removed during PM and subsequent patient outcomes during long-term clinical studies.

  7. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging for occult lesion detection in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiafeng; Zhou, Chunkui; Zhu, Lijun; Yan, Xiuli; Wang, Yonghong; Chen, Xin; Fang, Shaokuan

    2017-01-01

    It remains challenging to locate occult lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been demonstrated to have the potential to identify occult changes in MS lesions. The present study used 3.0T magnetic resonance DTI to investigate the characteristics of different stages of MS lesions. DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ// and λ┴ values of lesions were compared at the different stages of 10 patients with MS with 10 normal controls. The results demonstrated that FA and λ// values of MS silent and subacute lesions are decreased and MD and λ┴ values are increased, as compared with those of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal controls. NAWM FA values were lower, and MD, λ//, and λ┴ values were higher than those of normal controls. It was also indicated that MS lesions had reduced color signals compared with the controls, and the lesion area appeared larger using DTI as compared with diffusion-weighted imaging. Furthermore, fiber abnormalities were detected in MS lesions using DTT, with fewer fibers connected to the lesion side, as compared with the contralateral side. FA, MD, λ// and λ┴ values in the thalamus were increased, as compared with those of normal controls (P<0.05); whereas MD, λ// and λ┴ values were significantly increased and FA values significantly decreased in the caudate nucleus and deep brain gray matter (DBGM) of patients with MS, as compared with the controls (P<0.05). λ// and λ┴ values were also significantly increased in the DBGM of patients with MS as compared with normal controls (P<0.05). The present findings demonstrate that DTI may be useful in the characterization of MS lesions. PMID:28123474

  8. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging for occult lesion detection in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiafeng; Zhou, Chunkui; Zhu, Lijun; Yan, Xiuli; Wang, Yonghong; Chen, Xin; Fang, Shaokuan

    2017-01-01

    It remains challenging to locate occult lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been demonstrated to have the potential to identify occult changes in MS lesions. The present study used 3.0T magnetic resonance DTI to investigate the characteristics of different stages of MS lesions. DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ// and λ┴ values of lesions were compared at the different stages of 10 patients with MS with 10 normal controls. The results demonstrated that FA and λ// values of MS silent and subacute lesions are decreased and MD and λ┴ values are increased, as compared with those of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal controls. NAWM FA values were lower, and MD, λ//, and λ┴ values were higher than those of normal controls. It was also indicated that MS lesions had reduced color signals compared with the controls, and the lesion area appeared larger using DTI as compared with diffusion-weighted imaging. Furthermore, fiber abnormalities were detected in MS lesions using DTT, with fewer fibers connected to the lesion side, as compared with the contralateral side. FA, MD, λ// and λ┴ values in the thalamus were increased, as compared with those of normal controls (P<0.05); whereas MD, λ// and λ┴ values were significantly increased and FA values significantly decreased in the caudate nucleus and deep brain gray matter (DBGM) of patients with MS, as compared with the controls (P<0.05). λ// and λ┴ values were also significantly increased in the DBGM of patients with MS as compared with normal controls (P<0.05). The present findings demonstrate that DTI may be useful in the characterization of MS lesions.

  9. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting meniscal pathology.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S; Cooney, A; Caplan, N; Dowen, D; Kader, D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning in the detection of meniscal pathology in a district general hospital. We retrospectively analysed a single-surgeon series of 240 knee arthroscopic investigations for all indications. The arthroscopic reports included an outline diagram of the meniscus upon which the surgeon could record his operative findings. 112 of these patients had also had a recent MRI scan. We compared the MRI findings with the arthroscopy findings. 66 patients had a positive MRI scan. 64 of these were found to have a meniscal tear at surgery. 37 MRI scans were reported as "no tear", of which four were found to have a meniscal tear at surgery. Nine MRI scans were descriptive, e.g. "signal change, possible tear", or "tear cannot be ruled out." These tended to correspond with equivocal arthroscopic findings of "degeneration" or "fibrillation". In our series of 112 patients with meniscal pathology, MRI scanning was 90.5% sensitive, 89.5% specific and 90.1% accurate. False positive MRI scans may lead to unnecessary surgery. Patients with negative MRI scans had a mean delay to surgery of 33 weeks compared to 18 weeks for patients with positive MRI scans. Patients with false negative MRI results may wait longer for their surgery. Two of the false negative MRI scan reports clearly showed meniscus tears, which were not identified by the reporting radiologist. In our series, the MRI scan itself was more accurate than the reporting. It is important to have an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist to minimise the number of missed meniscal tears. It is also important for the surgeon to review the MRI scan itself, as well as the report.

  10. Automatic segmentation of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance images of the brain by using an outlier detection strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Chao; Wang, Jie; Wei, Xiaoer; Li, Yuehua; Hui, Chun; Zhu, Yuemin; Zhang, Su

    2014-12-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are commonly observed on the magnetic resonance (MR) images of normal elderly in association with vascular risk factors, such as hypertension or stroke. An accurate WML detection provides significant information for disease tracking, therapy evaluation, and normal aging research. In this article, we present an unsupervised WML segmentation method that uses Gaussian mixture model to describe the intensity distribution of the normal brain tissues and detects the WMLs as outliers to the normal brain tissue model based on extreme value theory. The detection of WMLs is performed by comparing the probability distribution function of a one-sided normal distribution and a Gumbel distribution, which is a specific extreme value distribution. The performance of the automatic segmentation is validated on synthetic and clinical MR images with regard to different imaging sequences and lesion loads. Results indicate that the segmentation method has a favorable accuracy competitive with other state-of-the-art WML segmentation methods.

  11. Prostate Cancer Detection with Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 1 versus Version 2

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhao-Yan; Wang, Liang; Min, Xiang-De; Wang, Shao-Gang; Wang, Guo-Ping; Cai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) is a globally acceptable standardization for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. The American College of Radiology revised the PI-RADS to address the limitations of version 1 in December 2014. This study aimed to determine whether the PI-RADS version 2 (PI-RADS v2) scoring system improves the diagnostic accuracy of mp-MRI of the prostate compared with PI-RADS v1. Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 401 consecutive patients, with clinically suspicious PCa undergoing 3.0 T mp-MRI (T2-weighted imaging + diffusion-weighted imaging + DCE) before transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy between June 2013 and July 2015, were included in the study. All patients were scored using the 5-point PI-RADS scoring system based on either PI-RADS v1 or v2. Receiver operating characteristics were calculated for statistical analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were compared using McNemar's test. Results: PCa was present in 150 of 401 (37.41%) patients. When we pooled data from both peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ), the areas under the curve were 0.889 for PI-RADS v1 and 0.942 for v2 (P = 0.0001). Maximal accuracy was achieved with a score threshold of 4. At this threshold, in the PZ, similar sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were achieved with v1 and v2 (all P > 0.05). In the TZ, sensitivity was higher for v2 than for v1 (96.36% vs. 76.36%, P = 0.003), specificity was similar for v2 and v1 (90.24% vs. 84.15%, P = 0.227), and accuracy was higher for v2 than for v1 (92.70% vs. 81.02%, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Both v1 and v2 showed good diagnostic performance for the detection of PCa. However, in the TZ, the performance was better with v2 than with v1. PMID:27748338

  12. Nano-sized Contrast Agents to Non-Invasively Detect Renal Inflammation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Serkova, Natalie J.

    2013-01-01

    Several molecular imaging methods have been developed that employ nano-sized contrast agents to detect markers of inflammation within tissues. Renal inflammation contributes to disease progression in a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a biopsy is currently the only method of definitively diagnosing active renal inflammation. However, the development of new molecular imaging methods that employ contrast agents capable of detecting particular immune cells or protein biomarkers will allow clinicians to evaluate inflammation throughout the kidneys, and to assess a patient's response to immunomodulatory drugs. These imaging tools will improve our ability to validate new therapies and to optimize the treatment of individual patients with existing therapies. This review describes the clinical need for new methods of monitoring renal inflammation, and recent advances in the development of nano-sized contrast agents for detection of inflammatory markers of renal disease. PMID:24206601

  13. Automatic Brain Tumor Detection in T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Kropatsch, W. G.; Bartušek, K.

    2013-10-01

    This work focuses on fully automatic detection of brain tumors. The first aim is to determine, whether the image contains a brain with a tumor, and if it does, localize it. The goal of this work is not the exact segmentation of tumors, but the localization of their approximate position. The test database contains 203 T2-weighted images of which 131 are images of healthy brain and the remaining 72 images contain brain with pathological area. The estimation, whether the image shows an afflicted brain and where a pathological area is, is done by multi resolution symmetry analysis. The first goal was tested by five-fold cross-validation technique with 100 repetitions to avoid the result dependency on sample order. This part of the proposed method reaches the true positive rate of 87.52% and the true negative rate of 93.14% for an afflicted brain detection. The evaluation of the second part of the algorithm was carried out by comparing the estimated location to the true tumor location. The detection of the tumor location reaches the rate of 95.83% of correct anomaly detection and the rate 87.5% of correct tumor location.

  14. Point mutation detection by surface plasmon resonance imaging coupled with a temperature scan method in a model system.

    PubMed

    Fiche, J B; Fuchs, J; Buhot, A; Calemczuk, R; Livache, T

    2008-02-15

    The detection of point mutations in genes presents clear biological and medical interest. Various methods have been considered. In this paper, we take advantage of surface plasmon resonance imaging, a technique allowing detection of unlabeled DNA hybridization. Coupled with a temperature scan, this approach allows us to determine the presence of single-point mutations in oligonucleotide samples from the analysis of DNA's melting curves in either the homozygous or heterozygous case. Moreover, these experimental data are confirmed in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  15. A compact SQUID-detected magnetic resonance imaging system under microtesla field in a magnetically unshielded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsien; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Yueh, Shieh; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we present a compact and sensitive SQUID-detected nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and imager (NMR/MRI) using flux coupling in microtesla fields. The pre-polarization coil, measuring coil, pulsed coil, and gradient coils were set up inside a three-layer aluminum box while the SQUID-detector was shielded with a high-Tc superconducting vessel. A compensation field was applied to improve the field homogeneity in magnetically unshielded environments. The spin precession of protons was inductively coupled to the SQUID magnetometer via a resonant flux transformer. We obtained a signal-to-noise ratio of 120 in one measurement, a spectral resolution better than 1 Hz, and a spatial resolution of 1.3 mm in the images.

  16. Automatic detection of ionospheric Alfvén resonances using signal and image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, C. D.

    2014-08-01

    Induction coils permit the measurement of small and very rapid changes of the magnetic field. A new set of induction coils in the UK (at L = 3.2) record magnetic field changes over an effective frequency range of 0.1-40 Hz, encompassing phenomena such as the Schumann resonances, magnetospheric pulsations and ionospheric Alfvén resonances (IARs). The IARs typically manifest themselves as a series of spectral resonance structures (SRSs) within the 1-10 Hz frequency range, usually appearing as fine bands or fringes in spectrogram plots and occurring almost daily during local night-time, disappearing during the daylight hours. The behaviour of the occurrence in frequency (f) and the difference in frequency between fringes (Δf) varies throughout the year. In order to quantify the daily, seasonal and annual changes of the SRSs, we developed a new method based on signal and image processing techniques to identify the fringes and to quantify the values of f, Δf and other relevant parameters in the data set. The technique is relatively robust to noise though requires tuning of threshold parameters. We analyse 18 months of induction coil data to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  20. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2007-04-16

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.

  1. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging guided diagnostic biopsy detects significant prostate cancer and could reduce unnecessary biopsies and over detection: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James E; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Brenner, Phillip; Delprado, Warick; Ponsky, Lee; Pulbrook, Marley; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Hayen, Andrew; Stricker, Phillip D

    2014-07-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging appears to improve prostate cancer detection but prospective studies are lacking. We determined the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for detecting significant prostate cancer before diagnostic biopsy in men with abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination. In this single center, prospective study men older than 40 years with abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination and no previous multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging underwent T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging without an endorectal coil. Imaging was allocated alternately to 1.5/3.0 Tesla. Imaging was double reported independently using PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) by specialist radiologists. Transperineal grid directed 30-core biopsy was performed with additional magnetic resonance imaging directed cores for regions of interest outside template locations. Four significant cancer definitions were tested. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis was done. Men undergoing prostatectomy were analyzed. Of the 165 men who enrolled in the study 150 were analyzed. Median age was 62.4 years, median prostate specific antigen was 5.6 ng/ml, 29% of patients had an abnormal digital rectal examination and 88% underwent initial biopsy. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was positive (PI-RADS 3 to 5) in 66% of patients, 61% had prostate cancer and 30% to 41% had significant prostate cancer (definitions 1 to 4). For significant cancer sensitivity was 93% to 96%, specificity was 47% to 53%, and negative and positive predictive values were 92% to 96% and 43% to 57%, respectively (definitions 1 to 4). Radical prostatectomy results in 48 men were similar. Aggregate PI-RADS (4 to 20) performed similarly to overall PI-RADS (1 to 5). Negative and positive predictive values (100% and 71%, respectively) were similar in men at higher risk, defined as prostate

  2. Tracking the Mammary Architectural Features and Detecting Breast Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Feinberg-Shapiro, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Eyal, Erez; Zehavi, Tania; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices. The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection. PMID:25549209

  3. Tracking the mammary architectural features and detecting breast cancer with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Feinberg-Shapiro, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Eyal, Erez; Zehavi, Tania; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-12-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices. The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection.

  4. Comparative in vivo mucoadhesion studies of thiomer formulations using magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Greindl, M; Kremser, C; Wolf, C; Debbage, P; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2006-09-28

    The aim of this study was to compare different oral delivery systems based on the thiolated polymer polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-Cys) and to provide evidence for the validity of the hypothesis that unhydrated polymers provide better mucoadhesion in vivo. To achieve dry polymer application, a new, experimental dosage form named Eutex (made of Eudragit L100-55 and latex) capsule has been developed. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to localize the point of release of the thiolated polymer from the application forms via the positive magnetic resonance signal from a gadolinium complex (Gd-DTPA). In vivo mucoadhesion was determined by ascertaining the residence time of the fluorescence-tagged thiomer on intestinal mucosa after 3 h. Results showed that in comparison to conventional application forms the Eutex capsules led to 1.9-fold higher mucoadhesive properties of PCP-Cys when compared to application with a conventional enteric-coated capsule, and to 1.4-fold higher mucoadhesion when compared to administration with an enteric-coated tablet of the thiomer. The findings of this study should contribute to the understanding of mucoadhesion and mucoadhesion influencing parameters in vivo and should therefore be of considerable interest for the development of future mucoadhesive oral drug delivery dosage forms.

  5. Objective detection and localization of multiple sclerosis lesions on magnetic resonance brainstem images: validation with auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Stufflebeam, S M; Levine, R A; Gardner, J C; Fullerton, B C; Furst, M; Rosen, B R

    2000-01-01

    To develop an objective method for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) brainstem lesions, magnetic resonance (MR) images (multiple planar, spin-echo, acquired in three planes of section) of sixteen MS patients and fourteen normal subjects were analyzed with an algorithm that detected regions with a relatively increased intensity on both a spin-echo image and a T2 image. To be considered a lesion, such regions had to overlap in at least two orthogonal planes. Using a digitized atlas of the human brainstem, the lesion locations were mapped with respect to the brainstem anatomy. This method was evaluated by comparing the location of MS lesions with the brainstem auditory evoked potentials obtained from these subjects. Brainstem lesions were detected in five MS patients; four had lesions impinging upon the auditory system and one did not. All four had abnormal evoked potentials. The fourteen normal subjects, the one MS patient with brainstem lesions outside the auditory pathway, and the eleven other MS patients with no brainstem lesions all had normal evoked potentials. The requirement that lesions be detected in at least two planes of section greatly improved the specificity of the algorithm. The consistency between the MR and brainstem auditory evoked potentials results supports the validity of this imaging analysis algorithm for objectively localizing brainstem lesions.

  6. Dual resonant birdcage coils for 1H detected 13C microscopic imaging at 11.7 T.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A M; Köckenberger, W; Bowtell, R W

    2000-06-01

    Liquid state, rotating frame cross polarisation experiments are very sensitive to RF field inhomogeneity. In this work, we present an easily fabricated, co-resident high- and low-pass linear birdcage resonator, optimised to perform liquid state rotating frame polarisation transfer at 1H and 13C frequencies. Both the RF fields have been experimentally mapped, and used to validate the spatial signal dependence of a proton detected, 13C image. The predicted performance was then confirmed using PRAWN-based, cyclic J-cross polarisation (CYCLCROP) imaging. A novel variant of a B(1)-field mapping approach is also presented, using the signal enhancement of the CYCLCROP sequence to generate proton detected, 13C field maps.

  7. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; Deboef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality.

  8. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality. PMID:28106110

  9. Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Malic, Lidija; Veres, Teodor; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2009-03-15

    This work reports on a dynamically configurable micro-array surface plasmon resonance biochip platform. The platform comprises a digital electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic device tailored to surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). We demonstrate its application for simultaneous immobilization of different DNA probes at the designated detection sites on-chip from sub-microL volume solutions in combination with multichannel label-free real-time detection of subsequent hybridization reactions. Successful on-chip DNA probe dilution and immobilization is also demonstrated using SPRi hybridization detection. Furthermore, active control of the immobilized probe density and orientation is achieved under an applied potential using the electric interface of the EWOD device. For low probe densities, under negative applied potential, the DNA hybridization efficiency is enhanced compared to passive probe immobilization, yielding a two-fold SPR signal increase within only 8min of hybridization. EWOD microfluidic platform coupled with SPRi promises to dramatically increase the speed of detection and quantification of biomolecular interactions while reducing reagent consumption. The proposed system would enable the development of high-throughput, rapid and ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules beyond DNA microarray applications.

  10. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS -ANTEMORTEM DETECTION OF OLIGODENDROGLIOMA "CEREBROSPINAL FLUID DROP METASTASES" IN A DOG BY SERIAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Vigeral, Mariana; Bentley, R Timothy; Rancilio, Nicholas J; Miller, Margaret A; Heng, Hock Gan

    2017-02-07

    An English Bulldog underwent radiation therapy of an intracranial, left lateral ventricle mass. Following resolution of the primary mass, an intraventricular fourth ventricle lesion developed. Subsequently, multiple lesions developed from the cervical central canal and leptomeninges. Serial magnetic resonance imaging documented the propagation of lesions along the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways, known as "CSF drop metastasis." Histopathology confirmed multifocal intraventricular and leptomeningeal oligodendroglioma. Oligodendroglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis for an intraventricular tumor exhibiting apparent CSF drop metastasis. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Brain injury after moderate drowning: subtle alterations detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Mariana P; Lukasova, Katerina; Sato, João R; Amaro, Edson

    2016-10-12

    To describe cerebral (structural and functional MRI) and neuropsychological long term changes in moderate drowning victim's compared to healthy volunteers in working memory and motor domains. We studied 15 adult drowning victim's in chronic stage (DV - out of 157 eligible cases of sea water rescues with moderate drowning classification) paired to 18 healthy controls (HC). All participants were investigated using intelligence, memory, and attention neuropsychological standard tests and underwent functional (motor and working memory tasks) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 3 T system. All images were preprocessed for head movement correction and quantitative analysis was performed using FSL and freesurfer software packages. We found no between group differences in neuropsychological assessments. No MRI brain lesion was observed in patients, neither difference on morphometric parameters in any cortical or subcortical brain structure. In constrast, functional MRI revealed that patients showed increased brain response in the motor (left putamen and insula) and memory (left cuneus and lingual gyrus - not the classical memory network) tasks. Functional brain changes in motor and visual brain regions in victims of moderate drowning may indicate reduced brain reserve, despite the lack of structural and behavior alterations. More attention should be given to investigate ageing effects in this nonfatal drowning group.

  12. A meta-classifier for detecting prostate cancer by quantitative integration of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Satish; Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2008-03-01

    Recently, in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) have emerged as promising new modalities to aid in prostate cancer (CaP) detection. MRI provides anatomic and structural information of the prostate while MRS provides functional data pertaining to biochemical concentrations of metabolites such as creatine, choline and citrate. We have previously presented a hierarchical clustering scheme for CaP detection on in vivo prostate MRS and have recently developed a computer-aided method for CaP detection on in vivo prostate MRI. In this paper we present a novel scheme to develop a meta-classifier to detect CaP in vivo via quantitative integration of multimodal prostate MRS and MRI by use of non-linear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods including spectral clustering and locally linear embedding (LLE). Quantitative integration of multimodal image data (MRI and PET) involves the concatenation of image intensities following image registration. However multimodal data integration is non-trivial when the individual modalities include spectral and image intensity data. We propose a data combination solution wherein we project the feature spaces (image intensities and spectral data) associated with each of the modalities into a lower dimensional embedding space via NLDR. NLDR methods preserve the relationships between the objects in the original high dimensional space when projecting them into the reduced low dimensional space. Since the original spectral and image intensity data are divorced from their original physical meaning in the reduced dimensional space, data at the same spatial location can be integrated by concatenating the respective embedding vectors. Unsupervised consensus clustering is then used to partition objects into different classes in the combined MRS and MRI embedding space. Quantitative results of our multimodal computer-aided diagnosis scheme on 16 sets of patient data obtained from the ACRIN trial, for which

  13. Accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of ex vivo focal cartilage defects.

    PubMed

    Graichen, H; Al-Shamari, D; Hinterwimmer, S; von Eisenhart-Rothe, R; Vogl, T; Eckstein, F

    2005-08-01

    No established, non-invasive diagnostic procedure for quantifying focal cartilage defects is currently available. To test the accuracy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) for reliable determination of cartilage defect size in various compartments of the human knee. 24 tibial and patellar cartilage plates were harvested during knee arthroplasty. 74 cylindrical defects with diameters of 3, 5, and 8 mm were created with a punch. In 15 specimens (51 defects), the cartilage cylinders (inside the punch) were removed (approach 1), while in 9 specimens (23 defects) the surrounding tissue was removed mechanically and the cartilage cylinder was left in place (approach 2). All plates were imaged with a T(1) weighted water excitation gradient echo sequence at a resolution of 1.5 mm x 0.31 mm x 0.31 mm. The defect size was computed from the image data after interactive segmentation and compared with the known dimensions of the cylinders. Although there was a significant overestimation of the defect size by qMRI in 3 mm defects (mean (SD) +1.3 (0.58) mm = +/-42%; p<0.001), the overestimation was only +1.0 (0.57) mm (+/-21%; p<0.05) in 5 mm defects and +0.1 (0.39) mm (+/-4%; p = 0.31) in 8 mm defects (approach 1). Values were similar for approaches 1 and 2 and for patellar and tibial cartilage plates. These findings show that qMRI allows accurate quantification of focal cartilage defects. It may therefore represent a valuable tool in the diagnosis of traumatic cartilage lesions, osteochondrosis dissecans, and osteochondral fractures, and in monitoring their responsiveness to surgical or other treatments.

  14. Development of magnetic resonance imaging based detection methods for beta amyloids via sialic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, Hovig

    The development of a non-invasive method for the detection of Alzheimer's disease is of high current interest, which can be critical in early diagnosis and in guiding preventive treatment of the disease. The aggregates of beta amyloids are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Carbohydrates such as sialic acid terminated gangliosides have been shown to play significant roles in initiation of amyloid aggregation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach using sialic acid coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles for in vitro detection in addition to the assessment of the in vivo mouse-BBB (Blood brain barrier) crossing of the BSA (bovine serum albumin)-modified ones. The sialic acid functionalized dextran nanoparticles were shown to bind with beta amyloids through several techniques including ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), gel electrophoresis and tyrosine fluorescence assay. The superparamagnetic nature of the nanoparticles allowed easy detection of the beta amyloids in mouse brains in both in vitro and ex vivo model by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the sialic acid nanoparticles greatly reduced beta amyloid induced cytotoxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, highlighting the potential of the glyconanoparticles for detection and imaging of beta amyloids. Sialic acid functionalized BSA (bovine serum albumin) nanoparticles also showed significant binding to beta amyloids, through ELISA and ex vivo mouse brain MRI experiments. Alternatively, the BBB crossing was demonstrated by several techniques such as confocal microscopy, endocytosis, exocytosis assays and were affirmed by nanoparticles transcytosis assays through bEnd.3 endothelial cells. Finally, the BBB crossing was confirmed by analyzing the MRI signal of nanoparticle-injected CD-1 mice.

  15. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghussein, Fadi; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans.

  16. Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging-based sensing for anti-bovine immunoglobulins detection in human milk and serum.

    PubMed

    Scarano, S; Scuffi, C; Mascini, M; Minunni, M

    2011-11-30

    Only few papers deal with Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) direct detection on complex matrices, limiting the biosensor application to real analytical problems. In this work a SPRi biosensor for anti-bovine IgG detection in untreated human bodily fluids, i.e. diluted human serum and milk, was developed. Enhanced levels of cow's milk antibodies in children's serum are suspected for their possible correlation with Type 1 diabetes during childhood and their detection in real samples was up to now performed by classical immunoassays based on indirect detection. The biosensor was optimised in standard samples and then in untreated human milk for anti-bovine IgG direct detection. The key novelty of the work is the evaluation of matrix effect by applying to real samples an experimental and ex ante method previously developed for SPRi signal sampling in standard solutions, called "Data Analyzer"; it punctually visualises and analyses the behaviour of receptor spots of the array, to select only spot areas with the best specific vs. unspecific signal values. In this way, benefits provide by SPRi image analysis are exploited here to quantify and minimise drawbacks due to the matrix effect, allowing to by-pass every matrix pre-treatment except dilution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    El-Ghussein, Fadi; Mastanduno, Michael A; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2014-01-01

    A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans.

  18. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans. PMID:23979460

  19. Ultrasonography Detects Ulnar Nerve Dislocation Despite Normal Electrophysiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, Jared M; Ali, Zarina S; Hudgins, Eric D; Khoury, Viviane; Heuer, Gregory G; Zager, Eric L

    2017-03-01

    Dislocation of the ulnar nerve (UN) occurs in a subset of patients with ulnar neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are performed to support the clinical diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnostic and MRI studies but with ultrasonography (US) showing UN dislocation, which prompted successful treatment by UN submuscular transposition. A healthy 15-year-old female softball player presented with right medial elbow pain and paresthesias of the fourth and fifth digits. She had 4+/5 strength in the right hand intrinsic muscles and a Tinel sign at the right elbow. A snap was palpated at the elbow upon flexion. MRI showed mild common flexor tendonitis, and electrodiagnostic studies showed normal motor responses and no conduction block at the elbow. High-resolution US showed dislocation of the UN over the medial epicondyle. UN dislocation was confirmed intraoperatively, and, after UN submuscular transposition, the patient reported complete resolution of her preoperative symptoms at 6-week follow-up and continued resolution at 1 year. Normal findings on electrodiagnostic or MRI studies should not immediately dissuade surgeons from operating on a symptomatic patient with a clinical examination supporting ulnar neuropathy and with US evidence of UN dislocation, because such a patient may experience postoperative symptom relief. Furthermore, the dynamic capability of US imaging complements data obtained from electrodiagnostic and MRI studies, especially when these tests are normal, and it should be considered by clinicians when evaluating patients with medial elbow pain or signs of ulnar neuropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a Balloon Rectal Catheter in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Complex Anal Fistula to Improve Detection of Internal Openings.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Songhua; Yang, Shuohui; Lin, Jiang; Zhu, Qiong; Lu, Fang; Tan, Wenli; Cheng, Ruixin; Gong, Zhigang; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of a balloon rectal channel catheter (BRCC) in complex anal fistula magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A prospective study was done on 54 patients with clinical diagnosis of complex anal fistula. Eighteen patients had preoperative MRI before and after inserting BRCC. Another 18 underwent MRI with BRCC and the rest without. Fistulas, internal openings, extensions, and abscesses were identified on MRI and compared with surgical findings. Intraindividual and interindividual differences with and without BRCC were analyzed. In intragroup patients, the accuracy of MRI in detecting the number of fistulas, internal openings, extensions, and abscesses before and after using BRCC was 100%/100%, 67%/90%, 95%/95%, and 100%/100%, respectively, with a significant difference on internal openings (P < 0.05). In intergroup patients with and without BRCC, the accuracy was 98%/96%, 88%/71%, 97%/100%, and 100%/100%, respectively, still with a significant difference on internal openings (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging with BRCC may facilitate detection of internal openings in complex anal fistula.

  1. Prevalence of Sinusitis Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Dementia or Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yasue, Minori; Sugiura, Saiko; Uchida, Yasue; Otake, Hironao; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sakurai, Takashi; Toba, Kenji; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Ando, Fujiko; Otsuka, Rei; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that periodontitis is associated with Alzheimer's disease. However, the association between paranasal sinusitis and Alzheimer's disease has not been studied, although olfactory dysfunction frequently precedes the progress of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. We studied 783 patients (283 men, 500 women; mean age 77.0 ± 7.9 years) who visited the Center for Comprehensive Care and Research on Memory Disorders, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, and 2139 control subjects who participated in a population-based study conducted by the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA) in Japan. Sinusitis was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the Lund-Mackay scoring system. A sinusitis score of ≥ 4 was classified as positive and a score of ≤ 3 was classified as negative. The prevalence of positive sinusitis was 6.3% in patients with a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score of < 24 (n = 507), and 5.7% in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 280). The rate of positive sinusitis was7.2% in the control group. The prevalence of sinusitis was not significantly different between normal controls and patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease after adjustments for age and sex. The rate of positive sinusitis was higher in male than in female subjects in both groups. The prevalence of sinusitis in patients with Alzheimer's disease or dementia was not higher than in the general population.

  2. Accurate three-dimensional registration of magnetic resonance images for detecting local changes in cartilage thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Jin, Quan; Zhao, Jie; Guo, Changyong; Bai, Jing

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a three-dimensional registration method for monitoring knee joint disease from magnetic resonance (MR) image data sets. A global optimization technique was used for identifying anatomically corresponding points of knee femur surfaces (bone cartilage interfaces). In a first pre-registration step, we used the principal axes transformation to correct for different knee joint positions and orientations in the MR scanner. In a second step, we presented a global search algorithm based on Lipschitz optimization theory. This technique can simultaneously determine the translation and rotation parameters through searching a six-dimensional space of Euclidean motion metrics (translation and rotation) after calculating the point correspondences. The point correspondences were calculated by using the Hungarian algorithm. The accuracy of registration was evaluated using 20 porcine knees. There were 300 corresponding landmark points over the 20 pig knees. We evaluated the registration accuracy by measuring the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) error of corresponding landmark points between two femur surfaces (two time-points). The results show that the average RMSD was 1.22 +/- 0.10 mm (SD) by the iterative closest point (ICP) method, 1.17 +/- 0.10 mm the by expectation-maximization-ICP method, 1.02 +/- 0.06 mm by the genetic method, and 0.93 +/- 0.04 mm by the proposed method. Compared with the other three registration approaches, the proposed method achieved the highest registration accuracy.

  3. Detection and Evaluation of Renal Injury in Burst Wave Lithotripsy Using Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    May, Philip C; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Cunitz, Bryan W; Blomgren, Philip M; Johnson, Cynthia D; Park, Joshua S H; Bailey, Michael R; Lee, Donghoon; Harper, Jonathan D; Sorensen, Mathew D

    2017-08-01

    Burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) is a transcutaneous technique with potential to safely and effectively fragment renal stones. Preclinical investigations of BWL require the assessment of potential renal injury. This study evaluates the capabilities of real-time ultrasound and MRI to detect and evaluate BWL injury that was induced in porcine kidneys. Ten kidneys from five female farm pigs were treated with either a 170 or 335 kHz BWL transducer using variable treatment parameters and monitored in real-time with ultrasound. Eight kidneys were perfusion fixed and scanned with a 3-Tesla MRI scanner (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and susceptibility-weighted imaging), followed by processing via an established histomorphometric technique for injury quantification. In addition, two kidneys were separately evaluated for histologic characterization of injury quality. Observed B-mode hyperechoes on ultrasound consistent with cavitation predicted the presence of BWL-induced renal injury with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in comparison to the histomorphometric technique. Similarly, MRI detected renal injury with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100% and was able to identify the scale of lesion volumes. The injuries purposefully generated with BWL were histologically similar to those formed by shock wave lithotripsy. BWL-induced renal injury can be detected with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity by real-time ultrasound and post-treatment ex vivo MRI. No injury occurred in this study without cavitation detected on ultrasound. Such capabilities for injury detection and lesion volume quantification on MRI can be used for preclinical testing of BWL.

  4. Interhemispheric neuroplasticity following limb deafferentation detected by resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies in rat brain show brain reorganization following peripheral nerve injury. Subacute neuroplasticity was observed two weeks following transection of the four major nerves of the brachial plexus. Direct functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulation of the intact radial nerve reveals an activation pattern in the forelimb regions of the sensory and motor cortices that is significantly different from that observed in normal rats. Results of this fMRI experiment were used to determine seed voxel regions for fcMRI analysis. Intrahemispheric connectivities in the sensorimotor forelimb representations in both hemispheres are largely unaffected by deafferentation, whereas substantial disruption of interhemispheric sensorimotor cortical connectivity occurs. In addition, significant intra- and interhemispheric changes in connectivities of thalamic nuclei were found. These are the central findings of the study. They could not have been obtained from fMRI studies alone—both fMRI and fcMRI are needed. The combination provides a general marker for brain plasticity. The rat visual system was studied in the same animals as a control. No neuroplastic changes in connectivities were found in the primary visual cortex upon forelimb deafferentation. Differences were noted in regions responsible for processing multisensory visual-motor information. This incidental discovery is considered to be significant. It may provide insight into phantom limb epiphenomena. PMID:19796693

  5. Breast cancer detection among young survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma with screening magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Minh Thi; Cigsar, Candemir; Ahmed, Sameera; Ng, Andrea; Diller, Lisa; Millar, B-A; Crystal, Pavel; Hodgson, David C

    2014-08-15

    Female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have received chest radiotherapy are at increased risk of breast cancer. Guidelines for early breast cancer screening among these survivors are based on little data regarding clinical outcomes. This study reports outcomes of breast cancer screening with MRI and mammography (MMG) after childhood HL. We evaluated the results of breast MRI and MMG screening among 96 female survivors of childhood HL treated with chest radiotherapy. Outcomes measured included imaging sensitivity and specificity, breast cancer characteristics, and incidence of additional imaging and breast biopsy. Median age at first screening was 30 years, and the median number of MRI screening rounds was 3. Ten breast cancers were detected in 9 women at a median age of 39 years (range, 24-43 years). Half were invasive and half were preinvasive. The median size of invasive tumors was 8 mm (range, 3-15 mm), and none had lymph node involvement. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening modalities were as follows: for MRI alone, 80% and 93.5%, respectively; MMG alone, 70% and 95%, respectively; both modalities combined, 100% and 88.6%, respectively. All invasive tumors were detected by MRI. Additional investigations were required in 52 patients, (54%), and 26 patients (27%) required breast biopsy, with 10 patients requiring more than 1 biopsy. Screening including breast MRI with MMG has high sensitivity and specificity in pediatric HL survivors, with breast cancers detected at an early stage, although it is associated with a substantial rate of additional investigations. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  6. The design of a microfluidic biochip for the rapid, multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogens by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Park, Kinam; Leary, James F.

    2010-02-01

    The rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is increasingly important due to the rising occurrence of contaminated food supplies. We have previously demonstrated the design of a hybrid optical device that has the capability to perform realtime surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and epi-fluorescence imaging. We now present the design of a microfluidic biochip consisting of a two-dimensional array of functionalized gold spots. The spots on the array have been functionalized with capture peptides that specifically bind E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica. This array is enclosed by a PDMS microfluidic flow cell. A magnetically pre-concentrated sample is injected into the biochip, and whole pathogens will bind to the capture array. The previously constructed optical device is being used to detect the presence and identity of captured pathogens using SPR imaging. This detection occurs in a label-free manner, and does not require the culture of bacterial samples. Molecular imaging can also be performed using the epi-fluorescence capabilities of the device to determine pathogen state, or to validate the identity of the captured pathogens using fluorescently labeled antibodies. We demonstrate the real-time screening of a sample for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Additionally the mechanical properties of the microfluidic flow cell will be assessed. The effect of these properties on pathogen capture will be examined.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

  8. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment for detecting brain injury in a prospective cohort of university amateur boxers.

    PubMed

    Hart, M G; Housden, C R; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Young, A; Müller, U; Newcombe, V F J; Jalloh, I; Pearson, B; Cross, J; Trivedi, R A; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J; Hutchinson, P J

    2017-01-01

    The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up. A single MRI acquisition was made from control participants. Imaging analysis included cortical thickness measurements with Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTS) and FreeSurfer, voxel based morphometry (VBM), and Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was performed assessing attention, learning, memory and impulsivity. During the study period, one boxer developed seizures controlled with medication while another developed a chronic subdural hematoma requiring neurosurgical drainage. A total of 10 boxers contributed data at to the longitudinal assessment protocol. Reasons for withdrawal were: logistics (10), stopping boxing (7), withdrawal of consent (2), and development of a chronic subdural hematoma (1). No significant changes were detected using VBM, TBSS, cortical thickness measured with FreeSurfer or ANTS, either cross-sectionally at baseline, or longitudinally. Neuropsychological assessment of boxers found attention/concentration improved over time while planning and problem solving ability latency decreased after a bout but recovered after one year. While this neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment protocol could not detect any evidence of brain injury, one boxer developed seizures and another developed a chronic sub-dural haematoma.

