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Sample records for resonance imaging mri

  1. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an image. Repeated exposure can be harmful.An MRI scan takes longer to perform (30 to 60 minutes, ... a treatment plan.Depending on your symptoms, an MRI will scan a specific portion of your body to diagnose: ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... the area being scanned include: Metallic spinal rod Plates, pins, screws, or metal mesh used to repair ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth > For Parents > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus

    ... provides detailed images of blood vessels in the brain—often without the need for contrast material. See the MRA page for more information. MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If You Have Questions en español Resonancia magnética: columna lumbar What It Is Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Cervical Spine Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not completely surround you. Some newer MRI machines have a larger diameter bore which can be ... size patients or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines are open on the sides (open MRI). Open ...

  8. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. Instead, MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves, rapidly changing magnetic fields, and a computer to ... in most of the body's tissues. The applied radio waves then cause these protons to produce signals that ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. A radiologist (a doctor trained to understand MRI scans) needs to look at the images. The radiologist ... TOPIC Medical Tests: What to Expect (Video) CAT Scan (Video) MRI (Video) Questions to Ask Your Doctor Taking Charge ...

  11. Open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners.

    PubMed

    Hailey, D

    2006-11-01

    (1) In most MRI scanners, the patient examination table fits inside a long cylindrical tube. Large patients cannot be accommodated, and some persons experience claustrophobic reactions. Open MRI systems, in which the patient is placed between two plates, overcome these disadvantages. (2) Open MRI scanners are widely used in health care. High-field closed MRI systems are preferred for many examinations. (3) Early versions of open MRI scanners had low magnetic field strength, gave poorer image quality than most closed systems, and required longer examination times. Newer open scanners include machines with higher magnetic field strengths and improved image quality. (4) Closed high magnetic field scanners with short magnets and wide bore tubes offer improved comfort to patients, and may be an alternative to open scanners. (5) There is interest in using open systems for intra-operative and image-guided interventions.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... noninvasive test that uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... The magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. Other ... signals that are detected by the coils. The electric current does not come in contact with the patient. ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause a problem near a strong magnetic field. Electronic devices aren't permitted in the MRI room. ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  15. Prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): multidisciplinary standpoint.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Wang, Liang; Feng, Zhaoyan; Hu, Zhiquan; Wang, Guoping; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, He; Hu, Daoyu

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and a leading cause of death. Accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection of prostate cancer. There are several parameters and nomograms to differentiate between patients with clinically insignificant disease and patients in need of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique which provides more detailed anatomical images due to high spatial resolution, superior contrast resolution, and multiplanar capability. State-of-the-art MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), improve interpretation of prostate cancer imaging. In this article, we review the major role of MRI in the advanced management of prostate cancer to noninvasively improve tumor staging, biologic potential, treatment planning, therapy response, local recurrence, and to guide target biopsy for clinical suspected cancer with previous negative biopsy. Finally, future challenges and opportunities in prostate cancer management in the area of functional MRI are discussed as well.

  16. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology. PMID:24006360

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a powerful antenna and sent to a computer. The computer performs millions of calculations, resulting in clear, cross- ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A review of genetic damage investigations.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Fatahi, Mahsa; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging technique widely used to acquire detailed information about anatomy and function of different organs in the body, in both health and disease. It utilizes electromagnetic fields of three different frequency bands: static magnetic field (SMF), time-varying gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in the kHz range and pulsed radiofrequency fields (RF) in the MHz range. There have been some investigations examining the extent of genetic damage following exposure of bacterial and human cells to all three frequency bands of electromagnetic fields, as used during MRI: the rationale for these studies is the well documented evidence of positive correlation between significantly increased genetic damage and carcinogenesis. Overall, the published data were not sufficiently informative and useful because of the small sample size, inappropriate comparison of experimental groups, etc. Besides, when an increased damage was observed in MRI-exposed cells, the fate of such lesions was not further explored from multiple 'down-stream' events. This review provides: (i) information on the basic principles used in MRI technology, (ii) detailed experimental protocols, results and critical comments on the genetic damage investigations thus far conducted using MRI equipment and, (iii) a discussion on several gaps in knowledge in the current scientific literature on MRI. Comprehensive, international, multi-centered collaborative studies, using a common and widely used MRI exposure protocol (cardiac or brain scan) incorporating several genetic/epigenetic damage end-points as well as epidemiological investigations, in large number of individuals/patients are warranted to reduce and perhaps, eliminate uncertainties raised in genetic damage investigations in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Hulya; Pourbagher, Aysin; Colakoglu, Tamer

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign breast disease with unknown etiology which can mimic breast carcinoma, both clinically and radiologically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of IGM have been previously described; however there is no study evaluating diffusion-weighted MRI findings of IGM. To analyze conventional, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted MRI signal characteristics of IGM by comparing it with the contralateral normal breast parenchyma. A total of 39 patients were included in the study. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the distribution and enhancement patterns of the lesions were evaluated. We also detected the frequencies of involving quadrants, retroareolar involvement, accompanying abscess, and skin edema. T2-weighted (T2W) and STIR signal intensities and both mean and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared with the contralateral normal parenchyma. IGM showed significantly lower mean and minimum ADC values when compared with the normal parenchyma. Signal intensities on T2W and STIR sequences of the lesion were significantly higher than the normal parenchyma. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 7.7% of the patients had mass-like contrast enhancement, 92.3% of the patients had non-mass-like contrast enhancement. Abscess was positive in 33.3% of the patients. As a result, IGM showed commonly non-mass-like lesions with restricted diffusion. Although it is a benign pathology, it may show clustered ring-like enhancement like malignant lesions. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/MRI for Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-07-01

    Tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of lung cancer is typically performed with the TNM staging system, as recommended by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC), the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Radiologic examinations for TNM staging of lung cancer patients include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), and FDG-PET combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) and are used for pretherapeutic assessments. Recent technical advances in MR systems, application of fast and parallel imaging and/or introduction of new MR techniques, and utilization of contrast media have markedly improved the diagnostic utility of MRI in this setting. In addition, FDG-PET can be combined or fused with MRI (PET/MRI) for clinical practice. This review article will focus on these recent advances in MRI as well as on PET/MRI for lung cancer staging, in addition to a discussion of their potential and limitations for routine clinical practice in comparison with other modalities such as CT, FDG-PET, and PET/CT.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of solid rocket components

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, A.S.; Nissan, R.A.; Merwin, L.H.

    1995-12-01

    The evaluation of solid rocket components has become an area of great interest. Studying these materials with MRI offers a great advantage to observe knit lines, regions of inhomogeneity, voids, defects, plasticizer rich/poor areas and solids distribution because of the nondestructive nature of the technique. Aspects of sample preparation, spectroscopic relaxation studies, and MRI as a method of studying these systems will be discussed. Initial images show the ability to image propellant, liner, and explosive materials with an in-plane resolution of 70 {mu}m/pixel. These initial images show that MRI can be developed as a viable nondestructive evaluation method of solid rocket components.

  2. Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Westcott, J.L.; Steiner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid progress of MRI has been remarkable, and it is clear that it will become an important method for cardiac imaging. Its major advantages are the lack of ionizing radiation and the ability to obtain excellent global images of the cardiac walls and chambers without the need for contrast injection or cardiac catheterization. High resolution surface coil imaging, tissue spectroscopy, and other improvements and applications should be rapidly forthcoming.

  3. Complete fourier direct magnetic resonance imaging (CFD-MRI) for diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Alpay

    2013-01-01

    The foundation for an accurate and unifying Fourier-based theory of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW–MRI) is constructed by carefully re-examining the first principles of DW–MRI signal formation and deriving its mathematical model from scratch. The derivations are specifically obtained for DW–MRI signal by including all of its elements (e.g., imaging gradients) using complex values. Particle methods are utilized in contrast to conventional partial differential equations approach. The signal is shown to be the Fourier transform of the joint distribution of number of the magnetic moments (at a given location at the initial time) and magnetic moment displacement integrals. In effect, the k-space is augmented by three more dimensions, corresponding to the frequency variables dual to displacement integral vectors. The joint distribution function is recovered by applying the Fourier transform to the complete high-dimensional data set. In the process, to obtain a physically meaningful real valued distribution function, phase corrections are applied for the re-establishment of Hermitian symmetry in the signal. Consequently, the method is fully unconstrained and directly presents the distribution of displacement integrals without any assumptions such as symmetry or Markovian property. The joint distribution function is visualized with isosurfaces, which describe the displacement integrals, overlaid on the distribution map of the number of magnetic moments with low mobility. The model provides an accurate description of the molecular motion measurements via DW–MRI. The improvement of the characterization of tissue microstructure leads to a better localization, detection and assessment of biological properties such as white matter integrity. The results are demonstrated on the experimental data obtained from an ex vivo baboon brain. PMID:23596401

  4. Current status of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography fusion software platforms for guidance of prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jennifer K; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Gomella, Andrew; Amalou, Hayet; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Prostate MRI is currently the best diagnostic imaging method for detecting PCa. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasonography (US) fusion allows the sensitivity and specificity of MRI to be combined with the real-time capabilities of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Multiple approaches and techniques exist for MRI/US fusion and include direct 'in bore' MRI biopsies, cognitive fusion, and MRI/US fusion via software-based image coregistration platforms. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  5. Interhemispheric neuroplasticity following limb deafferentation detected by resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies in rat brain show brain reorganization following peripheral nerve injury. Subacute neuroplasticity was observed two weeks following transection of the four major nerves of the brachial plexus. Direct functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulation of the intact radial nerve reveals an activation pattern in the forelimb regions of the sensory and motor cortices that is significantly different from that observed in normal rats. Results of this fMRI experiment were used to determine seed voxel regions for fcMRI analysis. Intrahemispheric connectivities in the sensorimotor forelimb representations in both hemispheres are largely unaffected by deafferentation, whereas substantial disruption of interhemispheric sensorimotor cortical connectivity occurs. In addition, significant intra- and interhemispheric changes in connectivities of thalamic nuclei were found. These are the central findings of the study. They could not have been obtained from fMRI studies alone—both fMRI and fcMRI are needed. The combination provides a general marker for brain plasticity. The rat visual system was studied in the same animals as a control. No neuroplastic changes in connectivities were found in the primary visual cortex upon forelimb deafferentation. Differences were noted in regions responsible for processing multisensory visual-motor information. This incidental discovery is considered to be significant. It may provide insight into phantom limb epiphenomena. PMID:19796693

  6. Amyloid imaging using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging ((19)F-MRI).

    PubMed

    Tooyama, Ikuo; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Taguchi, Hiroyasu; Kato, Tomoko; Hirao, Koichi; Shirai, Nobuaki; Sogabe, Takayuki; Ibrahim, Nor Faeizah; Inubushi, Toshiro; Morikawa, Shigehiro

    2016-09-01

    The formation of senile plaques followed by the deposition of amyloid-β is the earliest pathological change in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the detection of senile plaques remains the most important early diagnostic indicator of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid imaging is a noninvasive technique for visualizing senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients using positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because fluorine-19 ((19)F) displays an intense nuclear magnetic resonance signal and is almost non-existent in the body, targets are detected with a higher signal-to-noise ratio using appropriate fluorinated contrast agents. The recent introduction of high-field MRI allows us to detect amyloid depositions in the brain of living mouse using (19)F-MRI. So far, at least three probes have been reported to detect amyloid deposition in the brain of transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease; (E,E)-1-fluoro-2,5-bis-(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (FSB), 1,7-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-4-methoxycarbonylethyl-1,6-heptadiene3,5-dione (FMeC1, Shiga-Y5) and 6-(3',6',9',15',18',21'-heptaoxa-23',23',23'-trifluorotricosanyloxy)-2-(4'-dimethylaminostyryl)benzoxazole (XP7, Shiga-X22). This review presents the recent advances in amyloid imaging using (19)F-MRI, including our own studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-09-09

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it.

  8. MRI Mode Programming for Safe Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With a Magnetic Resonance Conditional Cardiac Device.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Toshiko; Kurokawa, Sayaka; Ikeya, Yukitoshi; Iso, Kazuki; Takahashi, Keiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Ashino, Sonoko; Okubo, Kimie; Okumura, Yasuo; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although diagnostically indispensable, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been, until recently, contraindicated in patients with an implantable cardiac device. MR conditional cardiac devices are now widely used, but the mode programming needed for safe MRI has yet to be established. We reviewed the details of 41 MRI examinations of patients with a MR conditional device. There were no associated adverse events. However, in 3 cases, paced beats competed with the patient's own beats during the MRI examination. We describe 2 of the 3 specific cases because they illustrate these potentially risky situations: a case in which the intrinsic heart rate increased and another in which atrial fibrillation occurred. Safe MRI in patients with an MR conditional device necessitates detailed MRI mode programming. The MRI pacing mode should be carefully and individually selected.

  9. Delineating potential epileptogenic areas utilizing resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Ricardo; Nair, Veena; Meier, Timothy; Holdsworth, Ryan; Tunnell, Evelyn; Rutecki, Paul; Sillay, Karl; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Seizure localization includes neuroimaging like electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with limited ability to characterize the epileptogenic network. Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) characterizes epileptogenic network congruent with interictal epileptiform discharges by clustering together voxels with transient signals. We generated epileptogenic areas for 12 of 13 epilepsy patients with TCA, congruent with different areas of seizure onset. Resting functional MRI (fMRI) scans are noninvasive, and can be acquired quickly, in patients with different levels of severity and function. Analyzing resting fMRI data using TCA is quick and can complement clinical methods to characterize the epileptogenic network.

  10. Visualization of human prenatal development by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Shiota, Kohei; Yamada, Shigehito; Nakatsu-Komatsu, Tomoko; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Mizuta, Shinobu; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    It is essential to visualize the structures of embryos and their internal organs three-dimensionally to analyze morphogenesis; this used to rely solely on serial histological sectioning and solid reconstruction, which were tedious and time-consuming. We have applied imaging with a magnetic resonance (MR) microscope equipped with a 2.35 T superconducting magnet to visualize human embryos; we were successful in acquiring high-resolution sectional images and in identifying the detailed structures of major organs. The imaging process was facilitated by using a super-parallel MR microscope. A dataset of MR images of more than 1,000 human embryos, now collected, will be important for future biomedical research and for education.

  11. A study on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiation treatment planning of intracranial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanescu, T.; Jans, H.-S.; Pervez, N.; Stavrev, P.; Fallone, B. G.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning procedure for intracranial lesions. The method relies on (a) distortion correction of raw magnetic resonance (MR) images by using an adaptive thresholding and iterative technique, (b) autosegmentation of head structures relevant to dosimetric calculations (scalp, bone and brain) using an atlas-based software and (c) conversion of MR images into computed tomography (CT)-like images by assigning bulk CT values to organ contours and dose calculations performed in Eclipse (Philips Medical Systems). Standard CT + MRI-based and MRI-only plans were compared by means of isodose distributions, dose volume histograms and several dosimetric parameters. The plans were also ranked by using a tumor control probability (TCP)-based technique for heterogeneous irradiation, which is independent of radiobiological parameters. For our 3 T Intera MRI scanner (Philips Medical Systems), we determined that the total maximum image distortion corresponding to a typical brain study was about 4 mm. The CT + MRI and MRI-only plans were found to be in good agreement for all patients investigated. Following our clinical criteria, the TCP-based ranking tool shows no significant difference between the two types of plans. This indicates that the proposed MRI-based treatment planning procedure is suitable for the radiotherapy of intracranial lesions.

  12. Midbrain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Anita; Sharma, Suvasini; Sankhyan, Naveen; Gulati, Sheffali; Kalra, Veena; Banerjee, Bidisha; Kumar, Atin

    2010-04-01

    Poliomyelitis, though eradicated from most parts of the world, continues to occur in India. There is paucity of data on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in poliomyelitis. We report a 3(1/2)-year-old boy who presented with subacute onset flaccid paralysis and altered sensorium. Stool culture was positive for wild polio virus type 3. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal changes in bilateral substantia nigra and anterior horns of the spinal cord. These MRI changes may be of potential diagnostic significance in a child with poliomyelitis.

  13. [The Diagnostic Value of Pre-Biopsy Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Detecting Prostate Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the value of pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting prostate cancer. We analyzed 267 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3-10 ng/ml who underwent systematic prostate needle biopsy. From April 2009 to March 2011, a total of 98 male patients underwent 16-core prostatic biopsies without pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (nonenforcement group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 169 men underwent pre-biopsy MRI [T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] (enforcement group). When MRI findings indicated cancer in the latter group, in addition to the systematic 16-core biopsy one or two targeted biopsies were performed. Patients without suspicious MRI findings underwent only systematic 16-core biopsy. Cancer detection rates in the nonenforcement and enforcement groups were 42.9% (48/92) and 46. 2% (78/169), respectively. The difference did not reach significance (p=0.612). Although the cancer detection rates were 39.4% (41/104) in the MRI-negative group and 56. 9% (37/65) in the MRI-positive group (p=0.039), the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection by MRI were relatively low: 47.4% and 69.2%, respectively. By receiver-operating curve analysis, the area under the curve for cancer detection by MRI was only 0.583. There were two study limitations. First, the patient sample size was small. Second, it is unclear whether an adequate sample of the suspicious lesion was obtained by biopsy. We thus demonstrated that it might be improper to base a diagnosis solely on pre-biopsy MRI (T2WI and DWI) findings in men with serum PSA levels of 3-10 ng/ml.

  14. Computerized Analysis And Information Extraction' Of Medical Magnetic Resonance Images (Mri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Bernstein, Ralph

    1988-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a relatively new diagnostic imaging modality that is rapidly finding broad clinical application. MRI differs from other diagnostic techniques in its capacity to obtain multiple qualitatively different images of the same anatomic region each emphasizing a different fundamental parameter of the tissue. This multiparametric nature of MRI provides the potential for greatly improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of pathological conditions. However, the complexity of MRI can produce a potentially overwhelming volume of image data for the physician to analyze visually utilizing the traditional grey-scale. Additionally, "visual synthesis" of images from multiple data sets is only semi-quantitative at best and subject to errors introduced by observer bias. Data dimension reduction techniques are needed for analysis of these image sets of multi-parametric MRI data. It is hoped that improved diagnostic specificity of MRI will come from such a quantitative analysis of multiple MR images. Our initial experience with application of fuzzy clustering analysis to these MR images as a method of data dimension reduction suggests that such an approach can improve tissue specificity.

  15. Impact of magnetic resonance imaging on ventricular tachyarrhythmia sensing: Results of the Evera MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael R; Sommer, Torsten; Schwitter, Juerg; Kanal, Emanuel; Bernabei, Matthew A; Love, Charles J; Surber, Ralf; Ramza, Brian; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Merkely, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conditional pacemakers experience no significant effect from MRI on device function, sensing, or pacing. More recently, similar safety outcomes were demonstrated with MRI conditional defibrillators (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator [ICD]), but the impact on ventricular arrhythmias has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of MRI on ICD sensing and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The Evera MRI Study was a worldwide trial of 156 patients implanted with an ICD designed to be MRI conditional. Device-detected spontaneous and induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) episodes occurring before and after whole body MRI were evaluated by a blinded episode review committee. Detection delay was computed as the sum of RR intervals of undersensed beats. A ≥5-second delay in detection due to undersensing was prospectively defined as clinically significant. Post-MRI, there were 22 polymorphic VT/VF episodes in 21 patients, with 16 of these patients having 17 VT/VF episodes pre-MRI. Therapy was successful for all episodes, with no failures to treat or terminate arrhythmias. The mean detection delay due to undersensing pre- and post-MRI was 0.60 ± 0.59 and 0.33 ± 0.63 seconds, respectively (P = .17). The maximum detection delay was 2.19 seconds pre-MRI and 2.87 seconds post-MRI. Of the 17 pre-MRI episodes, 14 (82%) had some detection delay as compared with 11 of 22 (50%) post-MRI episodes (P = .03); no detection delay was clinically significant. Detection and treatment of VT/VF was excellent, with no detection delays or significant impact of MRI observed. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the formation of mouse dentin and bone

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong-Hing, A.; Sandhu, H.S.; Prato, F.S.; Frappier, J.R.; Kavaliers, M. )

    1989-10-01

    The effects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on dentin and bone formation in mice were examined using standard autoradiographic and liquid scintillation procedures. It was observed that exposure to a standard 23.2 min clinical multislice MRI (0.15T) procedure caused a significant increase in the synthesis of the collagenous matrix of dentin in the incisors of mice. There were no significant effects on alveolar and tibial bone matrix synthesis. These results suggest that the magnetic fields associated with MRI can affect the activity of cells and/or tissues that are involved in rapid synthetic activity.

  17. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  18. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting meniscal pathology.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S; Cooney, A; Caplan, N; Dowen, D; Kader, D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning in the detection of meniscal pathology in a district general hospital. We retrospectively analysed a single-surgeon series of 240 knee arthroscopic investigations for all indications. The arthroscopic reports included an outline diagram of the meniscus upon which the surgeon could record his operative findings. 112 of these patients had also had a recent MRI scan. We compared the MRI findings with the arthroscopy findings. 66 patients had a positive MRI scan. 64 of these were found to have a meniscal tear at surgery. 37 MRI scans were reported as "no tear", of which four were found to have a meniscal tear at surgery. Nine MRI scans were descriptive, e.g. "signal change, possible tear", or "tear cannot be ruled out." These tended to correspond with equivocal arthroscopic findings of "degeneration" or "fibrillation". In our series of 112 patients with meniscal pathology, MRI scanning was 90.5% sensitive, 89.5% specific and 90.1% accurate. False positive MRI scans may lead to unnecessary surgery. Patients with negative MRI scans had a mean delay to surgery of 33 weeks compared to 18 weeks for patients with positive MRI scans. Patients with false negative MRI results may wait longer for their surgery. Two of the false negative MRI scan reports clearly showed meniscus tears, which were not identified by the reporting radiologist. In our series, the MRI scan itself was more accurate than the reporting. It is important to have an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist to minimise the number of missed meniscal tears. It is also important for the surgeon to review the MRI scan itself, as well as the report.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause a problem near a strong magnetic field. Electronic devices aren't permitted in the MRI room. ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  20. Diagnoses in Pediatric Patients With Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Lesions Suspicious for Demyelination.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael L; Kukreja, Marcia; Horn, Paul S; Standridge, Shannon M

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the brain in pediatric patients frequently show abnormal white matter lesions, which may be concerning for demyelinating disease. This study aimed to determine the proportion of pediatric patients who have MRI lesions concerning for demyelinating disease at presentation and ultimately are diagnosed with a primary central nervous system demyelinating disease. A retrospective chart review was performed on MRI reports of patients who underwent imaging evaluation at a single tertiary pediatric hospital. Of 299 patients identified, 192 presented with acute neurologic complaints. In this group, ≥ 5 discrete lesions, African American race, and having brain stem, thalamic, cerebellar, or optic nerve lesions was associated with the patient being diagnosed with a disease that required further treatment. The other 107 patients underwent MRI for other indications. Among these subjects, having lesions within the corpus callosum or cerebellum was associated with being diagnosed with a disease requiring further treatment.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of head and neck disease.

    PubMed

    Supsupin, Emilio P; Demian, Nagi M

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to identify intracranial or perineural spread from a head and neck primary tumor. Perineural spread is a form of metastatic disease in which primary tumors spread along neural pathways. Orbital cellulitis is a sight-threatening, and potentially life-threatening condition. Urgent imaging is performed to assess the anatomic extent of disease, including postseptal, cavernous sinus, and intracranial involvement, and identify orbital abscesses that require exploration and drainage. MRI is useful in the evaluation of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the glenohumeral joint in healthy volunteers: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Elisabeth R; Souza, Richard B; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Motamedi, Daria

    Evaluate technical feasibility and potential applications of glenohumeral (GH) joint axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy volunteers. Eleven shoulders were imaged in neutral and with 4kg axial traction at 3T. Quantitative measurements were assessed. Axial traction was well tolerated. There was statistically significant widening of the superior GH joint space (p=0.002) and acromial angle (p=0.017) with traction. Inter-rater agreement was high. GH joint axial traction MRI is technically feasible and well tolerated in volunteers. Traction of the capsule, widening of the superior GH joint space and acromial angle were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-01-01

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it. PMID:27618106

  4. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Tuite, Paul

    2017-06-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to serve as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the type or types of biomarker it could provide remain to be determined. At this time there is not sufficient sensitivity or specificity for MRI to serve as an early diagnostic biomarker, i.e., it is unproven in its ability to determine if a single individual is normal, has mild PD, or has some other forms of degenerative parkinsonism. However there is accumulating evidence that MRI may be useful in staging and monitoring disease progression (staging biomarker), and also possibly as a means to monitor pathophysiological aspects of disease and associated response to treatments, i.e., theranostic marker. As there are increasing numbers of manuscripts that are dedicated to diffusion- and neuromelanin-based imaging methods, this review will focus on these topics cursorily and will delve into pharmacodynamic imaging as a means to get at theranostic aspects of PD.

  5. [Application of pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the research of affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Édes, Andrea Edit; Gonda, Xénia; Bagdy, György; Juhász, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    Many common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are associated with dysfunction in the monoamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. However, the investigation of these pathophysiological processes in the human living brain is difficult. In case of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a non-invasive method for the examination of brain activity, the activity-inducing stimulus is generally a cognitive psychological test, while during pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) the activation is triggered by a specific pharmacon. In the present work we review the available scientific literature related to this method using literature search in PubMed. Through application of a selective pharmacon like the selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram or escitalopram in a challenge phMRI study, the serotonergic neurotransmitter system can be examined specifically, the functioning brain areas involved in its effect become observable.. With modulation phMRI we can monitor the long-term effect of an antidepressant or we can examine the immediate effect of a single dose of the medication on congitive psychological functions like emotional processing. Thus, the application of phMRI methods may help deepen our understanding of serotonergic function in the living human brain as well as of diseases related to serotonergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction.

  6. Current and Future Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to Breast and Ovarian Cancer Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Klostergaard, Jim; Parga, Kenia; Raptis, Raphael G.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is occupying an increasing niche in the clinical diagnostic workup of several cancers, including breast cancers. Despite the high level of implementation of mammography, it has become apparent that MRI can play at least a complementary role in the imaging and diagnosis of primary breast cancers, including ductal carcinoma in situ, the earliest stage of breast cancerthat is associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer. This can also be said of inflammatory breast cancer, of low incidence but with high impact on overall breast cancer mortality rates, and for which mammography is not ideal due to the typically diffused nature of this disease. Much of the value of breast MRI is dependent on its high sensitivity, resulting from the use of contrast agent enhancement in the detection of breast cancer. Interest has also increased in the application of diffusion-weighted MRI for early assessment of treatment response in this disease. Regarding ovarian and other gynecological cancers, MRI has already demonstrated value in the evaluation of patients with ovarian masses, uterine leiomyoma, endometrioma, and cervical cancer. Features on MRI suggestive of malignant ovarian tumors are varied, and span irregular or solid components to a cystic mass, prominent septations, evidence of peritoneal, hematogenous, or lymphatic spread, or local invasion. The majority of ovarian malignancies are diagnosed in advanced, incurable stages, where exploratory laparotomy provides the opportunity for maximal debulking. Although a role for MRI has yet to be established in this initial setting or in staging, some studies have shown that high sensitivity may be achieved with contrast agent-enhanced MRI for detection of recurrent disease, including demonstration of macroscopic intraabdominal dissemination and the hallmark omental “cake”. Efforts in recent years have been focused on design of MRI contrast agents (MRI-CAs), which either target

  7. Magnetic field interactions of orthodontic wires during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Klocke, Arndt; Kemper, Jörn; Schulze, Dirk; Adam, Gerhard; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel

    2005-07-01

    Orthodontic appliances pose a potential risk during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to forces on metallic objects within the static magnetic field of MRI systems. The aim of the present investigation was to measure forces on orthodontic wires caused by the static magnetic field of a 1.5-Tesla MRI system, and to assess the safety hazards associated with these forces. Thirty-two different orthodontic wires (21 arch wires, eight ligature wires and three retainer wires) were investigated in a 1.5-Tesla MRI system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). The translational forces were measured using the deflection angle test (ASTM F2052-02); rotational forces were assessed on a 5-point qualitative scale. All retainer wires and the steel arch wires (the Noninium arch wire being the exception) were subjected to considerable rotational and translational forces within the MRI system's magnetic field. Translational forces were from 9.1- to 27.6-times as high as gravitational forces on these objects. Steel ligature wires and arch wires made of cobalt chromium, titanium molybdenum, nickel-titanium, and brass alloys showed no or negligible forces within the magnetic field. The translational and rotational forces within the MRI magnetic field should pose no risk to carefully-ligated arch wires. Steel retainer wire bonds should be checked to ensure secure attachment prior to an MRI investigation.

  8. Philips 3T Intera Magnetic Resonance Imaging System and Upgrade of existing MRI equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Evanochko, William T

    2004-05-14

    The objective of this proposal was twofold. First, upgrade existing MRI equipment, specifically a research 4.1T whole-body system. Second, purchase a clinical, state-of-the-art 3T MRI system tailored specifically to cardiovascular and neurological applications. This project was within the guidelines of ''Medical Applications and Measurement Science''. The goals were: [1] to develop beneficial applications of magnetic resonance imaging; [2] discover new applications of MR strategies for medical research; and [2] apply them for clinical diagnosis. Much of this proposal searched for breakthroughs in this noninvasive and nondestructive imaging technology. Finally, this proposal's activities focused on research in the basic science of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and engineering as applied to bioengineering. The centerpiece of this grant was our 4.1T ultra-high field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance system and the newly acquired state-of-the-art, heart and head dedicated 3T clinical MRI system. We have successfully upgraded the equipment for the 4.1T system so that it is now state-of-the-art with new gradient and radio frequency amplifiers. We also purchase a unique In Vivo EKG monitoring unit that will permit tracking clinical quality EKG signals while the patient is in a high field MR scanner. Important upgrades of a peripheral vascular coil and a state-of-the-art clinical workstation for processing complex heart images were implemented. The most recent acquisition was the purchase of a state-of-the-art Philips 3T Intera clinical MRI system. This system is unique in that the magnet is only 5 1/2 feet long compare to over 12 feet long magnet of our 4.1T MRI system. The 3T MRI system is fully functional and its use and applications are already greatly benefiting the UAB with 200-300 micron resolution brain images and diagnostic quality MR angiography of coronary arteries in less than 5 minutes.

  9. Visualising uncertainty: Examining women's views on the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kate; Kochetkova, Inna; Whitby, Elspeth

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal screening occupies a prominent role within sociological debates on medical uncertainty. A particular issue concerns the limitations of routine screening which tends to be based on risk prediction. Computer assisted visual technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are now starting to be applied to the prenatal realm to assist in the diagnosis of a range of fetal and maternal disorders (from problems with the fetal brain to the placenta). MRI is often perceived in popular and medical discourse as a technology of certainty and truth. However, little is known about the use of MRI as a tool to confirm or refute the diagnosis of a range of disorders in pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research with pregnant women attending a fetal medicine clinic in the North of England this paper examines the potential role that MRI can play in mediating pregnancy uncertainty. The paper will argue that MRI can create and manage women's feelings of uncertainty during pregnancy. However, while MRI may not always provide women with unequivocal answers, the detailed information provided by MR images combined with the interpretation and communication skills of the radiologist in many ways enables women to navigate the issue. Our analysis of empirical data therefore highlights the value of this novel technological application for women and their partners. It also seeks to stress the merit of taking a productive approach to the study of diagnostic uncertainty, an approach which recognises the concepts dual nature.

  10. Interobserver variability in the radiological assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including perfusion MRI in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kerkhof, M; Hagenbeek, R E; van der Kallen, B F W; Lycklama À Nijeholt, G J; Dirven, L; Taphoorn, M J B; Vos, M J

    2016-10-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited value for differentiation of true tumor progression and pseudoprogression in treated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) may be helpful in the differentiation of these two phenomena. Here interobserver variability in routine radiological evaluation of GBM patients is assessed using MRI, including PWI. Three experienced neuroradiologists evaluated MR scans of 28 GBM patients during temozolomide chemoradiotherapy at three time points: preoperative (MR1) and postoperative (MR2) MR scan and the follow-up MR scan after three cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (MR3). Tumor size was measured both on T1 post-contrast and T2 weighted images according to the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. PW images of MR3 were evaluated by visual inspection of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) color maps and by quantitative rCBV measurements of enhancing areas with highest rCBV. Image interpretability of PW images was also scored. Finally, the neuroradiologists gave a conclusion on tumor status, based on the interpretation of both T1 and T2 weighted images (MR1, MR2 and MR3) in combination with PWI (MR3). Interobserver agreement on visual interpretation of rCBV maps was good (κ = 0.63) but poor on quantitative rCBV measurements and on interpretability of perfusion images (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.37 and κ = 0.23, respectively). Interobserver agreement on the overall conclusion of tumor status was moderate (κ = 0.48). Interobserver agreement on the visual interpretation of PWI color maps was good. However, overall interpretation of MR scans (using both conventional and PW images) showed considerable interobserver variability. Therefore, caution should be applied when interpreting MRI results during chemoradiation therapy. © 2016 EAN.

  11. Measuring Pain for Patients Seeking Physical Therapy: Can Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Help?

    PubMed

    Elliott, James M; Owen, Meriel; Bishop, Mark D; Sparks, Cheryl; Tsao, Henry; Walton, David M; Weber, Kenneth A; Wideman, Timothy H

    2017-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary fields of pain medicine and rehabilitation, advancing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used to enhance our understanding of the pain experience. Given that such measures, in some circles, are expected to help us understand the brain in pain, future research in pain measurement is undeniably rich with possibility. However, pain remains intensely personal and represents a multifaceted experience, unique to each individual; no single measure in isolation, fMRI included, can prove or quantify its magnitude beyond the patient self-report. Physical therapists should be aware of cutting-edge advances in measuring the patient's pain experience, and they should work closely with professionals in other disciplines (eg, magnetic resonance physicists, biomedical engineers, radiologists, psychologists) to guide the exploration and development of multimodal pain measurement and management on a patient-by-patient basis. The primary purpose of this perspective article is to provide a brief overview of fMRI and inform physical therapist clinicians of the pros and cons when utilized as a measure of the patient's perception of pain. A secondary purpose is to describe current known factors that influence the quality of fMRI data and its analyses, as well as the potential for future clinical applications relevant to physical therapist practice. Lastly, the interested reader is introduced and referred to existing guidelines and recommendations for reporting fMRI research. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  12. Laboratory and clinical correlates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in pediatric sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Hilliard, Lee M; McGrath, Tony M; Fineberg, Naomi S; Howard, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia are at risk for brain injury. Physicians obtain brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical indications to determine if a patient has developed a brain injury. Controversy exists whether all children with sickle cell anemia should undergo MRI screening. This retrospective study evaluates the clinical and laboratory correlates for brain injury in 124 MRIs obtained for a variety of clinical indications. Seizure, sensory, or motor events were statistically associated with the highest risk for brain injury while less specific neurologic complaints of headache or poor school performance were not associated. Children with high systolic blood pressure, leukocytosis, and severe anemia demonstrate a higher probability for brain injury. These results indicate that brain MRI should be obtained on all children with seizure, sensory, or motor events. These data suggest that less specific neurologic symptoms should be screened if physical findings or abnormal lab or vital signs exist.

  13. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    PubMed

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Fat ViP MRI: Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging of water-fat systems.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Roberto; Hitti, Eric; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Gambarota, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI) is a method to generate reference signals on MR images, using external radiofrequency (RF) signals. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ViP MRI to generate complex-data images of phantoms mimicking water-fat systems. Various numerical phantoms with a given fat fraction, T2* and field map were designed. The k-space of numerical phantoms was converted into RF signals to generate virtual phantoms. MRI experiments were performed at 4.7T using a multi-gradient-echo sequence on virtual and physical phantoms. The data acquisition of virtual and physical phantoms was simultaneous. Decomposition of the water and fat signals was performed using a complex-based water-fat separation algorithm. Overall, a good agreement was observed between the fat fraction, T2* and phase map values of the virtual and numerical phantoms. In particular, fat fractions of 10.5±0.1 (vs 10% of the numerical phantom), 20.3±0.1 (vs 20%) and 30.4±0.1 (vs 30%) were obtained in virtual phantoms. The ViP MRI method allows for generating imaging phantoms that i) mimic water-fat systems and ii) can be analyzed with water-fat separation algorithms based on complex data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Necessity of Repeating MRI in Noncooled and Cooled Infants With Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P; Zwicker, Jill G; Xu, Qi; Wong, Darren S T; Roland, Elke H; Hill, Alan; Chau, Vann

    2016-04-01

    In cooled newborns with encephalopathy, although late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan (10-14 days of age) is reliable in predicting long-term outcome, it is unknown whether early scan (3-6 days of life) is. We compared the predominant pattern and extent of lesion between early and late MRI in 89 term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-three neonates (48%) were cooled. The predominant pattern of lesions and the extent of lesion in the watershed region agreed near perfectly in noncooled (kappa = 0.94; k = 0.88) and cooled (k = 0.89; k = 0.87) infants respectively. There was perfect agreement in the extent of lesion in the basal nuclei in noncooled infants (k = 0.83) and excellent agreement in cooled infants (k = 0.67). Changes in extent of lesions on late MRI occurred in 19 of 89 infants, with higher risk in infants with hypoglycemia and moderate-severe lesions in basal nuclei. In most term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy, early MRI (relative to late scan) robustly predicts the predominant pattern and extent of injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Contactless Abdominal Fat Reduction With Selective RF™ Evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Case Study.

    PubMed

    Downie, Jeanine; Kaspar, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive body shaping methods seem to be an ascending part of the aesthetics market. As a result, the pressure to develop reliable methods for the collection and presentation of their results has also increased. The most used techniques currently include ultrasound measurements of fat thickness in the treated area, caliper measurements, bioimpedance-based scale measurements or circumferential tape measurements. Although these are the most used techniques, almost all of them have some limitations in reproducibility and/or accuracy. This study shows Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the new method for the presentation of results in the body shaping industry. Six subjects were treated by a contactless selective radiofrequency device (BTL Vanquish ME, BTL Industries Inc., Boston, MA). The MRI fat thickness was measured at the baseline and at 4-weeks following the treatment. In addition to MRI images and measurements, digital photographs and anthropometric evaluations such as weight, abdominal circumference, and caliper fat thickness measurements were recorded. Abdominal fat thickness measurements from the MRI were performed from the same slices determined by the same tissue artefacts. The MRI fat thickness difference between the baseline measurement and follow up visit showed an average reduction of 5.36 mm as calculated from the data of 5 subjects. One subject dropped out of study due to non-study related issues. The results were statistically significant based on the Student's T-test evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging abdominal fat thickness measurements seems to be the best method for the evaluation of fat thickness reduction after non-invasive body shaping treatments. In this study, this method shows average fat thickness reduction of 5.36 mm while the weight of the subjects didn't change significantly. A large spot size measuring 1317 cm(2) (204 square inches) covers the abdomen flank to flank. The average thickness of 5.36 mm of the fat layer reduced

  17. Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of articular cartilage in knee osteoarthritis (OA): morphological assessment.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, F; Cicuttini, F; Raynauld, J-P; Waterton, J C; Peterfy, C

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a three-dimensional imaging technique with unparalleled ability to evaluate articular cartilage. This report reviews the current status of morphological assessment of cartilage with quantitative MRI (qMRI), and its relevance for identifying disease status, and monitoring progression and treatment response in knee osteoarthritis (OA). An international panel of experts in MRI of knee OA, with direct experience in the analysis of cartilage morphology with qMRI, reviewed the existing published and unpublished data on the subject, and debated the findings at the OMERACT-OARSI Workshop on Imaging technologies (December 2002, Bethesda, MA) with scientists and clinicians from academia, the pharmaceutical industry and the regulatory agencies. This report reviews (1) MRI pulse sequence considerations for morphological analysis of articular cartilage; (2) techniques for segmenting cartilage; (3) semi-quantitative scoring of cartilage status; and (4) technical validity (accuracy), precision (reproducibility) and sensitivity to change of quantitative measures of cartilage morphology. Semi-quantitative scores of cartilage status have been shown to display adequate reliability, specificity and sensitivity, and to detect lesion progression at reasonable observation periods (1-2 years). Quantitative assessment of cartilage morphology (qMRI), with fat-suppressed gradient echo sequences, and appropriate image analysis techniques, displays high accuracy and adequate precision (e.g., root-mean-square standard deviation medial tibia=61 microl) for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in OA patients. Longitudinal studies suggest that changes of cartilage volume of the order of -4% to -6% occur per annum in OA in most knee compartments (e.g., -90 microl in medial tibia). Annual changes in cartilage volume exceed the precision errors and appear to be associated with clinical symptoms as well as with time to knee arthroplasty. MRI provides reliable

  19. Functional Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability and Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness safety and cost-effectiveness of using functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Results Functional MRI has become increasingly investigated as a noninvasive method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. Most patients in the published literature have mild to moderate impaired LV function. It is possible that the severity of LV dysfunction may be an important factor that can alter the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques. There is some evidence of comparable or better performance of functional cardiac MRI for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion compared with other imaging techniques. However limitations to most of the studies included: Functional cardiac MRI studies that assess myocardial viability and perfusion have had small sample sizes. Some studies assessed myocardial viability/perfusion in patients who had already undergone revascularization, or excluded patients with a prior MI (Schwitter et al., 2001). Lack of explicit detail of patient recruitment. Patients with LVEF >35%. Interstudy variability in post MI imaging time(including acute or chronic MI), when patients with a prior MI were included. Poor interobserver agreement (kappa statistic) in the interpretation of the results. Traditionally, 0.80 is considered “good”. Cardiac MRI measurement of myocardial perfusion to as an adjunct tool to help diagnose CAD (prior to a definitive coronary angiography) has also been examined in some studies, with methodological limitations, yielding comparable results. Many studies examining myocardial viability and perfusion report on the accuracy of imaging methods with limited data on long-term patient outcome and management. Kim et al. (2000) revealed that the transmural

  20. Evaluation of congenital heart disease by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Feiglin, D.H.I.; Moodie, D.S.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Sterba, R.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The authors studied 11 adult patients (pts) with atrial septal defect (ASD) and 4 adult pts with ventricular septal defect (VSD) using cine magnetic resonance. All studies were performed using a .6T superconducting magnet with ECG gating and electronic axial rotation when appropriate. Repeated multislice image with no change in physiologic delay of the spin echo pulse sequence, but varying the time by offsetting one slice at each imaging stage allowed for an N x N collection of data where N is the number of slices in one collection set and is equal to the number of sets collected. Algebraic manipulation of the T1 weighted images (TE=30mSec TRimaging of the atrial septum than does conventional MRI. Using this technique, the authors have identified both atrial and ventricular septal defects in all pts preoperatively and have noted an intact atrial septum following surgery. Standard MRI produced 4 false positive studies postoperatively because only 1 phase of the cardiac cycle was reviewed. Cine MRI allows better identification of septal defects than standard static acquisitions. The cine technique also provides better definition and delineation of right sided abnormalities which are maximized when viewed in a cardiac major axis obtained by electronic axial rotation.

  1. Relationship Between Prebiopsy Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Biopsy Indication, and MRI-ultrasound Fusion-targeted Prostate Biopsy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaosong; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendhiratta, Neil; Fenstermaker, Michael; Huang, Richard; Wysock, James S; Bjurlin, Marc A; Marshall, Susan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-ultrasound fusion-targeted prostate biopsy (MRF-TB) to improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) while limiting detection of indolent disease compared to systematic 12-core biopsy (SB). To compare MRF-TB and SB results and investigate the relationship between biopsy outcomes and prebiopsy MRI. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired cohort of men presenting for prostate biopsy over a 26-mo period. A total of 601 of 803 consecutively eligible men were included. All men were offered prebiopsy MRI and assigned a maximum MRI suspicion score (mSS). Men with an MRI abnormality underwent combined MRF-TB and SB. Detection rates for all PCa and high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7) were compared using the McNemar test. MRF-TB detected fewer GS 6 PCas (75 vs 121; p<0.001) and more GS ≥7 PCas (158 vs 117; p<0.001) than SB. Higher mSS was associated with higher detection of GS ≥7 PCa (p<0.001) but was not correlated with detection of GS 6 PCa. Prediction of GS ≥7 disease by mSS varied according to biopsy history. Compared to SB, MRF-TB identified more GS ≥7 PCas in men with no prior biopsy (88 vs 72; p=0.012), in men with a prior negative biopsy (28 vs 16; p=0.010), and in men with a prior cancer diagnosis (42 vs 29; p=0.043). MRF-TB detected fewer GS 6 PCas in men with no prior biopsy (32 vs 60; p<0.001) and men with prior cancer (30 vs 46; p=0.034). Limitations include the retrospective design and the potential for selection bias given a referral population. MRF-TB detects more high-grade PCas than SB while limiting detection of GS 6 PCa in men presenting for prostate biopsy. These findings suggest that prebiopsy multiparametric MRI and MRF-TB should be considered for all men undergoing prostate biopsy. In addition, mSS in conjunction with biopsy indications may ultimately help in identifying men at low risk of high-grade cancer for whom prostate biopsy

  2. Childhood multiple sclerosis (MS): multimodal evoked potentials (EP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative study.

    PubMed

    Scaioli, V; Rumi, V; Cimino, C; Angelini, L

    1991-02-01

    We compared the diagnostic sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evoked potential (EP) studies in a series of 19 children affected by clinically definite (16 cases) and laboratory supported (3 cases) multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI revealed abnormal areas consistent with demyelinating plaques in 18 out of 19 cases: multiple lesions in 16 and an isolated lesion in 2 cases. Abnormal areas were more frequently found in supratentorial regions than in other areas of the central nervous system. In all patients, the distribution, form and topography of the lesions were typical of MS and similar to those found in the adult form of the disease. Multimodal EP were abnormal in 16 out of 19 cases. Visual (VEP) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) abnormalities were frequently asymptomatic and VEPs were particularly sensitive in ascertaining childhood MS. MRI was slightly more sensitive than multimodal EP in confirming the clinical diagnosis of childhood MS. However, in suspected or probable MS with normal MRI, VEPs and SEPs may contribute to the definition of clinical diagnosis because of their capacity to demonstrate asymptomatic involvement in central nervous system (CNS) the optic nerve and central somatosensory pathways).

  3. Measuring local flow velocities and biofilm structure in biofilm systems with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Manz, Bertram; Volke, Frank; Goll, Danile; Horn, Harald

    2003-11-20

    The characterization of substrate transport in the bulk phase and in the biofilm matrix is one of the problems which has to be solved for the verification of biofilm models. Additionally, the surface structure of biofilms has to be described with appropriate parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the promising methods for the investigation of transport phenomena and structure in biofilm systems. The MRI technique allows the noninvasive determination of flow velocities and biofilm structures with a high resolution on the sub-millimeter scale. The presented investigations were carried out for defined heterotrophic biofilms which were cultivated in a tube reactor at a Reynolds number of 2000 and 8000 and a substrate load of 6 and 4 g/m2d glucose. Magnetic resonance imaging provides both structure data of the biofilm surface and flow velocities in the bulk phase and at the bulk/biofilm interface. It is shown that the surface roughness of the biofilms can be determined in one experiment for the complete cross section of the test tubes both under flow and stagnant conditions. Furthermore, the local shear stress was calculated from the measured velocity profiles. In the investigated biofilm systems the local shear stress at the biofilm surface was up to 3 times higher compared to the mean wall shear stress calculated on the base of the mean flow velocity. Copyright 2003, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Selecting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome measures for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) clinical trials: first report of the MRI in JIA special interest group.

    PubMed

    Hemke, Robert; Doria, Andrea S; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Maas, Mario; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; van Rossum, Marion A J

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have substantially improved the evaluation of joint pathologies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Because of the current availability of highly effective antirheumatic therapies and the unique and useful features of MRI, there is a growing need for an accurate and reproducible MRI assessment scoring system for JIA, such as the rheumatoid arthritis MRI Scoring (RAMRIS) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To effectively evaluate the efficacy of treatment in clinical research trials, we need to develop and validate scoring methods to accurately measure joint outcomes, standardize imaging protocols for data acquisition and interpretation, and create imaging atlases to differentiate physiologic and pathologic joint findings in childhood and adolescence. Such a standardized, validated, JIA-MRI scoring method could be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

  5. Penile fracture: penoscrotal approach with degloving of penis after Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Antonini, Gabriele; Vicini, Patrizio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Garaffa, Giulio; Vitarelli, Antonio; De Berardinis, Ettore; Von Heland, Magnus; Giovannone, Riccardo; Casciani, Emanuele; Gentile, Vincenzo

    2014-03-28

    Fracture of the penis, a relatively uncommon emergency in Urology, consists in the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum. Examination and clinical history can be highly suspicious of penile fracture in the majority of cases and ultrasonography (USS) can be useful to identify the exact location of the tunical rupture, which is proximal in 2/3 of cases and therefore manageable through a penoscrotal approach. Although expensive and not readily available in the acute setting, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may play a role in the differential diagnosis with rupture of a circumflex or dorsal vein of the penis or when the tunical rupture is not associated with tear of the overlying Buck's fascia. This form of imaging is more sensitive than USS at identifying the presence of a tunical tear. The treatment of choice is immediate surgical repair, which allows preserving erectile function and minimizing corporeal fibrosis.