  9. Detecting Intracranial Vessel Wall Lesions With 7T-Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Patients With Posterior Circulation Ischemia Versus Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, Anita A; van der Kolk, Anja G; van der Worp, H Bart; Dieleman, Nikki; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Luijten, Peter R; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging sequences have been developed to directly visualize the intracranial vessel wall, enabling detection of vessel wall changes, including those that have not yet caused luminal narrowing. In this study, vessel wall lesion burden was assessed in patients with recent posterior circulation ischemia using 7T-magnetic resonance imaging and compared with matched healthy controls. Fifty subjects (25 patients and 25 matched healthy controls) underwent 7T-magnetic resonance imaging with an intracranial vessel wall sequence before and after contrast administration. Two raters scored the presence and contrast enhancement of arterial wall lesions in individual segments of the circle of Willis and its primary branches. Total burden and distribution of vessel wall lesions and lesion characteristics (configuration, thickening pattern, and contrast enhancement) were compared both between and within both groups. Overall, vessel wall lesion burden and distribution were comparable between patients and controls. Regarding individual arterial segments, only vessel wall lesions in the posterior cerebral artery were more frequently observed in patients (18.0%) than in controls (5.4%; P=0.003). Many of these lesions showed enhancement, both in patients (48.9%) and in controls (43.5%; P=0.41). In patients, the proportion of enhancing lesions was higher in the posterior circulation (53.3%) than in the anterior circulation (20.6%; P=0.008). Although overall intracranial vessel wall lesion burden and contrast enhancement were comparable between patients with recent posterior circulation ischemia and healthy controls, this study also revealed significant differences between the 2 groups, suggesting an association between posterior circulation lesion burden/enhancement and ischemic events. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR5688. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Use of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents to detect transplanted liver cells.

    PubMed

    Puppi, Juliana; Modo, Michel

    2009-04-01

    Liver transplantation saves the lives of millions of patients every year. The advent of cell rather than organ transplantation could potentially further improve the success of this approach. However, one problem facing the delivery and the monitoring of cell transplants is their noninvasive in vivo visualization. Noninvasive imaging is needed for this. To distinguish transplanted cells from the host liver, it is necessary to either tag these using exogenous contrast agents (eg, iron oxide nanoparticles) or insert a reporter gene that could selectively identify transplanted cells. Nevertheless, these approaches face significant challenges such as providing sufficient signal-to-noise, cellular toxicity, or unequivocal detection. Preclinical studies are currently under way to refine these approaches with initial clinical trials being on the horizon for the next few years. A gradual refinement of these approaches and a robust clinical implementation promise a significant step in ensuring greater efficacy of cell transplants for the diseased liver.

  11. Brain 'Embolism' Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Commissurotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paulo; Qanadli, Salah D.; Strumza, Pierre; Kacher, Safia; Aberkane, Linda; Aubry, Pierre; Rigaud, Michel; Lacombe, Pascal; Raffestin, Bernadette

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: The common finding of thrombi between the bifoil balloons when they were extracted after mitral dilation prompted us to look for evidence of minor brain embolisms using the sensitive technique of BMRI (brain magnetic resonance T2-weighted imaging). Methods: BMRI was performed within 48 hr before and after a percutaneous mitral balloon commissurotomy (PMBC) in each of the 63 patients in this study. Results: There was evidence (hyperintensity foci: HI) of a previous asymptomatic brain embolism in 38 of 63 patients before PMBC and a new HI appeared in 18 of 63 patients after the procedure. New HI signals were found exclusively in the white matter in 8 of 18 patients and in only 3 of 18 were HI signs larger than 1 cm. One patient, with an HI signal >1 cm in the thalamus and another <1 cm in the brain stem, presented diplopia accompanied by other minor clinical signs. The differences in HI rate among four subgroups (1, older vs younger than 43 years; 2, sinus rhythm vs atrial fibrillation; 3, echo score <8 vs >8; 4, patients from western countries vs the others) were not statistically significant, probably because the number of patients in each subgroup was low. Patients in atrial fibrillation had slightly more (not significant) HI before PMBC (15/20, 75%) than patients in sinus rhythm (23/43, 53%), but after PMBC their HI frequencies were similar (atrial fibrillation: 5/20, 25%; sinus rhythm: 13/43, 30%). Conclusion: Brain microembolism is frequent during PMBC, but is often anatomically limited and free from clinical signs in most cases. Brain embolism seems to be related mainly to the procedure itself and not the features of the patient.

  12. T1rho Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T Detects Knee Cartilage Changes After Viscosupplementation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Roshan P; Stambough, Jeffrey B; Fenty, Matthew; Mauck, Robert L; Kelly, John D; Reddy, Ravinder; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P

    2015-07-01

    Viscosupplementation may affect cartilage. Changes in T1rho magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times correlate with proteoglycan changes in cartilage. The authors hypothesized that T1rho MRI will show an improvement in proteoglycan content at 6 weeks and 3 months after viscosupplementation and that this improvement will correlate with functional outcome scores. Ten patients (mean age, 56 years; Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1 or 2) underwent T1rho MRI at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months after viscosupplementation. Volumetric T1rho means were calculated by depth and region. Visual analog scale (VAS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were obtained. Mean T1rho values decreased in the superficial patella at 6 weeks (10.3%, P=.002) and 3 months (7.9%, P=.018) and in the middle patella at 6 weeks (7.0%, P=.014) compared with baseline values. Deep patella T1rho values increased at 3 months compared with 6 weeks (9.9%, P=.033), returning to values similar to baseline. Mean T1rho values increased in the deep tibia at 6 weeks (4.7%, P=.048) and in the middle tibia (5.2%, P=.004) and deep tibia (11.2%, P=.002) at 3 months compared with baseline. At 6 weeks, improvement was seen in VAS (5.9 to 3.9, P<.01), IKDC-9 (55.3 to 63.7, P=.03), and WOMAC (43.9 to 32.8, P=.03) scores. Functional VAS (4.0, P=.02), IKDC-9 (67.8, P=.04), and WOMAC (30.0, P=.04) scores remained better at 3 months. T1rho MRI is a feasible noninvasive method of studying molecular changes in cartilage. Some segments improved after viscosupplementation, and others worsened, possibly reflecting natural history or symptom relief and subsequent increase in activity-related wear.

  13. Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Corey R; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-01-01

    Radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography are commonly used for diagnosis of shoulder osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD) in dogs, however there is a lack of published information on the relative diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities for detecting shoulder OC/OCD in a group of dogs, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical findings consistent with osteochondrosis and/or osteochondritis dissecans involving at least one shoulder. With informed client consent, both shoulders for all included dogs were examined using standardized radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and arthroscopy protocols. One of three veterinary surgeons recorded clinical and arthroscopic findings without knowledge of diagnostic imaging findings. One of two veterinary radiologists recorded diagnostic imaging findings without knowledge of clinical and arthroscopic findings. Eighteen client-owned dogs (n = 36 shoulders) met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (correct classification rate) values for detecting presence or absence of shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans were as follows: radiography (88.5%, 90%, 88.9%), ultrasonography (92%, 60%, 82.6%), and MRI (96%, 88.9%, 94.4%). Odds of a correct diagnosis for MRI were 3.2 times more than ultrasonography and two times more than radiography. For MRI detection of lesions, the sagittal T2 or PD-FAT SAT sequences were considered to be most helpful. For radiographic detection of lesions, the additional supinated-mediolateral and pronated-mediolateral projections were considered to be most helpful. Findings from the current study support more evidence-based diagnostic imaging recommendations for dogs with clinically suspected shoulder osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. © 2014 American College of

  14. Applying independent component analysis to detect silent speech in magnetic resonance imaging signals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Arai, Hajime; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) can be usefully applied to functional imaging studies to evaluate the spatial extent and temporal profile of task-related brain activity. It requires no a priori assumptions about the anatomical areas that are activated or the temporal profile of the activity. We applied spatial ICA to detect a voluntary but hidden response of silent speech. To validate the method against a standard model-based approach, we used the silent speech of a tongue twister as a 'Yes' response to single questions that were delivered at given times. In the first task, we attempted to estimate one number that was chosen by a participant from 10 possibilities. In the second task, we increased the possibilities to 1000. In both tasks, spatial ICA was as effective as the model-based method for determining the number in the subject's mind (80-90% correct per digit), but spatial ICA outperformed the model-based method in terms of time, especially in the 1000-possibility task. In the model-based method, calculation time increased by 30-fold, to 15 h, because of the necessity of testing 1000 possibilities. In contrast, the calculation time for spatial ICA remained as short as 30 min. In addition, spatial ICA detected an unexpected response that occurred by mistake. This advantage was validated in a third task, with 13 500 possibilities, in which participants had the freedom to choose when to make one of four responses. We conclude that spatial ICA is effective for detecting the onset of silent speech, especially when it occurs unexpectedly.

  15. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex ((t)BuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that (t)BuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35-40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI.

  16. Quantifying the diffusion of a fluid through membranes by double phase encoded remote detection magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Hilty, Christian; Garcia, Sandra; Harel, Elad; Pines, Alexander

    2007-12-20

    We demonstrate that a position correlation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiment based on two phase encoding steps separated by a delay can be used for quantifying diffusion across a membrane. This method is noninvasive, and no tracer substance or concentration gradient across the membrane is required. Because, in typical membranes, the T1 relaxation time of the fluid spins is usually much longer than the T2 time, we developed and implemented a new position correlation experiment based on a stimulated spin-echo, in which the relaxation attenuation of the signal is dominated by T1 instead of T2. This enables using relatively long delays needed in the diffusion measurements. The sensitivity of the double encoded experiment detected in a conventional way is still low because of the low filling factor of the fluid inside the NMR coil around the sample. We circumvent this problem by using the remote detection technique, which significantly increases the sensitivity, making it possible to do the measurements with gaseous fluids that have a low spin-density compared to liquids. We derive a model that enables us to extract a diffusion constant characterizing the diffusion rate through the membrane from the obtained correlation images. The double phase encoded MRI method is advantageous in any kind of diffusion studies, because the propagator of fluid molecules can directly be seen from the correlation image.

  17. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex (tBuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that tBuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35–40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI. PMID:25565804

  18. Post-ischaemic hyperperfusion in traumatic middle cerebral artery dissection detected by arterial spin labelling of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Motohiro; Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Seki, Syunsuke; Iida, Yu; Suzuki, Kei-Ichiro; Aoki, Takae; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Kawabata, Yuichi; Nakano, Tatsu; Taguchi, Hiroki

    2016-10-01

    We report a patient with a traumatic middle cerebral artery dissection, which showed hyperperfusion in the territory supplied by the left middle cerebral artery. A 45-year-old man experienced speech disturbance and motor weakness in his right hemibody on the day following mild head trauma. His symptoms worsened on the fourth day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed narrowing in the left M1 portion of the middle cerebral artery. Angiography showed narrowing and dilatation in the left middle cerebral artery trunk. The lesion was diagnosed as a dissection of the middle cerebral artery. Arterial spin labelling of magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computed tomography showed increased cerebral blood flow in the left temporal region compared with the right. The patient was treated conservatively and the symptoms gradually improved. The hyperperfusion observed on arterial spin labelling and single photon emission computed tomography gradually improved and disappeared on the 25th day. This is the first reported case of traumatic middle cerebral artery dissection, which showed post-ischaemic hyperperfusion in the territory of the affected artery. To detect hyperperfusion in the brain, arterial spin labelling is a useful technique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

  1. 1.5-Tesla Multiparametric-Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    POPITA, CRISTIAN; POPITA, ANCA RALUCA; SITAR-TAUT, ADELA; PETRUT, BOGDAN; FETICA, BOGDAN; COMAN, IOAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) is the main imaging modality used for prostate cancer detection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI at 1.5-Tesla (1.5-T) for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Methods In this ethical board approved prospective study, 39 patients with suspected prostate cancer were included. Patients with a history of positive prostate biopsy and patients treated for prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were examined at 1.5-T MRI, before standard transrectal ultrasonography–guided biopsy. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for mp-MRI were 100%, 73.68%, 80% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed that 1.5 T mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and high negative predictive value in order to rule out significant disease. PMID:28246496

  2. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis detected by arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in subacute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Guan, Min; Lian, Hao-Jun; Ma, Li-Jia; Shang, Jun-Kui; He, Shuang; Ma, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Mi-Lan; Li, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Mei-Yun; Shi, Da-Peng; Zhang, Jie-Wen

    2014-10-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was a common radiological phenomenon manifested as reduced blood flow and metabolism in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to a supratentorial cerebral lesion. The hypoperfusion and hypometabolism in the contralateral cerebellum in CCD was traditionally detected by positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The present prospective study aimed to assess the detection of CCD in subacute stage ischemic stroke by arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion technique with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. ASL images were obtained from 46 patients with supratentorial ischemic stroke at subacute stage. Regional cerebral blood flow values in the cerebellar hemispheres were measured on a region of interest basis. Twenty-four of 46 (52%) patients showed CCD phenomenon by ASL-MRI method, which was in line with the PET/SPECT series. Infarctions in basal ganglia areas are prone to cause CCD. With advantages in easy acquisition and no radiation, ASL-MRI seems to be an ideal tool for the detection and follow-up of CCD. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging for detecting epileptogenic zones in patients with focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijuan; An, Yang; Zhao, Bofeng; Yang, Weidong; Yu, Qing; Cai, Li; Ni, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) based on the local analysis methods regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and fractional ALFF (fALFF), for detecting epileptogenic zones (EZs). Methods A total of 42 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy were enrolled. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of visually assessed RS-fMRI, MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), video electroencephalography (VEEG), and positron-emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) in EZ localization were evaluated to assess their diagnostic abilities. ReHo, ALFF, and fALFF were also compared for their diagnostic values. Results RS-fMRI showed comparable sensitivity to PET (83.3%) and specificity to VEEG (66.7%), respectively, for EZ localization in patients with focal epilepsy. There were no significant differences between RS-fMRI and the other localization techniques in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. The sensitivities of ReHo, ALFF, and fALFF were 69.4%, 52.8%, and 38.9%, respectively, and for specificities of 66.7%, 83.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences among ReHo, ALFF, and fALFF, except that ReHo was more sensitive than fALFF. Conclusions RS-fMRI may be an efficient tool for detecting EZs in focal epilepsy patients. PMID:28199371

  4. Relevance of magnetic resonance imaging for early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan J; Grothe, Michel; Lista, Simone; Toschi, Nicola; Garaci, Francesco G; Hampel, Harald

    2013-05-01

    Hippocampus volumetry currently is the best-established imaging biomarker for AD. However, the effect of multicenter acquisition on measurements of hippocampus volume needs to be explicitly considered when it is applied in large clinical trials, for example by using mixed-effects models to take the clustering of data within centers into account. The marker needs further validation in respect of the underlying neurobiological substrate and potential confounds such as vascular disease, inflammation, hydrocephalus, and alcoholism, and with regard to clinical outcomes such as cognition but also to demographic and socioeconomic outcomes such as mortality and institutionalization. The use of hippocampus volumetry for risk stratification of predementia study samples will further increase with the availability of automated measurement approaches. An important step in this respect will be the development of a standard hippocampus tracing protocol that harmonizes the large range of presently available manual protocols. In the near future, regionally differentiated automated methods will become available together with an appropriate statistical model, such as multivariate analysis of deformation fields, or techniques such as cortical-thickness measurements that yield a meaningful metrics for the detection of treatment effects. More advanced imaging protocols, including DTI, DSI, and functional MRI, are presently being used in monocenter and first multicenter studies. In the future these techniques will be relevant for the risk stratification in phase IIa type studies (small proof-of-concept trials). By contrast, the application of the broader established structural imaging biomarkers, such as hippocampus volume, for risk stratification and as surrogate end point is already today part of many clinical trial protocols. However, clinical care will also be affected by these new technologies. Radiologic expert centers already offer “dementia screening” for well-off middle

  5. Electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidic platform with nanostructured biosensor interface for enhanced two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malic, Lidija

    The sensitive and specific detection of biomolecular interactions is at the heart of many routine analyses in fundamental research, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. In contrast to laborious and costly multiwell plate assays, recent years have witnessed a significant progress in miniaturized and integrated biosensors, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), tailored to these applications. While the design of various SPR biosensors has been described in literature, a robust, multichannel, low-cost and highly sensitive solution has not yet been presented. Specifically, an integrated system that can allow surface functionalization in array format, low-volume multichannel fluidic interfacing, and increased sensitivity is sought. This thesis describes a novel electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic device with integrated nanostructured biosensor interface that addresses the aforementioned issues for enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) detection. We have taken the opportunity of the most recent advances in microfabrication, nanotechnology and SPR technique to develop this integrated platform. EWOD device is employed for the dynamic immobilization of bioreceptors on SPRi biosensor surface in an array fashion from sub-muL volume solutions. Programmable EWOD electric interface allows the application of an electric field at the biosensor surface for active control of the immobilized probe density and orientation, enhancing SPRi detection. Two-dimensional SPRi detection is achieved by coupling the EWOD device to SPRi instrumentation. Parallel manipulation of individual droplets allows more efficient exploitation of the biosensor surface by separating different samples for simultaneous and selective SPRi detection. Periodic gold structures (nanoposts, nanogratings and nanogrooves) residing on a surface of glass and plastic substrates are investigated to improve the SPRi sensitivity. The corresponding electromagnetic field

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Fusion Biopsy to Detect Progression in Patients with Existing Lesions on Active Surveillance for Low and Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Frye, Thomas P; George, Arvin K; Kilchevsky, Amichai; Maruf, Mahir; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Kongnyuy, Michael; Muthigi, Akhil; Han, Hui; Parnes, Howard L; Merino, Maria; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris; Wood, Brad; Pinto, Peter A

    2017-03-01

    Active surveillance is an established option for men with low risk prostate cancer. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion guided biopsy may better identify patients for active surveillance compared to systematic 12-core biopsy due to improved risk stratification. To our knowledge the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in following men on active surveillance with visible lesions is unknown. We evaluated multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion guided biopsy to monitor men on active surveillance. This retrospective review included men from 2007 to 2015 with prostate cancer on active surveillance in whom magnetic resonance imaging visible lesions were monitored by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided biopsy. Progression was defined by ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology) grade group 1 to 2 and ISUP grade group 2 to 3. Significance was considered at p ≤0.05. A total of 166 patients on active surveillance with 2 or more fusion guided biopsies were included in analysis. Mean followup was 25.5 months. Of the patients 29.5% had pathological progression. Targeted biopsy alone identified 44.9% of patients who progressed compared to 30.6% identified by systematic 12-core biopsy alone (p = 0.03). Fusion guided biopsy detected 26% more cases of pathological progression on surveillance biopsy compared to systematic 12-core biopsy. Progression on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was the sole predictor of pathological progression at surveillance biopsy (p = 0.013). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging progression in the entire cohort had 81% negative predictive value, 35% positive predictive value, 77.6% sensitivity and 40.5% specificity in detecting pathological progression. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging progression predicts the risk of pathological

  7. Validation of clinical examination versus magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy for the detection of rotator cuff lesions.

    PubMed

    Ostör, Andrew J K; Richards, Christine A; Tytherleigh-Strong, Graham; Bearcroft, Philip W; Prevost, A Toby; Speed, Cathy A; Hazleman, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Limited evidence exists regarding the validity of clinical examination for the detection of shoulder pathology. We therefore wished to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of rotator cuff disorders against findings at arthroscopy. Using recognised tests for specific shoulder lesions, 117 patients with shoulder symptoms awaiting surgery were examined in a standard manner. The diagnoses were categorised and compared with abnormalities found on MRI and at surgery. Results were cross-tabulated to determine the above parameters. Ninety-four patients formed the study group with a mean age of 51 years. The median duration of symptoms was 45 weeks. For clinical examination, sensitivity and specificity to detect a tear or rupture of supraspinatus were 30 % (16/54) and 38 % (15/40) and, for the detection of any pathology, were 94 % (67/71) and 22 % (5/23), respectively, compared with arthroscopy. Correspondingly, the sensitivity of MRI compared with arthroscopy to detect a tear or rupture of supraspinatus was 90 % (28/31) with a specificity of 70 % (46/53), whereas for the detection of any abnormality, the sensitivity was 92 % (65/71) with a specificity of 48 % (11/23). The sensitivity of detecting any rotator cuff abnormality is high when examination and MRI is compared with arthroscopy with the specificity being greater with MRI than examination. In patients with shoulder symptoms severe enough to consider surgery, clinical assessment followed by specific imaging may help define the pathology in order to direct appropriate management.

  8. Does magnetic resonance imaging give value-added than bone scintigraphy in the detection of vertebral metastasis?

    PubMed

    Chiewvit, Pipat; Danchaivijitr, Nasuda; Sirivitmaitrie, Kaewta; Chiewvit, Sunanta; Thephamongkhol, Kullatorn

    2009-06-01

    To determine the role of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging for the investigation ofpatients with suspected metastasis to the spine by bone scintigraphy. Retrospectively reviewed with comparison was made between Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (99(m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy and corresponding spine MR images in 48 cases of vertebral metastasis at Siriraj Hospital. The intervals between bone scintigraphy and MR images did not exceed 1 month. The authors studied between January 2005 and December 2006 Bone scintigraphy were performed with planar imaging of the entire body and MR imaging was performed with the 1.5 tesla and 3.0 tesla scanner using standard techniques with T1-, T2-weighted images and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images with intravenous administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. The MR imaging findings were studied: location (cervical or thoracic or lumbar or sacrum spine), number of lesions (solitary or multiple lesions), pattern of enhancement (homogeneous or inhomogeneous), involvement of spinal canal, compression of spinal cord, extradural extension, other incidental findings such as pulmonary metastasis, pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy The final diagnosis was confirmed clinically and followed-up for further management (radiation or surgery) or followed-up by MR imaging (1 month-16 months) and bone scintigraphy (5 months-12 months). Forty-eight cases (80 lesions) of vertebral metastasis were identified (25 men and 23 women; mean age 61 years and range 8-84 years). Primary neoplasms include breast cancer (n=11), colorectal cancer (n=7), lung cancer (n=6), prostate cancer (n=5), nasopharyngeal cancer (n=5), head and neck cancer (n=3), thyroid cancer (n=2), liver cancer (n=2), esophagus cancer (n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), retroperitoneum cancer (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), cervical cancer (n=1), ovarian cancer (n=1), malignant melanoma (n=1). The result of bone scintigraphy and MR imaging is used to evaluate vertebral metastasis: in 44 lesions of

  9. Detection and imaging of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm communities by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodelón, Gustavo; Montes-García, Verónica; López-Puente, Vanesa; Hill, Eric H.; Hamon, Cyrille; Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Rodal-Cedeira, Sergio; Costas, Celina; Celiksoy, Sirin; Pérez-Juste, Ignacio; Scarabelli, Leonardo; La Porta, Andrea; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2016-11-01

    Most bacteria in nature exist as biofilms, which support intercellular signalling processes such as quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism that allows bacteria to monitor and respond to cell density and changes in the environment. As QS and biofilms are involved in the ability of bacteria to cause disease, there is a need for the development of methods for the non-invasive analysis of QS in natural bacterial populations. Here, by using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy, we report rationally designed nanostructured plasmonic substrates for the in situ, label-free detection of a QS signalling metabolite in growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and microcolonies. The in situ, non-invasive plasmonic imaging of QS in biofilms provides a powerful analytical approach for studying intercellular communication on the basis of secreted molecules as signals.

  10. Detection and imaging of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm communities by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Bodelón, Gustavo; Montes-García, Verónica; López-Puente, Vanesa; Hill, Eric H.; Hamon, Cyrille; Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Rodal-Cedeira, Sergio; Costas, Celina; Celiksoy, Sirin; Pérez-Juste, Ignacio; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Porta, Andrea La; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria in nature exist as biofilms, which support intercellular signaling processes such as quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism that allows bacteria to monitor and respond to cell density and changes in the environment. Because QS and biofilms are involved in the ability of bacteria to cause disease, there is a need for the development of methods for the non-invasive analysis of QS in natural bacterial populations. Here, by using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy, we report rationally designed nanostructured plasmonic substrates for the in-situ, label-free detection of a QS signaling metabolite in growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and microcolonies. The in situ, non-invasive plasmonic imaging of QS in biofilms provides a powerful analytical approach for studying intercellular communication on the basis of secreted molecules as signals. PMID:27500808

  11. NOTE: Detection limits for ferrimagnetic particle concentrations using magnetic resonance imaging based proton transverse relaxation rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoe, H.; Chua-anusorn, W.; St. Pierre, T. G.; Dobson, J.

    2003-03-01

    A clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to measure proton transverse relaxation rates (R2) in agar gels with varying concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in a field strength of 1.5 T. The nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of either dextran or polyvinyl alcohol. The method of preparation resulted in loosely packed clusters (dextran) or branched chains (polyvinyl alcohol) of particles containing of the order of 600 and 400 particles, respectively. For both methods of particle preparation, concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron in agar gel less than 0.01 mg ml-1 had no measurable effect on the value of R2 for the gel. The results indicate that MRI-based R2 measurements using 1.5 T clinical scanners are not quite sensitive enough to detect the very low concentrations of nanoparticulate biogenic magnetite reported in human brain tissue.

  12. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    5 Feb 2007 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Key Research Accomplishments...11 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 12 4 INTRODUCTION Women diagnosed with breast cancer today have significantly better

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging - ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy outperforms standard approaches in detecting prostate cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuping; Zhang, Jiayi; Tang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Guo, Hongqian; Zhou, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging - ultrasound (MRI-US) fusion prostate biopsy is superior to systematic biopsy for making a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. The two strategies were also compared regarding their ability to detect clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted through the PubMed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using appropriate search terms. A total of 3,415 cases from 21 studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Data were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval. The results revealed that MRI-US fusion biopsy achieved a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection compared with systematic biopsy (RR=1.09; P=0.047). Moreover, MRI-US fusion biopsy detected more clinically significant cancers compared with systematic biopsy (RR=1.22; P<0.01). It is therefore recommended that multi-parametric MRI-US is performed in men suspected of having prostate cancer to optimize the detection of clinically significant disease, while reducing the burden of biopsies. PMID:27446568

  14. Correlation of radiographic measurements of structures of the equine foot with lesions detected on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    de Zani, D; Polidori, C; di Giancamillo, M; Zani, D D

    2016-03-01

    There are few studies on the correlations between radiographic measurements of the foot and abnormalities of specific structures found with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To document the relationship between radiographic measurements of the equine foot and the presence of lesions in the foot on MRI. We hypothesised that different radiographic measurements would be associated with specific lesions detected by MRI. Retrospective analysis of radiographs and MRI studies. Seventy-four feet from 52 lame horses were included. Twenty parameters were measured on radiographs, whereas the signal intensity, homogeneity and size of each structure in the foot were evaluated on magnetic resonance images. The data were analysed using simple linear correlation analysis and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Linear correlations were found between the navicular bone compacta thickness and injuries of the deep digital flexor tendon, collateral sesamoidean ligament, navicular spongiosa and navicular bone proximal border. Long-toed horses had a high incidence of lesions involving the spongiosa and proximal border of the navicular bone. Elongation of the navicular bone was associated with proximal and distal border injuries. A reduced palmar angle and increased angle between the middle and distal phalanx were observed in horses with alterations of collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and navicular bone spongiosa, respectively. For each structure under investigation, CARTs predicting the presence of MRI pathology based on radiographic measurements had excellent performance, with >80% correct classification of cases, when using one of 3 data sources. This study demonstrated a relationship between radiographic measurements of the foot and the presence of lesions detected on MRI, while CARTs illustrated that different radiographic measurements were associated with different MRI lesions. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Intraorbital wooden foreign body detected by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Di Gaeta, Alfredo; Giurazza, Francesco; Capobianco, Eugenio; Diano, Alvaro; Muto, Mario

    2017-02-01

    To identify and localize an intraorbital wooden foreign body is often a challenging radiological issue; delayed diagnosis can lead to serious adverse complications. Preliminary radiographic interpretations are often integrated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance, which play a crucial role in reaching the correct definitive diagnosis. We report on a 40 years old male complaining of pain in the right orbit referred to our hospital for evaluation of eyeball pain and double vision with an unclear clinical history. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans supposed the presence of an abscess caused by a foreign intraorbital body, confirmed by surgical findings.

  16. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Changes in Meniscal Volume in Vivo After Partial Meniscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Megan E.; Tung, Glenn A.; Oksendahl, Heidi L.; Hulstyn, Michael J.; Fadale, Paul D.; Machan, Jason T.; Fleming, Braden C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantifying changes in meniscal volume in vivo before and after partial meniscectomy (PM) could help elucidate the mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis development after meniscal injury and its surgical treatment. Purpose/Hypothesis To determine whether quantitative MRI (qMRI) could detect the immediate reduction in meniscal volume created by PM, while ruling out changes in unresected structures. We hypothesized that qMRI would be reliable for determining meniscal volume within the repeated images of unresected menisci. Additionally, we expected no significant difference in volume between the uninjured menisci of the injured knees and the same menisci of the uninjured knees. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten subjects with meniscal tears were evaluated with 3T MRI before and after arthroscopic PM. Manual segmentation was used to create models of the menisci and to determine the pre- and post-operative meniscal volumes for each subject. The responsiveness and reliability of qMRI for determining meniscal volume in vivo were evaluated using these measurements. We expected a decrease in volume of the resected menisci, but not in the uninjured menisci, after surgery. Results The mean pre-operative volume of the injured menisci was significantly greater than the mean post-operative volume (2896±277mm3 vs. 2480±277mm3; p=0.000). There was no significant difference between the mean pre- and post-operative volumes of the uninjured menisci (2687±256mm3 vs. 2694±256mm3; p=1.000). Conclusions Manual segmentation demonstrated a significant reduction in the volume of the surgically resected menisci after PM, but no significant change in the volume of unresected meniscal tissue, indicating that the manual segmentation method is responsive. Clinical Relevance This approach offers a novel, reliable method to study the relationship between the volume of meniscal tissue removed during PM and subsequent patient outcomes during long-term clinical

  17. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s−1 mM−1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s−1 mM−1) and ~3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer. PMID:22121333

  18. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-10-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s-1 mM-1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s-1 mM-1) and 3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T 2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer.

  19. Detection of abdominal aortic graft infection: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and indium-labeled white blood cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Saeid; Eskil, Anni; Lundof, Erik; Klaerke, Anette; Jensen, Bent Skov

    2007-09-01

    Infected abdominal aortic grafts rank as one of the most severe complications of vascular surgery, with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of infection after prosthetic aortic reconstruction is 1-3%. Diagnosis of vascular graft infection can be occasionally difficult. Clinical manifestations and assessment of the extent of graft infection are usually nonspecific, and their detection by radiographic methods, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and leukocyte -imaging, can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value (PV) of indium-111-labeled white blood cell scanning (WBCS) and MRI in patients who were suspected of having intracavitary vascular graft infection (IGF). The study was done as a cross-control retrospective, single-center study. Fifty-eight In-111-labeled WBC scans and 59 MRIs were performed in suspected patients between January 1995 and January 2005. Among the 40 suspected patients, 35 cases of aorta graft infection were identified intraoperatively. The diagnosis of IGF was based on clinical signs, microbiological and histological examination, MRI and leukocyte imaging, and lack of graft incorporation with surrounding fluid observed intraoperatively. The positive PV (PPV) of MRI was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84-105%) compared to In-111-labeled WBCS, which was 80% (95% CI 62-96%). The negative PV (NPV) of MRI was 80% (95% CI 68-92%) compared to 82% (95% CI 69-94%) for In-111-labeled WBCS. MRI showed a nonsignificant but better PPV for detecting IGF compared to In-111 leukocyte imaging. The NPVs for MRI and In-111-labeled WBCS were very near each other, with a very small advantage for In-111-WBCS. This comparison study suggested MRI as a primary diagnostic modality to investigate patients suspected of having aortic graft infections before In-111-labeled WBCS.

  20. Sensitive Trimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering-Fluorescence Detection of Cancer Cells with Stable Magneto-Plasmonic Nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Carrouée, Ambre; Allard-Vannier, Emilie; Même, Sandra; Szeremeta, Frederic; Beloeil, Jean-Claude; Chourpa, Igor

    2015-11-17

    Novel magneto-plasmonic nanoprobes were designed for multimodal diagnosis of cancer by combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS), and fluorescence emission in the very near infrared (VNIR). A controlled electrostatic assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), VNIR dye Nile Blue (NB), and biopolymer chitosan (Chi) was used to formulate the AgIONs-Chi nanoprobes. The formulation protocol did not involve organic solvents and was rapid and efficient as confirmed by magnetic sorting. The SERRS response of the nanoprobes was very intense and constant for days. It decreased linearly upon 1000-fold dilution and was still recognizable at 0.1 nM NB concentration. After 30 days of storage, the SERRS loss was less than 30% and the hydrodynamic size of the AgIONs-Chi in PBS remained below 200 nm. The gradual decrease of the ratio SERRS/fluorescence allowed one to monitor the release of the fluorescent molecule upon long-term nanoprobe dissociation. The AgIONs-Chi exhibited 2-fold higher MRI contrast than that of commercially available SPION suspensions. Finally, the nanoprobes were actively uptaken by HeLa cancer cells and ensured trimodal MRI-SERRS-fluorescence detection of 10 μL cell inclusions in cm-sized agarose gels used here as phantom models of microtumors. The above results show that the magneto-plasmonic AgIONs-Chi are promising substrates for SERRS analysis in solution and for multimodal imaging of cancer cells.

  1. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting peritoneal metastases: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Andrea; Bellini, Davide; Rengo, Marco; Accarpio, Fabio; Caruso, Damiano; Biacchi, Daniele; Di Giorgio, Angelo; Sammartino, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Primary end point was to assess diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting peritoneal metastases (PM). Secondary end points were determining the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CT in detecting PM according to the peritoneal cancer index (PCI), investigating correlations between radiological and surgical PCI, and comparing diagnostic yield of CT versus positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science databases. Analytic methods were based on PRISMA. Pooled estimates for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated using fixed and random effect models. I (2) was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Of the 529 articles initially identified, 22 were selected for inclusion (934 patients). Cumulative data for per patient CT diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity 83 % (95 % CI 79-86 %), specificity 86 % (95 % CI 82-89 %), pooled positive LR 4.37 (2.58-7.41), and pooled negative LR 0.20 (0.11-0.35). On a per region basis CT performed best in epigastrium and pelvis. Correlation analysis showed a high correlation between CT-PCI and surgical-PCI scores, ranging from 0.49 to 0.96. MRI and PET/CT achieved similar per patient diagnostic accuracy. CT should be the preferred diagnostic imaging modality for detecting peritoneal metastases because of the robustness of the data. MRI and PET/CT should be considered second choices, until more consistent information on their diagnostic yield in detecting PM are obtained.

  2. Polygraphy and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Lie Detection: A Controlled Blind Comparison Using the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Hakun, Jonathan G; Seelig, David; Wang, An-Li; Ruparel, Kosha; Bilker, Warren B; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-10-01

    Intentional deception is a common act that often has detrimental social, legal, and clinical implications. In the last decade, brain activation patterns associated with deception have been mapped with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), significantly expanding our theoretical understanding of the phenomenon. However, despite substantial criticism, polygraphy remains the only biological method of lie detection in practical use today. We conducted a blind, prospective, and controlled within-subjects study to compare the accuracy of fMRI and polygraphy in the detection of concealed information. Data were collected between July 2008 and August 2009. Participants (N = 28) secretly wrote down a number between 3 and 8 on a slip of paper and were questioned about what number they wrote during consecutive and counterbalanced fMRI and polygraphy sessions. The Concealed Information Test (CIT) paradigm was used to evoke deceptive responses about the concealed number. Each participant's preprocessed fMRI images and 5-channel polygraph data were independently evaluated by 3 fMRI and 3 polygraph experts, who made an independent determination of the number the participant wrote down and concealed. Using a logistic regression, we found that fMRI experts were 24% more likely (relative risk = 1.24, P < .001) to detect the concealed number than the polygraphy experts. Incidentally, when 2 out of 3 raters in each modality agreed on a number (N = 17), the combined accuracy was 100%. These data justify further evaluation of fMRI as a potential alternative to polygraphy. The sequential or concurrent use of psychophysiology and neuroimaging in lie detection also deserves new consideration.

  3. Detection of bone erosion in early rheumatoid arthritis: ultrasonography and conventional radiography versus non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Maryam; Chegini, Hosein; Najafizadeh, Seyed Reza; Azimi, Mohammad; Habibollahi, Peiman; Shakiba, Madjid

    2010-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend toward early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) especially in patients with early signs of bone erosion which can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of following study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography (US) and conventional radiography (CR) compared to MRI for early detection of bone erosion in RA patients. In 12 patients with RA diagnosis, 120 first to fifth metacarpophalangeal joints and 96 second to fifth proximal interphalangeal joints were examined. Non-contrast MRI, US and CR were performed for bone erosion evaluation. For further analysis, the patients were divided in two equal groups according to disease activity score (DAS28). The overall sensitivity and specificity of US compared to MRI in detecting bone erosion were 0.63 and 0.98, respectively with a considerable agreement (kappa = 0.68, p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of CR compared to MRI in detecting bone erosion were 0.13 and 1.00, respectively (kappa = 0.20, p < 0.001). In patients with more active disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.67 and 0.99 (kappa = 0.74, p < 0.001) compared to 0.59 and 0.97 (kappa = 0.61, p < 0.001) for the rest of patients according to DAS28. Conclusively, these findings reveal an acceptable agreement between US and MRI for detection of bone erosion in patients with early RA but not CR. US might be considered as a valuable tool for early detection of bone erosion especially when MRI is not available or affordable. Besides, it seems the US could be more reliable when the disease is more active.

  4. Detection and Elimination of Oncogenic Signalling Networks in Premalignant and Malignant Cells with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    sufficient to allow imaging and thermal therapy. 5 2. Keywords Hsp90- Heat Shock Protein 90 Hsp90i- Hsp90 inhibitor nIR- near infrared PM...the linking strategy of HS-183, a slow though not surprising retro- Michael reaction leading to cleavage of the dye. We are trying, so far without...schedules to correlate plasma and tumor drug levels with imaging. This work will be described in the small animal core. Project 1-Aim 2. Task

  5. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  6. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-01-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density. PMID:28186135

  7. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-02-10

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  8. Comparison of transrectal photoacoustic, Doppler, and magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Horiguchi, Akio; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Asano, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is the most popular imaging modality for diagnosing and treating prostate cancer. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is mandatory for the histological diagnosis of patients with elevated serum prostatespecific antigen (PSA), but its diagnostic accuracy is not satisfactory due to TRUS's low resolution. As a result, a considerable number of patients are required to undergo an unnecessary repeated biopsy. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) can be used to provide microvascular network imaging using hemoglobin as an intrinsic, optical absorption molecule. We developed an original TRUS-type PAI probe consisting of a micro-convex array transducer with an optical illumination system to provide superimposed PAI and ultrasound images. TRUS-type PAI has the advantage of having much higher resolution and greater contrast than does Doppler TRUS. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of the transrectal PAI system. We performed a clinical trial to compare the image of the cancerous area obtained by transrectal PAI with that obtained by TRUS Doppler during prostate biopsy. The obtained prostate biopsy cores were stained with anti-CD34 antibodies to provide a microvascular distribution map. We also confirmed its consistency with PAI and pre-biopsy MRI findings. Our study demonstrated that transrectal identification of tumor angiogenesis under superimposed photoacoustic and ultrasound images was easier than that under TRUS alone. We recognized a consistent relationship between PAI and MRI findings in most cases. However, there were no correspondences in some cases.