  6. Categorization of Pathology Causing Low Back Pain using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Nadhamuni, Kulasekaran; Karthikeyan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low backache is the most common ailment flooding the orthopaedic clinic. Most of the population at least once seek medical attention for low back ache. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non invasive, commonly used diagnosing modality and accurate in diagnosing pathology causing low back ache. Aim: To classify and quantify the causes of low back pain referred to radiology department by MRI. Materials and Methods: Patients with back pain referred to radiology department were subjected to single MRI scan after ruling out any contraindications using the following sequences: T1W Turbo Spin Echo, T2W Turbo Spin Echo, Gradient-echo, Myelogram and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in all imaging planes. Gadolinium enhanced T1W turbo spin echo sequence was used wherever necessary. Results: Data were analysed using Excel 2007, SPSS 14, Students t-test. Degenerative disc diseases were the commonest pathology followed by congenital and traumatic lesions. Neoplastic lesions were the least common. Commonest herniation type being the disc bulge (79%) followed by disc protrusion (15%), disc extrusion (6%) and disc sequestration (<1%). The posterolateral disc herniation as the commonest and foraminal the least. Sacralisation was the most common congenital spinal anomaly, followed by lumbar scoliosis and perineural cyst. There is no sex difference in disc protrusion but male preponderance in disc extrusion with subligmentous extrusion. Conclusion: MRI is useful in classifying the spinal lesions which again influences the treatment modality and clinical outcome. Degenerative disc disease is the single most common category which accounts for most the Low Back Ache for which a preventing strategy should be drafted. PMID:25738056

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Evaluation for Anterior Disc Displacement of the Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhongjun; Wang, Mingguo; Ma, Yingwei; Lai, Qingguo; Tong, Dongdong; Zhang, Fenghe; Dong, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the criterion standard imaging technique for visualization of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region, and is currently considered the optimum modality for comprehensive evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). This study was aimed at finding the value of MRI in pre-clinical diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. Material/Methods Patients primarily diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement by clinical symptoms and X-ray were selected in the present study. MRI was used to evaluate surrounding anatomical structures and position, as well as morphological and signal intensity change between patients and normal controls. Results Posterior band position was significantly different between the patient group and control group. At the maximum opened-mouth position, the location of disc intermediate zone returned to normal. At closed-mouth position, the thickness of anterior and middle, but not posterior, band increased. The motion range of the condyle in the anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR) patient group was significantly less than the value in the anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) patient group and the control group. Whether at closed-mouth position or maximum opened-mouth position, the exudate volume in the patient group was greater than in the normal group. Conclusions MRI can be successfully used to evaluate multiple morphological changes at different mouth positions of normal volunteers and patients. The disc-condyle relationship can serve as an important indicator in assessing anterior disc displacement, and can be used to distinguish disc displacement with or without reduction. PMID:28176754

  8. Categorization of Pathology Causing Low Back Pain using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Nirmalkumar; Nadhamuni, Kulasekaran; Karthikeyan, T

    2015-01-01

    Low backache is the most common ailment flooding the orthopaedic clinic. Most of the population at least once seek medical attention for low back ache. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non invasive, commonly used diagnosing modality and accurate in diagnosing pathology causing low back ache. To classify and quantify the causes of low back pain referred to radiology department by MRI. Patients with back pain referred to radiology department were subjected to single MRI scan after ruling out any contraindications using the following sequences: T1W Turbo Spin Echo, T2W Turbo Spin Echo, Gradient-echo, Myelogram and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in all imaging planes. Gadolinium enhanced T1W turbo spin echo sequence was used wherever necessary. Data were analysed using Excel 2007, SPSS 14, Students t-test. Degenerative disc diseases were the commonest pathology followed by congenital and traumatic lesions. Neoplastic lesions were the least common. Commonest herniation type being the disc bulge (79%) followed by disc protrusion (15%), disc extrusion (6%) and disc sequestration (<1%). The posterolateral disc herniation as the commonest and foraminal the least. Sacralisation was the most common congenital spinal anomaly, followed by lumbar scoliosis and perineural cyst. There is no sex difference in disc protrusion but male preponderance in disc extrusion with subligmentous extrusion. MRI is useful in classifying the spinal lesions which again influences the treatment modality and clinical outcome. Degenerative disc disease is the single most common category which accounts for most the Low Back Ache for which a preventing strategy should be drafted.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Evaluation for Anterior Disc Displacement of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongjun; Wang, Mingguo; Ma, Yingwei; Lai, Qingguo; Tong, Dongdong; Zhang, Fenghe; Dong, Lili

    2017-02-08

    BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the criterion standard imaging technique for visualization of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region, and is currently considered the optimum modality for comprehensive evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). This study was aimed at finding the value of MRI in pre-clinical diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients primarily diagnosed as having anterior disc displacement by clinical symptoms and X-ray were selected in the present study. MRI was used to evaluate surrounding anatomical structures and position, as well as morphological and signal intensity change between patients and normal controls. RESULTS Posterior band position was significantly different between the patient group and control group. At the maximum opened-mouth position, the location of disc intermediate zone returned to normal. At closed-mouth position, the thickness of anterior and middle, but not posterior, band increased. The motion range of the condyle in the anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR) patient group was significantly less than the value in the anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) patient group and the control group. Whether at closed-mouth position or maximum opened-mouth position, the exudate volume in the patient group was greater than in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS MRI can be successfully used to evaluate multiple morphological changes at different mouth positions of normal volunteers and patients. The disc-condyle relationship can serve as an important indicator in assessing anterior disc displacement, and can be used to distinguish disc displacement with or without reduction.

  10. Positional pelvic organ prolapse (POP) evaluation using open, weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Boris; Stothers, Lynn; Lazare, Darren; Macnab, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is completed in the supine position. Open magnetic resonance imaging (MRO) uses vertical magnets, allowing imaging in a variety of upright postures. This pilot study used MRO to evaluate the change of prolapse in different positions compared to non-prolapsed images. In total, 11 women (6 POP, 5 controls) aged 24 to 65 years had 12 MRO images (midline sagittal pelvic line) consecutively when supine, sitting and standing with a full and empty bladder. Lengths between the lowest point of the bladder to the pubococcygeal (PC) and pubopromontoreal (PP) lines in each image were compared, and the ratio of bladder area under the PC and PP lines to the total bladder area. Significant elongation between the PC line and lowest point of the bladder was evident in subjects with POP comparing supine and standing images (p = 0.03), but not controls (p = 0.07). Similarly, this axis was significantly longer in cystocele subjects versus controls only in the standing position. Bladder area under the PC line was significantly increased between supine and standing positions only among subjects with cystocele (p < 0.01), and significantly larger among the study group in the standing position (p < 0.005), less significant in the supine position (p = 0.015), and not significant in the sitting position (p = 0.3). MRO imaging allows us to investigate the effects of upright position and weight bearing on the staging of POP. Imaging patients when sitting and standing identified that significant changes occur in the maximal descent of the bladder.

  11. Feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining nucleus pulposus (NP) water content with changing postures.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Jalil; Pope, Malcolm H; Graveling, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities to evaluate spinal loading in vivo are limited and a large majority of studies on the mechanical functions of the spine have been in vitro cadaveric studies and/or models based on many assumptions that are difficult to validate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining nucleus pulposus (NP) water content measurements with changing postures. MRI studies were conducted on 25 healthy males with no history of low back pain (age 20-38). The L1 to S1 intradiscal levels were imaged in supine, sitting and standing postures using an upright 0.6 Tesla magnet, where a set of H2O: D2O7 phantoms were mounted on the back of the subjects. A calibration curve, provided from these phantoms, was applied to the absolute proton density image, yielding a pixel-by-pixel map of the water content of the NP. The NP at all levels showed a highly significant water loss (p<0.001) in sitting and standing postures compared with the supine posture. A trend towards higher levels of water was observed at all levels in the standing posture relative to sitting postures, however statistically significant differences were found only at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels. This study demonstrates that variations in water content of the NP in different postures are in agreement with those determined from published invasive disc pressure measurements. The result of study demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI to determine the water content of the NP with changing postures and to use these data to evaluate spinal loading in these postures. This measurement method of water content by quantitative MR imaging could become a powerful tool for both clinical and ergonomic applications. The proposed methodology does not require invasive pressure measurement techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A robust independent component analysis (ICA) model for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Jingqi; Mitra, Sunanda; Liu, Zheng; Nutter, Brian

    2011-03-01

    The coupling of carefully designed experiments with proper analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data provides us with a powerful as well as noninvasive tool to help us understand cognitive processes associated with specific brain regions and hence could be used to detect abnormalities induced by a diseased state. The hypothesisdriven General Linear Model (GLM) and the data-driven Independent Component Analysis (ICA) model are the two most commonly used models for fMRI data analysis. A hybrid ICA-GLM model combines the two models to take advantages of benefits from both models to achieve more accurate mapping of the stimulus-induced activated brain regions. We propose a modified hybrid ICA-GLM model with probabilistic ICA that includes a noise model. In this modified hybrid model, a probabilistic principle component analysis (PPCA)-based component number estimation is used in the ICA stage to extract the intrinsic number of original time courses. In addition, frequency matching is introduced into the time course selection stage, along with temporal correlation, F-test based model fitting estimation, and time course combination, to produce a more accurate design matrix for GLM. A standard fMRI dataset is used to compare the results of applying GLM and the proposed hybrid ICA-GLM in generating activation maps.

  13. Early-Onset Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Vanderver, Adeline; Prust, Morgan; Kadom, Nadja; Demarest, Scott; Crow, Yanick J; Helman, Guy; Orcesi, Simona; La Piana, Roberta; Uggetti, Carla; Wang, Jichuan; Gordisch-Dressman, Heather; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Livingston, John H

    2015-09-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inherited leukodystrophy with calcifying microangiopathy and abnormal central nervous system myelination. As fewer diagnostic computed tomographic (CT) scans are being performed due to increased availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there is a potential for missed diagnoses on the basis of calcifications. We review a series of patients with MRIs selected from IRB-approved leukodystrophy biorepositories to identify MRI patterns for recognition of early-onset Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and scored for a panel of radiologic predictors. Each individual predictor was tested against disease status using exact logistic regression. Features for pattern recognition of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome are temporal lobe swelling followed by atrophy with temporal horn dilatation, early global cerebral atrophy and visible calcifications, as evidenced by 94.44% of cases of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome correctly classified with a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 96.9%. We identify a panel of MRI features predictive of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in young patients that would differentiate it from other leukoencephalopathies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer: does the time interval between biopsy and MRI influence MRI-pathology discordance in lesion sizing?

    PubMed

    Mennella, Simone; Paparo, Francesco; Revelli, Matteo; Baccini, Paola; Secondini, Lucia; Barbagallo, Stella; Friedman, Daniele; Garlaschi, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Background Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more accurate than ultrasound and mammography in estimating local extension of both invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and it is part of a breast cancer patient's preoperative management. Purpose To verify if time interval between breast biopsy and preoperative MRI, lesion margins, and biopsy technique can influence tumor sizing on MRI. Material and Methods By a database search, we retrospectively identified all women with a newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven, primary breast cancer who underwent MRI before surgery. The time interval between biopsy and MRI, the type of biopsy procedure, and various pathological features of tumors were collected. We defined the concordance between MRI and pathology measurements as a difference of <5 mm in lesion sizing. Results One hundred and sixty-six women (mean age, 51.4 ± 10.4 years) were included. The time interval between biopsy and MRI showed only a weak correlation with the absolute MRI-pathology difference (r = 0.236). Stratifying the whole cohort of patients using a cutoff value of 30 days, we found that the MRI-pathology discordance was significantly higher in patients with a biopsy-MRI time interval >30 days ( P < 0.05). By means of multivariate analysis, we found that DCIS subtype and the presence of poorly defined margins on MRI are the only two factors independently and strongly associated with MRI-pathology discordance in lesion sizing. Conclusion Size, histology, and margins of tumors may affect the accuracy of MRI measurements. The type of biopsy procedure and the time interval between biopsy and preoperative MRI are not independently associated to MRI-pathology discordance.

  16. Non-invasive Measurement of Renal Blood Flow by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Romero, Cesar A; Cabral, Glauber; Knight, Robert A; Ding, Guangliang; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2017-10-04

    Renal blood flow (RBF) provides important information regarding renal physiology and nephropathies. Arterial spin labeling-magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) is a non-invasive method of measuring blood flow without exogenous contrast media. However, low signal/noise ratio and respiratory motion artifacts are challenges for RBF measurements in small animals. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of RBF measures by ASL-MRI using respiratory-gating and navigator correction methods to reduce motion artifacts. ASL-MRI images were obtained from the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats on a 7 tesla Varian MRI system with a spin-echo imaging sequence. After 4 days, the study was repeated to evaluate its reproducibility. RBF was also measured in animals under unilateral nephrectomy and in renal artery stenosis (RST) to evaluate the sensitivity in high and low RBF models, respectively. RBF was also evaluated in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). In SD rats the cortical RBFs (cRBF) were 305±59 and 271.8±39 ml/min/100 g tissue in the right and left kidneys, respectively. Re-test analysis revealed no differences (p=0.2). The test-retest reliability coefficient was 92±5%. The cRBFs before and after the nephrectomy were 296.8±30 and 428.2±45 ml/min/100 g (p=0.02), respectively. The kidneys with RST exhibited a cRBF decrease compared with sham animals (86±17.6 vs. 198±33.7 ml/min/100 g tissue; p<0.01). The cRBFs in SD, Dahl-ss and SHR rats were not different (p=0.35). We conclude that ASL-MRI performed with navigator correction and respiratory gating is a feasible and reliable non-invasive method for measuring RBF in rats. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  17. Incidental Memory Encoding Assessed with Signal Detection Theory and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Benjamin; Regenbogen, Christina; Koch, Kathrin; Backes, Volker; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pauly, Katharina; Shah, N. Jon; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that apply a “subsequent memory” approach, successful encoding is indicated by increased fMRI activity during the encoding phase for hits vs. misses, in areas underlying memory encoding such as the hippocampal formation. Signal-detection theory (SDT) can be used to analyze memory-related fMRI activity as a function of the participant’s memory trace strength (d′). The goal of the present study was to use SDT to examine the relationship between fMRI activity during incidental encoding and participants’ recognition performance. To implement a new approach, post-experimental group assignment into High- or Low Performers (HP or LP) was based on 29 healthy participants’ recognition performance, assessed with SDT. The analyses focused on the interaction between the factors group (HP vs. LP) and recognition performance (hits vs. misses). A whole-brain analysis revealed increased activation for HP vs. LP during incidental encoding for remembered vs. forgotten items (hits > misses) in the insula/temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the fusiform gyrus (FFG). Parameter estimates in these regions exhibited a significant positive correlation with d′. As these brain regions are highly relevant for salience detection (insula), stimulus-driven attention (TPJ), and content-specific processing of mnemonic stimuli (FFG), we suggest that HPs’ elevated memory performance was associated with enhanced attentional and content-specific sensory processing during the encoding phase. We provide first correlative evidence that encoding-related activity in content-specific sensory areas and content-independent attention and salience detection areas influences memory performance in a task with incidental encoding of facial stimuli. Based on our findings, we discuss whether the aforementioned group differences in brain activity during incidental encoding might constitute the basis of general differences in memory performance

  18. The (amorphous) anatomy of an invention: the case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit

    2007-08-01

    The priority dispute between Raymond Damadian and Paul Lauterbur over the 'invention' of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has attracted the attention of social and natural scientists for more than 30 years. In this paper, I have used this priority dispute to analyze the complex socio-epistemic processes through which a claim for an invention is made and strengthened. I argue that a tension exists because techno-scientific practices are embedded within a particular disciplinary regime of authorship: even though techno-scientific practices occur through distributed cognition and are contingent upon particular socio-epistemic contexts, a claim for an invention requires assigning authorship to a particular person, company, or institution in order to clearly define the origin and the novelty of that particular techno-scientific event. Nevertheless, the outcomes of socio-epistemic practices for making and strengthening priority claims are shifting, open-ended, and contingent upon particular socio-epistemic contexts.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis of Ischemia/Reperfusion in Experimental Acute Renal Injury.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    Imbalance between renal oxygen delivery and demand in the first hours after reperfusion is suggested to be decisive in the pathophysiological chain of events leading to ischemia-induced acute kidney injury. Here we describe blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for continuous monitoring of the deoxyhemoglobin-sensitive MR parameter T 2* in the renal cortex, outer medulla, and inner medulla of rats throughout renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Changes during I/R are benchmarked against the effects of variations in the fraction of inspired oxygen (hypoxia, hyperoxia). This method may be useful for investigating renal blood oxygenation of rats in vivo under various experimental (patho)physiological conditions.

  20. Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using image-based respiratory surrogate: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jing; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Paul Segars, William; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) has been widely used in radiation therapy to assess patient-specific breathing motion for determining individual safety margins. However, it has two major drawbacks: low soft-tissue contrast and an excessive imaging dose to the patient. This research aimed to develop a clinically feasible four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) technique to overcome these limitations. Methods: The proposed 4D-MRI technique was achieved by continuously acquiring axial images throughout the breathing cycle using fast 2D cine-MR imaging, and then retrospectively sorting the images by respiratory phase. The key component of the technique was the use of body area (BA) of the axial MR images as an internal respiratory surrogate to extract the breathing signal. The validation of the BA surrogate was performed using 4D-CT images of 12 cancer patients by comparing the respiratory phases determined using the BA method to those determined clinically using the Real-time position management (RPM) system. The feasibility of the 4D-MRI technique was tested on a dynamic motion phantom, the 4D extended Cardiac Torso (XCAT) digital phantom, and two healthy human subjects. Results: Respiratory phases determined from the BA matched closely to those determined from the RPM: mean (±SD) difference in phase: −3.9% (±6.4%); mean (±SD) absolute difference in phase: 10.40% (±3.3%); mean (±SD) correlation coefficient: 0.93 (±0.04). In the motion phantom study, 4D-MRI clearly showed the sinusoidal motion of the phantom; image artifacts observed were minimal to none. Motion trajectories measured from 4D-MRI and 2D cine-MRI (used as a reference) matched excellently: the mean (±SD) absolute difference in motion amplitude: −0.3 (±0.5) mm. In the 4D-XCAT phantom study, the simulated “4D-MRI” images showed good consistency with the original 4D-XCAT phantom images. The motion trajectory of the hypothesized “tumor” matched

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of oak trees infected with Phytophthora ramorum to determine potential avenues of infection in bark

    Treesearch

    Edwin R. Florance

    2006-01-01

    Non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological anatomical features of coast live oak trees (Quercus agrifolia) that were naturally infected with Phytophthora ramorum. Fresh excised whole slices showing typical macroscopic cankers and bleeding were examined. Infected areas (i.e. cankers) were compared to...

  2. Occipital sulci patterns in patients with schizophrenia and migraine headache using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Sulejmanpašić, Gorana; Suljić, Enra; Šabanagić-Hajrić, Selma

    2016-08-01

    Aim To examine the presence of morphologic variations of occipital sulci patternsin patients with schizophrenia and migraine headacheregarding gender and laterality using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods This study included 80 patients and brain scans were performed to analyze interhemispheric symmetry and the sulcal patterns of the occipital region of both hemispheres. Average total volumes of both hemispheres of the healthy population were used for comparison. Results There was statistically significant difference between subjects considering gender (p=0.012)with no difference regarding age(p=0.1821). Parameters of parieto-occipital fissure (p=0.0314), body of the calcarine sulcus (p=0.0213), inferior sagittal sulcus (p=0.0443), and lateral occipital sulcus (p=0.0411) showed statistically significant difference only of left hemisphere in male patients with schizophrenia with shallowerdepth of the sulcus. Conclusion Representation of neuroanatomical structures suggests the existence of structural neuroanatomic disorders with focal brain changes. Comparative analysis of occipital lobe and their morphologic structures (cortical dysmorphology) in patients with schizophreniausing MRI, according to genderindicates a significant cortical reduction in the left hemisphere only in the group of male patients compared to female patients and the control group. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  3. Association of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging parameters with histological findings from MRI/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dianat, Seyed Saeid; Carter, H Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M; Hamper, Ulrik M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Macura, Katarzyna J

    2015-10-01

    Purpose of this pilot study was to correlate quantitative parameters derived from the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) of the prostate with results from MRI guided transrectal ultrasound (MRI/TRUS) fusion prostate biopsy in men with suspected prostate cancer. Thirty-nine consecutive patients who had 3.0T MP-MRI and subsequent MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy were included and 73 MRI-identified targets were sampled by 177 cores. The pre-biopsy MP-MRI consisted of T2-weighted, diffusion weighted (DWI), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) images. The association of quantitative MRI measurements with biopsy histopathology findings was assessed by Mann-Whitney U- test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Of 73 targets, biopsy showed benign prostate tissue in 46 (63%), cancer in 23 (31.5%), and atypia/high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in four (5.5%) targets. The median volume of cancer-positive targets was 1.3 cm3. The cancer-positive targets were located in the peripheral zone (56.5%), transition zone (39.1%), and seminal vesicle (4.3%). Nine of 23 (39.1%) cancer-positive targets were higher grade cancer (Gleason grade > 6). Higher grade targets and cancer-positive targets compared to benign lesions exhibited lower mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (952.7 < 1167.9 < 1278.9), and lower minimal extracellular volume fraction (ECF) (0.13 < 0.185 < 0.213), respectively. The difference in parameters was more pronounced between higher grade cancer and benign lesions. Our findings from a pilot study indicate that quantitative MRI parameters can predict malignant histology on MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy, which is a valuable technique to ensure adequate sampling of MRI-visible suspicious lesions under TRUS guidance and may impact patient management. The DWI-based quantitative measurement exhibits a stronger association with biopsy findings than the other MRI parameters.

  4. Vision 20/20: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation correction in PET/MRI: Challenges, solutions, and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    Attenuation correction is an essential component of the long chain of data correction techniques required to achieve the full potential of quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems mandated the widespread interest in developing novel strategies for deriving accurate attenuation maps with the aim to improve the quantitative accuracy of these emerging hybrid imaging systems. The attenuation map in PET/MRI should ideally be derived from anatomical MR images; however, MRI intensities reflect proton density and relaxation time properties of biological tissues rather than their electron density and photon attenuation properties. Therefore, in contrast to PET/computed tomography, there is a lack of standardized global mapping between the intensities of MRI signal and linear attenuation coefficients at 511 keV. Moreover, in standard MRI sequences, bones and lung tissues do not produce measurable signals owing to their low proton density and short transverse relaxation times. MR images are also inevitably subject to artifacts that degrade their quality, thus compromising their applicability for the task of attenuation correction in PET/MRI. MRI-guided attenuation correction strategies can be classified in three broad categories: (i) segmentation-based approaches, (ii) atlas-registration and machine learning methods, and (iii) emission/transmission-based approaches. This paper summarizes past and current state-of-the-art developments and latest advances in PET/MRI attenuation correction. The advantages and drawbacks of each approach for addressing the challenges of MR-based attenuation correction are comprehensively described. The opportunities brought by both MRI and PET imaging modalities for deriving accurate attenuation maps and improving PET quantification will be elaborated. Future prospects and potential clinical applications of these techniques and their integration in commercial

  5. Vision 20/20: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation correction in PET/MRI: Challenges, solutions, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-03-01

    Attenuation correction is an essential component of the long chain of data correction techniques required to achieve the full potential of quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems mandated the widespread interest in developing novel strategies for deriving accurate attenuation maps with the aim to improve the quantitative accuracy of these emerging hybrid imaging systems. The attenuation map in PET/MRI should ideally be derived from anatomical MR images; however, MRI intensities reflect proton density and relaxation time properties of biological tissues rather than their electron density and photon attenuation properties. Therefore, in contrast to PET/computed tomography, there is a lack of standardized global mapping between the intensities of MRI signal and linear attenuation coefficients at 511 keV. Moreover, in standard MRI sequences, bones and lung tissues do not produce measurable signals owing to their low proton density and short transverse relaxation times. MR images are also inevitably subject to artifacts that degrade their quality, thus compromising their applicability for the task of attenuation correction in PET/MRI. MRI-guided attenuation correction strategies can be classified in three broad categories: (i) segmentation-based approaches, (ii) atlas-registration and machine learning methods, and (iii) emission/transmission-based approaches. This paper summarizes past and current state-of-the-art developments and latest advances in PET/MRI attenuation correction. The advantages and drawbacks of each approach for addressing the challenges of MR-based attenuation correction are comprehensively described. The opportunities brought by both MRI and PET imaging modalities for deriving accurate attenuation maps and improving PET quantification will be elaborated. Future prospects and potential clinical applications of these techniques and their integration in commercial

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation on EGEE grid architecture: a web portal design.

    PubMed

    Bellet, F; Nistoreanu, I; Pera, C; Benoit-Cattin, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a web portal that enables simulation of MRI images on the grid. Such simulations are done using the SIMRI MRI simulator that is implemented on the grid using MPI and the LCG2 middleware. MRI simulations are mainly used to study MRI sequence, and to validate image processing algorithms. As MRI simulation is computationally very expensive, grid technologies appear to be a real added value for the MRI simulation task. Nevertheless the grid access should be simplified to enable final user running MRI simulations. That is why we develop this specific web portal to propose a user friendly interface for MRI simulation on the grid. The web portal is designed using a three layers client/server architecture. Its main component is the process layer part that manages the simulation jobs. This part is mainly based on a java thread that screens a data base of simulation jobs. The thread submits the new jobs to the grid and updates the status of the running jobs. When a job is terminated, the thread sends the simulated image to the user. Through a client web interface, the user can submit new simulation jobs, get a detailed status of the running jobs, have the history of all the terminated jobs as well as their status and corresponding simulated image.

  7. Various Imaging Manifestations of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rajesh; Devaramane, Radhika; Jagadish, Geetha Mukunda; Chowdaiah, Sanjana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), also called the acute hypertensive encephalopathy and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), is a neurotoxic syndrome of cerebral vasoregulation classically characterized by bilaterally symmetrical parieto-occipital edema. However, the imaging findings are variable and may occur in other locations such as the frontal lobes, thalami, basal ganglia and brainstem. Most commonly, PRES presents with hyperintense signals on T2 and FLAIR sequences. Restricted diffusion and hemorrhage are rare. This study presents the typical and atypical manifestations of PRES on 3T MR images. Material/Methods It is a retrospective study analyzing a radiology report database and MR images of 92 patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of PRES. The brain MRI images of these patients were evaluated. The regions involved and the signal intensity of the affected areas on T1, T2, FLAIR and DW sequences were recorded. The location of the abnormal signal intensity as well as the presence or absence of atypical features such as diffusion restriction and hemorrhage were also recorded. Results The most commonly affected region was the parieto-occipital lobes (100%), however, other atypical regions involved were the frontal lobes (30.4%), temporal lobes (8.69%), basal ganglia (22%), cerebellum(17.39%), brainstem(9%) and thalamus(4%). Some of the cases showed restricted diffusion (43%) and hemorrhage (9%). Conclusions The involvement of the parieto-occipital, frontal and temporal lobes is common in PRES. Occasionally, there may be an involvement of the basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem, with or without hemorrhage and restricted diffusion. Radiologists should be aware of the typical and atypical imaging manifestations of PRES in order to make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:28243339

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    ASSESSMENT OF MYOCARDIAL VIABILITY: An Evidence-Based Analysis The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of cardiac MRI viability imaging, the following outcomes were examined: the diagnostic accuracy in predicting functional recovery and the impact of cardiac MRI viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes). CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION AND HEART FAILURE: Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart's inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) () is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. IN GENERAL, THERE ARE THREE OPTIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEART FAILURE: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long waiting lists. The third option

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a cookie in comparison with time-lapse photographic analysis (TLPA) during baking process.

    PubMed

    Hong, S W; Yan, Z Y; Otterburn, M S; McCarthy, M J

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used to study the baking of a cookie. The structural and dynamic changes occurring during baking have been monitored, including changes in the internal moisture saturations and distribution. The images reveal the moisture distribution is initially uniform, and during baking a gradient in moisture develops from the interior to the edge. Changes in physical dimensions calculated from the data are consistent with those obtained from time-lapsed photography.

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-aided therapeutics of Chinese speech area-related lesions: screening of fMRI-stimulating mode and its clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Xie, Bing; Wu, Guo-Cai; Lan, Chuan; Wang, Jian; Feng, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Language area-related lesion is a serious issue in neurosurgery. Removing the lesion in the language area and at the same time preserving language functions is a great challenge. In this study, we aimed to screen functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based task types suitable for activation of Broca and Wernicke areas in Chinese population, characterize lesion properties of functional area of Chinese language in brain, and assess the potential of fMRI-guided neuronavigation in clinical applications. Blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI has been used to localize language area prior to operation. We carried out extensive fMRI analyses and conducted operation on patients with lesions in speech area. fMRI tests revealed that the reciting task in Chinese can steadily activate the Broca area, and paragraph comprehension task in Chinese can effectively activate the Wernicke area. Cortical stimulation of patients when being awake during operation validated the sensitivity and accuracy of fMRI. The safe distance between language activation area and removal of the lesion in language area was determined to be about 10 mm. Further investigation suggested that navigation of fMRI combined with diffuse tensor imaging can decrease the incidence of postoperative dysfunction and increase the success rate for complete removal of lesion. Taken together, these findings may be helpful to clinical therapy for language area-related lesions.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis of Fibroid Location in Women Achieving Pregnancy After Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Woodruff J.; Bratby, Mark John

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fibroid morphology in a cohort of women achieving pregnancy following treatment with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the uterus was performed to assess pre-embolization fibroid morphology. Data were collected on fibroid size, type, and number and included analysis of follow-up imaging to assess response. There have been 67 pregnancies in 51 women, with 40 live births. Intramural fibroids were seen in 62.7% of the women (32/48). Of these the fibroids were multiple in 16. A further 12 women had submucosal fibroids, with equal numbers of types 1 and 2. Two of these women had coexistent intramural fibroids. In six women the fibroids could not be individually delineated and formed a complex mass. All subtypes of fibroid were represented in those subgroups of women achieving a live birth versus those who did not. These results demonstrate that the location of uterine fibroids did not adversely affect subsequent pregnancy in the patient population investigated. Although this is only a small qualitative study, it does suggest that all types of fibroids treated with UAE have the potential for future fertility.

  12. A medical software system for volumetric analysis of cerebral pathologies in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

    PubMed

    Egger, Jan; Kappus, Christoph; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2012-08-01

    In this contribution, a medical software system for volumetric analysis of different cerebral pathologies in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is presented. The software system is based on a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm and helps to overcome the time-consuming process of volume determination during monitoring of a patient. After imaging, the parameter settings-including a seed point-are set up in the system and an automatic segmentation is performed by a novel graph-based approach. Manually reviewing the result leads to reseeding, adding seed points or an automatic surface mesh generation. The mesh is saved for monitoring the patient and for comparisons with follow-up scans. Based on the mesh, the system performs a voxelization and volume calculation, which leads to diagnosis and therefore further treatment decisions. The overall system has been tested with different cerebral pathologies-glioblastoma multiforme, pituitary adenomas and cerebral aneurysms- and evaluated against manual expert segmentations using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Additionally, intra-physician segmentations have been performed to provide a quality measure for the presented system.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathophysiology of the rat kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, J.; Mazurchuk, R.J.; Acara, M.A.; Nickerson, P.A.; Fiel, R.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance imaging was performed on rats before induction of diabetes with streptozotocin (STZ) and at 2 and 12 days postinduction. Images revealed an increase in maximal longitudinal and axial dimensions of the kidneys at 2 days and a further increase at 12 days. Similarly, an increase in the size of the remaining kidney was seen in a rat which underwent uninephrectomy as a positive control. Two major differences were observed between the kidney undergoing compensatory hypertrophy and those developing diabetic nephropathy: (i) Expansion of the renal vasculature was seen only in images of the diabetic rat; (ii) A loss in conspicuity of the normal corticomedullary junction was seen in the T2-weighted images of the diabetic rat but not in the uninephrectomized rat. Histologic examination revealed that the medulla increased to a size greater than the cortex during diabetic nephropathy whereas the medullary volume was less than that of the cortex during compensatory hypertrophy. In vitro T1 relaxation times in cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla of kidneys from control rats were measured and compared with the same respective regions in diabetic rats. When these values were correlated with tissue water content, a linear increase in relaxation rate versus percent water content from cortex to inner medulla was found in the control kidneys, but this correlation was absent in diabetic nephropathy. These studies demonstrate that MRI is an effective noninvasive tool for studying the course of renal hypertrophy and hydration changes in the development of renal disease in STZ-induced diabetes in the rat.

  14. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): A Brief Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Mark W.; Vincent, Diana J.

    2006-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging represents an important technique for the study of the brain. However, the skills necessary for collecting, processing, and analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data sets are complex and relatively few undergraduate programs offer students an opportunity to acquire these skills or to observe functional neuroimaging. We report here on our experiences working with functional neuroimaging in an undergraduate laboratory course and suggest resources for the implementation of a similar exercise in a comparable setting. This exercise is structured so that four class meetings are devoted to functional neuroimaging. During these sessions, we discuss the basics of fMRI, study design, the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for the study of brain function as well as a general overview of data processing and analysis. Due to the college’s proximity to a medical school, we are able to offer students an opportunity to observe functional neuroimaging sessions (however, this component is not critical for the completion of this exercise). Two final class sessions are devoted to data processing and presentation as well as writing up the experimental results. The exercise culminates in a paper based on the American Psychological Association format for a small number of subjects. At the conclusion of the exercise, students were surveyed to assess their impressions of the lab sessions. The results from these surveys indicate that students found this portion of the laboratory course to be a very positive experience. While this lab exercise does require some initial set up, we believe it stimulates the development of critical thinking skills with a technique that is used increasingly in neuroscience research. Both print and online resources are suggested to assist faculty in setting up a similar exercise. PMID:23493760

  16. Fat Imaging via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Young Children (Ages 1-4 Years) without Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Shearrer, Grace E.; House, Benjamin T.; Gallas, Michelle C.; Luci, Jeffrey J.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This pilot study developed techniques to perform Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of specific fat deposition in 18 children (age 18 months to 4 years). Methods The children engaged in a series of practice tests to become acclimated to the scanner noises, reduce claustrophobia, and rehearse holding still for a set time. The practice tests assessed if the child could remain still for two minutes while watching a video, first while lying on a blanket, second, on the blanket with headphones, and third, in the mock scanner. The children who passed the three practice tests were then scanned with a 3T Siemens Skyra magnet. Abdominal fat distribution (region of interest (ROI) from the top of the ileac crest to the bottom of the ribcage) volume was measured using 2-point DIXON technique. This region was chosen to give an indication of the body composition around the liver. Results Twelve out of eighteen participants successfully completed the actual MRI scan. Chi-squared test showed no significant difference between male and female pass-fail rates. The median age of completed scans was 36 months, whereas the median age for children unable to complete a scan was 28 months. The average total trunk fat was 240.9±85.2mL and the average total VAT was 37.7±25.9mLand liver fat was not quantifiable due to physiological motion. Several strategies (modeling, videos, and incentives) were identified to improve pediatric imaging in different age ranges. Conclusion Using an age-specific and tailored protocol, we were able to successfully use MRI for fat imaging in a majority of young children. Development of such protocols enables researchers to better understand the etiology of fat deposition in young children, which can be used to aid in the prevention and treatment of adiposity. PMID:26901881

  17. Fat Imaging via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Young Children (Ages 1-4 Years) without Sedation.

    PubMed

    Shearrer, Grace E; House, Benjamin T; Gallas, Michelle C; Luci, Jeffrey J; Davis, Jaimie N

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study developed techniques to perform Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of specific fat deposition in 18 children (age 18 months to 4 years). The children engaged in a series of practice tests to become acclimated to the scanner noises, reduce claustrophobia, and rehearse holding still for a set time. The practice tests assessed if the child could remain still for two minutes while watching a video, first while lying on a blanket, second, on the blanket with headphones, and third, in the mock scanner. The children who passed the three practice tests were then scanned with a 3T Siemens Skyra magnet. Abdominal fat distribution (region of interest (ROI) from the top of the ileac crest to the bottom of the ribcage) volume was measured using 2-point DIXON technique. This region was chosen to give an indication of the body composition around the liver. Twelve out of eighteen participants successfully completed the actual MRI scan. Chi-squared test showed no significant difference between male and female pass-fail rates. The median age of completed scans was 36 months, whereas the median age for children unable to complete a scan was 28 months. The average total trunk fat was 240.9±85.2mL and the average total VAT was 37.7±25.9mLand liver fat was not quantifiable due to physiological motion. Several strategies (modeling, videos, and incentives) were identified to improve pediatric imaging in different age ranges. Using an age-specific and tailored protocol, we were able to successfully use MRI for fat imaging in a majority of young children. Development of such protocols enables researchers to better understand the etiology of fat deposition in young children, which can be used to aid in the prevention and treatment of adiposity.

  18. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MRI-Transrectal Ultrasound Fusion Biopsy for Index Tumor Detection: Correlation with Radical Prostatectomy Specimen.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Jan P; Schwab, Constantin; Wolf, Maya B; Freitag, Martin T; Alt, Celine D; Kesch, Claudia; Popeneciu, Ionel V; Huettenbrink, Clemens; Gasch, Claudia; Klein, Tilman; Bonekamp, David; Duensing, Stefan; Roth, Wilfried; Schueler, Svenja; Stock, Christian; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Roethke, Matthias; Hohenfellner, Markus; Hadaschik, Boris A

    2016-11-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and MRI fusion targeted biopsy (FTB) detect significant prostate cancer (sPCa) more accurately than conventional biopsies alone. To evaluate the detection accuracy of mpMRI and FTB on radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen. From a cohort of 755 men who underwent transperineal MRI and transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy under general anesthesia between 2012 and 2014, we retrospectively analyzed 120 consecutive patients who had subsequent RP. All received saturation biopsy (SB) in addition to FTB of lesions with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥2. The index lesion was defined as the lesion with extraprostatic extension, the highest Gleason score (GS), or the largest tumor volume (TV) if GS were the same, in order of priority. GS 3+3 and TV ≥1.3ml or GS ≥3+4 and TV ≥0.55ml were considered sPCa. We assessed the detection accuracy by mpMRI and different biopsy approaches and analyzed lesion agreement between mpMRI and RP specimen. Overall, 120 index and 71 nonindex lesions were detected. Overall, 107 (89%) index and 51 (72%) nonindex lesions harbored sPCa. MpMRI detected 110 of 120 (92%) index lesions, FTB (two cores per lesion) alone diagnosed 96 of 120 (80%) index lesions, and SB alone diagnosed 110 of 120 (92%) index lesions. Combined SB and FTB detected 115 of 120 (96%) index foci. FTB performed significantly less accurately compared with mpMRI (p=0.02) and the combination for index lesion detection (p=0.002). Combined FTB and SB detected 97% of all sPCa lesions and was superior to mpMRI (85%), FTB (79%), and SB (88%) alone (p<0.001 each). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for index lesion agreement between mpMRI and RP was 0.87 (p<0.001). Limitations included the retrospective design, multiple operators, and nonblinding of radiologists. MpMRI identified 92% of index lesions compared with RP histopathology. The combination of FTB and SB was superior to both approaches alone

  19. Improving Brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Segmentation via a Novel Algorithm based on Genetic and Regional Growth

    PubMed Central

    A., Javadpour; A., Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background Regarding the importance of right diagnosis in medical applications, various methods have been exploited for processing medical images solar. The method of segmentation is used to analyze anal to miscall structures in medical imaging. Objective This study describes a new method for brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) segmentation via a novel algorithm based on genetic and regional growth. Methods Among medical imaging methods, brains MRI segmentation is important due to high contrast of non-intrusive soft tissue and high spatial resolution. Size variations of brain tissues are often accompanied by various diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. As our knowledge about the relation between various brain diseases and deviation of brain anatomy increases, MRI segmentation is exploited as the first step in early diagnosis. In this paper, regional growth method and auto-mate selection of initial points by genetic algorithm is used to introduce a new method for MRI segmentation. Primary pixels and similarity criterion are automatically by genetic algorithms to maximize the accuracy and validity in image segmentation. Results By using genetic algorithms and defining the fixed function of image segmentation, the initial points for the algorithm were found. The proposed algorithms are applied to the images and results are manually selected by regional growth in which the initial points were compared. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively. Conclusion The study concluded that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively and help us to diagnose brain diseases. PMID:27672629

  20. Improving Brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Segmentation via a Novel Algorithm based on Genetic and Regional Growth.

    PubMed

    A, Javadpour; A, Mohammadi

    2016-06-01

    Regarding the importance of right diagnosis in medical applications, various methods have been exploited for processing medical images solar. The method of segmentation is used to analyze anal to miscall structures in medical imaging. This study describes a new method for brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) segmentation via a novel algorithm based on genetic and regional growth. Among medical imaging methods, brains MRI segmentation is important due to high contrast of non-intrusive soft tissue and high spatial resolution. Size variations of brain tissues are often accompanied by various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. As our knowledge about the relation between various brain diseases and deviation of brain anatomy increases, MRI segmentation is exploited as the first step in early diagnosis. In this paper, regional growth method and auto-mate selection of initial points by genetic algorithm is used to introduce a new method for MRI segmentation. Primary pixels and similarity criterion are automatically by genetic algorithms to maximize the accuracy and validity in image segmentation. By using genetic algorithms and defining the fixed function of image segmentation, the initial points for the algorithm were found. The proposed algorithms are applied to the images and results are manually selected by regional growth in which the initial points were compared. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively. The study concluded that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively and help us to diagnose brain diseases.

  1. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of recurrences of ovarian cancer in the small pelvis].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, I M; Bulanova, T V; Burenchev, D V

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides the results of small pelvic magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) in 62 patients with ovarian cancer after primary special treatment. Out of them 50 patients were found to have recurrences and metastases of the underlying disease, 12 patients had clinical remission. The study yielded MR signs and MR semiotics of recurrences of ovarian cancer in the small pelvis. The capacities of MRI with low and high intensities of a magnetic field were comparatively studied in the diagnosis of recurrences and metastases of ovarian cancer.

  2. gr-MRI: A software package for magnetic resonance imaging using software defined radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselwander, Christopher J.; Cao, Zhipeng; Grissom, William A.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction. It includes four pulse sequences: a single-pulse sequence to record free induction signals, a gradient-recalled echo imaging sequence, a spin echo imaging sequence, and an inversion recovery spin echo imaging sequence. The sequences were used to perform phantom imaging scans with a 0.5 Tesla tabletop MRI scanner and two commercially-available SDRs. One SDR was used for RF excitation and reception, and the other for gradient pulse generation. The total SDR hardware cost was approximately 2000. The frequency of radio desynchronization events and the frequency with which the software recovered from those events was also measured, and the SDR's ability to generate frequency-swept RF waveforms was validated and compared to the scanner's commercial spectrometer. The spin echo images geometrically matched those acquired using the commercial spectrometer, with no unexpected distortions. Desynchronization events were more likely to occur at the very beginning of an imaging scan, but were nearly eliminated if the user invoked the sequence for a short period before beginning data recording. The SDR produced a 500 kHz bandwidth frequency-swept pulse with high fidelity, while the commercial spectrometer produced a waveform with large frequency spike errors. In conclusion, the developed gr-MRI software can be used to develop high-fidelity, low-cost custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available SDRs.

  3. gr-MRI: A software package for magnetic resonance imaging using software defined radios.

    PubMed

    Hasselwander, Christopher J; Cao, Zhipeng; Grissom, William A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction. It includes four pulse sequences: a single-pulse sequence to record free induction signals, a gradient-recalled echo imaging sequence, a spin echo imaging sequence, and an inversion recovery spin echo imaging sequence. The sequences were used to perform phantom imaging scans with a 0.5Tesla tabletop MRI scanner and two commercially-available SDRs. One SDR was used for RF excitation and reception, and the other for gradient pulse generation. The total SDR hardware cost was approximately $2000. The frequency of radio desynchronization events and the frequency with which the software recovered from those events was also measured, and the SDR's ability to generate frequency-swept RF waveforms was validated and compared to the scanner's commercial spectrometer. The spin echo images geometrically matched those acquired using the commercial spectrometer, with no unexpected distortions. Desynchronization events were more likely to occur at the very beginning of an imaging scan, but were nearly eliminated if the user invoked the sequence for a short period before beginning data recording. The SDR produced a 500kHz bandwidth frequency-swept pulse with high fidelity, while the commercial spectrometer produced a waveform with large frequency spike errors. In conclusion, the developed gr-MRI software can be used to develop high-fidelity, low-cost custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available SDRs.

  4. An atlas-based electron density mapping method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-alone treatment planning and adaptive MRI-based prostate radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jason A; Lambert, Jonathan; Parker, Joel; Salvado, Olivier; Fripp, Jurgen; Capp, Anne; Wratten, Chris; Denham, James W; Greer, Peter B

    2012-05-01

    Prostate radiation therapy dose planning directly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans would reduce costs and uncertainties due to multimodality image registration. Adaptive planning using a combined MRI-linear accelerator approach will also require dose calculations to be performed using MRI data. The aim of this work was to develop an atlas-based method to map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for dose calculations and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Whole-pelvis MRI and CT scan data were collected from 39 prostate patients. Scans from 2 patients showed significantly different anatomy from that of the remaining patient population, and these patients were excluded. A whole-pelvis MRI atlas was generated based on the manually delineated MRI scans. In addition, a conjugate electron-density atlas was generated from the coregistered computed tomography (CT)-MRI scans. Pseudo-CT scans for each patient were automatically generated by global and nonrigid registration of the MRI atlas to the patient MRI scan, followed by application of the same transformations to the electron-density atlas. Comparisons were made between organ segmentations by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and point dose calculations for 26 patients on planning CT and pseudo-CT scans. The agreement between pseudo-CT and planning CT was quantified by differences in the point dose at isocenter and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi-squared values indicated that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions were equivalent. No significant differences (p > 0.9) were found between CT and pseudo-CT Hounsfield units for organs of interest. Mean ± standard deviation DSC scores for the atlas-based segmentation of the pelvic bones were 0.79 ± 0.12, 0.70 ± 0.14 for the prostate, 0.64 ± 0.16 for the bladder, and 0.63 ± 0.16 for the rectum. The electron-density atlas method provides the ability to

  5. An Atlas-Based Electron Density Mapping Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone Treatment Planning and Adaptive MRI-Based Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, Jason A.; Lambert, Jonathan; Parker, Joel; Salvado, Olivier; Fripp, Jurgen; Capp, Anne; Wratten, Chris; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate radiation therapy dose planning directly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans would reduce costs and uncertainties due to multimodality image registration. Adaptive planning using a combined MRI-linear accelerator approach will also require dose calculations to be performed using MRI data. The aim of this work was to develop an atlas-based method to map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for dose calculations and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Methods and Materials: Whole-pelvis MRI and CT scan data were collected from 39 prostate patients. Scans from 2 patients showed significantly different anatomy from that of the remaining patient population, and these patients were excluded. A whole-pelvis MRI atlas was generated based on the manually delineated MRI scans. In addition, a conjugate electron-density atlas was generated from the coregistered computed tomography (CT)-MRI scans. Pseudo-CT scans for each patient were automatically generated by global and nonrigid registration of the MRI atlas to the patient MRI scan, followed by application of the same transformations to the electron-density atlas. Comparisons were made between organ segmentations by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and point dose calculations for 26 patients on planning CT and pseudo-CT scans. Results: The agreement between pseudo-CT and planning CT was quantified by differences in the point dose at isocenter and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi-squared values indicated that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions were equivalent. No significant differences (p > 0.9) were found between CT and pseudo-CT Hounsfield units for organs of interest. Mean {+-} standard deviation DSC scores for the atlas-based segmentation of the pelvic bones were 0.79 {+-} 0.12, 0.70 {+-} 0.14 for the prostate, 0.64 {+-} 0.16 for the bladder, and 0.63 {+-} 0.16 for the rectum

  6. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adolescents – study design of a feasibility study concerning examination related emotions].

    PubMed

    Jaite, Charlotte; Bachmann, Christian; Dewey, Marc; Weschke, Bernhard; Spors, Birgit; von Moers, Arpad; Napp, Adriane; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2013-11-01

    Numerous research centres apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for research purposes in children. In view of this practical research, ethical concerns regarding the strains the study participants are exposed to during the MRI examination are discussed. The study evaluates whether an MRI examination induces negative emotions in children and adolescents which are more intense than the ones caused by electroencephalography (EEG), an examination method currently classified as causing "minimal stress." Furthermore, the emotional stress induced by the MRI examination in children and adolescents is compared with that induced in adults. The study gathers data on examination-related emotions in children (age 8-17;11, male and female) who undergo an MRI examination of the cerebrum with a medical indication. The comparison group is a sample of children and adolescents examined with EEG (age 8-17;11, male and female) as well as a sample of adults (age 18-65, male and female) examined with MRI. At present, the study is in the stage of data collection. This article presents the study design of the MRI research project.

  7. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in focal therapy for prostate cancer: recommendations from a consensus panel

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Berrend G.; Fütterer, Jurgen J.; Gupta, Rajan T.; Katz, Aaron; Kirkham, Alexander; Kurhanewicz, John; Moul, Judd W.; Pinto, Peter A.; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Robertson, Cary; de la Rosette, Jean; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Jones, J. Stephen; Ukimura, Osamu; Verma, Sadhna; Wijkstra, Hessel; Marberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a consensus on the utility of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to identify patients for focal therapy. Methods Urological surgeons, radiologists, and basic researchers, from Europe and North America participated in a consensus meeting about the use of mpMRI in focal therapy of prostate cancer.The consensus process was face-to-face and specific clinical issues were raised and discussed with agreement sought when possible. All participants are listed among the authors.Topics specifically did not include staging of prostate cancer, but rather identifying the optimal requirements for performing MRI, and the current status of optimally performed mpMRI to (i) determine focality of prostate cancer (e.g. localising small target lesions of ≥0.5 mL), (ii) to monitor and assess the outcome of focal ablation therapies, and (iii) to identify the diagnostic advantages of new MRI methods.In addition, the need for transperineal template saturation biopsies in selecting patients for focal therapy was discussed, if a high quality mpMRI is available. In other words, can mpMRI replace the role of transperineal saturation biopsies in patient selection for focal therapy? Results Consensus was reached on most key aspects of the meeting; however, on definition of the optimal requirements for mpMRI, there was one dissenting voice.mpMRI is the optimum approach to achieve the objectives needed for focal therapy, if made on a high quality machine (3T with/without endorectal coil or 1.5T with endorectal coil) and judged by an experienced radiologist.Structured and standardised reporting of prostate MRI is paramount.State of the art mpMRI is capable of localising small tumours for focal therapy.State of the art mpMRI is the technique of choice for follow-up of focal ablation. Conclusions The present evidence for MRI in focal therapy is limited.mpMRI is not accurate enough to consistently grade tumour aggressiveness.Template-guided saturation biopsies

  8. New oil-in-water magnetic emulsion as contrast agent for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Eissa, Mohamed Mahmoud; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, bio-imaging techniques are widely applied for the diagnosis of various diseased/tumoral tissues in the body using different contrast agents. Accordingly, the advancement in bionanotechnology research is enhanced in this regard. Among contrast agents used, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were developed by many researchers and applied for in vive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a new oil-in-water magnetic emulsion was used as contrast agent in MRI, after being characterized in terms of particle size, iron oxide content, magnetic properties and colloidal stability using dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potential measurement techniques, respectively. The hydrodynamic size and magnetic content of the magnetic colloidal particles were found to be 250 nm and 75 wt%, respectively. In addition, the used magnetic emulsion possesses superparamagentic properties and high colloidal stability in aqueous medium. Then, the magnetic emulsion was highly diluted and administered intravenously to the Sprague dawley rats to be tested as contrast agent for in vivo MRI. In this preliminary study, MRI images showed significant enhancement in contrast, especially for T2 (relaxation time) contrast enhancement, indicating the distribution of magnetic colloidal nanoparticles within organs, like liver, spleen and kidneys of the Sprague dawley rats. In addition, it was found that 500 microL of the highly diluted magnetic emulsion (0.05 wt%) was found adequate for MRI analysis. This seems to be useful for further investigations especially in theranostic applications of magnetic emulsion.