  9. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting biceps pathology in patients with rotator cuff disorders: comparison with arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Helen; Fournier-Gosselin, Simon; Christakis, Monique; Pennings, Amanda; ElMaraghy, Amr; Holtby, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of biceps disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of noncontrasted MRI in diagnosis of biceps disease using arthroscopic surgery as the "gold standard." Prospectively collected surgical data of patients with impingement syndrome or rotator cuff tear, with biceps disease (study group) or without biceps disease (control group), were reviewed. MRI reports of radiologists with fellowship training in musculoskeletal imaging were retrospectively reviewed and compared with surgical findings. Data of 183 (130 study and 53 control) patients (73 women [40%], 110 men [60%]; mean age, 62 years [standard deviation, 9]) who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff-related surgery during a period of 11 years were used for analysis. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI for detection of full tears of the biceps tendon were 0.54 and 0.98, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.27 and 0.86 for partial tears of the biceps tendon, respectively. For biceps subluxation or dislocation, sensitivity was 1.00 and specificity was 0.83. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, which quantify the overall accuracy of the tests, were 0.57, 0.75, and 0.92 for partial tear, full tear, and instability of the biceps tendon, respectively. Noncontrasted MRI has a low sensitivity and high specificity for detection of full-thickness tears of the biceps tendon. It is highly sensitive for diagnosis of instability of the long head of the biceps. However, its usefulness for diagnosis of partial tears of the biceps tendon remains limited. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Usefulness of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to detect inner-ear abnormalities in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Tanaka, H; Gosho, M; Katahira, N; Horibe, Y; Nakao, Y; Ueda, H

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging has been used to detect alterations in the composition of inner-ear fluid. This study investigated the association between hearing level and the signal intensity of pre- and post-contrast three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 18 patients with sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss: 12 patients with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (baseline hearing levels of 60 dB or less) and 6 patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (baseline hearing levels of more than 60 dB). High-intensity signals in the inner ear were observed in two of the six patients (33 per cent) with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss, but not in those with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (mid-p test, p = 0.049). These signals were observed on magnetic resonance imaging scans 6 or 18 days after sensorineural hearing loss onset. The results indicate that three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging is not a useful tool for detecting inner-ear abnormalities in patients with mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  11. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging has potential for improving penumbra detection but not for estimating stroke onset time

    PubMed Central

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Gallagher, Lindsay; Mullin, Jim; Holmes, William M; McCabe, Chris; Macrae, I Mhairi; Fagan, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Tissue sodium concentration increases in irreversibly damaged (core) tissue following ischemic stroke and can potentially help to differentiate the core from the adjacent hypoperfused but viable penumbra. To test this, multinuclear hydrogen-1/sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure the changing sodium signal and hydrogen-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the ischemic core and penumbra after rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Penumbra and core were defined from perfusion imaging and histologically defined irreversibly damaged tissue. The sodium signal in the core increased linearly with time, whereas the ADC rapidly decreased by >30% within 20 minutes of stroke onset, with very little change thereafter (0.5–6 hours after MCAO). Previous reports suggest that the time point at which tissue sodium signal starts to rise above normal (onset of elevated tissue sodium, OETS) represents stroke onset time (SOT). However, extrapolating core data back in time resulted in a delay of 72±24 minutes in OETS compared with actual SOT. At the OETS in the core, penumbra sodium signal was significantly decreased (88±6%, P=0.0008), whereas penumbra ADC was not significantly different (92±18%, P=0.2) from contralateral tissue. In conclusion, reduced sodium-MRI signal may serve as a viability marker for penumbra detection and can complement hydrogen ADC and perfusion MRI in the time-independent assessment of tissue fate in acute stroke patients. PMID:25335803

  12. Does magnetic resonance imaging produce further benefit for detecting a bleeding source in subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown origin?

    PubMed

    Maslehaty, Homajoun; Petridis, Athanassios K; Barth, Harald; Doukas, Alexandros; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) without evidence of a bleeding source on the first digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) - also called SAH of unknown origin - is observed in up to 27% of all cases. Depending on the bleeding pattern on CT scanning, SAH can be differentiated into perimesencephalic (PM-SAH) and non-perimesencephalic SAH (NON-PM-SAH). The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting a bleeding source in SAH of unknown origin. We retrospectively reviewed 1,226 patients with spontaneous SAH between January 1991 and December 2008 in our department. DSA was performed in 1,068 patients, with negative results in 179 patients. Forty-seven patients were categorized as having PM-SAH and 132 patients as having NON-PM-SAH. MRI of the brain and the craniocervical region was performed within 72 h after diagnosis of SAH and demonstrated no bleeding sources in any of the PM-SAH and NON-PM-SAH patients (100% negative). In our experience MRI did not produce any additional benefit for detecting a bleeding source after SAH with a negative angiogram. The costs of this examination exceeded the clinical value. Despite our results MRI should be discussed on a case-by-case basis because rare bleeding sources are periodically diagnosed in cases of NON-PM-SAH.

  13. Application of imaging fusion combining contrast-enhanced ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in detection of hepatic cellular carcinomas undetectable by conventional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Mao, Feng; Ji, Zheng-Biao; Huang, Bei-Jian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the value of volume navigation image fusion-assisted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in detection for radiofrequency ablation guidance of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), which were undetectable on conventional ultrasound. From May 2012 to May 2014, 41 patients with 49 HCCs were included in this study. All lesions were detected by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planned for radiofrequency ablation but were undetectable on conventional ultrasound. After a bolus injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue® (Bracco, Italy), LOGIQ E9 ultrasound system with volume navigation system (version R1.0.5, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) was used to fuse CEUS and MRI images. The fusion time, fusion success rate, lesion enhancement pattern, and detection rate were analyzed. Image fusions were conducted successfully in 49 HCCs, the technical success rate was 100%. The average fusion time was (9.2 ± 2.1) min (6-12 min). The mean diameter of HCCs was 25.2 ± 5.3 mm (mean ± SD), and mean depth was 41.8 ± 17.2 mm. The detection rate of HCCs using CEUS/MRI imaging fusion (95.9%, 47/49) was significantly higher than CEUS (42.9%, 21/49) (P < 0.05). For small HCCs (diameter, 1-2 cm), the detection rate using imaging fusion (96.9%, 32/33) was also significantly higher than CEUS (18.2%, 6/33) (P < 0.01). All HCCs displayed a rapid wash-in pattern in the arterial phase of CEUS. Imaging fusion combining CEUS and MRI is a promising technique to improve the detection, precise localization, and accurate diagnosis of undetectable HCCs on conventional ultrasound, especially small and atypical HCCs. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Incidental detection of late subsequent intracranial neoplasms with magnetic resonance imaging among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Noah D; Santucci, Aimee K; Klimo, Paul; Hudson, Melissa M; Srivastava, Deokumar; Zhang, Nan; Kun, Larry E; Krasin, Matthew J; Pui, Ching-Hon; Patay, Zoltan; Reddick, Wilburn E; Ogg, Robert J; Hillenbrand, Claudia M; Robison, Leslie L; Krull, Kevin R; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2014-09-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms. In long-term survivors of childhood malignancies treated with and without cranial radiation therapy (CRT), undergoing unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, we estimated detection of intracranial neoplasms. To investigate neurocognitive outcomes, 219 survivors of childhood cancer underwent unenhanced screening MRI of the brain. Of the survivors, 164 had been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (125 received CRT) and 55 for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (none received CRT). MRI examinations were reviewed and systematically coded by a single neuroradiologist. Demographic and treatment characteristics were compared for survivors with and without subsequent neoplasms. Nineteen of the 219 survivors (8.7 %) had a total of 31 subsequent intracranial neoplasms identified by neuroimaging at a median time of 25 years (range 12-46 years) from diagnosis. All neoplasms occurred after CRT, except for a single vestibular schwannoma within the cervical radiation field in a HL survivor. The prevalence of subsequent neoplasms after CRT exposure was 14.4 % (18 of 125). By noncontrast MRI, intracranial neoplasms were most suggestive of meningiomas. Most patients presented with no specific, localizing neurological complaints. In addition to the schwannoma, six tumors were resected based on results of MRI screening, all of which were meningiomas on histologic review. Unenhanced brain MRI of long-term survivors of childhood cancer detected a substantial number of intracranial neoplasms. Screening for early detection of intracranial neoplasms among aging survivors of childhood cancer who received CRT should be evaluated. The high prevalence of incidentally detected subsequent intracranial neoplasms after CRT in long-term survivors of childhood cancer and the minimal symptoms reported by those with intracranial tumors in our study indicate that brain MRI screening of long

  15. Incidental Detection of Late Subsequent Intracranial Neoplasms with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Noah D.; Santucci, Aimee K.; Klimo, Paul; Hudson, Melissa M.; Srivastava, Deokumar; Zhang, Nan; Kun, Larry E.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Patay, Zoltan; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ogg, Robert J.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.; Armstrong, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms. In long term survivors of childhood malignancies treated with and without cranial radiation therapy (CRT), undergoing unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, we estimated detection of intracranial neoplasms. Methods To investigate neurocognitive outcomes, 219 survivors of childhood cancer underwent unenhanced screening MRI of the brain. 164 of the survivors had been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (125 received CRT), and 55 for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (none received CRT). MRI examinations were reviewed and systematically coded by a single neuroradiologist. Demographic and treatment characteristics were compared for survivors with and without subsequent neoplasms. Results Nineteen of the 219 survivors (8.7%) had a total of 31 subsequent intracranial neoplasms identified by neuroimaging at a median time of 25 years (range 12-46 years) from diagnosis. All neoplasms occurred after CRT, except for a single vestibular schwannoma within the cervical radiation field in a HL survivor. The prevalence of subsequent neoplasms after CRT exposure was 14.4% (18 of 125). By noncontrast MRI, intracranial neoplasms were most suggestive of meningiomas. Most patients presented with no specific, localizing neurological complaints. In addition to the schwannoma, six tumors were resected based on results of MRI screening, all of which were meningiomas on histologic review. Conclusion Unenhanced brain MRI of long-term survivors of childhood cancer detected a substantial number of intracranial neoplasms. Screening for early detection of intracranial neoplasms among aging survivors of childhood cancer who received CRT should be evaluated. Implications for Cancer Survivors The high prevalence of incidentally detected subsequent intracranial neoplasms after CRT in long-term survivors of childhood cancer and the minimal symptoms reported by those with intracranial

  16. Coronary computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jörg; Gerber, Thomas C

    2009-04-01

    Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use.

  17. Coronary Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jörg; Gerber, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:19269527

  18. Non-Invasive Detection of Axiliary Nodes by Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    were injected with FreundOs adjuvant to induce an inflammatory response in popliteal lymph nodes and similarly imaged. Conventional spin echo (CSE... lymph nodes to grow, or when they did grow they were small, < 2 mm). Thus the second year of the project focused on the study proposed for the...ratios (CNR) relative to muscle were calculated for each sequence and histopathologic correlation was obtained for all lymph nodes . Findings

  19. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate for Tumour Detection and Local Staging: Imaging in 1.5T and Histopathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Loggitsi, Dimitra; Gyftopoulos, Anastasios; Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Apostolaki, Aikaterini; Kalogeropoulos, Theodoros; Thanos, Anastasios; Alexopoulou, Efthimia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L

    2017-07-15

    The study sought to prospectively evaluate which technique among T2-weighted images, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI, or a combination of the 2, is best suited for prostate cancer detection and local staging. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent MRI on a 1.5T scanner with a surface phased-array coil prior radical prostatectomy. Combined anatomical and functional imaging was performed with the use of T2-weighted sequences, DCE MRI, and DW MRI. We compared the imaging results with whole mount histopathology. For the multiparametric approach, significantly higher sensitivity values, that is, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.0-64.1) were obtained as compared with each modality alone or any combination of the 3 modalities (P < .05). The specificity for this multiparametric approach, being 90.3% (95% CI: 86.3-93.3) was not significantly higher (P < .05) as compared with the values of the combination of T2+DCE MRI, DW+DCE MRI, or DCE MRI alone. Among the 3 techniques, DCE had the best performance for tumour detection in both the peripheral and the transition zone. High negative predictive value rates (>86%) were obtained for both tumour detection and local staging. The combination of T2-weighted sequences, DCE MRI, and DW MRI yields higher diagnostic performance for tumour detection and local staging than can any of these techniques alone or even any combination of them. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated prostate cancer detection using T2-weighted and high-b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford J.; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.; Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for prostate cancer to aid in improving the accuracy, reproducibility, and standardization of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: The proposed system utilizes two MRI sequences [T2-weighted MRI and high-b-value (b = 2000 s/mm2) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] and texture features based on local binary patterns. A three-stage feature selection method is employed to provide the most discriminative features. The authors included a total of 244 patients. Training the CAD system on 108 patients (78 MR-positive prostate cancers and 105 benign MR-positive lesions), two validation studies were retrospectively performed on 136 patients (68 MR-positive prostate cancers, 111 benign MR-positive lesions, and 117 MR-negative benign lesions). Results: In distinguishing cancer from MR-positive benign lesions, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.89] was achieved. For cancer vs MR-positive or MR-negative benign lesions, the authors obtained an AUC of 0.89 AUC (95% CI: 0.84–0.93). The performance of the CAD system was not dependent on the specific regions of the prostate, e.g., a peripheral zone or transition zone. Moreover, the CAD system outperformed other combinations of MRI sequences: T2W MRI, high-b-value DWI, and the standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map of DWI. Conclusions: The novel CAD system is able to detect the discriminative texture features for cancer detection and localization and is a promising tool for improving the quality and efficiency of prostate cancer diagnosis. PMID:25979032

  1. Development and Validation of the Suprathreshold Stochastic Resonance-Based Image Processing Method for the Detection of Abdomino-pelvic Tumor on PET/CT Scans.

    PubMed

    Saroha, Kartik; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Behera, Abhishek; Patel, Chetan; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    The detection of abdomino-pelvic tumors embedded in or nearby radioactive urine containing 18F-FDG activity is a challenging task on PET/CT scan. In this study, we propose and validate the suprathreshold stochastic resonance-based image processing method for the detection of these tumors. The method consists of the addition of noise to the input image, and then thresholding it that creates one frame of intermediate image. One hundred such frames were generated and averaged to get the final image. The method was implemented using MATLAB R2013b on a personal computer. Noisy image was generated using random Poisson variates corresponding to each pixel of the input image. In order to verify the method, 30 sets of pre-diuretic and its corresponding post-diuretic PET/CT scan images (25 tumor images and 5 control images with no tumor) were included. For each sets of pre-diuretic image (input image), 26 images (at threshold values equal to mean counts multiplied by a constant factor ranging from 1.0 to 2.6 with increment step of 0.1) were created and visually inspected, and the image that most closely matched with the gold standard (corresponding post-diuretic image) was selected as the final output image. These images were further evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians. In 22 out of 25 images, tumor was successfully detected. In five control images, no false positives were reported. Thus, the empirical probability of detection of abdomino-pelvic tumors evaluates to 0.88. The proposed method was able to detect abdomino-pelvic tumors on pre-diuretic PET/CT scan with a high probability of success and no false positives.

  2. Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Recurrence Following Therapy with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    reduction in breast cancer mortality with screening (9). Typical screening programs include annual physical examination and mammography, supplemented ...carcinoma. These authors found that three ratios of compounds detected by NMR (the creatine/fat, choline/fat and carnitine /fat ratios) could distinguish...data source. This technique will allow us to look for consistency among values across data sources. Estimates from these sources will be supplemented

  3. Qualitative Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lacks Sensitivity in Detecting Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Colvin-Adams, Monica; Petros, Salam; Raveendran, Ganesh; Missov, Emil; Medina, Eduardo; Wilson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major complication after heart transplantation, requiring frequent surveillance angiography. Though cardiac angiography is the gold standard, it is insensitive in detecting transplant vasculopathy and invasive. Perfusion MRI provides a noninvasive alternative and possibly a useful modality for studying CAV. We sought to compare the accuracy of qualitative perfusion MRI to coronary angiography in detecting CAV. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 68 heart transplant recipients who had simultaneous surveillance cardiac MRI and coronary angiogram and who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2007. We compared results of qualitative MRI to those of the cardiac angiogram. Sensitivity and specificity of MR were calculated. Results Sixty-eight patients underwent both cardiac MRI and coronary angiogram. 73.5% were male; mean age was 45.37 ± 14 years. Mean duration of heart transplantation was 7.9 ± 5.2 years. The mean ejection fraction was 55% in the patients without CAV and 57.4% in those with CAV. There were 48 normal and 24 abnormal MRI studies. The overall sensitivity was 41% and specificity was 74%. Conclusions Qualitative assessment of perfusion cardiac MR has low sensitivity and moderate specificity for detecting CAV. The sensitivity of MRI was slightly improved with severity of disease.

  4. Detection and Elimination of Oncogenic Signaling Networks in Premalignant and Malignant Cells with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    generalized structure of some detergent they use to get aqueous solubility. 9 Figure 2 N N O NH O O O O O O H2N H2N N N N N Si O N SO3Na SO3 - SO3Na Si O N...each probe and extracting the tethered probes for chromatographic analysis from each organ, demonstrating the absence of the probe. Much of this work...three mice) are plotted. Error Bar: SD . 27 Figure 23B Figure 23B. NIR Signals detected from MDA-MB-468 xenograft in mice after NIR-HSP90 inhibitor

  5. Detection of pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle by fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rerkpattanapipat, Pairoj; Mazur, Wojciech; Link, Kerry M; Clark, Hollins P; Hundley, W Gregory

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights the importance of interpretating images throughout the course of a dobutamine MRI stress test. Upon review of the baseline images, the left ventricular (LV) endocardium was not well seen due to flow artifacts associated with low intracavitary blood-flow velocity resulting from a prior myocardial infarction. Physicians implemented a cine fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) technique that was not subject to low flow artifact within the LV cavity. With heightened image clarity, physicians unexpectedly identified a LV pseudoaneurysm.

  6. Detection of blood-nerve barrier permeability by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wessig, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) separates the endoneurium from the endovascular space and the epineurial connective tissue. An intact BNB is very important for integrity and functions of the nerve fibers within the endoneurial space. Disruption of the BNB which leads to functional and structural impairment of the peripheral nerve plays an important role in many disorders of the peripheral nerve like Wallerian degeneration, inflammatory nerve disorders, and demyelination. So far, this increased BNB permeability can only be assessed ex vivo. Assessing BNB disruption in vivo would be of great value for studying disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Gadofluorine M (Gf), a new amphiphilic contrast agent for MRI, accumulates in rat nerves with increased permeability of the BNB. After application of Gf, T1-weighted MR images show contrast enhancement of nerves with a disrupted BNB. This new tool of assessing BNB permeability in vivo is described.

  7. Multiplex surface plasmon resonance biosensing and its transferability towards imaging nanoplasmonics for detection of mycotoxins in barley.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sweccha; Segarra-Fas, Anna; Peters, Jeroen; Zuilhof, Han; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-21

    A 6-plex competitive inhibition immunoassay for mycotoxins in barley was developed on a prototype portable nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) instrument, also referred to as imaging nanoplasmonics. As a benchmark for the prototype nanoplasmonics instrument, first a double 3-plex assay was developed for the detection of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), T-2 toxin (T-2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using a well-established benchtop SPR instrument and two biosensor chips. To this end, ovalbumin (OVA) conjugates of mycotoxins were immobilized on the chip via amine coupling. The SPR response was then recorded upon injection of a mixture of antibodies at a fixed concentration and the sample (or matrix-matched standard) over a chip with immobilized mycotoxin-OVA conjugates. The chips were regenerated after each sample using 10 mM HCl and 20 mM NaOH and could be used for at least 60 cycles. The limits of detection in barley (in μg kg(-1)) were determined to be 26 for DON, 6 for ZEA, 0.6 for T-2, 3 for OTA, 2 for FB1 and 0.6 for AFB1. Preliminary in-house validation showed that DON, T-2, ZEA and FB1 can be detected at the European Union regulatory limits, while for OTA and AFB1 sensitivities should be improved. Furthermore, measurement of naturally contaminated barley showed that the assay can be used as a semi-quantitative screening method for mycotoxins prior to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Finally, using the same bio-reagents the assay was transferred to a 6-plex format in the nanoplasmonics instrument and subsequently the two assays were compared. Although less sensitive, the 6-plex portable iSPR assay still allowed detection of DON, T-2, ZEA and FB1 at relevant levels. Therefore, the prototype iSPR shows potential for future applications in rapid in-field and at-line screening of multiple mycotoxins.

  8. Surgical results in hidden lumbar spinal stenosis detected by axial loaded computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Willén, Jan; Wessberg, Per J; Danielsson, Barbro

    2008-02-15

    An outcome study of patients with neurogenic claudication and/or sciatica with hidden stenosis, detected only by axial loading of the lumbar spine (ACE) but not at the traditional unloaded examination (psoas relaxed position) during computed tomography (CT) myelography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed up after surgery. To estimate the clinical effect of decompression with or without fusion in patients with hidden stenosis in the lumbar spine. A number of patients with neurogenic claudicatio with or without sciatica do not have corresponding imaging abnormalities. Axial loaded CT and MRI have disclosed hidden stenosis in certain cases. The surgical effect in patients with hidden stenosis has never been described. Axial loading of the lumbar spine during CT and MRI was performed in 250 patients with neurogenic claudication and sciatica. All fulfilled the inclusion criteria for ACE, i.e., suspected but not verified spinal stenosis in 1 to 3 levels. In 125 patients (50%), a significant narrowing of the spinal canal occurred. Out of these 125 patients, 101 had a clear stenosis besides the stenosis only detected at ACE. In 24 patients, a hidden stenosis was detected in 1 to 3 levels only at the ACE. These patients were observed for 1 to 6 years after decompression with or without fusion regarding subjective improvement of leg and back pains, walking capacity, satisfaction, and health related quality of life. At follow-up, 76% of the patients had leg pain less than 25/100 on a VAS scale and 62% had back pain less than 25/100. Ninety-six percent were improved or much improved regarding leg and back pains The ability to walk increased significantly after surgery. Walking capacity to more than 500 m increased from 4% to 87%. Twenty-two patients were subjectively satisfied with the surgical results. The ODI score, the SF-36 and the EQ-5D score corresponded well to the above mentioned improvements at follow-up. According to this study, the results of surgery in

  9. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance: a tool for in situ detection, imaging and dating of biosignatures in primitive organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourier, D.; Binet, L.; Vezin, H.

    2012-04-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging are based on the interaction of a microwave electromagnetic field (typically in the GHz range) with electron spins in presence of an external magnetic field. Contrary to UV-visible and Infrared light, microwave radiation can penetrate in most non conducting materials, so that EPR is sensitive to the bulk (and not to the surface) of samples. All the paramagnetic defects, impurities, point defects in the mineral matrix, radicals in carbonaceous matter of an ancient rock can be detected by this technique. As the most ancient traces of life, as old as 3.5 Gy, are recorded as carbonaceous microstructures in siliceous sedimentary structures (cherts), the radical defects of these microstructures can be probed in situ without sample preparation. By using continuous-wave EPR, the fossilized carbonaceous matter can be mapped at the sub-millimeter scale (EPR imaging)[1], and can be dated with respect to the host rock (evolution of the EPR lineshape)[2]. Thus this method could be used for contamination detection (endolithic bacteria, infiltration etc…). By using pulsed-EPR spectroscopy (instead of continuous wave), nuclear magnetic transitions of elements in and around radicals can be detected with a high resolution and sensitivity. We show that specific nuclear transitions for hydrogen (1H and 2D) and 13C (and other nuclei such as 29Si and 31P) can be identified in extraterrestrial carbonaceous matter (meteorites) and in Precambrian and younger cherts. These pulsed techniques provide molecular scale biosignatures for primitive life detection and internal probes to study the history of organic matter in the early solar system [3,4]. Paramagnetic biosignatures are not limited to the organic component of cherts. Specific EPR biosignatures of metal ions can be detected in biominerals such as MnO2 [5] or in molecular V4+ complexes [6]. EPR is thus a potential technique for the search of primitive life on Earth and

  10. Development of surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors for detection of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1.

    PubMed

    Sankiewicz, Anna; Laudanski, Piotr; Romanowicz, Lech; Hermanowicz, Adam; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wiesława; Debek, Wojciech; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a new method for highly selective determination of the ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) concentration using a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) technique and two different biosensors. UCH-L1 was captured from a solution by immobilized specific rabbit monoclonal antibody or specific LDN-57444 inhibitor due to formation of receptor-UCH-L1 complex on the biosensor surface. The analytically useful dynamic response range of both biosensors is between 0.1 and 2.5ng/ml. The detection limit is 0.06ng/ml for the biosensor with antibody and 0.08ng/ml for the biosensor with inhibitor. Biosensors based on both antibody and inhibitor were found to be suitable for quantitative determination of the UCH-L1 and exhibit good tolerance to the potential interferents. Both biosensors gave comparable results in the range of 0 to 0.20ng/ml for plasma samples and 0.30 to 0.49ng/ml for cerebrospinal fluid samples. To validate the new methods, comparative determination of UCH-L1 by the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was performed. In general, in terms of UCH-L1 concentration, a good correlation between SPRI and ELISA was found. The developed biosensors can be used successfully for the determination of UCH-L1 in body fluids.

  11. More Specific Signal Detection in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging by False Discovery Rate Control for Hierarchically Structured Systems of Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Schildknecht, Konstantin; Tabelow, Karsten; Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Signal detection in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) inherently involves the problem of testing a large number of hypotheses. A popular strategy to address this multiplicity is the control of the false discovery rate (FDR). In this work we consider the case where prior knowledge is available to partition the set of all hypotheses into disjoint subsets or families, e. g., by a-priori knowledge on the functionality of certain regions of interest. If the proportion of true null hypotheses differs between families, this structural information can be used to increase statistical power. We propose a two-stage multiple test procedure which first excludes those families from the analysis for which there is no strong evidence for containing true alternatives. We show control of the family-wise error rate at this first stage of testing. Then, at the second stage, we proceed to test the hypotheses within each non-excluded family and obtain asymptotic control of the FDR within each family at this second stage. Our main mathematical result is that this two-stage strategy implies asymptotic control of the FDR with respect to all hypotheses. In simulations we demonstrate the increased power of this new procedure in comparison with established procedures in situations with highly unbalanced families. Finally, we apply the proposed method to simulated and to real fMRI data. PMID:26914144

  12. In vitro molecular magnetic resonance imaging detection and measurement of apoptosis using superparamagnetic iron oxide + antibody as ligands for nucleosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, P. L.; Witiw, C.; Rich, K.; Niccoli, S.; Tassotto, M. L.; Th'ng, J.

    2012-11-01

    Recent research in cell biology as well as oncology research has focused on apoptosis or programmed cell death as a means of quantifying the induced effects of treatment. A hallmark of late-stage apoptosis is nuclear fragmentation in which DNA is degraded to release nucleosomes with their associated histones. In this work, a method was developed for detecting and measuring nucleosome concentration in vitro with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The indirect procedure used a commercially available secondary antibody-superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle complex as a contrast agent that bound to primary antibodies against nucleosomal histones H4, H2A and H2B. Using a multiple-echo spin-echo sequence on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner, significant T2 relaxation enhancement as a function of in vitro nucleosomal concentration was measured. In addition, clustering or aggregation of the contrast agent was demonstrated with its associated enhancement in T2 effects. The T2 clustering enhancement showed a complex dependence on relative concentrations of nucleosomes, primary antibody and secondary antibody + SPIO. The technique supports the feasibility of using MRI measurements of nucleosome concentration in blood as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in the management of cancer.

  13. Reversible hippocampal lesions detected on magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of transient selective amnesia for simple machine operation.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yumiko; Bandoh, Mitsuaki; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-08-01

    We report two extremely rare cases involving the development of transient selective retrograde amnesia for simple machine operation lasting for several hours. A 61-year-old male taxi driver suddenly became unable to operate a taximeter, and a 66-year-old female janitor suddenly became unable to use a fax machine. They could precisely recount their episodes to others both during and after the attacks, and their memories during their attacks corresponded to the memory of the witness and the medical records of the doctor, respectively. Therefore, it appears that these individuals remained alert and did not develop anterograde amnesia during their attacks. On day 4, they underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion-weighted MRI with 2-mm section thickness revealed small high-intensity signal lesions in the left hippocampal cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) region. However, these lesions disappeared during the chronic phase. This is the first report describing lesions detected by MRI in patients with transient selective amnesia without anterograde amnesia. Reversible damage to the hippocampal CA1 region may cause transient selective amnesia by impairing the retrieval of relevant memories.

  14. Assessment of total placenta previa by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography to detect placenta accreta and its variants.

    PubMed

    Peker, Nuri; Turan, Volkan; Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ozgur; Sever, Ahmet; Kazandi, Mert; Zekioglu, Osman

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting placental adherence defects. Patients diagnozed with total placenta previa (n = 40) in whom hysterectomy was performed due to placental adherence defects (n = 20) or in whom the placenta detached spontaneously after a Cesarean delivery (n = 20) were included into the study between June 2008 and January 2011, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ege University (lzmir Turkey). Gray-scale US was used to check for any placental lacunae, sub-placental sonolucent spaces or a placental mass invading the vesicouterine plane and bladder Intra-placental lacunar turbulent blood flow and an increase in vascularization in the vesicouterine plane were evaluated with color Doppler mode. Subsequently all patients had MRI and the results were compared with the histopathologic examinations. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of placental adherence defects before the operation was 95%, with a specificity of 95%. In the presence of at least one diagnostic criterion, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 87.5% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of color Doppler US was 62.5% with a specificity of 100%. Currently MRI appears to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. None of the ultrasonographic criteria is solely sufficient to diagnose placental adherence defects, however they assist in the diagnostic process.

  15. Specific detection of CD133-positive tumor cells with iron oxide nanoparticles labeling using noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Pan, Huay-Ben; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chen-Pin

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles to visualize cells has been applied clinically, showing the potential for monitoring cells in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO conjugated with anti-CD133 antibodies (USPIO-CD133 Ab) that recognize the CD133 molecule, a cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, was studied as a novel and potent agent for MRI contrast enhancement of tumor cells. Anti-CD133 antibodies were used to conjugate with USPIO via interaction of streptavidin and biotin for in vivo labeling of CD133-positive cells in xenografted tumors and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced brain tumors. The specific binding of USPIO-CD133 Ab to CD133-positive tumor cells was subsequently detected by Prussian blue staining and MRI with T2-weighted, gradient echo and multiple echo recombined gradient echo images. In addition, the cellular toxicity of USPIO-CD133 Ab was determined by analyzing cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production. USPIO-CD133 Ab specifically recognizes in vitro and labels CD133-positive cells, as validated using Prussian blue staining and MRI. The assays of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production showed no significant differences in tumor cells with or without labeling of USPIO-CD133 Ab. In vivo imaging of CD133-positive cells was demonstrated by intravenous injection of USPIO-CD133 Ab in mice with HT29 xenografted tumors. The MRI of HT29 xenografts showed several clusters of hypotensive regions that correlated with CD133 expression and Prussian blue staining for iron. In rat, brain tumors induced by transplacental ENU mutagenesis, several clusters of hypointensive zones were observed in CD133-expressing brain tumors by MRI and intravenously administered USPIO-CD133 Ab. Combination of USPIO-CD133 Ab and MRI is valuable in recognizing CD133-expressing tumor cells in vitro, extracellularly labeling for cell tracking and detecting CD133

  16. Specific detection of CD133-positive tumor cells with iron oxide nanoparticles labeling using noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Pan, Huay-Ben; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chen-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles to visualize cells has been applied clinically, showing the potential for monitoring cells in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO conjugated with anti-CD133 antibodies (USPIO-CD133 Ab) that recognize the CD133 molecule, a cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, was studied as a novel and potent agent for MRI contrast enhancement of tumor cells. Materials and methods Anti-CD133 antibodies were used to conjugate with USPIO via interaction of streptavidin and biotin for in vivo labeling of CD133-positive cells in xenografted tumors and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced brain tumors. The specific binding of USPIO-CD133 Ab to CD133-positive tumor cells was subsequently detected by Prussian blue staining and MRI with T2-weighted, gradient echo and multiple echo recombined gradient echo images. In addition, the cellular toxicity of USPIO-CD133 Ab was determined by analyzing cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production. Results USPIO-CD133 Ab specifically recognizes in vitro and labels CD133-positive cells, as validated using Prussian blue staining and MRI. The assays of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production showed no significant differences in tumor cells with or without labeling of USPIO-CD133 Ab. In vivo imaging of CD133-positive cells was demonstrated by intravenous injection of USPIO-CD133 Ab in mice with HT29 xenografted tumors. The MRI of HT29 xenografts showed several clusters of hypotensive regions that correlated with CD133 expression and Prussian blue staining for iron. In rat, brain tumors induced by transplacental ENU mutagenesis, several clusters of hypointensive zones were observed in CD133-expressing brain tumors by MRI and intravenously administered USPIO-CD133 Ab. Conclusion Combination of USPIO-CD133 Ab and MRI is valuable in recognizing CD133-expressing tumor cells in vitro, extracellularly

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging versus musculoskeletal ultrasonography in detecting inflammatory arthropathy in systemic sclerosis patients with hand arthralgia.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Magied, Rasha A; Lotfi, A; AbdelGawad, Ehab A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was the detection of inflammatory arthropathy in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with arthralgia using musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare between MRI versus MSUS detecting musculoskeletal abnormalities and find out its relation with other clinical and laboratory parameters. Sixteen SSc patients with hand arthralgia had a baseline MSUS for their hands. Six months later, patients had a second MSUS and MRI with gadolinium of their most symptomatic hand. Of the 16 patients examined by MSUS, it was found that on baseline and second examination, tenosynovitis was seen in 8 (50 %) and 7 (43.7%) patients and synovitis was seen in 4 (25%) and 5 (31%) patients, respectively, indicating persistence synovial inflammation, and erosion was seen in only 1 (6.3%) patient on baseline and second examination. Regarding MRI, 81.3% (13) patients had tenosynovitis, 87.5% (14) patients had synovitis, and 62.5% (10) patients had erosions. Applying the RAMRIS system (a semiquantitative MRI scoring system used in RA), the mean values for synovitis, bone marrow edema, and erosions fell within the range seen in RA. Systemic sclerosis patients with arthralgia that have no obvious clinical inflammatory arthritis were found to have persistent inflammatory erosive arthropathy in their hands and wrists using MSUS and MRI. While both MRI and MSUS are useful in characterizing synovial inflammation in SSc, MRI is clearly more sensitive than MSUS in this setting. Further studies on larger number of SSc patients with arthralgia and a control group consisting of SSc patients without arthralgia to better establish the clinical and radiological findings in SSc.

  19. Accuracy of combined dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging for breast cancer detection: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tang, Min; Min, Zhiqian; Lu, Jun; Lei, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to examine patients with suspected breast cancer. To determine the diagnostic performance of combined dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for breast cancer detection. A comprehensive search of the PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to September 2014. Statistical analysis included pooling of sensitivity and specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and diagnostic accuracy using the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC). All analyses were conducted using STATA (version 12.0), RevMan (version 5.2), and Meta-Disc 1.4 software programs. Fourteen studies were analyzed, which included a total of 1140 patients with 1276 breast lesions. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of combined DCE-MRI and DWI were 91.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of DWI-MRI were 86.0% and 75.6%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MRI were 93.2% and 71.1%. The area under the SROC curve (AUC-SROC) of combined DCE-MRI and DWI was 0.94, the DCE-MRI of 0.85. Deeks testing confirmed no significant publication bias in all studies. Combined DCE-MRI and DWI had superior diagnostic accuracy than either DCE-MRI or DWI alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  20. Detection of articular pathology of the distal aspect of the third metacarpal bone in thoroughbred racehorses: comparison of radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Thomas; Baker, Theresa A; Brounts, Sabrina H; Sample, Susannah J; Markel, Mark D; Scollay, Mary C; Marquis, Patricia; Muir, Peter

    2011-12-01

    To compare digital radiography (DR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of pathology of the distal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) and to assess whether arthrography would improve detection of articular cartilage or subchondral bone cracking. Cross-sectional study. Limb specimens from 17 Thoroughbred horses after catastrophic injury and 4 age-matched control horses. Standard DR, CT, and MRI images of the metacarpophalangeal joint were acquired before and after iohexol injection. Pathologic features detected with imaging and on visual inspection of cartilage and subchondral bone of the distal aspect of MC3 were graded. Imaging observations were compared with pathologic abnormalities. Inspection revealed obvious changes in the cartilage and subchondral bone surfaces in Thoroughbreds. Both CT and MRI were superior to DR for detection of subchondral bone pathology. Cracking of cartilage was not detected by any imaging modality. Signal changes associated with cartilage loss and development of repair tissue were evident on MRI in 9/19 cases. There was significant correlation (P < .05) between subchondral bone pathology detected on both CT and MRI, and cartilage pathology on gross examination. Contrast arthrography did not improve the detection of articular cartilage or subchondral plate cracking. Both CT and MRI are superior to DR for detection of subchondral bone pathology, but underestimate the extent of joint adaptation and pathologic damage. MRI was able to detect cartilage degeneration. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Magnetic resonance force detection using a membrane resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzaro, N.; Ruchotzke, W.; Belding, A.; Cardellino, J.; Blomberg, E. C.; McCullian, B. A.; Bhallamudi, V. P.; Pelekhov, D. V.; Hammel, P. C.