  9. Mathematical Development and Computational Analysis of Harmonic Phase-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HARP-MRI) Based on Bloch Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Diffusion Model for Myocardial Motion.

    PubMed

    Dada, Michael O; Jayeoba, Babatunde; Awojoyogbe, Bamidele O; Uno, Uno E; Awe, Oluseyi E

    2017-09-13

    Harmonic Phase-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HARP-MRI) is a tagged image analysis method that can measure myocardial motion and strain in near real-time and is considered a potential candidate to make magnetic resonance tagging clinically viable. However, analytical expressions of radially tagged transverse magnetization in polar coordinates (which is required to appropriately describe the shape of the heart) have not been explored because the physics required to directly connect myocardial deformation of tagged Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) transverse magnetization in polar geometry and the appropriate harmonic phase parameters are not yet available. The analytical solution of Bloch NMR diffusion equation in spherical geometry with appropriate spherical wave tagging function is important for proper analysis and monitoring of heart systolic and diastolic deformation with relevant boundary conditions. In this study, we applied Harmonic Phase MRI method to compute the difference between tagged and untagged NMR transverse magnetization based on the Bloch NMR diffusion equation and obtained radial wave tagging function for analysis of myocardial motion. The analytical solution of the Bloch NMR equations and the computational simulation of myocardial motion as developed in this study are intended to significantly improve healthcare for accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cardiovascular related deceases at the lowest cost because MRI scan is still one of the most expensive anywhere. The analysis is fundamental and significant because all Magnetic Resonance Imaging techniques are based on the Bloch NMR flow equations.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for MRI-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy: novel marker-flange for cervical cancer and marker catheters for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schindel, Joshua; Muruganandham, Manickam; Pigge, F Christopher; Anderson, James; Kim, Yusung

    2013-06-01

    To present a novel marker-flange, addressing source-reconstruction uncertainties due to the artifacts of a titanium intracavitary applicator used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT); and to evaluate 7 different MRI marker agents used for interstitial prostate BT and intracavitary gynecologic HDR BT when treatment plans are guided by MRI. Seven MRI marker agents were analyzed: saline solution, Conray-60, copper sulfate (CuSO4) (1.5 g/L), liquid vitamin E, fish oil, 1% agarose gel (1 g agarose powder per 100 mL distilled water), and a cobalt-chloride complex contrast (C4) (CoCl2/glycine = 4:1). A plastic, ring-shaped marker-flange was designed and tested on both titanium and plastic applicators. Three separate phantoms were designed to test the marker-flange, interstitial catheters for prostate BT, and intracavitary catheters for gynecologic HDR BT. T1- and T2-weighted MRI were analyzed for all markers in each phantom and quantified as percentages compared with a 3% agarose gel background. The geometric accuracy of the MR signal for the marker-flange was measured using an MRI-CT fusion. The CuSO4 and C4 markers on T1-weighted MRI and saline on T2-weighted MRI showed the highest signals. The marker-flange showed hyper-signals of >500% with CuSO4 and C4 on T1-weighted MRI and of >400% with saline on T2-weighted MRI on titanium applicators. On T1-weighted MRI, the MRI signal inaccuracies of marker-flanges were measured <2 mm, regardless of marker agents, and that of CuSO4 was 0.42 ± 0.14 mm. The use of interstitial/intracavitary markers for MRI-guided prostate/gynecologic BT was observed to be feasible, providing accurate source pathway reconstruction. The novel marker-flange can produce extremely intense, accurate signals, demonstrating its feasibility for gynecologic HDR BT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    PubMed

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. • Breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-3). • Negative MRI allows breast cancer patients to avoid unnecessary axillary surgery (98.2 %). • Negative MRI findings exclude 99.6 % of pN2-pN3 in the no-NAC group. • Negative MRI findings exclude 96.0 % of pN2-pN3 in the NAC group.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Markers for MRI-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Novel Marker-Flange for Cervical Cancer and Marker Catheters for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schindel, Joshua; Muruganandham, Manickam; Pigge, F. Christopher; Anderson, James; Kim, Yusung

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To present a novel marker-flange, addressing source-reconstruction uncertainties due to the artifacts of a titanium intracavitary applicator used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT); and to evaluate 7 different MRI marker agents used for interstitial prostate BT and intracavitary gynecologic HDR BT when treatment plans are guided by MRI. Methods and Materials: Seven MRI marker agents were analyzed: saline solution, Conray-60, copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) (1.5 g/L), liquid vitamin E, fish oil, 1% agarose gel (1 g agarose powder per 100 mL distilled water), and a cobalt–chloride complex contrast (C4) (CoCl{sub 2}/glycine = 4:1). A plastic, ring-shaped marker-flange was designed and tested on both titanium and plastic applicators. Three separate phantoms were designed to test the marker-flange, interstitial catheters for prostate BT, and intracavitary catheters for gynecologic HDR BT. T1- and T2-weighted MRI were analyzed for all markers in each phantom and quantified as percentages compared with a 3% agarose gel background. The geometric accuracy of the MR signal for the marker-flange was measured using an MRI-CT fusion. Results: The CuSO{sub 4} and C4 markers on T1-weighted MRI and saline on T2-weighted MRI showed the highest signals. The marker-flange showed hyper-signals of >500% with CuSO{sub 4} and C4 on T1-weighted MRI and of >400% with saline on T2-weighted MRI on titanium applicators. On T1-weighted MRI, the MRI signal inaccuracies of marker-flanges were measured <2 mm, regardless of marker agents, and that of CuSO{sub 4} was 0.42 ± 0.14 mm. Conclusion: The use of interstitial/intracavitary markers for MRI-guided prostate/gynecologic BT was observed to be feasible, providing accurate source pathway reconstruction. The novel marker-flange can produce extremely intense, accurate signals, demonstrating its feasibility for gynecologic HDR BT.

  13. Diagnostic and clinical application value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for progressive massive fibrosis of coal worker pneumoconiosis: Case reports.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lansheng; Wang, Chun; Yan, Qiuyue; Zhang, Tao; Han, Zhengxiang; Jiang, Guan

    2017-05-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we diagnosed pneumoconiosis by identifying the content and distribution of hydrogen protons in the water molecules in different tissues and lesions. 25 cases of CWP patients with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) lesions. Patients were correctly diagnosed, with one case each of Phase I and II pneumoconiosis and 23 cases of Phase III pneumoconiosis. None. Through MRI, 39 PMF pneumoconiosis lesions exhibited equal, low or equally low, and uneven signals on T2WI and fat suppression (SPIR) (38/39, 37/39). MRI has good specificity to identify the characteristics of PMF lesions of CWP, as well as has high application value for the differential diagnosis of lung cancer and other lung tumor-like lesions.

  14. Heritability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) traits in Alzheimer disease cases and their siblings in the MIRAGE study.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Kathryn L; Erlich, Porat M; Cuenco, Karen T; Cupples, L Adrienne; Green, Robert C; Farrer, Lindsay A; Decarli, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) traits can serve as more specific measures of degenerative or cerebrovascular brain injury than can be ascertained through personal history, risk factors, clinical signs, or symptoms. They are potentially useful intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent studies have estimated heritability of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) among cognitively normal family members to be between 0.55 and 0.73. Persons discordant for AD are expected to have substantially different MRI phenotype distributions; our goal was to determine whether MRI traits in siblings discordant for AD are heritable. We measured cerebral atrophy, medial temporal atrophy (MTA), WMH, and a rating of cerebrovascular disease (CVR) via MRI in 815 participants from 424 families of the Multi-Institutional Research in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology Study. Residual heritability after adjustment for covariates ranged from 0.17 (P=0.009) for MTA to 0.57 (P=10(-7)) for CVR. The number of APOE-epsilon4 alleles was significantly associated with WMH (P=0.01) and CVR (P=0.005) but not cerebral atrophy (P=0.25) or MTA (P=0.83). Heritability remained significant and high after adjusting for APOE genotype, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the additive genetic variation in these MRI traits is explained by other genes. In the Multi-Institutional Research in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology Study of AD-discordant siblings, MRI traits are heritable and are potential endophenotypes for genetic association studies.

  15. Advances in breast imaging: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bartella, Lia; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is rapidly becoming incorporated into clinical practice. Indications for breast MRI include staging of known breast cancer, monitoring response to chemotherapy, assessing recurrence, problem solving, and high-risk screening. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a promising technique that may decrease the number of benign biopsies generated by breast MRI in the clinical setting.

  16. Single photon emission photography/magnetic resonance imaging (SPECT/MRI) visualization for frontal-lobe-damaged regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokking, Rik; Zuiderveld, Karel J.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Viergever, Max A.

    1994-09-01

    We present multi-modality visualization strategies to convey information contained in registered Single Photon Emission Photography (SPECT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brain. Multi-modality visualization provides a means to retrieve valuable information from the data which might otherwise remain obscured. Here we use MRI as an anatomical framework for functional information acquired with SPECT. This is part of clinical research studying the change of functionality caused by a frontal lobe damaged region. A number of known and newly developed techniques for the integrated visualization of SPECT and MR images will be discussed.

  17. Visualizing arthritic inflammation and therapeutic response by fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive imaging of inflammation to measure the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to monitor responses to therapy is critically needed. V-Sense, a perfluorocarbon (PFC) contrast agent that preferentially labels inflammatory cells, which are then recruited out of systemic circulation to sites of inflammation, enables detection by 19F MRI. With no 19F background in the host, detection is highly-specific and can act as a proxy biomarker of the degree of inflammation present. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis in rats, a model with many similarities to human RA, was used to study the ability of the PFC contrast agent to reveal the accumulation of inflammation over time using 19F MRI. Disease progression in the rat hind limbs was monitored by caliper measurements and 19F MRI on days 15, 22 and 29, including the height of clinically symptomatic disease. Naïve rats served as controls. The capacity of the PFC contrast agent and 19F MRI to assess the effectiveness of therapy was studied in a cohort of rats administered oral prednisolone on days 14 to 28. Results Quantification of 19F signal measured by MRI in affected limbs was linearly correlated with disease severity. In animals with progressive disease, increases in 19F signal reflected the ongoing recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site, while no increase in 19F signal was observed in animals receiving treatment which resulted in clinical resolution of disease. Conclusion These results indicate that 19F MRI may be used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate longitudinal responses to a therapeutic regimen, while additionally revealing the recruitment of monocytic cells involved in the inflammatory process to the anatomical site. This study may support the use of 19F MRI to clinically quantify and monitor the severity of inflammation, and to assess the effectiveness of treatments in RA and other diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:22721447

  18. Superficial Fascia (SF) in the Cheek and Parotid Area: Histology and Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hun; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kang, Young Hye

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the superficial fascia (SF) in the cheek and parotid areas histologically and through MRI. An in vitro study included a histological report and an MRI of the cheek of two Korean adult cadavers. The in vivo study included 100 MRI images and three axial image cuts (mandibular condyle, notch, and half the distance between the top of the condyle and the angle). Four angles, one length, and four thicknesses were measured and compared. The MRI results were in concord with the gross specimen or histology. The SF consisted of multilayered horizontal and vertical fibrous connective tissues at all three levels in both the histology and MRI. In the cheek, both histology and MRI showed horizontal fibrous connective tissues which were connected with the zygomaticus major, visualized as a continuous membrane (membranous layer, MSF). MSF divided the SF into the superficial fatty layer (SFS) and the deep fatty layer. The thickness of the SF depended upon the thickness of the SFS since the thickness of the MSF was very similar irrespective of the three levels. The thickness of the SFS was thicker in females than in males. At the condyle level, the AS-PS angle (AP line-the most posterior superficial fascia angle) and AS-PS length increased significantly (p = 0.001, y = 0.15x + 16.19, and p < 0.001, y = 0.33x + 14.68, respectively). We hope the information we have gathered could be useful to provide subcutaneous dissection or sub-SMAS dissection in facelift surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Spatially resolved quantification of gadolinium(III)-based magnetic resonance agents in tissue by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry after in vivo MRI.

    PubMed

    Aichler, Michaela; Huber, Katharina; Schilling, Franz; Lohöfer, Fabian; Kosanke, Katja; Meier, Reinhard; Rummeny, Ernst J; Walch, Axel; Wildgruber, Moritz

    2015-03-27

    Gadolinium(III)-based contrast agents improve the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially when targeted contrast agents are applied. Because of nonlinear correlation between the contrast agent concentration in tissue and the MRI signal obtained in vivo, quantification of certain biological or pathophysiological processes by MRI remains a challenge. Up to now, no technology has been able to provide a spatially resolved quantification of MRI agents directly within the tissue, which would allow a more precise verification of in vivo imaging results. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry for spatially resolved in situ quantification of gadolinium(III) agents, in correlation to in vivo MRI, were evaluated. Enhanced kinetics of Gadofluorine M were determined dynamically over time in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. MALDI imaging was able to corroborate the in vivo imaging MRI signals and enabled in situ quantification of the gadolinium probe with high spatial resolution.

  20. Ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a potential examination for deep brain stimulation devices and the limitation study concerning MRI-related heating injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chuan; Li, Jun-Ju; Zhu, Guan-Yu; Shi, Lin; Yang, An-Chao; Jiang, Yin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices are restricted to undertake 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the guideline. Nevertheless, we conducted an experiment to test pathological change near the leads in different field-strength MRI. Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were assigned to Group 1 (G1, n = 6, 7.0T, DBS), Group 2 (G2, n = 6, 3.0T, DBS), Group 3 (G3, n = 6, 1.5T, DBS), and Group 4 (G4, n = 6, 1.5T, paracentesis). DBS leads were implanted in G1, G2 and G3, targeting left nucleus ventralis posterior thalami. Paracentesis was performed in G4. 24 h after MRI scan, all animals were killed for examining pathological alternation (at different distance from lead) via transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that the severity of tissue injury correlates with the distance to electrode instead of field strength of MRI. Up to now, the reason for the restriction of MRI indicated no significantly different pathological change.

  1. Lung ventilation- and perfusion-weighted Fourier decomposition magnetic resonance imaging: in vivo validation with hyperpolarized 3He and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Grzegorz; Scholz, Alexander; Rivoire, Julien; Terekhov, Maxim; Friedrich, Janet; de Oliveira, Andre; Semmler, Wolfhard; Schreiber, Laura Maria; Puderbach, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to validate ventilation-weighted (VW) and perfusion-weighted (QW) Fourier decomposition (FD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized (3)He MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion (DCE) MRI in a controlled animal experiment. Three healthy pigs were studied on 1.5-T MR scanner. For FD MRI, the VW and QW images were obtained by postprocessing of time-resolved lung image sets. DCE acquisitions were performed immediately after contrast agent injection. (3)He MRI data were acquired following the administration of hyperpolarized helium and nitrogen mixture. After baseline MR scans, pulmonary embolism was artificially produced. FD MRI and DCE MRI perfusion measurements were repeated. Subsequently, atelectasis and air trapping were induced, which followed with FD MRI and (3)He MRI ventilation measurements. Distributions of signal intensities in healthy and pathologic lung tissue were compared by statistical analysis. Images acquired using FD, (3)He, and DCE MRI in all animals before the interventional procedure showed homogeneous ventilation and perfusion. Functional defects were detected by all MRI techniques at identical anatomical locations. Signal intensity in VW and QW images was significantly lower in pathological than in healthy lung parenchyma. The study has shown usefulness of FD MRI as an alternative, noninvasive, and easily implementable technique for the assessment of acute changes in lung function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy of the prostate: a preclinical study with radiological and pathological correlation using customised MRI-based moulds

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Ari; Yerram, Nitin K.; Trivedi, Hari; Dreher, Matthew R.; Oila, Juha; Hoang, Anthony N.; Volkin, Dmitry; Nix, Jeffrey; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino; Haines, Diana C.; Benjamin, Compton J.; Linehan, W. Marston; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Ehnholm, Gösta J.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterise the feasibility and safety of a novel transurethral ultrasound (US)-therapy device combined with real-time multi-plane magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based temperature monitoring and temperature feedback control, to enable spatiotemporally precise regional ablation of simulated prostate gland lesions in a preclinical canine model. To correlate ablation volumes measured with intra-procedural cumulative thermal damage estimates, post-procedural MRI, and histopathology. Materials and methods Three dogs were treated with three targeted ablations each, using a prototype MRI-guided transurethral US-therapy system (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). MRI provided images for treatment planning, guidance, real-time multi-planar thermometry, as well as post-treatment evaluation of efficacy. After treatment, specimens underwent histopathological analysis to determine the extent of necrosis and cell viability. Statistical analyses (Pearson’s correlation, Student’s t-test) were used to evaluate the correlation between ablation volumes measured with intra-procedural cumulative thermal damage estimates, post-procedural MRI, and histopathology. Results MRI combined with a transurethral US-therapy device enabled multi-planar temperature monitoring at the target as well as in surrounding tissues, allowing for safe, targeted, and controlled ablations of prescribed lesions. Ablated volumes measured by cumulative thermal dose positively correlated with volumes determined by histopathological analysis (r2 0.83, P < 0.001). Post-procedural contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI showed a positive correlation with non-viable areas on histopathological analysis (r2 0.89, P < 0.001, and r20.91, P = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between ablated volumes according to cumulative thermal dose and volumes identified on post-procedural contrast-enhanced MRI (r2 0.77, P < 0.01). There was no difference in mean ablation

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy of the prostate: a preclinical study with radiological and pathological correlation using customised MRI-based moulds.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Ari; Yerram, Nitin K; Trivedi, Hari; Dreher, Matthew R; Oila, Juha; Hoang, Anthony N; Volkin, Dmitry; Nix, Jeffrey; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino; Haines, Diana C; Benjamin, Compton J; Linehan, W Marston; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford J; Ehnholm, Gösta J; Venkatesan, Aradhana M; Pinto, Peter A

    2013-08-01

    To characterise the feasibility and safety of a novel transurethral ultrasound (US)-therapy device combined with real-time multi-plane magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based temperature monitoring and temperature feedback control, to enable spatiotemporally precise regional ablation of simulated prostate gland lesions in a preclinical canine model. To correlate ablation volumes measured with intra-procedural cumulative thermal damage estimates, post-procedural MRI, and histopathology. Three dogs were treated with three targeted ablations each, using a prototype MRI-guided transurethral US-therapy system (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). MRI provided images for treatment planning, guidance, real-time multi-planar thermometry, as well as post-treatment evaluation of efficacy. After treatment, specimens underwent histopathological analysis to determine the extent of necrosis and cell viability. Statistical analyses (Pearson's correlation, Student's t-test) were used to evaluate the correlation between ablation volumes measured with intra-procedural cumulative thermal damage estimates, post-procedural MRI, and histopathology. MRI combined with a transurethral US-therapy device enabled multi-planar temperature monitoring at the target as well as in surrounding tissues, allowing for safe, targeted, and controlled ablations of prescribed lesions. Ablated volumes measured by cumulative thermal dose positively correlated with volumes determined by histopathological analysis (r(2) 0.83, P < 0.001). Post-procedural contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI showed a positive correlation with non-viable areas on histopathological analysis (r(2) 0.89, P < 0.001, and r(2) 0.91, P = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between ablated volumes according to cumulative thermal dose and volumes identified on post-procedural contrast-enhanced MRI (r(2) 0.77, P < 0.01). There was no difference in mean ablation volumes assessed with the various

  4. Grading of Gliomas by Using Radiomic Features on Multiple Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiang-bo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Chen; Wang, Xiao-chun; Tan, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Wu, Xiao-feng; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background Gliomas are the most common primary brain neoplasms. Misdiagnosis occurs in glioma grading due to an overlap in conventional MRI manifestations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the power of radiomic features based on multiple MRI sequences – T2-Weighted-Imaging-FLAIR (FLAIR), T1-Weighted-Imaging-Contrast-Enhanced (T1-CE), and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) map – in glioma grading, and to improve the power of glioma grading by combining features. Material/Methods Sixty-six patients with histopathologically proven gliomas underwent T2-FLAIR and T1WI-CE sequence scanning with some patients (n=63) also undergoing DWI scanning. A total of 114 radiomic features were derived with radiomic methods by using in-house software. All radiomic features were compared between high-grade gliomas (HGGs) and low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Features with significant statistical differences were selected for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The relationships between significantly different radiomic features and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression were evaluated. Results A total of 8 radiomic features from 3 MRI sequences displayed significant differences between LGGs and HGGs. FLAIR GLCM Cluster Shade, T1-CE GLCM Entropy, and ADC GLCM Homogeneity were the best features to use in differentiating LGGs and HGGs in each MRI sequence. The combined feature was best able to differentiate LGGs and HGGs, which improved the accuracy of glioma grading compared to the above features in each MRI sequence. A significant correlation was found between GFAP and T1-CE GLCM Entropy, as well as between GFAP and ADC GLCM Homogeneity. Conclusions The combined radiomic feature had the highest efficacy in distinguishing LGGs from HGGs. PMID:28478462

  5. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of unclear solid renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rübenthaler, J; Paprottka, K; Marcon, J; Hameister, E; Hoffmann, K; Joiko, N; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of unclear renal lesions to the histopathological outcome. A total of 36 patients with a single unclear solid renal lesion with initial imaging studies between 2005 and 2015 were included. CEUS and MRI were used for determining malignancy or benignancy and initial findings were correlated with the histopathological outcome. Out of the 36 renal masses a total of 28 lesions were malignant (77.8%) and 8 were found to be benign (22.2%). Diagnostic accuracy was testes by using the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. CEUS showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88,9%. MRI showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 75.0%, a PPV of 93.1% and a NPV of 85.7%. Out of the 28 malignant lesions a total of 18 clear cell renal carcinomas, 6 papillary renal cell carcinomas and 4 other malignant lesions, e.g. metastases, were diagnosed. Out of the 8 benign lesions a total 3 angiomyolipomas, 2 oncocytomas, 1 benign renal cyst and 2 other benign lesions, e.g. renal adenomas were diagnosed. Using CEUS, 1 lesion was falsely identified as benign. Using MRI, 2 lesions were falsely identified as benign and 1 lesion was falsely identified as malignant. CEUS is an useful method which can be additionally used to clinically differentiate between malignant and benign renal lesions. CEUS shows a comparable sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV to MRI. In daily clinical routine, patients with contraindications for other imaging modalities can particularly benefit using this method.

  6. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson's r, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson's r increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  7. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  8. Human developmental anatomy: microscopic magnetic resonance imagingMRI) of four human embryos (from Carnegie Stage 10 to 20).

    PubMed

    Lhuaire, Martin; Martinez, Agathe; Kaplan, Hervé; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renard, Yohann; Tonnelet, Romain; Braun, Marc; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances in the field of biological imaging now allow multi-modal studies of human embryo anatomy. The aim of this study was to assess the high magnetic field μMRI feasibility in the study of small human embryos (less than 21mm crown-rump) as a new tool for the study of human descriptive embryology and to determine better sequence characteristics to obtain higher spatial resolution and higher signal/noise ratio. Morphological study of four human embryos belonging to the historical collection of the Department of Anatomy in the Faculty of Medicine of Reims was undertaken by μMRI. These embryos had, successively, crown-rump lengths of 3mm (Carnegie Stage, CS 10), 12mm (CS 16), 17mm (CS 18) and 21mm (CS 20). Acquisition of images was performed using a vertical nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, a Bruker Avance III, 500MHz, 11.7T equipped for imaging. All images were acquired using 2D (transverse, sagittal and coronal) and 3D sequences, either T1-weighted or T2-weighted. Spatial resolution between 24 and 70μm/pixel allowed clear visualization of all anatomical structures of the embryos. The study of human embryos μMRI has already been reported in the literature and a few atlases exist for educational purposes. However, to our knowledge, descriptive or morphological studies of human developmental anatomy based on data collected these few μMRI studies of human embryos are rare. This morphological noninvasive imaging method coupled with other techniques already reported seems to offer new perspectives to descriptive studies of human embryology.

  9. The hidden-Markov brain: comparison and inference of white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Salvetti, Federica; Wang, Bing; Diani, Marco; Heindel, Walter; Knecht, Stefan; Wersching, Heike; Baune, Bernhard T.; Berger, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Rating and quantification of cerebral white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important tasks in various clinical and scientific settings. As manual evaluation is time consuming and imprecise, much effort has been made to automate the quantification of white matter hyperintensities. There is rarely any report that attempts to study the similarity/dissimilarity of white matter hyperintensity patterns that have different sizes, shapes and spatial localizations on the MRI. This paper proposes an original computational neuroscience framework for such a conceptual study with a standpoint that the prior knowledge about white matter hyperintensities can be accumulated and utilized to enable a reliable inference of the rating of a new white matter hyperintensity observation. This computational approach for rating inference of white matter hyperintensities, which appears to be the first study, can be utilized as a computerized rating-assisting tool and can be very economical for diagnostic evaluation of brain tissue lesions.

  10. RF Head Coil Design with Improved RF Magnetic Near-Fields Uniformity for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sung-Min; DelaBarre, Lance; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, John Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Higher magnetic field strength in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems offers higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, and spatial resolution in MR images. However, the wavelength in ultra-high fields (7 tesla and beyond) becomes shorter than the human body at the Larmor frequency with increasing static magnetic field (B0) of MRI system. At short wavelengths, interference effect appears resulting in non- uniformity of the RF magnetic near-field (B1) over the subject and MR images may have spatially anomalous contrast. The B1 near-field generated by the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) RF coil’s microstrip line element has a maximum near the center of its length and falls off towards both ends. In this study, a double trapezoidal shaped microstrip transmission line element is proposed to obtain uniform B1 field distribution by gradual impedance variation. Two multi-channel RF head coils with uniform and trapezoidal shape elements were built and tested with a phantom at 7T MRI scanner for comparison. The simulation and experimental results show stronger and more uniform B1+ near-field with the trapezoidal shape. PMID:25892746

  11. RF Head Coil Design with Improved RF Magnetic Near-Fields Uniformity for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Systems.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Min; DelaBarre, Lance; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, John Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Higher magnetic field strength in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems offers higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, and spatial resolution in MR images. However, the wavelength in ultra-high fields (7 tesla and beyond) becomes shorter than the human body at the Larmor frequency with increasing static magnetic field (B0) of MRI system. At short wavelengths, interference effect appears resulting in non- uniformity of the RF magnetic near-field (B1) over the subject and MR images may have spatially anomalous contrast. The B1 near-field generated by the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) RF coil's microstrip line element has a maximum near the center of its length and falls off towards both ends. In this study, a double trapezoidal shaped microstrip transmission line element is proposed to obtain uniform B1 field distribution by gradual impedance variation. Two multi-channel RF head coils with uniform and trapezoidal shape elements were built and tested with a phantom at 7T MRI scanner for comparison. The simulation and experimental results show stronger and more uniform B1(+) near-field with the trapezoidal shape.

  12. Optimization image of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 fast spin echo (FSE) with variation echo train length (ETL) on the rupture tendon achilles case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzamil, Akhmad; Haries Firmansyah, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    The research was done the optimization image of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 Fast Spin Echo (FSE) with variation Echo Train Length (ETL) on the Rupture Tendon Achilles case. This study aims to find the variations Echo Train Length (ETL) from the results of ankle’s MRI image and find out how the value of Echo Train Length (ETL) works on the MRI ankle to produce optimal image. In this research, the used ETL variations were 12 and 20 with the interval 2 on weighting T2 FSE sagittal. The study obtained the influence of Echo Train Length (ETL) on the quality of ankle MRI image sagittal using T2 FSE weighting and analyzed in 25 images of five patients. The data analysis has done quantitatively with the Region of Interest (ROI) directly on computer MRI image planes which conducted statistical tests Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR). The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was the highest finding on fat tissue, while the Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR) on the Tendon-Fat tissue with ETL 12 found in two patients. The statistics test showed the significant SNR value of the 0.007 (p<0.05) of Tendon tissue, 0.364 (p>0.05) of the Fat, 0.912 (p>0.05) of the Fibula, and 0.436 (p>0.05) of the Heel Bone. For the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the Tendon-FAT tissue was about 0.041 (p>0.05). The results of the study showed that ETL variation with T2 FSE sagittal weighting had difference at Tendon tissue and Tendon-Fat tissue for MRI imaging quality. SNR and CNR were an important aspect on imaging optimization process to give the diagnose information.

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of residual breast tissue following mastectomy and reconstruction with silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Zippel, Douglas; Tsehmaister-Abitbol, Vered; Rundstein, Arie; Shalmon, Anat; Zbar, Andrew; Nardini, Gil; Novikov, Ilya; Sklair-Levy, Miri

    2015-01-01

    We present our use of magnetic resonance (MR) measurement to determine the amount of residual breast tissue (RBT) following total mastectomy with reconstruction. Breast MR images of 45 women who underwent surgery between January and November 2011 were reviewed. The cohort included therapeutic and prophylactic mastectomies. RBT was evaluated at four points with a digital caliper assessing T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. Patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma tended to have less RBT than in prophylactic surgery. Greater age and recent surgery both correlated with larger RBT. Variable thickness of RBT is demonstrable following mastectomy and implant reconstruction using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based indication for neoadjuvant treatment of rectal carcinoma and the surrogate endpoint CRM status.

    PubMed

    Strassburg, Joachim; Junginger, Theo; Trinh, Trong; Püttcher, Olaf; Oberholzer, Katja; Heald, Richard J; Hermanek, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Is it possible to reduce the frequency of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal carcinoma and nevertheless achieve a rate of more than 90% circumferential resection margin (CRM)-negative resection specimens by a novel concept of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based therapy planning? One hundred eighty-one patients from Berlin and Mainz, Germany, with primary rectal carcinoma, without distant metastasis, underwent radical surgery with curative intention. Surgical procedures applied were anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) or partial mesorectal excision (PME; PME for tumours of the upper rectum) or abdominoperineal excision with TME. With MRI selection of the highest-risk cases, neoadjuvant therapy was given to only 62 of 181 (34.3%). The rate of CRM-negative resection specimens on histology was 170 of 181 (93.9%) for all patients, and in Berlin, only 1 of 93 (1%) specimens was CRM-positive. Patients selected for primary surgery had CRM-negative specimens on histology in 114 of 119 (95.8%). Those selected for neoadjuvant therapy had a lower rate of clear margin: 56 of 62 (90%). By applying a MRI-based indication, the frequency of neoadjuvant treatment with its acute and late adverse effects can be reduced to 30-35% without reduction of pathologically CRM-negative resection specimens and, thus, without the danger of worsening the oncological long-term results. This concept should be confirmed in prospective multicentre observation studies with quality assurance of MRI, surgery and pathology.

  18. An EEG (electroencephalogram) recording system with carbon wire electrodes for simultaneous EEG-fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) recording

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Michiro; Abildgaard, Mark; Laufer, Ilan; Nixon, Terry; Constable, Robert Todd

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI (Electroencephalography-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) recording provides a means for acquiring high temporal resolution electrophysiological data and high spatial resolution metabolic data of the brain in the same experimental runs. Carbon wire electrodes (not metallic EEG electrodes with carbon wire leads) are suitable for simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording, because they cause less RF (radio-frequency) heating and susceptibility artifacts than metallic electrodes. These characteristics are especially desirable for recording the EEG in high field MRI scanners. Carbon wire electrodes are also comfortable to wear during long recording sessions. However, carbon electrodes have high electrode-electrolyte potentials compared to widely used Ag/AgCl (silver/silver-chloride) electrodes, which may cause slow voltage drifts. This paper introduces a prototype EEG recording system with carbon wire electrodes and a circuit that suppresses the slow voltage drift. The system was tested for the voltage drift, RF heating, susceptibility artifact, and impedance, and was also evaluated in a simultaneous ERP (event-related potential)-fMRI experiment. PMID:18588913

  19. In vitro neurotoxicity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents: influence of the molecular structure and paramagnetic ion.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Annabelle; Michou-Gallani, Anne-Isabelle; Gallani, Jean-Louis; Felder-Flesch, Delphine

    2010-08-01

    Interest in contrast agent's (CA) neurotoxicity has greatly increased due to the growing need of new compounds dedicated to brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CA have been evaluated by means of different toxicological assays with cultured rat primary neurons (evaluation of neurite specific parameters via immunostaining of the cells and LDH leakage). To determine the potential neurotoxicity of a precise paramagnetic ion in a defined structure (architecture and molecular weight), novel hydrosoluble dendritic Manganese (II) and Gadolinium (III) complexes derived from diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) have been studied and compared to a linear homologue (same molecular weight) and commercially available low molecular weight MRI CA like Mn-DPDP (Teslascan, GE Healthcare) and Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Schering). The range of CA concentrations studied was 0.1-10mM, suitable for MRI examinations. This set of experiments allows a toxicity ranking of these reagents as a function of molecular structure and nature of the paramagnetic ion. We could determine that the architecture (linear vs. dendritic) does not play an important role in the in vitro neurotoxicity, whereas the structure of the chelating cage is of greater importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Curcumin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for detecting amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Chan, Pui Shan; Fan, Shujuan; Kwan, Siu Ming; Yeung, King Lun; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Chow, Albert Hee Lum; Wu, Ed X; Baum, Larry

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be performed with the assistance of amyloid imaging. The current method relies on positron emission tomography (PET), which is expensive and exposes people to radiation, undesirable features for a population screening method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is cheaper and is not radioactive. Our approach uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) made of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) conjugated with curcumin, a natural compound that specifically binds to amyloid plaques. Coating of curcumin-conjugated MNPs with polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid block copolymer and polyvinylpyrrolidone by antisolvent precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer produces stable and biocompatible curcumin magnetic nanoparticles (Cur-MNPs) with mean diameter <100 nm. These nanoparticles were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and their structure and chemistry were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cur-MNPs exhibited no cytotoxicity in either Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). The Papp of Cur-MNPs was 1.03 × 10(-6) cm/s in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Amyloid plaques could be visualized in ex vivo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Tg2576 mouse brains after injection of Cur-MNPs, and no plaques could be found in non-transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical examination of the mouse brains revealed that Cur-MNPs were co-localized with amyloid plaques. Thus, Cur-MNPs have the potential for non-invasive diagnosis of AD using MRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ).

    PubMed

    Ahlander, Britt-Marie; Årestedt, Kristofer; Engvall, Jan; Maret, Eva; Ericsson, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Anxiety Questionnaire. Questionnaires measuring patients' anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients' experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbach's alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Can glenoid wear be accurately assessed using x-ray imaging? Evaluating agreement of x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Walch classification.

    PubMed

    Kopka, Michaela; Fourman, Mitchell; Soni, Ashish; Cordle, Andrew C; Lin, Albert

    2017-09-01

    The Walch classification is the most recognized means of assessing glenoid wear in preoperative planning for shoulder arthroplasty. This classification relies on advanced imaging, which is more expensive and less practical than plain radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Walch classification could be accurately applied to x-ray images compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the gold standard. We hypothesized that x-ray images cannot adequately replace advanced imaging in the evaluation of glenoid wear. Preoperative axillary x-ray images and MRI scans of 50 patients assessed for shoulder arthroplasty were independently reviewed by 5 raters. Glenoid wear was individually classified according to the Walch classification using each imaging modality. The raters then collectively reviewed the MRI scans and assigned a consensus classification to serve as the gold standard. The κ coefficient was used to determine interobserver agreement for x-ray images and independent MRI reads, as well as the agreement between x-ray images and consensus MRI. The inter-rater agreement for x-ray images and MRIs was "moderate" (κ = 0.42 and κ = 0.47, respectively) for the 5-category Walch classification (A1, A2, B1, B2, C) and "moderate" (κ = 0.54 and κ = 0.59, respectively) for the 3-category Walch classification (A, B, C). The agreement between x-ray images and consensus MRI was much lower: "fair-to-moderate" (κ = 0.21-0.51) for the 5-category and "moderate" (κ = 0.36-0.60) for the 3-category Walch classification. The inter-rater agreement between x-ray images and consensus MRI is "fair-to-moderate." This is lower than the previously reported reliability of the Walch classification using computed tomography scans. Accordingly, x-ray images are inferior to advanced imaging when assessing glenoid wear. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Clinical safety of the ProMRI pacemaker system in patients subjected to thoracic spine and cardiac 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanning conditions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, William M; Mazur, Alexander; McCotter, Craig; Woodard, Pamela K; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Johnson, Whitney; Mela, Theofanie

    2016-02-01

    Permanent cardiac pacemakers have historically been considered a contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the ProMRI Phase B Study, a multicenter, prospective, single-arm, nonrandomized study, was to evaluate the clinical safety of the Biotronik ProMRI pacemaker system in patients undergoing thoracic spine and cardiac MRI. The ProMRI Phase B study enrolled 245 patients with stable baseline pacing indices implanted with an Entovis pacemaker (DR-T or SR-T) and Setrox 53-cm and/or 60-cm lead(s). Device interrogation was performed at enrollment, pre- and post-MRI scan, and 1 and 3 months post-MRI. End-points were (1) freedom from MRI- and pacing system-related serious adverse device effects through 1 month post-MRI; (2) freedom from atrial and ventricular MRI-induced pacing threshold increase (>0.5 V); and (3) freedom from P- and R-wave amplitude attenuation (<50%), or P wave <1.5 mV, or R wave <5.0 mV at 1 month post-MRI. In total, 216 patients completed the MRI and 1-month post-MRI follow-up. One adverse event possibly related to the implanted system and the MRI procedure occurred, resulting in a serious adverse device effect-free rate of 99.6% (220/221; P < .0001. Freedom from atrial and ventricular pacing threshold increase was 100% (194/194, P < .001) and 100% (206/206, P < .001) respectively. Freedom from P- and R-wave amplitude attenuation was 98.2% (167/170, P < .001) and 100% (188/188, P < .001) respectively. The results of the ProMRI Phase B study demonstrate the clinical safety and efficacy of the ProMRI pacemaker system in patients subjected to thoracic spine and cardiac MRI conditions. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Should the orthodontic brackets always be removed prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?

    PubMed Central

    Poorsattar-Bejeh Mir, Arash; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr

    2015-01-01

    Request for temporary removal of orthodontic appliances due to medical conditions that require magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not uncommon in daily practice in the field of orthodontics. This may be at the expense of time and cost. Metal Orthodontic appliances cause more signal loss and image distortion as compared to ceramic and titanium ones. Stainless steel and large brackets in addition to the oriented miniscrews in relation to the axis of magnetic field may cause severe signal loss and image distortion. Moreover, gradient echo and frequency-selective fat saturation MR protocols are more susceptible to metal artifacts. The spin echo and fat-suppression protocols, low magnetic field strength (e.g., 1.5 Tesla vs. 3 Tesla), small field of view, high-resolution matrix, thin slice, increased echo train length and increased receiver band width could be applied to lessen the metal artifacts in MR images. The larger the distance between an appliance and desired location to be imaged, the lower the distortion and signal loss. Decision to remove brackets should be made based on its composition and desired anatomic location. In this review, first the principles of MR imaging are introduced (Part-I) and then the interactions of orthodontic appliances and magnetic field are farther discussed (Part-II). PMID:27195213

  5. Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Claudia; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Millon, Antoine; Robson, Philip M.; Mani, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is the number one killer in the Western world, and threatens to become the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is therefore paramount to develop non-invasive methods for the detection of high-risk, asymptomatic individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms or events. In the recent past, great strides have been made in the understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved in the atherosclerotic cascade down to the molecular details. This has allowed the development of contrast agents that can aid in the in vivo characterization of these processes. Gadolinium chelates are among the contrast media most commonly used in MR imaging. Originally used for MR angiography for the detection and quantification of vascular stenosis, more recently they have been applied to improve characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. In this manuscript, we will briefly review gadolinium-chelates (Gd) based contrast agents for non-invasive MR imaging of atherosclerosis. We will first describe Gd-based non-targeted FDA approved agents, used routinely in clinical practice for the evaluation of neovascularization in other diseases. Secondly, we will describe non-specific and specific targeted contrast agents, which have great potential for dissecting specific biological processes in the atherosclerotic cascade. Lastly, we will briefly compare Gd-based agents to others commonly used in MRI and to other imaging modalities. PMID:23539505

  6. Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Claudia; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Millon, Antoine; Robson, Philip M; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is the number one killer in the Western world, and threatens to become the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is therefore paramount to develop non-invasive methods for the detection of high-risk, asymptomatic individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms or events. In the recent past, great strides have been made in the understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved in the atherosclerotic cascade down to the molecular details. This has allowed the development of contrast agents that can aid in the in vivo characterization of these processes. Gadolinium chelates are among the contrast media most commonly used in MR imaging. Originally used for MR angiography for the detection and quantification of vascular stenosis, more recently they have been applied to improve characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. In this manuscript, we will briefly review gadolinium-chelates (Gd) based contrast agents for non-invasive MR imaging of atherosclerosis. We will first describe Gd-based non-targeted FDA approved agents, used routinely in clinical practice for the evaluation of neovascularization in other diseases. Secondly, we will describe non-specific and specific targeted contrast agents, which have great potential for dissecting specific biological processes in the atherosclerotic cascade. Lastly, we will briefly compare Gd-based agents to others commonly used in MRI and to other imaging modalities.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of inflamed myocardium using iron oxide nanoparticles in patients with acute myocardial infarction - preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ali; Rösch, Sabine; Klingel, Karin; Kandolf, Reinhard; Helluy, Xavier; Hiller, Karl-Heinz; Jakob, Peter M; Sechtem, Udo

    2013-02-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO)-based molecular imaging agents targeting macrophages have been developed and successfully applied in animal models of myocardial infarction. The purpose of this clinical trial was to investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of macrophages using ferucarbotran (Resovist®) allows improved visualisation of the myocardial (peri-)infarct zone compared to conventional gadolinium-based necrosis/fibrosis imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The clinical study NIMINI-1 was performed as a prospective, non-randomised, non-blinded, single agent phase III clinical trial (NCT0088644). Twenty patients who had experienced either an acute ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI/NSTEMI) were included to this study. Following coronary angiography, a first baseline cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) study (pre-SPIO) was performed within seven days after onset of cardiac symptoms. A second CMR study (post-SPIO) was performed either 10 min, 4h, 24h or 48h after ferucarbotran administration. The CMR studies comprised cine-CMR, T2-weighted "edema" imaging, T2-weighted cardiac imaging and T1-weighted late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging. The median extent of short-axis in-plane LGE was 28% (IQR 19-31%). Following Resovist® administration the median extent of short-axis in-plane T2-weighted hypoenhancement (suggestive of intramyocardial haemorrhage and/or SPIO accumulation) was 0% (IQR 0-9%; p=0.68 compared to pre-SPIO). A significant in-slice increase (>3%) in the extent of T2-weighted "hypoenhancement" (post-SPIO compared to pre-SPIO) was seen in 6/16 patients (38%). However, no patient demonstrated "hypoenhancement" in T2-weighted images following Resovist® administration that exceeded the area of LGE. T2/T2-weighted MRI aiming at non-invasive myocardial macrophage imaging using the approved dose of ferucarbotran does not allow improved visualisation of the myocardial (peri

  8. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the invasion of the tunica albuginea and the urethra during the primary staging of penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanchanale, Vishwanath; Yeo, Lehana; Subedi, Nawraj; Smith, Jonathan; Wah, Tze; Harnden, Patricia; Bhattarai, Selina; Chilka, Sameer; Eardley, Ian

    2016-03-01

    To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting invasion of the tunica albuginea (TA) and the urethra during the primary staging of penile cancer. In all, 104 consecutive patients with clinical T1-T3 penile cancer had a penile MRI as a part of local staging protocol. An artificial erection was induced before MRI by injecting alprostadil (prostaglandin E1 ). Four men with poor quality MRI images were excluded from the study. The preoperative MRI was compared with final histology to assess its accuracy in predicting the invasion of the TA and urethra. Data of 100 patients who underwent penile MRI before definitive surgery for invasive penile carcinoma were available for analysis. The mean age was 65 years and number of patients with pathological stage T1, T2 and T3 was 32, 52, and 16, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in predicting the invasion of TA and urethra was 82.1% and 73.6%, and 62.5% and 82.1%, respectively. There were no MRI-related complications. This study shows that penile MRI is an accurate method for assessing TA invasion but is less sensitive in assessing urethral invasion. These results support the use of MRI in the local staging of penile cancer. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and relaxation spectrum analysis as methods to investigate swelling in whey protein gels.

    PubMed

    Oztop, Mecit H; Rosenberg, Moshe; Rosenberg, Yael; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Effective means for controlled delivery of nutrients and nutraceuticals are needed. Whey protein-based gels, as a model system and as a potential delivery system, exhibit pH-dependent swelling when placed in aqueous solutions. Understanding the physics that govern gel swelling is thus important when designing gel-based delivery platforms. The extent of swelling over time was monitored gravimetrically. In addition to gravimetric measurements, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a real-time noninvasive imaging technique that quantified changes in geometry and water content of these gels was utilized. Heat-set whey protein gels were prepared at pH 7 and swelling was monitored in aqueous solutions with pH values of 2.5, 7, and 10. Changes in dimension over time, as characterized by the number of voxels in an image, were correlated to gravimetric measurements. Excellent correlations between mass uptake and volume change (R(2)= 0.99) were obtained for the gels in aqueous solutions at pH 7 and 10, but not for gels in the aqueous solution at pH 2.5. To provide insight into the mechanisms for water uptake, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times were measured in independent experiments. The relaxation spectrum for the spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) showed the presence of 3 proton pools for pH 7 and 10 trials and 4 proton pools for pH 2.5 trials. Results demonstrate that MRI and NMR relaxation measurements provided information about swelling in whey protein gels that can constitute a new means for investigating and developing effective delivery systems for foods.

  10. Comparisons between the 35 mm Quadrature Surface Resonator at 300 K and the 40 mm High-Temperature Superconducting Surface Resonator at 77 K in a 3T MRI Imager

    PubMed Central

    Song, Manli; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Ji; Lin, In-Tsang

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to compare the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 40 mm High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) surface resonator at 77 K and the 35 mm commercial quadrature (QD) surface resonator at 300 K in a 3 Tesla (T) MRI imager. To aquire images for the comparison, we implemented a phantom experiment using the 40 mm diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) HTS surface resonator, the 35 mm commercial QD surface resonator and the 40 mm professionally-made copper surface resonator. The HTS surface resonator at 77 K provided a 1.43-fold SNR gain over the QD surface resonator at 300 K and provided a 3.84-fold SNR gain over the professionally-made copper surface resonator at 300 K on phantom images. The results agree with the predictions, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains is 1%. Although the geometry of the HTS surface resonator is different from the QD surface resonator, its SNR is still higher. The results demonstrate that a higher image quality can be obtained with the HTS surface resonator at 77 K. With the HTS surface resonator, the SNR can be improved, suggesting that the HTS surface resonator is a potentially helpful diagnostic tool for MRI imaging in various applications. PMID:25812124

  11. Developments in diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with applications to neural tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozarslan, Evren

    Translational diffusion of water within biological tissue can be measured noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Diffusion imaging of neural tissue can provide very valuable information about the tissue microstructure because of its sensitivity to the molecular motion in length scales much smaller than the resolution of the images and similar to the dimensions of the cells. Diffusion attenuated multidirectional signal can be utilized to provide information about the local orientation of highly structured environments. However, the most common approach that has been used for this purpose (diffusion tensor imaging) assumes orientational homogeneity within the region. This assumption can lead to incorrect estimations of fiber orientations and anisotropy values. In order to overcome this problem, we have proposed to use Cartesian tensors of rank higher than 2 to model the measured diffusion coefficients. This approach enables the calculation of more accurate anisotropy values which is of great importance in clinical studies. We have also achieved the resolution of multiple orientations using higher rank tensors as well as through a more direct approach in which we generate the Laplace series coefficients of the probability function on the surface of a sphere. The methods we present are applicable to data that can be acquired using clinically available scanners in short time frames.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Characterization of Perianal Fistulous Disease in a Rural Based Tertiary Hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Sood, Dinesh; Shukla, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To diagnose and characterize the perianal fistulous disease using Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a hilly and rural area of North India. Material/Methods This prospective hospital based study was conducted for a period of one year from April 2014 to April 2015 in the departments of Radiodiagnosis and Surgery of our institute. A total of 50 consecutive patients presenting with perianal fistulous disease fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study and taken up for MRI. The perianal fistulae were classified according to St James University hospital classification and tracks were assessed with regard to anatomical plane, length, ramifications, abscess formation, enteric communication, external cutaneous opening, enhancement and suprasphincteric extension. Surgical correlation was done in 31 patients who opted for surgical treatment. Rest of the 19 patients preferred alternative medicine for treatment or chose to postpone their surgery. Results The disease was much more prevalent in males in comparison to females with male to female ratio of 24:1. Grade 4 was the most common type of fistula (34%) while Grade 5 was the least common type (4%).MRI showed a high sensitivity of 93.7% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.7% when correlated with surgical findings. A substantial number of patients (38%) preferred alternative medicine or non surgical form of treatment. Conclusions MRI is a very sensitive modality for the evaluation of perianal fistula. In our study group, the disease predominantly affected middle aged men. Ramifications and abscesses were commonly seen, affecting nearly half of the patients and majority of the patients had active fistulous tracks with posteriorly located enteric opening. Overall, transsphincteric fistulae were most common. Significant number of patients avoided surgery or showed preference for non surgical treatment. PMID:28096904

  13. MRI brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are expected to be allowed to request MRI scans for adults for selected clinically appropriate indications from November 2013 as part of the expansion of Medicare-funded MRI services announced by the Federal Government in 2011. This article aims to give a brief overview of MRI brain imaging relevant to GPs, which will facilitate explanation of scan findings and management planning with their patients. Basic imaging techniques, common findings and terminology are presented using some illustrative case examples.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q.; Muir, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its application to image anatomy, physiology, and function in the retina of animals. It describes technical issues and solutions in performing retinal MRI, anatomical MRI, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI), and blood-flow MRI both of normal retinas and of retinal degeneration. MRI offers unique advantages over existing retinal imaging techniques, including the ability to image multiple layers without depth limitation and to provide multiple clinically relevant data in a single setting. Retinal MRI has the potential to complement existing retinal imaging techniques. PMID:19763752

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the water content and transport in rat lenses.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Egor A; Snytnikova, Olga A; Koptyug, Igor V; Kaptein, Robert; Tsentalovich, Yuri P

    2013-08-01

    NMR micro-imaging technique has been used for the measurement of the water content distribution in lenses of senescence-accelerated OXYS rats and age-matched Wistar rats, as well as for the study of water and phosphate transport in rat lenses. The water content in the lens cortex is significantly higher than in the nucleus; the spatial gradient of the water content becomes steeper with age. No difference in the water content distribution has been found between Wistar and OXYS rat lenses of matching ages, although cataract onset in the OXYS rat lens occurs much earlier due to the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species associated with oxidative stress. This finding implies that cataract development does not lead to significant changes in water content distribution inside the lens. The water transport in rat lenses slows down with age, and in OXYS lenses it is somewhat faster than in lenses of Wistar rats, probably due to the compensatory response to oxidative stress. The application of (31)P MRI for the monitoring of phosphate penetration into a lens has been performed for the first time. It is found that phosphate transport in a lens is significantly slower than that of water.