    2016-10-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost magnetic resonance imaging instruments would further broaden the substantial impact of this technology. We report highly sensitive detection of magnetic resonance using low-stress silicon nitride (SiNx) membranes. We use these membranes as low-loss, high-frequency mechanical oscillators and find they are able to mechanically detect spin-dependent forces with high sensitivity enabling ultrasensitive magnetic resonance detection. The high force detection sensitivity stems from their high mechanical quality factor Q ∼106 [1,2] combined with the low mass of the resonator. We use this excellent mechanical force sensitivity to detect the electron spin magnetic resonance using a SiNx membrane as a force detector. The demonstrated force sensitivity at 300 K is 4 fN/√{Hz } , indicating a potential low temperature (4 K) sensitivity of 25 aN/√{Hz } . Given their sensitivity, robust construction, large surface area and low cost, SiNx membranes can potentially serve as the central component of a compact room-temperature ESR and NMR instrument having spatial resolution superior to conventional approaches.

  2. Association of Collateral Blood Vessels Detected by Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Neurological Outcome After Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    de Havenon, Adam; Haynor, David R; Tirschwell, David L; Majersik, Jennifer J; Smith, Gordon; Cohen, Wendy; Andre, Jalal B

    2017-04-01

    Robust collateral blood vessels have been associated with better neurologic outcome following acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The most commonly used methods for identifying collaterals are contrast-based angiographic imaging techniques, which are not possible in all patients after AIS. To assess the association between the presence of collateral vessels identified using arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, a technique that does not require exogenous administration of contrast, and neurologic outcome in patients after AIS. This retrospective cohort study examined 38 patients after AIS admitted to a tertiary academic medical center between 2012 and 2014 who underwent MRI with ASL. According to a prespecified hypothesis, ASL images were graded for the presence of collaterals by 2 neuroradiologists. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge and other composite data were abstracted from the medical record by a neurologist blinded to radiologic data. Of the 38 patients, 19 (50.0%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 61 (20) years. In 25 of 38 patients (65.8%), collaterals were detected using ASL, which were significantly associated with both a good outcome (mRS score of 0-2 at discharge; P = .02) and a 1-point decrease in mRS score at discharge (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.7-23.4; P = .005). In a multivariable ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, history of atrial fibrillation, premorbid mRS score, and stroke parent artery status, there was a strong association between the presence of ASL collaterals and a 1-point decrease in the mRS score at discharge (odds ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.2-22.1; P = .03). Following AIS, the presence of ASL collaterals is strongly associated with better neurological outcome at hospital discharge. This novel association between ASL collaterals and improved neurologic outcome may help guide prognosis and management, particularly in patients

  3. Relation between cardiovascular disease risk markers and brain infarcts detected by magnetic resonance imaging in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Nylander, Ruta; Lind, Lars; Wikström, Johan; Lindahl, Bertil; Venge, Per; Larsson, Anders; Ärnlöv, Johan; Berglund, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Johansson, Lars; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Established cardiovascular risk markers, such as hypertension, are associated with increased risk of brain infarcts. The newer markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, C-reactive protein, and cystatin C may affect the risk of cardiovascular events and potentially, thereby, also stroke. We investigated the association between established and new risk markers for cardiovascular disease and brain infarcts detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 75. Four hundred six randomly selected subjects from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study were examined with MRI of the brain at age 75. Blood samples, measurements, and dedicated questionnaires at age 70 were used for analysis of risk markers. A history of diseases had been obtained at age 70 and 75. MRI was evaluated regarding lacunar and cortical infarcts. Univariate associations between outcomes and risk markers were assessed with logistic regression models. One or more infarcts were seen in 23% of the subjects (20% had only lacunar infarcts, 1% had only cortical infarcts, and 2% had both). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 4.7) and obesity (OR 1.3; CI 1.0, 1.8) were significantly associated with increased risk of brain infarction. The newer risk markers were not significantly associated with the brain infarcts. The new markers were not associated with the predominantly lacunar infarcts in our 75-year-old population, why troponin I and NT-proBNP may be associated mainly with cardioembolic infarcts as shown recently. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Subclinical cartilage degeneration in young athletes with posterior cruciate ligament injuries detected with T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging mapping.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Takayama, Yukihisa; Osaki, Kanji; Matsuo, Yoshio; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-10-01

    Prediction of the risk of osteoarthritis in asymptomatic active patients with an isolated injury of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is difficult. T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the quantification of the proteoglycan content in the articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subclinical cartilage degeneration in asymptomatic young athletes with chronic PCL deficiency using T1ρ MRI. Six athletes with chronic PCL deficiency (median age 17, range 14-36 years) and six subjects without any history of knee injury (median age 31.5, range 24-33 years) were recruited. Regions of interest were placed on the articular cartilage of the tibia and the distal and posterior areas of the femoral condyle, and T1ρ values were calculated. On stress radiographs, the mean side-to-side difference in posterior laxity was 9.8 mm. The T1ρ values at the posterior area of the lateral femoral condyle and the superficial layer of the distal area of the medial and lateral femoral condyle of the patients were significantly increased compared with those of the normal controls (p < 0.05). At the tibial plateau, the T1ρ values in both the medial and lateral compartments were significantly higher in patients compared with those in the normal controls (p < 0.05). T1ρ MRI detected unexpected cartilage degeneration in the well-functioning PCL-deficient knees of young athletes. One should be alert to the possibility of subclinical cartilage degeneration even in asymptomatic patients who show no degenerative changes on plain radiographs or conventional MRI. IV.

  5. Relation of Step Length to Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Structural Damage in the Patellofemoral Joint: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study.

    PubMed

    Stefanik, Joshua J; Gross, K Douglas; Guermazi, Ali; Felson, David T; Roemer, Frank W; Niu, Jingbo; Lynch, John A; Segal, Neil A; Lewis, Cora E; Lewis, Cara L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relationship of step length to the sex-specific prevalence and worsening of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected structural damage in the patellofemoral (PF) joint among a cohort of older women and men with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a cohort study of persons ages 50-79 years with or at risk of knee OA. Step length was assessed using the GAITRite walkway (CIR Systems) at the 60-month visit, and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) were graded on MRI at the 60- and 84-month visits. Step length was divided into sex-specific quintiles, and the relationship of step length to the prevalence and worsening of cartilage damage and BMLs in the PF joint was examined using logistic regression, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), leg length, and tibiofemoral joint structural damage. In 1,053 knees, 4,094 and 4,083 PF joint subregions were studied for the cartilage and BML analyses, respectively. Mean ± SD age was 65.6 ± 8.1 years and mean ± SD BMI was 29.1 ± 4.7 kg/m(2) ; 62% of participants were female. In women, compared to those with the shortest step length, those with the longest step length had 0.62 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.43-0.88) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.87) times the odds of cartilage damage and BMLs, respectively. There was no cross-sectional association in men, and no longitudinal association in either sex. Women with PF joint structural damage may adapt their gait by shortening their step length, but this may not be sufficient to reduce the risk of worsening damage over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... the area being scanned include: Metallic spinal rod Plates, pins, screws, or metal mesh used to repair ...

  7. Advances in breast imaging: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bartella, Lia; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is rapidly becoming incorporated into clinical practice. Indications for breast MRI include staging of known breast cancer, monitoring response to chemotherapy, assessing recurrence, problem solving, and high-risk screening. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a promising technique that may decrease the number of benign biopsies generated by breast MRI in the clinical setting.

  8. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and image-guided biopsy to detect seminal vesicle invasion by prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Raskolnikov, Dima; George, Arvin K; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Shakir, Nabeel A; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Rothwax, Jason T; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Su, Daniel; Stamatakis, Lambros; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the correlation between multiparametric prostate MRI (MP-MRI) suspicion for seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by prostate cancer (PCa) and pathology on MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy. From March 2007 to June 2013, 822 patients underwent MP-MRI at 3 Tesla and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy. Of these, 25 patients underwent targeted biopsy of the seminal vesicles (SVs). In six patients, bilateral SVI was suspected, resulting in 31 samples. MP-MRI findings that triggered these SV biopsies were scored as low, moderate, or high suspicion for SVI based on the degree of involvement on MRI. Correlative prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology were reviewed by a single genitourinary pathologist. At the time of MP-MRI, the median age was 64 years with a median prostate-specific antigen of 10.74 ng/mL. Of the 31 SV lesions identified, MP-MRI suspicion scores of low, moderate, and high were assigned to 3, 19, and 9 lesions, respectively. MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy detected SVI in 20/31 (65%) of cases. For the four patients who underwent RP after a preoperative assessment of SVI, biopsy pathology and RP pathology were concordant in all cases. As this technology becomes more available, MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy may play a role in the preoperative staging for PCa. Future work will determine if improved preoperative staging leads to better surgical outcomes.

  9. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Image-Guided Biopsy to Detect Seminal Vesicle Invasion by Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raskolnikov, Dima; George, Arvin K.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Rothwax, Jason T.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Su, Daniel; Stamatakis, Lambros; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between multiparametric prostate MRI (MP-MRI) suspicion for seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by prostate cancer (PCa) and pathology on MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy. Patients and Methods: From March 2007 to June 2013, 822 patients underwent MP-MRI at 3 Tesla and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy. Of these, 25 patients underwent targeted biopsy of the seminal vesicles (SVs). In six patients, bilateral SVI was suspected, resulting in 31 samples. MP-MRI findings that triggered these SV biopsies were scored as low, moderate, or high suspicion for SVI based on the degree of involvement on MRI. Correlative prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology were reviewed by a single genitourinary pathologist. Results: At the time of MP-MRI, the median age was 64 years with a median prostate-specific antigen of 10.74 ng/mL. Of the 31 SV lesions identified, MP-MRI suspicion scores of low, moderate, and high were assigned to 3, 19, and 9 lesions, respectively. MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy detected SVI in 20/31 (65%) of cases. For the four patients who underwent RP after a preoperative assessment of SVI, biopsy pathology and RP pathology were concordant in all cases. Conclusions: As this technology becomes more available, MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy may play a role in the preoperative staging for PCa. Future work will determine if improved preoperative staging leads to better surgical outcomes. PMID:25010361

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound Fusion Targeted Prostate Biopsy in a Consecutive Cohort of Men with No Previous Biopsy: Reduction of Over Detection through Improved Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Mendhiratta, Neil; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Meng, Xiaosong; Wysock, James S; Fenstermaker, Michael; Huang, Richard; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Zhou, Ming; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S

    2015-12-01

    MRF-TB (magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion targeted prostate biopsy) may improve the detection of prostate cancer in men presenting for prostate biopsy. We report clinical outcomes of 12-core systematic biopsy and MRF-TB in men who presented for primary biopsy and further describe pathological characteristics of cancers detected by systematic biopsy and not by MRF-TB. Clinical outcomes of 452 consecutive men who underwent prebiopsy multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging followed by MRF-TB and systematic biopsy at our institution between June 2012 and June 2015 were captured in an institutional review board approved database. Clinical characteristics, biopsy results and magnetic resonance imaging suspicion scores were queried from the database. Prostate cancer was detected in 207 of 382 men (54.2%) with a mean±SD age of 64±8.5 years and mean±SEM prostate specific antigen 6.8±0.3 ng/ml who met study inclusion criteria. The cancer detection rate of systematic biopsy and MRF-TB was 49.2% and 43.5%, respectively (p=0.006). MRF-TB detected more Gleason score 7 or greater cancers than systematic biopsy (117 of 132 or 88.6% vs 102 of 132 or 77.3%, p=0.037). Of 41 cancers detected by systematic biopsy but not by MRF-TB 34 (82.9%) demonstrated Gleason 6 disease, and 26 (63.4%) and 34 (82.9%) were clinically insignificant by Epstein criteria and a UCSF CAPRA (University of California-San Francisco-Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) score of 2 or less, respectively. In men presenting for primary prostate biopsy MRF-TB detects more high grade cancers than systematic biopsy. Most cancers detected by systematic biopsy and not by MRF-TB are at clinically low risk. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging followed by MRF-TB decreases the detection of low risk cancers while significantly improving the detection and risk stratification of high grade disease. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  11. Brown adipose tissue in humans: detection and functional analysis using PET (positron emission tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and DECT (dual energy computed tomography).

    PubMed

    Borga, Magnus; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Romu, Thobias; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Persson, Anders; Nuutila, Pirjo; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    If the beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) on whole body metabolism, as observed in nonhuman experimental models, are to be translated to humans, tools that accurately measure how BAT influences human metabolism will be required. This chapter discusses such techniques, how they can be used, what they can measure and also some of their limitations. The focus is on detection and functional analysis of human BAT and how this can be facilitated by applying advanced imaging technology such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual energy computed tomography. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Targeted Biopsies Noninferior to Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Systematic Biopsies for the Detection of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed

    Delongchamps, Nicolas Barry; Portalez, Daniel; Bruguière, Eric; Rouvière, Olivier; Malavaud, Bernard; Mozer, Pierre; Fiard, Gaelle; Cornud, François

    2016-10-01

    In men with suspicion of prostate cancer the standard of cancer detection is transrectal ultrasound guided 10 to 12-core systematic biopsy. The targeted biopsy only strategy using magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound image registration is gaining in popularity. We assessed the noninferiority of targeted vs systematic biopsy. Between June and October 2014 a total of 108 biopsy naïve patients with prostate specific antigen between 4 and 20 ng/ml, normal rectal examination and a single suspicious image on magnetic resonance imaging were included in study at 7 centers. Patients underwent systematic biopsy by a first operator blinded to magnetic resonance imaging, immediately followed by 3 targeted biopsies within the suspicious image by a second operator. The primary end point was the cancer detection rate. The noninferiority margin was set at -5%. The secondary end points were the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer (maximum cancer core length 5 mm or greater for Gleason 6 or any Gleason 7 or greater disease) and procedure duration. Systematic and targeted biopsies detected cancer in 66 (61.1%) and 61 patients (56.5%), respectively. The mean difference was -4.5% with a 95% CI lower bound of -11.8%. A total of 13 patients with protocol violations were excluded from the per protocol analysis, which showed a mean difference of -5.2% with a 95% CI lower bound of -13.1%. Clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 50 (46.2%) and 52 patients (48.1%) with systematic and targeted biopsies, respectively (p = 0.69). The mean ± SD duration of image fusion plus targeted biopsy was 16.7 ± 7 minutes vs 7.4 ± 3 for systematic biopsy (p <0.001). Targeted biopsy seemed to be inferior to systematic biopsy for overall cancer detection. Detection of clinically significant prostate cancer did not differ between targeted and systematic biopsies. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  13. A cerium oxide nanoparticle-based device for the detection of chronic inflammation via optical and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Santra, Santimukul; Asati, Atul; Perez, J. Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring of microenvironmental parameters is critical in healthcare and disease management. Harnessing the antioxidant activity of nanoceria and the imaging capabilities of iron oxide nanoparticles in a device setup, we were able to image changes in the device's aqueous milieu. The device was able to convey and process changes in the microenvironment's pH and reactive oxygen species' concentration, distinguishing physiological from abnormal levels. As a result under physiological and transient inflammatory conditions, the device's fluorescence and magnetic resonance signals, emanating from multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles, were similar. However, under chronic inflammatory conditions that are usually associated with high local concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pH decrease, the device's output was considerably different. Specifically, the device's fluorescence emission significantly decreased, while the magnetic resonance signal T2 increased. Further studies identified that the changes in the device's output are attributed to inactivation of the sensing component's nanoceria that prevents it from successfully scavenging the generated free radicals. Interestingly, the buildup of free radical excess led to polymerization of the iron oxide nanoparticle's coating, with concomitant formation of micron size aggregates. Our studies indicate that a nanoceria-based device can be utilized for the monitoring of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, having important applications in the management of numerous ailments while eliminating nanoparticle toxicity issues.Monitoring of microenvironmental parameters is critical in healthcare and disease management. Harnessing the antioxidant activity of nanoceria and the imaging capabilities of iron oxide nanoparticles in a device setup, we were able to image changes in the device's aqueous milieu. The device was able to convey and process changes in the microenvironment's pH and reactive oxygen species' concentration

  14. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. R.

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging, now more commonly referred to as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), developed into an important clinical modality between the years of 1978 and 1985. In 1945 it was demonstrated independently by Bloch(F. Bloch, The Principle of Nuclear Induction, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962 New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) and Purcell(E.M. Purcell, Research in Nuclear Magnetism, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962, New York. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) that magnetic nuclei in a sample when placed in a static magnetic field exhibit a characteristic resonance frequency which is proportional to the field strength and unique to nuclei of the same type and same environment. The net magnetization of the sample when irradiated by an RF wave at the resonance frequency could thus be manipulated to produce an induced "NMR signal" in a conducting loop placed near the sample. In the early 1970's, methods were developed whereby the NMR signal could be spatially encoded in both frequency and phase by means of superimposed linear magnetic field gradients to produce NMR images. NMR image contrast is a function of nuclear concentration and magnetic relaxation times (T1 and T2). MRI became the first medical imaging modality to provide both high resolution and high contrast images of soft tissue. Current clinical MRI systems produce images of the distribution of ^1H nuclei (primarily water) within the body. Other biologically important nuclei (^13C, ^23N, ^31P), as well as the imaging of hyperpolarized inert gases (^3He, ^129Xe) are under investigation. Recent developments in ^1H-MRI have included chemical shift imaging (hydrogen containing metabolites), blood flow imaging (MR angiography), ultra high-speed imaging (Echo Planar), and imaging of brain function based upon magnetic susceptibility differences resulting from blood oxygenation changes during brain activity.

  15. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1995-03-01

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  16. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu.

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Reliability of high- and low-field magnetic resonance imaging systems for detection of cartilage and bone lesions in the equine cadaver fetlock.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Dyson, S J; Murray, R C

    2012-11-01

    To determine the reliability of 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems for detection of cartilage and bone lesions of the equine fetlock. To test the hypotheses that lesions in cartilage, subchondral and trabecular bone of the equine fetlock verified using histopathology can be detected on high- and low-field MR images with a low incidence of false positive or negative results; that low-field images are less reliable than high-field images for detection of cartilage lesions; and that combining results of interpretation from different pulse sequences increases detection of cartilage lesions. High- and low-field MRI was performed on 19 limbs from horses identified with fetlock lameness prior to euthanasia. Grading systems were used to score cartilage, subchondral and trabecular bone on MR images and histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for images. High-field T2*-weighted gradient echo (T2*W-GRE) and low-field T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2W-FSE) images had high sensitivity but low specificity for detection of cartilage lesions. All pulse sequences had high sensitivity and low-moderate specificity for detection of subchondral bone lesions and moderate sensitivity and moderate-high specificity for detection of trabecular bone lesions (histopathology as gold standard). For detection of lesions of trabecular bone low-field T2*W-GRE images had higher sensitivity and specificity than T2W-FSE images. There is high likelihood of false positive results using high- or low-field MRI for detection of cartilage lesions and moderate-high likelihood of false positive results for detection of subchondral bone lesions compared with histopathology. Combining results of interpretation from different pulse sequences did not increase detection of cartilage lesions. MRI interpretation of trabecular bone was more reliable than cartilage or subchondral bone in both MR systems. Independent interpretation of a variety of pulse sequences may maximise detection of

  18. In vivo detection of copper ions by magnetic resonance imaging using a prion-based contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Makino, Satoshi; Umemoto, Tomohiro; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yezdimer, Eric M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-10-01

    Abnormal distributions of transition metals inside the body are potential diagnostic markers for several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, and cancer. In this article, we demonstrate that P57/Gd, a novel prion-based contrast agent, can selectively image tissues with excessive copper accumulation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). P57/Gd selectivity binds copper(II) over other physiologically relevant cations such as zinc, iron, manganese, and calcium. To simulate a metabolic copper disorder, we treated mice with an intraperitoneal injection of a CuSO(4) solution to induce a renal copper overload. The MRI signal intensities from the renal cortex and medulla of copper spiked animals that were administered P57/Gd were found to correlate with the ex vivo copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  19. Identification of Threshold Prostate Specific Antigen Levels to Optimize the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer by Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound Fusion Guided Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Shakir, Nabeel A.; George, Arvin K.; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Rothwax, Jason T.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Stamatakis, Lambros; Su, Daniel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Simon, Richard; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate specific antigen sensitivity increases with lower threshold values but with a corresponding decrease in specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy detects prostate cancer more efficiently and of higher grade than standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsy but the optimal population for its use is not well defined. We evaluated the performance of magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy vs 12-core biopsy across a prostate specific antigen continuum. Materials and Methods We reviewed the records of all patients enrolled in a prospective trial who underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsies from August 2007 through February 2014. Patients were stratified by each of 4 prostate specific antigen cutoffs. The greatest Gleason score using either biopsy method was compared in and across groups as well as across the population prostate specific antigen range. Clinically significant prostate cancer was defined as Gleason 7 (4 + 3) or greater. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 1,003 targeted and 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsies were performed, of which 564 diagnosed prostate cancer for a 56.2% detection rate. Targeted biopsy led to significantly more upgrading to clinically significant disease compared to 12-core biopsy. This trend increased more with increasing prostate specific antigen, specifically in patients with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 and greater than 10 ng/ml. Prostate specific antigen 5.2 ng/ml or greater captured 90% of upgrading by targeted biopsy, corresponding to 64% of patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent fusion biopsy. Conversely a greater proportion of clinically insignificant disease was detected by 12-core vs targeted biopsy overall. These differences persisted when controlling for potential confounders on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Prostate

  20. The lie of fMRI: an examination of the ethics of a market in lie detection using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Amy E

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, I argue that companies who use functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans for lie detection encounter the same basic ethical stumbling blocks as commercial companies that market traditional polygraphs. Markets in traditional voluntary polygraphs are common and fail to elicit much uproar among ethicists. Thus, for consistency, if markets in polygraphs are ethically unproblematic, markets using fMRIs for lie detection are equally as acceptable. Furthermore, while I acknowledge two substantial differences between the ethical concerns involving polygraphs and fMRI lie detection, I argue that these concerns can be overcome and do not lead to the conclusion that markets in fMRI lie detection are ethically dubious. It is my conclusion that voluntary markets in fMRI lie detection can be justified by consumer autonomy and should be allowed to persist.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an image. Repeated exposure can be harmful.An MRI scan takes longer to perform (30 to 60 minutes, ... a treatment plan.Depending on your symptoms, an MRI will scan a specific portion of your body to diagnose: ...

  2. Integrated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with coronary magnetic resonance angiography, stress-perfusion, and delayed-enhancement imaging for the detection of occult coronary artery disease in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Sung Mok; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Jung, Wooin; Lee, Sang-Chol; Chang, Sung-A; Choi, Yoon Ho; Sung, Jidong

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) with stress-perfusion and delayed-enhancement MRI as a screening tool for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic subjects. Three hundred and forty-one self-referred asymptomatic subjects were enrolled in this study. Cardiac MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-T scanner with a 32-channel cardiac coil. Coronary artery stenosis, regional wall motion abnormalities, myocardial perfusion abnormalities, and delayed myocardial enhancement were analyzed. The occurrence of new chest pain and cardiac events was assessed in 332 subjects (97.3 %) over an average 29 ± 6 months (range, 18-39 months) follow-up period. A total of 3296 (82.4 %) of 4000 coronary artery segments examined exhibited diagnostic image quality on combined whole-heart and volume-targeted CMRA. Combined MRI detected significant CADs in 13 (3.8 %) of 341 subjects. Among these, 11 subjects (84.6 %) had both coronary artery stenosis (≥50 % by diameter) on CMRA and stress-perfusion defects in corresponding areas. Five of the 13 subjects showed evidence of old myocardial infarctions on delayed-enhancement MRI. Three subjects (0.9 %) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention after CAD was detected on cardiac MRI. There were no cardiac events during the follow-up period in subjects who complied with follow-up. Normal stress-perfusion and delayed-enhancement MRI lead to excellent outcomes when used to predict future cardiac events in asymptomatic subjects. Coronary MRA correlates well with stress-perfusion MRI for detecting significant CAD and helps exclude CAD in asymptomatic individuals.

  3. Convolutional neural network based deep-learning architecture for prostate cancer detection on multiparametric magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsehay, Yohannes K.; Lay, Nathan S.; Roth, Holger R.; Wang, Xiaosong; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris I.; Pinto, Peter A.; Wood, Brad J.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in men. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is the most accurate imaging method for PCa detection; however, it requires the expertise of experienced radiologists leading to inconsistency across readers of varying experience. To increase inter-reader agreement and sensitivity, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that can automatically detect lesions on mpMRI that readers can use as a reference. We investigated a convolutional neural network based deep-learing (DCNN) architecture to find an improved solution for PCa detection on mpMRI. We adopted a network architecture from a state-of-the-art edge detector that takes an image as an input and produces an image probability map. Two-fold cross validation along with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and free-response ROC (FROC) were used to determine our deep-learning based prostate-CAD's (CADDL) performance. The efficacy was compared to an existing prostate CAD system that is based on hand-crafted features, which was evaluated on the same test-set. CADDL had an 86% detection rate at 20% false-positive rate while the top-down learning CAD had 80% detection rate at the same false-positive rate, which translated to 94% and 85% detection rate at 10 false-positives per patient on the FROC. A CNN based CAD is able to detect cancerous lesions on mpMRI of the prostate with results comparable to an existing prostate-CAD showing potential for further development.

  4. Recent technological and application developments in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for improved pulmonary nodule detection and lung cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    Sieren, Jessica C.; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Sugimura, Kazuro; McLennan, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    This review compares the emerging technologies and approaches in the application of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) imaging for the assessment of pulmonary nodules and staging of malignant findings. Included in this review is a brief definition of pulmonary nodules and an introduction to the challenges faced. We have highlighted the current status of both MR and CT for the early detection of lung nodules. Developments are detailed in this review for the management of pulmonary nodules using advanced imaging, including; dynamic imaging studies, dual energy CT, computer aided detection and diagnosis, and imaging assisted nodule biopsy approaches which have improved lung nodule detection and diagnosis rates. Recent advancements linking in-vivo imaging to corresponding histological pathology are also highlighted. In-vivo imaging plays a pivotal role in the clinical staging of pulmonary nodules through TNM assessment. While CT and PET/CT are currently the most commonly clinically employed modalities for pulmonary nodule staging, studies are presented which highlight the augmentative potential of MR. PMID:21105140

  5. Curcumin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for detecting amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Chan, Pui Shan; Fan, Shujuan; Kwan, Siu Ming; Yeung, King Lun; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Chow, Albert Hee Lum; Wu, Ed X; Baum, Larry

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be performed with the assistance of amyloid imaging. The current method relies on positron emission tomography (PET), which is expensive and exposes people to radiation, undesirable features for a population screening method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is cheaper and is not radioactive. Our approach uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) made of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) conjugated with curcumin, a natural compound that specifically binds to amyloid plaques. Coating of curcumin-conjugated MNPs with polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid block copolymer and polyvinylpyrrolidone by antisolvent precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer produces stable and biocompatible curcumin magnetic nanoparticles (Cur-MNPs) with mean diameter <100 nm. These nanoparticles were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and their structure and chemistry were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cur-MNPs exhibited no cytotoxicity in either Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). The Papp of Cur-MNPs was 1.03 × 10(-6) cm/s in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Amyloid plaques could be visualized in ex vivo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Tg2576 mouse brains after injection of Cur-MNPs, and no plaques could be found in non-transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical examination of the mouse brains revealed that Cur-MNPs were co-localized with amyloid plaques. Thus, Cur-MNPs have the potential for non-invasive diagnosis of AD using MRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed.

  7. An automatic method for detection and classification of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonances using signal and image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Induction coils permit us to measure the very rapid changes of the magnetic field. In June 2012, the British Geological Survey Geomagnetism team installed two high frequency (100 Hz) induction coil magnetometers at the Eskdalemuir Observatory (55.3° N, 3.2° W, L~3), in the Scottish Borders of the United Kingdom. The Eskdalemuir Observatory is one of the longest running geophysical sites in the UK (beginning operation in 1908) and is located in a rural valley with a quiet magnetic environment. The coils record magnetic field changes over an effective frequency range of about 0.1-40Hz, and encompass phenomena such as the Schumann resonances, magnetospheric pulsations and Ionospheric Alfvén Resonances (IAR). In this study we focus on the IAR, which are related to the vibration of magnetic field lines passing through the ionosphere, believed to be mainly excited by lower atmospheric electrical discharges. The IAR typically manifest as a series of spectral resonances structures (SRS) within the 1-6Hz frequency range, usually appearing a fine bands or fringes in spectrogram plots. The SRS tend to occur daily between 18.00-06.00UT at the Eskdalemuir site, disappearing during the daylight hours. They usually start as a single low frequency before bifurcating into 5-10 separate fringes, increasing in frequency until around midnight. The fringes also widen in frequency before fading around 06.00UT. Occasionally, the fringes decrease in frequency slightly around 03.00UT before fading. In order to quantify the daily, seasonal and annual changes of the SRS, we developed a new method to identify the fringes and to quantify their occurrence in frequency (f) and the change in frequency (Δf). The method uses short time-series of 100 seconds to produce an FFT spectral plot from which the non-stationary peaks are identified using the residuals from a best-fit six order spline. This is repeated for an entire day of data. The peaks from each time-slice are placed into a matrix

  8. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Tortora, Fabio; Baldelli, Roberto; Cocchiara, Francesco; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Sbardella, Emilia; Simeoli, Chiara; Caranci, Ferdinando; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary tumor represents about 10 % of pituitary adenomas and at the time of diagnosis most of them are microadenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment of Cushing's disease and accurate localization of the tumor within the gland is essential for selectively removing the lesion and preserving normal pituitary function. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality for the detection of pituitary tumors, but adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary microadenomas are not correctly identified in 30-50 % of cases, because of their size, location, and enhancing characteristics. Several recent studies were performed with the purpose of better localizing the adrenocorticotropin-secreting microadenomas through the use in magnetic resonance imaging of specific sequences, reduced contrast medium dose and high-field technology. Therefore, an improved imaging technique for pituitary disease is mandatory in the suspect of Cushing's disease. The aims of this paper are to present an overview of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and to provide a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to be followed in case of suspicion adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  9. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  10. SPIO-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of metastases in sentinel nodes localized by computed tomography lymphography in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuyoshi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Komoike, Yoshifumi; Koyama, Hiroki; Noguchi, Atsushi; Sumino, Hiroshi; Kumatani, Youji; Inaji, Hideo; Horinouchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Katsuyuki

    2011-11-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been reported to be a promising improvement for diagnostic imaging of lymph node metastases from various tumors. Moreover, sentinel nodes have been reported to be well identified using computed tomography (CT) lymphography (CT-LG) in patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate MR imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhancement for the detection of metastases in sentinel nodes localized by CT-LG in patients with breast cancer. This study included 102 patients with breast cancer and clinically negative nodes. Sentinel nodes were identified by CT-LG, and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging of the axilla was performed to detect metastases in the sentinel nodes. A node was considered nonmetastatic if it showed a homogenous low signal intensity and metastatic if the entire node or a focal area did not show low signal intensity on MR imaging. Sentinel node biopsy was performed, and imaging results were correlated with histopathologic findings. The mean number of sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG was 1.1 (range, 1-3). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of sentinel node metastases were 84.0%, 90.9%, and 89.2%, respectively. In 4 of 10 patients with micrometastases, metastases were not detected, but all 15 patients with macrometastases were successfully identified. SPIO-enhanced MR imaging is a useful method of detecting metastases in sentinel nodes localized by CT-LG in patients with breast cancer and may avoid sentinel node biopsy when the sentinel node is diagnosed as disease-free.

  11. Labeling transplanted mice islet with polyvinylpyrrolidone coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for in vivo detection by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai; Xie, Qiuping; Kang, Muxing; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Jin; Zhai, Chuanxin; Yang, Deren; Jiang, Biao; Wu, Yulian

    2009-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are emerging as a novel probe for noninvasive cell tracking with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and have potential wide usage in medical research. In this study, we have developed a method using high-temperature hydrolysis of chelate metal alkoxide complexes to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone coated iron oxide nanoparticles (PVP-SPIO), as a biocompatible magnetic agent that can efficiently label mice islet β-cells. The size, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized. The newly synthesized PVP-SPIO with high stability, crystallinity and saturation magnetization can be efficiently internalized into β-cells, without affecting viability and function. The imaging of 100 PVP-SPIO-labeled mice islets in the syngeneic renal subcapsular model of transplantation under a clinical 3.0 T MR imager showed high spatial resolution in vivo. These results indicated the great potential application of the PVP-SPIO as an MRI contrast agent for monitoring transplanted islet grafts in the clinical management of diabetes in the near future.

  12. Increased microcirculation detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is of prognostic significance in asymptomatic myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, Jens; Ritsch, Judith; Merz, Maximilian; Wagner, Barbara; Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas; Laue, Hendrik; Bäuerle, Tobias; Zechmann, Christian M; Ho, Anthony D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moehler, Thomas M; Delorme, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as a non-invasive imaging technique delivering the quantitative parameters amplitude A (reflecting blood volume) and exchange rate constant kep (reflecting vascular permeability) in patients with asymptomatic monoclonal plasma cell diseases. We analysed DCE-MRI parameters in 33 healthy controls and 148 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) according to the 2003 IMWG guidelines. All individuals underwent standardized DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine. Regions of interest were drawn manually on T1-weighted images encompassing the bone marrow of each of the 5 lumbar vertebrae sparing the vertebral vessel. Prognostic significance for median of amplitude A (univariate: P < 0·001, hazard ratio (HR) 2·42, multivariate P = 0·02, HR 2·7) and exchange rate constant kep (univariate P = 0·03, HR 1·92, multivariate P = 0·46, HR 1·5) for time to progression of 79 patients with SMM was found. Patients with amplitude A above the optimal cut-off point of 0·89 arbitrary units had a 2-year progression rate into symptomatic disease of 80%. In conclusion, DCE-MRI parameters are of prognostic significance for time to progression in patients with SMM but not in individuals with MGUS.

  13. Explosives detection with quadrupole resonance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Thorson, Benjamin D.; Beevor, Simon; West, Rebecca; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1997-02-01

    The increase in international terrorist activity over the past decade has necessitated the exploration of new technologies for the detection of plastic explosives. Quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA) has proven effective as a technique for detecting the presence of plastic, sheet, and military explosive compounds in small quantities, and can also be used to identify narcotics such as heroin and cocaine base. QRA is similar to the widely used magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, but has the considerable advantage that the item being inspected does not need to be immersed in a steady, homogeneous magnetic field. The target compounds are conclusively identified by their unique quadrupole resonance frequencies. Quantum magnetics has develop and introduced a product line of explosives and narcotics detection devices based upon QRA technology. The work presented here concerns a multi-compound QRA detection system designed to screen checked baggage, cargo, and sacks of mail at airports and other high-security facilities. The design philosophy and performance are discussed and supported by test results from field trials conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This detection system represents the current state of QRA technology for field use in both commercial and government sectors.

  14. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza; Appelbaum, Evan; Danias, Peter G; Hauser, Thomas H; Yeon, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights the technical challenges and general imaging strategies for coronary MRI. This is followed by a review of the clinical results for the assessment of anomalous CAD, coronary artery aneurysms, native vessel integrity, and coronary artery bypass graft disease using the more commonly applied MRI methods. It concludes with a brief discussion of the advantages/disadvantages and clinical results comparing coronary MRI with multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography.

  15. Magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging.

    PubMed

    McDannold, Nathan; Maier, Stephan E

    2008-08-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is an elastography method developed for ultrasound imaging that maps displacements produced by focused ultrasound pulses systematically applied to different locations. The resulting images are "stiffness weighted" and yield information about local mechanical tissue properties. Here, the feasibility of magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) was tested. Quasistatic MR elastography was used to measure focal displacements using a one-dimensional MRI pulse sequence. A 1.63 or 1.5 MHz transducer supplied ultrasound pulses which were triggered by the magnetic resonance imaging hardware to occur before a displacement-encoding gradient. Displacements in and around the focus were mapped in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in an ex vivo bovine kidney. They were readily observed and increased linearly with acoustic power in the phantom (R2=0.99). At higher acoustic power levels, the displacement substantially increased and was associated with irreversible changes in the phantom. At these levels, transverse displacement components could also be detected. Displacements in the kidney were also observed and increased after thermal ablation. While the measurements need validation, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting small displacements induced by low-power ultrasound pulses using an efficient magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequence that is compatible with tracking of a dynamically steered ultrasound focal spot, and that the displacement increases with acoustic power. MR-ARFI has potential for elastography or to guide ultrasound therapies that use low-power pulsed ultrasound exposures, such as drug delivery.