  16. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Prostate Cancer Imaging and Staging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla : The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, B. Nicolas; Lenkinski, Robert. E.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2009-01-01

    Management decisions for patients with prostate cancer present a dilemma for both patients and their clinicians because prostate cancers demonstrate a wide range in biologic activity, with the majority of cases not leading to a prostate cancer related death. Furthermore, the current treatment options have significant side effects, such as incontinence, rectal injury and impotence. Key elements for guiding appropriate treatment include: distinction of organ-confined disease from extracapsular extension (ECE); and determination of tumor volume and tumor grade, none of which have been satisfactorily accomplished in today’s pre-treatment paradigm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the capability to assess prostate tissue, both functionally and morphologically. MRI as a staging tool has not shown enough consistency or sufficient accuracy for widespread adoption in clinical practice; yet, recent technical developments in MRI have yielded improved results. At our institution we have combined the use of new endorectal 3 Tesla MRI technology, T2-weighted, and high spatial resolution dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI to non-invasively assess the prostate with higher signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution than previously achieved. This approach allows assessment of prostate-tissue morphology and kinetics, thus providing a non-invasive tool for tumor detection and staging and, consequently, directing biopsy and treatment specifically to diseased areas for a pre-treatment evaluation that can assist in the rational selection of patients for appropriate prostate cancer therapy. PMID:18957714

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in astronauts after 9 days of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaweed, M.; Narayana, P.; Slopis, J.; Butler, I.; Schneider, V.; Leblanc, A.; Fotedar, L.; Bacon, D.

    1992-01-01

    Skylab data indicated that prolonged exposure of human subjects to microgravity environment causes significant muscle atrophy accompanied by reduced muscle strength and fatigue resistance. The objective of this study was to determine decrements in muscle size, if any, in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of male and female astronauts after 9 days of space flight. Methods: Eight astronauts, one female and seven male, between the ages of 31 and 59 years 59-84 kg in body weight were examined by MRI 2-3 times preflight within 16 days before launch, and 2 days, (n=6) and seven days (n=3) after landing. The right leg muscles (gastroc-soleus) were imaged with a lower extremity coil in magnets operating at 1.0 or 1.5 Tsela. The imaging protocol consisted of spin echo with a Tr of 0.70 - 1.5 sec. Thirty to forty 3-5 mm thick slices were acquired in 256 x 128 or 256 x 256 matrices. Acquisition time lasted 20-40 minutes. Multiple slices were measured by computerized planimetry. Results: Compared to the preflight, the cross-sectoral areas (CSA) of the soleus, gastrocnemius, and the leg, at 2 days after landing were reduced (at least p less than 0.05) 8.9 percent, 13.2 percent, and 9.5 percent respectively. The soleus and the leg of three astronauts evaluated at 7 days postflight did not show full recovery compared to the preflight values. Conclusions: It is concluded that l9-days of space flight may cause significant decreases in CSA of the leg muscles. The factors responsible for this loss need further determination.

  18. The role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nadeem; Carrick, David; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, despite the rate having significantly declined over the past decade. The aim of this review is to consider the emerging diagnostic and clinical utility of cardiac MRI in patients with recent AMI. Cardiac MRI has high reproducibility and accuracy, allowing detailed functional assessment and characterisation of myocardial tissue. In addition to traditional measures including infarct size (IS), transmural extent of necrosis and microvascular obstruction (MVO), other infarct characteristics can now be identified using innovative MRI techniques. These novel pathologies include myocardial oedema and myocardial haemorrhage which also have functional and prognostic implications for patients. In addition to its diagnostic utility in ordinary clinical practice, cardiac MRI has been increasingly used to provide information on surrogate outcome measures, such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes, in clinical trials. MRI is becoming more available in secondary care, however, the potential clinical utility and cost effectiveness of MRI in post-MI patients remains uncertain. Cardiac MRI is most likely to be useful in high risk patients with risk factors for heart failure (HF). This includes individuals with early signs of pump failure and risk factors for adverse remodelling, such as MVO. This review focuses on the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of patients with AMI.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assisted laparoscopic anorectoplasty for imperforate anus: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tina T; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Smith, Ethan A; Dillman, Jonathan R; Vellody, Ranjith; Jarboe, Marcus D

    2017-01-01

    Surgical procedures for high imperforate anus have ranged from the posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) to laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP). PSARP bisects the sphincter muscle complex, introducing muscle injury and scarring. LAARP uses a straight trocar to traverse an often non-linear sphincter muscle complex. MRI-assisted LAARP (MRI-LAARP) guides the neorectum precisely through the middle of the entire sphincter complex along its trajectory. We present our experience utilizing MRI intraoperatively during LAARP. Ten children underwent MRI-LAARP procedures. Intraoperative MRI was performed to delineate the sphincter complex, and to guide the advancement of an MRI-compatible needle through the center of the complex from skin to the peritoneal cavity. The remainder of the procedure was completed using the standard LAARP technique. All had successful MRI needle placement through the sphincter complex. Nine patients had successful laparoscopic pull-through procedures; one was converted to open due to severe intraperitoneal adhesions. Postoperative stay averaged 5.4 ± 4.4 days. Out of the ten patients, one child had mild dehiscence of the anal anastomosis requiring revision 11 days postoperatively. The theoretical advantage of the MRI-LAARP is placing the neorectum through the entire sphincter complex without transecting the muscle. Follow-up of these patients shows good short-term results; however, long-term follow-up will be needed to best assess sphincter and bowel function.

  20. Assessment of Renal Hemodynamics and Oxygenation by Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Quantitative Invasive Physiological Measurements.

    PubMed

    Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In vivo assessment of renal perfusion and oxygenation under (patho)physiological conditions by means of noninvasive diagnostic imaging is conceptually appealing. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative parametric mapping of the magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation times T 2* and T 2 are thought to provide surrogates of renal tissue oxygenation. The validity and efficacy of this technique for quantitative characterization of local tissue oxygenation and its changes under different functional conditions have not been systematically examined yet and remain to be established. For this purpose, the development of an integrative multimodality approaches is essential. Here we describe an integrated hybrid approach (MR-PHYSIOL) that combines established quantitative physiological measurements with T 2* (T 2) mapping and MR-based kidney size measurements. Standardized reversible (patho)physiologically relevant interventions, such as brief periods of aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia, are used for detailing the relation between the MR-PHYSIOL parameters, in particular between renal T 2* and tissue oxygenation.

  1. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  2. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain revisited with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).

    PubMed

    Tasali, N; Cubuk, R; Aricak, M; Ozarar, M; Saydam, B; Nur, H; Tuncbilek, N

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the contrast enhancement patterns of the retrodiscal tissue with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) with respect to different temporomandibular joint disc pathologies. Additionally, we questioned the relationship between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and the contrast enhancement pattern of the retrodiscal tissue regardless of the TMJ disc position. 52 joints of 26 patients (4 males and 22 females) who have pain in at least at one of their TMJ were included in this study. For the qualitative analysis, the joints were divided into four groups in terms of their disc positions: normal (1), partially displaced with or without reduction (2), totally dislocated with reduction (3) and totally dislocated without reduction (4). Besides, two different joint groups were constituted, namely the painful group and painless group according to the clinical findings without taking the TMJ disc positions into account. Quantitative analyses were made by means of measuring signal intensity ratios (SI) ratio at the retrodiscal tissue (from internal side and external side of the each joint) using DCE-MRI and these measurements were analyzed with paired samples t test to define the difference between the measurements. At the second stage, the time-dependent arithmetical mean values of the SI ratios were calculated for each joint group and significant differences between the groups were questioned using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Besides, painful and painless groups which were classified on the basis of the clinical data were compared according to the mean SI ratios found for each joint and the significant differences between these two groups were assessed by means of Student's T test. The results were assessed in 95% confidence interval where the significance level was p<0.05. A significant difference was observed between the internal and external contrast enhancement of the joints with partial displacement. Another significant difference

  3. Functional Imaging: CT and MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Edwin JR; Hoffman, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Numerous imaging techniques permit evaluation of regional pulmonary function. Contrast-enhanced CT methods now allow assessment of vasculature and lung perfusion. Techniques using spirometric controlled MDCT allow for quantification of presence and distribution of parenchymal and airway pathology, Xenon gas can be employed to assess regional ventilation of the lungs and rapid bolus injections of iodinated contrast agent can provide quantitative measure of regional parenchymal perfusion. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung include gadolinium-enhanced perfusion imaging and hyperpolarized helium imaging, which can allow imaging of pulmonary ventilation and .measurement of the size of emphysematous spaces. PMID:18267192

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Depiction of Robert’s Uterus: A Rare Müllerian Duct Anomaly Presenting with Cyclical Pain in Young Menstruating Woman

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Taneja, Arpit; Sekhon, Preetparkash Singh; Gupta, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Robert’s uterus is a very rare müllerian duct anomaly which is characterised by septate uterus with obstruction of a one-sided cavity and formation of hematometra. Therefore, patients present with cyclical abdominal pain during menstruation along with normal menstrual flow. Case Report We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a case of Robert’s uterus in a young woman. Conclusions Robert’s uterus is a very rare anomaly which can be very well characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI can also show any associated hematometra and endometriomas complicating this condition and aid in the institution of appropriate management in such cases. PMID:28348653

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks.

  6. Direct comparison of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results with final histopathology in patients with proven prostate cancer in MRI/ultrasonography-fusion biopsy.

    PubMed

    Borkowetz, Angelika; Platzek, Ivan; Toma, Marieta; Renner, Theresa; Herout, Roman; Baunacke, Martin; Laniado, Michael; Baretton, Gustavo; Froehner, Michael; Zastrow, Stefan; Wirth, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    To compare multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate and histological findings of both targeted MRI/ultrasonography-fusion prostate biopsy (PBx) and systematic PBx with final histology of the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen. A total of 105 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) histopathologically proven using a combination of fusion Pbx and systematic PBx, who underwent RP, were investigated. All patients had been examined using mpMRI, applying the European Society of Urogenital Radiology criteria. Histological findings from the RP specimen were compared with those from the PBx. Whole-mount RP specimen and mpMRI results were directly compared by a uro-pathologist and a uro-radiologist in step-section analysis. In the 105 patients with histopathologically proven PCa by combination of fusion PBx and systematic PBx, the detection rate of PCa was 90% (94/105) in fusion PBx alone and 68% (72/105) in systematic PBx alone (P = 0.001). The combination PBx detected 23 (22%) Gleason score (GS) 6, 69 (66%) GS 7 and 13 (12%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone detected 25 (26%) GS 6, 57 (61%) GS 7 and 12 (13%) GS ≥8 tumours. Systematic PBx alone detected 17 (24%) GS 6, 49 (68%) GS 7 and 6 (8%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone would have missed 11 tumours (4% [4/105] of GS 6, 6% [6/105] of GS 7 and 1% [1/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). Systematic PBx alone would have missed 33 tumours (10% [10/105] of GS 6, 20% [21/105] of GS 7 and 2% [2/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). The rates of concordance with regard to GS between the PBx and RP specimen were 63% (n = 65), 54% (n = 56) and 75% (n = 78) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx (fusion and systematic PBx combined), respectively. Upgrading of the GS between PBx and RP specimen occurred in 33% (n = 34), 44% (n = 46) and 18% (n = 19) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx, respectively. γ-correlation for detection of any cancer was 0.76 for combination PBx, 0.68 for fusion PBx alone and 0.23 for systematic

  7. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed.

  8. Simple Fabrication of Gd(III)-DTPA-Nanodiamond Particles by Chemical Modification for Use as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takako; Ohana, Tsuguyori; Yabuno, Hajime; Kasai, Rumiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hasebe, Terumitsu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple and useful process for fabricating nanodiamond (ND) particles modified with an organogadolinium moiety by chemical modification for their use as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The introduction of the organogadolinium moiety on the surface of the ND particles was performed by the condensation of ND and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) followed by treatment with GdCl3. The modified surfaces were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses. MRI experiments on the Gd-DTPA-ND particles indicated their high signal intensity on T1-weighted images.

  9. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging of patients with a new Medtronic EnRhythm MRI SureScan pacing system: clinical study design

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Richard; Kanal, Emanuel; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Bello, David; Luechinger, Roger; Jenniskens, Inge; Hull, Michael; Sommer, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of patients with implanted cardiac devices is currently considered hazardous due to potential for electromagnetic interference to the patient and pacemaker system. With approximately 60 million MRI scans performed worldwide per year, an estimated majority of pacemaker patients may develop an indication for an MRI during the lifetime of their pacemakers, suggesting that safe use of pacemakers in the MRI environment would be clinically valuable. A new pacing system (Medtronic EnRhythm MRI™ SureScan™ and CapSureFix MRI™ leads) has been designed and pre-clinically tested for safe use in the MRI environment. The EnRhythm MRI study is designed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this new pacing system. Methods The EnRhythm MRI study is a prospective, randomized controlled, unblinded clinical trial to confirm the safety and efficacy of MRI at 1.5 Tesla in patients implanted with a specifically designed pacemaker and lead system. The patients have standard indications for dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Successfully implanted patients are randomized in a 2:1 ratio to undergo MRI (MRI group) or to have no MRI scan (control group) at 9–12 weeks after pacemaker system implantation. Magnetic resonance (MR) scanning includes 14 head and lumbar scan sequences representing clinically relevant scans while maximizing the gradient slew rate up to 200 T/m/s, and/or the transmitted radiofrequency (RF) power up to SAR (specific absorption rate) levels of 2 W/kg body weight (upper limit of normal operating mode). Full interrogation of all device information and sensing and capture function are measured at device implantation, every follow-up and before and immediately after MRI in the MRI group and at the same time points in the control group. Complete pacemaker and lead evaluations are also done at one week and one month after the scan for the MRI and control group patients. The primary endpoint is safe and successful

  10. Evaluation of novel genetic algorithm generated schemes for positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image fusion.

    PubMed

    Baum, K G; Schmidt, E; Rafferty, K; Krol, A; Helguera, María

    2011-12-01

    The use and benefits of a multimodality approach in the context of breast cancer imaging are discussed. Fusion techniques that allow multiple images to be viewed simultaneously are discussed. Many of these fusion techniques rely on the use of color tables. A genetic algorithm that generates color tables that have desired properties such as satisfying the order principle, the rows, and columns principle, have perceivable uniformity and have maximum contrast is introduced. The generated 2D color tables can be used for displaying fused datasets. The advantage the proposed method has over other techniques is the ability to consider a much larger set of possible color tables, ensuring that the best one is found. We asked radiologists to perform a set of tasks reading fused PET/MRI breast images obtained using eight different fusion techniques. This preliminary study clearly demonstrates the need and benefit of a joint display by estimating the inaccuracies incurred when using a side-by-side display. The study suggests that the color tables generated by the genetic algorithm are good choices for fusing MR and PET images. It is interesting to note that popular techniques such as the Fire/Gray and techniques based on the HSV color space, which are prevalent in the literature and clinical practice, appear to give poorer performance.

  11. Fast fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Lall, Chandana; Aisen, Alex A; Rajesh, Arumugam; Cohen, Mervyn D

    2005-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a problem-solving tool when ultrasonic findings are equivocal. The role of fetal MRI has increased as obstetricians become aware of its potential and in utero therapy for anomalies becomes increasingly sophisticated. In this pictorial essay, we present a wide range of anomalies diagnosed or confirmed using MRI and discuss findings that help in the differential diagnosis.

  12. Automatic Substitute Computed Tomography Generation and Contouring for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone External Beam Radiation Therapy From Standard MRI Sequences.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jason A; Sun, Jidi; Pichler, Peter; Rivest-Hénault, David; Ghose, Soumya; Richardson, Haylea; Wratten, Chris; Martin, Jarad; Arm, Jameen; Best, Leah; Chandra, Shekhar S; Fripp, Jurgen; Menk, Frederick W; Greer, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    To validate automatic substitute computed tomography CT (sCT) scans generated from standard T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance (MR) pelvic scans for MR-Sim prostate treatment planning. A Siemens Skyra 3T MR imaging (MRI) scanner with laser bridge, flat couch, and pelvic coil mounts was used to scan 39 patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. For sCT generation a whole-pelvis MRI scan (1.6 mm 3-dimensional isotropic T2w SPACE [Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution] sequence) was acquired. Three additional small field of view scans were acquired: T2w, T2*w, and T1w flip angle 80° for gold fiducials. Patients received a routine planning CT scan. Manual contouring of the prostate, rectum, bladder, and bones was performed independently on the CT and MR scans. Three experienced observers contoured each organ on MRI, allowing interobserver quantification. To generate a training database, each patient CT scan was coregistered to their whole-pelvis T2w using symmetric rigid registration and structure-guided deformable registration. A new multi-atlas local weighted voting method was used to generate automatic contours and sCT results. The mean error in Hounsfield units between the sCT and corresponding patient CT (within the body contour) was 0.6 ± 14.7 (mean ± 1 SD), with a mean absolute error of 40.5 ± 8.2 Hounsfield units. Automatic contouring results were very close to the expert interobserver level (Dice similarity coefficient): prostate 0.80 ± 0.08, bladder 0.86 ± 0.12, rectum 0.84 ± 0.06, bones 0.91 ± 0.03, and body 1.00 ± 0.003. The change in monitor units between the sCT-based plans relative to the gold standard CT plan for the same dose prescription was found to be 0.3% ± 0.8%. The 3-dimensional γ pass rate was 1.00 ± 0.00 (2 mm/2%). The MR-Sim setup and automatic sCT generation methods using standard MR sequences generates realistic contours and

  13. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Halko, Mark A; Eldaief, Mark C; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-10-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include using resting state fcMRI to guide target selection for TMS and using TMS to modulate pathological network interactions identified with resting state fcMRI. The combination of TMS and resting state fcMRI has the potential to accelerate the translation of both techniques into the clinical realm and promises a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases that demonstrate network pathology.

  14. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael D.; Halko, Mark A.; Eldaief, Mark C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include using resting state fcMRI to guide target selection for TMS and using TMS to modulate pathological network interactions identified with resting state fcMRI. The combination of TMS and resting state fcMRI has the potential to accelerate the translation of both techniques into the clinical realm and promises a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases that demonstrate network pathology. PMID:22465297

  15. The lie of fMRI: an examination of the ethics of a market in lie detection using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Amy E

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, I argue that companies who use functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans for lie detection encounter the same basic ethical stumbling blocks as commercial companies that market traditional polygraphs. Markets in traditional voluntary polygraphs are common and fail to elicit much uproar among ethicists. Thus, for consistency, if markets in polygraphs are ethically unproblematic, markets using fMRIs for lie detection are equally as acceptable. Furthermore, while I acknowledge two substantial differences between the ethical concerns involving polygraphs and fMRI lie detection, I argue that these concerns can be overcome and do not lead to the conclusion that markets in fMRI lie detection are ethically dubious. It is my conclusion that voluntary markets in fMRI lie detection can be justified by consumer autonomy and should be allowed to persist.

  16. Diagnostic value of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based detection of prostate cancer in men without prior biopsies.

    PubMed

    Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Vourganti, Srinivas; Turkbey, Baris; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Stamatakis, Lambros; Truong, Hong; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Hoang, Anthony N; Nix, Jeffrey W; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Simon, Richard M; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2015-03-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of analysing biparametric (T2- and diffusion-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging (B-MRI) for prostate cancer detection compared with standard digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening. Review of patients who were enrolled in a trial to undergo multiparametric-prostate (MP)-MRI and MR/ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy at our institution identified 143 men who underwent MP-MRI in addition to standard DRE and PSA-based prostate cancer screening before any prostate biopsy. Patient demographics, DRE staging, PSA level, PSA density (PSAD), and B-MRI findings were assessed for association with prostate cancer detection on biopsy. Men with detected prostate cancer tended to be older, with a higher PSA level, higher PSAD, and more screen-positive lesions (SPL) on B-MRI. B-MRI performed well for the detection of prostate cancer with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 (compared with 0.66 and 0.74 for PSA level and PSAD, respectively). We derived combined PSA and MRI-based formulas for detection of prostate cancer with optimised thresholds. (i) for PSA and B-MRI: PSA level + 6 x (the number of SPL) > 14 and (ii) for PSAD and B-MRI: 14 × (PSAD) + (the number of SPL) >4.25. AUC for equations 1 and 2 were 0.83 and 0.87 and overall accuracy of prostate cancer detection was 79% in both models. The number of lesions positive on B-MRI outperforms PSA alone in detection of prostate cancer. Furthermore, this imaging criteria coupled as an adjunct with PSA level and PSAD, provides even more accuracy in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. A review of technical aspects of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bergamino, M; Bonzano, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G L; Roccatagliata, L

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, several imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, have been used to investigate the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and brain tumors. One promising MRI method for assessing the BBB permeability of patients with neurological diseases in vivo is T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Here we review the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI in the study of human brain tumors. In the first part of this paper, theoretical models for the DCE-MRI analysis will be described, including the Toft-Kety models, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model and the two-compartment exchange model. These models can be used to estimate important kinetic parameters related to BBB permeability. In the second part of this paper, details of the data acquisition, issues related to the arterial input function, and procedures for DCE-MRI image analysis are illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of a five-point Likert scoring system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluated according to results of MRI/ultrasonography image-fusion targeted biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Shin, Toshitaka; Smyth, Thomas B; Ukimura, Osamu; Ahmadi, Nariman; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Ohe, Chisato; Oishi, Masakatsu; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Gill, Inderbir S

    2017-07-27

    To evaluate the accuracy of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Likert scoring system in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC), using MRI/ultrasonography (US) image-fusion targeted biopsy (FTB) as a reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed 1218 MRI-detected lesions in 629 patients who underwent subsequent MRI/US FTB between October 2012 and August 2015. 3-Tesla MRI was independently reported by one of eight radiologists with varying levels of experience and scored on a five-point Likert scale. All lesions with Likert scores 1-5 were prospectively defined as targets for MRI/US FTB. CSPC was defined as Gleason score ≥7. The median patient age was 64 years, PSA level 6.97 ng/mL and estimated prostate volume 52.2 mL. Of 1218 lesions, 48% (n = 581) were rated as Likert 1-2, 35% (n = 428) were Likert 3 and 17% (n = 209) were Likert 4-5. For Likert scores 1-5, the overall cancer detection rates were 12%, 13%, 22%, 50% and 59%, respectively, and the CSPC detection rates were 4%, 4%, 12%, 33% and 48%, respectively. Grading using the five-point scale showed strong positive correlation with overall cancer detection rate (r = 0.949, P = 0.05) and CSPC detection rate (r = 0.944, P = 0.05). By comparison, in Likert 4-5 lesions, significant differences were noted in overall cancer detection rate (63% vs 35%; P = 0.001) and CSPC detection rate (47% vs 29%; P = 0.027) for the more experienced vs the less experienced radiologists. The detection rates of overall cancer and CSPC strongly correlated with the five-point grading of the Likert scale. Among radiologists with different levels of experience, there were significant differences in these cancer detection rates. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Current Status of Efforts on Standardizing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Report from the OMERACT MRI in JIA Working Group and Health-e-Child.

    PubMed

    Nusman, Charlotte M; Ording Muller, Lil-Sofie; Hemke, Robert; Doria, Andrea S; Avenarius, Derk; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Malattia, Clara; van Rossum, Marion A J; Maas, Mario; Rosendahl, Karen

    2016-01-01

    To report on the progress of an ongoing research collaboration on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and describe the proceedings of a meeting, held prior to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12, bringing together the OMERACT MRI in JIA working group and the Health-e-Child radiology group. The goal of the meeting was to establish agreement on scoring definitions, locations, and scales for the assessment of MRI of patients with JIA for both large and small joints. The collaborative work process included premeeting surveys, presentations, group discussions, consensus on scoring methods, pilot scoring, conjoint review, and discussion of a future research agenda. The meeting resulted in preliminary statements on the MR imaging protocol of the JIA knee and wrist and determination of the starting point for development of MRI scoring systems based on previous studies. It was also considered important to be descriptive rather than explanatory in the assessment of MRI in JIA (e.g., "thickening" instead of "hypertrophy"). Further, the group agreed that well-designed calibration sessions were warranted before any future scoring exercises were conducted. The combined efforts of the OMERACT MRI in JIA working group and Health-e-Child included the assessment of currently available material in the literature and determination of the basis from which to start the development of MRI scoring systems for both the knee and wrist. The future research agenda for the knee and wrist will include establishment of MRI scoring systems, an atlas of MR imaging in healthy children, and MRI protocol requisites.

  20. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) procedure as experienced by healthy participants and stroke patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szameitat, André J; Shen, Shan; Sterr, Annette

    2009-07-31

    An important aspect in functional imaging research employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is how participants perceive the MRI scanning itself. For instance, the knowledge of how (un)comfortable MRI scanning is perceived may help institutional review boards (IRBs) or ethics committees to decide on the approval of a study, or researchers to design their experiments. We provide empirical data from our lab gained from 70 neurologically healthy mainly student subjects and from 22 mainly elderly patients suffering from motor deficits after brain damage. All participants took part in various basic research fMRI studies using a 3T MRI scanner. Directly after the scanning, all participants completed a questionnaire assessing their experience with the fMRI procedure. 87.2% of the healthy subjects and 77.3% of the patients rated the MRI procedure as acceptable to comfortable. In healthy subjects, males found the procedure more comfortable, while the opposite was true for patients. 12.1% of healthy subjects considered scanning durations between 30 and 60 min as too long, while no patient considered their 30 min scanning interval as too long. 93.4% of the healthy subjects would like to participate in an fMRI study again, with a significantly lower rate for the subjects who considered the scanning as too long. Further factors, such as inclusion of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan, age, and study duration had no effect on the questionnaire responses. Of the few negative comments, the main issues were noise, the restriction to keep still for the whole time, and occasional feelings of dizziness. MRI scanning in the basic research setting is an acceptable procedure for elderly and patient participants as well as young healthy subjects.

  1. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) procedure as experienced by healthy participants and stroke patients – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background An important aspect in functional imaging research employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is how participants perceive the MRI scanning itself. For instance, the knowledge of how (un)comfortable MRI scanning is perceived may help institutional review boards (IRBs) or ethics committees to decide on the approval of a study, or researchers to design their experiments. Methods We provide empirical data from our lab gained from 70 neurologically healthy mainly student subjects and from 22 mainly elderly patients suffering from motor deficits after brain damage. All participants took part in various basic research fMRI studies using a 3T MRI scanner. Directly after the scanning, all participants completed a questionnaire assessing their experience with the fMRI procedure. Results 87.2% of the healthy subjects and 77.3% of the patients rated the MRI procedure as acceptable to comfortable. In healthy subjects, males found the procedure more comfortable, while the opposite was true for patients. 12.1% of healthy subjects considered scanning durations between 30 and 60 min as too long, while no patient considered their 30 min scanning interval as too long. 93.4% of the healthy subjects would like to participate in an fMRI study again, with a significantly lower rate for the subjects who considered the scanning as too long. Further factors, such as inclusion of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan, age, and study duration had no effect on the questionnaire responses. Of the few negative comments, the main issues were noise, the restriction to keep still for the whole time, and occasional feelings of dizziness. Conclusion MRI scanning in the basic research setting is an acceptable procedure for elderly and patient participants as well as young healthy subjects. PMID:19646238

  2. Case Report of False-Negative Diffusion-Weighted Image of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Lai, Ji-Ching; Chen, Rong-Fu; Hu, Han-Hwa; Pan, Chau-Shiung

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 75 Final Diagnosis: Acute ischemic stroke Symptoms: Dizziness • unsteady gait Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Radiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Taiwan. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) is a sensitive and common strategy used for imaging acute ischemic stroke. Case report: We present a case of a negative DWI MRI for detecting acute ischemic stroke in a clinical setting. A 75-year-old male had a DWI performed after onset of symptoms suggesting acute ischemic stroke. The initial DWI result was negative at 72 hours of presentation. The neurological symptoms of the patient persisted and DWI was repeated. After 14 days, the DWI data confirmed and demonstrated an acute ischemic stroke. The delay in DWI confirmation, from symptom onset until DWI diagnosis, was 336 hours. Conclusions: DWI may not have 100% sensitivity and accuracy in early stages of acute ischemic stroke. The time course to the development of abnormalities detected by DWI may be longer than anticipated. PMID:28111452

  3. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  4. Clinical forensic radiology in strangulation victims: forensic expertise based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kathrin; Vock, Peter; Christe, Andreas; Scheurer, Eva; Plattner, Thomas; Schön, Corinna; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Beutler, Verena; Thali, Michael J; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-03-01

    Based on only one objective and several subjective signs, the forensic classification of strangulation incidents concerning their life-threatening quality can be problematic. Reflecting that it is almost impossible to detect internal injuries of the neck with the standard forensic external examination, we examined 14 persons who have survived manual and ligature strangulation or forearm choke holds using MRI technique (1.5-T scanner). Two clinical radiologists evaluated the neck findings independently. The danger to life was evaluated based on the "classical" external findings alone and in addition to the radiological data. We observed hemorrhaging in the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the neck in ten cases. Other frequent findings were hemorrhages of the neck and larynx muscles, the lymph nodes, the pharynx, and larynx soft tissues. Based on the classical forensic strangulation findings with MRI, eight of the cases were declared as life-endangering incidents, four of them without the presence of petechial hemorrhage but with further signs of impaired brain function due to hypoxia. The accuracy of future forensic classification of the danger to life will probably be increased when it is based not only on one objective and several subjective signs but also on the evidence of inner neck injuries. However, further prospective studies including larger cohorts are necessary to clarify the value of the inner neck injuries in the forensic classification of surviving strangulation victims.

  5. SIMS imaging of gadolinium isotopes in tissue from Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis patients: Release of free Gd from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jerrold L.; Chandra, Subhash; Thakral, Charu; Abraham, Joshua M.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, Gd-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (GBMCA) have been linked to a new disease, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF), with skin and systemic toxicity and death in certain patients with renal failure. Due to widespread use of GBMCA in diagnostic MRI, it is essential to study their excretion, metabolism, and target sites in cells and tissues. A CAMECA IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used for imaging Gd isotopes in relation to calcium distributions in histologic sections of human tissues. SIMS imaging revealed two types of Gd localization in skin biopsies of patients who received GBMCA. The Gd was present in micrometer size deposits in association with calcium, and in detectable amounts in a more diffuse cellular distribution. Only the Gd-containing deposits associated with Ca and P were detectable using SEM/EDS. As only insoluble deposits remain in the biopsy tissues after aqueous and organic solvent processing of the tissue, our observations support release of free Gd from the GBMCA and selective localization of insoluble Gd in the target tissue from patients with NSF. This study opens new novel applications of SIMS for characterization of the safety of GBMCA.

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of attention processes in presumed obligate carriers of schizophrenia: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca Mapua; Russell, Tamara; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M; McDonald, Colm

    2008-01-01

    Background Presumed obligate carriers (POCs) are the first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia who, although do not exhibit the disorder, are in direct lineage of it. Thus, this subpopulation of first-degree relatives could provide very important information with regard to the investigation of endophenotypes for schizophrenia that could clarify the often contradictory findings in schizophrenia high-risk populations. To date, despite the extant literature on schizophrenia endophenotypes, we are only aware of one other study that examined the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive abnormalities in this group. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a more homogeneous group of relatives, such as POCs, have neural abnormalities that may be related to schizophrenia. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to collect blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response data in six POCs and eight unrelated healthy controls while performing under conditions of sustained, selective and divided attention. Results The POCs indicated alterations in a widely distributed network of regions involved in attention processes, such as the prefrontal and temporal (including the parahippocampal gyrus) cortices, in addition to the anterior cingulate gyrus. More specifically, a general reduction in BOLD response was found in these areas compared to the healthy participants during attention processes. Conclusion These preliminary findings of decreased activity in POCs indicate that this more homogeneous population of unaffected relatives share similar neural abnormalities with people with schizophrenia, suggesting that reduced BOLD activity in the attention network may be an intermediate marker for schizophrenia. PMID:18834530

  7. Diagnostic use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a cervical epidural abscess and spondylodiscitis in an infant – case report

    PubMed Central

    RAUS, IULIAN; TATAR, SIMONA; COROIU, ROXANA ELENA

    2015-01-01

    Epidural abscess in infancy is very rare and has non-specific features, requiring very careful attention and early diagnosis. We present a case of a 3-month-old girl in which the diagnosis of spontaneous cervical epidural abscess developed after an initial episode of acute enterocolitis and was subsequently identified at a later visit to the emergency department for right-upper extremity hypotonia. Endoscopy revealed slightly domed retro pharynx and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed cervical spondylodiscitis at the level of intervertebral disc C5–C6 with right-sided epidural abscess that compressed the spinal cord and right C6 nerve root, without extension into superior mediastinum. The systemic antibiotic treatment with meropenem and clindamycin solved the symptoms but the spondylodiscitis complicated with vertebral body fusion which can be symptomatic or not in the future and needs follow-up. Cervical spontaneous spondylodiscitis with abscess is very rare, especially in this age group. This case emphasizes the importance of investigating an upper extremity motor deficiency in infancy and diagnosing any potential spondylodiscitis complication. PMID:26733756

  8. Neural Correlates of Consumer Buying Motivations: A 7T functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Adam M; Wang, Yun; Kwon, Wi-Suk; Byun, Sang-Eun; Katz, Jeffrey S; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2017-01-01

    Consumer buying motivations can be distinguished into three categories: functional, experiential, or symbolic motivations (Keller, 1993). Although prior neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates which enable these motivations, direct comparisons between these three types of consumer motivations have yet to be made. In the current study, we used 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the neural correlates of each motivation by instructing participants to view common consumer goods while emphasizing either functional, experiential, or symbolic values of these products. The results demonstrated mostly consistent activations between symbolic and experiential motivations. Although, these motivations differed in that symbolic motivation was associated with medial frontal gyrus (MFG) activation, whereas experiential motivation was associated with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activation. Functional motivation was associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation, as compared to other motivations. These findings provide a neural basis for how symbolic and experiential motivations may be similar, yet different in subtle ways. Furthermore, the dissociation of functional motivation within the DLPFC supports the notion that this motivation relies on executive function processes relatively more than hedonic motivation. These findings provide a better understanding of the underlying neural functioning which may contribute to poor self-control choices.

  9. Neural Correlates of Consumer Buying Motivations: A 7T functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Adam M.; Wang, Yun; Kwon, Wi-Suk; Byun, Sang-Eun; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2017-01-01

    Consumer buying motivations can be distinguished into three categories: functional, experiential, or symbolic motivations (Keller, 1993). Although prior neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates which enable these motivations, direct comparisons between these three types of consumer motivations have yet to be made. In the current study, we used 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the neural correlates of each motivation by instructing participants to view common consumer goods while emphasizing either functional, experiential, or symbolic values of these products. The results demonstrated mostly consistent activations between symbolic and experiential motivations. Although, these motivations differed in that symbolic motivation was associated with medial frontal gyrus (MFG) activation, whereas experiential motivation was associated with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activation. Functional motivation was associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation, as compared to other motivations. These findings provide a neural basis for how symbolic and experiential motivations may be similar, yet different in subtle ways. Furthermore, the dissociation of functional motivation within the DLPFC supports the notion that this motivation relies on executive function processes relatively more than hedonic motivation. These findings provide a better understanding of the underlying neural functioning which may contribute to poor self-control choices. PMID:28959182

  10. Neuroanatomical correlates of executive functions in children and adolescents: a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Tamnes, Christian K; Østby, Ylva; Walhovd, Kristine B; Westlye, Lars T; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Fjell, Anders M

    2010-07-01

    A range of cognitive abilities improves in childhood and adolescence. It has been proposed that the protracted development of executive functions is related to the relatively late maturation of the prefrontal cortex. However, this has rarely been directly investigated. In this cross-sectional study, 98 healthy children and adolescents (8-19 years old) were tested with six tasks considered to index three frequently postulated executive functions; updating (Keep track and Letter memory), inhibition (Antisaccade and Stroop) and shifting (Plus minus and Trail making). Task performance was then related to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cortical thickness. The behavioral results did not indicate any clear organization of the executive function measures in the domains updating, inhibition and shifting. Limitations associated with the use of speed-based scores from the tasks considered to index shifting ability were also indicated. Independently of the effects of age, performance on the Keep track task was associated with thinner cortex bilaterally in clusters encompassing parietal and frontal regions, including the left inferior frontal gyrus, while performance on the Antisaccade task was associated with thinner cortex bilaterally in occipital and parietal regions. Further, levels of performance on the Antisaccade and Stroop tasks were related to estimated rates of cortical maturation in posterior brain regions, but not in the prefrontal cortex. The results from the present study add to previous knowledge about the cortical correlates of executive functions by indicating an important role of posterior cerebral areas in executive development.

  11. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y G; Song, J B; Kim, J C; Kim, J M; Yoo, B H; Yun, S B; Hwang, D Y; Lee, H G

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was <10(-14) Ω, demonstrating that the proposed joint technique could be employed for developing "next-generation" MgB2 MRI magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  12. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Song, J. B.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, J. M.; Yoo, B. H.; Yun, S. B.; Hwang, D. Y.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was <10-14 Ω, demonstrating that the proposed joint technique could be employed for developing "next-generation" MgB2 MRI magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  13. [Gatrointestinal imaging with multidetector CT and MRI].

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Filomenamila; Fonio, Paolo; Scardapane, Arnaldo; Giganti, Melchiore; Rubini, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Annunziata; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important diagnostic tools for evaluating gastrointestinal disorders. A rigorous examination protocol is needed to achieve the best results. This paper describes the technical issues of CT and MRI for the study of gastrointestinal tracts (esophagus, stomach, small and large bowel).

  14. Role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in focal therapy for prostate cancer: a Delphi consensus project.

    PubMed

    Muller, Berrend G; van den Bos, Willemien; Brausi, Maurizio; Cornud, Francois; Gontero, Paolo; Kirkham, Alexander; Pinto, Peter A; Polascik, Thomas J; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; de Reijke, Theo M; de la Rosette, Jean J; Ukimura, Osamu; Villers, Arnauld; Walz, Jochen; Wijkstra, Hessel; Marberger, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To define the role of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for treatment planning, guidance and follow-up in focal therapy for prostate cancer based on a multidisciplinary Delphi consensus project. An online consensus process based on a questionnaire was circulated according to the Delphi method. Discussion points were identified by literature research and were sent to the panel via an online questionnaire in three rounds. A face-to-face consensus meeting followed the three rounds of questions that were sent to a 48-participant expert panel consisting of urologists, radiologists and engineers. Participants were presented with the results of the previous rounds. Conclusions formulated from the results of the questionnaire were discussed in the final face-to-face meeting. Consensus was reached in 41% of all key items. Patients selected for focal therapy should have biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Biopsies should ideally be performed after mpMRI of the prostate. Standardization of imaging protocols is essential and mpMRIs should be read by an experienced radiologist. In the follow-up after focal therapy, mpMRI should be performed after 6 months, followed by a yearly mpMRI. mpMRI findings should be confirmed by targeted biopsies before re-treatment. No consensus was reached on whether mpMRI could replace transperineal template saturation biopsies to exclude significant lesions outside the target lesion. Consensus was reached on a number of areas related to the conduct, interpretation and reporting of mpMRI for use in treatment planning, guidance and follow-up of focal therapy for prostate cancer. Future studies, comparing mpMRI with transperineal saturation mapping biopsies, will confirm the importance of mpMRI for a variety of purposes in focal therapy for prostate cancer. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognostication in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury: a vignette-based study of Canadian specialty physicians.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emily; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Mazer, Barbara; Shevell, Michael; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne; Yager, Jerome Y; Majnemer, Annette; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chouinard, Isabelle; Racine, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve prognostication in neonatal brain injury; however, factors beyond technical or scientific refinement may impact its use and interpretation. We surveyed Canadian neonatologists and pediatric neurologists using general and vignette-based questions about the use of MRI for prognostication in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was inter- and intra-vignette variability in prognosis and in ratings about the usefulness of MRI. Severity of predicted outcome correlated with certainty about the outcome. A majority of physicians endorsed using MRI results in discussing prognosis with families, and most suggested that MRI results contribute to end-of-life decisions. Participating neonatologists, when compared to participating pediatric neurologists, had significantly less confidence in the interpretation of MRI by colleagues in neurology and radiology. Further investigation is needed to understand the complexity of MRI and of its application. Potential gaps relative to our understanding of the ethical importance of these findings should be addressed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as surveillance for subsequent malignancies in survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Lis, Eric; Sklar, Charles A; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Reppucci, Marina; Fleischut, Megan Harlan; Francis, Jasmine H; Marr, Brian; Abramson, David H; Dunkel, Ira J

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with hereditary retinoblastoma (RB) are at very high risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) of which osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common. We hypothesized that annual surveillance using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in asymptomatic survivors of hereditary RB would detect SMN of the bone and soft tissues at an early stage. Retrospective review of the results of a WB-MRI screening program in hereditary RB survivors from February 2008 to August 2012. The primary outcome was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of WB-MRI in detecting SMNs. Twenty-five patients had at least one WB-MRI performed (range: 1-5). First WB-MRI was performed at a median age of 16 years (range: 8-25 years). WB-MRI detected new osseous abnormalities suspicious for malignancy in five patients: two were diagnosed with localized high-grade OS of the extremity and three were found to have benign osseous abnormalities after dedicated imaging (n = 5/5) and/or biopsy (n = 3/5). One patient was diagnosed with secondary OS 3 months after a normal screening WB-MRI exam. Among a total of 41 WB-MRI screening tests performed in survivors of hereditary RB, the sensitivity of detecting SMN was 66.7% and the specificity was 92.1%. Preliminary results suggest that annual WB-MRI surveillance detects SMN in survivors of hereditary RB, but with modest sensitivity. Further study is needed to assess the performance of annual surveillance WB-MRIs and whether this modality decreases SMN-related mortality in RB survivors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High-resolution small field-of-view magnetic resonance image acquisition system using a small planar coil and a pneumatic manipulator in an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Miki, Kohei; Masamune, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Low-field open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for performing image-guided neurosurgical procedures. Intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images are useful for tracking brain shifts and verifying residual tumors. However, it is difficult to precisely determine the boundary of the brain tumors and normal brain tissues because the MR image resolution is low, especially when using a low-field open MRI scanner. To overcome this problem, a high-resolution MR image acquisition system was developed and tested. An MR-compatible manipulator with pneumatic actuators containing an MR signal receiver with a small radiofrequency (RF) coil was developed. The manipulator had five degrees of freedom for position and orientation control of the RF coil. An 8-mm planar RF coil with resistance and inductance of 2.04 [Formula: see text] and 1.00 [Formula: see text] was attached to the MR signal receiver at the distal end of the probe. MR images of phantom test devices were acquired using the MR signal receiver and normal head coil for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) testing. The SNR of MR images acquired using the MR signal receiver was 8.0 times greater than that of MR images acquired using the normal head coil. The RF coil was moved by the manipulator, and local MR images of a phantom with a 2-mm grid were acquired using the MR signal receiver. A wide field-of-view MR image was generated from a montage of local MR images. A small field-of-view RF system with a pneumatic manipulator was integrated in a low-field MRI scanner to allow acquisition of both wide field-of-view and high-resolution MR images. This system is promising for image-guided neurosurgery as it may allow brain tumors to be observed more clearly and removed precisely.

  18. Error-related processing following severe traumatic brain injury: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study.

    PubMed

    Sozda, Christopher N; Larson, Michael J; Kaufman, David A S; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Perlstein, William M

    2011-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of one's performance is invaluable for guiding behavior towards successful goal attainment by identifying deficits and strategically adjusting responses when performance is inadequate. In the present study, we exploited the advantages of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with error-related processing after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). fMRI and behavioral data were acquired while 10 sTBI participants and 12 neurologically-healthy controls performed a task-switching cued-Stroop task. fMRI data were analyzed using a random-effects whole-brain voxel-wise general linear model and planned linear contrasts. Behaviorally, sTBI patients showed greater error-rate interference than neurologically-normal controls. fMRI data revealed that, compared to controls, sTBI patients showed greater magnitude error-related activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and an increase in the overall spatial extent of error-related activation across cortical and subcortical regions. Implications for future research and potential limitations in conducting fMRI research in neurologically-impaired populations are discussed, as well as some potential benefits of employing multimodal imaging (e.g., fMRI and event-related potentials) of cognitive control processes in TBI.

  19. Enhanced control of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurophysiology with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback training and working memory practice.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Matthew S; Kane, Jessica H; Weisend, Michael P; Parker, Jason G

    2016-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback can be used to train localized, conscious regulation of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. As a therapeutic technique, rt-fMRI neurofeedback reduces the symptoms of a variety of neurologic disorders. To date, few studies have investigated the use of self-regulation training using rt-fMRI neurofeedback to enhance cognitive performance. This work investigates the utility of rt-fMRI neurofeedback as a tool to enhance human cognition by training healthy individuals to consciously control activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A cohort of 18 healthy participants in the experimental group underwent rt-fMRI neurofeedback from the left DLPFC in five training sessions across two weeks while 7 participants in the control group underwent similar training outside the MRI and without rt-fMRI neurofeedback. Working memory (WM) performance was evaluated on two testing days separated by the five rt-fMRI neurofeedback sessions using two computerized tests. We investigated the ability to control the BOLD signal across training sessions and WM performance across the two testing days. The group with rt-fMRI neurofeedback demonstrated a significant increase in the ability to self-regulate the BOLD signal in the left DLPFC across sessions. WM performance showed differential improvement between testing days one and two across the groups with the highest increases observed in the rt-fMRI neurofeedback group. These results provide evidence that individuals can quickly gain the ability to consciously control the left DLPFC, and this training results in improvements of WM performance beyond that of training alone.

  20. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to Investigate Scalar Contaminant Dispersion in an Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cymerman, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Research in the past few decades on the dispersion of a scalar contaminant through an urban environment, with testing occurring in multiple cities worldwide, has mostly relied on point measurement systems. These models, which are strongly affected by the orientation of the buildings and environmental conditions, obtain relatively few data points and fail to achieve a robust understanding of the complex flow fields from an experimental perspective. A time-averaged MRI-based experimental measurement of the complete three-dimensional flow field has analyzed an array of buildings at two orientations in fully turbulent flow. The Reynolds number and upstream development match a series of tests conducted by both the ARL Atmospheric Sciences Branch and the Los Alamos National Laboratory for comparison, with several million measurements of each of the three components of the mean velocity across the full field. The water-based experimental measurements allow for the assessment of the geometric dispersion of the streamlines and a comparison with several computational models as a means of validation.

  1. Neural correlates of consciousness during general anesthesia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, V; Boveroux, P; Brichant, J F; Laureys, S; Boly, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge about the mechanisms of anesthesia-induced alteration of consciousness. It is now evident that hypnotic anesthetic agents have specific brain targets whose function is hierarchically altered in a dose-dependent manner. Higher order networks, thought to be involved in mental content generation, as well as sub-cortical networks involved in thalamic activity regulation seems to be affected first by increasing concentrations of hypnotic agents that enhance inhibitory neurotransmission. Lower order sensory networks are preserved, including thalamo-cortical connectivity into those networks, even at concentrations that suppress responsiveness, but cross-modal sensory interactions are inhibited. Thalamo-cortical connectivity into the consciousness networks decreases with increasing concentrations of those agents, and is transformed into an anti-correlated activity between the thalamus and the cortex for the deepest levels of sedation, when the subject is non responsive. Future will tell us whether these brain function alterations are also observed with hypnotic agents that mainly inhibit excitatory neurotransmission. The link between the observations made using fMRI and the identified biochemical targets of hypnotic anesthetic agents still remains to be identified.

  2. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer.

    PubMed

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R

    2012-07-21

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (²³Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (²³Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a ²³Na resonator was constructed for whole body ²³Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B₁-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body ²³Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm³ and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the ²³Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, ²³Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  3. Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghai, Davood; Covey, Kelly; Sharma, Rahul; Cross, Nathan; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Flask, Chris A.; Dean, David

    2008-02-01

    Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 10 5 U87 cells were injected into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 5-6 days, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 via tail-vein injection. On day 7 peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7T microMRI scanner before and after tail-vein administration of 100 μL gadolinium and 400 μL saline. After this scan the animals received a 30 J/cm2 dose of 672-nm light from a diode laser (i.e., PDT). The DCE-MRI scan protocol was repeated on day 13. Next, the animals were euthanized and their brains were explanted for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) histology. Results: No tumor was found in one animal. The DCE-MRI images of the other five animals demonstrated significant tumor enhancement increase (p < 0.053 two-sided t-test and p < 0.026 one-sided t-test) following PDT. H&E histology presented moderate to severe tumor necrosis. Discussion: The change in signal detected by DCE-MRI appears to be due to PDT-induced tumor necrosis. This DCE-MRI signal appears to provide a quantitative, non-invasive measure of the outcome of PDT in this animal model and may be useful for determining the safety and effectiveness of PDT in deeply placed tumors (e.g., glioma).

  4. Development of an apparatus and methodology for conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with pharmacological stimuli in conscious rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Murnane, Kevin Sean; Howell, Leonard Lee

    2010-08-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique with significant potential to advance our understanding of multiple brain systems. However, when human subjects undergo fMRI studies they are typically conscious whereas pre-clinical fMRI studies typically utilize anesthesia, which complicates comparisons across studies. Therefore, we have developed an apparatus suitable for imaging conscious rhesus monkeys. In order to minimize subject stress and spatial motion, each subject was acclimated to the necessary procedures over several months. The effectiveness of this process was then evaluated, in fully trained subjects, by quantifying objective physiological measures. These physiological metrics were stable both within and across sessions and did not differ from when these same subjects were immobilized using standard primate handling procedures. Subject motion and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements were then evaluated by scanning subjects under three different conditions: the absence of stimulation, presentation of a visual stimulus, or administration of intravenous (i.v.) cocaine (0.3mg/kg). Spatial motion differed neither by condition nor along the three principal axes. In addition, maximum translational and rotational motion never exceeded one half of the voxel size (0.75 mm) or 1.5 degrees, respectively. Furthermore, the localization of changes in blood oxygenation closely matched those reported in previous studies using similar stimuli. These findings document the feasibility of fMRI data collection in conscious rhesus monkeys using these procedures and allow for the further study of the neural effects of psychoactive drugs.

  5. Off-resonance frequency filtered magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Medic, Jure; Tomazic, Saso

    2010-05-01

    One of the main problems with rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is the artifacts that result from off-resonance effects. The proposed off-resonance frequency filtered MRI (OFF-MRI) method focuses on the elimination of off-resonance components from the image of the observed object. To maintain imaging speed and simultaneously achieve good frequency selectivity, MRI is divided into two steps: signal acquisition and post-processing. After the preliminary phase in which we determine imaging parameters, MRI takes place; the signal from the same object is successively acquired M times. As a result, we obtain M partial signals in k-space, from which we form the image of the observed object in the post-processing phase, after signal acquisition has been completed. This paper demonstrates that with proper selection of acquisition parameters and weighting coefficients in the post-processing phase, OFF-MRI is equivalent to filtering the signal by finite impulse response filter of length M. It is shown that with M successive acquisitions M-1 off-resonance components can be eliminated (filtered-out) from images, and therefore, only two acquisitions are needed to eliminate one off-resonance components. On the other hand, with OFF-MRI, it is also possible to form the image of an arbitrary off-resonance component by eliminating all other off-resonance components, including the on-resonance component. The proposed OFF-MRI method is suitable for MRI where rapid acquisition is required and elimination of off-resonance components can improve reliability of measurements. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A 20 years of progress and future of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of cartilage and articular tissues-personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Felix; Peterfy, Charles

    2016-06-01

    In 1994, the first article on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of articular cartilage was published, and tremendous progress in image acquisition, image analysis, and applications has since been made. The objective of this personal perspective is to highlight milestones in the field of qMRI of cartilage and other articular tissues over these past 20 years. Based on a Pubmed search of original articles, the authors selected 30 articles which they deemed to be among the first to provide an important technological step forward in qMRI of cartilage, provided a first application in a particular context, or provided mechanistic insight into articular cartilage physiology, pathology, or treatment. This personal perspective summarizes results from these 30 articles. Further, the authors provide examples of how qMRI of cartilage has translated to quantitative analysis approaches of other articular tissues, including bone, meniscus, and synovium/edema. Eventually, the report provides a summary of how the lessons learned might be applied to future clinical trials and clinical practice. Over the past 20 years, quantitative imaging of articular tissues has emerged from a method to a dynamic field of research by its own. Continuing the qMRI biomarker qualification process will be crucial in convincing regulatory agencies to accept these as primary outcomes in phase 3 intervention trials. Once successful structural intervention will actually become available in OA, qMRI biomarkers may play an essential role in monitoring response to therapy in the clinic, and in stratifying disease phenotypes that respond differently to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single neuron, local field potential (LFP) and electrocorticography (ECoG) activity in human cortex.

    PubMed

    Ojemann, George A; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Ramsey, Nick F

    2013-01-01

    The relation between changes in the blood oxygen dependent metabolic changes imaged by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neural events directly recorded from human cortex from single neurons, local field potentials (LFPs) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) is critically reviewed, based on the published literature including findings from the authors' laboratories. All these data are from special populations, usually patients with medically refractory epilepsy, as this provides the major opportunity for direct cortical neuronal recording in humans. For LFP and ECoG changes are often sought in different frequency bands, for single neurons in frequency of action potentials. Most fMRI studies address issues of functional localization. The relation of those findings to localized changes in neuronal recordings in humans has been established in several ways. Only a few studies have directly compared changes in activity from the same sites in the same individual, using the same behavioral measure. More often the comparison has been between fMRI and electrophysiologic changes in populations recorded from the same functional anatomic system as defined by lesion effects; in a few studies those systems have been defined by fMRI changes such as the "default" network. The fMRI-electrophysiologic relationships have been evaluated empirically by colocalization of significant changes, and by quantitative analyses, often multiple linear regression. There is some evidence that the fMRI-electrophysiology relationships differ in different cortical areas, particularly primary motor and sensory cortices compared to association cortex, but also within areas of association cortex. Although crucial for interpretation of fMRI changes as reflecting neural activity in human cortex, controversy remains as to these relationships. Supported by: Dutch Technology Foundation and University of Utrecht Grant UGT7685, ERC-Advanced grant 320708 (NR) and NIH grant NS065186 (JO).

  8. Optimal gadolinium dose level for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of U87-derived tumors in athymic nude rats for the assessment of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Flask, Chris A.; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of varying gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) dose on Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) tracking of brain tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells (derived from human malignant glioma) into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 9, 12, and 13 days DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 9.4 T micro-MRI scanner before and after administration of 100, 150, or 200 μL of Gd-DTPA. Results: Tumor region normalized DCE-MRI scan enhancement at peak was: 1.217 over baseline (0.018 Standard Error [SE]) at the 100 μL dose, 1.339 (0.013 SE) at the 150 μL dose, and 1.287 (0.014 SE) at the 200 μL dose. DCE-MRI peak tumor enhancement at the 150 μL dose was significantly greater than both the 100 μL dose (p < 3.323E-08) and 200 μL dose (p < 0.0007396). Discussion: In this preliminary study, the 150 μL Gd-DTPA dose provided the greatest T1 weighted contrast enhancement, while minimizing negative T2* effects, in DCE-MRI scans of U87-derived tumors. Maximizing Gd-DTPA enhancement in DCE-MRI scans may assist development of a clinically robust (i.e., unambiguous) technique for PDT outcome assessment.

  9. Can multi-positional magnetic resonance imaging be used to evaluate angular parameters in cervical spine? A comparison of multi-positional MRI to dynamic plain radiograph.

    PubMed

    Paholpak, Permsak; Tamai, Koji; Shoell, Kyle; Sessumpun, Kittipong; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-09-25

    To test the reliability and validity of the multi-positional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in measuring cervical angular parameter using the standard dynamic cervical X-ray as a reference. All patients who underwent both cervical dynamic plain radiograph and multi-positional MRI on the same day between 2010 and 2016 were included in this study. The C2-7 angle and the segmental angles of the C2-3 to C6-7 segments were measured in all three positions (neutral, flexion, and extension) using multi-positional MRI and dynamic radiograph. The Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. 46 patients were enrolled in this study. All angular parameters showed significant positive correlation between multi-positional MRI and dynamic X-ray (p < 0.05). The angle of C2-7 showed significantly positive correlation between multi-positional MRI and X-ray (r = 0.552-0.756). All segmental angles from C2-3 to C6-7 showed moderate correlation (r = 0.401-0.636). The linear regression analysis showed that C2-7 angles and all angular parameters had significant correlation between multi-positional MRI and dynamic X-ray (p < 0.05, R (2) = 0.107-0.571). The C2-7 angle and segmental cervical angles measured by multi-positional MRI were valid, and reliability substituted the dynamic X-ray measurement within the acceptable range of error. Multi-positional MRI can be used as a reliable tool for angular parameter measurement and detection of angular instability in the cervical spine.

  10. Detection of prostate cancer index lesions with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) using whole-mount histological sections as the reference standard.

    PubMed

    Russo, Filippo; Regge, Daniele; Armando, Enrico; Giannini, Valentina; Vignati, Anna; Mazzetti, Simone; Manfredi, Matteo; Bollito, Enrico; Correale, Loredana; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) for detecting prostate cancer foci, including the largest (index) lesions. In all, 115 patients with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer underwent mp-MRI before radical prostatectomy. A single expert radiologist recorded all prostate cancer foci including the index lesion 'blinded' to the pathologist's biopsy report. Stained whole-mount histological sections were used as the reference standard. All lesions were contoured by an experienced uropathologist who assessed their volume and pathological Gleason score. All lesions with a volume of >0.5 mL and/or pathological Gleason score of >6 were defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain the characteristics of lesions identified by MRI. In all, 104 of 115 index lesions were correctly diagnosed by mp-MRI (sensitivity 90.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 83.5-95.1%), including 98/105 clinically significant index lesions (93.3%; 95% CI 86.8-97.3%), among which three of three lesions had a volume of <0.5 mL and Gleason score of >6. Overall, mp-MRI detected 131/206 lesions including 13 of 68 'insignificant' prostate cancers. The multivariate logistic regression modelling showed that pathological Gleason score (odds ratio [OR] 11.7, 95% CI 2.3-59.8; P = 0.003) and lesion volume (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.3-14.7; P = 0.022) were independently associated with the detection of index lesions at MRI. This study shows that mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer index lesions, while having disappointing results for the detection of small-volume, low Gleason score prostate cancer foci. Thus, mp-MRI could be used to stratify patients according to risk, allowing better treatment selection. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A new method to record and control for 2D-movement kinematics during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Bjoern; Sosnik, Ronen; Smikt, Oded; Okon, Eli; Manor, David; Kushnir, Tammar; Flash, Tamar; Karni, Avi

    2009-03-01

    The recording of movement kinematics during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is complicated due to technical constraints of the imaging environment. Nevertheless, to study the functions of brain areas related to motor control, reliable and accurate records of movement trajectories and speed profiles are needed. We present a method designed to record and characterize the kinematic properties of drawing- and handwriting-like forearm movements during fMRI studies by recording pen stroke trajectories. The recording system consists of a translucent plastic board, a plastic pen containing fiber optics and a halogen light power source, a CCD camera, a video monitor and a PC with a video grabber card. Control experiments using a commercially available digitizer tablet have demonstrated the reliability of the data recorded during fMRI. Since the movement tracking signal is purely optical, there is no interaction with the MR (echoplanar) images. Thus, the method allows to obtain movement records with high spatial and temporal resolution which are suitable for the kinematic analysis of hand movements in fMRI studies.

  12. Defining the learning curve for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate using MRI-transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) fusion-guided transperineal prostate biopsies as a validation tool.

    PubMed

    Gaziev, Gabriele; Wadhwa, Karan; Barrett, Tristan; Koo, Brendan C; Gallagher, Ferdia A; Serrao, Eva; Frey, Julia; Seidenader, Jonas; Carmona, Lina; Warren, Anne; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Doble, Andrew; Kastner, Christof

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) during the learning curve of radiologists using MRI targeted, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided transperineal fusion biopsy (MTTP) for validation. Prospective data on 340 men who underwent mpMRI (T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI) followed by MTTP prostate biopsy, was collected according to Ginsburg Study Group and Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy standards. MRI data were reported by two experienced radiologists and scored on a Likert scale. Biopsies were performed by consultant urologists not 'blinded' to the MRI result and men had both targeted and systematic sector biopsies, which were reviewed by a dedicated uropathologist. The cohorts were divided into groups representing five consecutive time intervals in the study. Sensitivity and specificity of positive MRI reports, prostate cancer detection by positive MRI, distribution of significant Gleason score and negative MRI with false negative for prostate cancer were calculated. Data were sequentially analysed and the learning curve was determined by comparing the first and last group. We detected a positive mpMRI in 64 patients from Group A (91%) and 52 patients from Group E (74%). The prostate cancer detection rate on mpMRI increased from 42% (27/64) in Group A to 81% (42/52) in Group E (P < 0.001). The prostate cancer detection rate by targeted biopsy increased from 27% (17/64) in Group A to 63% (33/52) in Group E (P < 0.001). The negative predictive value of MRI for significant cancer (>Gleason 3+3) was 88.9% in Group E compared with 66.6% in Group A. We demonstrate an improvement in detection of prostate cancer for MRI reporting over time, suggesting a learning curve for the technique. With an improved negative predictive value for significant cancer, decision for biopsy should be based on patient/surgeon factors and risk attributes alongside the MRI findings. © 2014 The Authors BJU International

  13. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  14. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  15. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... refrigerator. Therefore, you can imagine that having any metal objects in the room can be dangerous. If paperclips, pens, keys, scissors, or any other metal objects are present, they can be pulled rapidly ...

  17. The impact of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on ischemic stroke detection and incidence: minimal impact within a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Dawn; Khoury, Jane; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Flaherty, Matthew L; Adeoye, Opeolu; Ferioli, Simona; Khatri, Pooja; Kissela, Brett M

    2015-09-25

    There are several situations in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might impact whether an cerebrovascular event is considered a new stroke. These include clinically non-focal events with positive imaging for acute cerebral infarction, and worsening of older symptoms without evidence of new infarction on MRI. We sought to investigate the impact of MRI on stroke detection and stroke incidence, by describing agreement between a strictly clinical definition of stroke and a definition based on physician opinion, including MRI imaging findings. All hospitalized strokes that occurred in five Ohio and Northern Kentucky counties (population 1.3 million) in the calendar year of 2005 were identified using ICD-9 discharge codes 430-436. The two definitions used were: "clinical case definition" which included sudden onset focal neurologic symptoms referable to a vascular territory for >24 h, compared to the "best clinical judgment of the physician definition", which considers all relevant information, including neuroimaging findings. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the incidence rates were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. Rates were standardized to the 2000 U.S. population, adjusting for age, race, and sex, and included all age groups. There were 2403 ischemic stroke events in 2269 patients; 1556 (64%) had MRI performed. Of the events, 2049 (83%) were cases by both definitions, 185 (7.7%) met the clinical case definition but were non-cases in the physician's opinion and 169 (7.0%) were non-cases by clinical definition but were cases in the physician's opinion. There was no significant difference in the incidence rates of first-ever or total ischemic strokes generated by the two different definitions, or when only those with MRI imaging were included. We found that MRI findings do not appear to substantially change stroke incidence estimates, as the strictly clinical definition of stroke did not significantly differ from a definition that included imaging

  18. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Vestibular Schwannoma as the Most Common Cause of MRI Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL.A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed.In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1-2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient.The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC.

  19. 'You're looking for different parts in a jigsaw': foetal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) as an emerging technology in professional practice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kate; Kochetkova, Inna; Molyneux-Hodgson, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first introduced into clinical practice during the 1980s. Originally used as a diagnostic tool to take pictures of the brain, spine, and joints, it is now used to visualise a range of organs and soft tissue around the body. Developments in clinical applications of the technology are rapid and it is often viewed as the 'gold standard' in many areas of medicine. However, most existing sociological work on MRI tends to focus on the profession of radiology, little is known about the impact of MRI on a broader range of clinical practice. This article focuses on MRI use in pregnancy, a relatively new application of the technology. Drawing on empirical research with a range of health professionals (from radiologists to pathologists) in the North of England, this article asks: how do different types of health professionals engage with the technology and to what end? It will argue that MRI use in pregnancy offers an increasingly important piece of the diagnostic jigsaw, often acting as a bridging technology between medical specialties. The implications of this will be explored in the context of broader sociological debates on the 'visualisation' of medicine and its impact on professionals. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopic Imaging of the Brain: Application of fMRI and fMRS to Reading Disabilities and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    This tutorial/review covers functional brain-imaging methods and results used to study language and reading disabilities. Although the emphasis is on magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy, other imaging techniques are also discussed including positron emission tomography, electroencephalography,…

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopic Imaging of the Brain: Application of fMRI and fMRS to Reading Disabilities and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    This tutorial/review covers functional brain-imaging methods and results used to study language and reading disabilities. Although the emphasis is on magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy, other imaging techniques are also discussed including positron emission tomography, electroencephalography,…

  2. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Creating a magnetic resonance imaging ontology

    PubMed Central

    Lasbleiz, Jérémy; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Duvauferrier, Régis; Burgun, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to build an ontology of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The MRI domain has been analysed regarding MRI simulators and the DICOM standard. Tow MRI simulators have been analysed: JEMRIS, which is developed in XML and C++, has a hierarchical organisation and SIMRI, which is developed in C, has a good representation of MRI physical processes. To build the ontology we have used Protégé 4, owl2 that allows quantitative representations. The ontology has been validated by a reasoner (Fact++) and by a good representation of DICOM headers and of MRI processes. The MRI ontology would improved MRI simulators and eased semantic interoperability. PMID:21893854

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Patient with a Novel MRI-Compatible Auditory Brainstem Implant

    PubMed Central

    Shew, Matthew; Bertsch, Judson; Camarata, Paul; Staecker, Hinrich

    2017-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implantation has become a key technique for the rehabilitation of hearing in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. The nature of this devastating genetic disease requires ongoing MRI for the patient's lifespan. Today, most auditory brainstem implants require removal of the magnet that connects the internal device to the external speech processor to undergo imaging as their disease progresses. Patients have the option of having a short procedure to have the magnet taken out and replaced each time, or alternately using a headband to secure the processor over the receiver coil of the internal device. Novel magnet technology has led to the development of a freely rotating magnet that can be used inside the magnetic field of an MRI scanner without losing magnet strength and without being displaced from the body of the device. We report one of the first patients implanted with a Med-El Synchrony ABI in the United States who subsequently underwent successful imaging with MRI 1.5 tesla to follow for other existing schwannomas. PMID:28210535

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Patient with a Novel MRI-Compatible Auditory Brainstem Implant.

    PubMed

    Shew, Matthew; Bertsch, Judson; Camarata, Paul; Staecker, Hinrich

    2017-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implantation has become a key technique for the rehabilitation of hearing in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. The nature of this devastating genetic disease requires ongoing MRI for the patient's lifespan. Today, most auditory brainstem implants require removal of the magnet that connects the internal device to the external speech processor to undergo imaging as their disease progresses. Patients have the option of having a short procedure to have the magnet taken out and replaced each time, or alternately using a headband to secure the processor over the receiver coil of the internal device. Novel magnet technology has led to the development of a freely rotating magnet that can be used inside the magnetic field of an MRI scanner without losing magnet strength and without being displaced from the body of the device. We report one of the first patients implanted with a Med-El Synchrony ABI in the United States who subsequently underwent successful imaging with MRI 1.5 tesla to follow for other existing schwannomas.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2001-11-01

    Over the past twenty years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities available to clinical medicine. It offers great technical flexibility, and is free of the hazards associated with ionizing radiation. In addition to its role as a routine imaging technique with a growing range of clinical applications, the pace of development in MRI methodology remains high, and new ideas with significant potential emerge on a regular basis. MRI is a prime example of the spin-off benefits of basic science, and is an area of medicine in which physical science continues to play a major role, both in supporting clinical applications and in developing new techniques. This article presents a brief history of MRI and an overview of the underlying physics, followed by a short survey of current and emerging clinical applications.

  7. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. R.

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging, now more commonly referred to as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), developed into an important clinical modality between the years of 1978 and 1985. In 1945 it was demonstrated independently by Bloch(F. Bloch, The Principle of Nuclear Induction, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962 New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) and Purcell(E.M. Purcell, Research in Nuclear Magnetism, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962, New York. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) that magnetic nuclei in a sample when placed in a static magnetic field exhibit a characteristic resonance frequency which is proportional to the field strength and unique to nuclei of the same type and same environment. The net magnetization of the sample when irradiated by an RF wave at the resonance frequency could thus be manipulated to produce an induced "NMR signal" in a conducting loop placed near the sample. In the early 1970's, methods were developed whereby the NMR signal could be spatially encoded in both frequency and phase by means of superimposed linear magnetic field gradients to produce NMR images. NMR image contrast is a function of nuclear concentration and magnetic relaxation times (T1 and T2). MRI became the first medical imaging modality to provide both high resolution and high contrast images of soft tissue. Current clinical MRI systems produce images of the distribution of ^1H nuclei (primarily water) within the body. Other biologically important nuclei (^13C, ^23N, ^31P), as well as the imaging of hyperpolarized inert gases (^3He, ^129Xe) are under investigation. Recent developments in ^1H-MRI have included chemical shift imaging (hydrogen containing metabolites), blood flow imaging (MR angiography), ultra high-speed imaging (Echo Planar), and imaging of brain function based upon magnetic susceptibility differences resulting from blood oxygenation changes during brain activity.

  8. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elderly American Indians: Design, methods, and implementation of the Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians Study

    PubMed Central

    Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Shibata, Dean; Best, Lyle G.; Verney, Steven P.; Longstreth, W.T.; Lee, Elisa T.; Okin, Peter M.; Devereux, Richard; O’Leary, Marcia; Ali, Tauqeer; Jensen, Paul N.; Muller, Clemma; Nelson, Lonnie A.; Rhoades, Everett; Madhyastha, Tara; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Beauchamp, Norman; Umans, Jason G.; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-01-01

    The Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians (CDCAI) Study recruited surviving members of a 20-year, longitudinal, population-based cohort of American Indians focused on cardiovascular disease, its risk factors, and its consequences. The goal of CDCAI Study is to characterize the burden, risk factors, and manifestations of vascular brain injury identified on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CDCAI Study investigators enrolled 1,033 participants aged 60 years and older from 11 American Indian communities and tribes in the Northern Plains, Southern Plains, and Southwestern U.S. In addition to cranial MRI performed according to standardized protocols, participants underwent extensive medical interview, clinical examination, neurocognitive testing, physical function evaluation, electrocardiogram, and provided blood and urine specimens. Participants also self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, quality of life, and medical history. This report describes the design, implementation, and some of the unique challenges of this study and data collection. PMID:27603047

  9. Gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens of the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger): comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laser ray-trace methods.

    PubMed

    Garner, L F; Smith, G; Yao, S; Augusteyn, R C

    2001-04-01

    The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens in the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger) was determined using two methods; an optimisation program based on finite ray-tracing and the path of laser beams through the lens, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the linear relationship between refractive index and nuclear transverse relaxation rates. The methods showed good agreement in the cortical zone of the lens, but the lack of free water in the core of the lens made MRI measurement impossible in this region. The laser-optimisation method gave mean values of 1.368 and 1.543 for the surface and core refractive indices respectively, with a radial distribution for the gradient refractive index given by n(r)=1.543-0.121r2-0.033r4-0.021r6.

  10. Localization to atherosclerotic plaque and biodistribution of biochemically derivatized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) contrast particles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryan R; Heverhagen, Johannes; Knopp, Michael; Schmalbrock, Petra; Shapiro, John; Shiomi, Masashi; Moldovan, Nicanor I; Ferrari, Mauro; Lee, Stephen C

    2007-10-01

    Annexin V recognizes apoptotic cells by specific molecular interaction with phosphatidyl serine, a lipid that is normally sequestered in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, but is translocated to the outer leaflet in apoptotic cells, such as foam cells of atherosclerotic plaque. Annexin V could potentially deliver carried materials (such as superparamagnetic contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging) to sites containing apoptotic cells, such as high grade atherosclerotic lesions, so we administered biochemically-derivatized (annexin V) superparmagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIONs) parenterally to two related rabbit models of human atherosclerosis. We observe development of negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast in atheromatous lesions and but not in healthy artery. Vascular targeting by annexin V SPIONs is atheroma-specific (i.e., does not occur in healthy control rabbits) and requires active annexin V decorating the SPION surface. Targeted SPIONs produce negative contrast at doses that are 2,000-fold lower than reported for non-specific atheroma uptake of untargeted superparamagnetic nanoparticles in plaque in the same animal model. Occlusive and mural plaques are differentiable. While most of the dose accumulates in liver, spleen, kidneys and bladder, annexin V SPIONs also partition rapidly and deeply into early apoptotic foamy macrophages in plaque. Contrast in plaque decays within 2 months, allowing MRI images to be replicated with a subsequent, identical dose of annexin V SPIONs. Thus, biologically targeted superparamagnetic contrast agents can contribute to non-invasive evaluation of cardiovascular lesions by simultaneously extracting morphological and biochemical data from them.

  11. Detection of the index tumour and tumour volume in prostate cancer using T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.

    PubMed

    Rud, Erik; Klotz, Dagmar; Rennesund, Kristin; Baco, Eduard; Berge, Viktor; Lien, Diep; Svindland, Aud; Lundeby, Eskild; Berg, Rolf E; Eri, Lars M; Eggesbø, Heidi B

    2014-12-01

    To examine the performance of T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting the index tumour in patients with prostate cancer and to examine the agreement between MRI and histology when assessing tumour volume (TV) and overall tumour burden. The study included 199 consecutive patients with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer randomised to MRI before radical prostatectomy from December 2009 to July 2012. MRI-detected tumours (MRTs) were ranked from 1 to 3 according to decreasing volume and were compared with histologically detected tumours (HTs) ranked from 1 to 3, with HT 1 = index tumour. Whole-mount section histology was used as a reference standard. The TVs of true-positive MRTs (MRTVs 1-3) were compared with the TVs found by histology (HTVs 1-3). All tumours were registered on a 30-sector map and by classifying each sector as positive/negative, the rate of true-positive and -negative sectors was calculated. The detection rate for the HT 1 (index tumour) was 92%; HT 2, 45%; and HT 3, 37%. The MRTV 1-3 vs the HTV 1-3 were 2.8 mL vs 4.0 mL (index tumour, P < 0.001), 1.0 mL vs 0.9 mL (tumour 2, P = 0.413), and 0.6 mL vs 0.5 mL (tumour 3, P = 0.492). The rate of true-positive and -negative sectors was 50% and 88%, κ = 0.39. A combination of T2W and DW MRI detects the index tumour in 92% of cases, although MRI underestimates both TV and tumour burden compared with histology. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  12. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in Conjunction with Clinical Variables to Whole Body MRI and Clinical Variables in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bettina G; Bachmann, Lucas M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Kissling, Rudolf O; Zubler, Veronika

    2016-02-01

    Discrimination of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can be challenging. Usefulness of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in diagnosing spondyloarthritis has been recently proved. We assessed the value of clinical variables alone and in combination with WB-MRI to distinguish between DISH and AS. Diagnostic case-control study: 33 patients with AS and 15 patients with DISH were included. All patients underwent 1.5 Tesla WB-MRI scanning. MR scans were read by a blinded radiologist using the Canadian-Danish Working Group's recommendation. Imaging and clinical variables were identified using the bootstrap. The most important variables from MR and clinical history were assessed in a multivariate fashion resulting in 3 diagnostic models (MRI, clinical, and combined). The discriminative capacity was quantified using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The strength of diagnostic variables was quantified with OR. Forty-eight patients provided 1545 positive findings (193 DISH/1352 AS). The final MR model contained upper anterior corner fat infiltration (32 DISH/181 AS), ankylosis on the vertebral endplate (4 DISH/60 AS), facet joint ankylosis (4 DISH/49 AS), sacroiliac joint edema (11 DISH/91 AS), sacroiliac joint fat infiltration (2 DISH/114 AS), sacroiliac joint ankylosis (2 DISH/119 AS); area under the ROC curve was 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.78. The final clinical model contained patient's age and body mass index (area under the ROC curve 0.90, 95% CI 0.89-0.91). The full diagnostic model containing clinical and MR information had an area under the ROC curve of 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95). WB-MRI features can contribute to the correct diagnosis after a thorough conventional workup of patients with DISH and AS.

  13. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, Ralf; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage, or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress. PMID:25278947

  14. Development of an apparatus and methodology for conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with pharmacological stimuli in conscious rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Murnane, Kevin Sean; Howell, Leonard Lee

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique with significant potential to advance our understanding of multiple brain systems. However, when human subjects undergo fMRI studies they are typically conscious whereas pre-clinical fMRI studies typically utilize anesthesia, which complicates comparisons across studies. Therefore, we have developed an apparatus suitable for imaging conscious rhesus monkeys. In order to minimize subject stress and spatial motion, each subject was acclimated to the necessary procedures over several months. The effectiveness of this process was then evaluated, in fully trained subjects, by quantifying objective physiological measures. These physiological metrics were stable both within and across sessions and did not differ from when these same subjects were immobilized using standard primate handling procedures. Subject motion and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements were then evaluated by scanning subjects under three different conditions: the absence of stimulation, presentation of a visual stimulus, or administration of intravenous (i.v.) cocaine (0.3 mg/kg). Spatial motion differed neither by condition nor along the three principal axes. In addition, maximum translational and rotational motion never exceeded one half of the voxel size (0.75 mm) or 1.5 degrees, respectively. Furthermore, the localization of changes in blood oxygenation closely matched those reported in previous studies using similar stimuli. These findings document the feasibility of fMRI data collection in conscious rhesus monkeys using these procedures and allow for the further study of the neural effects of psychoactive drugs. PMID:20566353

  15. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Ralf; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage, or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress.

  16. Linking contemporary high resolution magnetic resonance imaging to the von Economo legacy: A study on the comparison of MRI cortical thickness and histological measurements of cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Lianne H; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2015-08-01

    The cerebral cortex is a distinctive part of the mammalian nervous system, displaying a spatial variety in cyto-, chemico-, and myelinoarchitecture. As part of a rich history of histological findings, pioneering anatomists von Economo and Koskinas provided detailed mappings on the cellular structure of the human cortex, reporting on quantitative aspects of cytoarchitecture of cortical areas. Current day investigations into the structure of human cortex have embraced technological advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to assess macroscale thickness and organization of the cortical mantle in vivo. However, direct comparisons between current day MRI estimates and the quantitative measurements of early anatomists have been limited. Here, we report on a simple, but nevertheless important cross-analysis between the histological reports of von Economo and Koskinas on variation in thickness of the cortical mantle and MRI derived measurements of cortical thickness. We translated the von Economo cortical atlas to a subdivision of the commonly used Desikan-Killiany atlas (as part of the FreeSurfer Software package and a commonly used parcellation atlas in studies examining MRI cortical thickness). Next, values of "width of the cortical mantle" as provided by the measurements of von Economo and Koskinas were correlated to cortical thickness measurements derived from high-resolution anatomical MRI T1 data of 200+ subjects of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Cross-correlation revealed a significant association between group-averaged MRI measurements of cortical thickness and histological recordings (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Further validating such a correlation, we manually segmented the von Economo parcellation atlas on the standardized Colin27 brain dataset and applied the obtained three-dimensional von Economo segmentation atlas to the T1 data of each of the HCP subjects. Highly consistent with our findings for the mapping to the Desikan-Killiany regions, cross

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  18. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  19. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  20. Value of Three-Dimensional Maximum Intensity Projection Display to Assist in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Based Grading in a Mouse Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Kazumasu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2016-06-16

    BACKGROUND Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most devastating cerebrovascular disorders. We report on the diagnostic value of three-dimensional (3-D) maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstruction of T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), processed using graphical user interface-based software, to aid in the accurate grading of endovascular-perforation-induced SAH in a mouse model. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 30 mice were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation; three (10%) were scored as grade 0, six (20%) as grade 1, six (20%) as grade 2, eight (27%) as grade 3, and seven (23%) as grade 4 according to T2*-weighted coronal slices. In comparison, none of mice were scored as grade 0, eight (27%) as grade 1, five (17%) as grade 2, nine (30%) as grade 3, and eight (27%) as grade 4 based on subsequent evaluation using reconstructed 3-D MIP images. RESULTS Mice scored as grade 0 (10%; no visible SAH) on T2*-coronal images were categorized as grades 1 (thin/localized SAH) and 3 (thick/diffuse SAH) according to 3-D MIP images. Grades based on T2* 3-D MIP images were more closely correlated with conventional SAH score (r2=0.59; P<0.0001) and neurological score (r2=0.25; P=0.005) than those based on T2*-coronal slices (r2=0.46; P<0.0001 for conventional score and r2=0.15; P=0.035 for neurological score). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that 3-D MIP images generated from T2*-weighted MRI data may be useful for the simple and precise grading of SAH severity in mice to overcome the weakness of the current MRI-based SAH grading system.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  2. Intraobserver and interobserver variability in the calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) of breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Petralia, G; Bonello, L; Summers, P; Preda, L; Malasevschi, A; Raimondi, S; Di Filippi, R; Locatelli, M; Curigliano, G; Renne, G; Bellomi, M

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated intraobserver and interobserver variability in the measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in breast carcinomas. Twenty-eight patients with solid breast lesions >10 mm underwent conventional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). Two observers (expert and trainee) segmented the lesion from the surrounding breast tissue on DW images with high b-value (1,000 s/mm(2)). This analysis was repeated by the expert reader after 6 months. Volumes were analysed to obtain mean, median and standard deviation (SD) of the ADC values. Interobserver and intraobserver variation was analysed using the Bland-Altman graph. All lesions were breast carcinomas, with a mean ADC value of 1.07 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The mean of the differences was 0.012 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, corresponding to an intraobserver variability of 1.1% (limits of agreement: -5%/+8%). The mean interobserver difference was 0.022 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, corresponding to an interobserver variability of 2% (limits of agreement: -9%/+14%). We found a low intraobserver and interobserver variability in calculating ADC in breast carcinomas, which supports its potential use in routine clinical practice.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  4. Nerves on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nerves are often visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the soft tissues on the chest and shoulder girdle. To learn the reasons for the contrast between the nerves and adjacent tissues, the authors obtained a fresh specimen containing part of the brachial plexus nerves from the left axilla and compared MRI with x-ray projections and photomicrographs of histologic sections. The results suggest that the high signals from the nerves stand out in contrast to the low signals from their rich vascular supply. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 7 PMID:2733051

  5. Coregistered whole body magnetic resonance imaging-positron emission tomography (MRI-PET) versus PET-computed tomography plus brain MRI in staging resectable lung cancer: comparisons of clinical effectiveness in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chin A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Seonwoo; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Hojoong; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Hwang, Hye Sun; Shim, Young Mog

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this study was to assess whether coregistered whole brain (WB) magnetic resonance imaging-positron emission tomography (MRI-PET) would increase the number of correctly upstaged patients compared with WB PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) plus dedicated brain MRI in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 2010 through November 2011, patients with NSCLC who had resectable disease based on conventional staging were assigned randomly either to coregistered MRI-PET or WB PET-CT plus brain MRI (ClinicalTrials.gov trial NCT01065415). The primary endpoint was correct upstaging (the identification of lesions with higher tumor, lymph node, or metastasis classification, verified with biopsy or other diagnostic test) to have the advantage of avoiding unnecessary thoracotomy, to determine appropriate treatment, and to accurately predict patient prognosis. The secondary endpoints were over staging and under staging compared with pathologic staging. Lung cancer was correctly upstaged in 37 of 143 patients (25.9%) in the MRI-PET group and in 26 of 120 patients (21.7%) in the PET-CT plus brain MRI group (4.2% difference; 95% confidence interval, -6.1% to 14.5%; P = .426). Lung cancer was over staged in 26 of 143 patients (18.2%) in the MRI-PET group and in 7 of 120 patients (5.8%) in the PET-CT plus brain MRI group (12.4% difference; 95% confidence interval, 4.8%-20%; P = .003), whereas lung cancer was under staged in 18 of 143 patients (12.6%) and in 28 of 120 patients (23.3%), respectively (-10.7% difference; 95% confidence interval, -20.1% to -1.4%; P = .022). Although both staging tools allowed greater than 20% correct upstaging compared with conventional staging methods, coregistered MRI-PET did not appear to help identify significantly more correctly upstaged patients than PET-CT plus brain MRI in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  6. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William A. Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HiSS MRI) yields information on the local environment of suspicious lesions. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of HiSS (complete fat-suppression, improved image contrast, no required contrast agent, etc.), leading to initial investigations of water resonance lineshape for the purpose of breast lesion classification. The purpose of this study is to investigate a quantitative imaging biomarker, which characterizes non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance in HiSS MRI datasets, for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: The inhomogeneous broadening and non-Lorentzian or “off-peak” components seen in the water resonance of proton spectra of breast HiSS images are analyzed by subtracting a Lorentzian fit from the water peak spectra and evaluating the difference spectrum or “residual.” The maxima of these residuals (referred to hereafter as “off-peak components”) tend to be larger in magnitude in malignant lesions, indicating increased broadening in malignant lesions. The authors considered only those voxels with the highest magnitude off-peak components in each lesion, with the number of selected voxels dependent on lesion size. Our voxel-based method compared the magnitudes and frequencies of off-peak components of all voxels from all lesions in a database that included 15 malignant and 8 benign lesions (yielding ∼3900 voxels) based on the lesions’ biopsy-confirmed diagnosis. Lesion classification was accomplished by comparing the average off-peak component magnitudes and frequencies in malignant and benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit for both the voxel-based and lesion-based methods. Results: In the voxel-based task of distinguishing voxels from malignant and benign lesions, off-peak magnitude yielded an AUC of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.84, 0.91]). In the lesion-based task of distinguishing malignant and

  7. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William A. Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HiSS MRI) yields information on the local environment of suspicious lesions. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of HiSS (complete fat-suppression, improved image contrast, no required contrast agent, etc.), leading to initial investigations of water resonance lineshape for the purpose of breast lesion classification. The purpose of this study is to investigate a quantitative imaging biomarker, which characterizes non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance in HiSS MRI datasets, for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: The inhomogeneous broadening and non-Lorentzian or “off-peak” components seen in the water resonance of proton spectra of breast HiSS images are analyzed by subtracting a Lorentzian fit from the water peak spectra and evaluating the difference spectrum or “residual.” The maxima of these residuals (referred to hereafter as “off-peak components”) tend to be larger in magnitude in malignant lesions, indicating increased broadening in malignant lesions. The authors considered only those voxels with the highest magnitude off-peak components in each lesion, with the number of selected voxels dependent on lesion size. Our voxel-based method compared the magnitudes and frequencies of off-peak components of all voxels from all lesions in a database that included 15 malignant and 8 benign lesions (yielding ∼3900 voxels) based on the lesions’ biopsy-confirmed diagnosis. Lesion classification was accomplished by comparing the average off-peak component magnitudes and frequencies in malignant and benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit for both the voxel-based and lesion-based methods. Results: In the voxel-based task of distinguishing voxels from malignant and benign lesions, off-peak magnitude yielded an AUC of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.84, 0.91]). In the lesion-based task of distinguishing malignant and

  8. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing "skyline" radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI).

    PubMed

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Albert, Adelin; Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Peña, Jose G; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Miezentseva, Victoria Alvarez; Gillet, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing "skyline" radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing "skyline" radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing "skyline" radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements.

  9. Neurosurgical uses for intraprocedural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mutchnick, Ian S; Moriarty, Thomas M

    2005-10-01

    Neurosurgical procedures demand precision, and efforts to create accurate neurosurgical navigation have been central to the profession through its history. Magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided navigation offers the possibility of real-time, image-based stereotactic information for the neurosurgeon, which makes possible a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This article will review both current options for intraoperative MRI operative suite arrangements and the current therapeutic/diagnostic uses of intraoperative MRI.

  10. Pulmonary vein imaging: comparison of 3D magnetic resonance angiography with 2D cine MRI for characterizing anatomy and size.

    PubMed

    Syed, Mushabbar A; Peters, Dana C; Rashid, Haroon; Arai, Andrew E

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary vein imaging is integral for planning atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. We tested the feasibility of quantifying pulmonary vein ostial diameter using two-dimensional cine cardiac magnetic resonance (2D cine CMR) and three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA). Nine patients with a history of atrial fibrillation and 20 normal volunteers underwent 2D cine CMR and contrast-enhanced 3D MRA of pulmonary veins on a 1.5 T scanner. Pulmonary vein ostial diameters were measured and pulmonary vein vessel border sharpness was graded qualitatively. Both techniques provided excellent pulmonary vein imaging; however, 3D MRA was faster to perform. The average difference between the systolic and diastolic pulmonary vein diameter was 2.5 mm (23.2%, p < 0.0001) in normal volunteers and 2.2 mm (16.9%, p < 0.0001) in atrial fibrillation patients. The ostial diameter measurements by 3D MRA were significantly larger than on 2D cine CMR. Additionally, the pulmonary vein borders appeared sharper with 2D cine CMR compared to 3D MRA. In conclusion, the 2D images can resolve differences in diameter across the cardiac cycle, while the 3D images provide high quality anatomical depiction but blur borders due to pulsatile motion. We suggest a protocol combining 2D cine CMR and 3D MRA for comprehensive evaluation of pulmonary veins.

  11. [Presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Stippich, C

    2010-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important and novel neuroimaging modality for patients with brain tumors. By non-invasive measurement, localization and lateralization of brain activiation, most importantly of motor and speech function, fMRI facilitates the selection of the most appropriate and sparing treatment and function-preserving surgery. Prerequisites for the diagnostic use of fMRI are the application of dedicated clinical imaging protocols and standardization of the respective imaging procedures. The combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) also enables tracking and visualization of important fiber bundles such as the pyramidal tract and the arcuate fascicle. These multimodal MR data can be implemented in computer systems for functional neuronavigation or radiation treatment. The practicability, accuracy and reliability of presurgical fMRI have been validated by large numbers of published data. However, fMRI cannot be considered as a fully established modality of diagnostic neuroimaging due to the lack of guidelines of the responsible medical associations as well as the lack of medical certification of important hardware and software components. This article reviews the current research in the field and provides practical information relevant for presurgical fMRI.

  12. Accuracy of arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion in detecting the epileptogenic zone in patients with drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy: comparison with electrophysiological data, structural MRI, SISCOM and FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Marcos, A; Carreño, M; Setoain, X; López-Rueda, A; Aparicio, J; Donaire, A; Bargalló, N

    2016-01-01

    Locating the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in patients with neocortical epilepsy presents major challenges. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of arterial spin labeling (ASL), an emerging non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion technique, to locate the EZ in patients with drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy. Twenty-five consecutive patients with neocortical epilepsy referred to our epilepsy unit for pre-surgical evaluation underwent a standardized assessment including video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, structural MRI, subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies. An ASL sequence was included in the MRI studies. Areas of hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion on ASL were classified into 15 anatomic-functional cortical regions; these regional cerebral blood flow maps were compared with the EZ determined by the other tests and the strength of concordance was assessed with the kappa coefficient. Of the 25 patients [16 (64%) women; mean age 32.4 (±13.8) years], 18 (72%) had lesions on structural MRI. ASL abnormalities were seen in 15 (60%) patients (nine hypoperfusion, six hyperperfusion). ASL had a very good concordance with FDG-PET (k = 0.84), a good concordance with structural MRI (k = 0.76), a moderate concordance with video-EEG monitoring (k = 0.53) and a fair concordance with SISCOM (k = 0.28). Arterial spin labeling might help to confirm the location and extent of the EZ in the pre-surgical workup of patients with drug-resistant neocortical epilepsy. © 2015 EAN.

  13. Bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints is associated with development of fatty lesions on MRI over a 1-year interval in patients with early inflammatory low back pain: a 2-year followup study.

    PubMed

    van Onna, Marloes; van Tubergen, Astrid; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Landewé, Robert

    2014-06-01

    To assess whether bone marrow edema (BME) detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints (MRI-SIJ) is associated with development of structural changes on both MRI and pelvic radiographs in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Patients with IBP ≤ 2 years were followed for 2 years with annual MRI-SIJ. MRI were scored for BME and structural changes (erosions and fatty lesions). Pelvic radiographs were graded according to the modified New York (mNY) criteria. With generalized estimated equation analysis, a time trend in the structural change scores was investigated. Sixty-eight patients [38% male; mean (SD) age 34.9 (10.3) yrs] were included. During the 2-year followup, pelvic radiograph grading remained constant. On MRI, the number of erosions per patient increased significantly (mean score 2.5 at baseline and 3.5 at 2-yr followup; p = 0.05). A trend was found for an increase in the number of fatty lesions per patient (mean score 5.4 at baseline and 8.5 at 2-yr followup; p = 0.06). Overall, BME was associated with the development of fatty lesions (right SIJ: OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.06-9.20; left SIJ: OR 22.13, 95% CI 1.27-384.50), preferentially in quadrants showing resolution of BME. In contrast, BME (or the resolution thereof) was not associated with the development of erosions. BME at baseline, especially when it disappears over time, results in the development of fatty lesions, but an association with erosions could not be demonstrated.

  14. Automated Quantification of Myocardial Salvage in a Rat Model of Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury Using 3D High‐Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Grieve, Stuart M.; Mazhar, Jawad; Callaghan, Fraser; Kok, Cindy Y.; Tandy, Sarah; Bhindi, Ravinay; Figtree, Gemma A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantification of myocardial “area at risk” (AAR) and myocardial infarction (MI) zone is critical for assessing novel therapies targeting myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury. Current “gold‐standard” methods perfuse the heart with Evan's Blue and stain with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), requiring manual slicing and analysis. We aimed to develop and validate a high‐resolution 3‐dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for quantifying MI and AAR. Methods and Results Forty‐eight hours after IR was induced, rats were anesthetized and gadopentetate dimeglumine was administered intravenously. After 10 minutes, the coronary artery was re‐ligated and a solution containing iron oxide microparticles and Evan's Blue was infused (for comparison). Hearts were harvested and transversally sectioned for TTC staining. Ex vivo MR images of slices were acquired on a 9.4‐T magnet. T2* data allowed visualization of AAR, with microparticle‐associated signal loss in perfused regions. T1 data demonstrated gadolinium retention in infarcted zones. Close correlation (r=0.92 to 0.94; P<0.05) of MRI and Evan's Blue/TTC measures for both AAR and MI was observed when the combined techniques were applied to the same heart slice. However, 3D MRI acquisition and analysis of whole heart reduced intra‐observer variability compared to assessment of isolated slices, and allowed automated segmentation and analysis, thus reducing interobserver variation. Anatomical resolution of 81 μm3 was achieved (versus ≈2 mm with manual slicing). Conclusions This novel, yet simple, MRI technique allows precise assessment of infarct and AAR zones. It removes the need for tissue slicing and provides opportunity for 3D digital analysis at high anatomical resolution in a streamlined manner accessible for all laboratories already performing IR experiments. PMID:25146703

  15. Improving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations: Development and evaluation of an intervention to reduce movement in scanners and facilitate scan completion.

    PubMed

    Powell, Rachael; Ahmad, Mahadir; Gilbert, Fiona J; Brian, David; Johnston, Marie

    2015-09-01

    The movement of patients in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners results in motion artefacts which impair image quality. Non-completion of scans leads to delay in diagnosis and increased costs. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an intervention to enable patients to stay still in MRI scanners (reducing motion artefacts) and to enhance scan completion. Successful scan outcome was deemed to be completing the scan with no motion artefacts. Previous research indicated self-efficacy to predict successful scan outcome, and interviews with patients identified a need for procedural and sensory information to facilitate successful scan behaviour. A DVD intervention was developed which targeted self-efficacy and included procedural and sensory information. It was successfully piloted with 10 patients and then evaluated in a randomized controlled trial compared with the standard hospital information leaflet (intervention group N = 41; control group N = 42). The clinic radiographer, who was blind to group allocation, rated MRI scans for motion artefact and recorded whether the participant completed the scan; participants completed MRI self-efficacy and anxiety measures. Only one participant reported not finding the DVD useful. Thirty-five participants in the intervention group and 23 in the control group completed scans and had no motion artefacts, χ(2) (1, 83) = 7.84, p < .001 (relative risk of an unsatisfactory outcome in the control group/intervention group = 3.09). The intervention effect was mediated by self-efficacy. The DVD intervention was efficacious and warrants further research to examine generalizability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Medical image segmentation using 3D MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, V.; Marchuk, V.; Semenishchev, E.; Cen, Yigang; Agaian, S.

    2017-05-01

    Precise segmentation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image can be a very useful computer aided diagnosis (CAD) tool in clinical routines. Accurate automatic extraction a 3D component from images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a challenging segmentation problem due to the small size objects of interest (e.g., blood vessels, bones) in each 2D MRA slice and complex surrounding anatomical structures. Our objective is to develop a specific segmentation scheme for accurately extracting parts of bones from MRI images. In this paper, we use a segmentation algorithm to extract the parts of bones from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data sets based on modified active contour method. As a result, the proposed method demonstrates good accuracy in a comparison between the existing segmentation approaches on real MRI data.

  17. Cryogenic phased-array for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); assessment of clinical and research applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Flora S.

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is one of the most powerful tools in diagnostic medicine for soft tissue imaging. Image acquisition techniques and hardware receivers are very important in achieving high contrast and high resolution MR images. An aim of this dissertation is to design single and multi-element room and cryogenic temperature arrays and make assessments of their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and SNR gain. In this dissertation, four sets of MR receiver coils are built. They are the receiver-only cryo-coils that are not commercially available. A tuning and matching circuit is attached to each coil. The tuning and matching circuits are simple; however, each device component has to operate at a high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature environment. Remote DC bias of the varactor controls the tuning and matching outside the scanner room. Active detuning of the resonator is done by two p-i-n junction (PIN) diodes. Cooling of the receiver is done by a customized liquid nitrogen cryostat. The first application is to build a 3-Tesla 2x1 horseshoe counter-rotating current (CRC) cryogenic array to image the tibia in a human body. With significant increase in SNR, the surface coil should deliver high contrast and resolution images that can show the trabecular bone and bone marrow structure. This structural image will be used to model the mechanical strength of the bone as well as bone density and chance of fracture. The planar CRC is a unique design of this surface array. The second application is to modify the coil design to 7-Tesla to study the growth of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Fast scan MR images of the infant monkey heads are taken for monitoring shapes of their eyeballs. The monkeys are induced with shortsightedness by eye lenses, and they are scanned periodically to get images of their eyeballs. The field-of-view (FOV) of these images is about five centimeters and the area of interest is two centimeters deep from the surface. Because of these reasons

  18. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  19. Assessment of Myocardial Remodeling Using an Elastin/Tropoelastin Specific Agent with High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Protti, Andrea; Lavin, Begoña; Dong, Xuebin; Lorrio, Silvia; Robinson, Simon; Onthank, David; Shah, Ajay M; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    Background Well-defined inflammation, proliferation, and maturation phases orchestrate the remodeling of the injured myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI) by controlling the formation of new extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix consists mainly of collagen but also fractions of elastin. It is thought that elastin is responsible for maintaining elastic properties of the myocardium, thus reducing the risk of premature rupture. An elastin/tropoelastin–specific contrast agent (Gd-ESMA) was used to image tropoelastin and mature elastin fibers for in vivo assessment of extracellular matrix remodeling post-MI. Methods and Results Gd-ESMA enhancement was studied in a mouse model of myocardial infarction using a 7 T MRI scanner and results were compared to those achieved after injection of a nonspecific control contrast agent, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). In the infarcted tissue, Gd-ESMA uptake (measured as R1 relaxation rate) steadily increased from day 3 to day 21 as a result of the synthesis of elastin/tropoelastin. R1 values were in good agreement with histological findings. A similar R1 behavior was observed in the remote myocardium. No mature cross-linked elastin was found at any time point. In contrast, Gd-DTPA uptake was only observed in the infarct with no changes in R1 values between 3 and 21 days post-MI. Conclusions We demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo imaging of extracellular matrix remodeling post-MI using a tropoelastin/elastin binding MR contrast agent, Gd-ESMA. We found that tropoelastin is the main contributor to the increased MRI signal at late stages of MI where its augmentation in areas of infarction was in good agreement with the R1 increase. PMID:26272655

  20. Simultaneous PET/MRI with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L; Henriksen, Sarah T; Vignaud, Alexandre; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas; Klausen, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous (1)H-MRI and PET but never for (13)C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Combined PET and (13)C-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [(18)F]-FDG phantom, (13)C-acetate and (13)C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or (13)C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET trues; and (13)C-MRSI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for urea and acetate phantoms. Differences between measurement conditions were evaluated using t tests. PET and (13)C-MRSI data acquisition could be performed simultaneously without any discernible artifacts. The average difference in PET activity between acquisitions with and without simultaneous (13)C-MRSI was 0.83 (largest sphere) and -0.76 % (background). The average difference in net trues was -0.01 %. The average difference in (13)C-MRSI SNR between acquisitions with and without simultaneous PET ranged from -2.28 to 1.21 % for all phantoms and measurement conditions. No differences were significant. The system was capable of (13)C-MRSI of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is feasible. Phantom experiments showed that possible interference effects introduced by acquiring data from the two modalities simultaneously are small and non-significant. Further experiments can now investigate the benefits of simultaneous PET and

  1. Stacked magnetic resonators for MRI RF coils decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georget, Elodie; Luong, Michel; Vignaud, Alexandre; Giacomini, Eric; Chazel, Edouard; Ferrand, Guillaume; Amadon, Alexis; Mauconduit, Franck; Enoch, Stefan; Tayeb, Gérard; Bonod, Nicolas; Poupon, Cyril; Abdeddaim, Redha

    2017-02-01

    Parallel transmission is a very promising method to tackle B1+ field inhomogeneities at ultrahigh field in magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). This technique is however limited by the mutual coupling between the radiating elements. Here we propose to solve this problem by designing a passive magneto-electric resonator that we here refer to as stacked magnetic resonator (SMR). By combining numerical and experimental methodologies, we prove that this novelty passive solution allows an efficient decoupling of elements of a phased-array coil. We demonstrate the ability of this technique to significantly reduce by more than 10 dB the coupling preserving the quality of images compared to ideally isolated linear resonators on a spherical salty agar gel phantom in a 7 T MRI scanner.