  16. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  17. Diagnostic performance of automated breast ultrasound as a replacement for a hand-held second-look ultrasound for breast lesions detected initially on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eun Young; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyun Ji; Yoo, Hyunkyung; Baek, Seunghee; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) after breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a replacement for hand-held second-look ultrasound (HH-SLUS), we evaluated 58 consecutive patients with breast cancer who had additional suspicious lesions on breast MRI. All patients underwent HH-SLUS and ABUS. Three breast radiologists evaluated the detectability, location, characteristics and conspicuity of lesions on ABUS. We also evaluated inter-observer variability and compared the results with HH-SLUS results. Eighty additional suspicious lesions were identified on breast MRI. Fifteen of the 80 lesions (19%) were not detected on HH-SLUS. Eight of the 15 lesions (53%) were detected on ABUS, whereas the remaining 7 were not detected on ABUS. Among the 65 lesions detected on HH-SLUS, only 3 lesions were not detected on ABUS. The intra-class correlation coefficients for lesion location and size all exceeded 0.70, indicating high reliability. Moderate to fair agreement was found for mass shape, orientation, margin and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment. Therefore, ABUS can reliably detect additional suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI and may help in the decision on biopsy guidance method (US vs. MRI) as a replacement tool for HH-SLUS. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-dimensional morphological and signal intensity features for detection of intervertebral disc degeneration from magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Neubert, A; Fripp, J; Engstrom, C; Walker, D; Weber, M-A; Schwarz, R; Crozier, S

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Advances in MRI hardware and sequences are continually increasing the amount and complexity of data such as those generated in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) scanning of the spine. Efficient informatics tools offer considerable opportunities for research and clinically based analyses of magnetic resonance studies. In this work, we present and validate a suite of informatics tools for automated detection of degenerative changes in lumbar intervertebral discs (IVD) from both 3D isotropic and routine two-dimensional (2D) clinical T2-weighted MRI. Materials and methods An automated segmentation approach was used to extract morphological (traditional 2D radiological measures and novel 3D shape descriptors) and signal appearance (extracted from signal intensity histograms) features. The features were validated against manual reference, compared between 2D and 3D MRI scans and used for quantification and classification of IVD degeneration across magnetic resonance datasets containing IVD with early and advanced stages of degeneration. Results and conclusions Combination of the novel 3D-based shape and signal intensity features on 3D (area under receiver operating curve (AUC) 0.984) and 2D (AUC 0.988) magnetic resonance data deliver a significant improvement in automated classification of IVD degeneration, compared to the combination of previously used 2D radiological measurement and signal intensity features (AUC 0.976 and 0.983, respectively). Further work is required regarding the usefulness of 2D and 3D shape data in relation to clinical scores of lower back pain. The results reveal the potential of the proposed informatics system for computer-aided IVD diagnosis from MRI in large-scale research studies and as a possible adjunct for clinical diagnosis. PMID:23813538

  19. Usefulness of cervical magnetic resonance imaging for detecting type A acute aortic dissection with acute stroke symptoms.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Hirata, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    Type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD) sometimes presents with acute stroke-like symptoms. When intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) therapy is considered for acute ischemic stroke, TAAAD must be excluded. Painless TAAAD presenting with acute stroke may be easily missed. Two cases of painless TAAAD presenting with acute stroke in which IV-tPA therapy was considered are reported. In these cases, cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful for detecting TAAAD, and IV-tPA therapy was canceled. The mottled high signal ("snowstorm") in the common carotid artery on cervical MRA is specific for TAAAD. We have thus named this phenomenon the "snowstorm sign" and believe it can help diagnose TAAAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Limited diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Schmitt, Cornelia; Haupert, Alexander; Kohn, Dieter; Lorbach, Olaf

    2017-09-23

    The reliable diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff is still elusive in clinical practise. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff as well as the combination of these parameters. 334 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies for rotator cuff pathologies performed during the time period between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively for the findings of common clinical signs for rotator cuff lesions and preoperative MR imaging. These were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as "gold standard". The reports of the MR imaging were evaluated with regard to the integrity of the rotator cuff. The Ellman Classification was used to define partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in accordance with the arthroscopic findings. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. MR imaging showed 80 partial-thickness and 70 full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The arthroscopic examination confirmed 64 partial-thickness tears of which 52 needed debridement or refixation of the rotator cuff. Sensitivity for MR imaging to identify partial-thickness tears was 51.6%, specificity 77.2%, positive predictive value 41.3% and negative predictive value 83.7%. For the Jobe-test, sensitivity was 64.1%, specificity 43.2%, positive predictive value 25.9% and negative predictive value 79.5%. Sensitivity for the Impingement-sign was 76.7%, specificity 46.6%, positive predictive value 30.8% and negative predictive value 86.5%. For the combination of MR imaging, Jobe-test and Impingement-sign sensitivity was 46.9%, specificity 85.4%, positive predictive value 50% and negative predictive value 83.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests (Jobe-test and Impingement-sign) alone is limited for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Additionally

  2. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MRI-Transrectal Ultrasound Fusion Biopsy for Index Tumor Detection: Correlation with Radical Prostatectomy Specimen.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Jan P; Schwab, Constantin; Wolf, Maya B; Freitag, Martin T; Alt, Celine D; Kesch, Claudia; Popeneciu, Ionel V; Huettenbrink, Clemens; Gasch, Claudia; Klein, Tilman; Bonekamp, David; Duensing, Stefan; Roth, Wilfried; Schueler, Svenja; Stock, Christian; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Roethke, Matthias; Hohenfellner, Markus; Hadaschik, Boris A

    2016-11-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and MRI fusion targeted biopsy (FTB) detect significant prostate cancer (sPCa) more accurately than conventional biopsies alone. To evaluate the detection accuracy of mpMRI and FTB on radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen. From a cohort of 755 men who underwent transperineal MRI and transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy under general anesthesia between 2012 and 2014, we retrospectively analyzed 120 consecutive patients who had subsequent RP. All received saturation biopsy (SB) in addition to FTB of lesions with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥2. The index lesion was defined as the lesion with extraprostatic extension, the highest Gleason score (GS), or the largest tumor volume (TV) if GS were the same, in order of priority. GS 3+3 and TV ≥1.3ml or GS ≥3+4 and TV ≥0.55ml were considered sPCa. We assessed the detection accuracy by mpMRI and different biopsy approaches and analyzed lesion agreement between mpMRI and RP specimen. Overall, 120 index and 71 nonindex lesions were detected. Overall, 107 (89%) index and 51 (72%) nonindex lesions harbored sPCa. MpMRI detected 110 of 120 (92%) index lesions, FTB (two cores per lesion) alone diagnosed 96 of 120 (80%) index lesions, and SB alone diagnosed 110 of 120 (92%) index lesions. Combined SB and FTB detected 115 of 120 (96%) index foci. FTB performed significantly less accurately compared with mpMRI (p=0.02) and the combination for index lesion detection (p=0.002). Combined FTB and SB detected 97% of all sPCa lesions and was superior to mpMRI (85%), FTB (79%), and SB (88%) alone (p<0.001 each). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for index lesion agreement between mpMRI and RP was 0.87 (p<0.001). Limitations included the retrospective design, multiple operators, and nonblinding of radiologists. MpMRI identified 92% of index lesions compared with RP histopathology. The combination of FTB and SB was superior to both approaches alone

  3. Use of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve sheath to detect raised intracranial pressure

    PubMed Central

    Geeraerts, Thomas; Newcombe, Virginia FJ; Coles, Jonathan P; Abate, Maria Giulia; Perkes, Iain E; Hutchinson, Peter JA; Outtrim, Jo G; Chatfield, Dot A; Menon, David K

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The dural sheath surrounding the optic nerve communicates with the subarachnoid space, and distends when intracranial pressure is elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often performed in patients at risk for raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and can be used to measure precisely the diameter of optic nerve and its sheath. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), as measured using MRI, and ICP. Methods We conducted a retrospective blinded analysis of brain MRI images in a prospective cohort of 38 patients requiring ICP monitoring after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and in 36 healthy volunteers. ONSD was measured on T2-weighted turbo spin-echo fat-suppressed sequence obtained at 3 Tesla MRI. ICP was measured invasively during the MRI scan via a parenchymal sensor in the TBI patients. Results Measurement of ONSD was possible in 95% of cases. The ONSD was significantly greater in TBI patients with raised ICP (>20 mmHg; 6.31 ± 0.50 mm, 19 measures) than in those with ICP of 20 mmHg or less (5.29 ± 0.48 mm, 26 measures; P < 0.0001) or in healthy volunteers (5.08 ± 0.52 mm; P < 0.0001). There was a significant relationship between ONSD and ICP (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001). Enlarged ONSD was a robust predictor of raised ICP (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.94), with a best cut-off of 5.82 mm, corresponding to a negative predictive value of 92%, and to a value of 100% when ONSD was less than 5.30 mm. Conclusions When brain MRI is indicated, ONSD measurement on images obtained using routine sequences can provide a quantitative estimate of the likelihood of significant intracranial hypertension. PMID:18786243

  4. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  5. Non-invasive detection of infection in acute pancreatic and acute necrotic collections with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Islim, Filiz; Salik, Aysun Erbahceci; Bayramoglu, Sibel; Guven, Koray; Alis, Halil; Turhan, Ahmet Nuray

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to the detection of infection in acute pancreatitis-related collections. A total of 21 DW-MRI, and computed tomography (CT) were performed on 20 patients diagnosed as acute pancreatitis with acute peri-pancreatic fluid or necrotic collections. Collections were classified as infected or sterile according to the culture and follow-up results. Collections with gas bubbles on CT images were considered to be infected. Collections with peripheral bright signals on DW-MRI images were considered to be positive, whereas those without signals were considered to be negative. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the peripheral and central parts of the collections were measured. Student's t test was used to compare the means of ADC values of independent groups. Apart from one false positive result, the presence of infection was detected by DW-MRI with 95.2% accuracy. The sensitivity and accuracy of DW-MRI were higher than CT for the detection of infection. The ADC values in the central parts of the collections were significantly different between the infected and sterile groups. DW-MRI can be used as a non-invasive technique for the detection of infection in acute pancreatitis-associated collections.

  6. The Role of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment and Surgical Treatment of Interval and Screen-Detected Breast Cancer in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Martha E; Weiss, Julie; Onega, Tracy; Balch, Steve L; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-11-01

    We describe the relationship between preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the utilization of additional imaging, biopsy, and primary surgical treatment for subgroups of women with interval versus screen-detected breast cancer. We determined the proportion of women receiving additional breast imaging or biopsy and type of primary surgical treatment, stratified by use of preoperative MRI, separately for both groups. Using Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) data, we identified a cohort of women age 66 and older with an interval or screen-detected breast cancer diagnosis between 2005 and 2010. Using logistic regression, we explored associations between primary surgical treatment type and preoperative MRI use for interval and screen-detected cancers. There were 204 women with an interval cancer and 1,254 with a screen-detected cancer. The interval cancer group was more likely to receive preoperative MRI (21% versus 13%). In both groups, women receiving MRI were more likely to receive additional imaging and/or biopsy. Receipt of MRI was not associated with increased odds of mastectomy (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.67-1.50), while interval cancer diagnosis was associated with significantly higher odds of mastectomy (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Older women with interval cancer were more likely than women with a screen-detected cancer to have preoperative MRI, however, those with an interval cancer had 64% higher odds of mastectomy regardless of receipt of MRI. Given women with interval cancer are reported to have a worse prognosis, more research is needed to understand effectiveness of imaging modalities and treatment consequences within this group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K

    2016-01-01

    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P<0.0001), joint margin lesion (P<0.0001), central osteophyte (P = 0.03) and the low-field MRI lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P = 0.01), joint margin lesion (P = 0.02) and articular cartilage lesion (P = 0.0003). The most frequent lesion category detected in microscopic OA positive joints was the mineralisation front defect in radiographs (28/42 OA positive joints, specificity 97%, sensitivity 67%). No significant differences were detected between the sensitivity and specificity of radiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth > For Parents > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  9. Myocardial Damage Detected by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with Extracardiac Sarcoidosis: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Takashi; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging via the differences in myocardial deformation in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis who showed no structural and functional abnormalities in the heart. Forty-five patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with abnormal electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, including ventricular arrhythmias, heart block, regional wall motion abnormalities, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, were excluded. Ten age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited as a control group. Comprehensive echocardiography and DE magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain were consecutively assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic software in a 16-segment model of the left ventricle in accordance to the presence (DE+) or absence (DE-) of DE. Among the 45 patients, 36 segments in 13 patients showed DE. DE+ segments had lower peak circumferential strain than DE- and control segments (-14 ± 5% vs -28 ± 7% vs -30 ± 7%, P < .0001). Peak longitudinal strain in DE+ segments was significantly decreased compared with control segments (-19 ± 4% vs -23 ± 5%, P = .005). However, peak radial strain was similar among the three groups: 41 ± 17% in DE+ segments, 45 ± 23% in DE- segments, and 46 ± 18% in control segments (P = .50). Circumferential and longitudinal strain via two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by DE magnetic resonance imaging in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in aging and dementia: detection of age-related cognitive changes and prediction of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Woodard, John L; Sugarman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows for dynamic observation of the neural substrates of cognitive processing, which makes it a valuable tool for studying brain changes that may occur with both normal and pathological aging. fMRI studies have revealed that older adults frequently exhibit a greater magnitude and extent activation of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal compared to younger adults. This additional activation may reflect compensatory recruitment associated with functional and structural deterioration of neural resources. Increased activation has also been associated with several risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the apolipoprotein ε4 allele. Longitudinal studies have also demonstrated that fMRI may have predictive utility in determining which individuals are at the greatest risk of developing cognitive decline. This chapter will review the results of a number of task-activated fMRI studies of older adults, focusing on both healthy aging and neuropathology associated with AD. We also discuss models that account for cognitive aging processes, including the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) and scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) models. Finally, we discuss methodological issues commonly associated with fMRI research in older adults.

  12. Brain abnormalities detected on magnetic resonance imaging of amphetamine users presenting to an emergency department: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fatovich, Daniel M; McCoubrie, David L; Song, Swithin J; Rosen, David M; Lawn, Nick D; Daly, Frank F

    2010-09-06

    To determine the prevalence of occult brain abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging of active amphetamine users. Prospective convenience study in a tertiary hospital emergency department (ED). Patients presenting to the ED for an amphetamine-related reason were eligible for inclusion. We collected demographic data, drug use data, and performed a mini-mental state examination (MMSE). The proportion of patients with an abnormality on their MRI scan. Of 38 patients enrolled, 30 had MRI scans. Nineteen were male and their mean age was 26.7 +/- 5.4 years (range 19-41 years). The mean age of first amphetamine use was 18 years (range 13-26 years). Sixteen patients used crystal methamphetamine (mean amount 2.5 g/week), nine used amphetamine ("speed") (mean amount 2.9 g/week), and 23 used ecstasy (mean amount 2.3 tablets/week). Marijuana was smoked by 26 (mean amount 5.9 g/week), and 28 drank alcohol (mean amount 207 g/week). The median MMSE score was 27/30 (interquartile range, 26-29). Abnormalities on brain MRI scans were identified in six patients, most commonly an unidentified bright object (n = 4). In this pilot study of brain MRI of young people attending the ED with an amphetamine-related presentation, one in five had an occult brain lesion. While the significance of this is uncertain, it is congruent with evidence that amphetamines cause brain injury.

  13. Pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging is similar to chest tomography in detecting inflammation in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carolina de Souza; Warszawiak, Danny; Paiva, Eduardo Dos Santos; Escuissato, Dante Luiz

    2017-02-20

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are prevalent complications of systemic sclerosis (SS) and are currently the leading causes of death related to the disease. The accurate recognition of these conditions is therefore of utmost importance for patient management. A study was carried out with 24 SS patients being followed at the Rheumatology Department of the Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) and 14 healthy volunteers, with the objective of evaluating the usefulness of lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when assessing ILD in SS patients. The results obtained with lung MRI were compared to those obtained by computed tomography (CT) of the chest, currently considered the examination of choice when investigating ILD in SS patients. The assessed population was predominantly composed of women with a mean age of 50 years, limited cutaneous SS, and a disease duration of approximately 7 years. In most cases, there was agreement between the findings on chest CT and lung MRI. Considering it is a radiation-free examination and capable of accurately identifying areas of lung tissue inflammatory involvement, lung MRI showed to be a useful examination, and further studies are needed to assess whether there is an advantage in using lung MRI instead of chest CT when assessing ILD activity in SS patients.

  14. Basics of magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning with the behavior of a compass needle in a magnetic field, this text uses analogies from everyday experience to explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and how it is used for imaging. Using a minimum of scientific abbreviations and symbols, the basics of tissue visualization and characterization are presented. A description of the various types of magnets and scanners is followed by the practical advantages and limitations of MRI relative to x-ray CT scanning.

  15. Fast fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Lall, Chandana; Aisen, Alex A; Rajesh, Arumugam; Cohen, Mervyn D

    2005-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a problem-solving tool when ultrasonic findings are equivocal. The role of fetal MRI has increased as obstetricians become aware of its potential and in utero therapy for anomalies becomes increasingly sophisticated. In this pictorial essay, we present a wide range of anomalies diagnosed or confirmed using MRI and discuss findings that help in the differential diagnosis.

  16. Nerves on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nerves are often visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the soft tissues on the chest and shoulder girdle. To learn the reasons for the contrast between the nerves and adjacent tissues, the authors obtained a fresh specimen containing part of the brachial plexus nerves from the left axilla and compared MRI with x-ray projections and photomicrographs of histologic sections. The results suggest that the high signals from the nerves stand out in contrast to the low signals from their rich vascular supply. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 7 PMID:2733051

  17. Spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks detected by radionuclide cisternography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients suspected of intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Eiji; Shinohara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takehiro; Ogawa, Akiko; Fujii, Norio; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have described various features of neuroimaging tests associated with intracranial hypotension, few have examined their validity and reliability. We evaluated the association between CSF leaks detected by radionuclide cisternography and abnormal MRI findings in the accurate diagnosis of intracranial hypotension. We retrospectively assessed 250 patients who were suspected of intracranial hypotension and underwent subsequent radionuclide cisternography. We obtained 159 sagittal and 153 coronal T2-weighted MRI images and 101 gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI images. We assessed the CSF leaks in relation to a sagging brain, the maximum subdural space in sagittal and coronal images, and dural enhancement. Overall, 186 (74%) patients showed CSF leaks on radionuclide cisternography. A sagging brain was observed in 21 (13%) of the 159 patients with sagittal MRIs. A sagging brain was not associated with CSF leaks (14% vs. 10%; p=0.49). Compared to patients without CSF leaks, those with CSF leaks tended to have a larger maximum subdural space in both the sagittal (3.7 vs. 4.1mm) and coronal (2.5 vs. 2.8mm) images; however, the differences were not significant (p=0.18 and p=0.53, respectively). Dural enhancement was observed only in one patient, who presented with CSF leaks on radionuclide cisternography. Our study, which included a relatively large population, did not find any association between the findings of radionuclide cisternography and MRI. Future research should focus on identifying more valid neuroimaging findings to diagnose intracranial hypotension accurately. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diagnostic value of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based detection of prostate cancer in men without prior biopsies.

    PubMed

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Vourganti, Srinivas; Turkbey, Baris; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Stamatakis, Lambros; Truong, Hong; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Hoang, Anthony N; Nix, Jeffrey W; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Simon, Richard M; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2015-03-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of analysing biparametric (T2- and diffusion-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging (B-MRI) for prostate cancer detection compared with standard digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening. Review of patients who were enrolled in a trial to undergo multiparametric-prostate (MP)-MRI and MR/ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy at our institution identified 143 men who underwent MP-MRI in addition to standard DRE and PSA-based prostate cancer screening before any prostate biopsy. Patient demographics, DRE staging, PSA level, PSA density (PSAD), and B-MRI findings were assessed for association with prostate cancer detection on biopsy. Men with detected prostate cancer tended to be older, with a higher PSA level, higher PSAD, and more screen-positive lesions (SPL) on B-MRI. B-MRI performed well for the detection of prostate cancer with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 (compared with 0.66 and 0.74 for PSA level and PSAD, respectively). We derived combined PSA and MRI-based formulas for detection of prostate cancer with optimised thresholds. (i) for PSA and B-MRI: PSA level + 6 x (the number of SPL) > 14 and (ii) for PSAD and B-MRI: 14 × (PSAD) + (the number of SPL) >4.25. AUC for equations 1 and 2 were 0.83 and 0.87 and overall accuracy of prostate cancer detection was 79% in both models. The number of lesions positive on B-MRI outperforms PSA alone in detection of prostate cancer. Furthermore, this imaging criteria coupled as an adjunct with PSA level and PSAD, provides even more accuracy in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Flaw detection in multi-layer, multi-material composites by resonance imaging: Utilizing Air-coupled Ultrasonics and Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livings, Richard Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Ceramic tiles are the main ingredient of a multi-material, multi-layered composite being considered for the modernization of tank armors. The high stiffness, low attenuation, and precise dimensions of these uniform tiles make them remarkable resonators when driven to vibrate. Defects in the tile, during manufacture or after usage, are expected to change the resonance frequencies and resonance images of the tile. The comparison of the resonance frequencies and resonance images of a pristine tile/lay-up to a defective tile/lay-up will thus be a quantitative damage metric. By examining the vibrational behavior of these tiles and the composite lay-up with Finite Element Modeling and analytical plate vibration equations, the development of a new Nondestructive Evaluation technique is possible. This study examines the development of the Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Resonance Imaging technique as applied to a hexagonal ceramic tile and a multi-material, multi-layered composite.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nael, Kambiz; Kubal, Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the management of patients with acute stroke syndrome, with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. A multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol in the emergency setting can address both primary goals of neuroimaging (ie, detection of infarction and exclusion of hemorrhage) and secondary goals of neuroimaging (ie, identifying the site of arterial occlusion, tissue characterization for defining infarct core and penumbra, and determining stroke cause/mechanism). MR imaging provides accurate diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and can differentiate AIS from other potential differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected tumor response for locally advanced rectal cancer predicts survival outcomes: MERCURY experience.

    PubMed

    Patel, Uday B; Taylor, Fiona; Blomqvist, Lennart; George, Christopher; Evans, Hywel; Tekkis, Paris; Quirke, Philip; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Moran, Brendan; Heald, Richard; Guthrie, Ashley; Bees, Nicola; Swift, Ian; Pennert, Kjell; Brown, Gina

    2011-10-01

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathologic staging after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer in a prospectively enrolled, multicenter study. In a prospective cohort study, 111 patients who had rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant therapy were assessed for response by MRI and pathology staging by T, N and circumferential resection margin (CRM) status. Tumor regression grade (TRG) was also assessed by MRI. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations between staging of good and poor responders on MRI or pathology and survival outcomes after controlling for patient characteristics. On multivariate analysis, the MRI-assessed TRG (mrTRG) hazard ratios (HRs) were independently significant for survival (HR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.65 to 11.7) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.22 to 8.80). Five-year survival for poor mrTRG was 27% versus 72% (P = .001), and DFS for poor mrTRG was 31% versus 64% (P = .007). Preoperative MRI-predicted CRM independently predicted local recurrence (LR; HR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.45 to 12.51). Five-year survival for poor post-treatment pathologic T stage (ypT) was 39% versus 76% (P = .001); DFS for the same was 38% versus 84% (P = .001); and LR for the same was 27% versus 6% (P = .018). The 5-year survival for involved pCRM was 30% versus 59% (P = .001); DFS, 28 versus 62% (P = .02); and LR, 56% versus 10% (P = .001). Pathology node status did not predict outcomes. MRI assessment of TRG and CRM are imaging markers that predict survival outcomes for good and poor responders and provide an opportunity for the multidisciplinary team to offer additional treatment options before planning definitive surgery. Postoperative histopathology assessment of ypT and CRM but not post-treatment N status were important postsurgical predictors of outcome.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2001-11-01

    Over the past twenty years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities available to clinical medicine. It offers great technical flexibility, and is free of the hazards associated with ionizing radiation. In addition to its role as a routine imaging technique with a growing range of clinical applications, the pace of development in MRI methodology remains high, and new ideas with significant potential emerge on a regular basis. MRI is a prime example of the spin-off benefits of basic science, and is an area of medicine in which physical science continues to play a major role, both in supporting clinical applications and in developing new techniques. This article presents a brief history of MRI and an overview of the underlying physics, followed by a short survey of current and emerging clinical applications.

  4. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. Methods: A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. Results: A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. Conclusion: MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. Advances in knowledge: BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging. PMID:27384241

  5. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    He, Hongying; Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-09-01

    To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging.

  6. Imaging by electromagnetic induction with resonant circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, Roberta; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-05-01

    A new electromagnetic induction imaging system is presented which is capable of imaging metallic samples of different conductivities. The system is based on a parallel LCR circuit made up of a cylindrical ferrite-cored coil and a capacitor bank. An AC current is applied to the coil, thus generating an AC magnetic field. This field is modified when a conductive sample is placed within the magnetic field, as a consequence of eddy current induction inside the sample. The electrical properties of the LCR circuit, including the coil inductance, are modified due to the presence of this metallic sample. Position-resolved measurements of these modifications should then allow imaging of conductive objects as well as enable their characterization. A proof-of-principle system is presented in this paper. Two imaging techniques based on Q-factor and resonant frequency measurements are presented. Both techniques produced conductivity maps of 14 metallic objects with different geometries and values of conductivity ranging from 0.54х106 to 59.77х106 S/m. Experimental results highlighted a higher sensitivity for the Q-factor technique compared to the resonant frequency one; the respective measurements were found to vary within the following ranges: ΔQ=[-11,-2]%, Δf=[-0.3,0.7]%. The analysis of the images, conducted using a Canny edge detection algorithm, demonstrated the suitability of the Q-factor technique for accurate edge detection of both magnetic and non-magnetic metallic samples.

  7. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate: usefulness of diffusion sequences in detecting postembolization ischemia in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Serrano, E; Ocantos, J; Kohan, A; Kisilevsky, N; Napoli, N; García-Mónaco, R

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the usefulness of diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) sequences before and after prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We analyzed MR studies done before (7-10 days) and after (30 days) PAE in 19 patients with BPH treated with PAE between June 2012 and December 2013. We used 1.5 Tesla scanners with body surface coils. In pre-PAE MR studies, we recorded mean b40 values and minimum (min) and maximum (max) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. In post-PAE MR studies, we recorded b40, b400, and b1000 values and min, mean, and max ADC values. We compared diffusion behavior/ADC before and after PAE and areas without ischemia. We correlated these with decreased prostatic volume (PV). We identified ischemia with contrast in 8 (42.1%) patients. No significant difference was found in mean b40 (p= 0.1650) or in the b40 ratio (p= 0.8868) between patients with ischemia and those without before PAE. Min b40, b40 ratio, and min ADC values differed significantly between ischemic areas and nonischemic areas within patients [p= 0.048 (b40min and ratio) and p= 0.002 (min ADC)]. No significant correlation was found between the percentage decrease in PV and mean b40 (p= 0.8490) or b40 ratio (p=0.8573). Post-PAE ischemia generates objective changes in diffusion and ADC values that enable ischemic sectors to be differentiated from nonischemic sectors. Future studies should analyze whether it is possible to subjectively differentiate between these areas through the visualization of nonischemic sectors and the feasibility of replacing them with contrast to detect ischemia. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of vulnerable atherosclerosis plaques with a dual-modal single-photon-emission computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging probe targeting apoptotic macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Chunfu; Tan, Hui; Wang, Cong; Pang, Lifang; Shi, Hongcheng

    2015-02-04

    Atherosclerosis (AS), especially the vulnerable AS plaque rupture-induced acute obstructive vascular disease, is a leading cause of death. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective method to draw accurate predictions about AS progression and plaque vulnerability. Herein we report on an approach to constructing a hybrid nanoparticle system using a single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multimodal probe, aiming for a comprehensive evaluation of AS progression by achieving high sensitivity along with high resolution. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was covered by aminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and carboxylated PEG simultaneously and then functionalized with diethylenetriaminepentacetate acid for (99m)Tc coordination and subsequently Annexin V for targeting apoptotic macrophages abundant in vulnerable plaques. The in vivo accumulations of imaging probe reflected by SPECT and MRI were consistent and accurate in highlighting lesions. Intense radioactive signals detected by SPECT facilitated focus recognization and quantification, while USPIO-based T2-weighted MRI improved the focal localization and volumetry of AS plaques. For subsequent ex vivo planar images, targeting effects were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, including CD-68 and TUNEL staining; meanwhile, the degree of concentration was proven to be statistically correlated with the Oil Red O staining results. In conclusion, these results indicated that the Annexin V-modified hybrid nanoparticle system specifically targeted the vulnerable AS plaques containing apoptotic macrophages and could be of great value in the invasively accurate detection of vulnerable plaques.

  9. Comparison of susceptibility-weighted and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of penumbra in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Luo, Song; Yang, Lijuan; Wang, Lijin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate detection of ischemic penumbra in stroke patients with acute cerebral infarction by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in comparison with perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). This study included 18 stroke patients with acute infarction who underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), SWI, PWI, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) within 3 days after symptom onset. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was used to evaluate lesions on DWI, SWI, and PWI. DWI-SWI and DWI-PWI mismatches were calculated. The DWI-SWI mismatch was not significantly different from the DWI-mean transit time (MTT) mismatch (P=0.163) in evaluating ischemic penumbra. The susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) in SWI occurred in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with cerebral infarction. Stenosis or occlusion of the affected vessels was identified by MRA in 10 (91%) of the 11 SVS-positive patients. The SVS on SWI was significantly associated with the occurrence of damaged vessels or the presence of thrombus in the affected vessels (P=0.047). DWI-SWI mismatch is a good marker for evaluating ischemic penumbra in stroke patients with cerebral infarction. SWI can detect thrombus in the affected vessels, and may be useful for guiding intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis With Simple Spinal Cord Involvement Detected by Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Meng, Ben; Zeng, Chun; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Ying; Yin, Ping; Sah, Shambhu Kumar; Li, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the baseline brain activity in patients with multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement (MS-SSCI) using regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) as indexes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 24 patients with MS-SSCI and 24 healthy controls and were processed using the Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Analysis Toolkit. The relationships between expanded disability status scale scores, abnormal baseline brain activity, and disease duration were explored. Compared with the controls, patients with MS-SSCI showed decreased ALFF in the right middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cuneus and increased ALFF in the right insula and bilateral supramarginal gyrus. Regions of abnormal fALFF were similar with those of ALFF. A significant correlation between expanded disability status scale scores and ALFF/fALFF was noted only in the right supramarginal gyrus. Abnormal regional brain activity was detected in patients with MS-SSCI, which is probably due to spinal cord damage or potential brain damage.

  11. In Vivo Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Thrombus Composition in a Mouse Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Methods and Results Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; Panova<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Conclusions MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention. PMID:23564561

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomicmagnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-05-09

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive andversatile methodology that has been applied in many disciplines1,2. Thedetection sensitivity of conventional Faraday detection of MRI depends onthe strength of the static magnetic field and the sample "fillingfactor." Under circumstances where only low magnetic fields can be used,and for samples with low spin density or filling factor, the conventionaldetection sensitivity is compromised. Alternative detection methods withhigh sensitivity in low magnetic fields are thus required. Here we showthe first use of a laser-based atomic magnetometer for MRI detection inlow fields. Our technique also employs remote detection which physicallyseparates the encoding and detection steps3-5, to improve the fillingfactor of the sample. Potentially inexpensive and using a compactapparatus, our technique provides a novel alternative for MRI detectionwith substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution whileavoiding the need for cryogenics.

  13. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and 3D endoanal ultrasound in detection, staging and assessment post treatment, in anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Granata, Vincenza; Fusco, Roberta; Granata, Francesco; Rega, Daniela; Roberto, Luca; Pellino, Gianluca; Rotondo, Antonio; Selvaggi, Francesco; Izzo, Francesco; Petrillo, Antonella; Grassi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We compared Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D Endoanal Ultrasound (EAUS) imaging performance to confirm anal carcinoma and to monitor treatment response.58 patients with anal cancer were retrospectively enrolled. All patients underwent clinical examination, anoscopic examination; EAUS and contrast-enhanced MRI study before and after treatment. Four radiologists evaluated the presence of lesions, using a 4-point confidence scale, features of the lesion and nodes on EAUS images, T1-weighted (T1-W), T2-weighted (T2-W) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) signal intensity (SI), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map for nodes and lesion, as well as enhancement pattern during dynamic MRI were assessed.All lesions were detected by EAUS while MRI detected 93.1% of anal cancer. MRI showed a good correlation with EAUS, anoscopy and clinical examination. The residual tissue not showed significant difference in EAUS assessment and T2-W SI in pre and post treatment. We found significant difference in dynamic study, in SI of DWI, in ADC map and values among responder's patients in pre and post treatment. The neoplastic nodes were hypoecoic on EAUS, with hyperintense signal on T2-W sequences and hypointense signal on T1-W. The neoplastic nodes showed SI on DWI sequences and ADC value similar to anal cancer. We found significant difference in nodes status in pre and post therapy on DWI data.3D EAUS and MRI are accurate techniques in anal cancer staging, although EAUS is more accurate than MRI for T1 stage. MRI allows correct detection of neoplastic nodes and can properly stratify patients into responders or non responders.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Rosa Delia Delgado; Durán, Bernando Boleaga; Lujambio, Perla Salgado

    2014-06-01

    Cysticercosis in one of the most common parasitic infections in the central nervous system. The complex and unpredictable nature of the host immune reaction against cysticercosis as well as the pleomorphism of your injuries make the disease neurocysticercosis interesting and fascinating to study. Imaging studies play an important role in the diagnosis of this disease. Advanced imaging techniques have improved detection and visualization of scolex cysts extraparenchymal spaces.

  15. In vivo detection of microstructural correlates of brain pathology in preclinical and early Alzheimer Disease with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Raichle, Marcus E; Wen, Jie; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Hassenstab, Jason; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Luo, Jie; Cairns, Nigel J; Christensen, Jon J; Morris, John C; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) affects at least 5 million individuals in the USA alone stimulating an intense search for disease prevention and treatment therapies as well as for diagnostic techniques allowing early identification of AD during a long pre-symptomatic period that can be used for the initiation of prevention trials of disease-modifying therapies in asymptomatic individuals. Our approach to developing such techniques is based on the Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging (GEPCI) technique that provides quantitative in vivo measurements of several brain-tissue-specific characteristics of the gradient echo MRI signal (GEPCI metrics) that depend on the integrity of brain tissue cellular structure. Preliminary data were obtained from 34 participants selected from the studies of aging and dementia at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis. Cognitive status was operationalized with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The participants, assessed as cognitively normal (CDR=0; n=23) or with mild AD dementia (CDR=0.5 or 1; n=11) underwent GEPCI MRI, a collection of cognitive performance tests and CSF amyloid (Aβ) biomarker Aβ42. A subset of 19 participants also underwent PET PiB studies to assess their brain Aβ burden. According to the Aβ status, cognitively normal participants were divided into normal (Aβ negative; n=13) and preclinical (Aβ positive; n=10) groups. GEPCI quantitative measurements demonstrated significant differences between all the groups: normal and preclinical, normal and mild AD, and preclinical and mild AD. GEPCI quantitative metrics characterizing tissue cellular integrity in the hippocampus demonstrated much stronger correlations with psychometric tests than the hippocampal atrophy. Importantly, GEPCI-determined changes in the hippocampal tissue cellular integrity were detected even in the hippocampal areas not affected by the atrophy. Our studies also uncovered strong correlations between

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  17. [Detection and evaluation of cartilage defects in the canine stifle joint - an ex vivo study using high-field magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Flatz, K M; Glaser, C; Flatz, W H; Reiser, M F; Matis, U

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to implement and test an imaging protocol for the detection and evaluation of standardised cartilage defects using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine its limitations. A total of 84 cartilage defects were created in the femoral condyles of euthanized dogs with a minimum body mass of 25 kg. The cartilage defects had a depth of 0.3 to 1.0 mm and a diameter of 1 to 5 mm. T1-FLASH-3D-WE-sequences with an isotropic voxel size of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm and an anisotropic voxel size of 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.8 mm were used. In addition to quantitative evaluation of the cartilage defects, the sig- nal intensities, signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-to-noise ratios of the cartilage were determined. Of special interest were the limita- tions in identifying and delineating the standardised cartilage defects. With the anisotropic voxel size, more cartilage defects were detectable. Our results demonstrated that cartilage defects as small as 3.0 mm in diameter and 0.4 mm in depth were reliably detected using anisotropic settings. Cartilage defects below this size were not reliably detected. We found that for optimal delineation of the joint cartilage and associated defects, a higher in-plane resolution with a larger slice thickness should be used, corresponding to the anisotropic settings employed in this study. For the delineation of larger cartilage defects, both the anisotropic and isotropic imaging methods can be used.

  18. Far-field super-resolution imaging of resonant multiples

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bowen; Huang, Yunsong; Røstad, Anders; Schuster, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that seismic resonant multiples, usually considered as noise, can be used for super-resolution imaging in the far-field region of sources and receivers. Tests with both synthetic data and field data show that resonant multiples can image reflector boundaries with resolutions more than twice the classical resolution limit. Resolution increases with the order of the resonant multiples. This procedure has important applications in earthquake and exploration seismology, radar, sonar, LIDAR (light detection and ranging), and ultrasound imaging, where the multiples can be used to make high-resolution images. PMID:27386521

  19. Gynecologic masses: value of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hricak, H; Lacey, C; Schriock, E; Fisher, M R; Amparo, E; Dooms, G; Jaffe, R

    1985-09-01

    Forty-two women with gynecologic abnormalities were studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging correctly assessed the origin of the pelvic mass in all patients. In the evaluation of leiomyoma, magnetic resonance imaging accurately depicted the number, size, and location of the lesion. In the evaluation of endometrial carcinoma, magnetic resonance imaging depicted the location of the lesion, the presence of cervical extension, and the depth of myometrial penetration in the majority of the cases. In the analysis of adnexal cysts, magnetic resonance imaging was sensitive in localizing the lesion and was able to distinguish serous from hemorrhagic fluid. This preliminary report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging may become a valuable imaging modality in the diagnosis of gynecologic abnormalities.

  20. Impact of magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy in the supine position on the detection of significant prostate cancer in an inhomogeneous patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Karl; Kühn, Reinhart; Osten, Artur; Bogner, Katja; Dworak, Anton; Lübke, Lars; Schneider, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the tumour detection rate of magnetic resonance-guided biopsy (MRGB) in the supine position for significant prostate cancer in an inhomogeneous patient cohort. Thirty-two consecutive patients with a total prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/ml and/or a tumour-suspicious palpable lesion upon digital rectal examination and a cancer-suspicious region in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent MRGB in a standard 1.5 T magnet. Diagnostic MRI was performed in 20 patients at the authors' institute and 12 men at another location. Eight patients were investigated at 3 T and 24 at 1.5 T. Twenty men had prior negative biopsies and 12 were biopsy naïve. All biopsies were performed in the supine position using a table-mounted device and an 18 G biopsy gun. The overall tumour detection rate was 53% (17/32). Two cores (median; range 1-4) were extracted. Clinically significant cancers were found in 94% (16/17). None of the patients showed any postbiopsy complications. The prostate volumes of patients with cancer were significantly lower (39.3 ml) than those of men without cancer (49.7 ml). No significant differences were found between the numbers of tumour-positive and tumour-negative collected cores. In a median follow-up of 14 months, no cancer was detected in the negative biopsy group. MRGB in the supine position can be a valuable tool to detect significant prostate cancer, even in a patient cohort with different prebiopsy pathways. The biopsy method could be a reasonable alternative to MRGB in the prone position.