  2. Effect of baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume on functional outcome in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Gao, Pei-yi; Hu, Qing-mao; Lin, Yan; Jing, Li-na; Xue, Jing; Chen, Zhi-jun; Wang, Yong-jun; Liu, Mei-li; Cai, Ye-feng

    2011-06-01

    We explored the relationship between predicted infarct core, predicted ischemic penumbras and predicted final infarct volumes obtained though apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-based method, as well as other clinical variables, and functional outcome. Patients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke were retrospectively recruited. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was evaluated at baseline and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at day 90. Favorable outcome was defined as an mRS score of 0 to 2, and unfavorable outcome as 3 to 6. Multimodal stroke magnetic resonance imaging was carried out at presentation. The volumes of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) were measured using the regions of interest (ROI) method. The volumes of predicted infarct core, predicted ischemic penumbra and predicted final infarct were obtained by an automated image analysis system based on baseline ADC maps. The association between baseline magnetic resonance imaging volumes, baseline clinical variables, and functional outcome was statistically analyzed. The study included 30 males and 20 females (mean±SD age, 56±10 years). Baseline DWI, PWI and PWI-DWI mismatch volumes were not correlated with day-90 mRS (P>0.05). Predicted infarct core, predicted ischemic penumbra and predicted final infarct through ADC-based method were all correlated with day-90 mRS (P<0.05). A better outcome was associated with a smaller predicted volume. Low baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and recanalization also demonstrated a trend toward a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve of predicted final infarct volume and recanalization were higher with statistical significance (P<0.001). Predicted volumes obtained from ADC-based methods, especially predicted final infarct volume, as well as baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and recanalization may have effect on functional

  3. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with an magnetic resonance imaging conditional permanent pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Andrew J.; Artis, Nigel J.; Sivananthan, U. Mohan; Pepper, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as the optimum modality for cardiac imaging. An aging population and rising numbers of patients with permanent pacemakers means many such individuals may require cardiac MRI scanning in the future. Whilst the presence of a permanent pacemaker is historically regarded as a contra-indication to MRI scanning, pacemaker systems have been developed to limit any associated risks. No reports have been published regarding the use of such devices with cardiac MRI in a clinical setting. We present the safe, successful cardiac MRI scan of a patient with an MRI-conditional permanent pacing system. PMID:22355486

  4. MRI-based staging of hepatic fibrosis: Comparison of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging with magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Shintaro; Motosugi, Utaroh; Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging for staging hepatic fibrosis, and compare its staging ability with that of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). This study included 129 patients with pathologically staged liver fibrosis, and 53 patients with healthy livers. All patients underwent both MRE and IVIM imaging. Four diffusivity indices were calculated with 11 b-values; slow diffusion coefficient related to molecular diffusion (D), fast diffusion coefficient related to perfusion in micro-vessels (D*), perfusion-related diffusion fraction (f), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of IVIM imaging and MRE for staging hepatic fibrosis. D*, f, and ADC values decreased significantly with fibrosis stage (P < 0.0124), and liver stiffness increased (P < 0.0001). The Az value of MRE was significantly higher than that of D* for all fibrosis stages (D* vs. MRE for ≥ F1, 0.851 vs. 0.992 [P < 0.0001]; ≥ F2, 0.898 vs. 0.998 [P = 0.0003]; ≥ F3, 0.904 vs. 0.995 [P = 0.0004]; F4, 0.885 vs. 0.996 [P < 0.0001]). IVIM imaging is a useful technique for evaluating hepatic fibrosis, but MRE is better able to discriminate fibrosis stages than IVIM imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

  7. Comparison of Tortuosity Values for MnCl2 and Bacterial Diffusion in a Packed Column Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Smith, J. A.; Ford, R. M.; Fernandez, E. J.

    2002-12-01

    Diffusion through porous media is dependent on the tortuous path of the solute and can be described using a path tortuosity, τ . In this study, we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the diffusion of a conservative tracer and of bacteria through a packed column to compare predictions for porous-media tortuosity. MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique for visualizing changes in concentration in a packed column as a function of time. Manganese chloride, MnCl2, is a contrasting agent readily detected using MRI. Paramagnetic magnetite particles are attached to the surface of Pseudomonas putida F1 cells using an antibody, thereby enabling us to measure changes in bacterial density within the packed column. In separate experiments, MnCl2 and bacterial distributions within a column of glass-coated polystyrene beads are imaged using MRI, with a spatial resolution of 300 μm. MnCl2 or bacteria labeled with magnetite are introduced into one half of a specially designed chromatography column packed with glass-coated polystyrene beads. Impinging flow is used to create an initial step change in concentration and diffusion is monitored over time using MRI. One-dimensional MnCl2 diffusion and bacterial random motility in porous media have the same mathematical form, with terms for tortuosity and diffusion or motility, respectively. Dbulk is the bulk aqueous diffusion coefficient for MnCl2, 1.24x10-5 cm2/sec, and μ bulk is the bulk motility coefficient for P. putida F1, 3.20x10-5 cm2/sec. Both sets of diffusion data are analyzed by fitting numerical simulations of model equations to experimental data and determining the column tortuosity, τ . We have found that the column tortuosity observed using MnCl2 diffusion data is an order of magnitude smaller than that observed using bacterial diffusion data. This discrepancy suggests that bacteria swimming through porous media may experience a more tortuous path than other diffusing solutes. We believe that at small pore

  8. 4D flow imaging with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran; Allen, Bradley D.; Garcia, Julio; Jarvis, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, 2-dimensional phase contrast MRI (2D PC-MRI) has become a routine part of standard-of-care cardiac MRI for the assessment of regional blood flow in the heart and great vessels. More recently, time-resolved PC-MRI with velocity encoding along all three flow directions and three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage (also termed ‘4D flow MRI’) has been developed and applied for the evaluation of cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the human body. 4D flow MRI allows for the comprehensive evaluation of complex blood flow patterns by 3D blood flow visualization and flexible retrospective quantification of flow parameters. Recent technical developments, including the utilization of advanced parallel imaging techniques such as k-t GRAPPA, have resulted in reasonable overall scan times, e.g., 8-12 minutes for 4D flow MRI of the aorta and 10-20 minutes for whole heart coverage. As a result, the application of 4D flow MRI in a clinical setting has become more feasible, as documented by an increased number of recent reports on the utility of the technique for the assessment of cardiac and vascular hemodynamics in patient studies. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential of 4D flow MRI to provide an improved assessment of hemodynamics which might aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the methods used for 4D flow MRI acquisition, post-processing and data analysis. In addition, the article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D flow MRI and includes a review of applications in the heart, thoracic aorta and hepatic system. PMID:24834414

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis. In melanoma, colon cancer, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, MRI allows confident diagnosis of treatment-related changes in liver and enables differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors. Focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, hypersteatosis, and focal fat can mimic metastasis. In cancer patients with fatty liver, MRI should be preferred to CT. Although the first-line imaging for metastases is CT, MRI can be used as a problem-solving method. MRI may be used as the first-line method in patients who would undergo curative surgery or metastatectomy. Current limitation of MRI is low sensitivity for metastasis smaller than 3mm. MRI fingerprinting, glucoCEST MRI, and PET-MRI may allow simpler and more sensitive diagnosis of liver metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cortical Mapping by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Quantitative Cytological Analysis in the Human Brain: A Feasibility Study in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Annese, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is a layered cellular structure that is tangentially organized into a mosaic of anatomically and functionally distinct fields. In spite of centuries of investigation, the precise localization and classification of many areas in the cerebral cortex remain problematic because the relationship between functional specificity and intra-cortical structure has not been firmly established. Furthermore, it is not yet clear how surface landmarks, visible through gross examination and, more recently, using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), relate to underlying microstructural borders and to the topography of functional activation. We have designed a multi-modal neuroimaging protocol that combines MRI and quantitative microscopic analysis in the same individual to clarify the topography of cytoarchitecture underlying gross anatomical landmarks in the cerebral cortex. We tested our approach in the region of the fusiform gyrus (FG), because in spite of its seemingly smooth appearance on the ventral aspect of both hemispheres, this structure houses many functionally defined areas whose histological borders remain unclear. In practice, we used MRI-based automated segmentation to define the region of interest from which we could then collect quantitative histological data (specifically, neuronal size and density). A modified stereological approach was used to sample the cortex within the FG without a priori assumptions on the location of architectonic boundaries. The results of these analyses illustrate architectonic variations along the FG and demonstrate that it is possible to correlate quantitative histological data to measures that are obtained in the context of large-scale, non-invasive MRI-based population studies. PMID:23628159

  11. The prediction of total skeletal muscle mass in a Caucasian population - comparison of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Pourhassan, Maryam; Braun, Wiebke; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred J

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy X-ray (DXA) is an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure skeletal muscle mass. DXA assesses lean body mass (LBM), and MRI measures skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655) developed MRI-based algorithms to estimate whole-body SMM by DXA. These algorithms were based on an ethnically mixed study population (Kim et al., Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655). It is unclear whether Kim's algorithms are accurate in an exclusive Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to validate Kim's equation in a Caucasian population of 346 subjects. SMMMRI was assessed using MRI, and LBM and BMCDXA were measured by DXA and fat mass (FMADP ) by air-displacement plethysmographie (ADP). SMMMRI and predicted SMM were highly correlated (r = 0·944; P<0·05). The standard error of estimate of the regression equation was 2·4 kg. However, Bland-Altman plots showed a significant (P<0·001) systematic bias between SMMMRI (median 25·1 kg; IQ 20·2-31·1 kg) and predicted SMM (median 26·3 kg; IQ 22·6-33·0 kg), overestimating SMM by 9·8%. Multiple regression analyses showed that weight explained 4·4% of the variance in the differences between SMMMRI and predicted SMM with the major part unexplained. Kim's algorithm has a systematic unexplained bias and is not recommended in Caucasians. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza; Appelbaum, Evan; Danias, Peter G; Hauser, Thomas H; Yeon, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights the technical challenges and general imaging strategies for coronary MRI. This is followed by a review of the clinical results for the assessment of anomalous CAD, coronary artery aneurysms, native vessel integrity, and coronary artery bypass graft disease using the more commonly applied MRI methods. It concludes with a brief discussion of the advantages/disadvantages and clinical results comparing coronary MRI with multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography.

  13. Improving the spatial accuracy in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect: benefits from parallel imaging and a 32-channel head array coil at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fellner, C; Doenitz, C; Finkenzeller, T; Jung, E M; Rennert, J; Schlaier, J

    2009-01-01

    Geometric distortions and low spatial resolution are current limitations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of this study was to evaluate if application of parallel imaging or significant reduction of voxel size in combination with a new 32-channel head array coil can reduce those drawbacks at 1.5 T for a simple hand motor task. Therefore, maximum t-values (tmax) in different regions of activation, time-dependent signal-to-noise ratios (SNR(t)) as well as distortions within the precentral gyrus were evaluated. Comparing fMRI with and without parallel imaging in 17 healthy subjects revealed significantly reduced geometric distortions in anterior-posterior direction. Using parallel imaging, tmax only showed a mild reduction (7-11%) although SNR(t) was significantly diminished (25%). In 7 healthy subjects high-resolution (2 x 2 x 2 mm3) fMRI was compared with standard fMRI (3 x 3 x 3 mm3) in a 32-channel coil and with high-resolution fMRI in a 12-channel coil. The new coil yielded a clear improvement for tmax (21-32%) and SNR(t) (51%) in comparison with the 12-channel coil. Geometric distortions were smaller due to the smaller voxel size. Therefore, the reduction in tmax (8-16%) and SNR(t) (52%) in the high-resolution experiment seems to be tolerable with this coil. In conclusion, parallel imaging is an alternative to reduce geometric distortions in fMRI at 1.5 T. Using a 32-channel coil, reduction of the voxel size might be the preferable way to improve spatial accuracy.

  14. Fascicular ratio: a new parameter to evaluate peripheral nerve pathology on magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study on a 3T MRI system.

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, Alberto S; Tagliafico, Giulio

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to define and quantitatively evaluate the fascicular ratio (FR) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with peripheral neuropathies compared with healthy controls. Forty control subjects (20 women, 20 men; age, 44.6 ± 13.4 years) and 40 patients with peripheral neuropathy (22 women, 18 men; age, 50.3 ± 10.2 years) were examined with a standard 3T MRI protocol. With customized software (with semiautomatic and automatic interface), the hypointense and hyperintense areas of the peripheral nerves corresponding to fascicular and nonfascicular tissue were examined on T1-weighted sequences. The ratio of fascicular pixels to total pixels was called FR. Correlation with FR calculated on high-resolution ultrasound was performed. The statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney U test of controls versus patients, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the subgroup analysis of patients according to etiologies of neuropathy. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was calculated based on the evaluation made by 3 readers. Finally, a complete automatic evaluation was performed. On MRI, FRs were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (FR, 76.7 ± 15.1 vs 56 ± 12.3; P < 0.0001 for the semiautomatic interface; and FR 66.3 ± 17.5 vs 47.8 ± 18.4; P < 0.0001 for the automatic interface). The increase in FR was caused mainly by an increase in the hypointense part of the nerve. This observation was valid for all causes of neuropathies. ROC analysis found an area under the curve of 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.81) for FR to discriminate neuropathy from control. The correlation coefficient between MRI and ultrasound was significant (r = 0.49; 95% confidence interval for r, 0.21-0.70; P = 0.012). With the semiautomated evaluation, the mean intraobserver agreement was good (K = 0.86). The interobserver agreements were also good (reader 1 vs reader 2, k

  15. Prospective randomized trial comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided in-bore biopsy to MRI-ultrasound fusion and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in patients with prior negative biopsies.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Blondin, Dirk; Quentin, Michael; Hiester, Andreas; Godehardt, Erhard; Gabbert, Helmut E; Becker, Nikolaus; Antoch, Gerald; Albers, Peter; Schimmöller, Lars

    2015-10-01

    A significant proportion of prostate cancers (PCas) are missed by conventional transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB). It remains unclear whether the combined approach using targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy (FUS-GB) and systematic TRUS-GB is superior to targeted MRI-guided in-bore biopsy (IB-GB) for PCa detection. To compare PCa detection between IB-GB alone and FUS-GB + TRUS-GB in patients with at least one negative TRUS-GB and prostate-specific antigen ≥4 ng/ml. Patients were prospectively randomized after multiparametric prostate MRI to IB-GB (arm A) or FUS-GB + TRUS-GB (arm B) from November 2011 to July 2014. The study was powered at 80% to demonstrate an overall PCa detection rate of ≥60% in arm B compared to 40% in arm A. Secondary endpoints were the distribution of highest Gleason scores, the rate of detection of significant PCa (Gleason ≥7), the number of biopsy cores to detect one (significant) PCa, the positivity rate for biopsy cores, and tumor involvement per biopsy core. The study was halted after interim analysis because the primary endpoint was not met. The trial enrolled 267 patients, of whom 210 were analyzed (106 randomized to arm A and 104 to arm B). PCa detection was 37% in arm A and 39% in arm B (95% confidence interval for difference, -16% to 11%; p=0.7). Detection rates for significant PCa (29% vs 32%; p=0.7) and the highest percentage tumor involvement per biopsy core (48% vs 42%; p=0.4) were similar between the arms. The mean number of cores was 5.6 versus 17 (p<0.001). A limitation is the limited number of patients because of early cessation of accrual. This trial failed to identify an important improvement in detection rate for the combined biopsy approach over MRI-targeted biopsy alone. A prospective comparison between MRI-targeted biopsy alone and systematic TRUS-GB is justified. Our randomized study showed similar prostate cancer detection rates between targeted prostate biopsy

  16. Magnetic resonance image guided brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila N; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The application of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the past 2 decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and resulted in mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome regarding local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapies have improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high-quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education.

  17. Topography and Determinants of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Visible Perivascular Spaces in a Large Memory Clinic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Shams, Sara; Martola, Juha; Charidimou, Andreas; Larvie, Mykol; Granberg, Tobias; Shams, Mana; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2017-09-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging-visible perivascular spaces (PVS) are related to interstitial fluid clearance pathways (including amyloid-β) in the brain and are suggested to be a marker of cerebral small vessel disease. We investigated the role, topography, and possible implications of PVS in cognitive impairment. A total of 1504 patients undergoing memory clinic investigation and an associated brain magnetic resonance imaging scan were included in this cross-sectional study. Magnetic resonance images were assessed for markers of small vessel disease. Additionally, 1039 patients had cerebrospinal fluid analysis of amyloid-β 42, total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau); 520 patients had apoE genotyping done. Results were analyzed with generalized linear models. A total of 289 (19%; 95% confidence interval, 17-21) had a high-grade PVS in the centrum semiovale (CSO) and 65 (4%; 95% confidence interval: 3%-5%) in the basal ganglia (BG). Centrum semiovale- and BG-PVS were both associated with high age (P<0.001), hypertension (P<0.001), probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (P<0.05), moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities (P<0.001), cortical superficial siderosis (P<0.001), cerebral microbleeds (P<0.001), and PVS. centrum semiovale-PVS was separately associated with strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds (P=0.057). BG-PVS was associated with strictly deep cerebral microbleeds (P<0.001), lacunes (P<0.001), and vascular dementia (P=0.04). BG-PVS showed a tendency to be associated with high cerebrospinal fluid tau (B=0.002, P=0.04) in the whole cohort and in Alzheimer's disease (B=0.005; P=0.02). No other associations with cerebrospinal fluid or the apoE e4 allele was observed. Centrum semiovale-PVS and BG-PVS have different underlying etiology, being associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertensive vasculopathy, respectively, although a significant overlap between these pathologies is likely to exist. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of granulomatous mastitis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Amanda N; Seiler, Stephen J; Hayes, Jody C; Wooldridge, Rachel; Porembka, Jessica H

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a benign chronic inflammatory condition of the breast. This study was performed to determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating GM from malignancy. MRI findings in 12 women with clinical or histopathologically-proven GM were retrospectively reviewed. Non-mass enhancement on MRI was present in all 12 patients with clustered ring enhancement being the most common pattern (n=7, 58%). Architectural distortion (n=10, 83%), skin thickening (n=10, 83%) and focal skin enhancement (n=10, 83%) were also very common. MRI features of GM are often identical to features considered suspicious for malignancy on MRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Basics of magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning with the behavior of a compass needle in a magnetic field, this text uses analogies from everyday experience to explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and how it is used for imaging. Using a minimum of scientific abbreviations and symbols, the basics of tissue visualization and characterization are presented. A description of the various types of magnets and scanners is followed by the practical advantages and limitations of MRI relative to x-ray CT scanning.

  20. Discrepancy between morphological findings in juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Björn Peter; Paulus, Alexander Christoph; Niethammer, Thomas Richard; Wegener, Veronika; Gülecyüz, Mehmet Fatih; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter Ernst; Utzschneider, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of preoperative MRI for the staging of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the knee and the talus in juvenile patients, using arthroscopy as the gold standard of diagnosis. Sixty-three juvenile patients (range 8-16 years) with an OCD of the knee or the talus underwent arthroscopy after MRI. In 54/9 out of 63 cases, 1.5/3 T MR scanners were used. The OCD stage was classified according the staging criteria of Dipaola et al. Arthroscopic findings were compared with MRI reports in each patient. From the 63 juvenile patients, MRI/arthroscopy revealed a stage I OCD in 4/19 patients, stage II in 31/22 patients, stage III in 22/9 patients and stage IV in 6/6 patients. No osteochondral pathology was evident in arthroscopy in seven out of 63 patients. The overall accuracy of preoperative MRI in staging an OCD lesion of the knee or the talus was 41.3%. In 33 out of 63 patients (52.4%), arthroscopy revealed a lower OCD stage than in the preoperative MRI grading, and in four out of 63 cases (6.4%), the intraoperative arthroscopic grading was worse than in preoperative MRI prior to surgery. The utilization of the 3 T MRI provided a correct diagnosis with 44.4%. Even with today's modern MRI scanners, it is not possible to predict an accurate OCD stage in children. The children's orthopaedist should not solely rely on the MRI when it comes to the decision to further conservative or surgical treatment of a juvenile OCD, but rather should take surgical therapy in consideration within persisting symptoms despite a low OCD stage provided by MRI. III.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MRI using a sorted atlas approach.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative whole-body PET/MR imaging is challenged by the lack of accurate and robust strategies for attenuation correction. In this work, a new pseudo-CT generation approach, referred to as sorted atlas pseudo-CT (SAP), is proposed for accurate extraction of bones and estimation of lung attenuation properties. This approach improves the Gaussian process regression (GPR) kernel proposed by Hofmann et al. which relies on the information provided by a co-registered atlas (CT and MRI) using a GPR kernel to predict the distribution of attenuation coefficients. Our approach uses two separate GPR kernels for lung and non-lung tissues. For non-lung tissues, the co-registered atlas dataset was sorted on the basis of local normalized cross-correlation similarity to the target MR image to select the most similar image in the atlas for each voxel. For lung tissue, the lung volume was incorporated in the GPR kernel taking advantage of the correlation between lung volume and corresponding attenuation properties to predict the attenuation coefficients of the lung. In the presence of pathological tissues in the lungs, the lesions are segmented on PET images corrected for attenuation using MRI-derived three-class attenuation map followed by assignment of soft-tissue attenuation coefficient. The proposed algorithm was compared to other techniques reported in the literature including Hofmann's approach and the three-class attenuation correction technique implemented on the Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR where CT-based attenuation correction served as reference. Fourteen patients with head and neck cancer undergoing PET/CT and PET/MR examinations were used for quantitative analysis. SUV measurements were performed on 12 normal uptake regions as well as high uptake malignant regions. Moreover, a number of similarity measures were used to evaluate the accuracy of extracted bones. The Dice similarity metric revealed that the extracted bone improved from 0.58 ± 0.09 to 0.65 ± 0.07 when

  2. Cancer Screening with Digital Mammography for Women at Average Risk for Breast Cancer, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Women at High Risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of 2 separate modalities, digital mammography (DM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), relative to film mammography (FM), in the screening of women asymptomatic for breast cancer. A third analysis assesses the effectiveness and safety of the combination of MRI plus mammography (MRI plus FM) in screening of women at high risk. An economic analysis was also conducted. Research Questions How does the sensitivity and specificity of DM compare to FM? How does the sensitivity and specificity of MRI compare to FM? How do the recall rates compare among these screening modalities, and what effect might this have on radiation exposure? What are the risks associated with radiation exposure? How does the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of MRI plus FM compare to either MRI or FM alone? What are the economic considerations? Clinical Need The effectiveness of FM with respect to breast cancer mortality in the screening of asymptomatic average- risk women over the age of 50 has been established. However, based on a Medical Advisory Secretariat review completed in March 2006, screening is not recommended for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. Guidelines published by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Care recommend mammography screening every 1 to 2 years for women aged 50 years and over, hence, the inclusion of such women in organized breast cancer screening programs. In addition to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of mammography screening from the age of 40 years, there is concern over the risks associated with mammographic screening for the 10 years between the ages of 40 and 49 years. The lack of effectiveness of mammography screening starting at the age of 40 years (with respect to breast cancer mortality) is based on the assumption that the ability to detect cancer decreases with increased breast tissue density. As breast density is highest in the

  3. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  4. The value of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion biopsy platforms in prostate cancer detection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gayet, Maudy; van der Aa, Anouk; Beerlage, Harrie P; Schrier, Bart Ph; Mulders, Peter F A; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite limitations considering the presence, staging and aggressiveness of prostate cancer, ultrasonography (US)-guided systematic biopsies (SBs) are still the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Recently, promising results have been published for targeted prostate biopsies (TBs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion platforms. Different platforms are USA Food and Drug Administration registered and have, mostly subjective, strengths and weaknesses. To our knowledge, no systematic review exists that objectively compares prostate cancer detection rates between the different platforms available. To assess the value of the different MRI/US-fusion platforms in prostate cancer detection, we compared platform-guided TB with SB, and other ways of MRI TB (cognitive fusion or in-bore MR fusion). We performed a systematic review of well-designed prospective randomised and non-randomised trials in the English language published between 1 January 2004 and 17 February 2015, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included: 'prostate cancer', 'MR/ultrasound(US) fusion' and 'targeted biopsies'. Extraction of articles was performed by two authors (M.G. and A.A.) and were evaluated by the other authors. Randomised and non-randomised prospective clinical trials comparing TB using MRI/US-fusion platforms and SB, or other ways of TB (cognitive fusion or MR in-bore fusion) were included. In all, 11 of 1865 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving seven different fusion platforms and 2626 patients: 1119 biopsy naïve, 1433 with prior negative biopsy, 50 not mentioned (either biopsy naïve or with prior negative biopsy) and 24 on active surveillance (who were disregarded). The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the quality of included articles. No clear advantage of MRI/US fusion-guided TBs was seen for cancer detection rates (CDRs) of all prostate

  5. Dynamic measurement of patello-femoral joint alignment using weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI).

    PubMed

    Mariani, Silvia; La Marra, Alice; Arrigoni, Francesco; Necozione, Stefano; Splendiani, Alessandra; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Barile, Antonio; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Aim of our work was to compare standard and weight-bearing WB-MRI to define their contribution in unmasking patello-femoral (PF) maltracking and to define what measurement of patellar alignment is the most reliable. We prospectively collected 95 non consecutive patients, clinically divided into 2 groups: group A (the control group), including 20 patients (negative for patellar maltracking), and group B including 75 patients (positive for patellar maltracking). The patients underwent a dedicated 0.25 T MRI, in supine and WB position, with knee flexion of 12-15°. The following measurements were performed: Insall-Salvati index (IS), lateral patellar displacement (LPD), lateral patello-femoral angle (LPA) and lateral patellar tilt (LPT). Quantitative and qualitative statistical analyses were performed to compare the results obtained before and after WB-MRI. Measurements were subsequently performed on both groups. Group A patients showed no statistically significant variations at all measurements both on standard and WB-MRI. On the basis of measurements made on standard MRI, group B patients were divided into group B1 (23 patients) (negative or positive at 1 measurement) and group B2 (52 patients) (positive at 2 or more measurements). After WB-MRI, group B1 patients were divided into group B1a (6 patients), in case they remained positive at 0/1 measurement, and group B1b (17 patients), in case they became positive at 2 or more measurements. All group B2 patients confirmed to be positive at 2 or more measurements at WB-MRI. Quantitative statistical analysis showed that LPT and LPA were the most reproducible and clinically useful measurements. Qualitative statistical analysis performed on standard and WB-MRI demonstrated that LPT was the best predictive measurement. This study demonstrates both the high diagnostic value of WB-MRI in unmasking PF-maltracking and the best predictive value of LPT measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Thian C.

    2012-06-01

    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  7. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  8. Iterative approach of dual regression with a sparse prior enhances the performance of independent component analysis for group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Junghoe; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    This study proposes an iterative dual-regression (DR) approach with sparse prior regularization to better estimate an individual's neuronal activation using the results of an independent component analysis (ICA) method applied to a temporally concatenated group of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (i.e., Tc-GICA method). An ordinary DR approach estimates the spatial patterns (SPs) of neuronal activation and corresponding time courses (TCs) specific to each individual's fMRI data with two steps involving least-squares (LS) solutions. Our proposed approach employs iterative LS solutions to refine both the individual SPs and TCs with an additional a priori assumption of sparseness in the SPs (i.e., minimally overlapping SPs) based on L(1)-norm minimization. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of this approach, semi-artificial fMRI data were created from resting-state fMRI data with the following considerations: (1) an artificially designed spatial layout of neuronal activation patterns with varying overlap sizes across subjects and (2) a BOLD time series (TS) with variable parameters such as onset time, duration, and maximum BOLD levels. To systematically control the spatial layout variability of neuronal activation patterns across the "subjects" (n=12), the degree of spatial overlap across all subjects was varied from a minimum of 1 voxel (i.e., 0.5-voxel cubic radius) to a maximum of 81 voxels (i.e., 2.5-voxel radius) across the task-related SPs with a size of 100 voxels for both the block-based and event-related task paradigms. In addition, several levels of maximum percentage BOLD intensity (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%) were used for each degree of spatial overlap size. From the results, the estimated individual SPs of neuronal activation obtained from the proposed iterative DR approach with a sparse prior showed an enhanced true positive rate and reduced false positive rate compared to the ordinary DR approach. The estimated TCs of the

  9. The diagnostic utility of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or intraoperative sub-nipple biopsy in nipple-sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Chan, S-E; Liao, C-Y; Wang, T-Y; Chen, S-T; Chen, D-R; Lin, Y-J; Chen, C-J; Wu, H-K; Chen, S-L; Kuo, S-J; Lee, C-W; Lai, H-W

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of routine sub-nipple biopsy was uncertain, and the role of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting nipple invasion in patients who have been selected for nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) has not been adequately evaluated. We retrospectively collected and analyzed the medical and surgical records of 434 patients with primary operable breast cancer who met the criteria for NSM and underwent breast surgery during the period January 2011 to December 2015. Patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) according to tumor size and tumor-to-nipple distance. Among the 434 patients in this study, 29 (6.7%) had occult invasion of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Sub-nipple biopsy had a sensitivity of 84.6%, a specificity of 100%, a false negative rate of 1.2%, a false positive rate of 0%, and an overall accuracy rate of 98.8% in confirming NAC invasion. The NAC invasion rate was 0% in the low-risk group, 5.1% in the intermediate-risk group, and 19.7% in the high-risk group (P < 0.01). The overall NPV of preoperative MRI for predicting NAC invasion was 94.8%. Cost analysis revealed that the cost of NSM with sub-nipple biopsy was significantly higher than that of NSM alone, with a mean difference in cost of USD 238.5 (P < 0.01). The high negative predictive value of MRI for NAC invasion is useful for selection of patients receiving NSM. Sub-nipple biopsy is a reliable procedure to detect occult NAC invasion, however, routine use is not cost-effect for low risk patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  10. On the characterization of single-event related brain activity from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements.

    PubMed

    Khoram, Nafiseh; Zayane, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Djellouli, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    We propose an efficient numerical technique for calibrating the mathematical model that describes the single-event related brain response when fMRI measurements are given. This method employs a regularized Newton technique in conjunction with a Kalman filtering procedure. We have applied this method to estimate the biophysiological parameters of the Balloon model that describes the hemodynamic brain responses. Illustrative results obtained with both synthetic and real fMRI measurements are presented.

  11. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  12. Cancer screening with digital mammography for women at average risk for breast cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for women at high risk: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of 2 separate modalities, digital mammography (DM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), relative to film mammography (FM), in the screening of women asymptomatic for breast cancer. A third analysis assesses the effectiveness and safety of the combination of MRI plus mammography (MRI plus FM) in screening of women at high risk. An economic analysis was also conducted. How does the sensitivity and specificity of DM compare to FM?How does the sensitivity and specificity of MRI compare to FM?How do the recall rates compare among these screening modalities, and what effect might this have on radiation exposure? What are the risks associated with radiation exposure?How does the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of MRI plus FM compare to either MRI or FM alone?What are the economic considerations? The effectiveness of FM with respect to breast cancer mortality in the screening of asymptomatic average- risk women over the age of 50 has been established. However, based on a Medical Advisory Secretariat review completed in March 2006, screening is not recommended for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. Guidelines published by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Care recommend mammography screening every 1 to 2 years for women aged 50 years and over, hence, the inclusion of such women in organized breast cancer screening programs. In addition to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of mammography screening from the age of 40 years, there is concern over the risks associated with mammographic screening for the 10 years between the ages of 40 and 49 years. The lack of effectiveness of mammography screening starting at the age of 40 years (with respect to breast cancer mortality) is based on the assumption that the ability to detect cancer decreases with increased breast tissue density. As breast density is highest in the premenopausal years (approximately 23% of postmenopausal and 53% of

  13. Target image search using fMRI signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shi; Song, Sutao; Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Jiacai

    2014-03-01

    Recent neural signal decoding studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified the specific image presenting to the subject from a set of potential images, and some studies extend neural decoding into image reconstruction, i.e. image contents that the subject perceived were decoded from the fMRI signals recorded during the subject looking at images. In this paper, we decoded the target images using fMRI signals and described a target image searching method based on the relationship between target image stimuli and fMRI activity. We recorded fMRI data during a serial visual stimuli image presentation task, some of the stimuli images were target images and the rest images were non-target ones. Our fMRI data analysis results showed that in the serial visual presentation task, target images elicited a stereotypical response in the fMRI, which can be detected by multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). Classifiers designed with support vector machine (SVM) used this response to decipher target images from non-target images. The leave-one-run-out cross-validation showed that we can pick out the target images with a possibility far above the chance level, which indicate that there's a neural signatures correlated with the target image recognition process in the human systems.

  14. Radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD)-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shengming; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Hong, Ruoyu; Chen, Qing; Dong, Jiajia; Chen, Yinyiin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) modified with a novel cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide were made and radiolabeled as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer. The probe was tested both in vitro and in vivo to determine its receptor targeting efficacy and feasibility for SPECT and MRI. The radiochemical syntheses of 125I-cRGD-USPIO were accomplished with a radiochemical purity of 96.05 ± 0.33 %. High radiochemical stability was found in fresh human serum and in phosphate-buffered saline. The average hydrodynamic size of 125I-cRGD-USPIO determined by dynamic light scattering was 51.3 nm. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the radiolabeled nanoparticles to tumor cells. Preliminary biodistribution studies of 125I-radiolabeled cRGD-USPIO in Bcap37-bearing nude mice showed that it had long circulation half-life, high tumor uptake, and high initial blood retention with moderate liver uptake. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the radiolabeled nanoparticles in mice model were visualized by SPECT and MRI collected at different time points. Our results strongly indicated that the 125I-cRGD-USPIO could be used as a promising bifunctional radiotracer for early clinical tumor detection with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution by SPECT and MRI.

  15. Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses

    PubMed Central

    Grayev, Allison; Reeder, Scott; Hanna, Amgad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the era of increasingly complex surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, there is a need for high spatial resolution imaging of the neural plexuses in the body. We describe our experience with chemical shift encoded MRI and its implications for patient management. Materials and methods IDEAL water-fat separation is a chemical shift based method of homogeneously suppressing signal from fat, while maintaining adequate signal. This technique was used in clinical practice and the patient images reviewed. Results IDEAL water-fat separation was shown to improve visualization of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses with good fat suppression and high signal to noise ratio. Conclusion IDEAL water − fat separation is an excellent technique to use in the imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses as it balances the need for homogeneous fat suppression with maintenance of excellent signal to noise ratio. PMID:27161071

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  17. Evaluating muscles underlying tongue base retraction in deglutition using muscular functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI).

    PubMed

    Gassert, Robert B; Pearson, William G

    2016-02-01

    Tongue base retraction during swallowing is critical to bolus propulsion in normal physiological swallowing. A better understanding of the hyoglossus and styloglossus, muscles thought to be key to tongue base retraction, will improve the quality of physical rehabilitation in dysphagic patients in addition to preventing iatrogenic damage to structures critical to deglutition. This study utilized muscle functional MRI in healthy adult human subjects in order to determine if the hyoglossus and styloglossus are active during swallowing. Data were collected for 11 subjects with mfMRI before and after swallowing, and after performing the Mendelsohn maneuver. Whole muscle relaxation time profiles (T2 signal in milliseconds) were calculated from weighted averages of multiple dual echo MRI slices, allowing for comparison of physiological response for the muscles in each test condition. Changes in effect size (Cohen's d) of whole muscle T2 profiles were used to establish whether or not the hyoglossus and styloglossus are utilized during swallowing and during the Mendelsohn maneuver. Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity) for the T2 signal profiles of the hyoglossus and styloglossus were found to be d=1.19 and 0.22, respectively. The hyoglossus showed an effect size change of d=0.26 for the Mendelsohn maneuver. Muscle functional MRI indicates a physiological response of the hyoglossus and styloglossus during swallowing, and the hyoglossus during the Mendelsohn maneuver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Muscles Underlying Tongue Base Retraction in Deglutition Using Muscular Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mfMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Gassert, Robert B.; Pearson, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tongue base retraction during swallowing is critical to bolus propulsion in normal physiological swallowing. A better understanding of the hyoglossus and styloglossus, muscles thought to be key to tongue base retraction, will improve the quality of physical rehabilitation in dysphagic patients in addition to preventing iatrogenic damage to structures critical to deglutition. This study utilized muscle functional MRI in healthy adult human subjects in order to determine if the hyoglossus and styloglossus are active during swallowing. Methods and Materials Data were collected for 11 subjects with mfMRI before and after swallowing, and after performing the Mendelsohn maneuver. Whole-muscle relaxation time profiles (T2 signal in milliseconds) were calculated from weighted averages of multiple dual echo MRI slices, allowing for comparison of physiological response for the muscles in each test condition. Changes in effect size (Cohen’s d) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to establish whether or not the hyoglossus and styloglossus are utilized during swallowing and during the Mendelsohn maneuver. Results Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity) for the T2 signal profiles of the hyoglossus and styloglossus were found to be d = 1.19 and 0.22, respectively. The hyoglossus showed an effect size change of d = 0.26 for the Mendelsohn maneuver. Conclusions Muscle functional MRI indicates a physiological response of the hyoglossus and styloglossus during swallowing, and the hyoglossus during the Mendelsohn maneuver. PMID:26523657

  19. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasingly important role in the study of neurodegenerative diseases, delineating the structural and functional alterations determined by these conditions. Advanced MRI techniques are of special interest for their potential to characterize the signature of each neurodegenerative condition and aid both the diagnostic process and the monitoring of disease progression. This aspect will become crucial when disease-modifying (personalized) therapies will be established. MRI techniques are very diverse and go from the visual inspection of MRI scans to more complex approaches, such as manual and automatic volume measurements, diffusion tensor MRI, and functional MRI. All these techniques allow us to investigate the different features of neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances concerning the use of MRI in some of the most important neurodegenerative conditions, putting an emphasis on the advanced techniques.

  20. Regional Microstructural and Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Abnormalities in the Corpus Callosum of Neonates With Congenital Heart Defect Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Cornelia; Singer, Jitka; Latal, Beatrice; Knirsch, Walter; Makki, Malek

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the structural development of the corpus callosum in term neonates with congenital heart defect before and after surgery using diffusion tensor imaging and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared parallel and radial diffusions, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy, and volume of 5 substructures of the corpus callosum: genu, rostral body, body, isthmus, and splenium. Compared to healthy controls, we found a significantly lower volume of the splenium and total corpus callosum and a higher radial diffusion and lower fractional anisotropy in the splenium of patients presurgery; a lower volume in all substructures in the postsurgery group; higher radial diffusion in the rostral body, body, and splenium; and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium of postsurgery patients. Similar fractional anisotropy changes in congenital heart defect patients were reported in preterm infants. Our findings in apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium of these patients (pre and postsurgery) are comparable to findings in preterm neonates with psychomotor delay. Delayed maturation of the isthmus was also reported in preterm infants.

  1. A Feasibility Study of Quantifying Longitudinal Brain Changes in Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Encephalitis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Stereology

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Simon S.; Das, Kumar; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Parkes, Laura M.; Burnside, Girvan; Griffiths, Michael; Kopelman, Michael; Roberts, Neil; Solomon, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe volume and total oedema volumes in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis as a preliminary to a trial of corticosteroid therapy. Methods The study analysed serially acquired magnetic resonance images (MRI), of patients with acute HSV encephalitis who had neuroimaging repeated within four weeks of the first scan. We performed volumetric measurements of the left and right temporal lobes and of cerebral oedema visible on T2 weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images using stereology in conjunction with point counting. Results Temporal lobe volumes increased on average by 1.6% (standard deviation (SD 11%) in five patients who had not received corticosteroid therapy and decreased in two patients who had received corticosteroids by 8.5%. FLAIR hyperintensity volumes increased by 9% in patients not receiving treatment with corticosteroids and decreased by 29% in the two patients that had received corticosteroids. Conclusions This study has shown it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe and total oedema volumes in HSV encephalitis and suggests a potential resolution of swelling in response to corticosteroid therapy. These techniques could be used as part of a randomized control trial to investigate the efficacy of corticosteroids for treating HSV encephalitis in conjunction with assessing clinical outcomes and could be of potential value in helping to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with HSV encephalitis. PMID:28125598

  2. SU-E-J-226: Efficient Use of Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Cervical-Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, A; Bhagwat, M; Buzurovic, I; Cormack, R; Lee, L; Viswanathan, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate image modality selection in an environment with limited access to interventional MRI for image-guided high-dose-rate cervical-cancer brachytherapy. Methods: Records of all cervical-cancer patients treated with brachytherapy between 1/2013 and 8/2014 were analyzed. Insertions were performed under CT guidance (CT group) or with >1 fraction under 3T MR guidance (MRI group; subMRI includes only patients who also had a CT-guided insertion). Differences between groups in clinical target volume (CTV), disease stage (I/II or III/IV), number of patients with or without interstitial needles, and CTV D90 were investigated. Statistical significance was evaluated with the Student T test and Fisher test (p <0.05). Results: 46 cervical-cancer patients were included (16 MRI [3 subMRI], 30 CT). CTV: overall, 55±53 cm3; MRI, 81±61 cm3; CT, 42±44 cm3 (p = 0.017). Stage: overall, 24 I/II and 22 III/IV; MRI, 3 I/II and 13 III/IV; CT, 21 I/II and 9 III/IV (p = 0.002). Use of needles: overall, 26 without and 20 with; MRI, 5 without and 11 with; CT, 21 without and 9 with (p = 0.015). CTV D90: overall, 82±5 Gy; MRI, 81±6 Gy; CT, 82±5 Gy (p = 0.78). SubMRI: CTV and D90 (as % of nominal fraction dose) were 23±6 cm3 and 124±3% for MRI-guided insertions and 21±5 cm3 (p = 0.83) and 106±12% (p = 0.15) for CT-guided insertions. Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in patient population indicate preferential use of MRI for patients with high-stage disease and large residual CTVs requiring the use of interstitial needles. CTV D90 was similar between groups, despite the difference in patient selection. For patients who underwent both CT and MRI insertions, a larger MR CTV D90 and similar CTVs between insertions were observed. While MRI is generally preferable to CT, MRI selection can be optimized in environments without a dedicated MRI brachytherapy suite. This work was partially funded by the NIH R21 CA167800 (PI: Viswanathan; aviswanathan@partners.org)

  3. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) Combined with Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and Video-Electroencephalography (VEEG) Have Excellent Diagnostic Value in Preoperative Localization of Epileptic Foci in Children with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Long, Wei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Guang-Yin; Lu, Ji-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has on surgical decision making relative to video-electroencephalography (VEEG) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and if the differences in these variables translates to differences in surgical outcomes. Material/Methods A total of 166 children with epilepsy undergoing preoperative DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT examinations, surgical resection of epileptic foci, and intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) monitoring were enrolled. All children were followed up for 12 months and grouped by Engles prognostic classification for epilepsy. Based on intraoperative ECoG as gold standard, the diagnostic values of DCE-MRI, VEEG, PET-CT, DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT, and combined application of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT in preoperative localization for epileptic foci were evaluated. Results The sensitivity of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT was 59.64%, 76.51%, and 93.98%, respectively; the accuracy of DCE-MRI, VEEG, PET-CT, DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, and DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT was 57.58%, 67.72%, 91.03%, 91.23%, and 96.49%, respectively. Localization accuracy rate of the combination of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT was 98.25% (56/57), which was higher than that of DCE-MRI combined with VEEG and of DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT. No statistical difference was found in the accuracy rate of localization between these three combined techniques. During the 12-month follow-up, children were grouped into Engles grade I (n=106), II (n=31), III (n=21), and IV (n=8) according to postoperative conditions. Conclusions All DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT, and DCE-MRI combined with VEEG and PET-CT examinations have excellent accuracy in preoperative localization of epileptic foci and present excellent postoperative efficiency, suggesting that these combined imaging methods are suitable for serving as the

  4. Influence of Acoustic Overstimulation on the Central Auditory System: An Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolak, Tomasz; Cieśla, Katarzyna; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Piłka, Adam; Lewandowska, Monika; Pluta, Agnieszka; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of the fMRI experiment was to explore the involvement of central auditory structures in pathomechanisms of a behaviorally manifested auditory temporary threshold shift in humans. Material/Methods The material included 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing. Subjects in the exposure group were presented with 15 min of binaural acoustic overstimulation of narrowband noise (3 kHz central frequency) at 95 dB(A). The control group was not exposed to noise but instead relaxed in silence. Auditory fMRI was performed in 1 session before and 3 sessions after acoustic overstimulation and involved 3.5–4.5 kHz sweeps. Results The outcomes of the study indicate a possible effect of acoustic overstimulation on central processing, with decreased brain responses to auditory stimulation up to 20 min after exposure to noise. The effect can be seen already in the primary auditory cortex. Decreased BOLD signal change can be due to increased excitation thresholds and/or increased spontaneous activity of auditory neurons throughout the auditory system. Conclusions The trial shows that fMRI can be a valuable tool in acoustic overstimulation studies but has to be used with caution and considered complimentary to audiological measures. Further methodological improvements are needed to distinguish the effects of TTS and neuronal habituation to repetitive stimulation. PMID:27893698

  5. Influence of Acoustic Overstimulation on the Central Auditory System: An Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Tomasz; Cieśla, Katarzyna; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Piłka, Adam; Lewandowska, Monika; Pluta, Agnieszka; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H

    2016-11-28

    BACKGROUND The goal of the fMRI experiment was to explore the involvement of central auditory structures in pathomechanisms of a behaviorally manifested auditory temporary threshold shift in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material included 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing. Subjects in the exposure group were presented with 15 min of binaural acoustic overstimulation of narrowband noise (3 kHz central frequency) at 95 dB(A). The control group was not exposed to noise but instead relaxed in silence. Auditory fMRI was performed in 1 session before and 3 sessions after acoustic overstimulation and involved 3.5-4.5 kHz sweeps. RESULTS The outcomes of the study indicate a possible effect of acoustic overstimulation on central processing, with decreased brain responses to auditory stimulation up to 20 min after exposure to noise. The effect can be seen already in the primary auditory cortex. Decreased BOLD signal change can be due to increased excitation thresholds and/or increased spontaneous activity of auditory neurons throughout the auditory system. CONCLUSIONS The trial shows that fMRI can be a valuable tool in acoustic overstimulation studies but has to be used with caution and considered complimentary to audiological measures. Further methodological improvements are needed to distinguish the effects of TTS and neuronal habituation to repetitive stimulation.

  6. A novel approach to calibrate the hemodynamic model using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements.

    PubMed

    Khoram, Nafiseh; Zayane, Chadia; Djellouli, Rabia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-03-15

    The calibration of the hemodynamic model that describes changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation during brain activation is a crucial step for successfully monitoring and possibly predicting brain activity. This in turn has the potential to provide diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases in early stages. We propose an efficient numerical procedure for calibrating the hemodynamic model using some fMRI measurements. The proposed solution methodology is a regularized iterative method equipped with a Kalman filtering-type procedure. The Newton component of the proposed method addresses the nonlinear aspect of the problem. The regularization feature is used to ensure the stability of the algorithm. The Kalman filter procedure is incorporated here to address the noise in the data. Numerical results obtained with synthetic data as well as with real fMRI measurements are presented to illustrate the accuracy, robustness to the noise, and the cost-effectiveness of the proposed method. We present numerical results that clearly demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF), one of the most prominent existing numerical methods. We have designed an iterative numerical technique, called the TNM-CKF algorithm, for calibrating the mathematical model that describes the single-event related brain response when fMRI measurements are given. The method appears to be highly accurate and effective in reconstructing the BOLD signal even when the measurements are tainted with high noise level (as high as 30%). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Immediate Changes Following Manual Therapy in Resting State Functional Connectivity As Measured By Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) In Subjects With Induced Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Charles W.; Robinson, Michael E.; George, Steven Z.; Perlstein, William M.; Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the immediate changes in functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions that process and modulate the pain experience following 3 different types of manual therapies (MT) and to identify reductions in experimentally induced myalgia and changes in local and remote pressure pain sensitivity. Methods Twenty-four participants (17 females, mean age ± SD = 21.6 ± 4.2 years), who completed an exercise-injury protocol to induce low back pain, were randomized into 3 groups: chiropractic spinal manipulation (n=6), spinal mobilization (n=8) or therapeutic touch (n=10). The primary outcome was the immediate change in FC as measured on fMRI between the following brain regions: somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, thalamus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, anterior and poster insula, and periaqueductal grey. Secondary outcomes were immediate changes in pain intensity measured with a 101-point numeric rating scale, and pain sensitivity, measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Repeated measures ANOVA models and correlation analyses were conducted to examine treatment effects and the relationship between within-person changes across outcome measures. Results Changes in FC were found between several brain regions that were common to all 3 manual therapy interventions. Treatment-dependent changes in FC were also observed between several brain regions. Improvement was seen in pain intensity following all interventions (p<0.05) with no difference between groups (p>0.05). There were no observed changes in pain sensitivity, or an association between primary and secondary outcome measures. Conclusion These results suggest that manual therapies (chiropractic spinal manipulation, spinal mobilization, and therapeutic touch) have an immediate effect on the FC between brain regions involved in processing and modulating the pain experience. This suggests

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stroke in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    CHOPP, Michael; LI, Lian; ZHANG, Li; ZHANG, Zheng-gang; LI, Qing-jiang; JIANG, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a routine neuroimaging tool in the clinic. Throughout all phases of stroke from acute to chronic, MRI plays an important role to diagnose, evaluate and monitor the cerebral tissue undergoing stroke. This review provides a description of various MRI methods and an overview of selected MRI studies, with an embolic stroke model of rat, performed in the MRI laboratory of Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, US. PMID:24920874

  9. Measuring glomerular number from kidney MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.; Natesan Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan; Kanberoglu, Berkay; Frakes, David; Bennett, Kevin; Spanias, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Measuring the glomerular number in the entire, intact kidney using non-destructive techniques is of immense importance in studying several renal and systemic diseases. Commonly used approaches either require destruction of the entire kidney or perform extrapolation from measurements obtained from a few isolated sections. A recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, based on the injection of a contrast agent (cationic ferritin), has been used to effectively identify glomerular regions in the kidney. In this work, we propose a robust, accurate, and low-complexity method for estimating the number of glomeruli from such kidney MRI images. The proposed technique has a training phase and a low-complexity testing phase. In the training phase, organ segmentation is performed on a few expert-marked training images, and glomerular and non-glomerular image patches are extracted. Using non-local sparse coding to compute similarity and dissimilarity graphs between the patches, the subspace in which the glomerular regions can be discriminated from the rest are estimated. For novel test images, the image patches extracted after pre-processing are embedded using the discriminative subspace projections. The testing phase is of low computational complexity since it involves only matrix multiplications, clustering, and simple morphological operations. Preliminary results with MRI data obtained from five kidneys of rats show that the proposed non-invasive, low-complexity approach performs comparably to conventional approaches such as acid maceration and stereology.

  10. Detection of atherosclerosis via magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew L.; Pytlewski, Victor T.; Brown, Michael F.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    1992-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of atherosclerotic lipids using a stimulated-echo diffusion- weighted (STED) sequence is demonstrated. The STED sequence exploits the large difference in diffusion between lipid (primarily cholesteryl ester) and water. The optimization of the STED sequence is discussed. The results of lipid imaging are corroborated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This technique is non-invasive, and therefore, it is potentially useful in following the progression of the disease in animal models and in humans.

  11. Endometrial vs. cervical cancer: development and pilot testing of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for predicting tumor origin of uterine carcinomas of indeterminate histology.

    PubMed

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Panourgias, Evangelia; Tzavara, Chara; Sarris, Kyrillos; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2015-10-01

    To report discriminant MRI features between cervical and endometrial carcinomas and to design an MRI- scoring system, with the potential to predict the origin of uterine cancer (cervix or endometrium) in histologically indeterminate cases. Dedicated pelvic MRIs of 77 patients with uterine tumors involving both cervix and corpus were retrospectively analyzed by two experts in female imaging. Seven MRI tumor characteristics were statistically tested for their discriminant ability for tumor origin compared to final histology: tumor location, perfusion pattern, rim enhancement, depth of myometrial invasion, cervical stromal integrity, intracavitary mass, and retained endometrial secretions. Kappa values were estimated to assess the levels of inter-rater reliability. On the basis of positive likelihood ratio values, an MRI-score was assigned. K value was excellent for most of the imaging criteria. Using ROC curve analysis, the estimated optimal cut-off for the MRI-scoring system was 4 with 96.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Using a ≥4 cut-off for cervical cancers and <4 for endometrial cancers, 97.4% of the patients were correctly classified. 2/58 patients with cervical cancer had MRI score <4 and none of the patients with endometrial cancer had MRI score >4. The area under curve of the MRI-scoring system was 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00). When the MRI-score was applied to 20/77 patients with indeterminate initial biopsy and to 5/26 surgically treated patients with erroneous pre-op histology, all cases were correctly classified. The produced MRI-scoring system may be a reliable problem-solving tool for the differential diagnosis of cervical vs. endometrial cancer in cases of equivocal histology.

  12. Interictal Electroencephalography (EEG) Findings in Children with Epilepsy and Bilateral Brain Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Zubcevic, Smail; Milos, Maja; Catibusic, Feriha; Uzicanin, Sajra; Krdzalic, Belma

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging procedures and electroencephalography (EEG) are basic parts of investigation of patients with epilepsies. The aim is to try to assess relationship between bilaterally localized brain lesions found in routine management of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and their interictal EEG findings. Total amount of 68 patients filled criteria for inclusion in the study that was performed at Neuropediatrics Department, Pediatric Hospital, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, or its outpatient clinic. There were 33 girls (48,5%) and 35 boys (51,5%). Average age at diagnosis of epilepsy was 3,5 years. Both neurological and neuropsychological examination in the moment of making diagnosis of epilepsy was normal in 27 (39,7%) patients, and showed some kind of delay or other neurological finding in 41 (60,3%). Brain MRI showed lesions that can be related to antenatal or perinatal events in most of the patients (ventricular dilation in 30,9%, delayed myelination and post-hypoxic changes in 27,9%). More than half of patients (55,9%) showed bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges on their EEGs, and further 14,7% had other kinds of bilateral abnormalities. Frequency of bilateral epileptic discharges showed statistically significant predominance on level of p<0,05. Cross tabulation between specific types of bilateral brain MRI lesions and EEG finding did not reveal significant type of EEG for assessed brain lesions. We conclude that there exists relationship between bilaterally localized brain MRI lesions and interictal bilateral epileptiform or nonspecific EEG findings in children with newly diagnosed epilepsies. These data are suggesting that in cases when they do not correlate there is a need for further investigation of seizure etiology.

  13. Obturator hernia - MRI image.

    PubMed

    Vitone, Louis; Joel, Abraham; Masters, Andrew; Lea, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Obturator hernia although considered a rare entity is the most frequently encountered pelvic floor hernia. Since the first published report in the 18th century, their unusual and unfamiliar clinical presentation still represents a diagnostic dilemma for the modern day clinician. A detailed history and clinical examination in our thin, elderly female patient who presented with intermittent small bowel obstruction and symptoms of right obturator nerve compression with a positive Howship-Romberg sign was crucial in establishing a diagnosis. Sophisticated radiologic modalities such as MRI as shown below in the case of our patient can reliably confirm the diagnosis of obturator hernia.

  14. Pulmonary MRI at 3T: Non-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance Imaging Characterization Quotients for differentiation of infectious and malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Sebastian Niko; Kim, Damon; Penzkofer, Tobias; Steffen, Ingo G; Wyschkon, Sebastian; Hamm, Bernd; Schwartz, Stefan; Elgeti, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    To investigate 3T pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of solid pulmonary lesions in immunocompromised patients and to differentiate infectious from malignant lesions. Thirty-eight pulmonary lesions in 29 patients were evaluated. Seventeen patients were immunocompromised (11 infections and 6 lymphomas) and 12 served as controls (4 bacterial pneumonias, 8 solid tumors). Ten of the 15 infections were acute. Signal intensities (SI) were measured in the lesion, chest wall muscle, and subcutaneous fat. Scaled SIs as Non-enhanced Imaging Characterization Quotients ((SILesion-SIMuscle)/(SIFat-SIMuscle)*100) were calculated from the T2-weighted images using the mean SI (T2-NICQmean) or the 90th percentile of SI (T2-NICQ90th) of the lesion. Simple quotients were calculated by dividing the SI of the lesion by the SI of chest wall muscle (e.g. T1-Qmean: SILesion/SIMuscle). Infectious pulmonary lesions showed a higher T2-NICQmean (40.1 [14.6-56.0] vs. 20.9 [2.4-30.1], p<0.05) and T2-NICQ90th (74.3 [43.8-91.6] vs. 38.5 [15.8-48.1], p<0.01) than malignant lesions. T1-Qmean was higher in malignant lesions (0.85 [0.68-0.94] vs. 0.93 [0.87-1.09], p<0.05). Considering infections only, T2-NICQ90th was lower when anti-infectious treatment was administered >24h prior to MRI (81.8 [71.8-97.6] vs. 41.4 [26.6-51.1], p<0.01). Using Youden's index (YI), the optimal cutoff to differentiate infectious from malignant lesions was 43.1 for T2-NICQmean (YI=0.42, 0.47 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity) and 55.5 for T2-NICQ90th (YI=0.61, 0.71 sensitivity, 0.91 specificity). Combining T2-NICQ90th and T1-Qmean increased diagnostic performance (YI=0.72, 0.77 sensitivity, 0.95 specificity). Considering each quotient alone, T2-NICQ90th showed the best diagnostic performance and could allow differentiation of acute infectious from malignant pulmonary lesions with high specificity. Combining T2-NICQ90th with T1-Qmean increased overall performance, especially regarding sensitivity

  15. Effect of water migration between arabinoxylans and gluten on baking quality of whole wheat bread detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Kang, Ji; Wang, Li; Li, Zhen; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zheng Xing; Hou, Gary G

    2012-07-04

    A new method, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique characterized by T(2) relaxation time, was developed to study the water migration mechanism between arabinoxylan (AX) gels and gluten matrix in a whole wheat dough (WWD) system prepared from whole wheat flour (WWF) of different particle sizes. The water sequestration of AX gels in wheat bran was verified by the bran fortification test. The evaluations of baking quality of whole wheat bread (WWB) made from WWF with different particle sizes were performed by using SEM, FT-IR, and RP-HPLC techniques. Results showed that the WWB made from WWF of average particle size of 96.99 μm had better baking quality than those of the breads made from WWF of two other particle sizes, 50.21 and 235.40 μm. T(2) relaxation time testing indicated that the decreased particle size of WWF increased the water absorption of AX gels, which led to water migration from the gluten network to the AX gels and resulted in inferior baking quality of WWB.

  16. Morphologic differences of occipital region in patients with schizophrenia and migraine headache using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs).

    PubMed

    Sulejmanpašić, Gorana; Fišeković, Saida; Drnda, Senad

    2017-02-01

    Aim To compare morphologic variations of occipital sulci patterns in patients with schizophrenia and migraine headache regarding gender and laterality using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) as well as damage of visual pathway in patients with schizophrenia. Methods This study included 80 patients. Brain scans and visual evoked potential responses recorded over the occipital cortex were performed to analyze the occipital region of both hemispheres. Average total volumes of both hemispheres and average values of latency of the healthy population were used for comparison. Results There was statistically significant difference between subjects considering gender (p=0.012). Parameters of body of the calcarine sulcus (p=0.0325) showed statistically significant positive correlation with P100 latency (p=0.0449), inferior sagittal sulcus (p=0.0443) had significant positive correlation with P100 latency (p=0,0413), lateral occipital sulcus (p=0.0411) and P100 latency (p=0.0321) showed statistically significant difference only of left hemisphere in male patients with schizophrenia with shallower depth of the sulcus and P100 latency prolongation. Conclusion The consistency of the findings reveals distinct multiple brain regions, which show changes in the gray matter of patients with chronic forms of schizophrenia. The neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia show highly consistent cross-sectional relationships to each type of functional outcome. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  17. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  18. [Computational neuroanatomy and microstructure imaging using magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, S; Weiskopf, N

    2017-07-18

    Current computational neuroanatomy focuses on morphological measurements of the brain using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. In comparison quantitative MRI (qMRI) typically provides a better tissue contrast and also greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity with respect to the microstructural characteristics of tissue. Current methodological developments in qMRI are presented, which go beyond morphology because this provides standardized measurements of the microstructure of the brain. The concept of in-vivo histology is introduced, based on biophysical modelling of qMRI data (hMRI) for determination of quantitative histology-like markers of the microstructure. The qMRI metrics can be used as direct biomarkers of the microstructural mechanisms driving observed morphological findings. The hMRI metrics utilize biophysical models of the MRI signal in order to determine 3‑dimensional maps of histology-like measurements in the white matter. Non-invasive brain tissue characterization using qMRI or hMRI has significant implications for both scientific and clinical applications. Both approaches improve the comparability across sites and time points, facilitate multicenter and longitudinal studies as well as standardized diagnostics. The hMRI is expected to shed new light on the relationship between brain microstructure, function and behavior both in health and disease. In the future hMRI will play an indispensable role in the field of computational neuroanatomy.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory rheumatoid diseases.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Mróz, Joanna; Ostrowska, Monika; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is used more and more frequently to diagnose changes in the musculoskeletal system in the course of rheumatic diseases, at their initial assessment, for treatment monitoring and for identification of complications. The article presents the history of magnetic resonance imaging, the basic principles underlying its operation as well as types of magnets, coils and MRI protocols used in the diagnostic process of rheumatic diseases. It enumerates advantages and disadvantages of individual MRI scanners. The principles of MRI coil operation are explained, and the sequences used for MR image analysis are described, particularly in terms of their application in rheumatology, including T1-, T2-, PD-weighted, STIR/TIRM and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Furthermore, views on the need to use contrast agents to optimise diagnosis, particularly in synovitis-like changes, are presented. Finally, methods for the assessment of MR images are listed, including the semi-quantitative method by RAMRIS and quantitative dynamic examination.

  20. Renal relevant radiology: renal functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Behzad; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2014-02-01

    Because of its noninvasive nature and provision of quantitative measures of a wide variety of physiologic parameters, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows great potential for research and clinical applications. Over the past decade, application of functional MRI extended beyond detection of cerebral activity, and techniques for abdominal functional MRI evolved. Assessment of renal perfusion, glomerular filtration, interstitial diffusion, and parenchymal oxygenation turned this modality into an essential research and potentially diagnostic tool. Variations in many renal physiologic markers can be detected using functional MRI before morphologic changes become evident in anatomic magnetic resonance images. Moreover, the framework of functional MRI opened a window of opportunity to develop novel pathophysiologic markers. This article reviews applications of some well validated functional MRI techniques, including perfusion, diffusion-weighted imaging, and blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, as well as some emerging new techniques such as magnetic resonance elastography, which might evolve into clinically useful tools.

  1. Apparent diffusion coefficient on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in bladder cancer: relations with recurrence/progression risk.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ken; Shigihara, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Miyajima, Masayuki; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Shishido, Fumio

    2017-08-09

    To evaluate the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for bladder cancer and the recurrence/progression risk of post-transurethral resection (TUR). Forty-one patients with initial and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer underwent MRI from 2009 to 2012. Two radiologists measured ADC values. A pathologist calculated the recurrence/progression scores, and risk was classified based on the scores. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlations of ADC value with each score and with each risk group, and the optimal cut-off value was established based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between actual recurrence / progression of cases and ADC values was examined by Unpaird U test. There were significant correlations between ADC value and the recurrence score as well as the progression score (P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). There were also significant correlations between ADC value and the recurrence risk group as well as progression risk group (P=0.042, P<0.01, respectively). The ADC cut-off value on ROC analysis was 1.365 (sensitivity 100%; specificity 97.4%) for the low and intermediate recurrence risk groups, 1.024 (sensitivity 47.4%; specificity 100%) for the intermediate and high recurrence risk groups, 1.252 (sensitivity 83.3%; specificity 81.3%) for the low and intermediate progression risk groups, and 0.955 (sensitivity 87.5%; specificity 63.2%) between the intermediate and high progression risk groups. The difference between the ADC values of the recurrence and nonrecurrence group in Unpaired t test was significant (P<0.05). ADC on MRI in bladder cancer could potentially be useful, non-invasive measurement for estimating the risks of recurrence and progression.

  2. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  3. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  4. Predicting human decisions in socioeconomic interaction using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, Maurice; Mönch, Tobias; Müller, Charles; Bernarding, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    A major field in cognitive neuroscience investigates neuronal correlates of human decision-making processes [1, 2]. Is it possible to predict a decision before it is actually revealed by the volunteer? In the presented manuscript we use a standard paradigm from economic behavioral research that proved emotional influences on human decision making: the Ultimatum Game (UG). In the UG, two players have the opportunity to split a sum of money. One player is deemed the proposer and the other, the responder. The proposer makes an offer as to how this money should be split between the two. The second player can either accept or reject this offer. If it is accepted, the money is split as proposed. If rejected, then neither player receives anything. In the presented study a real-time fMRI system was used to derive the brain activation of the responder. Using a Relevance-Vector-Machine classifier it was possible to predict if the responder will accept or reject an offer. The classification result was presented to the operator 1-2 seconds before the volunteer pressed a button to convey his decision. The classification accuracy reached about 70% averaged over six subjects.

  5. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

  6. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

  8. Current concepts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion-diffusion assessment in acute ischaemic stroke: a review & an update for the clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Lopez-Mejia, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several medical societies published joint statements about imaging recommendations for acute stroke and transient ischaemic attack patients. In following with these published guidelines, we considered it appropriate to present a brief, practical and updated review of the most relevant concepts on the MRI assessment of acute stroke. Basic principles of the clinical interpretation of diffusion, perfusion, and MRI angiography (as part of a global MRI protocol) are discussed with accompanying images for each sequence. Brief comments on incidence and differential diagnosis are also included, together with limitations of the techniques and levels of evidence. The purpose of this article is to present knowledge that can be applied in day-to-day clinical practice in specialized stroke units or emergency rooms to attend patients with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack according to international standards. PMID:25758570

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has failed to distinguish between smaller gut regions and larger haemal sinuses in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Nicholas D; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008, 6: 33. PMID:19594924

  10. Imaging of pulmonary pathologies: focus on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian

    2009-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung has shown tremendous progress in recent years. This includes parallel imaging, new contrast agents and mechanisms, ultrafast imaging, and respiratory gating. With these improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use. The main advantage for MRI of the lung is its unique combination of structural and functional assessment within a single imaging examination. This comprehensive imaging assessment is an asset when compared with computed tomography, which is complemented by the fact that MRI does not carry any exposure to ionizing radiation, making it especially advantageous in children, young adults, and for follow-up examinations either in disease surveillance or therapy monitoring. Clinical indications for MRI are: pulmonary vascular disease, especially pulmonary hypertension, airway diseases, especially cystic fibrosis; neoplastic disease, including staging of lung cancer as an alternative imaging modality; all pediatric indications (e.g., congenital anomalies); as well as follow-up examinations. Under investigation is the application of MRI for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as asthma. In this regard the additional benefit from MRI using hyperpolarized gases has to be determined.

  11. Network Modeling for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Signals during Ultra-Fast Speech Comprehension in Late-Blind Listeners.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Ackermann, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    In many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies blind humans were found to show cross-modal reorganization engaging the visual system in non-visual tasks. For example, blind people can manage to understand (synthetic) spoken language at very high speaking rates up to ca. 20 syllables/s (syl/s). FMRI data showed that hemodynamic activation within right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), bilateral pulvinar (Pv), and left-hemispheric supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) covaried with their capability of ultra-fast speech (16 syllables/s) comprehension. It has been suggested that right V1 plays an important role with respect to the perception of ultra-fast speech features, particularly the detection of syllable onsets. Furthermore, left pre-SMA seems to be an interface between these syllabic representations and the frontal speech processing and working memory network. So far, little is known about the networks linking V1 to Pv, auditory cortex (A1), and (mesio-) frontal areas. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was applied to investigate (i) the input structure from A1 and Pv toward right V1 and (ii) output from right V1 and A1 to left pre-SMA. As concerns the input Pv was significantly connected to V1, in addition to A1, in blind participants, but not in sighted controls. Regarding the output V1 was significantly connected to pre-SMA in blind individuals, and the strength of V1-SMA connectivity correlated with the performance of ultra-fast speech comprehension. By contrast, in sighted controls, not understanding ultra-fast speech, pre-SMA did neither receive input from A1 nor V1. Taken together, right V1 might facilitate the "parsing" of the ultra-fast speech stream in blind subjects by receiving subcortical auditory input via the Pv (= secondary visual pathway) and transmitting this information toward contralateral pre-SMA.

  12. MRI and PET image fusion using fuzzy logic and image local features.

    PubMed

    Javed, Umer; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Syed Sohaib; Cheema, Tanveer Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    An image fusion technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) using local features and fuzzy logic is presented. The aim of proposed technique is to maximally combine useful information present in MRI and PET images. Image local features are extracted and combined with fuzzy logic to compute weights for each pixel. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme produces significantly better results compared to state-of-art schemes.

  13. PET/MRI in Oncological Imaging: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Usman; Mallia, Andrew; Stirling, James; Joemon, John; MacKewn, Jane; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Goh, Vicky; Cook, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a hybrid technology which has recently gained interest as a potential cancer imaging tool. Compared with CT, MRI is advantageous due to its lack of ionizing radiation, superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, and wider range of acquisition sequences. Several studies have shown PET/MRI to be equivalent to PET/CT in most oncological applications, possibly superior in certain body parts, e.g., head and neck, pelvis, and in certain situations, e.g., cancer recurrence. This review will update the readers on recent advances in PET/MRI technology and review key literature, while highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of PET/MRI in cancer imaging. PMID:26854157

  14. Flow in porous metallic materials: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Michalak, David J; Crawford, Charles W; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    To visualize flow dynamics of analytes inside porous metallic materials with laser-detected magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We examine the flow of nuclear-polarized water in a porous stainless steel cylinder. Laser-detected MRI utilizes a sensitive optical atomic magnetometer as the detector. Imaging was performed in a remote-detection mode: the encoding was conducted in the Earth's magnetic field, and detection is conducted downstream of the encoding location. Conventional MRI (7T) was also performed for comparison. Laser-detected MRI clearly showed MR images of water flowing through the sample, whereas conventional MRI provided no image. We demonstrated the viability of laser-detected MRI at low-field for studying porous metallic materials, extending MRI techniques to a new group of systems that is normally not accessible to conventional MRI. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging: imaging techniques and contrast mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Howseman, A M; Bowtell, R W

    1999-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely used technique for generating images or maps of human brain activity. The applications of the technique are widespread in cognitive neuroscience and it is hoped they will eventually extend into clinical practice. The activation signal measured with fMRI is predicated on indirectly measuring changes in the concentration of deoxyhaemoglobin which arise from an increase in blood oxygenation in the vicinity of neuronal firing. The exact mechanisms of this blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast are highly complex. The signal measured is dependent on both the underlying physiological events and the imaging physics. BOLD contrast, although sensitive, is not a quantifiable measure of neuronal activity. A number of different imaging techniques and parameters can be used for fMRI, the choice of which depends on the particular requirements of each functional imaging experiment. The high-speed MRI technique, echo-planar imaging provides the basis for most fMRI experiments. The problems inherent to this method and the ways in which these may be overcome are particularly important in the move towards performing functional studies on higher field MRI systems. Future developments in techniques and hardware are also likely to enhance the measurement of brain activity using MRI. PMID:10466145

  16. Image denoising for real-time MRI.

    PubMed

    Klosowski, Jakob; Frahm, Jens

    2017-03-01

    To develop an image noise filter suitable for MRI in real time (acquisition and display), which preserves small isolated details and efficiently removes background noise without introducing blur, smearing, or patch artifacts. The proposed method extends the nonlocal means algorithm to adapt the influence of the original pixel value according to a simple measure for patch regularity. Detail preservation is improved by a compactly supported weighting kernel that closely approximates the commonly used exponential weight, while an oracle step ensures efficient background noise removal. Denoising experiments were conducted on real-time images of healthy subjects reconstructed by regularized nonlinear inversion from radial acquisitions with pronounced undersampling. The filter leads to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of at least 60% without noticeable artifacts or loss of detail. The method visually compares to more complex state-of-the-art filters as the block-matching three-dimensional filter and in certain cases better matches the underlying noise model. Acceleration of the computation to more than 100 complex frames per second using graphics processing units is straightforward. The sensitivity of nonlocal means to small details can be significantly increased by the simple strategies presented here, which allows partial restoration of SNR in iteratively reconstructed images without introducing a noticeable time delay or image artifacts. Magn Reson Med 77:1340-1352, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. A polymeric micelle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent reveals blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability for macromolecules in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Wang, Zuojun; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Aoki, Ichio; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-05-10

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening is a key phenomenon for understanding ischemia-reperfusion injuries that are directly linked to hemorrhagic transformation. The recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Recent imaging technologies have advanced our understanding of pathological BBB disorders; however, an ongoing challenge in the pre-"rtPA treatment" stage is the task of developing a rigorous method for hemorrhage-risk assessments. Therefore, we examined a novel method for assessment of rtPA-extravasation through a hyper-permeable BBB. To examine the image diagnosis of rtPA-extravasation for a rat transient occlusion-reperfusion model, in this study we used a polymeric micelle MRI contrast-agent (Gd-micelles). Specifically, we used two MRI contrast agents at 1h after reperfusion. Gd-micelles provided very clear contrast images in 15.5±10.3% of the ischemic hemisphere at 30min after i.v. injection, whereas a classic gadolinium chelate MRI contrast agent provided no satisfactorily clear images. The obtained images indicate both the hyper-permeable BBB area for macromolecules and the distribution area of macromolecules in the ischemic hemisphere. Owing to their large molecular weight, Gd-micelles remained in the ischemic hemisphere through the hyper-permeable BBB. Our results indicate the feasibility of a novel clinical diagnosis for evaluating rtPA-related hemorrhage risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sefrova, Jana; Odrazka, Karel; Paluska, Petr; Belobradek, Zdenek; Brodak, Milos; Dolezel, Martin; Prosvic, Petr; Macingova, Zuzana; Vosmik, Milan; Hoffmann, Petr; Louda, Miroslav; Nejedla, Anna

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate bed treatment planning could influence definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk. Methods and Materials: A total of 21 consecutive patients referred for prostate bed radiotherapy were included in the present retrospective study. The CTV was delineated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer recommendations on computed tomography (CT) and T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) MRI. The CTV magnitude, agreement, and spatial differences were evaluated on the planning CT scan after registration with the MRI scans. Results: The CTV was significantly reduced on the T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w MRI scans (13% and 9%, respectively) compared with the CT scans. The urinary bladder was drawn smaller on the CT scans and the rectum was smaller on the MRI scans. On T{sub 1}w MRI, the rectum and urinary bladder were delineated larger than on T{sub 2}w MRI. Minimal agreement was observed between the CT and T{sub 2}w images. The main spatial differences were measured in the superior and superolateral directions in which the CTV on the MRI scans was 1.8-2.9 mm smaller. In the posterior and inferior border, no difference was seen between the CT and T{sub 1}w MRI scans. On the T{sub 2}w MRI scans, the CTV was larger in these directions (by 1.3 and 1.7 mm, respectively). Conclusions: The use of MRI in postprostatectomy radiotherapy planning resulted in a reduction of the CTV. The main differences were found in the superior part of the prostate bed. We believe T{sub 2}w MRI enables more precise definition of prostate bed CTV than conventional planning CT.

  19. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-09

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions.

  20. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the assessment of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy of a U87-derived glioma model in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anka, Ali; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Zhang, Ruozhen; Cross, Nathan; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) may provide a means of tracking the outcome of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy (PDT) in deeply placed lesions (e.g., brain tumors). We previously determined that 150 μL of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA) produces optimal enhancement of U87-derived intracerebral tumors in an athymic nude rat glioma model. We wish to determine how consistently DCE-MRI enhancement will detect an increase in Gd-enhancement of these tumors following Pc 4-PDT. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 6 athymic nude rats. After 7-8 days pre-Pc 4 PDT peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0T microMRI scanner before and after administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated on Days 11, 12, and 13 following Pc 4-PDT (Day 8 or 9). Results: Useful DCE-MRI data were obtained for these animals before and after Pc 4- PDT. In the pre-Pc 4-PDT DCE-MRI scans an average normalized peak Gd enhancement was observed in tumor tissue that was 1.297 times greater than baseline (0.035 Standard Error [SE]). The average normalized peak Gd enhancement in the tumor tissue in the scan following PDT (Day 11) was 1.537 times greater than baseline (0.036 SE), a statistically significant increase in enhancement (p = 0.00584) over the pre-PDT level. Discussion: A 150 μL Gd dose appears to provide an unambiguous increase in signal indicating Pc 4-PDT-induced necrosis of the U87-derived tumor. Our DCEMRI protocol may allow the development of a clinically robust, unambiguous, non-invasive technique for the assessment of PDT outcome.

  1. Determining a magnetic resonance imaging inflammatory activity acceptable state without subsequent radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: results from a followup MRI study of 254 patients in clinical remission or low disease activity.

    PubMed

    Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Conaghan, Philip G; Ejbjerg, Bo; Foltz, Violaine; Brown, Andrew K; Døhn, Uffe Møller; Lassere, Marissa; Freeston, Jane E; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Bøyesen, Pernille; Bird, Paul; Fautrel, Bruno; Hetland, Merete Lund; Emery, Paul; Bourgeois, Pierre; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Kvien, Tore K; McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2014-02-01

    To assess the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical inflammation for subsequent radiographic progression in a longitudinal study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission or low disease activity (LDA), and to determine cutoffs for an MRI inflammatory activity acceptable state in RA in which radiographic progression rarely occurs. Patients with RA in clinical remission [28-joint Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) < 2.6, n = 185] or LDA state (2.6 ≤ DAS28-CRP < 3.2, n = 69) with longitudinal MRI and radiographic data were included from 5 cohorts (4 international centers). MRI were assessed according to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) RA MRI scoring system (RAMRIS). Statistical analyses included an underlying conditional logistic regression model stratified per cohort, with radiographic progression as dependent variable. A total of 254 patients were included in the multivariate analyses. At baseline, synovitis was observed in 95% and osteitis in 49% of patients. Radiographic progression was observed in 60 patients (24%). RAMRIS synovitis was the only independent predictive factor in multivariate analysis. ROC analysis identified a cutoff value for baseline RAMRIS synovitis score of 5 (maximum possible score 21). Rheumatoid factor (RF) status yielded a significant interaction with synovitis (p value = 0.044). RF-positive patients with a RAMRIS synovitis score of > 5 vs ≤ 5, had an OR of 4.4 (95% CI 1.72-11.4) for radiographic progression. High MRI synovitis score predicts radiographic progression in patients in clinical remission/LDA. A cutoff point for determining an MRI inflammatory activity acceptable state based on the RAMRIS synovitis score was established. Incorporating MRI in future remission criteria should be considered.

  2. Overview of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Gary H.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) depicts changes in deoxyhemoglobin concentration consequent to task-induced or spontaneous modulation of neural metabolism. Since its inception in 1990, this method has been widely employed in thousands of studies of cognition for clinical applications such as surgical planning, for monitoring treatment outcomes, and as a biomarker in pharmacologic and training programs. Technical developments have solved most of the challenges of applying fMRI in practice. These challenges include low contrast to noise ratio of BOLD signals, image distortion, and signal dropout. More recently, attention is turning to the use of pattern classification and other statistical methods to draw increasingly complex inferences about cognitive brain states from fMRI data. This paper reviews the methods, some of the challenges and the future of fMRI. PMID:21435566

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian

    1993-01-01

    A number of physiological changes were demonstrated in bone, muscle, and blood from exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long-duration space missions is an important NASA goal. Historically, NASA has had to rely on tape measures, x-ray, and metabolic balance studies with collection of excreta and blood specimens to obtain this information. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility of greatly extending these early studies in ways not previously possible; MRI is also non-invasive and safe; i.e., no radiation exposure. MRI provides both superb anatomical images for volume measurements of individual structures and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. This investigation will apply MRI technology to measure muscle, intervertebral disc, and bone marrow changes resulting from exposure to microgravity.

  4. MRI alone versus MRI-CBCT registered images to evaluate temporomandibular joint internal derangement.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A Q; Alsufyani, Noura A; Lagravere, Manuel; Nebbe, Brian; Lai, Hollis; Jaremko, Jacob L; Major, Paul W

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of magnetic resonance imaging-cone beam computed tomography (MRI-CBCT) image registration on inter- and intraexaminer consistency when evaluating temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement compared to MRI alone. MRI and CBCT images of 25 patients (50 TMJs) were obtained and coregistered using mutual-information rigid image registration via Mirada XD software. Two experienced radiologists independently and blindly evaluated two types of images (MRI alone and MRI-CBCT registered images) at two different times (T1 and T2) for TMJ internal derangement, based on sagittal and coronal articular disc position in relation to the head of the condyle and the posterior slope of the articular eminence. The intraexaminer consistency with MRI alone (examiner 1 = 0.85 [0.74-0.92]; examiner 2 = 0.91 [0.84-0.95]) was lower than for the MRI-CBCT registered images (examiner 1 = 0.95 [0.91-0.97]; examiner 2 = 0.97 [0.96-0.99]). The interexaminer consistency of evaluating internal derangement with MRI alone (0.52 [0.18-0.73] at T1; 0.71 [0.45-0.84] at T2) was lower than for the MRI-CBCT registered images (0.97 [0.95-0.98] at T1; 0.98 [0.96-0.99] at T2). When disc position classification was dichotomized to normal versus anteriorly displaced, intraexaminer agreement for the two examiners was 0.52 and 0.63 for MRI alone, but was 0.91 and 0.92 for MRI-CBCT registered images. Interexaminer agreement for MRI alone was 0.29 at T1 and 0.42 at T2, but was 0.96 at both examination times for MRI-CBCT registered images. The MRI-CBCT registered images improved intra- and interexaminer consistency in the evaluation of internal derangement of TMJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging based functional imaging in paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Manias, Karen A; Gill, Simrandip K; MacPherson, Lesley; Foster, Katharine; Oates, Adam; Peet, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    Imaging is central to management of solid tumours in children. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard imaging modality for tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) and limbs and is increasingly used in the abdomen. It provides excellent structural detail, but imparts limited information about tumour type, aggressiveness, metastatic potential or early treatment response. MRI based functional imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging, probe tissue properties to provide clinically important information about metabolites, structure and blood flow. This review describes the role of and evidence behind these functional imaging techniques in paediatric oncology and implications for integrating them into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of disorders of the central nervous system, spine, neck, and nasopharynx. The book offers guidance in performing and interpreting MRI studies for specific clinical problems. Included are more than 800 images showing pathologic findings for various disorders and demonstrating how abnormalities detected in MRI scans can aid both in differential diagnosis and in clinical staging. The book summarizes the basic principles of MRI and describes the major equipment components and contrast agents. A review of the principles and potential applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is also included.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Before and After Chemoradiation: Can MRI Predict for Eventual Clinical Outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Vicky; Gollub, Frank K.; Liaw, Jonathan; Wellsted, David; Przybytniak, Izabela; Padhani, Anwar R.; Glynne-Jones, Rob

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation. Images were reviewed retrospectively by two radiologists in consensus blinded to clinical outcome: tumor size, signal intensity, extent, and TNM stage were recorded. Following treatment, patients were defined as responders by T and N downstaging and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Final clinical outcome was determined by imaging and case note review: patients were divided into (1) disease-free and (2) with relapse and compared using appropriate univariate methods to identify imaging predictors; statistical significance was at 5%. Results: The majority of tumors were {<=}T2 (23/35; 65.7%) and N0 (21/35; 60%), mean size 3.75cm, and hyperintense (++ to +++, 24/35 patients; 68%). Following chemoradiation, there was a size reduction in all cases (mean 73.3%) and a reduction in signal intensity in 26/35 patients (74.2%). The majority of patients were classified as responders (26/35 (74.2%) patients by T and N downstaging; and 30/35 (85.7%) patients by RECIST). At a median follow-up of 33.5 months, 25 patients (71.4%) remained disease-free; 10 patients (28.6%) had locoregional or metastatic disease. Univariate analysis showed that no individual MRI features were predictive of eventual outcome. Conclusion: Early assessment of response by MRI at 6-8 weeks is unhelpful in predicting future clinical outcome.

  8. Prostate cancer - the role of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mocikova, Ingrid; Babela, Jozef; Balaz, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer diagnosis. Systematic scan of Pubmed, Ovid, Medline, Elsevier search engines was used, additional information was found through bibliographic review of relevant articles. Results. Substantial progress has been made in the imaging of prostate cancer in MR imaging, as well as in advanced MR spectroscopy. MRI is a non-invasive and direct imaging modality useful for cancer staging, therapy response, detection of recurrence and guided biopsy in previous negative biopsies. MRI with 3.0T system, whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) have improved tumor staging, assessment of tumor volume, aggressiveness or recurrence. Implementation of endorectal/phased array superficial MRI findings on 1.5 or 3.0T systems into nomograms for prostate pretreatment prediction is warranted. Surface phasedarray coil MRI accurately defines prostate cancer with elevated risk of extraprostatic disease.

  9. Cavity resonator coil for high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Solis, S E; Tomasi, D; Rodriguez, A O

    2007-01-01

    A variant coil of the high frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. This coil design is similar to the popular birdcage coil but it has the advantage that it can be easily built following the physical principles of the cavity resonators [1]. The equivalent circuit approach was used to compute the resonant frequency of this coil design, and compared the results with those frequency values obtained with theory. A transceiver coil composed of 4 cavities with a rod length of 4.5 cm, and a resonant frequency of 170.29 MHz was built. Phantom images were then acquired to test its viability using standard imaging sequences. The theory facilitates its development for high frequency MRI applications of animal models.

  10. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  11. Fetal Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Pogledic, Ivana; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde; Mitter, Christian; Brugger, Peter C; Langs, Georg; Schöpf, Veronika; Kasprian, Gregor; Prayer, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The recent technological advancement of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences allowed the inclusion of diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy in prenatal imaging protocols. These methods provide information beyond morphology and hold the key to improving several fields of human neuroscience and clinical diagnostics. Our review introduces the fundamental works that enabled these imaging techniques, and also highlights the most recent contributions to this emerging field of prenatal diagnostics, such as the structural and functional connectomic approach. We introduce the advanced image processing approaches that are extensively used to tackle fetal or maternal movement-related image artifacts, and which are necessary for the optimal interpretation of such imaging data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... atoms return to their usual alignment, they emit energy that varies according to the type of body ... which they come. The MR scanner captures this energy and creates a picture of the tissues scanned ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of any kind, such as an allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or ... gadolinium . Gadolinium can be used in patients with iodine contrast allergy, but may require pre-medication. It ...

  14. [Appropriateness of referrals for magnetic resonance imaging in Latium, Italy].

    PubMed

    Prota, Federica; Rosano, Aldo; San Martini, Elena; Cau, Norberto; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Long wait times for access to Nuclear Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are a concern and for this reason the project "Appropriateness of referrals for MRI examinations" has been launched in Latium (Italy). The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the main characteristics of MRI referrals in the region. Findings highlight a large variation in referral rates across the region, with 80% of MRI referrals being ordered by general practitioners and family pediatricians. The latter points to the possibility of inappropriate referrals for MRI imaging in Latium.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Solitary Hypothalamitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yue; Tang, Ying; Tao, Ran; Ye, Hongying; Yao, Zhenwei

    The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica. Of 8 patients, 5 were diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic proliferative inflammation, 2 with Langerhans cell histocytosis, and 1 with Rosai-Dorfman disease. Solitary hypothalamitis predominantly demonstrated mild hypointensity/isointensity in T1WI and mild hyperintensity in T2-weighted imaging. In contrast-enhanced T1WI, all lesions showed heterogeneous but primarily peripheral enhancement patterns. Seven cases showed the polygon sign. In T1WI, the normal high signal intensity of neurohypophysis was absent from all patients, with no infundibular stalk thickening. Seven patients presented with optic chiasma edema, and 5 with edema-like changes along the optic tract (OTE), but most showed no visual impairment (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging, particularly postcontrast MRI, is the optimal modality for assessment of hypothalamic lesions. Peripheral enhancement with polygon sign and optic tract or chiasm edema without visual impairment are highly suggestive of hypothalamitis.

  16. The effects of the use of piezoelectric motors in a 1.5-Tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI).

    PubMed

    Wendt, O; Oellinger, J; Lüth, T C; Felix, R; Boenick, U

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation with two different rotatory piezomotors in a closed 1.5 Tesla high-field MRI. The focus of the investigation was on testing the functionality of these motors within the MRI and to determining the image interference they caused. To obtain a differentiated estimate of the interference the motors were tested in both the passive (turned off, i.e. without current flow) and active (turned on, i.e. with current flow) state during MRI scanning. Three different types of sequences were used for the test: Spin-Echo (SE), Gradient-Echo (GE) and Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI). A plastic container filled with a gadolinium-manganese solution was used for representation of the artefacts. The motors investigated were placed parallel to the container at predetermined distances during the experiment. The results show that the motors investigated suffered no functional limitations in the magnetic field of the MRI but, depending on the type of motor, the measurement distance and the state of the motor, the motors had different effects on the sequence images. A motor in the off-state placed immediately next to the object to be measured mainly causes artefacts because of its material properties. If, on the other hand, the piezomotor is in the on-state images with strong noise result when the motor is immediately next to the object being measured. The images regain their normal quality when the motor is approximately at a distance of 1 m from the object being investigated. Driving the motor inside the MRI, therefore, is only to be recommended during the pauses in scanning: this delivers artefact-free images if minimal, motor-specific distances are kept to. With regard to the three different types of sequences it was determined that the SE sequence was the least sensitive and the EPI sequence the most sensitive to disturbance. The GE sequence showed only minimal differences to the SE sequence with regard to signal-to-noise ratios

  17. Time to stroke magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Burke, James F; Sussman, Jeremy B; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Kerber, Kevin A

    2013-08-01

    Recent guidelines on stroke neuroimaging from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) recommend magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over computed tomography (CT) for stroke diagnosis when patients present within 12 hours of onset. We sought to estimate the proportion of stroke MRI that is performed within 12 hours. Using the best available data, we estimated total time from symptom onset to MRI with a Monte Carlo simulation. We modeled 3 times to MRI: time to presentation, time to emergency department (ED) MRI, and time to inpatient MRI. Total time to MRI was estimated by summing these time components while varying model parameters around our base model. Sensitivity analyses assessed the relative importance of model parameters to overall MRI timing. In 2009, we estimate that 66% of stroke patients underwent MRI, 14% received an MRI in the ED, and 68% of all MRIs were obtained on hospital day 0 or 1. We estimate that 29% (95% confidence interval 24-33%) of stroke MRIs are obtained within 12 hours of onset. Sensitivity analyses revealed that even large clinical changes (eg, decreasing time to presentation) would only moderately influence this proportion. For example, if mean time to presentation were reduced to 30 minutes (from the base case estimate of 16 hours), the proportion of stroke MRI performed within 12 hours would only increase to 55.3%. Stroke guidelines favor the use of MRI over CT only during the first 12 hours from symptom onset, yet less than one-third of stroke MRIs are actually performed within this timeframe. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Köşüş, Aydın; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğulları, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tekşam, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan.

  19. Visualization of Abscess Formation in a Murine Thigh Infection Model of Staphylococcus aureus by 19F-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Stefan; Basse-Lüsebrink, Thomas; Haddad, Daniel; Ohlsen, Knut; Jakob, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last years, 19F-MRI and perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion (PFC) emerged as a powerful contrast agent based MRI methodology to track cells and to visualize inflammation. We applied this new modality to visualize deep tissue abscesses during acute and chronic phase of inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, a murine thigh infection model was used to induce abscess formation and PFC or CLIO (cross linked ironoxides) was administered during acute or chronic phase of inflammation. 24 h after inoculation, the contrast agent accumulation was imaged at the site of infection by MRI. Measurements revealed a strong accumulation of PFC at the abscess rim at acute and chronic phase of infection. The pattern was similar to CLIO accumulation at chronic phase and formed a hollow sphere around the edema area. Histology revealed strong influx of neutrophils at the site of infection and to a smaller extend macrophages during acute phase and strong influx of macrophages at chronic phase of inflammation. Conclusion and Significance We introduce 19F-MRI in combination with PFC nanoemulsions as a new platform to visualize abscess formation in a murine thigh infection model of S. aureus. The possibility to track immune cells in vivo by this modality offers new opportunities to investigate host immune response, the efficacy of antibacterial therapies and the influence of virulence factors for pathogenesis. PMID:21455319

  20. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome and associated changes in the blood-brain barrier following Pc 4-PDT of glioma in an athymic nude rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Vaijayantee; Anka, Ali; Cross, Nathan; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Gray, Kayla; Zhang, Ruozhen; Xu, Yueshuo; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) appears to provide an unambiguous means of tracking the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of brain tumors with the photosensitizer Pc 4. The increase in Gd enhancement observed after Pc 4-PDT may be due to a temporary opening of the blood-brain-barrier which, as noted by others, may offer a therapeutic window. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 9 athymic nude rats. After 8-9 days peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0 T microMRI scanner before and after the administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated three times following Pc 4-PDT. Results: The average, normalized peak enhancement in the tumor region, approximately 30-90 seconds after Gd administration, was 1.31 times greater than baseline (0.03 Standard Error [SE]) prior to PDT and was 1.44 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the first Post-PDT scans (Day 11), a statistically significant (p ~ 0.014, N=8) increase over the Pre- PDT scans, and was 1.38 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the second scans (Day 12), also a statistically significant (p ~ 0.008, N=7) increase. Observations were mixed in the third Post-PDT scans (Day 13), averaging 1.29 (0.03 SE) times baseline (p ~ 0.66, N=7). Overall a downward trend in enhancement was observed from the first to the third Post-PDT scans. Discussion: DCE-MRI may provide an unambiguous indication of brain tumor PDT outcome. The initial increase in DCE-MRI signal may correlate with a temporary, PDT-induced opening of the blood-brain-barrier, creating a potential therapeutic window.

  1. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, M E; Melcher, J R; Kiang, N Y

    2000-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 microPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager's permanent magnet and the room air-handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions.

  2. Musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging: importance of radiography.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Hunter, Tim B; Fitzpatrick, Kimberly A; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Pope, Thomas L

    2003-07-01

    To determine the usefulness of radiography for interpretation of musculoskeletal (MSK) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. DESIGNS AND PATIENTS: In a 1-year period, 1,030 MSK MRI studies were performed in 1,002 patients in our institution. For each study, the interpreting radiologist completed a questionnaire regarding the availability and utility of radiographs, radiological reports and clinical information for the interpretation of the MRI study. Radiographs were essential, very important or added information in 61-75% of all MSK MRI cases. Radiographs were judged as essential for reading of MRI studies more often for trauma, infection/inflammation and tumors than for degenerative and miscellaneous/normal diagnoses (chi(2)=60.95, df=16, P<0.0001). The clinical information was rated as "essential" or "useful" significantly more often than not (chi(2)=93.07, df=16, P<0.0001). The clinical and MRI diagnoses were the same or partially concordant significantly more often for tumors than for trauma, infection/inflammation and degenerative conditions, while in the miscellaneous/normal group they were different in 64% of cases. When the diagnoses were different, there were more instances in which radiographs were not available. Radiographs are an important, and sometimes essential, initial complementary study for reading of MSK MRI examinations. It is highly recommended that radiographs are available when MSK MRI studies are interpreted.

  3. Hemorrhage detection in MRI brain images using images features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, Luminita; Moldovanu, Simona; Bibicu, Dorin; Stratulat (Visan), Mirela

    2013-11-01

    The abnormalities appear frequently on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of brain in elderly patients presenting either stroke or cognitive impairment. Detection of brain hemorrhage lesions in MRI is an important but very time-consuming task. This research aims to develop a method to extract brain tissue features from T2-weighted MR images of the brain using a selection of the most valuable texture features in order to discriminate between normal and affected areas of the brain. Due to textural similarity between normal and affected areas in brain MR images these operation are very challenging. A trauma may cause microstructural changes, which are not necessarily perceptible by visual inspection, but they could be detected by using a texture analysis. The proposed analysis is developed in five steps: i) in the pre-processing step: the de-noising operation is performed using the Daubechies wavelets; ii) the original images were transformed in image features using the first order descriptors; iii) the regions of interest (ROIs) were cropped from images feature following up the axial symmetry properties with respect to the mid - sagittal plan; iv) the variation in the measurement of features was quantified using the two descriptors of the co-occurrence matrix, namely energy and homogeneity; v) finally, the meaningful of the image features is analyzed by using the t-test method. P-value has been applied to the pair of features in order to measure they efficacy.

  4. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  5. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  6. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in neuro-oncology

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, James; Thompson, Gerard; Mills, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have seen the development of techniques that allow quantitative imaging of a number of anatomical and physiological descriptors. These techniques have been increasingly applied to cancer imaging where they can provide some insight into tumour microvascular structure and physiology. This review details technical approaches and application of quantitative MRI, focusing particularly on perfusion imaging and its role in neuro-oncology. PMID:18980870

  7. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan; O'Connor, James; Thompson, Gerard; Mills, Samantha

    2008-10-13

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have seen the development of techniques that allow quantitative imaging of a number of anatomical and physiological descriptors. These techniques have been increasingly applied to cancer imaging where they can provide some insight into tumour microvascular structure and physiology. This review details technical approaches and application of quantitative MRI, focusing particularly on perfusion imaging and its role in neuro-oncology.

  8. Quantification and description of fracture network by MRI image analysis.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, M; Nicula, S; Mattiello, D; Aliverti, E

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of fractures to total porosity and their geometrical descriptions have been studied by Image Analysis applied to 1H Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Reservoirs of different lithology were acquired with MSME 2D quantitative and 3D sequences. An image analysis procedure, developed ad hoc, was then applied to these acquisitions and the petrophysical parameters computed. These parameters range from fracture porosity to fracture density.

  9. Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Schoeder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Wang Ya; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Senehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomicmagnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-05-09

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive andversatile methodology that has been applied in many disciplines1,2. Thedetection sensitivity of conventional Faraday detection of MRI depends onthe strength of the static magnetic field and the sample "fillingfactor." Under circumstances where only low magnetic fields can be used,and for samples with low spin density or filling factor, the conventionaldetection sensitivity is compromised. Alternative detection methods withhigh sensitivity in low magnetic fields are thus required. Here we showthe first use of a laser-based atomic magnetometer for MRI detection inlow fields. Our technique also employs remote detection which physicallyseparates the encoding and detection steps3-5, to improve the fillingfactor of the sample. Potentially inexpensive and using a compactapparatus, our technique provides a novel alternative for MRI detectionwith substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution whileavoiding the need for cryogenics.