  1. The Efficacy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy in Risk Classification for Patients with Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Recabal, Pedro; Assel, Melissa; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Lee, Daniel; Laudone, Vincent P; Touijer, Karim; Eastham, James A; Vargas, Hebert A; Coleman, Jonathan; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-08-01

    We determined whether multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies may replace systematic biopsies to detect higher grade prostate cancer (Gleason score 7 or greater) and whether biopsy may be avoided based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging among men with Gleason 3+3 prostate cancer on active surveillance. We identified men with previously diagnosed Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and a followup prostate biopsy. Suspicion for higher grade cancer was scored on a standardized 5-point scale. All patients underwent a systematic biopsy. Patients with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging regions of interest also underwent magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy. The detection rate of higher grade cancer was estimated for different multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scores with the 3 biopsy strategies of systematic, magnetic resonance imaging targeted and combined. Of 206 consecutive men on active surveillance 135 (66%) had a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging region of interest. Overall, higher grade cancer was detected in 72 (35%) men. A higher multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging score was associated with an increased probability of detecting higher grade cancer (Wilcoxon-type trend test p <0.0001). Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy detected higher grade cancer in 23% of men. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy alone missed higher grade cancers in 17%, 12% and 10% of patients with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scores of 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies increased the detection of higher grade cancer among men on active surveillance compared to systematic biopsy alone. However, a clinically relevant proportion of higher grade cancer was detected using only systematic biopsy. Despite the improved detection of disease progression using magnetic resonance imaging

  2. Prostate Cancer: The Role of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Lopes; Pina, João Magalhães; João, Raquel; Fialho, Joana; Carmo, Sandra; Leal, Cecília; Bilhim, Tiago; Marques, Rui Mateus; Pinheiro, Luís Campos

    2015-01-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used for detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer over the last years. It combines high-resolution T2 weighted-imaging and at least two functional techniques, which include dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Although the combined use of a pelvic phased-array and an endorectal coil is considered the state-of-the-art for magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of prostate cancer, endorectal coil is only absolute mandatory for magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Sensitivity and specificity levels in cancer detection and localization have been improving with functional technique implementation, compared to T2 weighted-imaging alone. It has been particularly useful to evaluate patients with abnormal PSA and negative biopsy. Moreover, the information added by the functional techniques may correlate to cancer aggressiveness and therefore be useful to select patients for focal radiotherapy, prostate sparing surgery, focal ablative therapy and active surveillance. However, more studies are needed to compare the functional techniques and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each one. This article reviews the basic principles of prostatic mp-magnetic resonance imaging, emphasizing its role on detection, staging and active surveillance of prostate cancer.

  3. Preoperative detection of the neurovascular relationship in trigeminal neuralgia using three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

    PubMed

    Zeng, QingShi; Zhou, Qin; Liu, ZhiLing; Li, ChuanFu; Ni, ShiLei; Xue, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Microvascular decompression is an accepted treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Preoperative identification of neurovascular compression, therefore, could aid determination of the appropriate treatment for TN. To preoperatively visualize the neurovascular relationship, three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed on 37 patients with TN in our study. 3D FIESTA in combination with MRA identified surgically verified neurovascular contact in 35 of 36 symptomatic nerves. The offending vessel (artery or vein) was correctly identified in 94.4% of patients, and agreement between preoperative MRI visualization and surgical findings was excellent (k=0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.00). Thus, 3D FIESTA in combination with MRA is useful in the detection of vascular contact with the trigeminal nerve in patients with TN.

  4. Reduction of vascular and permeable regions in solid tumors detected by macromolecular contrast magnetic resonance imaging after treatment with antiangiogenic agent TNP-470.

    PubMed

    Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Artemov, Dmitri; Natarajan, Kshama; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Kollars, Peggy; Kristjansen, Paul E G

    2003-01-01

    The availability of noninvasive techniques to detect the effects of antiangiogenic agents is critically important for optimizing treatment of cancer with these agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one such noninvasive technique that is routinely used clinically. In this study, we have evaluated the use of MRI of the intravascular contrast agent albumin-GdDTPA to detect the effects of the antiangiogenic agent TNP-470 on the vascular volume and permeability of the MatLyLu prostate cancer model. TNP-470-treated tumors demonstrated a significant decrease of vascular volume, as well as a significant reduction in vascular and permeable regions, compared with volume-matched control tumors. Although the fractional volume of permeable regions in the tumor decreased, the average value of tumor permeability did not decrease significantly. This was attributable to increase in permeability in some regions of the tumor. These regions were mostly associated with low vascular volume. ELISA assays of control and treated MatLyLu tumors also detected a significant increase of vascular endothelial growth factor in the TNP-470-treated tumors. MRI detected significant changes in tumor vascular characteristics after treatment with TNP-470.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for ABH antigen detection on red blood cells and in saliva: secretor status-related ABO subgroup identification.

    PubMed

    Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Sutapun, Boonsong; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Seedacoon, Wuttigrai; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2017-03-27

    Low antigenic expression of ABO subgroup system on red blood cell (RBC) is cause of discrepancy between forward and reverse blood typing in the standard agglutination technique. Neutralization agglutination is employed for verification of the detection of ABH substances in saliva. However, the neutralization technique is complicated, time-consuming and requires expertise. To overcome these drawbacks, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging was developed for ABH antigen detection on RBCs and in saliva. An antibody array was designed to classify the ABO subgroups by anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies; the array was immobilized on a carboxymethyl-dextran sensor-surface. RBCs and saliva specimens from sixty-four donors were analysed by passing them over the antibody array, where the secretor status and blood group could be simultaneously identified. Consequently, the immobilized antibodies could specifically and quantitatively detect the ABH antigen on RBCs. Using the direct assay, the SPR signal of saliva detection was weaker than that of RBC detection. However, a sandwich assay with a mixture of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies could efficiently enhance the signal. The sensor chip provided high specificity (cut-off at 100 to 175 micro refractive index units) and high precision at 0.06%-4.9% CV. The blood group results of the sixty-four donor specimens obtained by SPR agreed with the standard agglutination test with 100% accuracy. SPR could indicate different ABH antigen densities on the RBCs and nearly the same amounts of ABH substances in the saliva of strong and weak subgroups. Finally, we also demonstrated reduced assay time and fewer complications with the SPR imaging platform compared to the neutralization technique.

  6. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging combined with T2-weighted images in the detection of small breast cancer: a single-center multi-observer study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Ming; Chen, Jie; Hu, Jiani; Gu, Hai-Yan; Xu, Jian-Rong; Hua, Jia

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. However, it remains a difficult diagnosis problem to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, especially in small early breast lesions. To assess the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) combined with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for small breast cancer characterization. Fifty-eight patients (65 lesions) with a lesion <2 cm in diameter underwent 3.0 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including DWI and histological analysis. Three observers with varying experience levels reviewed MRI. The probability of breast cancer in each lesion on MR images was recorded with a 5-point scale. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were compared by using the Z test; sensitivity and specificity were determined with the Z test after adjusting for data clustering. AUC of T2WI and DWI (Observer 1, 0.95; Observer 2, 0.91; Observer 3, 0.83) was greater than that of T2WI (Observer 1, 0.80; Observer 2, 0.74; Observer 3, 0.70) for all observers (P < 0.0001 in all comparisons). Sensitivity of T2WI and DWI (Observer 1, 90%; Observer 2, 93%; and Observer 3, 86%) was greater than that of T2WI alone (Observer 1, 76%; Observer 2, 83%; Observer 3, 79%) for all observers (P < 0.0001 in all comparisons). Specificity of T2WI and DWI was greater than that of T2WI alone for observer 1 (89% vs. 72%, P < 0.01) and observer 2 (94% vs. 78%, P < 0.001). DWI combined with T2WI can improve the diagnostic performance of MRI in small breast cancer characterization. It should be considered selectively in the preoperative evaluation of patients with small lesions of the breast.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus

    ... provides detailed images of blood vessels in the brain—often without the need for contrast material. See the MRA page for more information. MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. ...

  8. Ultrasensitive and selective gold film-based detection of mercury (II) in tap water using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Liquan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pengfei

    2013-09-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01ng/ml for Hg(2+) ions in ultrapure and tap water based on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg(2+)-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg(2+) ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. The coefficients obtained for ultrapure and tap water were 0.99902 and 0.99512, respectively, for the linear part over a range of 0.01-100ng/ml. The results show that the double-effect sensor has potential for practical applications with ultra sensitivity and selectivity, especially in online or real-time monitoring of Hg(2+) ions pollution in tap water with the further improvement of portable LSCI-SPR instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis. In melanoma, colon cancer, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, MRI allows confident diagnosis of treatment-related changes in liver and enables differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors. Focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, hypersteatosis, and focal fat can mimic metastasis. In cancer patients with fatty liver, MRI should be preferred to CT. Although the first-line imaging for metastases is CT, MRI can be used as a problem-solving method. MRI may be used as the first-line method in patients who would undergo curative surgery or metastatectomy. Current limitation of MRI is low sensitivity for metastasis smaller than 3mm. MRI fingerprinting, glucoCEST MRI, and PET-MRI may allow simpler and more sensitive diagnosis of liver metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Stippich, C

    2010-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important and novel neuroimaging modality for patients with brain tumors. By non-invasive measurement, localization and lateralization of brain activiation, most importantly of motor and speech function, fMRI facilitates the selection of the most appropriate and sparing treatment and function-preserving surgery. Prerequisites for the diagnostic use of fMRI are the application of dedicated clinical imaging protocols and standardization of the respective imaging procedures. The combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) also enables tracking and visualization of important fiber bundles such as the pyramidal tract and the arcuate fascicle. These multimodal MR data can be implemented in computer systems for functional neuronavigation or radiation treatment. The practicability, accuracy and reliability of presurgical fMRI have been validated by large numbers of published data. However, fMRI cannot be considered as a fully established modality of diagnostic neuroimaging due to the lack of guidelines of the responsible medical associations as well as the lack of medical certification of important hardware and software components. This article reviews the current research in the field and provides practical information relevant for presurgical fMRI.

  11. Repetitive Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Produces Cortical Abnormalities Detectable by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Imaging (DTI/DKI), Histopathology, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengshan; Shukla, Dinesh K; Armstrong, Regina C; Marion, Christina M; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Selwyn, Reed G; Dardzinski, Bernard J

    2016-12-20

    Noninvasive detection of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is important for evaluating acute through chronic effects of head injuries, particularly after repetitive impacts. To better detect abnormalities from mTBI, we performed longitudinal studies (baseline, 3, 6, and 42 days) using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in adult mice after repetitive mTBI (r-mTBI; daily × 5) or sham procedure. This r-mTBI produced righting reflex delay and was first characterized in the corpus callosum to demonstrate low levels of axon damage, astrogliosis, and microglial activation, without microhemorrhages. High-resolution DTI-DKI was then combined with post-imaging pathological validation along with behavioral assessments targeted for the impact regions. In the corpus callosum, only DTI fractional anisotropy at 42 days showed significant change post-injury. Conversely, cortical regions under the impact site (M1-M2, anterior cingulate) had reduced axial diffusivity (AD) at all time points with a corresponding increase in axial kurtosis (Ka) at 6 days. Post-imaging neuropathology showed microglial activation in both the corpus callosum and cortex at 42 days after r-mTBI. Increased cortical microglial activation correlated with decreased cortical AD after r-mTBI (r = -0.853; n = 5). Using Thy1-YFP-16 mice to fluorescently label neuronal cell bodies and processes revealed low levels of axon damage in the cortex after r-mTBI. Finally, r-mTBI produced social deficits consistent with the function of this anterior cingulate region of cortex. Overall, vulnerability of cortical regions is demonstrated after mild repetitive injury, with underlying differences of DTI and DKI, microglial activation, and behavioral deficits.

  12. Near field imaging with resonant cavity lens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Li, Jensen; Tam, H L; Chan, C T; Cheah, K W

    2010-02-01

    We showed that a Ag-SiO(2)-Ag Fabry-Pérot cavity can be used in near-field imaging based on omnidirectional resonance tunneling. The omnidirectional resonance was experimentally demonstrated in the Ag-SiO(2)-Ag resonant cavity working at a wavelength of 365 nm. The resonant cavity lens with high transmittance and high image fidelity was fabricated using standard photolithography method. Grating source with 190 nm line resolution was imaged through the resonant cavity lens with a total thickness of 128 nm.

  13. Advances in mechanical detection of magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Seppe; Hickman, Steven A.; Marohn, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention and initial demonstration of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) in the early 1990s launched a renaissance of mechanical approaches to detecting magnetic resonance. This article reviews progress made in MRFM in the last decade, including the demonstration of scanned probe detection of magnetic resonance (electron spin resonance, ferromagnetic resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance) and the mechanical detection of electron spin resonance from a single spin. Force and force-gradient approaches to mechanical detection are reviewed and recent related work using attonewton sensitivity cantilevers to probe minute fluctuating electric fields near surfaces is discussed. Given recent progress, pushing MRFM to single proton sensitivity remains an exciting possibility. We will survey some practical and fundamental issues that must be resolved to meet this challenge. PMID:18266413

  14. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-09

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; McDonald, W I; Tofts, P S; Johnson, G; Landon, D N

    1986-01-01

    Triethyl tin(TET)-induced cerebral oedema has been studied in cats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings correlated with the histology and fine structure of the cerebrum following perfusion-fixation. MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting cerebral oedema, and the distribution and severity of the changes correlate closely with the morphological abnormalities. The relaxation times, T1 and T2 increase progressively as the oedema develops, and the proportional increase in T2 is approximately twice that in T1. Analysis of the magnetisation decay curves reveals slowly-relaxing and rapidly-relaxing components which probably correspond to oedema fluid and intracellular water respectively. The image appearances taken in conjunction with relaxation data provide a basis for determining the nature of the oedema in vivo. Images PMID:3806109

  16. Off-resonance frequency filtered magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Medic, Jure; Tomazic, Saso

    2010-05-01

    One of the main problems with rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is the artifacts that result from off-resonance effects. The proposed off-resonance frequency filtered MRI (OFF-MRI) method focuses on the elimination of off-resonance components from the image of the observed object. To maintain imaging speed and simultaneously achieve good frequency selectivity, MRI is divided into two steps: signal acquisition and post-processing. After the preliminary phase in which we determine imaging parameters, MRI takes place; the signal from the same object is successively acquired M times. As a result, we obtain M partial signals in k-space, from which we form the image of the observed object in the post-processing phase, after signal acquisition has been completed. This paper demonstrates that with proper selection of acquisition parameters and weighting coefficients in the post-processing phase, OFF-MRI is equivalent to filtering the signal by finite impulse response filter of length M. It is shown that with M successive acquisitions M-1 off-resonance components can be eliminated (filtered-out) from images, and therefore, only two acquisitions are needed to eliminate one off-resonance components. On the other hand, with OFF-MRI, it is also possible to form the image of an arbitrary off-resonance component by eliminating all other off-resonance components, including the on-resonance component. The proposed OFF-MRI method is suitable for MRI where rapid acquisition is required and elimination of off-resonance components can improve reliability of measurements. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hayt, M W; Abrahams, J J; Blair, J

    2000-04-01

    The spectrum of disease that affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be varied. To differentiate among the diseases that cause pain and dysfunction, an intimate knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of this region is necessary. Due to the joint's complex anatomy and relationship to the skin, it has been difficult to image in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging is ideally suited for visualizing TMJ because of its superb contrast resolution when imaging soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging allows simultaneous bilateral visualization of both joints. The ability to noninvasively resolve anatomic detail can be performed easily and quickly using magnetic resonance imaging. The development of magnetic resonance imaging has greatly aided the diagnosis of TMJ disorders. An understanding of TMJ anatomy and pathogenesis of TMJ pain is crucial for interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent treatment.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of fetal pelvic cysts.

    PubMed

    Archontaki, Styliani; Vial, Yvan; Hanquinet, Sylviane; Meuli, Reto; Alamo, Leonor

    2016-12-01

    The detection of fetal anomalies has improved in the last years as a result of the generalization of ultrasound pregnancy screening exams. The presence of a cystic imaging in the fetal pelvis is a relatively common finding, which can correspond to a real congenital cystic lesion or result from the anomalous liquid accumulation in a whole pelvic organ, mainly the urinary bladder, the uterus, or the vagina. In selected cases with poor prognosis and/or inconclusive echographic findings, magnetic resonance may bring additional information in terms of the characterization, anatomical location, and real extension of the pathology. This pictorial essay describes the normal pelvic fetal anatomy, as well as the most common pelvic cysts. It also describes the causes of an anomalous distension of the whole pelvic organs detected in utero, with emphasis on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging exams. Moreover, it proposes practical teaching points to reduce the differential diagnosis of these lesions based on the sex of the fetus, the division of the pelvis in anatomical spaces, and the imaging findings of the pathology. Finally, it discusses the real utility of complementary MRI.

  19. Post-processing noise removal algorithm for magnetic resonance imaging based on edge detection and wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Placidi, Giuseppe; Alecci, Marcello; Sotgiu, Antonello

    2003-07-07

    A post-processing noise suppression technique for biomedical MRI images is presented. The described procedure recovers both sharp edges and smooth surfaces from a given noisy MRI image; it does not blur the edges and does not introduce spikes or other artefacts. The fine details of the image are also preserved. The proposed algorithm first extracts the edges from the original image and then performs noise reduction by using a wavelet de-noise method. After the application of the wavelet method, the edges are restored to the filtered image. The result is the original image with less noise, fine detail and sharp edges. Edge extraction is performed by using an algorithm based on Sobel operators. The wavelet de-noise method is based on the calculation of the correlation factor between wavelet coefficients belonging to different scales. The algorithm was tested on several MRI images and, as an example of its application, we report the results obtained from a spin echo (multi echo) MRI image of a human wrist collected with a low field experimental scanner (the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of the experimental image was 12). Other filtering operations have been performed after the addition of white noise on both channels of the experimental image, before the magnitude calculation. The results at SNR = 7, SNR = 5 and SNR = 3 are also reported. For SNR values between 5 and 12, the improvement in SNR was substantial and the fine details were preserved, the edges were not blurred and no spikes or other artefacts were evident, demonstrating the good performances of our method. At very low SNR (SNR = 3) our result is worse than that obtained by a simpler filtering procedure.

  20. Post-processing noise removal algorithm for magnetic resonance imaging based on edge detection and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, Giuseppe; Alecci, Marcello; Sotgiu, Antonello

    2003-07-01

    A post-processing noise suppression technique for biomedical MRI images is presented. The described procedure recovers both sharp edges and smooth surfaces from a given noisy MRI image; it does not blur the edges and does not introduce spikes or other artefacts. The fine details of the image are also preserved. The proposed algorithm first extracts the edges from the original image and then performs noise reduction by using a wavelet de-noise method. After the application of the wavelet method, the edges are restored to the filtered image. The result is the original image with less noise, fine detail and sharp edges. Edge extraction is performed by using an algorithm based on Sobel operators. The wavelet de-noise method is based on the calculation of the correlation factor between wavelet coefficients belonging to different scales. The algorithm was tested on several MRI images and, as an example of its application, we report the results obtained from a spin echo (multi echo) MRI image of a human wrist collected with a low field experimental scanner (the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of the experimental image was 12). Other filtering operations have been performed after the addition of white noise on both channels of the experimental image, before the magnitude calculation. The results at SNR = 7, SNR = 5 and SNR = 3 are also reported. For SNR values between 5 and 12, the improvement in SNR was substantial and the fine details were preserved, the edges were not blurred and no spikes or other artefacts were evident, demonstrating the good performances of our method. At very low SNR (SNR = 3) our result is worse than that obtained by a simpler filtering procedure.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials.

    PubMed

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  5. Multifunctional Magnetic Gd(3+) -Based Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles: Combination of Magnetic Resonance and Multispectral Optoacoustic Detections for Tumor-Targeted Imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    An, Qiao; Liu, Jing; Yu, Meng; Wan, Jiaxun; Li, Dian; Wang, Changchun; Chen, Chunying; Guo, Jia

    2015-11-11

    To overcome traditional barriers in optical imaging and microscopy, optoacoustic-imaging has been changed to combine the accuracy of spectroscopy with the depth resolution of ultrasound, achieving a novel modality with powerful in vivo imaging. However, magnetic resonance imaging provides better spatial and anatomical resolution. Thus, a single hybrid nanoprobe that allows for simultaneous multimodal imaging is significant not only for cutting edge research in imaging science, but also for accurate clinical diagnosis. A core-shell-structured coordination polymer composite microsphere has been designed for in vivo multimodality imaging. It consists of a Fe3 O4 nanocluster core, a carbon sandwiched layer, and a carbocyanine-Gd(III) (Cy-Gd(III) ) coordination polymer outer shell (Fe3 O4 @C@Cy-Gd(III) ). Folic acid-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) chains are embedded within the coordination polymer shell to achieve extended circulation and targeted delivery of probe particles in vivo. Control of Fe3 O4 core grain sizes results in optimal r2 relaxivity (224.5 × 10(-3) m(-1) s(-1) ) for T2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cy-Gd(III) coordination polymers are also regulated to obtain a maximum 25.1% of Cy ligands and 5.2% of Gd(III) ions for near-infrared fluorescence and T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The results demonstrate their impressive abilities for targeted, multimodal, and reliable imaging.

  6. MR-IMPACT II: Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Myocardial Perfusion Assessment in Coronary artery disease Trial: perfusion-cardiac magnetic resonance vs. single-photon emission computed tomography for the detection of coronary artery disease: a comparative multicentre, multivendor trial.

    PubMed

    Schwitter, Juerg; Wacker, Christian M; Wilke, Norbert; Al-Saadi, Nidal; Sauer, Ekkehart; Huettle, Kalman; Schönberg, Stefan O; Luchner, Andreas; Strohm, Oliver; Ahlstrom, Hakan; Dill, Thorsten; Hoebel, Nadja; Simor, Tamas

    2013-03-01

    Perfusion-cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a potential alternative to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to assess myocardial ischaemia non-invasively. The goal was to compare the diagnostic performance of perfusion-CMR and SPECT for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using conventional X-ray coronary angiography (CXA) as the reference standard. In this multivendor trial, 533 patients, eligible for CXA or SPECT, were enrolled in 33 centres (USA and Europe) with 515 patients receiving MR contrast medium. Single-photon emission computed tomography and CXA were performed within 4 weeks before or after CMR in all patients. The prevalence of CAD in the sample was 49%. Drop-out rates for CMR and SPECT were 5.6 and 3.7%, respectively (P = 0.21). The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of CMR vs. SPECT for both sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CAD. Readers were blinded vs. clinical data, CXA, and imaging results. As a secondary endpoint, the safety profile of the CMR examination was evaluated. For CMR and SPECT, the sensitivity scores were 0.67 and 0.59, respectively, with the lower confidence level for the difference of +0.02, indicating superiority of CMR over SPECT. The specificity scores for CMR and SPECT were 0.61 and 0.72, respectively (lower confidence level for the difference: -0.17), indicating inferiority of CMR vs. SPECT. No severe adverse events occurred in the 515 patients. In this large multicentre, multivendor study, the sensitivity of perfusion-CMR to detect CAD was superior to SPECT, while its specificity was inferior to SPECT. Cardiac magnetic resonance is a safe alternative to SPECT to detect perfusion deficits in CAD.

  7. Detection of the index tumour and tumour volume in prostate cancer using T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.

    PubMed

    Rud, Erik; Klotz, Dagmar; Rennesund, Kristin; Baco, Eduard; Berge, Viktor; Lien, Diep; Svindland, Aud; Lundeby, Eskild; Berg, Rolf E; Eri, Lars M; Eggesbø, Heidi B

    2014-12-01

    To examine the performance of T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting the index tumour in patients with prostate cancer and to examine the agreement between MRI and histology when assessing tumour volume (TV) and overall tumour burden. The study included 199 consecutive patients with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer randomised to MRI before radical prostatectomy from December 2009 to July 2012. MRI-detected tumours (MRTs) were ranked from 1 to 3 according to decreasing volume and were compared with histologically detected tumours (HTs) ranked from 1 to 3, with HT 1 = index tumour. Whole-mount section histology was used as a reference standard. The TVs of true-positive MRTs (MRTVs 1-3) were compared with the TVs found by histology (HTVs 1-3). All tumours were registered on a 30-sector map and by classifying each sector as positive/negative, the rate of true-positive and -negative sectors was calculated. The detection rate for the HT 1 (index tumour) was 92%; HT 2, 45%; and HT 3, 37%. The MRTV 1-3 vs the HTV 1-3 were 2.8 mL vs 4.0 mL (index tumour, P < 0.001), 1.0 mL vs 0.9 mL (tumour 2, P = 0.413), and 0.6 mL vs 0.5 mL (tumour 3, P = 0.492). The rate of true-positive and -negative sectors was 50% and 88%, κ = 0.39. A combination of T2W and DW MRI detects the index tumour in 92% of cases, although MRI underestimates both TV and tumour burden compared with histology. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  8. Detection of prostate cancer index lesions with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) using whole-mount histological sections as the reference standard.

    PubMed

    Russo, Filippo; Regge, Daniele; Armando, Enrico; Giannini, Valentina; Vignati, Anna; Mazzetti, Simone; Manfredi, Matteo; Bollito, Enrico; Correale, Loredana; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) for detecting prostate cancer foci, including the largest (index) lesions. In all, 115 patients with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer underwent mp-MRI before radical prostatectomy. A single expert radiologist recorded all prostate cancer foci including the index lesion 'blinded' to the pathologist's biopsy report. Stained whole-mount histological sections were used as the reference standard. All lesions were contoured by an experienced uropathologist who assessed their volume and pathological Gleason score. All lesions with a volume of >0.5 mL and/or pathological Gleason score of >6 were defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain the characteristics of lesions identified by MRI. In all, 104 of 115 index lesions were correctly diagnosed by mp-MRI (sensitivity 90.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 83.5-95.1%), including 98/105 clinically significant index lesions (93.3%; 95% CI 86.8-97.3%), among which three of three lesions had a volume of <0.5 mL and Gleason score of >6. Overall, mp-MRI detected 131/206 lesions including 13 of 68 'insignificant' prostate cancers. The multivariate logistic regression modelling showed that pathological Gleason score (odds ratio [OR] 11.7, 95% CI 2.3-59.8; P = 0.003) and lesion volume (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.3-14.7; P = 0.022) were independently associated with the detection of index lesions at MRI. This study shows that mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer index lesions, while having disappointing results for the detection of small-volume, low Gleason score prostate cancer foci. Thus, mp-MRI could be used to stratify patients according to risk, allowing better treatment selection. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Patrick M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2010-11-03

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) molecular imaging aims to identify and map the expression of important biomarkers on a cellular scale utilizing contrast agents that are specifically targeted to the biochemical signatures of disease and are capable of generating sufficient image contrast. In some cases, the contrast agents may be designed to carry a drug payload or to be sensitive to important physiological factors, such as pH, temperature or oxygenation. In this review, examples will be presented that utilize a number of different molecular imaging quantification techniques, including measuring signal changes, calculating the area of contrast enhancement, mapping relaxation time changes or direct detection of contrast agents through multi-nuclear imaging or spectroscopy. The clinical application of CMR molecular imaging could offer far reaching benefits to patient populations, including early detection of therapeutic response, localizing ruptured atherosclerotic plaques, stratifying patients based on biochemical disease markers, tissue-specific drug delivery, confirmation and quantification of end-organ drug uptake, and noninvasive monitoring of disease recurrence. Eventually, such agents may play a leading role in reducing the human burden of cardiovascular disease, by providing early diagnosis, noninvasive monitoring and effective therapy with reduced side effects.

  10. Pocket atlas of cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This atlas illustrates normal cerebral anatomy in magnetic resonance images. From their studies in cerebral anatomy utilizing cryomicrotome and other techniques, the authors selected more than 100 high-resolution images that represent the most clinically useful scans.

  11. Efficacy of ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting breast implant rupture: A retrospective study of 175 reconstructive and aesthetic sub-pectoral breast augmentation cases.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alessio; Rem, Kessara; Leuzzi, Sara; Moris, Vivien; François, Caroline; Revol, Marc; Cristofari, Sarra

    2017-06-03

    To date, the effectiveness of radiological imaging in detecting silicone breast implant rupture is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of radiological imaging when diagnosing a rupture. In this study, 175 patients with 242 breast implants were included, of which 168 and 74 implants were used for breast reconstruction and aesthetic augmentation, respectively. All patients who underwent revision surgery, between January 2015 and June 2016, following breast augmentation or reconstruction were included, regardless of any pre-operative diagnosis of rupture that had been made. The diagnosis of intracapsular rupture was verified intraoperatively and compared to the pre-operative findings. With regard to pre-operative diagnostic imaging methods, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, and ultrasonography (US) findings. Among the 242 implants that were explanted, 35 clinical ruptures were confirmed and compared with the related radiological findings. We reported 22 false positives and 15 false negatives. US was the least specific and least accurate method because of its lowest positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Mammography was the most specific and most accurate method, with the highest PPV (96%). Surprisingly, MRI was the most sensitive; however, it was neither the most specific nor the most accurate method despite having the highest NPV (98%). After comparing these three radiological techniques, we conclude that US along with MRI can be useful for young patients. Mammography, which was characterised by high specificity and accuracy, could be useful along with MRI in investigating patients over the age of 40. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Packer, R.J.; Goldberg, H.I.; Hackney, D.B.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy is a rare syndrome of progressive neurologic deterioration seen most often in patients who have received central nervous system irradiation combined with intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy in the treatment or prophylaxis of various malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting white matter abnormalities in the case of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy reported here. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in diagnosing incipient white matter changes in disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, thus permitting early, appropriate therapeutic modifications.

  14. Oncologic relevance of magnetic resonance imaging-detected threatened mesorectal fascia for patients with mid or low rectal cancer: A longitudinal analysis before and after long-course, concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Son, Il Tae; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Lee, Keun-Wook; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2017-07-01

    The oncologic importance of threatened mesorectal fascia detected with magnetic resonance imaging is obscured by the heterogeneity of preoperative treatments. We evaluated the oncologic relevance of threatened mesorectal fascia detected with consecutive magnetic resonance imaging performed before and after long-course, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (LCRT) for mid or low rectal cancer. We evaluated 196 patients who underwent total mesorectal excision with LCRT. Threatened mesorectal fascia was defined as a shortest distance from tumor to mesorectal fascia of ≤ 1 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate analyses for disease-free survival using magnetic resonance imaging-based parameters were conducted with a Cox proportional hazard model before and after LCRT, respectively. The pathologic positivity of the circumferential resection margin was greater for threatened mesorectal fascia than for clear mesorectal fascia (pre-LCRT, 14.8% vs 3.0%, P = .004; post-LCRT, 15.4% vs 4.5%, P = .025). At a median follow-up of 68 months, 3-year disease-free survival was worse for threatened mesorectal fascia than for clear mesorectal fascia (pre-LCRT, 77.0% vs 88.1%, P = .023; post-LCRT, 76.9% vs 86.6%, P = .029). On multivariate analyses, threatened mesorectal fascia on pre-LCRT magnetic resonance imaging was an independent factor for poor disease-free survival (hazard ratio = 2.153, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.32, P = .031), whereas threatened mesorectal fascia on post-LCRT magnetic resonance imaging was not (hazard ratio = 1.689, 95% confidence interval, 0.77-3.66, P = .189). This study confirms that magnetic resonance imaging-detected threatened mesorectal fascia predicts poor oncologic outcomes for mid or low rectal cancer and shows that the diagnostic performance of pre-LCRT magnetic resonance imaging is different from that of post-LCRT magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic detection of microbubble resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. H.; Looney, P.; Steel, R.; Pelekasis, N.; McDicken, W. N.; Anderson, T.; Sboros, V.

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of acoustic signals from single lipid-shelled Definity® microbubbles have been measured using a calibrated microacoustic system and a two population response observed. Theoretical results based on the Mooney-Rivlin strain softening shell model have been used to identify these populations as primary resonant and off-primary resonant scatter. An experimentally measured size distribution was used to provide the initial resting radius for the simulations, and the responses agree well with the experimental data. In this way, the primary resonant or off-primary resonant behavior of a microbubble can be studied, with potential benefits to both signal processing techniques and microbubble manufacture.

  16. Magnetic resonance image guided brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila N; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The application of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the past 2 decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and resulted in mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome regarding local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapies have improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high-quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education.

  17. Magnetic glyco-nanoparticles: a tool to detect, differentiate, and unlock the glyco-codes of cancer via magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    El-Boubbou, Kheireddine; Zhu, David C; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Prosperi, Davide; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuefei

    2010-03-31

    Within cancer, there is a large wealth of diversity, complexity, and information that nature has engineered rendering it challenging to identify reliable detection methods. Therefore, the development of simple and effective techniques to delineate the fine characteristics of cancer cells can have great potential impacts on cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we report a magnetic glyco-nanoparticle (MGNP) based nanosensor system bearing carbohydrates as the ligands, not only to detect and differentiate cancer cells but also to quantitatively profile their carbohydrate binding abilities by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using an array of MGNPs, a range of cells including closely related isogenic tumor cells, cells with different metastatic potential and malignant vs normal cells can be readily distinguished based on their respective "MRI signatures". Furthermore, the information obtained from such studies helped guide the establishment of strongly binding MGNPs as antiadhesive agents against tumors. As the interactions between glyco-conjugates and endogenous lectins present on cancer cell surface are crucial for cancer development and metastasis, the ability to characterize and unlock the glyco-code of individual cell lines can facilitate both the understanding of the roles of carbohydrates as well as the expansion of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cancer.

  18. Development of a fluorescent protein-antibody Förster resonance energy transfer probe for the detection and imaging of osteocalcin.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chan-I; Makino, Ryoji; Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Yuki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence-based biosensor probes, especially those based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent protein (FP) variants, are widely used to monitor various biological phenomena, often detecting ligand-induced association of the receptor domains. While antibodies are fertile sources of specific receptors for various biomolecules, their potential has not been fully exploited. In this study, we used a fluorescent probe comprising FP-fused antibody variable region fragments to detect a bone metabolism biomarker, osteocalcin (BGP), by using fluorescence spectrometry/microscopy. Because the association between the two proteins increases in the presence of antigen BGP or its C-terminal peptide, the increased antigen in a sample can be monitored as a FRET efficiency increase, based on the open sandwich fluoroimmunoassay principle. The results clearly indicated that the FP-antibody FRET probe could be used as a diagnostic reagent to measure levels of BGP in the clinically relevant concentration range and to image BGP produced from live osteoblast cells. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  1. Multimodal Wavelet Embedding Representation for data Combination (MaWERiC): Integrating Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy for Prostate Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Kurhanewicz, John; Viswanath, Satish; Sridhar, Akshay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To develop a computerized data integration framework (MaWERiC) for quantitatively combining structural and metabolic information from different Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging modalities. Materials and Methods In this paper, we present a novel computerized support system that we call Multimodal Wavelet Embedding Representation for data Combination (MaWERiC) which (1) employs wavelet theory and dimensionality reduction for providing a common, uniform representation of the different imaging (T2-w) and non-imaging (spectroscopy) MRI channels, and (2) leverages a random forest classifier for automated prostate cancer detection on a per voxel basis from combined 1.5 Tesla in vivo MRI and MRS. Results A total of 36 1.5 T endorectal in vivo T2-w MRI, MRS patient studies were evaluated on a per-voxel via MaWERiC, using a three-fold cross validation scheme across 25 iterations. Ground truth for evaluation of the results was obtained via ex-vivo whole-mount histology sections which served as the gold standard for expert radiologist annotations of prostate cancer on a per-voxel basis. The results suggest that MaWERiC based MRS-T2-w meta-classifier (mean AUC, μ = 0.89 ± 0.02) significantly outperformed (i) a T2-w MRI (employing wavelet texture features) classifier (μ = 0.55± 0.02), (ii) a MRS (employing metabolite ratios) classifier (μ= 0.77 ± 0.03), (iii) a decision-fusion classifier, obtained by combining individual T2-w MRI and MRS classifier outputs (μ = 0.85 ± 0.03) and (iv) a data combination scheme involving combination of metabolic MRS and MR signal intensity features (μ = 0.66± 0.02). Conclusion A novel data integration framework, MaWERiC, for combining imaging and non-imaging MRI channels was presented. Application to prostate cancer detection via combination of T2-w MRI and MRS data demonstrated significantly higher AUC and accuracy values compared to the individual T2-w MRI, MRS modalities and other data integration strategies

  2. Detection of residual metastatic tumor in the brain following Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a single or a series of magnetic resonance imaging scans: An autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Sakuramachi, Madoka; Igaki, Hiroshi; Ikemura, Masako; Yamashita, Hideomi; Okuma, Kae; Sekiya, Noriyasu; Hayakawa, Yayoi; Sakumi, Akira; Takahashi, Wataru; Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Fukayama, Masashi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance image (MRI) for the detection of residual tumors following Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR) for brain metastases based on autopsy cases. The study investigated two hypotheses: i) Whether a single MRI may detect the existence of a tumor; and ii) whether a series of MRIs may detect the existence of a tumor. The study is a retrospective case series in a single institution. A total of 11 brain metastases in 6 patients were treated with GKR between 2002 and 2011. Histopathological specimens from autopsy were compared with reconstructed follow-up MRIs. The maximum diameters of the lesions on MRI series were measured, and the size changes classified. The primary sites in the patients were the kidneys (n=2), lung (n=1), breast (n=1) and colon (n=1), as well as 1 adenocarcinoma of unknown origin. The median prescribed dose for radiosurgery was 20 Gy (range, 18-20 Gy), and median time interval between GKR and autopsy was 10 months (range, 1.6-20 months). The pathological outcomes included 7 remissions and 4 failures. Enhanced areas on gadolinium-enhanced MRI contained various components: Viable tumor cells, tumor necrosis, hemorrhage, inflammation and vessels. Regarding the first hypothesis, it was impossible to distinguish pathological failure from remission with a single MRI scan due to the presence of various components. Conversely, in treatment response (remission or failure), on time-volume curves of MRI scans were in agreement with pathological findings, with the exception of progressive disease in the acute phase (0-3 months). Thus, regarding the second hypothesis, time-volume curves were useful for predicting treatment responses. In conclusion, it was difficult to predict treatment response using a single MRI, and a series of MRI scans were required to detect the existence of a tumor.