  11. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture treatment for full-thickness cartilage defect models in rabbit knee joints: correlations with histological findings.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hongyue; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Zhongqing; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate repair tissue (RT) after microfracture treatment for full-thickness cartilage defect models using quantitative MRI and investigate the correlations between MRI and histological findings. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of our college. Thirty-six full-thickness cartilage defect models in rabbit knee joints were assigned to the microfracture or joint debridement group (as control). Each group consisted of 3-week, 5-week, and 7-week subgroups. MR imaging, including a three-dimensional double-echo steady-state sequence (3D-DESS), and T2 mapping were performed at 3, 5, and 7 weeks postoperatively. The thickness and T2 indices of RT were calculated. After MRI scans at each time point, operation sites were removed to make hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained sections. Histological results were evaluated using the modified O'Driscoll score system. Comparisons were made between the two groups with respect to the MRI and histological findings, and correlation analysis was performed within each group. The thickness index and histological O'Driscoll score of RT in the two groups increased over time, while the T2 index decreased. The thickness index and histological O'Driscoll score of the microfracture group were higher than in the joint debridement group at each time point. The T2 index of the microfracture group was lower than in the joint debridement group at 3 weeks (P = 0.006), while it was higher than in the joint debridement group at 5 and 7 weeks (P = 0.025 and 0.025). The thickness index was positively correlated with the histological O'Driscoll score in both groups (microfracture: r s = 0.745, P < 0.001; joint debridement: r s = 0.680, P = 0.002). The T2 index was negatively correlated with the histological O'Driscoll score in both groups (microfracture: r s = -0.715, P = 0.002; joint debridement: r s = -0.826, P < 0.001). Significant improvement over time after microfracture can

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging for characterizing myocardial diseases.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Maythem; Liu, Hui; Liang, Chang-Hong; Wilson, Mark W

    2017-03-31

    The National Institute of Health defined cardiomyopathy as diseases of the heart muscle. These myocardial diseases have different etiology, structure and treatment. This review highlights the key imaging features of different myocardial diseases. It provides information on myocardial structure/orientation, perfusion, function and viability in diseases related to cardiomyopathy. The standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences can reveal insight on left ventricular (LV) mass, volumes and regional contractile function in all types of cardiomyopathy diseases. Contrast enhanced MRI sequences allow visualization of different infarct patterns and sizes. Enhancement of myocardial inflammation and infarct (location, transmurality and pattern) on contrast enhanced MRI have been used to highlight the key differences in myocardial diseases, predict recovery of function and healing. The common feature in many forms of cardiomyopathy is the presence of diffuse-fibrosis. Currently, imaging sequences generating the most interest in cardiomyopathy include myocardial strain analysis, tissue mapping (T1, T2, T2*) and extracellular volume (ECV) estimation techniques. MRI sequences have the potential to decode the etiology by showing various patterns of infarct and diffuse fibrosis in myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension. Integrated PET/MRI system may add in the future more information for the diagnosis and progression of cardiomyopathy diseases. With the promise of high spatial/temporal resolution and 3D coverage, MRI will be an indispensible tool in diagnosis and monitoring the benefits of new therapies designed to treat myocardial diseases.

  13. Molecular characterization of rheumatoid arthritis with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jeffrey T; Nguyen, Linda; Chaudhari, Abhijit J; MacKenzie, John D

    2011-04-01

    Several recent advances in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may transform the detection and monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These advances depict both anatomic and molecular alterations from RA. Previous techniques could detect specific end products of metabolism in vitro or were limited to providing anatomic information. This review focuses on the novel molecular imaging techniques of hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRI, MRI with iron-labeled probes, and fusion of MRI with positron emission tomography. These new imaging approaches go beyond the anatomic description of RA and lend new information into the status of this disease by giving molecular information.

  14. Imaging Local Diffusive Dynamics Using Diffusion Exchange Spectroscopy MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Dan; Komlosh, Michal E.; Basser, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The movement of water between microenvironments presents a central challenge in the physics of soft matter and porous media. Diffusion exchange spectroscopy (DEXSY) is a powerful 2D nuclear magnetic resonance method for measuring such exchange, yet it is rarely used because of its long scan time requirements. Moreover, it has never been combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using probability theory, we vastly reduce the required data, making DEXSY MRI feasible for the first time. Experiments are performed on a composite nerve tissue phantom with restricted and free water-exchanging compartments.

  15. [Does the individual adaptation of standardized speech paradigmas for clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) effect the localization of the language-dominant hemisphere and of Broca's and Wernicke's areas].

    PubMed

    Konrad, F; Nennig, E; Ochmann, H; Kress, B; Sartor, K; Stippich, C

    2005-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes Broca's area (B) and Wernicke's area (W) and the hemisphere dominant for language. In clinical fMRI, adapting the stimulation paradigms to each patient's individual cognitive capacity is crucial for diagnostic success. To interpret clinical fMRI findings correctly, we studied the effect of varying frequency and number of stimuli on functional localization, determination of language dominance and BOLD signals. Ten volunteers (VP) were investigated at 1.5 Tesla during visually triggered sentence generation using a standardized block design. In four different measurements, the stimuli were presented to each VP with frequencies of 1/1 s, (1/2) s, (1/3) s and (1/6) s. The functional localizations and the correlations of the measured BOLD signals to the applied hemodynamic reference function (r) were almost independent from frequency and number of the stimuli in both hemispheres, whereas the relative BOLD signal changes (DeltaS) in B and W increased with the stimulation rate, which also changed the lateralization indices. The strongest BOLD activations were achieved with the highest stimulation rate or with the maximum language production task, respectively. The adaptation of language paradigms necessary in clinical fMRI does not alter the functional localizations but changes the BOLD signals and language lateralization which should not be attributed to the underlying brain pathology.

  16. Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging from metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, L. H.; Wang, P. S.; Donahue, M. J.

    1996-04-01

    Metallic biomedical implants, such as aneurysm clips, endoprostheses, and internal orthopedic devices give rise to artifacts in the magnetic resonance image (MRI) of patients. Such artifacts impair the information contained in the image in precisely the region of most interest, namely near the metallic device. Ferromagnetic materials are contraindicated because of the hazards associated with their movement during the MRI procedure. In less-magnetic metals, it has been suggested that the extent of the artifact is related to the magnetic susceptibility of the metal, but no systematic data appear to be available. When the susceptibility is sufficiently small, an additional artifact due to electrical conductivity is observed. We present an initial systematic study of MRI artifacts produced by two low susceptibility metals, titanium (relative permeability μr≊1.0002) and copper (μr≊0.99998), including experimental, theoretical, and computer simulation results.

  17. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging: challenges of implementation.

    PubMed

    Loch, Ronald; Fowler, Kathryn; Schmidt, Ryan; Ippolito, Joseph; Siegel, Cary; Narra, Vamsi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of cancer and cancer deaths in men. Screening methods and optimal treatments have become controversial in recent years. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gaining popularity as a tool to assist diagnosis, risk assessment, and staging. However, implementation into clinical practice can be difficult, with many challenges associated with image acquisition, postprocessing, interpretation, reporting, and radiologic-pathologic correlation. Although state-of-the-art technology is available at select sites for targeting tissue biopsy and interpreting multiparametric prostate MRI, many institutions struggle with adapting this new technology into an efficient multidisciplinary model of patient care. This article reviews several of the challenges that radiologists should be aware of when integrating prostate MRI into their clinical practice.

  18. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  19. Development of contrast enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lex, L

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful new diagnostic tool in medicine. In MRI there is a great need to improve the specific identification of different tissues i.e. to enhance the contrast between them. This review tries to cover most of the approaches known for solving this problem.

  20. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  1. Correspondence between large-scale ictal and interictal epileptic networks revealed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and electroencephalography (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    PubMed

    Tousseyn, Simon; Dupont, Patrick; Goffin, Karolien; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is increasingly recognized as a network disorder, but the spatial relationship between ictal and interictal networks is still largely unexplored. In this work, we compared hemodynamic changes related to seizures and interictal spikes on a whole brain scale. Twenty-eight patients with refractory focal epilepsy (14 temporal and 14 extratemporal lobe) underwent both subtraction ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (SISCOM) and spike-related electroencephalography (EEG-functional MRI (fMRI). SISCOM visualized relative perfusion changes during seizures, whereas EEG-fMRI mapped blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) changes related to spikes. Similarity between statistical maps of both modalities was analyzed per patient using the following two measures: (1) correlation between unthresholded statistical maps (Pearson's correlation coefficient) and (2) overlap between thresholded images (Dice coefficient). Overlap was evaluated at a regional level, for hyperperfusions and activations and for hypoperfusions and deactivations separately, using different thresholds. Nonparametric permutation tests were applied to assess statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05). We found significant and positive correlations between hemodynamic changes related to seizures and spikes in 27 (96%) of 28 cases (median correlation coefficient 0.29 [range -0.12 to 0.62]). In 20 (71%) of 28 cases, spatial overlap between hyperperfusion on SISCOM and activation on EEG-fMRI was significantly larger than expected by chance. Congruent changes were not restricted to the territory of the presumed epileptogenic zone, but could be seen at distant sites (e.g., cerebellum and basal ganglia). Overlap between ictal hypoperfusion and interictal deactivation was statistically significant in 22 (79%) of 28 patients. Despite the high rate of congruence, discrepancies were observed for both modalities. We conclude that hemodynamic changes

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of ischemic stroke in an Afro-Caribbean population: A 1-year prospective MRI study on 534 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Mejdoubi, M; Signate, A; Colombani, S; Arrigo, A; Olindo, S

    2017-02-01

    Few population-based MRI studies on stroke, particularly in African-descent populations, are available. Based on a 1-year Afro-Caribbean population-based study MRI, ischemic stroke characteristics were extensively analyzed. All strokes occurring in Martinique (390,371 inhabitants) were prospectively included. Ascertainment was based, whenever possible, on MRI. All patients were categorized as single- (subclassified as cortical, cortical-subcortical, subcortical, lacunar) or multiple-lesion pattern, and vascular (single, multiple or junctional) territory. Brain parenchyma was evaluated, based on visualization of macrobleeds, microbleeds, white-matter hyperintensities or stroke sequelae. Etiology was classified according to TOAST criteria. Among 596 ischemic stroke patients included, 534 (295 men, 239 women; mean age, 71 [range 23-110] years) underwent MRI (median delay 1 day). Four hundred and eighty-eight had single-type lesion (14.8% cortical, 42.4% cortical-subcortical, 14.5% subcortical, 16.6% lacunar), involving anterior cerebral (4%), middle cerebral (63.7%), posterior cerebral artery (10.4%) or basilar trunk (11.7%) territories, with 10.3% simultaneously involving multiple territories and 4.9% junctional infarction. Etiologies were LAA (11.2%), SVD (10.7%), CE (29.6%), rare (4.5%) or undetermined (44.1%). Our prospective, consecutive, ischemic stroke series gives a comprehensive description of ischemic stroke imaging patterns and etiologic distributions in an Afro-Caribbean population with high socio-economic status. Our patients' stroke characteristics are close to those of European-descent populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Bore.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ehud J; Watkins, Ronald D; Zviman, Menekhem M; Guttman, Michael A; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A

    2016-10-01

    Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by the addition of novel radiofrequency filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface pads. The radiofrequency filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner and prevented cable/surface pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high specific absorption rate sequences to validate MRI image quality and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (n=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI image quality was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6 mm below the skin surface. Radiofrequency heating was within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading the image quality or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DW-MRI) vs choline-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (choline-PET/CT) for selecting treatments in recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Conde-Moreno, A J; Herrando-Parreño, G; Muelas-Soria, R; Ferrer-Rebolleda, J; Broseta-Torres, R; Cozar-Santiago, M P; García-Piñón, F; Ferrer-Albiach, C

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DW-MRI) in detecting metastases by comparing the results with those from choline-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (choline-PET/CT) in patients with biochemical relapse after primary treatment, and no metastases in bone scintigraphy, CT and/or pelvic MRI, or metastatic/oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Patients with this disease profile who could benefit from treatment with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) were selected and their responses to these techniques were rated. This was a prospective, controlled, unicentric study, involving 46 consecutive patients from our centre who presented biochemical relapse after adjuvant, salvage or radical treatment with external beam radiotherapy, or brachytherapy. After initial tests (bone scintigraphy, CT, pelvic MRI), 35 patients with oligometastases or without them were selected. 11 patients with multiple metastases were excluded from the study. WB-DW-MRI and choline-PET/CT was then performed on each patient within 1 week. The results were interpreted by specialists in nuclear medicine and MRI. If they were candidates for treatment with ablative SBRT (SABR), they were then evaluated every three months with both tests. Choline-PET/CT detected lesions in 16 patients that were not observable using WB-DW-MRI. The results were consistent in seven patients and in three cases, a lesion was observed using WB-DW-MRI that was not detected with choline-PET/CT. The Kappa value obtained was 0.133 (p = 0.089); the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of WB-DW-MRI were estimated at 44.93, 64.29, 86.11, and 19.15%, respectively. For choline-PET/CT patients, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 97.10, 58.33, 93.06, and 77.78%, respectively. Choline-PET/CT has a high global sensitivity while WB-DW-MRI has a high specificity, and so they are

  5. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging comparisons in boxers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, B.D. ); Zimmerman, R.D. )

    1990-03-23

    The efficacy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying traumatic injuries of the brain was compared in a referred population of 21 amateur and professional boxers. Three boxers displayed CT scans with equivocal findings that were verified as artifacts by MRI. Eleven boxers had both CT and MRI scans with normal findings, and 7 boxers had both CT and MRI scans with abnormal findings. There were no instances where abnormalities demonstrated on CT scanning were not detected by MRI. However, some abnormalities detected on MRI were not detected on CT scans. These included a subdural hematoma, white-matter changes, and a focal contusion. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be the neuroradiodiagnostic test of choice compared with CT.

  6. [Safety of magnetic resonance imaging after coronary stenting].

    PubMed

    Sinitsyn, V E; Stukalova, O V; Kupriianova, O M; Ternovoĭ, S K

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is contraindicated to some patients with certain types of metallic devices and implants (e.g. cerebral surgical clips, defibrillators). There are some controversies concerning safety of MRI in patients with metallic coronary stents in cases when MRI examination is performed earlier then one month after stent implantation. Analysis of published data has shown that MRI performed with systems having field strength up to 3 Tesla does not cause migration and heating of both bare and coated stent and is not associated with increased risk of coronary artery thrombosis. MRI can be performed safely in first days after coronary stent implantation. Small local artifacts on MRI images do not influence interpretation of the data (except for cases of coronary magnetic resonance angiography).

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Damon, Bruce M; Li, Ke; Bryant, Nathan D

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular diseases often exhibit a temporally varying, spatially heterogeneous, and multifaceted pathology. The goals of this chapter are to describe and evaluate the use of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods to characterize muscle pathology. The following criteria are used for this evaluation: objective measurement of continuously distributed variables; clear and well-understood relationship to the pathology of interest; sensitivity to improvement or worsening of clinical status; and the measurement properties of accuracy and precision. Two major classes of MRI methods meet all of these criteria: (1) MRI methods for measuring muscle contractile volume or cross-sectional area by combining structural MRI and quantitative fat-water MRI; and (2) an MRI method for characterizing the edema caused by inflammation, the measurement of the transverse relaxation time constant (T2). These methods are evaluated with respect to the four criteria listed above and examples from neuromuscular disorders are provided. Finally, these methods are summarized and synthesized and recommendations for additional quantitative MRI developments are made.

  8. Safety planning for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Maureen; Kilfoyle, Marguerite

    2013-11-01

    An intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite (ie, a type of hybrid OR) is a high-risk zone that requires well-defined safety procedures to avoid adverse events related to magnetic forces. At one facility, the opening of an MRI suite necessitated the creation of a safety plan to establish guidelines, procedures, education, and nursing care specific to the use of MRI technology in the operative environment. Formation of a steering committee enabled a multidisciplinary approach to planning and implementation. The addition of two new perioperative nursing roles (ie, MRI control room monitor, MRI safety nurse) addressed staffing challenges related to strictly enforcing MRI safety procedures and delineating duties different from those of the RN circulator. Benefits of a safe approach to an MRI-integrated operative setting included the elimination of an entire surgical experience for patients who underwent additional resection of the tumor during their initial surgical procedure instead of postoperatively or during a subsequent return to the OR. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cancer imaging: novel concepts in clinical magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwee, T C; Takahara, T; Klomp, D W J; Luijten, P R

    2010-08-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in the Western world. Imaging is of crucial importance in oncology, because it may reduce cancer-related morbidity and mortality. To improve tumour evaluation, there is a need for functional imaging modalities that go beyond gross assessment of anatomical abnormalities and allow visualization and quantification of biochemical processes in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) not only provides anatomical information, but also offers a wide range of functional sequences that may aid the evaluation of cancerous lesions. Furthermore, MRI provides the opportunity to guide and monitor anticancer therapies noninvasively. The aim of this review is to highlight some of the most promising developments of MRI in the functional assessment of cancer and the guidance and monitoring of (novel) anticancer therapies.

  10. Elbow magnetic resonance imaging: imaging anatomy and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, Jennifer; English, Collette; Murphy, Darra

    2015-04-01

    The elbow is a complex joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the imaging modality of choice in the workup of elbow pain, especially in sports injuries and younger patients who often have either a history of a chronic repetitive strain such as the throwing athlete or a distinct traumatic injury. Traumatic injuries and alternative musculoskeletal pathologies can affect the ligaments, musculotendinous, cartilaginous, and osseous structures of the elbow as well as the 3 main nerves to the upper limb, and these structures are best assessed with MRI.Knowledge of the complex anatomy of the elbow joint as well as patterns of injury and disease is important for the radiologist to make an accurate diagnosis in the setting of elbow pain. This chapter will outline elbow anatomy, basic imaging parameters, compartmental pathology, and finally applications of some novel MRI techniques.

  11. Evaluation of treatment response and resistance in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) using integrated (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI); The REMAP study.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Morland, Christian; Rudman, Sarah; Nathan, Paul; Mallett, Susan; Montana, Giovanni; Cook, Gary; Goh, Vicky

    2017-06-02

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the first line standard of care for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Accurate response assessment in the setting of antiangiogenic therapies remains suboptimal as standard size-related response criteria do not necessarily accurately reflect clinical benefit, as they may be less pronounced or occur later in therapy than devascularisation. The challenge for imaging is providing timely assessment of disease status allowing therapies to be tailored to ensure ongoing clinical benefit. We propose that combined assessment of morphological, physiological and metabolic imaging parameters using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ((18)F-FDG PET/MRI) will better reflect disease behaviour, improving assessment of response/non-response/relapse. The REMAP study is a single-centre prospective observational study. Eligible patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, planned for systemic therapy, with at least 2 lesions will undergo an integrated (18)F-FDG PET and MRI whole body imaging with diffusion weighted and contrast-enhanced multiphasic as well as standard anatomical MRI sequences at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks of systemic therapy allowing (18)F-FDG standardised uptake value (SUV), apparent diffusion co-efficient (ADC) and normalised signal intensity (SI) parameters to be obtained. Standard of care contrast-enhanced computed tomography CT scans will be performed at equivalent time-points. CT response categorisation will be performed using RECIST 1.1 and alternative (modified)Choi and MASS criteria. The reference standard for disease status will be by consensus panel taking into account clinical, biochemical and conventional imaging parameters. Intra- and inter-tumoural heterogeneity in vascular, diffusion and metabolic response/non-response will be assessed by image texture analysis. Imaging will also inform the development of computational methods for automated disease

  12. Medical Imaging Field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Identification of Specialties within the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if specialty areas are emerging in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profession due to advancements made in the medical sciences, imaging technology, and clinical applications used in MRI that would require new developments in education/training programs and national registry examinations. In this…

  13. Medical Imaging Field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Identification of Specialties within the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if specialty areas are emerging in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profession due to advancements made in the medical sciences, imaging technology, and clinical applications used in MRI that would require new developments in education/training programs and national registry examinations. In this…

  14. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  15. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  16. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  17. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods.

  18. The Efficiency of Diffusion Weighted MRI and MR Spectroscopy On Breast MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Canan; Balcı, Pınar

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiologically routine is to establish an imaging protocol that will create high quality images with a short period of time. Fort this purpose, an imaging protocol should include a conventional breast MRI and contrast enhanced sequences. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are important MR techniques for evaluation to complicated breast lesions. In this article, we will evaluate that technical properties of the MRS and DWI as additional MR imaging.

  19. Design of a loop resonator with a split-ring-resonator (SRR) for a human-body coil in 3 T MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hyeok Woo; Cho, Young Ki; Kim, Byung Mun; Back, Hyun Man; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2016-04-01

    A new radio-frequency (RF) resonator for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging at clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is proposed in this paper. An approach based on the effects of the properties of metamaterials in split-ring resonators (SRRs) is used to design a new loop resonator with a SRR for NMR imaging. This loop resonator with a SRR is designed for NMR imaging at 3 T MRI systems. The 3D electromagnetic simulation was used to optimize the design of the proposed RF resonator and analyze it's performance at 3 T MRI systems. The proposed RF resonator provides strong penetrating magnetic fields at the center of the human phantom model, approximately 10%, as compared to the traditional loop-type RF resonator used for NMR imaging at clinical MRI systems. We also designed an 8-channel body coil for human-body NMR imaging by using the proposed loop resonator with a SRR. This body coil also produces more homogeneous and highly penetrating magnetic fields into the human phantom model.

  20. Brown adipose tissue in humans: detection and functional analysis using PET (positron emission tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and DECT (dual energy computed tomography).

    PubMed

    Borga, Magnus; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Romu, Thobias; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Persson, Anders; Nuutila, Pirjo; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    If the beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) on whole body metabolism, as observed in nonhuman experimental models, are to be translated to humans, tools that accurately measure how BAT influences human metabolism will be required. This chapter discusses such techniques, how they can be used, what they can measure and also some of their limitations. The focus is on detection and functional analysis of human BAT and how this can be facilitated by applying advanced imaging technology such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual energy computed tomography. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging of myocardial perfusion with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Hunold, Peter; Jochims, Markus; Debatin, Jörg F

    2004-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently the leading cause of death in developed nations. Reflecting the complexity of cardiac function and morphology, noninvasive diagnosis of CAD represents a major challenge for medical imaging. Although coronary artery stenoses can be depicted with magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) techniques, its functional or hemodynamic impact frequently remains elusive. Therefore, there is growing interest in other, target organ-specific parameters such as myocardial function at stress and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging to assess myocardial blood flow. This review explores the pathophysiologic background, recent technical developments, and current clinical status of first-pass MR imaging (MRI) of myocardial perfusion.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kathryn J

    2010-05-01

    Elbow pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice and can result in significant morbidity, particularly in athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent diagnostic imaging tool for the evaluation of soft tissue and osteochondral pathology around the elbow. Recent advances in magnetic field strength and coil design have lead to improved spatial resolution and superior soft tissue contrast, making it ideal for visualization of complex joint anatomy. This article describes the normal imaging appearances of anatomy around the elbow and reviews commonly occurring ligamentous, myotendinous, neural, and bursal pathology around the elbow.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Endovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, L. W.; Bakker, C. J. G.

    2003-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventional radiological procedures, such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement or coiling of aneurysms, play an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients suffering from vascular disease. The non-destructive nature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its ability to combine the acquisition of high quality anatomical images and functional information, such as blood flow velocities, perfusion and diffusion, together with its inherent three dimensionality and tomographic imaging capacities, have been advocated as advantages of using the MRI technique for guidance of endovascular radiological interventions. Within this light, endovascular interventional MRI has emerged as an interesting and promising new branch of interventional radiology. In this review article, the authors will give an overview of the most important issues related to this field. In this context, we will focus on the prerequisites for endovascular interventional MRI to come to maturity. In particular, the various approaches for device tracking that were proposed will be discussed and categorized. Furthermore, dedicated MRI systems, safety and compatibility issues and promising applications that could become clinical practice in the future will be discussed.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kaipia, A; Ryymin, P; Mäkelä, E; Aaltonen, M; Kähärä, V; Kangasniemi, M

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of contrast enhanced (CE)-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of testicular torsion induced hypoperfusion in an experimental rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion of 360 or 720 degrees. After 1 h, the tail veins of the anaesthetized rats were cannulated and T2 -, diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted CE-dynamic MRI were subsequently performed by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. On apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, the region of interest values of the ischaemic and control testes was compared. From CE-dynamic MR images, the maximal slopes of contrast enhancement were calculated and compared. In testicular torsion of 360 degrees, the maximal slope of contrast enhancement was 0.072%/s vs. 0.47%/s in the contralateral control testis (p < 0.001). A torsion of 720 degrees diminished the slope of contrast enhancement to 0.046%/s vs. 0.37%/s in the contralateral testis (p < 0.001). Diminished blood flow during torsion also followed in decreased ADC values in both 360 degrees (12.4% decrease; p < 0.05) and 720 degrees (10.8% decrease; p < 0.001) of torsion. Torsion of the testis causes ipsilateral hypoperfusion and decreased gadolinium uptake in a rat model that can be easily detected and quantified by CE-dynamic MRI. In diffusion-weighted MRI images, acute hypoperfusion results in a slight decrease of ADC values. Our results suggest that CE-dynamic MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to detect compromised blood flow due to acute testicular torsion.

  7. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Preserved Function in a Preterm Infant with Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Charlotte; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Wild, Conor J; Linke, Annika C; Han, Victor K; Lee, David S C; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    We studied developmental plasticity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a preterm infant with brain injury on structural MRI. fMRI showed preserved brain function and subsequent neurodevelopment was within the normal range. Multimodal neuroimaging including fMRI can improve understanding of neural plasticity after preterm birth and brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Australian magnetic resonance imaging-linac program.

    PubMed

    Keall, Paul J; Barton, Michael; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-07-01

    The Australian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-Linac program is a $16-million government-funded project to advance the science and clinical practice of exquisite real-time anatomical and physiological adaptive cancer therapy. The centerpiece of the program is a specifically designed 1-T open-bore MRI/6-MV linac system that is planned for delivery and completion of installation in 2014. Current scientific endeavors include engineering discovery in MRI component design, quantifying MRI and linac interactions, and developing image guidance and adaptation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous imaging using Si-PM-based PET and MRI for development of an integrated PET/MRI system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Tadashi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Eiji; Imaizumi, Masao; Kanai, Yasukazu; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-01-21

    The silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photo-detector for PET for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems because it has high gain and is insensitive to static magnetic fields. Recently we developed a Si-PM-based depth-of-interaction PET system for small animals and performed simultaneous measurements by combining the Si-PM-based PET and the 0.15 T permanent MRI to test the interferences between the Si-PM-based PET and an MRI. When the Si-PM was inside the MRI and installed around the radio frequency (RF) coil of the MRI, significant noise from the RF sequence of the MRI was observed in the analog signals of the PET detectors. However, we did not observe any artifacts in the PET images; fluctuation increased in the count rate of the Si-PM-based PET system. On the MRI side, there was significant degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the MRI images compared with those without PET. By applying noise reduction procedures, the degradation of the S/N was reduced. With this condition, simultaneous measurements of a rat brain using a Si-PM-based PET and an MRI were made with some degradation in the MRI images. We conclude that simultaneous measurements are possible using Si-PM-based PET and MRI.

  10. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the knee joint: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using standard and dynamic paramagnetic contrast media. Report of 52 cases surgically and histologically controlled.

    PubMed

    Barile, Antonio; Sabatini, Mylene; Iannessi, Francesca; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Splendiani, Alessandra; Calvisi, Vittorio; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2004-04-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane, exhibiting benign behaviour from a biological point of view. This kind of synovial hyperplasia leads to the formation of villi and nodules characterized by deposit of intracellular haemosiderin. It primarily involves young adults, the peak age being between the second and fourth decade of life. It may appear either in a diffuse or a localized (nodular) form. The joint most affected is the knee and diffuse PVNS is the most common form. Diagnostic imaging techniques, particularly MRI, allow lesion identification, suggesting a diagnosis. However, such diagnosis can be confirmed only on histology as the final diagnosis of PVNS, and therefore the possibility of differential diagnosis with other haemorrhagic and chronic hyperplastic synovites, is based on the detection of intracellular haemosiderin components. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of MRI, which might be completed with the intravenous injection of contrast medium, in the characterization of such pathological picture. From January 1999 to December 2002, we evaluated 52 patients presenting knee swelling, pain and functional impairment. Only 19 patients had a history of trauma. All patients underwent MRI using a dedicated 0.2 T unit or a whole-body' 1.5 T unit. In 30 cases the baseline examination was completed with intravenous injection of contrast medium, followed by dynamic 3D-SPGR sequences at 45, 90, 135 and 225 seconds from the initial injection. These dynamic sequences were then processed by means of early and late subtractions, evaluating the regions of interest (ROI) positioned in the areas with higher post-contrast enhancement. Thirty-eight patients had been previously submitted to Ultrasonography (US), whereas twenty-five patients to Computed Tomography (TC). Later, all patients underwent surgery. Only two patients required an arthrotomy. We then retrospectively evaluated the imaging

  11. Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Twellmann, Thorsten; Saalbach, Axel; Gerstung, Olaf; Leach, Martin O; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2004-01-01

    Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation. PMID:15494072

  12. Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Current Perspective and Future Potential

    PubMed Central

    Sosnovik, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The development of novel imaging agents and techniques is allowing some biological events to be imaged in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the cellular and subcellular level. In this paper, the use of novel gadolinium chelates and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for molecular MRI of the cardiovascular system is extensively reviewed. The physical properties of these imaging agents and the pulse sequences best suited to their visualization are extensively discussed. The application of molecular MRI in diseases of the vasculature and myocardium is then reviewed. The clinical experience to date, as well as the promise and potential impact of molecular MRI, is extensively discussed. PMID:18690161

  13. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  14. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-01-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density. PMID:28186135

  15. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-02-10

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory rheumatoid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mróz, Joanna; Ostrowska, Monika; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is used more and more frequently to diagnose changes in the musculoskeletal system in the course of rheumatic diseases, at their initial assessment, for treatment monitoring and for identification of complications. The article presents the history of magnetic resonance imaging, the basic principles underlying its operation as well as types of magnets, coils and MRI protocols used in the diagnostic process of rheumatic diseases. It enumerates advantages and disadvantages of individual MRI scanners. The principles of MRI coil operation are explained, and the sequences used for MR image analysis are described, particularly in terms of their application in rheumatology, including T1-, T2-, PD-weighted, STIR/TIRM and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Furthermore, views on the need to use contrast agents to optimise diagnosis, particularly in synovitis-like changes, are presented. Finally, methods for the assessment of MR images are listed, including the semi-quantitative method by RAMRIS and quantitative dynamic examination. PMID:27826171

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials.

    PubMed

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  19. Molecular Imaging with MRI: Potential Application in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Chang Qiang; Chen, Tian Wu; Tang, Meng Yue; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of approaches that have been improved to achieve a good understanding of pancreatic cancer (PC), the prognosis of PC remains poor, and the survival rates are dismal. The lack of early detection and effective interventions is the main reason. Therefore, considerable ongoing efforts aimed at identifying early PC are currently being pursued using a variety of methods. In recent years, the development of molecular imaging has made the specific targeting of PC in the early stage possible. Molecular imaging seeks to directly visualize, characterize, and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Among different imaging technologies, the magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging has potential in this regard because it facilitates noninvasive, target-specific imaging of PC. This topic is reviewed in terms of the contrast agents for MR molecular imaging, the biomarkers related to PC, targeted molecular probes for MRI, and the application of MRI in the diagnosis of PC. PMID:26579537

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; McDonald, W I; Tofts, P S; Johnson, G; Landon, D N

    1986-01-01

    Triethyl tin(TET)-induced cerebral oedema has been studied in cats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings correlated with the histology and fine structure of the cerebrum following perfusion-fixation. MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting cerebral oedema, and the distribution and severity of the changes correlate closely with the morphological abnormalities. The relaxation times, T1 and T2 increase progressively as the oedema develops, and the proportional increase in T2 is approximately twice that in T1. Analysis of the magnetisation decay curves reveals slowly-relaxing and rapidly-relaxing components which probably correspond to oedema fluid and intracellular water respectively. The image appearances taken in conjunction with relaxation data provide a basis for determining the nature of the oedema in vivo. Images PMID:3806109

  3. New developments in magnetic resonance imaging of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Ernesto; Sirignano, Cesare; Catalano, Onofrio; Atteno, Mariangela; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Peluso, Rosario; Bruner, Vincenzo; Aquino, Maria Maddalena; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) musculoskeletal equipment allows new sequences and better images of the nail unit. The use of MRI has modified the imaging strategies used in treating inflammatory arthritis. In the case of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement, which appears as an initial lesion for the induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All patients with psoriasis, even in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes in the nail. This evidence could have a practical diagnostic value, because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have a barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low-field and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Hash, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords high-resolution visualization of the soft tissue structures (menisci, ligaments, cartilage, etc) and bone marrow of the knee. Evidence Acquisition: Pertinent clinical and research articles in the orthopaedic and radiology literature over the past 30 years using PubMed. Results: Ligament tears can be accurately assessed with MRI, but distinguishing partial tears from ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be challenging. Determining the extent of a partial tear is often extremely difficult to accurately assess. The status of the posterolateral corner structures, menisci, and cartilage can be accurately evaluated, although limitations in the evaluation of certain structures exist. Patellofemoral joint, marrow, tibiofibular joint, and synovial pathology can supplement physical examination findings and provide definitive diagnosis. Conclusions: MRI provides an accurate noninvasive assessment of knee pathology. PMID:24381701

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of liver hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, R.; Lanir, A.; Atlan, H.; Naschitz, J.E.; Simon, J.S.; Enat, R.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Chisin, R.; Krausz, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Nine patients with cavernous hemangioma of the liver were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 0.5 T superconductive magnet. Spin-echo technique was used with varying time to echo (TE) and repetition times (TR). Results were compared with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), echography, and arteriography. Four illustrated cases are reported. It was possible to establish a pattern for MRI characteristics of cavernous hemangiomas; rounded or smooth lobulated shape, marked increase in T1 and T2 values as compared with normal liver values. It is concluded that, although more experience is necessary to compare the specificity with that of ultrasound and CT, MRI proved to be very sensitive for the diagnosis of liver hemangioma, especially in the case of small ones which may be missed by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

  6. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, Roger

    2013-03-15

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Méndez Fernández, R; Barrera Ortega, J

    Endometriosis is common in women of reproductive age; it can cause pelvic pain and infertility. It is important to diagnose endometriosis and to thoroughly evaluate its extension, especially when surgical treatment is being considered. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with careful examination technique and interpretation enables more accurate and complete diagnosis and staging than ultrasonography, especially in cases of deep pelvic endometriosis. Furthermore, MRI can identify implants in sites that can be difficult to access in endoscopic or laparoscopic explorations. In this article, we describe the appropriate MRI protocol for the study of pelvic endometriosis and the MRI signs of pelvic organ involvement. It is necessary to know the subtle findings and to look for them so we can ensure that they are not overlooked. We describe clinical grading systems for endometriosis and review the diagnostic efficacy of MRI in comparison with other imaging techniques and surgery. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of fetal developmental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine J

    2011-02-01

    Fetal developmental anomalies consist of central nervous system malformations, brain injury, and tumors. Overlap is often seen especially between malformation and injury because malformation may be genetically determined or related to external causative agent, whereas brain injury may be, on one hand, caused by malformation as with intracranial vascular malformation and, on another, can cause brain malformation when cerebral insult occurs during organogenesis and histogenesis. The goal of this review was not to describe by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) all fetal developmental anomalies encountered in utero; it is most likely to focus on fetal brain anomalies that either are most commonly seen in fetal tertiary care facility or are extremely challenging for MRI. Consequently, the potential of advanced MR techniques such as proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging is also described especially when a challenge is highlighted. This review is therefore organized in subchapters as follows. The first section gives the place of MRI in prenatal development and cites the standard protocol and the advanced techniques. The rules of fetal brain MRI, the challenge and pitfalls, and the selection of MRI cases follow as 3 subchapters. Also, abnormalities are described as 3 separate subchapters entitled ventriculomegalies (hydrocephalus), malformations, and brain injury.

  10. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  11. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described.

  12. Image formation in diffusion MRI: A review of recent technical developments

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karla L.

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a standard imaging tool in clinical neurology, and is becoming increasingly important for neuroscience studies due to its ability to depict complex neuroanatomy (eg, white matter connectivity). Single‐shot echo‐planar imaging is currently the predominant formation method for diffusion MRI, but suffers from blurring, distortion, and low spatial resolution. A number of methods have been proposed to address these limitations and improve diffusion MRI acquisition. Here, the recent technical developments for image formation in diffusion MRI are reviewed. We discuss three areas of advance in diffusion MRI: improving image fidelity, accelerating acquisition, and increasing the signal‐to‐noise ratio. Level of Evidence: 5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:646–662 PMID:28194821

  13. Very low field magnetic resonance imaging with spintronic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herreros, Q.; Dyvorne, H.; Campiglio, P.; Jasmin-Lebras, G.; Demonti, A.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; Fermon, C.

    2013-09-01

    A very low field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) setup based on magnetoresistive-superconducting mixed sensors is presented. A flux transformer is used to achieve coupling between the sample to image and the mixed sensor. The novel detector was implemented in a spin echo MRI experiment, exposing the mixed sensor to RF pulses without use of any RF switch. The performance of the novel detector is given in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and is compared with classical tuned coils.

  14. Technical considerations for functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Chris J; Faro, Scott H; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2014-11-01

    Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect has increased over the past decade because of its ability to map regional blood flow in response to brain stimulation. This mapping is primarily achieved by exploiting the BOLD effect precipitated by changes in the magnetic properties of hemoglobin. BOLD fMRI has utility in neurosurgical planning and mapping neuronal functional connectivity. Conventional echo planar imaging techniques are used to acquire stimulus-driven fMR imaging BOLD data. This article highlights technical aspects of fMRI data analysis to make it more accessible in clinical settings.

  15. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    Ros Mendoza, L H; Cañete Celestino, E; Velilla Marco, O

    2008-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a small joint with complex anatomy and function. Diverse pathologies with very different symptoms can affect the TMJ. While various imaging techniques such as plain-film radiography and computed tomography can be useful, magnetic resonance imaging's superior contrast resolution reveals additional structures like the articular disk, making this technique essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. We analyze the MRI signs of the different pathologies that can affect the TMJ from the structural and functional points of view.

  16. Thoracic outlet syndromes and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; Moore, N; Gibson, R; Rushworth, G; Donaghy, M

    1993-08-01

    The thoracic outlet syndromes encompass the diverse clinical entities affecting the branchial plexus or subclavian artery including cervical ribs or bands. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to diagnose on existing clinical and electrophysiological criteria and new diagnostic methods are necessary. This study reports our experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus in 20 patients with suspected thoracic outlet syndrome. The distribution of pain and sensory disturbance varied widely, weakness and wasting usually affected C8/T1 innervated muscles, and electrophysiology showed combinations of reduced sensory nerve action potentials from the fourth and fifth digits, and prolonged F-responses or tendon reflex latencies. The MRI study was interpreted blind. Deviation of the brachial plexus was recorded in 19 out of the 24 symptomatic sides (sensitivity 79%). Absence of distortion was correctly identified in 14 out of 16 asymptomatic sides (specificity 87.5%). The false positive rate was 9.5%. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated all seven cervical ribs visible on plain cervical spine radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed a band-like structure extending from the C7 transverse process in 25 out of 33 sides; similar structures were detected in three out of 18 sides in control subjects. These MRI bands often underlay the brachial plexus distortion observed in our patients. We also observed instances of plexus distortion by post-traumatic callus of the first rib, and by a hypertrophied serratus anterior muscle. If they did not demonstrate a cervical rib, plain cervical spine radiographs had no value in predicting brachial plexus distortion. We believe MRI to be of potential value in the diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome by: (i) demonstrating deviation or distortion of nerves or blood vessels; (ii) suggesting the presence of radiographically invisible bands; (iii) disclosing other causes of thoracic outlet syndrome

  17. Functional MRI using regularized parallel imaging acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Belliveau, John W; Wald, Lawrence L; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2005-08-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions.

  18. Functional MRI Using Regularized Parallel Imaging Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Fu-Nien; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Belliveau, John W.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kwong, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel MRI techniques reconstruct full-FOV images from undersampled k-space data by using the uncorrelated information from RF array coil elements. One disadvantage of parallel MRI is that the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is degraded because of the reduced data samples and the spatially correlated nature of multiple RF receivers. Regularization has been proposed to mitigate the SNR loss originating due to the latter reason. Since it is necessary to utilize static prior to regularization, the dynamic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in parallel MRI will be affected. In this paper we investigate the CNR of regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acquisitions. We propose to implement regularized parallel MRI acquisitions in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments by incorporating the prior from combined segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition into SENSE reconstructions. We investigated the impact of regularization on the CNR by performing parametric simulations at various BOLD contrasts, acceleration rates, and sizes of the active brain areas. As quantified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the simulations suggest that the detection power of SENSE fMRI can be improved by regularized reconstructions, compared to unregularized reconstructions. Human motor and visual fMRI data acquired at different field strengths and array coils also demonstrate that regularized SENSE improves the detection of functionally active brain regions. PMID:16032694

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  1. In vivo prostate cancer detection and grading using restriction spectrum imaging-MRI.

    PubMed

    McCammack, K C; Kane, C J; Parsons, J K; White, N S; Schenker-Ahmed, N M; Kuperman, J M; Bartsch, H; Desikan, R S; Rakow-Penner, R A; Adams, D; Liss, M A; Mattrey, R F; Bradley, W G; Margolis, D J A; Raman, S S; Shabaik, A; Dale, A M; Karow, D S

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a robust, noninvasive method for detecting and characterizing prostate cancer (PCa), but limitations remain in its ability to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous tissue. We evaluated the performance of a novel MRI technique, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI-MRI), to quantitatively detect and grade PCa compared with current standard-of-care MRI. In a retrospective evaluation of 33 patients with biopsy-proven PCa who underwent RSI-MRI and standard MRI before radical prostatectomy, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed for RSI-MRI and each quantitative MRI term, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) used to compare each term's ability to differentiate between PCa and normal prostate. Spearman rank-order correlations were performed to assess each term's ability to predict PCa grade in the radical prostatectomy specimens. RSI-MRI demonstrated superior differentiation of PCa from normal tissue, with AUC of 0.94 and 0.85 for RSI-MRI and conventional diffusion MRI, respectively (P=0.04). RSI-MRI also demonstrated superior performance in predicting PCa aggressiveness, with Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients of 0.53 (P=0.002) and -0.42 (P=0.01) for RSI-MRI and conventional diffusion MRI, respectively, with tumor grade. RSI-MRI significantly improves upon current noninvasive PCa imaging and may potentially enhance its diagnosis and characterization.

  2. In vivo prostate cancer detection and grading using restriction spectrum imaging-MRI

    PubMed Central

    McCammack, KC; Kane, CJ; Parsons, JK; White, NS; Schenker-Ahmed, NM; Kuperman, JM; Bartsch, H; Desikan, RS; Rakow-Penner, RA; Adams, D; Liss, MA; Mattrey, RF; Bradley, WG; Margolis, DJA; Raman, SS; Shabaik, A; Dale, AM; Karow, DS

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a robust, noninvasive method for detecting and characterizing prostate cancer (PCa), but limitations remain in its ability to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous tissue. We evaluated the performance of a novel MRI technique, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI-MRI), to quantitatively detect and grade PCa compared with current standard-of-care MRI. METHODS In a retrospective evaluation of 33 patients with biopsy-proven PCa who underwent RSI-MRI and standard MRI before radical prostatectomy, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed for RSI-MRI and each quantitative MRI term, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) used to compare each term’s ability to differentiate between PCa and normal prostate. Spearman rank-order correlations were performed to assess each term’s ability to predict PCa grade in the radical prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS RSI-MRI demonstrated superior differentiation of PCa from normal tissue, with AUC of 0.94 and 0.85 for RSI-MRI and conventional diffusion MRI, respectively (P = 0.04). RSI-MRI also demonstrated superior performance in predicting PCa aggressiveness, with Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients of 0.53 (P = 0.002) and − 0.42 (P = 0.01) for RSI-MRI and conventional diffusion MRI, respectively, with tumor grade. CONCLUSIONS RSI-MRI significantly improves upon current noninvasive PCa imaging and may potentially enhance its diagnosis and characterization. PMID:26754261

  3. Multispectral optoacoustic and MRI coregistration for molecular imaging of orthotopic model of human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Attia, Amalina Binte Ebrahim; Ho, Chris Jun Hui; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Tay, Hui Chien; Burton, Neal C; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2016-07-01

    Multi-modality imaging methods are of great importance in oncologic studies for acquiring complementary information, enhancing the efficacy in tumor detection and characterization. We hereby demonstrate a hybrid non-invasive in vivo imaging approach of utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for molecular imaging of glucose uptake in an orthotopic glioblastoma in mouse. The molecular and functional information from MSOT can be overlaid on MRI anatomy via image coregistration to provide insights into probe uptake in the brain, which is verified by ex vivo fluorescence imaging and histological validation. In vivo MSOT and MRI imaging of an orthotopic glioma mouse model injected with IRDye800-2DG. Image coregistration between MSOT and MRI enables multifaceted (anatomical, functional, molecular) information from MSOT to be overlaid on MRI anatomy images to derive tumor physiological parameters such as perfusion, haemoglobin and oxygenation.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in medicine and physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, C.T.W.; van Zijl, P.C.M.; Frank, J.A.; Bihan, D.L.; Becker, E.D. )

    1990-10-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established diagnostic tool that provides detailed information about macroscopic structure and anatomy. Recent advances in MRI allow the noninvasive spatial evaluation of various biophysical and biochemical processes in living systems. Specifically, the motion of water can be measured in processes such as vascular flow, capillary flow, diffusion, and exchange. In addition, the concentrations of various metabolites can be determined for the assessment of regional regulation of metabolism. Examples are given that demonstrate the use of functional MRI for clinical and research purposes. This development adds a new dimension to the application of magnetic resonance to medicine and physiology.

  6. Development of a calibration phantom set for MRI temperature imaging system quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xuegang; Han, Jijun; Wang, Di; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) temperature imaging systems need to be routinely calibrated to guarantee accurate temperature results and qualified MRI. No independent physical temperature calibration phantom (TCP) set is currently available. An economical TCP set was developed to routinely ensure the quality of MRI temperature imaging system. The novel TCP was constructed using a heating unit, temperature sensor, and MRI phantom liquid. A specialized heating unit was developed using carbon fibers. The TCP set design was an integration of the TCP, temperature measurement unit, display unit, and control unit. The proposed MRI calibration kit, which is a combination of the TCP set and standard MRI phantom, was used in the MRI thermometry calibration and MRI quality calibration. The TCP set provided an efficient, accurate, and homogeneous temperature map as the reference standard temperature for calibration. Accuracy and heating efficiency of the TCP set were 1°C and 1°C/minute, respectively. Calibration of the MRI thermometry and MRI quality were implemented successfully. The proposed TCP set is completely compatible with the MRI system and can be used to calibrate MRI thermometry and MRI quality to ensure the quality performance of the MRI temperature imaging system. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New insights on COPD imaging via CT and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sverzellati, N; Molinari, F; Pirronti, T; Bonomo, L; Spagnolo, P; Zompatori, M

    2007-01-01

    Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) can be used to quantify morphological features and investigate structure/function relationship in COPD. This approach allows a phenotypical definition of COPD patients, and might improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and suggest new therapeutical options. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has also become potentially suitable for the assessment of ventilation, perfusion and respiratory mechanics. This review focuses on the established clinical applications of CT, and novel CT and MRI techniques, which may prove valuable in evaluating the structural and functional damage in COPD. PMID:18229568

  8. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on implantable permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M L; Walker, G B; Dormer, K J

    1995-09-01

    Implantable permanent magnets are increasingly used in devices for otolaryngologic applications. It is likely that at least some of the patients with implanted magnets will be in need of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The effect of an MRI scan on the magnetic properties of implanted permanent magnets has not been previously demonstrated. Some of the basic concepts and descriptive terminology used in industry regarding permanent magnets are reviewed. Experiments presented show that the MRI scan is capable of demagnetizing permanent magnets. A case history is also presented that demonstrates demagnetizing of an implanted Audiant magnet by an MRI scan.

  9. Sensitivity enhancement of traveling wave MRI using free local resonators: an experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2017-04-01

    Traveling wave MR uses the far fields in signal excitation and reception, therefore its acquisition efficiency is low in contrast to the conventional near field magnetic resonance (MR). Here we show a simple and efficient method based on the local resonator to improving sensitivity of traveling wave MR technique. The proposed method utilizes a standalone or free local resonator to amplify the radio frequency magnetic fields in the interested target. The resonators have no wire connections to the MR system and thus can be conveniently placed to any place around imaging simples. A rectangular loop L/C resonator to be used as the free local resonator was tuned to the proton Larmor frequency at 7T. Traveling wave MR experiments with and without the wireless free local resonator were performed on a living rat using a 7T whole body MR scanner. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or sensitivity of the images acquired was compared and evaluated. In vivo 7T imaging results show that traveling wave MR with a wireless free local resonator placed near the head of a living rat achieves at least 10-fold SNR gain over the images acquired on the same rat using conventional traveling wave MR method, i.e. imaging with no free local resonators. The proposed free local resonator technique is able to enhance the MR sensitivity and acquisition efficiency of traveling wave MR at ultrahigh fields in vivo. This method can be a simple solution to alleviating low sensitivity problem of traveling wave MRI.

  10. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  11. Opening the black box: imaging nanoparticle transport with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, V.; Holmes, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    While most renown for its use in medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has tremendous potential in the study of environmental processes. Its ability to non-invasively image inside materials that are opaque to other imaging methods (in particular light based techniques) is a particular strength. MRI has already been used, for example, to study fluid flow in rocks and image mass transport and biogeochemical processes in biofilms [1-4]. Here, we report of the use of MRI to image nanoparticle transport through porous geologic media (in this case packed gravel columns). Packed column experiments are key to understanding nanoparticulate transport in porous geologic media. Whilst highly informative, the data obtained can be a bulk average of a complex and heterogeneous array of interactions within the column. Natural environmental systems are often complex, displaying heterogeneity in geometry, hydrodynamics, geochemistry and microbiology throughout. MRI enables us to quantify better how this heterogeneity may influence nanoparticle transport and fate by enabling us to look inside the column and image the movement of nanoparticles within. To make the nanoparticle readily visible to MRI, it is labelled with a paramagnetic tag (commonly gadolinium). Indeed, a wide variety of off-the-shelf paramagnetically tagged nanoparticles and macromolecules are available, each with different properties enabling us to explore the impact of particle charge, size etc on their transport behaviour. In this preliminary study, packed columns of quartz or marble based gravels (approx 5 mm diameter) were first imaged to check their suitability for MR imaging. This was done as geologic material can contain sufficiently high concentrations of ferro- and paramagnetic ions to induce unwanted artefacts in the MR image