  3. Impact of low signal intensity assessed by cine magnetic resonance imaging on detection of poorly viable myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ota, Shingo; Tanimoto, Takashi; Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-05-13

    Late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) has been established as a modality to detect myocardial infarction (MI). However, the use of gadolinium contrast is limited in patients with advanced renal dysfunction. Although the signal intensity (SI) of infarct area assessed by cine MRI is low in some patients with prior MI, the prevalence and clinical significance of low SI has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how low SI assessed by cine MRI may relate to the myocardial viability in patients with prior MI. Fifty patients with prior MI underwent both cine MRI and LGE-MRI. The left ventricle was divided into 17 segments. The presence of low SI and the wall motion score (WMS) of each segment were assessed by cine MRI. The transmural extent of infarction was evaluated by LGE-MRI. LGE was detected in 329 of all 850 segments (39%). The low SI assessed by cine MRI was detected in 105 of 329 segments with LGE (32%). All segments with low SI had LGE. Of all 329 segments with LGE, the segments with low SI showed greater transmural extent of infarction (78 [72 - 84] % versus 53 [38 - 72] %, P < 0.01), thinner wall (4.0[3.1 - 4.8] mm versus 6.5 [5.2 - 8.1] mm, P < 0.01), and higher WMS (4.0 [4.0 - 4.0] versus 2.0 [2.0 - 3.0], P < 0.01). The low SI assessed by cine MRI may be effective for detecting poorly viable myocardium in patients with prior MI.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate, Including Pre- and Postinterventions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-09-01

    This article systematically reviews the rationale for magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer, in detection and following various treatment methods. A basic discussion of the identification of prostate cancer is imperative to understand postintervention imaging. Each available therapy, including surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and focal therapies will be discussed along with associated imaging findings, providing the reader with a better understanding of current interventions in prostate cancer and imaging.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate, Including Pre- and Postinterventions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pritesh; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the rationale for magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer, in detection and following various treatment methods. A basic discussion of the identification of prostate cancer is imperative to understand postintervention imaging. Each available therapy, including surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and focal therapies will be discussed along with associated imaging findings, providing the reader with a better understanding of current interventions in prostate cancer and imaging. PMID:27582606

  6. Infected aortoiliofemoral grafts: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Justich, E; Amparo, E G; Hricak, H; Higgins, C B

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with proved infected aortoiliofemoral grafts were examined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a spin echo technique. MR clearly identified the perigraft abscess, the involvement of adjacent structures, and the longitudinal extent of the process in all patients. The MR findings were: Abscesses create a high signal intensity, somewhat less than fat. The perigraft abscess has a great contrast with the signal void of flowing blood in the graft. Inflammatory changes cause an inhomogeneous intermediate signal, slightly more intense than muscle. Both abscesses and edematous areas increase their signal intensity with long repetition rates and long echo delays. Areas of gas appear black. They cannot be distinguished from calcified plaques. Additional information is gained about the graft patency. Although the specificity has to be proved, MR imaging is sensitive in the detection of infected grafts and for defining the longitudinal extent of the perigraft abscess.

  7. Dextran hydrogel coated surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor for sensitive and label-free detection of small molecule drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Mo; Zhou, Wenfei; Johnston, Trevor G.; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-11-01

    The label-free and sensitive detection of small molecule drugs on SPRi is still a challenging task, mainly due to the limited surface immobilization capacity of the sensor. In this research, a dextran hydrogel-coated gold sensor chip for SPRi was successfully fabricated via photo-cross-linking for enhanced surface immobilization capacity. The density of the dextran hydrogel was optimized for protein immobilization and sensitive small molecule detection. The protein immobilization capacity of the hydrogel was 10 times greater than a bare gold surface, and 20 times greater than an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) surface. Such a drastic improvement in immobilization capacity allowed the SPRi sensor to detect adequate response signals when probing small molecule binding events. The binding signal of 4 nM liquid-phase biotin to streptavidin immobilized on the dextran surface reached 435 RU, while no response was observed on bare gold or MUA surfaces. The dextran hydrogel-coated SPRi sensor was also applied in a kinetic study of the binding between an immunosuppressive drug (FK506) and its target protein (FKBP12) in a high-throughput microarray format. The measured binding affinity was shown to be consistent with reported literature values, and a detection limit of 0.5 nM was achieved.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of navicular bursa adhesions.

    PubMed

    Holowinski, Maureen E; Solano, Mauricio; Maranda, Louise; García-López, José M

    2012-01-01

    Adhesions occur in the navicular bursa between the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and other structures. Our objectives were to describe the appearance of navicular bursa adhesions on high-field magnetic resonance (MR) images, to compare these findings to findings at navicular bursoscopy, and to determine the prevalence of lesions in the remainder of the podotrochlear apparatus. Sixteen forelimbs from 14 horses that underwent MR imaging and navicular bursoscopy were evaluated. Adhesions were considered type 1 when characterized by a discontinuity in the navicular bursa fluid signal between two structures, type 2 when the navicular bursa fluid signal was disrupted and ill-defined tissue was present between two structures, and type 3 when the fluid signal was disrupted and well-defined tissue was present between two structures. Twenty-six adhesions were suspected on MR images and nineteen were visualized at surgery. The positive predictive value was 50% for type 1 adhesions, 67% for type 2 adhesions, and 100% for type 3 adhesions. Additional lesions were detected in the navicular bursa in 15 limbs, the DDFT in 13, the navicular bone in 15, the collateral sesamoidean ligaments in 9, and the distal sesamoidean impar ligament in 8. A discontinuity in the navicular bursa fluid signal with well-defined tissue between two structures detected on high-field MR images is diagnostic for a navicular bursa adhesion. Additional lesions in the podotrochlear apparatus are common in horses with navicular bursa adhesions. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  9. [Early magnetic resonance imaging detection of a cavernous angioma after cranial radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma in a boy].

    PubMed

    Martínez León, M I

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy forms part of most therapeutic, preventive, and conditioning regimens in pediatric oncology. Numerous late secondary effects of cranial radiation are well known. However, radiation-induced cavernous angiomas (RICA) have been reported only sporadically and even fewer cases of earlier presentation of RICA have been reported. In this brief report, we describe a RICA that appeared in a boy treated for a CNS tumor (an infratentorial anaplastic ependymoma) after a short latency period between the end of radiotherapy and the development of the RICA. We comment on the different variables proposed to explain the formation of these lesions, as well as on their imaging features, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up.

  10. Detection of cerebral amyloid angiopathy by 3-T magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid positron emission tomography in a patient with subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Kida, Hirotaka; Satoh, Masayuki; Ii, Yuichiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Maeda, Masayuki; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    The patient was an 81-year-old man who had been treated for hypertension for several decades. In 2012, he developed gait disturbance and mild amnesia. One year later, his gait disturbance worsened, and he developed urinary incontinence. Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging using T 2 -weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery showed multiple lacunar infarctions. These findings fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. However, susceptibility weighted imaging showed multiple lobar microbleeds in the bilateral occipitoparietal lobes, and double inversion recovery and 3-D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical microinfarctions in the left parietal-temporo-occipito region. Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography revealed diffuse uptake in the cerebral cortex. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. The use of the double inversion recovery and susceptibility weighted imaging on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging may be a supplemental strategy for diagnosing cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  11. A novel digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengmin; Zhao, Cong; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2006-01-01

    Spectrometer is the essential part of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. It controls the transmitting and receiving of signals. Many commercial spectrometers are now available. However, they are usually costly and complex. In this paper, a new digital spectrometer based on PCI extensions for instrumentation (PXI) architecture is presented. Radio frequency (RF) pulse is generated with the method of digital synthesis and its frequency and phase are continuously tunable. MR signal acquired by receiver coils is processed by digital quadrature detection and filtered to get the k-space data, which avoid the spectral distortion due to amplitude and phase errors between two channels of traditional detection. Compared to the conventional design, the presented spectrometer is built with general PXI platform and boards. This design works in a digital manner with features of low cost, high performance and accuracy. The experiments demonstrate its efficiency.

  12. Combination of three-gene immunohistochemical panel and magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural vascular invasion to assess prognosis in non-advanced rectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Fu; Jiang, Zheng; Gao, Ying; Li, Chun-Xiang; Shen, Bao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify a small, clinically applicable immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel that could be combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) for assessment of prognosis concerning the non-advanced rectal cancer patients prior to operation. METHODS About 329 patients with pathologically confirmed rectal carcinoma (RC) were screened in this research, all of whom had been examined via an MRI and were treatment-naïve from July 2011 to July 2014. The candidate proteins that were reported to be altered by RC were examined in tissues by IHC. All chosen samples were adopted from the fundamental cores of histopathologically confirmed carcinomas during the initial surgeries. RESULTS Of the three proteins that were tested, c-MYC, PCNA and TIMP1 were detected with relatively significant expression in tumors, 35.9%, 23.7% and 58.7% respectively. The expression of the three proteins were closely connected with prognosis (P = 0.032, 0.003, 0.021). The patients could be classified into different outcome groups according to an IHC panel (P < 0.01) via these three proteins. Taking into consideration known survival covariates, especially EMVI, the IHC panel served as an independent prognostic factor. The EMVI combined with the IHC panel could categorize patients into different prognostic groups with distinction (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION These studies argue that this three-protein panel of c-MYC, PCNA, coupled with TIMP1 combined with MRI-detected EMVI could offer extra prognostic details for preoperative treatment of RC. PMID:27784970

  13. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in myxoid liposarcoma: A useful adjunct for the detection of extra-pulmonary metastatic disease.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J D; Watson, J J; Cool, P; Cribb, G L; Jenkins, J P R; Leahy, M; Gregory, J J

    2016-04-01

    Myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) are a subgroup of soft-tissue sarcomas which have a propensity for extra-pulmonary metastases. Conventional radiological staging of soft-tissue sarcomas consists of chest radiographs (CXR) and thoracic computed tomography (CT) for possible chest metastases, supplemented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local disease. The optimal radiological modality to detect extra-pulmonary metastases for systemic staging has not been proven. We reviewed the efficacy of Whole-Body MRI (WBMRI) for this purpose. 33 WBMRI and simultaneous CT scans were performed in 28 patients suffering from MLS between 2007 and 2015. 38 metastases were identified in seven patients via WBMRI. Osseous lesions predominated (spine, pelvis, chest-wall and long bones), followed by soft-tissue and abdominal lesions. Of the 29 soft-tissue or osseous metastases that were within the field-of-view of the simultaneous CT scans, five soft-tissue and zero osseous metastases were identified using CT. Metastatic disease was detected in three patients solely using WBMRI, which directly influenced their management. WBMRI is a useful adjunct in the detection of extra-pulmonary metastatic disease, which directly alters patient management. WBMRI has demonstrated an ability to identify more sites of metastatic disease compared to CT. WBMRI should be used in two situations. Firstly, at diagnosis where ablative treatment will be required e.g. amputation, when the diagnosis of occult metastasis would change treatment planning. Secondly, at diagnosis of relapse to confirm if it is a solitary site of relapse prior to consideration of metastectomy.

  14. The Effect of Study Design Biases on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Silicone Breast Implant Ruptures: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae W.; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Bellfi, Lillian T.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Background All silicone breast implant recipients are recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration to undergo serial screening to detect implant rupture with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the quality of diagnostic accuracy studies utilizing MRI or ultrasound to detect silicone breast implant rupture and conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effect of study design biases on the estimation of MRI diagnostic accuracy measures. Method Studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and ultrasound in evaluating ruptured silicone breast implants were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases. Two reviewers independently screened potential studies for inclusion and extracted data. Study design biases were assessed using the QUADAS tool and the STARDS checklist. Meta-analyses estimated the influence of biases on diagnostic odds ratios. Results Among 1175 identified articles, 21 met the inclusion criteria. Most studies using MRI (n= 10 of 16) and ultrasound (n=10 of 13) examined symptomatic subjects. Meta-analyses revealed that MRI studies evaluating symptomatic subjects had 14-fold higher diagnostic accuracy estimates compared to studies using an asymptomatic sample (RDOR 13.8; 95% CI 1.83–104.6) and 2-fold higher diagnostic accuracy estimates compared to studies using a screening sample (RDOR 1.89; 95% CI 0.05–75.7). Conclusion Many of the published studies utilizing MRI or ultrasound to detect silicone breast implant rupture are flawed with methodological biases. These methodological shortcomings may result in overestimated MRI diagnostic accuracy measures and should be interpreted with caution when applying the data to a screening population. PMID:21364405

  15. Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Term-Equivalent Age Detects Brain Injury in 25% of a Contemporary Cohort of Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Djurdjevic, Tanja; Griesmaier, Elke; Biermayr, Marlene; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, significant investigation has been undertaken by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to identify preterm infants at risk for adverse outcome. The primary objective is to provide a comprehensive characterization of cerebral injury detected by conventional MRI at term-equivalent age in an unselected, consecutive, contemporary cohort of preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks. Secondly, this study aims to identify risk factors for the different injury types in this population. Methods Data for all preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks and admitted to Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were prospectively collected (October 2010 to December 2015). Cerebral MRI was evaluated retrospectively using a validated scoring system that incorporates intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), white matter disease (WMD) and cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH). Results 300 infants were included in the study. MRI showed 24.7% of all infants to have some form of brain injury. The most common injury type was IVH (16.0%). WMD and CBH were seen in 10.0% and 8.0%. The prevalence of common neonatal risk factors was greater within the group of infants with CBH. In particular indicators for respiratory disease were observed more often: longer ventilation duration, more frequent need for supplemental oxygen at day 28, higher rates of hydrocortisone treatment. Catecholamine treatment was the only neonatal risk factor that was overrepresented in infants with WMD Discussion Cerebral MRI at term-equivalent age, as addition to cranial ultrasound, detected brain injury in 25% of preterm survivors. The diagnosis of IVH was already made by neonatal ultrasound in most cases. In contrast, only a minority of the CBH and none of the non-cystic WMD have been detected prior to MRI. Decreasing gestational age and neonatal complications involved with immaturity have been identified as risk factors for CBH, whereas WMD was found in relatively mature infants with

  16. Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Term-Equivalent Age Detects Brain Injury in 25% of a Contemporary Cohort of Very Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Vera; Djurdjevic, Tanja; Griesmaier, Elke; Biermayr, Marlene; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, significant investigation has been undertaken by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to identify preterm infants at risk for adverse outcome. The primary objective is to provide a comprehensive characterization of cerebral injury detected by conventional MRI at term-equivalent age in an unselected, consecutive, contemporary cohort of preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks. Secondly, this study aims to identify risk factors for the different injury types in this population. Data for all preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks and admitted to Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were prospectively collected (October 2010 to December 2015). Cerebral MRI was evaluated retrospectively using a validated scoring system that incorporates intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), white matter disease (WMD) and cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH). 300 infants were included in the study. MRI showed 24.7% of all infants to have some form of brain injury. The most common injury type was IVH (16.0%). WMD and CBH were seen in 10.0% and 8.0%. The prevalence of common neonatal risk factors was greater within the group of infants with CBH. In particular indicators for respiratory disease were observed more often: longer ventilation duration, more frequent need for supplemental oxygen at day 28, higher rates of hydrocortisone treatment. Catecholamine treatment was the only neonatal risk factor that was overrepresented in infants with WMD. Cerebral MRI at term-equivalent age, as addition to cranial ultrasound, detected brain injury in 25% of preterm survivors. The diagnosis of IVH was already made by neonatal ultrasound in most cases. In contrast, only a minority of the CBH and none of the non-cystic WMD have been detected prior to MRI. Decreasing gestational age and neonatal complications involved with immaturity have been identified as risk factors for CBH, whereas WMD was found in relatively mature infants with circulatory disturbances.

  17. Thoracic outlet syndromes and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; Moore, N; Gibson, R; Rushworth, G; Donaghy, M

    1993-08-01

    The thoracic outlet syndromes encompass the diverse clinical entities affecting the branchial plexus or subclavian artery including cervical ribs or bands. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to diagnose on existing clinical and electrophysiological criteria and new diagnostic methods are necessary. This study reports our experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus in 20 patients with suspected thoracic outlet syndrome. The distribution of pain and sensory disturbance varied widely, weakness and wasting usually affected C8/T1 innervated muscles, and electrophysiology showed combinations of reduced sensory nerve action potentials from the fourth and fifth digits, and prolonged F-responses or tendon reflex latencies. The MRI study was interpreted blind. Deviation of the brachial plexus was recorded in 19 out of the 24 symptomatic sides (sensitivity 79%). Absence of distortion was correctly identified in 14 out of 16 asymptomatic sides (specificity 87.5%). The false positive rate was 9.5%. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated all seven cervical ribs visible on plain cervical spine radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed a band-like structure extending from the C7 transverse process in 25 out of 33 sides; similar structures were detected in three out of 18 sides in control subjects. These MRI bands often underlay the brachial plexus distortion observed in our patients. We also observed instances of plexus distortion by post-traumatic callus of the first rib, and by a hypertrophied serratus anterior muscle. If they did not demonstrate a cervical rib, plain cervical spine radiographs had no value in predicting brachial plexus distortion. We believe MRI to be of potential value in the diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome by: (i) demonstrating deviation or distortion of nerves or blood vessels; (ii) suggesting the presence of radiographically invisible bands; (iii) disclosing other causes of thoracic outlet syndrome

  18. The impact of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on ischemic stroke detection and incidence: minimal impact within a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Dawn; Khoury, Jane; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Flaherty, Matthew L; Adeoye, Opeolu; Ferioli, Simona; Khatri, Pooja; Kissela, Brett M

    2015-09-25

    There are several situations in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might impact whether an cerebrovascular event is considered a new stroke. These include clinically non-focal events with positive imaging for acute cerebral infarction, and worsening of older symptoms without evidence of new infarction on MRI. We sought to investigate the impact of MRI on stroke detection and stroke incidence, by describing agreement between a strictly clinical definition of stroke and a definition based on physician opinion, including MRI imaging findings. All hospitalized strokes that occurred in five Ohio and Northern Kentucky counties (population 1.3 million) in the calendar year of 2005 were identified using ICD-9 discharge codes 430-436. The two definitions used were: "clinical case definition" which included sudden onset focal neurologic symptoms referable to a vascular territory for >24 h, compared to the "best clinical judgment of the physician definition", which considers all relevant information, including neuroimaging findings. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the incidence rates were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. Rates were standardized to the 2000 U.S. population, adjusting for age, race, and sex, and included all age groups. There were 2403 ischemic stroke events in 2269 patients; 1556 (64%) had MRI performed. Of the events, 2049 (83%) were cases by both definitions, 185 (7.7%) met the clinical case definition but were non-cases in the physician's opinion and 169 (7.0%) were non-cases by clinical definition but were cases in the physician's opinion. There was no significant difference in the incidence rates of first-ever or total ischemic strokes generated by the two different definitions, or when only those with MRI imaging were included. We found that MRI findings do not appear to substantially change stroke incidence estimates, as the strictly clinical definition of stroke did not significantly differ from a definition that included imaging

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Kroop, S.A.; Margouleff, D.; Stein, H.L.; Zanzi, I.; Susin, M.; Goldman, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    The capacity of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging to characterize the nature of palpable thyroid nodules was prospectively evaluated in 9 patients. Seven nodules were nonfunctioning and 2 showed function on radio-iodine Nuclear Medicine (NM) scans. Each patient underwent high-resolution real time ultrasound (US) examination followed by MR imaging with a 0.6 Tesla superconducting whole body coil utilizing T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ weighted inversion recovery and spin-echo pulse sequences in coronal, transverse and sagittal planes. All NM, US and MR studies were evaluated independently by each of two physicians. Diagnoses were established by surgical pathology (n=7) or by radiologic and clinical correlation (n=2). There were 3 cases of solitary adenoma, 4 cases of adenomatous goiter, 1 case of papillary carcinoma and 1 case of epidermoid carcinoma. Lesions demonstrated variable signal intensity on T/sub 1/ weighted images. All lesions demonstrated nonspecific increased signal intensity on T/sub 2/ weighted images. One malignancy was correctly diagnosed by the identification of adjacent cervical lymph nodes of increased signal intensity and another by demonstration of tracheal invasion on MR images, both not visible by other imaging modalities. Regions of hemorrhage and cystic degeneration as well as additional non-palpable thyroid nodules could be detected on MR images. Vascular displacement, tracheal compression and deviation, and substernal thyroid extension were also well demonstrated. The findings suggest that qualitative assessment of MR signal intensity alone cannot reliably differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions, but that MR images can provide other useful information to aid in this differentiation.

  20. Detection of Non-aromatic Organic Compounds in Meteorites using Imaging Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. R.; Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; Mahon, R. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Our most extensive understanding of extraterrestrial organic matter is based on what has been learned from meteorites that have been delivered naturally to Earth. Meteorites have been analyzed by a variety of techniques ranging from extensive sample preparation with extraction and subsequent chromatography to direct laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS). While extraction studies have reported a variety of organics (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, and amino acids), LDMS studies have only reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This is rather surprising considering that Yan et al. (Talanta 2007, 72, 634-641) reported that even a small amount of PAH enables the detection of organics that are not otherwise ionized during the desorption event from minerals. Therefore, we have begun re-investigating meteorites because, regardless of the source of the organic compounds, the presences of PAHs should allow other organic molecules to be observed using imaging laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS). Indeed, we have mapped meteorites (e.g., EETA 79001) and found many mass-to-charge peaks that are non-aromatic as determined by analysis of their mass defects. Mapping also revealed that the distribution of organics is heterogeneous, which necessitates the collection of a mass spectrum from a single laser shot so that minor peaks of interest are not lost in signal averaging. These studies have implications for analyzing future returned samples from Mars or elsewhere with minimal preparation or damage.

  1. Viability, Differentiation Capacity, and Detectability of Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide-Labeled Muscle Precursor Cells for Magnetic-Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Azzabi, Fahd; Rottmar, Markus; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Rudin, Markus; Sulser, Tullio; Boss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies are a promising approach for the treatment of a variety of human conditions including stress urinary incontinence, but their success greatly depends on the biodistribution, migration, survival, and differentiation of the transplanted cells. Noninvasive in vivo cell tracking therefore presents an important aspect for translation of such a procedure into the clinics. Upon labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, cells can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but possible adverse effect of the labeling have to be considered when labeling stem cells with SPIOs. In this study, human muscle precursor cells (hMPC) were labeled with increasing concentrations of SPIO nanoparticles (100–1600 μg/mL) and cell viability and differentiation capacity upon labeling was assessed in vitro. While a linear dependence between cell viability and nanoparticle concentration could be observed, differentiation capacity was not affected by the presence of SPIOs. Using a nude mouse model, a concentration (400 μg/mL) could be defined that allows reliable detection of hMPCs by MRI but does not influence myogenic in vivo differentiation to mature and functional muscle tissue. This suggests that such an approach can be safely used in a clinical setting to track muscle regeneration in patients undergoing cell therapy without negative effects on the functionality of the bioengineered muscle. PMID:24988198

  2. Fabrication of mAb G250-SPIO Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Nanoprobe for the Specific Detection of Renal Cell Carcinoma In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Yang, Chun; Wang, Jiali; Han, Cuiping; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) has been paid more and more attention for early diagnosis of cancer. A sensitive and specific mMRI probe plays the most important role in this technique. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and mAb G250 were conjugated as mMRI probe for the detection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using 3.0-Tesla MRI in vitro. mAb G250 could specifically recognize carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antigen overexpressed in ccRCC and the SPIO nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent presented excellent MRI response and good biocompatibility. The successful assembly of this nanoprobe was confirmed by UV-vis spectrum, FT-IR spectroscopy and DLS analysis. In vitro MRI study on ccRCC cells and control cells indicated that our fabricated mAb G250-SPIO nanoprobe could be used in the specific labeling of clear cell renal carcinoma cells successfully. PMID:24999987

  3. Fabrication of mAb G250-SPIO molecular magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobe for the specific detection of renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cailuan; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Kai; Yang, Chun; Wang, Jiali; Han, Cuiping; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) has been paid more and more attention for early diagnosis of cancer. A sensitive and specific mMRI probe plays the most important role in this technique. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and mAb G250 were conjugated as mMRI probe for the detection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using 3.0-Tesla MRI in vitro. mAb G250 could specifically recognize carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antigen overexpressed in ccRCC and the SPIO nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent presented excellent MRI response and good biocompatibility. The successful assembly of this nanoprobe was confirmed by UV-vis spectrum, FT-IR spectroscopy and DLS analysis. In vitro MRI study on ccRCC cells and control cells indicated that our fabricated mAb G250-SPIO nanoprobe could be used in the specific labeling of clear cell renal carcinoma cells successfully.

  4. In vitro molecular magnetic resonance imaging detection and measurement of apoptosis using superparamagnetic iron oxide + antibody as ligands for nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Rapley, P L; Witiw, C; Rich, K; Niccoli, S; Tassotto, M L; Th'ng, J

    2012-11-07

    Recent research in cell biology as well as oncology research has focused on apoptosis or programmed cell death as a means of quantifying the induced effects of treatment. A hallmark of late-stage apoptosis is nuclear fragmentation in which DNA is degraded to release nucleosomes with their associated histones. In this work, a method was developed for detecting and measuring nucleosome concentration in vitro with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The indirect procedure used a commercially available secondary antibody-superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle complex as a contrast agent that bound to primary antibodies against nucleosomal histones H4, H2A and H2B. Using a multiple-echo spin-echo sequence on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner, significant T₂ relaxation enhancement as a function of in vitro nucleosomal concentration was measured. In addition, clustering or aggregation of the contrast agent was demonstrated with its associated enhancement in T₂ effects. The T₂ clustering enhancement showed a complex dependence on relative concentrations of nucleosomes, primary antibody and secondary antibody + SPIO. The technique supports the feasibility of using MRI measurements of nucleosome concentration in blood as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in the management of cancer.

  5. Viability, differentiation capacity, and detectability of super-paramagnetic iron oxide-labeled muscle precursor cells for magnetic-resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Fahd; Rottmar, Markus; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Rudin, Markus; Sulser, Tullio; Boss, Andreas; Eberli, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Cell therapies are a promising approach for the treatment of a variety of human conditions including stress urinary incontinence, but their success greatly depends on the biodistribution, migration, survival, and differentiation of the transplanted cells. Noninvasive in vivo cell tracking therefore presents an important aspect for translation of such a procedure into the clinics. Upon labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, cells can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but possible adverse effect of the labeling have to be considered when labeling stem cells with SPIOs. In this study, human muscle precursor cells (hMPC) were labeled with increasing concentrations of SPIO nanoparticles (100-1600 μg/mL) and cell viability and differentiation capacity upon labeling was assessed in vitro. While a linear dependence between cell viability and nanoparticle concentration could be observed, differentiation capacity was not affected by the presence of SPIOs. Using a nude mouse model, a concentration (400 μg/mL) could be defined that allows reliable detection of hMPCs by MRI but does not influence myogenic in vivo differentiation to mature and functional muscle tissue. This suggests that such an approach can be safely used in a clinical setting to track muscle regeneration in patients undergoing cell therapy without negative effects on the functionality of the bioengineered muscle.

  6. Imaging and Radiography with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Effective-Z (EZ-3D) Determination; SNM Detection Using Prompt Neutrons from Photon Induced Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, William; Hasty, Richard; Klimenko, Alexei; Korbly, Stephen E.; Ledoux, Robert J.; Park, William

    2009-03-10

    Four new technologies have been developed for use in non-intrusive inspection systems to detect nuclear materials, explosives and contraband. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) provides a three dimensional image of the isotopic content of a container. NRF determines the isotopic composition of a region and specifies the isotopic structure of the neighboring regions, thus providing the detailed isotopic composition of any threat. In transmission mode, NRF provides a two dimensional projection of the isotopic content of a container, much as standard X-ray radiography provides for density. The effective-Z method (EZ-3D) uses electromagnetic scattering processes to yield a three-dimensional map of the effective-Z and the density in a container. The EZ-3D method allows for a rapid discrimination based on effective Z and mass of materials such as those with high Z, as well as specifying regions of interest for other contraband. The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons from photon induced fission (PNPF) provides a unique identification of the presence of actinides and SNM. These four new technologies can be used independently or together to automatically determine the presence of hazardous materials or contraband. They can also be combined with other technologies to provide added specificity.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If You Have Questions en español Resonancia magnética: columna lumbar What It Is Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Cervical Spine Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  8. Cavity resonator coil for high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Solis, S E; Tomasi, D; Rodriguez, A O

    2007-01-01

    A variant coil of the high frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. This coil design is similar to the popular birdcage coil but it has the advantage that it can be easily built following the physical principles of the cavity resonators [1]. The equivalent circuit approach was used to compute the resonant frequency of this coil design, and compared the results with those frequency values obtained with theory. A transceiver coil composed of 4 cavities with a rod length of 4.5 cm, and a resonant frequency of 170.29 MHz was built. Phantom images were then acquired to test its viability using standard imaging sequences. The theory facilitates its development for high frequency MRI applications of animal models.

  9. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  10. Stepped impedance resonators for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Can E; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high-field magnetic resonance imaging. In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections, referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), is investigated. Single-element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 T (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 T in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in a transmit magnetic field, as well as RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus specific absorption rate) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements.

  11. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients selected for radical cystectomy: detection rate of pelvic lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Simone, Giuseppe; Grasso, Rosario; Augelli, Raffaele; Faiella, Eliodoro; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Cazzato, Roberto; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Zobel, Bruno; Gallucci, Michele

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate whether DW-MRI improves the detection of pelvic lymph nodes metastates in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. 36 patients with CT scan negative for nodal metastates underwent DW-MRI before surgery. Diagnostic accuracy of DW-MRI was compared with histopathological findings. Mean ADC value was 0.85 × 10(-3) mm(3)/s in the nodal metastatic group and 1 × 10(-3) mm(3)/s in the nodal non-metastatic group (P = 0.02). The ADC cut-off value, obtained by the ROC curve was 0.86 × 10(-3) mm(3)/s. Patient-based sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 76.4%, 89.4%, 26.6%, and 71.4%, respectively. DW-MRI may be used to differentiate metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in patients with high-grade bladder cancer. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  12. A Feasibility Study to Determine Whether Clinical Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Wisniewski, Amy B; Wu, Dee H; Van Gordon, Samuel B; Smith, Nataliya; North, Justin C; McElhaney, Rayburt; Aston, Christopher E; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Kropp, Bradley P; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Hurst, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is a bladder pain disorder associated with voiding symptomatology and other systemic chronic pain disorders. Currently diagnosing interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is complicated as patients present with a wide range of symptoms, physical examination findings and clinical test responses. One hypothesis is that interstitial cystitis symptoms arise from increased bladder permeability to urine solutes. This study establishes the feasibility of using contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantify bladder permeability in patients with interstitial cystitis. Permeability alterations in bladder urothelium were assessed by intravesical administration of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in a small cohort of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity in patient and control bladders was compared regionally and for entire bladders. Quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity indicated a significant increase in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions compared to posterior regions in patients with interstitial cystitis (p <0.01) and significant increases in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions (p <0.001). Kurtosis (shape of probability distribution) and skewness (measure of probability distribution asymmetry) were associated with contrast enhancement in total bladders in patients with interstitial cystitis vs controls (p <0.05). Regarding symptomatology interstitial cystitis cases differed significantly from controls on the SF-36®, PUF (Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency) and ICPI (Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index) questionnaires with no overlap in the score range in each group. ICSI (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) differed significantly but with a slight overlap in the range of scores. Data suggest that contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging provides an objective, quantifiable measurement

  13. Myelin imaging compound (MIC) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myelination.

    PubMed

    Frullano, Luca; Zhu, Junqing; Wang, Changning; Wu, Chunying; Miller, Robert H; Wang, Yanming

    2012-01-12

    The vertebrate nervous system is characterized by myelination, a fundamental biological process that protects the axons and facilitates electric pulse transduction. Damage to myelin is considered a major effect of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently, therapeutic interventions are focused on protecting myelin integrity and promoting myelin repair. These efforts need to be accompanied by an effective imaging tool that correlates the disease progression with the extent of myelination. To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the primary imaging technique to detect brain lesions in MS. However, conventional MRI cannot differentiate demyelinated lesions from other inflammatory lesions and therefore cannot predict disease progression in MS. To address this problem, we have prepared a Gd-based contrast agent, termed MIC (myelin imaging compound), which binds to myelin with high specificity. In this work, we demonstrate that MIC exhibits a high kinetic stability toward transmetalation with promising relaxometric properties. MIC was used for in vivo imaging of myelination following intracerebroventricular infusion in the rat brain. MIC was found to distribute preferentially in highly myelinated regions and was able to detect regions of focally induced demyelination.

  14. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  15. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Huberty, John P.; White, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  16. Na+ deposition in the fibrotic skin of systemic sclerosis patients detected by 23Na-magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Christoph; Beyer, Christian; Linz, Peter; Dahlmann, Anke; Hammon, Matthias; Jantsch, Jonathan; Neubert, Patrick; Rosenhauer, Daniela; Müller, Dominik N; Cavallaro, Alexander; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Schett, Georg; Luft, Friedrich C; Uder, Michael; Distler, Jörg H W; Titze, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Skin fibrosis is the predominant feature of SSc and arises from excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Glycosaminoglycans are macromolecules of the extracellular matrix, which facilitate Na + accumulation in the skin. We used 23 Na-MRI to quantify Na + in skin. We hypothesized that skin Na + might accumulate in SSc and might be a biomarker for skin fibrosis. In this observational case-control study, skin Na + was determined by 23 Na-MRI using a Na + volume coil in 12 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in 21 control subjects. We assessed skin fibrosis by the modified Rodnan skin score prior to 23 Na-MRI and on follow-up 12 months later. 23 Na-MRI demonstrated increased Na + in the fibrotic skin of SSc patients compared with skin from controls [mean ( s . d .): 27.2 (5.6) vs 21.4 (5.3) mmol/l, P < 0.01]. Na + content was higher in fibrotic than in non-fibrotic SSc skin [26.2 (4.8) vs 19.2 (3.4) mmol/l, P < 0.01]. Furthermore, skin Na + amount was correlated with changes in follow-up modified Rodnan skin score (R 2 = 0.68). 23 Na-MRI detected increased Na + in the fibrotic SSc skin; high Na + content was associated with progressive skin disease. Our findings provide the first evidence that 23 Na-MRI might be a promising tool to assess skin Na + and thereby predict progression of skin fibrosis in SSc.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance imaging by holographic enhanced mapping.

    PubMed

    Mandracchia, B; Pagliarulo, V; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P

    2015-04-21

    We designed, constructed and tested a holographic surface plasmon resonance (HoloSPR) objective-based microscope for simultaneous amplitude-contrast and phase-contrast surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). SPRi is a widely spread tool for label-free detection of changes in refractive index and concentration, as well as mapping of thin films. Currently, most of the SPR sensors rely on the detection of amplitude or phase changes of light. Despite the high sensitivities achieved so far, each technique alone has a limited detection range with optimal sensitivity. Here we use a high numerical aperture objective that avoids all the limitations due to the use of a prism-based configuration, yielding highly magnified and distortion-free images. Holographic reconstructions of SPR images and real-time kinetic measurements are presented to show the capability of HoloSPR to provide a versatile imaging method for high-throughput SPR detection complementary to conventional SPR techniques.

  18. Axial loading during magnetic resonance imaging in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis: does it reproduce the positional change of the dural sac detected by upright myelography?

    PubMed

    Kanno, Haruo; Endo, Toshiki; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Yutaka; Morozumi, Naoki; Itoi, Eiji; Ishii, Yushin

    2012-07-15

    We compared the sizes of the dural sac among conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), axial loaded MRI, and upright myelography in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). To determine whether axial loaded MRI can demonstrate similar positional changes of the dural sac size as were detected by upright myelography in LSCS. In patients with LSCS, constriction of the dural sac is worsened and symptoms are aggravated during standing or walking. To disclose such positional changes, upright myelography has been widely used. Recently, axial loaded MRI, which can simulate a standing position, has been developed. However, there has been no study to compare the dural sac size between axial loaded MRI and upright myelography. Forty-four patients underwent conventional MRI, axial loaded MRI, and myelography. Transverse and anteroposterior diameters and the cross-sectional areas of the dural sac from L2-L3 to L5-S1 were compared. Pearson correlations of the diameters between the MRIs and the myelograms were analyzed. On the basis of the myelograms, all disc levels were divided into severe and nonsevere constriction groups. In each group, the diameters and the cross-sectional areas were compared. Sensitivity and specificity to detect severe constriction were calculated for the conventional and axial loaded MRI. Transverse and anteroposterior diameters at L4-L5 in the axial loaded MRI and myelogram were significantly smaller than those observed in the conventional MRI (P < 0.001). Cross-sectional areas in the axial loaded MRI were significantly smaller than those in the conventional MRI at L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5 (P < 0.001). Between the axial loaded MRI and the myelography, Pearson correlation coefficients of the transverse and anteroposterior diameters were 0.85 and 0.87, respectively (P < 0.001), which were higher than those for conventional MRI. Reductions of the dural sac sizes in the axial loaded MRI were more evident in the severe constriction group. The

  19. Differential detection of impact site versus rotational site injury by magnetic resonance imaging and microglial morphology in an unrestrained mild closed head injury model.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alfredo; Donovan, Virgina; Grinberg, Yelena Y; Obenaus, Andre; Carson, Monica J

    2016-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of all traumatic brain injuries are mild and do not cause readily visible abnormalities on routine medical imaging making it difficult to predict which individuals will develop unwanted clinical sequelae. Microglia are brain-resident macrophages and early responders to brain insults. Their activation is associated with changes in morphology or expression of phenotypic markers including P2Y12 and major histocompatibility complex class II. Using a murine model of unrestrained mild closed head injury (mCHI), we used microglia as reporters of acute brain injury at sites of impact versus sites experiencing rotational stress 24 h post-mCHI. Consistent with mild injury, a modest 20% reduction in P2Y12 expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis but only in the impacted region of the cortex. Furthermore, neither an influx of blood-derived immune cells nor changes in microglial expression of CD45, TREM1, TREM2, major histocompatibility complex class II or CD40 were detected. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), small reductions in T2 weighted values were observed but only near the area of impact and without overt tissue damage (blood deposition, edema). Microglial morphology was quantified without cryosectioning artifacts using ScaleA(2) clarified brains from CX3CR1-green fluorescence protein (GFP) mice. The cortex rostral to the mCHI impact site receives greater rotational stress but neither MRI nor molecular markers of microglial activation showed significant changes from shams in this region. However, microglia in this rostral region did display signs of morphologic activation equivalent to that observed in severe CHI. Thus, mCHI-triggered rotational stress is sufficient to cause injuries undetectable by routine MRI that could result in altered microglial surveillance of brain homeostasis. Acute changes in microglial morphology reveal brain responses to unrestrained mild traumatic brain injury In areas subjected to

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods in Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmeier, A.; van Dusschoten, D.; Blümler, P.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique to study water content, dynamics and transport in natural porous media. However, MRI systems and protocols have been developed mainly for medical purposes, i.e. for media with comparably high water contents and long relaxation times. In contrast, natural porous media like soils and rocks are characterized by much lower water contents, typically 0 < theta < 0.4, and much faster T1 and T2 relaxation times. So, the usage of standard medical scanners and protocols is of limited benefit. Three strategies can be applied for the monitoring of water contents and dynamics in natural porous media: i) Dedicated high-field scanners (with vertical bore) allowing stronger gradients and faster switching so that shorter echo times can be realized. ii) Special measurement sequences using ultrashort rf- and gradient-pulses like single point imaging derivates (SPI, SPRITE)(1) and multi-echo methods, which monitor series of echoes and allow for extrapolation to zero time(2). Hence, the loss of signal during the first echo period may be compensated to determine the initial magnetization (= water content) as well as relaxation time maps simultaneously. iii) Finally low field( < 1T) scanners also provide longer echo times and hence detect larger fractions of water, since the T2 relaxation time of water in most porous media increases with decreasing magnetic field strength(3). In the presentation examples for all three strategies will be given. References 1) Pohlmeier et al. Vadose Zone J. 7, 1010-1017 (2008) 2) Edzes et al., Magn. Res. Imag. 16, 185-196 (1998) 3) Raich H, and Blümler P, Concepts in Magn. Reson. B 23B, 16-25 (2004) 4) Pohlmeier et al. Magn. Res. Imag. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2008.06.007 (2008)

  2. Imaging of the hip joint. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, P.; Genant, H. K.; Jergesen, H. E.; Murray, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed the applications and limitations of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of the most common hip disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive technique in detecting osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance reflects the histologic changes associated with osteonecrosis very well, which may ultimately help to improve staging. Computed tomography can more accurately identify subchondral fractures than MR imaging and thus remains important for staging. In congenital dysplasia of the hip, the position of the nonossified femoral head in children less than six months of age can only be inferred by indirect signs on CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the cartilaginous femoral head directly without ionizing radiation. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of choice for evaluating fractures of the hip joint. In some patients, MR imaging demonstrates the fracture even when it is not apparent on radiography. In neoplasm, CT provides better assessment of calcification, ossification, and periosteal reaction than MR imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging, however, represents the most accurate imaging modality for evaluating intramedullary and soft-tissue extent of the tumor and identifying involvement of neurovascular bundles. Magnetic resonance imaging can also be used to monitor response to chemotherapy. In osteoarthrosis and rheumatoid arthritis of the hip, both CT and MR provide more detailed assessment of the severity of disease than conventional radiography because of their tomographic nature. Magnetic resonance imaging is unique in evaluating cartilage degeneration and loss, and in demonstrating soft-tissue alterations such as inflammatory synovial proliferation.

  3. Imaging of the hip joint. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, P.; Genant, H. K.; Jergesen, H. E.; Murray, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed the applications and limitations of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of the most common hip disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive technique in detecting osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance reflects the histologic changes associated with osteonecrosis very well, which may ultimately help to improve staging. Computed tomography can more accurately identify subchondral fractures than MR imaging and thus remains important for staging. In congenital dysplasia of the hip, the position of the nonossified femoral head in children less than six months of age can only be inferred by indirect signs on CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the cartilaginous femoral head directly without ionizing radiation. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of choice for evaluating fractures of the hip joint. In some patients, MR imaging demonstrates the fracture even when it is not apparent on radiography. In neoplasm, CT provides better assessment of calcification, ossification, and periosteal reaction than MR imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging, however, represents the most accurate imaging modality for evaluating intramedullary and soft-tissue extent of the tumor and identifying involvement of neurovascular bundles. Magnetic resonance imaging can also be used to monitor response to chemotherapy. In osteoarthrosis and rheumatoid arthritis of the hip, both CT and MR provide more detailed assessment of the severity of disease than conventional radiography because of their tomographic nature. Magnetic resonance imaging is unique in evaluating cartilage degeneration and loss, and in demonstrating soft-tissue alterations such as inflammatory synovial proliferation.

  4. Relationship between thrombolytic therapy and perfusion defect detected by Gd-DTPA-enhanced fast magnetic resonance imaging in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, S; Kondo, T; Anno, H; Kizukuri, T; Nakamura, Y; Oshima, K; Sato, T; Sarai, M; Kurokawa, H; Watanabe, Y; Hishida, H

    2001-01-01

    To study whether thrombolytic therapy affects Gd-DTPA-enhanced pattern and whether its pattern indicates myocardial viability, Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 43 patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction 14.8+/-5.0 days after onset with breathhold scanning on a 1.5-T whole body system. The hypoenhanced area at 90 sec after contrast injection was defined as a perfusion defect (PD). Patients were divided into PD(+) and PD(-) groups. The PD was detected in 77.8% of patients treated with direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and in 28.6% of patients treated by thrombolytic therapy with or without PTCA in the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grade 3 group (p < 0.05). The myocardial wall was divided into seven segments based on the American Heart Association committee report. Wall motion of each segment was classified by one of six patterns (wall motion score [WMS]: dyskinesis, -1; akinesis, 0; severe hypokinesis, 1; hypokinesis, 2; slight hypokinesis, 3; normal, 4). By echocardiography, the average WMS and ejection fraction were similar between the PD(+) group and the PD(-) group on admission. Those parameters were significantly worse in the PD(+) group than in PD(-) group 1 month after onset. The change in WMS was significantly lower in the PD(+) group than in the PD(-) group. The number of patients and segments with more than two grades of improvement of WMS in the PD(+) group was significantly lower than that in the PD(-) group. Angiographically, left ventricular ejection fraction and WMS of the PD(+) group were significantly lower than those of the PD(-) group 3 months later. PDs were detected significantly less frequently in patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, suggesting that microvascular embolization related to formation of the no-reflow phenomenon.

  5. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  6. Nuclear quadrupole resonance detection of explosives: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel B.

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a spectroscopic technique closely related to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These techniques, and NQR in particular, induce signals from the material being interrogated that are very specific to the chemical and physical structure of the material, but are relatively insensitive to the physical form of the material. NQR explosives detection exploits this specificity to detect explosive materials, in contrast to other well known techniques that are designed to detect explosive devices. The past two decades have seen a large research and development effort in NQR explosives detection in the United States aimed at transportation security and military applications. Here, I will briefly describe the physical basis for NQR before discussing NQR developments over the past decade, with particular emphasis on landmine detection and the use of NQR in combating IED's. Potential future directions for NQR research and development are discussed.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kaipia, A; Ryymin, P; Mäkelä, E; Aaltonen, M; Kähärä, V; Kangasniemi, M

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of contrast enhanced (CE)-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of testicular torsion induced hypoperfusion in an experimental rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion of 360 or 720 degrees. After 1 h, the tail veins of the anaesthetized rats were cannulated and T2 -, diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted CE-dynamic MRI were subsequently performed by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. On apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, the region of interest values of the ischaemic and control testes was compared. From CE-dynamic MR images, the maximal slopes of contrast enhancement were calculated and compared. In testicular torsion of 360 degrees, the maximal slope of contrast enhancement was 0.072%/s vs. 0.47%/s in the contralateral control testis (p < 0.001). A torsion of 720 degrees diminished the slope of contrast enhancement to 0.046%/s vs. 0.37%/s in the contralateral testis (p < 0.001). Diminished blood flow during torsion also followed in decreased ADC values in both 360 degrees (12.4% decrease; p < 0.05) and 720 degrees (10.8% decrease; p < 0.001) of torsion. Torsion of the testis causes ipsilateral hypoperfusion and decreased gadolinium uptake in a rat model that can be easily detected and quantified by CE-dynamic MRI. In diffusion-weighted MRI images, acute hypoperfusion results in a slight decrease of ADC values. Our results suggest that CE-dynamic MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to detect compromised blood flow due to acute testicular torsion.

  8. Retrospective and comparative analysis of (99m)Tc-Sestamibi breast specific gamma imaging versus mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of breast cancer in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuyan; Hu, Guoming; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Fuming; Shao, Xuan; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhan, Hongwei; Chen, Yiding; Deng, Yongchuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-07-11

    Diagnosing breast cancer during the early stage may be helpful for decreasing cancer-related mortality. In Western developed countries, mammographies have been the gold standard for breast cancer detection. However, Chinese women usually have denser and smaller-sized breasts compared to Caucasian women, which decreases the diagnostic accuracy of mammography. However, breast specific gamma imaging, a type of molecular functional breast imaging, has been used for the accurate diagnosis of breast cancer and is not influenced by breast density. Our objective was to analyze the breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI) diagnostic value for Chinese women. During a 2-year period, 357 women were diagnosed and treated at our oncology department and received BSGI in addition to mammography (MMG), ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic assessment. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of each method of detection and compared the biological profiles of the four imaging methods. A total of 357 women received a final surgical pathology diagnosis, with 168 malignant diseases (58.5 %) and 119 benign diseases (41.5 %). Of these, 166 underwent the four imaging tests preoperatively. The sensitivity of BSGI was 80.35 and 82.14 % by US, 75.6 % by MMG, and 94.06 % by MRI. Furthermore, the breast cancer diagnosis specificity of BSGI was high (83.19 % vs. 77.31 % vs. 66.39 % vs. 67.69 %, respectively). The BSGI diagnostic sensitivity for mammographic breast density in women was superior to mammography and more sensitive for non-luminal A subtypes (luminal A vs. non-luminal A, 68.63 % vs. 88.30 %). BSGI may help improve the ability to diagnose early stage breast cancer for Chinese women, particularly for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), mammographic breast density and non-luminal A breast cancer.

  9. [Comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Meladze, N V; Ternovoĭ, S K; Sharia, M A; Solopova, A E

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of diagnosis of breast tumors by comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involving dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eighty-seven women aged 32 to 75 years with breast neoplasms were examined. MRM was performed on a Philips Achieva 3.0T TX scanner. The MRI protocol consisted of axial fat-suppressed T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and 8 postcontrast dynamic series. Changes in contrast-enhanced MRI of breast cancer (BC) were estimated by constructing the signal intensity-time curves. MRS was carried out using a PRESS sequence. Dynamic MRM determined type III signal intensity-time curve in 83.9% of the patients with BC and type II curve in 16.1% of those with breast malignancies and in 33.3% of those with breast fibroadenomas. Type I signal intensity-time curve was identified in 66.7% of the cases of fibroadenomas. Elevated choline concentrations in the malignancies were detected in 17.7% of cases. Their tumors were larger than 2 cm. The choline peak in the malignancies could not be revealed in the other cases, which was associated to the large voxel size exceeding the mass size. There was a drastic fall in the signal-to-noise ratio with smaller voxel sizes. Furthermore, higher choline levels were determined in 9.5% of the fibroadenoma cases. Comparison of MRS findings before and after contrast injection revealed the advantage of the latter, which is primarily attributed to the more accurate voxel position on the tumor than that during non-contrast-enhanced MRS. Dynamic intravenous contrast-enhanced MRM is an effective method for the differential diagnosis of breast masses. MRS cannot be included in the standard study protocol for women with breast masses for the present.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bathen-Noethen, A; Stein, V M; Puff, C; Baumgaertner, W; Tipold, A

    2008-09-01

    Demyelination is the prominent histopathological hallmark in the acute stage of canine distemper virus infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is an important diagnostic tool in human beings to determine demyelination in the brain, for example in multiple sclerosis. Five young dogs with clinically suspected canine distemper virus infection were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Hyperintense lesions and loss of contrast between grey and white matter were detected in T2-weighted images in the cerebellum and/or in the brainstem of three dogs, which correlated with demyelination demonstrated in histopathological examination. Furthermore, increased signal intensities in T2-weighted images were seen in the temporal lobe of four dogs with no evidence of demyelination. Magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a sensitive tool for the visualisation of in vivo myelination defects in dogs with acute canine distemper virus infection. Postictal oedema and accumulation of antigen positive cells have to be considered an important differential diagnosis.

  11. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cryptorchid testis.

    PubMed

    Landa, H M; Gylys-Morin, V; Mattrey, R F; Krous, H F; Kaplan, G W; Packer, M G

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate seven patients with undescended testes. In six patients the presence or absence of testicular tissue was predicted correctly prior to surgery. Spermatic cord structures, if present, were accurately visualized in all patients.

  13. Early detection of pulp necrosis and dental vitality after traumatic dental injuries in children and adolescents by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Alexandre T; Zrnc, Tomislav A; Remus, Chressen C; Khokale, Arun; Habermann, Christian R; Schulze, Dirk; Fiehler, Jens; Heiland, Max; Sedlacik, Jan; Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2015-09-01

    More than 50% of all children suffer a traumatic dental injury (TDI) during childhood. In many cases, dentists apply root canal treatment (RCT), which is performed on an average of 7-10 days after replantation. Our aim was to evaluate whether RCT is necessary in many cases, and whether revitalization of affected teeth is possible and measurable by visualization using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seven healthy children with TDI were treated by repositioning of the affected teeth and reduction of alveolar process fractures followed by splinting. Two weeks after initial treatment, splints were removed. After 6 weeks, all children received 3-Tesla (3T), three-dimensional, high-resolution MRI with a 20-channel standard head and neck coil. The mean age of the children (male/female = 5:2) was 10.8 years (range, 8-17 years). In addition, all children received conventional dental examination for tooth vitality and dental sensitivity to cold and tenderness on percussion. 3T MRI provided excellent images that allowed fine discrimination between dental pulp and adjacent tooth. Using four in-house optimized, non-contrast-enhanced sequences, including panoramic reconstruction, the assessment and analysis of the dental pulp was sufficiently feasible. We could demonstrate reperfusion and thus vitality of the affected teeth in 11 sites. In one child, MRI was able to detect nonreperfusion after TDI of the affected tooth. MRI results were confirmed by clinical examination in all cases. As a consequence of this expectant management and proof of reperfusion and tooth vitality by 3T MRI, only one child had to be treated by RCT. 3T MRI is a very promising tool for visualization and detection in the field of dental and oromaxillofacial diseases. By using new 3T MRI sequences in children with TDI, we could demonstrate that RCT are not necessary in every case, and thus could prevent unnecessary treatment of children in the future. Larger studies should follow to confirm the

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of oscillating electrical currents

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Teisseyre, Thomas Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI has become an important tool of researchers and clinicians who seek to understand patterns of neuronal activation that accompany sensory and cognitive processes. However, the interpretation of fMRI images rests on assumptions about the relationship between neuronal firing and hemodynamic response that are not firmly grounded in rigorous theory or experimental evidence. Further, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent effect, which correlates an MRI observable to neuronal firing, evolves over a period that is 2 orders of magnitude longer than the underlying processes that are thought to cause it. Here, we instead demonstrate experiments to directly image oscillating currents by MRI. The approach rests on a resonant interaction between an applied rf field and an oscillating magnetic field in the sample and, as such, permits quantitative, frequency-selective measurements of current density without spatial or temporal cancellation. We apply this method in a current loop phantom, mapping its magnetic field and achieving a detection sensitivity near the threshold required for the detection of neuronal currents. Because the contrast mechanism is under spectroscopic control, we are able to demonstrate how ramped and phase-modulated spin-lock radiation can enhance the sensitivity and robustness of the experiment. We further demonstrate the combination of these methods with remote detection, a technique in which the encoding and detection of an MRI experiment are separated by sample flow or translation. We illustrate that remotely detected MRI permits the measurement of currents in small volumes of flowing water with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PMID:20421504

  15. Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean

    2015-11-01

    Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Towards Human Oxygen Images with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Boris; Redler, Gage; Tormyshev, Victor; Halpern, Howard J.

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has been used to noninvasively provide 3D images of absolute oxygen concentration (pO2) in small animals. These oxygen images are well resolved both spatially (∼1mm) and in pO2 (1-3 torr). EPRI preclinical images of pO2 have demonstrated extremely promising results for various applications investigating oxygen related physiologic and biologic processes as well as the dependence of various disease states on pO2, such as the role of hypoxia in cancer. Recent developments have been made that help to progress EPRI towards the eventual goal of human application. For example, a bimodal crossed-wire surface coil has been developed. Very preliminary tests demonstrated a 20 dB isolation between transmit and receive for this coil, with an anticipated additional 20dB achievable. This could potentially be used to image local pO2 in human subjects with superficial tumors with EPRI. Local excitation and detection will reduce the specific absorption rate limitations on images and eliminate any possible power deposition concerns. Additionally, a large 9 mT EPRI magnet has been constructed which can fit and provide static main and gradient fields for imaging local anatomy in an entire human. One potential obstacle that must be overcome in order to use EPRI to image humans is the approved use of the requisite EPRI spin probe imaging agent (trityl). While nontoxic, EPRI trityl spin probes have been injected intravenously when imaging small animals, which results in relatively high total body injection doses that would not be suitable for human imaging applications. Work has been done demonstrating the alternative use of intratumoral (IT) injections, which can reduce the amount of trityl required for imaging by a factor of 2000- relative to a whole body intravenous injection. The development of a large magnet that can accommodate human subjects, the design of a surface coil for imaging of superficial pO2, and the reduction of required

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We report an approach for the detection of magnetic resonance imaging without superconducting magnets and cryogenics: optical atomic magnetometry. This technique possesses a high sensitivity independent of the strength of the static magnetic field, extending the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging to low magnetic fields and eliminating imaging artifacts associated with high fields. By coupling with a remote-detection scheme, thereby improving the filling factor of the sample, we obtained time-resolved flow images of water with a temporal resolution of 0.1 s and spatial resolutions of 1.6 mm perpendicular to the flow and 4.5 mm along the flow. Potentially inexpensive, compact, and mobile, our technique provides a viable alternative for MRI detection with substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution for various situations where traditional MRI is not optimal. PMID:16885210

  18. Tumor Detection at 3 Tesla with an Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide Dendrimer (ACPPD-Gd), a T1 Magnetic Resonance (MR) Molecular Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Christopher D.; Olson, Emilia S.; Mattrey, Robert F.; Jiang, Tao; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The ability to detect small malignant lesions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited by inadequate accumulations of Gd with standard chelate agents. To date, no T1-targeted agents have proven superiority to Gd chelates in their ability to detect small tumors at clinically relevant field strengths. Activatable cell-penetrating peptides and their Gd-loaded dendrimeric form (ACPPD-Gd) have been shown to selectively accumulate in tumors. In this study we compared the performance of ACPPD-Gd vs. untargeted Gd chelates to detect small tumors in rodent models using a clinical 3T-MR system. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional-Animal Care-and-Use Committee. 2 of 4 inguinal breast fat pads of 16 albino-C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with tumor Py8119 cells and the other 2 with saline at random. MRI at 3T was performed at 4, 9, and 14 days after inoculation on 8 mice 24-hours after injection of 0.036mmol Gd/kg (ACPPD-Gd), and before and 2–3 minutes after 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol on the other 8 mice. T1-weighted (T1w) tumor signal normalized to muscle, was compared among the non-contrast, gadobutrol, and ACPPD-Gd groups using ANOVA. Experienced and trainee readers blinded to experimental conditions assessed for the presence of tumor in each of the 4 breast regions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and area-under-curve (AUC) values were constructed and analyzed. Results Tumors ≥1mm3 were iso-intense to muscle without contrast on T1w sequences. They enhanced diffusely and homogeneously by 57±20% (p<0.001) 24 hours after ACPPD-Gd and by 25±13% (p<0.001) immediately after gadobutrol. The nearly 2-fold difference was similar for small tumors (1-5mm3) (45±19% vs. 19±18%, p = 0.03). ACPPD-Gd tended to improve tumor detection by an experienced reader (AUC 0.98 vs 0.91) and significantly more for a trainee (0.93 vs. 0.82, p = 0.02) compared to gadobutrol. This improvement was more pronounced when obvious tumors (>5mm3

  19. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Köşüş, Aydın; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğulları, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tekşam, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan.

  20. Renal relevant radiology: renal functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Behzad; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2014-02-01

    Because of its noninvasive nature and provision of quantitative measures of a wide variety of physiologic parameters, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows great potential for research and clinical applications. Over the past decade, application of functional MRI extended beyond detection of cerebral activity, and techniques for abdominal functional MRI evolved. Assessment of renal perfusion, glomerular filtration, interstitial diffusion, and parenchymal oxygenation turned this modality into an essential research and potentially diagnostic tool. Variations in many renal physiologic markers can be detected using functional MRI before morphologic changes become evident in anatomic magnetic resonance images. Moreover, the framework of functional MRI opened a window of opportunity to develop novel pathophysiologic markers. This article reviews applications of some well validated functional MRI techniques, including perfusion, diffusion-weighted imaging, and blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, as well as some emerging new techniques such as magnetic resonance elastography, which might evolve into clinically useful tools.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  3. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  4. Intra voxel analysis in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Lenti, Flavia; Pascazio, Vito

    2017-04-01

    A technique for analyzing the composition of each voxel, in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) framework, is presented. By combining different acquisitions, a novel methodology, called intra voxel analysis (IVA), for the detection of multiple tissues and the estimation of their spin-spin relaxation times is proposed. The methodology exploits the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approach in order to solve a highly underdetermined problem imposing the solution sparsity. IVA, developed for spin echo imaging sequence, can be easily extended to any acquisition scheme. For validating the approach, simulated and real data sets are considered. Monte Carlo simulations have been implemented for evaluating the performances of IVA compared to methods existing in literature. Two clinical datasets acquired with a 3T scanner have been considered for validating the approach. With respect to other approaches presented in literature, IVA has proved to be more effective in the voxel composition analysis, in particular in the case of few acquired images. Results are interesting and very promising: IVA is expected to have a remarkable impact on the research community and on the diagnostic field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Systematic Review of Non-Echo Planar Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection of Primary and Postoperative Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Sylvia L; Stegeman, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Aarts, Mark C J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of non-echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for primary and recurrent/residual (postoperative) cholesteatoma in adults (≥18 years) after canal wall up surgery. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane up to October 22, 2014. All studies investigating non-echo planar DW-MRI for primary and postoperative cholesteatoma were selected and critically appraised for relevance and validity. In total, 779 unique articles were identified, of which 23 articles were included for critical appraisal. Seven articles met our criteria for relevance and validity for postoperative cholesteatoma. Four studies were additionally included for subgroup analysis of primary cases only. Ranges of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value yielded 43%-92%, 58%-100%, 50%-100% and 64%-100%, respectively. Results for primary subgroup analysis were 83%-100%, 50%-100%, 85%-100%, and 50%-100%, respectively. Results for subgroup analysis for only postoperative cases yielded 80%-82%, 90%-100%, 96%-100%, 64%-85%, respectively. Despite a higher prevalence of cholesteatoma in the primary cases, there was no clinical difference in added value of DW-MRI between primary and postoperative cases. We found a high predictive value of non-echo planar DW-MRI for the detection of primary and postoperative cholesteatoma. Given the moderate quality of evidence, we strongly recommend both the use of non-echo planar DW-MRI scans for the follow-up after cholesteatoma surgery, and when the correct diagnosis is questioned in primary preoperative cases. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of ischemic brain lesions in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: relation to extracorporeal circulation and heparinization.

    PubMed

    Mirow, N; Zittermann, A; Körperich, H; Börgermann, J; Koertke, H; Knobl, H; Gieseke, J; Ostertun, B; Coskun, T; Kleesiek, K; Burchert, W; Gummert, J F

    2011-02-01

    Cognitive decline is a well recognized complication after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We investigated whether the design of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and the extent of perioperative heparinization have an impact on neurological dysfunction. Sixty-three CABG surgery patients were randomly perfused with an uncoated ECC-set (group A) or with two different heparin-coated ECC-sets (groups B and C). In groups A and B, systemic heparin was given in doses of 400 IU/kg body weight, whereas group C received 150 IU/kg body weight. ECC sets in group C included a diagonal pump and low priming as opposed to roller pumps in groups A and B. Furthermore, in group C blood contact to surfaces other than endothelium and heparin coated material was eliminated. Brain lesions were detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). Neurological complications were assessed clinically until discharge (manifest motoric, sensitive or cognitive disturbance). Biochemical coagulation and inflammation parameters were measured pre-, peri-, and postoperatively. No major neurological events were observed in either group until discharge. DWIs showed 61 new lesions in 19 of 45 patients who terminated all MRI study procedures. Number and volume of the lesions did not differ between groups (P>0.05). Biochemical and inflammatory parameters showed the expected time courses and variations between groups. Ischemic brain lesions are frequently observed in CABG surgery patients but are neither associated with clinically relevant neurological complications nor with ECC set-up and intraoperative heparin dosage. DWI may help in the development of new surgical strategies to reduce postoperative brain damage.

  7. A comparative study of contrast enhanced ultrasound and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the detection and characterization of hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Zhu, Zheng; Huang, Beijian; Ding, Hong; Mao, Feng; Li, Chaolun; Zeng, Mengsu; Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Ling; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Yue

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to compare contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) for the detection and characterization of hepatic hemangiomas. Included in this retrospective study were 83 histopathologically confirmed lesions of hemangioma in 66 hospitalized patients who underwent both CEUS and CEMRI and received surgery. The enhancement patterns on CEUS and CEMRI in each lesion were compared and analyzed. In addition, data obtained by the two modalities were then compared with the pathological findings to determine their value in differential diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. CEUS diagnosed 78 lesions of hemangioma against 80 by CEMRI. There were no statistical significant differences in the diagnostic value between CEUS and CEMRI in terms of sensitivity (88.0% vs. 92.8%), specificity (99.0% vs. 99.4%), accuracy (97.3% vs. 98.4%), positive predictive value (93.6% vs. 96.3%), and negative predictive value (98.0% vs. 98.8%) (p > 0.05, all). In the arterial phase, the main enhancement pattern on both CEUS and CEMRI was peripheral nodular enhancement (73 vs. 76), but lesions with diffuse enhancement on CEUS outnumbered those on CEMRI (3 vs. 1) and lesions with circular enhancement on CEMRI outnumbered those on CEUS (3 vs. 2). In the portal venous phase and delayed phase, the main enhancement pattern was hyperechoic change on CEUS and hyperintense on CEMRI (66 vs. 65), some lesions presented isoechoic change (12 vs. 15). These results suggested CEUS, an equivalent to CEMRI, may have an added diagnostic value in hemangiomas.

  8. Detection of age-dependent brain injury in a mouse model of brain amyloidosis associated with Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Wei; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Harms, Michael P; Lin, Shiow-Jiuan; Holtzman, David M; Merchant, Kalpana M; Kotyk, John J

    2005-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the present study investigates changes in both gray and white matter in the APPsw transgenic mouse (Tg2576), a model of beta-amyloid plaque deposition associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DTI analyses were performed in cross-sectional groups of transgene-positive and -negative mice at 8, 12, 16, and 18 months of age to assess the magnitude of water diffusion in gray matter (i.e., Tr(D)) and changes in diffusion in white matter that may be indicative of axonal degeneration (i.e., reduced water diffusion parallel to axonal tracts, lambda(||)) and myelin degradation (i.e., increased water diffusion perpendicular to axonal tracts, lambda(perpendicular)). No appreciable changes in gray or white matter were observed between the APPsw and the age-matched control mice at 8 months of age. Reduced Tr(D) and lambda(||) were observed in gray and white matter, respectively, for the APPsw mice at ages greater than 8 months, which coincides with the time period when appreciable amyloid plaque accumulation was confirmed by ex vivo histopathological studies. The decreases in lambda(||) suggest the presence of axonal injury in multiple white matter tracts of APPsw mice. Unlike lambda(||), lambda(perpendicular) was unaltered between control and APPsw mice in most white matter tracts. However, in the corpus collosum (CC), lambda(perpendicular) increased at 16 and 18 months of age, suggesting the possibility of myelin damage in the CC at these later ages. This work demonstrates the potential for DTI as a noninvasive modality to detect evolving pathology associated with changes in tissue water diffusion properties in brain tissues.

  9. Flow in porous metallic materials: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Michalak, David J; Crawford, Charles W; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    To visualize flow dynamics of analytes inside porous metallic materials with laser-detected magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We examine the flow of nuclear-polarized water in a porous stainless steel cylinder. Laser-detected MRI utilizes a sensitive optical atomic magnetometer as the detector. Imaging was performed in a remote-detection mode: the encoding was conducted in the Earth's magnetic field, and detection is conducted downstream of the encoding location. Conventional MRI (7T) was also performed for comparison. Laser-detected MRI clearly showed MR images of water flowing through the sample, whereas conventional MRI provided no image. We demonstrated the viability of laser-detected MRI at low-field for studying porous metallic materials, extending MRI techniques to a new group of systems that is normally not accessible to conventional MRI. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Differences in supratentorial damage of white matter in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors with and without adjuvant treatment as detected by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Blankenburg, Friederike; Lüdemann, Lutz; Henze, Günter; Bruhn, Harald

    2010-03-01

    To elucidate morphologic correlates of brain dysfunction in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors by using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine neuroaxonal integrity in white matter. Seventeen medulloblastoma (MB) patients who had received surgery and adjuvant treatment, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients who had been treated only with surgery, and age-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-Tesla system. High-resolution conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and DTI data sets were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, a part of the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library. Compared with control subjects, FA values of MB patients were significantly decreased in the cerebellar midline structures, in the frontal lobes, and in the callosal body. Fractional anisotropy values of the PA patients were not only decreased in cerebellar hemispheric structures as expected, but also in supratentorial parts of the brain, with a distribution similar to that in MB patients. However, the amount of significantly decreased FA was greater in MB than in PA patients, underscoring the aggravating neurotoxic effect of the adjuvant treatment. Neurotoxic mechanisms that are present in PA patients (e.g., internal hydrocephalus and damaged cerebellar structures affecting neuronal circuits) contribute significantly to the alteration of supratentorial white matter in pediatric posterior fossa tumor patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in Supratentorial Damage of White Matter in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors With and Without Adjuvant Treatment as Detected by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Driever, Pablo Hernaiz; Blankenburg, Friederike; Luedemann, Lutz; Henze, Guenter; Bruhn, Harald

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To elucidate morphologic correlates of brain dysfunction in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors by using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine neuroaxonal integrity in white matter. Patients and Methods: Seventeen medulloblastoma (MB) patients who had received surgery and adjuvant treatment, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients who had been treated only with surgery, and age-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-Tesla system. High-resolution conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and DTI data sets were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, a part of the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library. Results: Compared with control subjects, FA values of MB patients were significantly decreased in the cerebellar midline structures, in the frontal lobes, and in the callosal body. Fractional anisotropy values of the PA patients were not only decreased in cerebellar hemispheric structures as expected, but also in supratentorial parts of the brain, with a distribution similar to that in MB patients. However, the amount of significantly decreased FA was greater in MB than in PA patients, underscoring the aggravating neurotoxic effect of the adjuvant treatment. Conclusions: Neurotoxic mechanisms that are present in PA patients (e.g., internal hydrocephalus and damaged cerebellar structures affecting neuronal circuits) contribute significantly to the alteration of supratentorial white matter in pediatric posterior fossa tumor patients.

  12. Neuroglial metabolic compartmentation underlying leptin deficiency in the obese ob/ob mice as detected by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Teresa C; Violante, Inês R; Nieto-Charques, Laura; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI), 1H and 13C High-Resolution-Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) Spectroscopy, and genomic approaches were used to compare cerebral activation and neuronal and glial oxidative metabolism in ad libitum fed C57BL6/J leptin-deficient, genetically obese ob/ob mice. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images across the hypothalamic Arcuate and the Ventromedial nuclei were acquired kinetically after manganese infusion. Neuroglial compartmentation was investigated in hypothalamic biopsies after intraperitoneal injections of [1-13C]glucose or [2-13C]acetate. Total RNA was extracted to determine the effects of leptin deficiency in the expression of representative genes coding for regulatory enzymes of hypothalamic energy pathways and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed enhanced cerebral activation in the hypothalamic Arcuate and Ventromedial nuclei of the ob/ob mice. 13C HR-MAS analysis showed increased 13C accumulation in the hypothalamic glutamate and glutamine carbons of ob/ob mice after the administration of [1-13C]glucose, a primarily neuronal substrate. Hypothalamic expression of the genes coding for glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and glutamine synthase was not significantly altered while pyruvate kinase expression was slightly upregulated. In conclusion, leptin deficiency associated with obesity led to increased cerebral activation in the hypothalamic Arcuate and Ventromedial nuclei, concomitant with significant increases in neuronal oxidative metabolism and glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:21971349

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  14. Superior diagnostic performance of perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus SPECT to detect coronary artery disease: The secondary endpoints of the multicenter multivendor MR-IMPACT II (Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Myocardial Perfusion Assessment in Coronary Artery Disease Trial)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is generally accepted as an alternative to SPECT to assess myocardial ischemia non-invasively. However its performance vs gated-SPECT and in sub-populations is not fully established. The goal was to compare in a multicenter setting the diagnostic performance of perfusion-CMR and gated-SPECT for the detection of CAD in various populations using conventional x-ray coronary angiography (CXA) as the standard of reference. Methods In 33 centers (in US and Europe) 533 patients, eligible for CXA or SPECT, were enrolled in this multivendor trial. SPECT and CXA were performed within 4 weeks before or after CMR in all patients. Prevalence of CAD in the sample was 49% and 515 patients received MR contrast medium. Drop-out rates for CMR and SPECT were 5.6% and 3.7%, respectively (ns). The study was powered for the primary endpoint of non-inferiority of CMR vs SPECT for both, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CAD (using a single-threshold reading), the results for the primary endpoint were reported elsewhere. In this article secondary endpoints are presented, i.e. the diagnostic performance of CMR versus SPECT in subpopulations such as multi-vessel disease (MVD), in men, in women, and in patients without prior myocardial infarction (MI). For diagnostic performance assessment the area under the receiver-operator-characteristics-curve (AUC) was calculated. Readers were blinded versus clinical data, CXA, and imaging results. Results The diagnostic performance (= area under ROC = AUC) of CMR was superior to SPECT (p = 0.0004, n = 425) and to gated-SPECT (p = 0.018, n = 253). CMR performed better than SPECT in MVD (p = 0.003 vs all SPECT, p = 0.04 vs gated-SPECT), in men (p = 0.004, n = 313) and in women (p = 0.03, n = 112) as well as in the non-infarct patients (p = 0.005, n = 186 in 1–3 vessel disease and p = 0.015, n = 140 in MVD). Conclusion

  15. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  16. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  17. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Joseph C

    2008-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the dominant clinical imaging modality with widespread, primarily noninvasive, applicability throughout the body and across many disease processes. The flexibility of MR imaging enables the development of purpose-built optimized applications. Concurrent developments in digital image processing, microprocessor power, storage, and computer-aided design have spurred and enabled further growth in capability. Although MR imaging may be viewed as "mature" in some respects, the field is rich with new proposals and applications that hold great promise for future research health care uses. This article delineates the basic principles of MR imaging and illuminates specific applications.

  18. Long-term evaluation of asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cysts. Comparison of the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computer-assisted cisternography for detection of cholesterin fragments.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, P; Fortuna, A; Cantore, G; Missori, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computer-assisted cisternography (CAc) assessment of latent late recurrences in long-term asymptomatic patients surgically treated for intracranial epidermoid cyst is here presented. MRI was exclusively utilized in one patient; CAc was exclusively employed in three patients with metalic operative clips; both CAc and MRI were employed in another four patients. CAc appears to be more reliable than MRI in detecting cholesterin fragments in asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cyst.

  19. Resonant structures for infrared detection.

    PubMed

    Choi, K K; Allen, S C; Sun, J G; Wei, Y; Olver, K A; Fu, R X

    2017-01-20

    We are developing resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) for long-wavelength applications. Detector pixels with 25 μm pitch were hybridized to fan-out circuits for radiometric measurements. With a moderate doping of 0.5×1018  cm-3, we achieved a quantum efficiency (QE) of 37% and conversion efficiency (CE) of 15% in a 1.3 μm thick active material and 35% QE and 21% CE in a 0.6 μm thick active material. Both detectors are cutoff at 10.5 μm with a 2 μm bandwidth. The temperature at which photocurrent equals dark current is about 65 K under F/2 optics. The thicker detector shows a large QE polarity asymmetry due to nonlinear potential drop in the QWIP material layers.

  20. Nuclear resonance fluorescence and effective Z determination applied to detection and imaging of special nuclear material, explosives, toxic substances and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, William; Korbly, Stephen E.; Ledoux, Robert J.; Park, William

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) provides a signal that is unique and present for almost all nuclei with Z > 2. This uniqueness would enable, for example, the discrimination between 235U from 238U. Explosives can be detected by the characteristic signatures of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen and their respective densities in a common space. Effective Z algorithms (EZ-3D) have been developed for the examination of the non-resonant spectrum of back-scattered photons that yield a signal with very high contrast between materials of moderately different Z. Both the NRF and EZ-3D non-intrusive inspection techniques provide a three dimensional display of the contents of a container; respectively, the isotopic concentrations, and effective Z and mass. NRF combined with EZ-3D provides the possibility for rapid scanning of seagoing containers, trucks and other vehicles. They do so in short times with high detection probabilities for SNM, explosives and other contraband and with low false alarms.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of semicircular canals.

    PubMed Central

    Sbarbati, A; Leclercq, F; Zancanaro, C; Antonakis, K

    1992-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of the first investigation of the semicircular canals in a living, small animal by means of high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. This procedure is noninvasive and allows identification of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces yielding a morphology quite consistent with direct anatomical examination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1506290

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  3. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  4. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  5. Reconstruction of pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance